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Sample records for planer silicon pixel

  1. ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Manzari, V

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the innermost two layers of the 6-layer barrel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The SPD plays a key role in the determination of the position of the primary collision and in the reconstruction of the secondary vertices from particle decays.

  2. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector System (SPD)

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A; Antinori, Federico; Burns, M; Cali, I A; Campbell, M; Caselle, M; Ceresa, S; Dima, R; Elias, D; Fabris, D; Krivda, Marian; Librizzi, F; Manzari, Vito; Morel, M; Moretto, Sandra; Osmic, F; Pappalardo, G S; Pepato, Adriano; Pulvirenti, A; Riedler, P; Riggi, F; Santoro, R; Stefanini, G; Torcato De Matos, C; Turrisi, R; Tydesjo, H; Viesti, G; PH-EP

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE silicon pixel detector (SPD) comprises the two innermost layers of the ALICE inner tracker system. The SPD includes 120 detector modules (half-staves) each consisting of 10 ALICE pixel chips bump bonded to two silicon sensors and one multi-chip read-out module. Each pixel chip contains 8192 active cells, so that the total number of pixel cells in the SPD is ≈ 107. The on-detector read-out is based on a multi-chip-module containing 4 ASICs and an optical transceiver module. The constraints on material budget and detector module dimensions are very demanding.

  3. ISPA (imaging silicon pixel array) experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The bump-bonded silicon pixel detector, developed at CERN by the EP-MIC group, is shown here in its ceramic carrier. Both represent the ISPA-tube anode. The chip features between 1024 (called OMEGA-1) and 8196 (ALICE-1) active pixels.

  4. Charge sharing in silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieson, K; Seller, P; Prydderch, M L; O'Shea, V; Bates, R L; Smith, K M; Rahman, M

    2002-01-01

    We used a pixellated hybrid silicon X-ray detector to study the effect of the sharing of generated charge between neighbouring pixels over a range of incident X-ray energies, 13-36 keV. The system is a room temperature, energy resolving detector with a Gaussian FWHM of 265 eV at 5.9 keV. Each pixel is 300 mu m square, 300 mu m deep and is bump bonded to matching read out electronics. The modelling packages MEDICI and MCNP were used to model the complete X-ray interaction and the subsequent charge transport. Using this software a model is developed which reproduces well the experimental results. The simulations are then altered to explore smaller pixel sizes and different X-ray energies. Charge sharing was observed experimentally to be 2% at 13 keV rising to 4.5% at 36 keV, for an energy threshold of 4 keV. The models predict that up to 50% of charge may be lost to the neighbouring pixels, for an X-ray energy of 36 keV, when the pixel size is reduced to 55 mu m.

  5. ISPA (imaging silicon pixel array) experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The ISPA tube is a position-sensitive photon detector. It belongs to the family of hybrid photon detectors (HPD), recently developed by CERN and INFN with leading photodetector firms. HPDs confront in a vacuum envelope a photocathode and a silicon detector. This can be a single diode or a pixelized detector. The electrons generated by the photocathode are efficiently detected by the silicon anode by applying a high-voltage difference between them. ISPA tube can be used in high-energy applications as well as bio-medical and imaging applications.

  6. The ALICE silicon pixel detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapusta, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is again reaching its startup phase at the European Organization for Particle Physics (CERN). The LHC started its operation on the 10 th of September, 2008 with huge success managing to sent the the first beam successfully around the entire ring in less than an hour after the first injection in one direction, and later that day in the opposite direction. Unfortunately, on the 19 th of September, an accident occurred during the 5.5 TeV magnet commissioning in Sector 34, which will significantly delay the operation of the LHC. The ALICE experiment will exploit the collisions of accelerated ions produced at the LHC to study strongly interacting matter at extreme densities and high temperatures. e ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) represents the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Traing System (ITS) located at radii of 3.9 cm and 7.6 cm from the Interaction Point (IP). One of the main tasks of the SPD is to provide precise traing information. is information is fundamental for the study of weak decays of heavy flavor particles, since the corresponding signature is a secondary vertex separated from the primary vertex only by a few hundred micrometers. e tra density could be as high as 80 tracks per cm 2 in the innermost SPD layer as a consequence of a heavy ion collision. The SPD will provide a spatial resolution of around ≅12 μm in the rφ direction and ≅70 μm in the z direction. The expected occupancy of the SPD ranges from 0.4% to 1.5% which makes it an excellent charged particle multiplicity detector in the pseudorapidity region |η| < 2. Furthermore, by combining all possible hits in the SPD, one can get a rough estimate of the position of the primary interaction. One of the challenges is the tight material budget constraint (<1% radiation length per layer) in order to limit the scattering of the traversing particles. e silicon sensor and its readout chip have a total thickness of only 350 μm and the signal lines from the

  7. Diamond and silicon pixel detectors in high radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsung, Jieh-Wen

    2012-10-15

    Diamond pixel detector is a promising candidate for tracking of collider experiments because of the good radiation tolerance of diamond. The diamond pixel detector must withstand the radiation damage from 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2}, which is the expected total fluence in High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. The performance of diamond and silicon pixel detectors are evaluated in this research in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Single-crystal diamond pixel detectors with the most recent readout chip ATLAS FE-I4 are produced and characterized. Based on the results of the measurement, the SNR of diamond pixel detector is evaluated as a function of radiation fluence, and compared to that of planar-silicon ones. The deterioration of signal due to radiation damage is formulated using the mean free path of charge carriers in the sensor. The noise from the pixel readout circuit is simulated and calculated with leakage current and input capacitance to the amplifier as important parameters. The measured SNR shows good agreement with the calculated and simulated results, proving that the performance of diamond pixel detectors can exceed the silicon ones if the particle fluence is more than 10{sup 15} particles per cm{sup 2}.

  8. Diamond and silicon pixel detectors in high radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsung, Jieh-Wen

    2012-10-01

    Diamond pixel detector is a promising candidate for tracking of collider experiments because of the good radiation tolerance of diamond. The diamond pixel detector must withstand the radiation damage from 10 16 particles per cm 2 , which is the expected total fluence in High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. The performance of diamond and silicon pixel detectors are evaluated in this research in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Single-crystal diamond pixel detectors with the most recent readout chip ATLAS FE-I4 are produced and characterized. Based on the results of the measurement, the SNR of diamond pixel detector is evaluated as a function of radiation fluence, and compared to that of planar-silicon ones. The deterioration of signal due to radiation damage is formulated using the mean free path of charge carriers in the sensor. The noise from the pixel readout circuit is simulated and calculated with leakage current and input capacitance to the amplifier as important parameters. The measured SNR shows good agreement with the calculated and simulated results, proving that the performance of diamond pixel detectors can exceed the silicon ones if the particle fluence is more than 10 15 particles per cm 2 .

  9. A silicon pixel detector prototype for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00714258

    2017-01-01

    A silicon pixel detector prototype for CLIC, currently under study for the innermost detector surrounding the collision point. The detector is made of a High-Voltage CMOS sensor (top) and a CLICpix2 readout chip (bottom) that are glued to each other. Both parts have a size of 3.3 x 4.0 $mm^2$ and consist of an array of 128 x 128 pixels of 25 x 25 $\\micro m^2$ size.

  10. Silicon pixel R&D for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)718101

    2017-01-01

    The physics aims at the proposed future CLIC high-energy linear e+e− collider pose challenging demands on the performance of the vertex and tracking detector system. In particular the detectors have to be well adapted to the experimental conditions, such as the time structure of the collisions and the presence of beam-induced backgrounds. The requirements include ultra-low mass, facilitated by power pulsing and air cooling in the vertex-detector region, small cell sizes and precision hit timing at the few-ns level. A highly granular all- silicon vertex and tracking detector system is under development, following an integrated approach addressing simultaneously the physics requirements and engineering constraints.

  11. Silicon Pixel Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Graeme Douglas

    Recent advances in particle accelerators have increased the demands being placed on detectors. Novel detector designs are being implemented in many different areas including, for example, high luminosity experiments at the LHC or at next generation synchrotrons. The purpose of this thesis was to characterise some of these novel detectors. The first of the new detector types is called a 3D detector. This design was first proposed by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). In this design, doped electrodes are created that extend through the silicon substrate. When compared to a traditional photodiode with electrodes on the opposing surfaces, the 3D design can combine a reasonable detector thickness with a small electrode spacing resulting in fast charge collection and limited charge sharing. The small electrode spacing leads to the detectors having lower depletion voltages. This, combined with the fast collection time, makes 3D detectors a candidate for radiation hard applications. These applications include the upgra...

  12. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector Control and Calibration Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Calì, Ivan Amos; Manzari, Vito; Stefanini, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis was carried out in the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) group of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The SPD is the innermost part (two cylindrical layers of silicon pixel detec- tors) of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). During the last three years I have been strongly involved in the SPD hardware and software development, construction and commissioning. This thesis is focused on the design, development and commissioning of the SPD Control and Calibration Systems. I started this project from scratch. After a prototyping phase now a stable version of the control and calibration systems is operative. These systems allowed the detector sectors and half-barrels test, integration and commissioning as well as the SPD commissioning in the experiment. The integration of the systems with the ALICE Experiment Control System (ECS), DAQ and Trigger system has been accomplished and the SPD participated in the experimental December 2007 commissioning run. The complex...

  13. GigaTracker, a Thin and Fast Silicon Pixels Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Velghe, Bob; Bonacini, Sandro; Ceccucci, Augusto; Kaplon, Jan; Kluge, Alexander; Mapelli, Alessandro; Morel, Michel; Noël, Jérôme; Noy, Matthew; Perktold, Lukas; Petagna, Paolo; Poltorak, Karolina; Riedler, Petra; Romagnoli, Giulia; Chiozzi, Stefano; Cotta Ramusino, Angelo; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Gianoli, Alberto; Petrucci, Ferruccio; Wahl, Heinrich; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Jarron, Pierre; Marchetto, Flavio; Gil, Eduardo Cortina; Nuessle, Georg; Szilasi, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    GigaTracker, the NA62’s upstream spectrometer, plays a key role in the kinematically constrained background suppression for the study of the K + ! p + n ̄ n decay. It is made of three independent stations, each of which is a six by three cm 2 hybrid silicon pixels detector. To meet the NA62 physics goals, GigaTracker has to address challenging requirements. The hit time resolution must be better than 200 ps while keeping the total thickness of the sensor to less than 0.5 mm silicon equivalent. The 200 μm thick sensor is divided into 18000 300 μm 300 μm pixels bump-bounded to ten independent read-out chips. The chips use an end-of-column architecture and rely on time-over- threshold discriminators. A station can handle a crossing rate of 750 MHz. Microchannel cooling technology will be used to cool the assembly. It allows us to keep the sensor close to 0 C with 130 μm of silicon in the beam area. The sensor and read-out chip performance were validated using a 45 pixel demonstrator with a laser test setu...

  14. Detector performance of the ALICE silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cavicchioli, C

    2011-01-01

    The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). It consists of two barrel layers of hybrid silicon pixel detectors at radii of 39 and 76 mm. The physics targets of the ALICE experiment require that the material budget of the SPD is kept within approximate to 1\\%X(0) per layer. This has set some stringent constraints on the design and construction of the SPD. A unique feature of the ALICE SPD is that it is capable of providing a prompt trigger signal, called Fast-OR, which contributes to the L0 trigger decision. The pixel trigger system allows to apply a set of algorithms for the trigger selection, and its output is sent to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). The detector has been installed in the experiment in summer 2007. During the first injection tests in June 2008 the SPD was able to record the very first sign of life of the LHC by registering secondary particles from the beam dumped upstream the ALICE experiment. In the following months the...

  15. Assembly procedure for the silicon pixel ladder for PHENIX silicon vertex tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuki, Y.; Akiba, Y.; En'yo, H.; Fujiwara, K.; Haki, Y.; Hashimoto, K.; Ichimiya, R.; Kasai, M.; Kawashima, M.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Mannel, E.J.; Nakano, K.; Pak, R.; Sekimoto, M.; Sondheim, W.E.; Taketani, A.; Togawa, M.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The silicon vertex tracker (VTX) will be installed in the summer of 2010 to enhance the physics capabilities of the Pioneering High Energy Nuclear Interaction eXperiment (PHENIX) experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The VTX consists of two types of silicon detectors: a pixel detector and a strip detector. The pixel detector consists of 30 pixel ladders placed on the two inner cylindrical layers of the VTX. The ladders are required to be assembled with high precision, however, they should be assembled in both cost and time efficient manner. We have developed an assembly bench for the ladder with several assembly fixtures and a quality assurance (Q/A) system using a 3D measurement machine. We have also developed an assembly procedure for the ladder, including a method for dispensing adhesive uniformly and encapsulation of bonding wires. The developed procedures were adopted in the assembly of the first pixel ladder and satisfy the requirements.

  16. Edge pixel response studies of edgeless silicon sensor technology for pixellated imaging detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneuski, D.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Doonan, K.; Eklund, L.; Gimenez, E. N.; Hynds, D.; Kachkanov, S.; Kalliopuska, J.; McMullen, T.; O'Shea, V.; Tartoni, N.; Plackett, R.; Vahanen, S.; Wraight, K.

    2015-03-01

    Silicon sensor technologies with reduced dead area at the sensor's perimeter are under development at a number of institutes. Several fabrication methods for sensors which are sensitive close to the physical edge of the device are under investigation utilising techniques such as active-edges, passivated edges and current-terminating rings. Such technologies offer the goal of a seamlessly tiled detection surface with minimum dead space between the individual modules. In order to quantify the performance of different geometries and different bulk and implant types, characterisation of several sensors fabricated using active-edge technology were performed at the B16 beam line of the Diamond Light Source. The sensors were fabricated by VTT and bump-bonded to Timepix ROICs. They were 100 and 200 μ m thick sensors, with the last pixel-to-edge distance of either 50 or 100 μ m. The sensors were fabricated as either n-on-n or n-on-p type devices. Using 15 keV monochromatic X-rays with a beam spot of 2.5 μ m, the performance at the outer edge and corners pixels of the sensors was evaluated at three bias voltages. The results indicate a significant change in the charge collection properties between the edge and 5th (up to 275 μ m) from edge pixel for the 200 μ m thick n-on-n sensor. The edge pixel performance of the 100 μ m thick n-on-p sensors is affected only for the last two pixels (up to 110 μ m) subject to biasing conditions. Imaging characteristics of all sensor types investigated are stable over time and the non-uniformities can be minimised by flat-field corrections. The results from the synchrotron tests combined with lab measurements are presented along with an explanation of the observed effects.

  17. A beam monitor using silicon pixel sensors for hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhen, E-mail: zwang@mails.ccnu.edu.cn; Zou, Shuguang; Fan, Yan; Liu, Jun; Sun, Xiangming, E-mail: sphy2007@126.com; Wang, Dong; Kang, Huili; Sun, Daming; Yang, Ping; Pei, Hua; Huang, Guangming; Xu, Nu; Gao, Chaosong; Xiao, Le

    2017-03-21

    We report the design and test results of a beam monitor developed for online monitoring in hadron therapy. The beam monitor uses eight silicon pixel sensors, Topmetal-II{sup -}, as the anode array. Topmetal-II{sup -} is a charge sensor designed in a CMOS 0.35 µm technology. Each Topmetal-II{sup -} sensor has 72×72 pixels and the pixel size is 83×83 µm{sup 2}. In our design, the beam passes through the beam monitor without hitting the electrodes, making the beam monitor especially suitable for monitoring heavy ion beams. This design also reduces radiation damage to the beam monitor itself. The beam monitor is tested with a carbon ion beam at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). Results indicate that the beam monitor can measure position, incidence angle and intensity of the beam with a position resolution better than 20 µm, angular resolution about 0.5° and intensity statistical accuracy better than 2%.

  18. Silicon sensors for the upgrades of the CMS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centis Vignali, Matteo

    2015-12-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC luminosity is constantly increased through upgrades of the accelerator and its injection chain. Two major upgrades will take place in the next years. The first upgrade involves the LHC injector chain and allows the collider to achieve a luminosity of about 2.10 34 cm -2 s -1 . A further upgrade of the LHC foreseen for 2025 will boost its luminosity to 5.10 34 cm -2 s -1 . As a consequence of the increased luminosity, the detectors need to be upgraded. In particular, the CMS pixel detector will undergo two upgrades in the next years. The first upgrade (phase I) consists in the substitution of the current pixel detector in winter 2016/2017. The upgraded pixel detector will implement new readout electronics that allow efficient data taking up to a luminosity of 2.10 34 cm -2 s -1 , twice as much as the LHC design luminosity. The modules that will constitute the upgraded detector are being produced at different institutes. Hamburg (University and DESY) is responsible for the production of 350 pixel modules. The second upgrade (phase II) of the pixel detector is foreseen for 2025. The innermost pixel layer of the upgraded detector will accumulate a radiation damage corresponding to an equivalent fluence of Φ eq =2.10 16 cm -2 and a dose of ∼10 MGy after an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb -1 . Several groups are investigating sensor designs and configurations able to withstand such high doses and fluences. This work is divided into two parts related to important aspects of the upgrades of the CMS pixel detector. For the phase I upgrade, a setup has been developed to provide an absolute energy calibration of the pixel modules that will constitute the detector. The calibration is obtained using monochromatic X-rays. The same setup is used to test the buffering capabilities of the modules' readout chip. The maximum rate experienced by the modules produced in

  19. Development and characterization of diamond and 3D-silicon pixel detectors with ATLAS-pixel readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-12-15

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2} per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 x 50 {mu}m{sup 2} have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm{sup 2} and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 x 6 cm{sup 2}). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection inside a pixel cell as well as the charge sharing between adjacent pixels was studied using a high energy particle beam. (orig.)

  20. Development and characterization of diamond and 3D-silicon pixel detectors with ATLAS-pixel readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-12-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10 16 particles per cm 2 per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 x 50 μm 2 have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm 2 and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 x 6 cm 2 ). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection inside a pixel cell as well as the charge sharing between adjacent pixels was studied using a high energy particle beam. (orig.)

  1. Silicon pixel-detector R&D for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)718101

    2016-01-01

    The physics aims at the future CLIC high-energy linear e+e- collider set very high precision requirements on the performance of the vertex and tracking detectors. Moreover, these detectors have to be well adapted to the experimental conditions, such as the time structure of the collisions and the presence of beam-induced backgrounds. The principal challenges are: a point resolution of a few μm, ultra-low mass (∼ 0.2% X${}_0$ per layer for the vertex region and ∼ 1 % X${}_0$ per layer for the outer tracker), very low power dissipation (compatible with air-flow cooling in the inner vertex region) and pulsed power operation, complemented with ∼ 10 ns time stamping capabilities. A highly granular all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system is under development, following an integrated approach addressing simultaneously the physics requirements and engineering constraints. For the vertex-detector region, hybrid pixel detectors with small pitch (25 μm) and analog readout are explored. For the outer trac...

  2. Silicon pixel R&D for the CLIC detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)674552

    2017-01-01

    The physics aims at the future CLIC high-energy linear $e^{+}e^{−}$ collider set very high precision requirements on the performance of the vertex and tracking detectors. Moreover, these detectors have to be well adapted to the experimental conditions, such as the time structure of the collisions and the presence of beam-induced backgrounds. The main challenges are: a point resolution of a few microns, ultra-low mass (~0.2% X$_{0}$ per layer for the vertex region and ~1% X$_{0}$ per layer for the outer tracker), very low power dissipation (compatible with air-flow cooling in the inner vertex region) and pulsed power operation, complemented with ~10 ns time stamping capabilities. A highly granular all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system is under development, following an integrated approach addressing simultaneously the physics requirements and engineering constraints. For the vertex-detector region, hybrid pixel detectors with small pitch (25 μm) and analogue readout are explored. For the outer tra...

  3. Development and Characterization of Diamond and 3D-Silicon Pixel Detectors with ATLAS-Pixel Readout Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10^16 particles per cm^2 per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 × 50 um^2 have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm^2 and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 × 6 cm^2). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection ...

  4. IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype BTeV silicon pixel sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coluccia, Maria R.

    2002-01-01

    The authors present IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype n + /n/p + silicon pixel sensors, intended for use in the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. They tested pixel sensors from various vendors and with two pixel isolation layouts: p-stop and p-spray. Results are based on exposure with 200 MeV protons up to 6 x 10 14 protons/cm 2

  5. A silicon pixel detector with routing for external VLSI read-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.L.; Seller, P.

    1988-07-01

    A silicon pixel detector with an array of 32 by 16 hexagonal pixels has been designed and is being built on high resistivity silicon. The detector elements are reverse biased diodes consisting of p-implants in an n-type substrate and are fully depleted from the front to the back of the wafer. They are intended to measure high energy ionising particles traversing the detector. The detailed design of the pixels, their layout and method of read-out are discussed. A number of test structures have been incorporated onto the wafer to enable measurements to be made on individual pixels together with a variety of active devices. The results will give a better understanding of the operation of the pixel array, and will allow testing of computer simulations of more elaborate structures for the future. (author)

  6. Performance of silicon pixel detectors at small track incidence angles for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viel, Simon; Banerjee, Swagato; Brandt, Gerhard; Carney, Rebecca; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Hard, Andrew Straiton; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kashif, Lashkar; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Rieger, Julia; Wolf, Julian; Wu, Sau Lan; Yang, Hongtao

    2016-01-01

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of the ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of the ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN. - Highlights: • Extended inner pixel barrel layers are proposed for the ATLAS ITk upgrade. • Test beam results at small track incidence angles validate this ATLAS ITk design. • Long pixel clusters are reconstructed with high efficiency at low threshold values. • Excellent angular resolution is achieved using pixel cluster length information.

  7. Performance of silicon pixel detectors at small track incidence angles for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viel, Simon, E-mail: sviel@lbl.gov [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Banerjee, Swagato [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States); Brandt, Gerhard; Carney, Rebecca; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Hard, Andrew Straiton; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kashif, Lashkar [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States); Pranko, Aliaksandr [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Rieger, Julia [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); II Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen (Germany); Wolf, Julian [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Wu, Sau Lan; Yang, Hongtao [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States)

    2016-09-21

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of the ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of the ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN. - Highlights: • Extended inner pixel barrel layers are proposed for the ATLAS ITk upgrade. • Test beam results at small track incidence angles validate this ATLAS ITk design. • Long pixel clusters are reconstructed with high efficiency at low threshold values. • Excellent angular resolution is achieved using pixel cluster length information.

  8. arXiv Time resolution of silicon pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, W.

    2017-11-21

    We derive expressions for the time resolution of silicon detectors, using the Landau theory and a PAI model for describing the charge deposit of high energy particles. First we use the centroid time of the induced signal and derive analytic expressions for the three components contributing to the time resolution, namely charge deposit fluctuations, noise and fluctuations of the signal shape due to weighting field variations. Then we derive expressions for the time resolution using leading edge discrimination of the signal for various electronics shaping times. Time resolution of silicon detectors with internal gain is discussed as well.

  9. Silicon Sensors for the Upgrades of the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Centis Vignali, Matteo; Schleper, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC luminosity is constantly increased through upgrades of the accel- erator and its injection chain. Two major upgrades will take place in the next years. The rst upgrade involves the LHC injector chain and allows the collider to achieve a luminosity of about 2 10 34 cm-2 s-1 A further upgrade of the LHC foreseen for 2025 will boost its luminosity to 5 10 34 cm-2 s1. As a consequence of the increased luminosity, the detectors need to be upgraded. In particular, the CMS pixel detector will undergo two upgrades in the next years. The rst upgrade (phase I) consists in the substitution of the current pixel detector in winter 2016/2017. The upgraded pixel detector will implement new readout elec- tronics that allow ecient data taking up to a luminosity of 2 10 34 cm-2s-1,twice as much as the LHC design luminosity. The modules that will constitute the upgraded detector are being produced at dierent institutes. Ham...

  10. X-ray imaging characterization of active edge silicon pixel sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponchut, C; Ruat, M; Kalliopuska, J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was the experimental characterization of edge effects in active-edge silicon pixel sensors, in the frame of X-ray pixel detectors developments for synchrotron experiments. We produced a set of active edge pixel sensors with 300 to 500 μm thickness, edge widths ranging from 100 μm to 150 μm, and n or p pixel contact types. The sensors with 256 × 256 pixels and 55 × 55 μm 2 pixel pitch were then bump-bonded to Timepix readout chips for X-ray imaging measurements. The reduced edge widths makes the edge pixels more sensitive to the electrical field distribution at the sensor boundaries. We characterized this effect by mapping the spatial response of the sensor edges with a finely focused X-ray synchrotron beam. One of the samples showed a distortion-free response on all four edges, whereas others showed variable degrees of distortions extending at maximum to 300 micron from the sensor edge. An application of active edge pixel sensors to coherent diffraction imaging with synchrotron beams is described

  11. Novel silicon n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomben, M., E-mail: marco.bomben@cern.ch [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Énergies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM) Povo di Trento (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Università di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Trieste (Italy); Calderini, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Énergies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Dipartimento di Fisica E. Fermi, Università di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); INFN Sez. di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Chauveau, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Énergies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Giacomini, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM) Povo di Trento (Italy); La Rosa, A. [Section de Physique (DPNC), Université de Genève, Genève (Switzerland); Marchiori, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Énergies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM) Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards HL-LHC, the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the inner detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate for the pixel upgrade thanks to its radiation hardness and cost effectiveness. The edgeless technology would allow for enlarging the area instrumented with pixel detectors. We report on the development of novel n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors fabricated at FBK (Trento, Italy), making use of the active edge concept for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology and fabrication process, we present device simulations (pre- and post-irradiation) performed for different sensor configurations. First preliminary results obtained with the test-structures of the production are shown.

  12. Novel silicon n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomben, M.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Giacomini, G.; La Rosa, A.; Marchiori, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2013-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards HL-LHC, the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the inner detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate for the pixel upgrade thanks to its radiation hardness and cost effectiveness. The edgeless technology would allow for enlarging the area instrumented with pixel detectors. We report on the development of novel n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors fabricated at FBK (Trento, Italy), making use of the active edge concept for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology and fabrication process, we present device simulations (pre- and post-irradiation) performed for different sensor configurations. First preliminary results obtained with the test-structures of the production are shown

  13. Operating characteristics of radiation-hardened silicon pixel detectors for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hyosung, Cho

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will have forward silicon pixel detectors as its innermost tracking device. The pixel devices will be exposed to the harsh radiation environment of the LHC. Prototype silicon pixel detectors have been designed to meet the specification of the CMS experiment. No guard ring is required on the n/sup +/ side, and guard rings on the p/sup +/ side are always kept active before and after type inversion. The whole n/sup +/ side is grounded and connected to readout chips, which greatly simplifies detector assembling and improves the stability of bump-bonded readout chips on the n/sup +/ side. Operating characteristics such as the leakage current, the full depletion voltage, and the potential distributions over guard rings were tested using standard techniques. The tests are discussed in this paper. (9 refs).

  14. Silicon micro-fluidic cooling for NA62 GTK pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Romagnoli, G; Brunel, B; Catinaccio, A; Degrange, J; Mapelli, A; Morel, M; Noel, J; Petagna, P

    2015-01-01

    Silicon micro-channel cooling is being studied for efficient thermal management in application fields such as high power computing and 3D electronic integration. This concept has been introduced in 2010 for the thermal management of silicon pixel detectors in high energy physics experiments. Combining the versatility of standard micro-fabrication processes with the high thermal efficiency typical of micro-fluidics, it is possible to produce effective thermal management devices that are well adapted to different detector configurations. The production of very thin cooling devices in silicon enables a minimization of material of the tracking sensors and eliminates mechanical stresses due to the mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between detectors and cooling systems. The NA62 experiment at CERN will be the first high particle physics experiment that will install a micro-cooling system to perform the thermal management of the three detection planes of its Gigatracker pixel detector.

  15. Pre- and post-irradiation performance of FBK 3D silicon pixel detectors for CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzywda, A.; Alagoz, E.; Bubna, M.; Obertino, M.; Solano, A.; Arndt, K.; Uplegger, L.; Betta, G.F. Dalla; Boscardin, M.; Ngadiuba, J.; Rivera, R.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Terzo, S.; Bortoletto, D.; Prosser, A.; Adreson, J.; Kwan, S.; Osipenkov, I.; Bolla, G.

    2014-01-01

    In preparation for the tenfold luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (the HL-LHC) around 2020, three-dimensional (3D) silicon pixel sensors are being developed as a radiation-hard candidate to replace the planar ones currently being used in the CMS pixel detector. This study examines an early batch of FBK sensors (named ATLAS08) of three 3D pixel geometries: 1E, 2E, and 4E, which respectively contain one, two, and four readout electrodes for each pixel, passing completely through the bulk. We present electrical characteristics and beam test performance results for each detector before and after irradiation. The maximum fluence applied is 3.5×10 15 n eq /cm 2

  16. 3D track reconstruction capability of a silicon hybrid active pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Benedikt; Pichotka, Martin; Pospisil, Stanislav; Vycpalek, Jiri [Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Praha (Czech Republic); Burian, Petr; Broulim, Pavel [Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Praha (Czech Republic); University of West Bohemia, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Pilsen (Czech Republic); Jakubek, Jan [Advacam s.r.o., Praha (Czech Republic)

    2017-06-15

    Timepix3 detectors are the latest generation of hybrid active pixel detectors of the Medipix/Timepix family. Such detectors consist of an active sensor layer which is connected to the readout ASIC (application specific integrated circuit), segmenting the detector into a square matrix of 256 x 256 pixels (pixel pitch 55 μm). Particles interacting in the active sensor material create charge carriers, which drift towards the pixelated electrode, where they are collected. In each pixel, the time of the interaction (time resolution 1.56 ns) and the amount of created charge carriers are measured. Such a device was employed in an experiment in a 120 GeV/c pion beam. It is demonstrated, how the drift time information can be used for ''4D'' particle tracking, with the three spatial dimensions and the energy losses along the particle trajectory (dE/dx). Since the coordinates in the detector plane are given by the pixelation (x,y), the x- and y-resolution is determined by the pixel pitch (55 μm). A z-resolution of 50.4 μm could be achieved (for a 500 μm thick silicon sensor at 130 V bias), whereby the drift time model independent z-resolution was found to be 28.5 μm. (orig.)

  17. 3D track reconstruction capability of a silicon hybrid active pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Benedikt; Pichotka, Martin; Pospisil, Stanislav; Vycpalek, Jiri; Burian, Petr; Broulim, Pavel; Jakubek, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Timepix3 detectors are the latest generation of hybrid active pixel detectors of the Medipix/Timepix family. Such detectors consist of an active sensor layer which is connected to the readout ASIC (application specific integrated circuit), segmenting the detector into a square matrix of 256 × 256 pixels (pixel pitch 55 μm). Particles interacting in the active sensor material create charge carriers, which drift towards the pixelated electrode, where they are collected. In each pixel, the time of the interaction (time resolution 1.56 ns) and the amount of created charge carriers are measured. Such a device was employed in an experiment in a 120 GeV/c pion beam. It is demonstrated, how the drift time information can be used for "4D" particle tracking, with the three spatial dimensions and the energy losses along the particle trajectory (dE/dx). Since the coordinates in the detector plane are given by the pixelation ( x, y), the x- and y-resolution is determined by the pixel pitch (55 μm). A z-resolution of 50.4 μm could be achieved (for a 500 μm thick silicon sensor at 130 V bias), whereby the drift time model independent z-resolution was found to be 28.5 μm.

  18. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) active pixel sensors with the photosite implemented in the substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyu (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Active pixel sensors for a high quality imager are fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process by integrating the photodetectors on the SOI substrate and forming pixel readout transistors on the SOI thin-film. The technique can include forming silicon islands on a buried insulator layer disposed on a silicon substrate and selectively etching away the buried insulator layer over a region of the substrate to define a photodetector area. Dopants of a first conductivity type are implanted to form a signal node in the photodetector area and to form simultaneously drain/source regions for a first transistor in at least a first one of the silicon islands. Dopants of a second conductivity type are implanted to form drain/source regions for a second transistor in at least a second one of the silicon islands. Isolation rings around the photodetector also can be formed when dopants of the second conductivity type are implanted. Interconnections among the transistors and the photodetector are provided to allow signals sensed by the photodetector to be read out via the transistors formed on the silicon islands.

  19. The ALICE silicon pixel detector front-end and read-out electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A

    2006-01-01

    The ALICE silicon pixel detector (SPD) comprises the two innermost barrel layers of the ALICE inner tracker system. The SPD includes 120 half staves each of which consists of a linear array of 10 ALICE pixel chips bump bonded to two silicon sensors. Each pixel chip contains 8192 active cells, so the total number of pixel cells in the SPD is ≈107. The tight material budget and the limitation in physical dimensions required by the detector design introduce new challenges for the integration of the on-detector electronics. An essential part of the half stave is a low-mass multi-layer flex that carries power, ground, and signals to the pixel chips. Each half stave is read out using a multi-chip module (MCM). The MCM contains three radiation hard ASICs and an 800 Mbit/s custom developed optical link for the data transfer between the detector and the control room. The detector components are less than 3 mm thick. The production of the half-staves and MCMs is currently under way. Test results as well as on overvie...

  20. 18F-FDG positron autoradiography with a particle counting silicon pixel detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, P; Lauria, A; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C; Marotta, M; Aloj, L; Lastoria, S

    2008-11-07

    We report on tests of a room-temperature particle counting silicon pixel detector of the Medipix2 series as the detector unit of a positron autoradiography (AR) system, for samples labelled with (18)F-FDG radiopharmaceutical used in PET studies. The silicon detector (1.98 cm(2) sensitive area, 300 microm thick) has high intrinsic resolution (55 microm pitch) and works by counting all hits in a pixel above a certain energy threshold. The present work extends the detector characterization with (18)F-FDG of a previous paper. We analysed the system's linearity, dynamic range, sensitivity, background count rate, noise, and its imaging performance on biological samples. Tests have been performed in the laboratory with (18)F-FDG drops (37-37 000 Bq initial activity) and ex vivo in a rat injected with 88.8 MBq of (18)F-FDG. Particles interacting in the detector volume produced a hit in a cluster of pixels whose mean size was 4.3 pixels/event at 11 keV threshold and 2.2 pixels/event at 37 keV threshold. Results show a sensitivity for beta(+) of 0.377 cps Bq(-1), a dynamic range of at least five orders of magnitude and a lower detection limit of 0.0015 Bq mm(-2). Real-time (18)F-FDG positron AR images have been obtained in 500-1000 s exposure time of thin (10-20 microm) slices of a rat brain and compared with 20 h film autoradiography of adjacent slices. The analysis of the image contrast and signal-to-noise ratio in a rat brain slice indicated that Poisson noise-limited imaging can be approached in short (e.g. 100 s) exposures, with approximately 100 Bq slice activity, and that the silicon pixel detector produced a higher image quality than film-based AR.

  1. Assembly procedure of the module (half-stave) of the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Caselle, M; Antinori, F; Burns, M; Campbell, M; Chochula, P; Dinapoli, R; Elia, D; Formenti, F; Fini, R A; Ghidini, B; Kluge, A; Lenti, V; Manzari, V; Meddi, F; Morel, M; Navach, F; Nilsson, P; Pepato, Adriano; Riedler, P; Santoro, R; Stefanini, G; Viesti, G; Wyllie, K

    2004-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). The detector includes 1200 readout ASICs, each containing 8192 pixel cells, bump-bonded to Si sensor elements. The thickness of the readout chip and the sensor element is 150mum and 200mum, respectively. Low-mass solutions are implemented for the bus and the mechanical support. In this contribution, we describe the basic module (half-stave) of the two SPD layers and we give an overview of its assembly procedure.

  2. Extending the dynamic range of silicon photomultipliers without increasing pixel count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Kurtis F.

    2010-01-01

    A silicon photomultiplier, sometimes called 'multipixel photon counter', which we here refer to as a 'SiPM', is a photo-sensitive device built from an avalanche photodiode array of pixels on a common silicon substrate, such that it can detect single photon events. The dimensions of a pixel may vary from 20 to 100 μm and their density can be greater than 1000 per square millimeter. Each pixel in a SiPM operates in Geiger mode and is coupled to the output by a quenching resistor. Although each pixel operates in digital mode, the SiPM is an analog device because all the pixels are read in parallel, making it possible to generate signals within a dynamic range from a single photon to a large number of photons, ultimately limited by the number of pixels on the chip. In this note we describe a simple and general method of increasing the dynamic range of a SiPM beyond that one may naively assume from the shape of the cumulative distribution function of the SiPM response to the average number of photons per pixel. We show that by rendering the incoming flux of photons to be non-uniform in a prescribed manner, a significant increase in dynamic range is achievable. Such re-distribution of the incoming flux may be accomplished with simple, non-focusing lenses, prisms, interference films, mirrors or attenuating films. Almost any optically non-inert interceding device can increase the dynamic range of the SiPM.

  3. Beam test performance and simulation of prototypes for the ALICE silicon pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.; Anelli, G.; Antinori, F.

    2007-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector (SPD) of the ALICE experiment in preparation at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is designed to provide the precise vertex reconstruction needed for measuring heavy flavor production in heavy ion collisions at very high energies and high multiplicity. The SPD forms the innermost part of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) which also includes silicon drift and silicon strip detectors. Single assembly prototypes of the ALICE SPD have been tested at the CERN SPS using high energy proton/pion beams in 2002 and 2003. We report on the experimental determination of the spatial precision. We also report on the first combined beam test with prototypes of the other ITS silicon detector technologies at the CERN SPS in November 2004. The issue of SPD simulation is briefly discussed

  4. A Medipix2-based imaging system for digital mammography with silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bisogni, M G; Fantacci, M E; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C; Novelli, M; Quattrocchi, M; Rosso, V; Russo, P; Stefanini, A

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present the first tests of a digital imaging system based on a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to an integrated circuit operating in single photon counting mode. The X-rays sensor is a 300 mu m thick silicon, 14 by 14 mm/sup 2/, upon which a matrix of 256 * 256 pixels has been built. The read-out chip, named MEDIPIX2, has been developed at CERN within the MEDIPIX2 Collaboration and it is composed by a matrix of 256 * 256 cells, 55 * 55 mu m/sup 2/. The spatial resolution properties of the system have been assessed by measuring the square wave resolution function (SWRF) and first images of a standard mammographic phantom were acquired using a radiographic tube in the clinical irradiation condition. (5 refs).

  5. New concept of a submillimetric pixellated Silicon detector for intracerebral application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, M.; Märk, J.; Weiss, P.; Benoit, D.; Clemens, J.C.; Fougeron, D.; Janvier, B.; Jevaud, M.; Karkar, S.; Menouni, M.; Pain, F.; Pinot, L.; Morel, C.

    2011-01-01

    A new beta + radiosensitive microprobe implantable in rodent brain dedicated to in vivo and autonomous measurements of local time activity curves of beta radiotracers in a volume of brain tissue of a few mm 3 has been developed recently. This project expands the concept of the previously designed beta microprobe, which has been validated extensively in neurobiological experiments performed on anesthetized animals. Due to its limitations considering recordings on awake and freely moving animals, we have proposed to develop a wireless setup that can be worn by an animal without constraining its movements. To that aim, we have chosen a highly beta sensitive Silicon-based detector to devise a compact pixellated probe. Miniaturized wireless electronics is used to read-out and transfer the measurement data. Initial Monte-Carlo simulations showed that high resistive Silicon pixels are appropriate for this purpose, with their dimensions to be adapted to our specific signals. More precisely, we demonstrated that 200 μm thick pixels with an area of 200 μm×500 μm are optimized in terms of beta + sensitivity versus relative transparency to the gamma background. Based on this theoretical study, we now present the development of the novel sensor, including the system simulations with technology computer-assisted design (TCAD) to investigate specific configurations of guard rings and their potential to increase the electrical isolation and stabilization of the pixel, as well as the corresponding physical tests to validate the particular geometries of this new sensor.

  6. Signal height in silicon pixel detectors irradiated with pions and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohe, T.; Acosta, J.; Bean, A.; Dambach, S.; Erdmann, W.; Langenegger, U.; Martin, C.; Meier, B.; Radicci, V.; Sibille, J.; Trueb, P.

    2010-01-01

    Pixel detectors are used in the innermost part of multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and are therefore exposed to the highest fluences of ionising radiation, which in this part of the detectors consists mainly of charged pions. The radiation hardness of the detectors has been tested thoroughly up to the fluences expected at the LHC. In case of an LHC upgrade the fluence will be much higher and it is not yet clear up to which radii the present pixel technology can be used. To establish such a limit, pixel sensors of the size of one CMS pixel readout chip (PSI46V2.1) have been bump bonded and irradiated with positive pions up to 6x10 14 n eq /cm 2 at PSI and with protons up to 5x10 15 n eq /cm 2 . The sensors were taken from production wafers of the CMS barrel pixel detector. They use n-type DOFZ material with a resistance of about 3.7kΩcm and an n-side read out. As the performance of silicon sensors is limited by trapping, the response to a Sr-90 source was investigated. The highly energetic beta-particles represent a good approximation to minimum ionising particles. The bias dependence of the signal for a wide range of fluences will be presented.

  7. First images of a digital autoradiography system based on a Medipix2 hybrid silicon pixel detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettivier, Giovanni; Montesi, Maria Cristina; Russo, Paolo

    2003-06-21

    We present the first images of beta autoradiography obtained with the high-resolution hybrid pixel detector consisting of the Medipix2 single photon counting read-out chip bump-bonded to a 300 microm thick silicon pixel detector. This room temperature system has 256 x 256 square pixels of 55 microm pitch (total sensitive area of 14 x 14 mm2), with a double threshold discriminator and a 13-bit counter in each pixel. It is read out via a dedicated electronic interface and control software, also developed in the framework of the European Medipix2 Collaboration. Digital beta autoradiograms of 14C microscale standard strips (containing separate bands of increasing specific activity in the range 0.0038-32.9 kBq g(-1)) indicate system linearity down to a total background noise of 1.8 x 10(-3) counts mm(-2) s(-1). The minimum detectable activity is estimated to be 0.012 Bq for 36,000 s exposure and 0.023 Bq for 10,800 s exposure. The measured minimum detection threshold is less than 1600 electrons (equivalent to about 6 keV Si). This real-time system for beta autoradiography offers lower pixel pitch and higher sensitive area than the previous Medipix1-based system. It has a 14C sensitivity better than that of micro channel plate based systems, which, however, shows higher spatial resolution and sensitive area.

  8. Observation, modeling, and temperature dependence of doubly peaked electric fields in irradiated silicon pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Swartz, M.; Allkofer, Y.; Bortoletto, D.; Cremaldi, L.; Cucciarelli, S.; Dorokhov, A.; Hoermann, C.; Kim, D.; Konecki, M.; Kotlinski, D.; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Rohe, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Son, S.; Speer, T.

    2006-01-01

    We show that doubly peaked electric fields are necessary to describe grazing-angle charge collection measurements of irradiated silicon pixel sensors. A model of irradiated silicon based upon two defect levels with opposite charge states and the trapping of charge carriers can be tuned to produce a good description of the measured charge collection profiles in the fluence range from 0.5x10^{14} Neq/cm^2 to 5.9x10^{14} Neq/cm^2. The model correctly predicts the variation in the profiles as the temperature is changed from -10C to -25C. The measured charge collection profiles are inconsistent with the linearly-varying electric fields predicted by the usual description based upon a uniform effective doping density. This observation calls into question the practice of using effective doping densities to characterize irradiated silicon.

  9. 14C autoradiography with an energy-sensitive silicon pixel detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, M; Mettivier, G; Russo, P

    2011-04-07

    The first performance tests are presented of a carbon-14 ((14)C) beta-particle digital autoradiography system with an energy-sensitive hybrid silicon pixel detector based on the Timepix readout circuit. Timepix was developed by the Medipix2 Collaboration and it is similar to the photon-counting Medipix2 circuit, except for an added time-based synchronization logic which allows derivation of energy information from the time-over-threshold signal. This feature permits direct energy measurements in each pixel of the detector array. Timepix is bump-bonded to a 300 µm thick silicon detector with 256 × 256 pixels of 55 µm pitch. Since an energetic beta-particle could release its kinetic energy in more than one detector pixel as it slows down in the semiconductor detector, an off-line image analysis procedure was adopted in which the single-particle cluster of hit pixels is recognized; its total energy is calculated and the position of interaction on the detector surface is attributed to the centre of the charge cluster. Measurements reported are detector sensitivity, (4.11 ± 0.03) × 10(-3) cps mm(-2) kBq(-1) g, background level, (3.59 ± 0.01) × 10(-5) cps mm(-2), and minimum detectable activity, 0.0077 Bq. The spatial resolution is 76.9 µm full-width at half-maximum. These figures are compared with several digital imaging detectors for (14)C beta-particle digital autoradiography.

  10. Development of thin pixel detectors on epitaxial silicon for HEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscardin, Maurizio; Calvo, Daniela; Giacomini, Gabriele; Wheadon, Richard; Ronchin, Sabina; Zorzi, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The foreseen luminosity of the new experiments in High Energy Physics will require that the innermost layer of vertex detectors will be able to sustain fluencies up to 10 16 n eq /cm 2 . Moreover, in many experiments there is a demand for the minimization of the material budget of the detectors. Therefore, thin pixel devices fabricated on n-type silicon are a natural choice to fulfill these requirements due to their rad-hard performances and low active volume. We present an R and D activity aimed at developing a new thin hybrid pixel device in the framework of PANDA experiments. The detector of this new device is a p-on-n pixel sensor realized starting from epitaxial silicon wafers and back thinned up to 50–100 μm after process completion. We present the main technological steps and some electrical characterization on the fabricated devices before and after back thinning and after bump bonding to the front-end electronics

  11. Development of thin pixel detectors on epitaxial silicon for HEP experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscardin, Maurizio, E-mail: boscardi@fbk.eu [FBK, CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Calvo, Daniela [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Giacomini, Gabriele [FBK, CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Wheadon, Richard [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Ronchin, Sabina; Zorzi, Nicola [FBK, CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Povo, Trento (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    The foreseen luminosity of the new experiments in High Energy Physics will require that the innermost layer of vertex detectors will be able to sustain fluencies up to 10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. Moreover, in many experiments there is a demand for the minimization of the material budget of the detectors. Therefore, thin pixel devices fabricated on n-type silicon are a natural choice to fulfill these requirements due to their rad-hard performances and low active volume. We present an R and D activity aimed at developing a new thin hybrid pixel device in the framework of PANDA experiments. The detector of this new device is a p-on-n pixel sensor realized starting from epitaxial silicon wafers and back thinned up to 50–100 μm after process completion. We present the main technological steps and some electrical characterization on the fabricated devices before and after back thinning and after bump bonding to the front-end electronics.

  12. Amorphous silicon pixel layers with cesium iodide converters for medical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, T.; Cho, G.; Goodman, C.A.

    1993-11-01

    We describe the properties of evaporated layers of Cesium Iodide (Thallium activated) deposited on substrates that enable easy coupling to amorphous silicon pixel arrays. The CsI(Tl) layers range in thickness from 65 to 220μm. We used the two-boat evaporator system to deposit CsI(Tl) layers. This system ensures the formation of the scintillator film with homogenous thallium concentration which is essential for optimizing the scintillation light emission efficiency. The Tl concentration was kept to 0.1--0.2 mole percent for the highest light output. Temperature annealing can affect the microstructure as well as light output of the CsI(Tl) film. 200--300C temperature annealing can increase the light output by a factor of two. The amorphous silicon pixel arrays are p-i-n diodes approximately lμm thick with transparent electrodes to enable them to detect the scintillation light produced by X-rays incident on the CsI(Tl). Digital radiography requires a good spatial resolution. This is accomplished by making the detector pixel size less then 50μm. The light emission from the CsI(Tl) is collimated by techniques involving the deposition process on pattered substrates. We have measured MTF of greater than 12 line pairs per mm at the 10% level

  13. Fine pitch and low material readout bus in the Silicon Pixel Vertex Tracker for the PHENIX Vertex Tracker upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Kohei

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the Silicon Pixel Detector is starting in spring 2009 as project of the RHIC-PHENIX Silicon Vertex Tracker (VTX) upgrade at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. For the construction, we have developed a fine pitch and low material readout bus as the backbone parts of the VTX. In this article, we report the development and production of the readout bus.

  14. Performance of in-pixel circuits for photon counting arrays (PCAs) based on polycrystalline silicon TFTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Albert K; Koniczek, Martin; Antonuk, Larry E; El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua; Street, Robert A; Lu, Jeng Ping

    2016-01-01

    Photon counting arrays (PCAs), defined as pixelated imagers which measure the absorbed energy of x-ray photons individually and record this information digitally, are of increasing clinical interest. A number of PCA prototypes with a 1 mm pixel-to-pixel pitch have recently been fabricated with polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si)—a thin-film technology capable of creating monolithic imagers of a size commensurate with human anatomy. In this study, analog and digital simulation frameworks were developed to provide insight into the influence of individual poly-Si transistors on pixel circuit performance—information that is not readily available through empirical means. The simulation frameworks were used to characterize the circuit designs employed in the prototypes. The analog framework, which determines the noise produced by individual transistors, was used to estimate energy resolution, as well as to identify which transistors contribute the most noise. The digital framework, which analyzes how well circuits function in the presence of significant variations in transistor properties, was used to estimate how fast a circuit can produce an output (referred to as output count rate). In addition, an algorithm was developed and used to estimate the minimum pixel pitch that could be achieved for the pixel circuits of the current prototypes. The simulation frameworks predict that the analog component of the PCA prototypes could have energy resolution as low as 8.9% full width at half maximum (FWHM) at 70 keV; and the digital components should work well even in the presence of significant thin-film transistor (TFT) variations, with the fastest component having output count rates as high as 3 MHz. Finally, based on conceivable improvements in the underlying fabrication process, the algorithm predicts that the 1 mm pitch of the current PCA prototypes could be reduced significantly, potentially to between ∼240 and 290 μm. (paper)

  15. 3D silicon pixel detectors for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, J.

    2016-01-01

    3D silicon pixel detectors have been investigated as radiation-hard candidates for the innermost layers of the HL-LHC upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector. 3D detectors are already in use today in the ATLAS IBL and AFP experiments. These are based on 50x250 um2 large pixels connected to the FE-I4 readout chip. Detectors of this generation were irradiated to HL-LHC fluences and demonstrated excellent radiation hardness with operational voltages as low as 180 V and power dissipation of 12--15 mW/cm2 at a fluence of about 1e16 neq/cm2, measured at -25 degree C. Moreover, to cope with the higher occupancies expected at the HL-LHC, a first run of a new generation of 3D detectors designed for the HL-LHC was produced at CNM with small pixel sizes of 50x50 and 25x100 um2, matched to the FE-I4 chip. They demonstrated a good performance in the laboratory and in beam tests with hit efficiencies of about 97% at already 1--2V before irradiation.

  16. Thin pixel development for the SuperB silicon vertex tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, G., E-mail: giuliana.rizzo@pi.infn.it [INFN-Pisa and Universita di Pisa (Italy); Avanzini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Ceccanti, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Crescioli, F.; Dell' Orso, M.; Forti, F.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.A. [INFN-Pisa and Universita di Pisa (Italy); Lusiani, A. [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN-Pisa (Italy); Gregucci, S.; Mammini, P.; Marchiori, G.; Massa, M.; Morsani, F.; Neri, N. [INFN-Pisa and Universita di Pisa (Italy); and others

    2011-09-11

    The high luminosity SuperB asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, to be built near the INFN National Frascati Laboratory in Italy, has been designed to deliver a luminosity greater than 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} with moderate beam currents and a reduced center of mass boost with respect to earlier B-Factories. An improved vertex resolution is required for precise time-dependent measurements and the SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker will be equipped with an innermost layer of small radius (about 1.5 cm), resolution of 10-15{mu}m in both coordinates, low material budget (<1% X0), and able to withstand a background rate of several tens of MHz/cm{sup 2}. The ambitious goal of designing a thin pixel device with these stringent requirements is being pursued with specific R and D programs on different technologies: hybrid pixels, CMOS MAPS and pixel sensors developed with vertical integration technology. The latest results on the various pixel options for the SuperB SVT will be presented.

  17. Amorphous silicon pixel radiation detectors and associated thin film transistor electronics readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Drewery, J.; Hong, W.S.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Lee, H.; Mireshghi, A.

    1994-10-01

    We describe the characteristics of thin (1 μm) and thick (>30 μm) hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes which are optimized for detecting and recording the spatial distribution of charged particles, x-rays and γ rays. For x-ray, γ ray, and charged particle detection we can use thin p-i-n photosensitive diode arrays coupled to evaporated layers of suitable scintillators. For direct detection of charged particles with high resistance to radiation damage, we use the thick p-i-n diode arrays. Deposition techniques using helium dilution, which produce samples with low stress are described. Pixel arrays for flux exposures can be readout by transistor, single diode or two diode switches. Polysilicon charge sensitive pixel amplifiers for single event detection are described. Various applications in nuclear, particle physics, x-ray medical imaging, neutron crystallography, and radionuclide chromatography are discussed

  18. 3D simulations and modeling of new low capacitance silicon pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Bo; Li, Yu Yun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Center for Semiconductor Particle and photon Imaging Detector Development and Fabrication, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Li, Zheng, E-mail: zhengli58@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Center for Semiconductor Particle and photon Imaging Detector Development and Fabrication, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China)

    2016-09-21

    With signal to noise ratio (S/N) being a key parameter of a high performance detector, reducing the detector noise has been one of the main tasks in detector development. A new low capacitance silicon pixel detector is proposed, which is based on a new electrode geometry with reduced effective electrode area while keeping the sensitive volume unchanged. Detector electrical characteristics including electrostatic potential, electric field, full depletion voltage, and capacitance have been simulated in detail using a 3D TCAD tool. From these simulations and calculations, we confirm that the new detector structure has a much reduced capacitance (by a factor of 3) as compared to the traditional pixel detectors with the same sensitive volume. This reduction in detector capacitance can certainly improve the detector signal to noise ratio. However, the full depletion voltage for the new structure is larger than that of the traditional one due to the small electrode effect.

  19. High rate particle tracking and ultra-fast timing with a thin hybrid silicon pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Carassiti, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Cortina Gil, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Mapelli, A.; Martin, E.; Mazza, G.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Nuessle, G.; Perktold, L.; Petagna, P.; Petrucci, F.; Poltorak, K.; Riedler, P.; Rivetti, A.; Statera, M.; Velghe, B.

    2013-08-01

    The Gigatracker (GTK) is a hybrid silicon pixel detector designed for the NA62 experiment at CERN. The beam spectrometer, made of three GTK stations, has to sustain high and non-uniform particle rate (∼ 1 GHz in total) and measure momentum and angles of each beam track with a combined time resolution of 150 ps. In order to reduce multiple scattering and hadronic interactions of beam particles, the material budget of a single GTK station has been fixed to 0.5% X0. The expected fluence for 100 days of running is 2 ×1014 1 MeV neq /cm2, comparable to the one foreseen in the inner trackers of LHC detectors during 10 years of operation. To comply with these requirements, an efficient and very low-mass (< 0.15 %X0) cooling system is being constructed, using a novel microchannel cooling silicon plate. Two complementary read-out architectures have been produced as small-scale prototypes: one is based on a Time-over-Threshold circuit followed by a TDC shared by a group of pixels, while the other makes use of a constant-fraction discriminator followed by an on-pixel TDC. The read-out ASICs are produced in 130 nm IBM CMOS technology and will be thinned down to 100 μm or less. An overview of the Gigatracker detector system will be presented. Experimental results from laboratory and beam tests of prototype bump-bonded assemblies will be described as well. These results show a time resolution of about 170 ps for single hits from minimum ionizing particles, using 200 μm thick silicon sensors.

  20. Amorphous silicon pixel radiation detectors and associated thin film transistor electronics readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Cho, G.; Drewery, J.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Mireshghi, A.; Wildermuth, D.; Goodman, C.; Fujieda, I.

    1992-07-01

    We describe the characteristics of thin (1 μm) and thick (> 30 μm) hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes which are optimized for detecting and recording the spatial distribution of charged particles, x-ray, γ rays and thermal neutrons. For x-ray, γ ray, and charged particle detection we can use thin p-i-n photosensitive diode arrays coupled to evaporated layers of suitable scintillators. For thermal neutron detection we use thin (2∼5 μm) gadolinium converters on 30 μm thick a-Si:H diodes. For direct detection of minimum ionizing particles and others with high resistance to radiation damage, we use the thick p-i-n diode arrays. Diode and amorphous silicon readouts as well as polysilicon pixel amplifiers are described

  1. Characterisation of irradiated thin silicon sensors for the CMS phase II pixel upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Brondolin, E. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik, Vienna (Austria); and others

    2017-08-15

    The high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, foreseen for 2026, necessitates the replacement of the CMS experiment's silicon tracker. The innermost layer of the new pixel detector will be exposed to severe radiation, corresponding to a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of up to Φ{sub eq} = 2 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}, and an ionising dose of ∼5 MGy after an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup -1}. Thin, planar silicon sensors are good candidates for this application, since the degradation of the signal produced by traversing particles is less severe than for thicker devices. In this paper, the results obtained from the characterisation of 100 and 200 μm thick p-bulk pad diodes and strip sensors irradiated up to fluences of Φ{sub eq} = 1.3 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} are shown. (orig.)

  2. Research of high speed data readout and pre-processing system based on xTCA for silicon pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingzhou; Lin Haichuan; Guo Fang; Liu Zhen'an; Xu Hao; Gong Wenxuan; Liu Zhao

    2012-01-01

    As the development of the detector, Silicon pixel detectors have been widely used in high energy physics experiments. It needs data processing system with high speed, high bandwidth and high availability to read data from silicon pixel detectors which generate more large data. The same question occurs on Belle II Pixel Detector which is a new style silicon pixel detector used in SuperKEKB accelerator with high luminance. The paper describes the research of High speed data readout and pre-processing system based on xTCA for silicon pixel detector. The system consists of High Performance Computer Node (HPCN) based on xTCA and ATCA frame. The HPCN consists of 4XFPs based on AMC, 1 AMC Carrier ATCA Board (ACAB) and 1 Rear Transmission Module. It characterized by 5 high performance FPGAs, 16 fiber links based on RocketIO, 5 Gbit Ethernet ports and DDR2 with capacity up to 18GB. In a ATCA frame, 14 HPCNs make up a system using the high speed backplane to achieve the function of data pre-processing and trigger. This system will be used on the trigger and data acquisition system of Belle II Pixel detector. (authors)

  3. Fabrication and characterization of n-on-n silicon pixel detectors compatible with the Medipix2 readout chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorzi, N. [ITC-irst, Divisione Microsistemi, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy)]. E-mail: zorzi@itc.it; Bisogni, M.G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and Sezione INFN, Via Buonarroti 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Boscardin, M. [ITC-irst, Divisione Microsistemi, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Dipartimento di Informatica e Telecomunicazioni, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Gregori, P. [ITC-irst, Divisione Microsistemi, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Novelli, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and Sezione INFN, Via Buonarroti 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Piemonte, C. [ITC-irst, Divisione Microsistemi, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Quattrocchi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and Sezione INFN, Via Buonarroti 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ronchin, S. [ITC-irst, Divisione Microsistemi, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Rosso, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and Sezione INFN, Via Buonarroti 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    Pixel detectors for mammographic applications have been fabricated at ITC-irst on 800 {mu}m thick silicon wafers adopting a double side n{sup +}-on-n fabrication technology. The activity aims at increasing the X-ray detection efficiency in the energy range of interest minimizing the risk of electrical discharges in hybrid systems operating at high voltages. The detectors, having a layout compatible with the Medipix2 photon counting chip, feature two different design solutions for the p-isolation between neighboring n{sup +}-pixels. We report on the characterization of the fabrication process and on preliminary results of electrical measurements on full detectors and pixel test structures. In particular, we found that the detectors can be reliably operated above the full depletion voltage regardless of the isolation design, that however, impacts the performances in terms of current-voltage characteristics, single pixel currents, inter-pixel resistances and inter-pixel capacitances.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of n-on-n silicon pixel detectors compatible with the Medipix2 readout chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorzi, N.; Bisogni, M.G.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Gregori, P.; Novelli, M.; Piemonte, C.; Quattrocchi, M.; Ronchin, S.; Rosso, V.

    2005-01-01

    Pixel detectors for mammographic applications have been fabricated at ITC-irst on 800 μm thick silicon wafers adopting a double side n + -on-n fabrication technology. The activity aims at increasing the X-ray detection efficiency in the energy range of interest minimizing the risk of electrical discharges in hybrid systems operating at high voltages. The detectors, having a layout compatible with the Medipix2 photon counting chip, feature two different design solutions for the p-isolation between neighboring n + -pixels. We report on the characterization of the fabrication process and on preliminary results of electrical measurements on full detectors and pixel test structures. In particular, we found that the detectors can be reliably operated above the full depletion voltage regardless of the isolation design, that however, impacts the performances in terms of current-voltage characteristics, single pixel currents, inter-pixel resistances and inter-pixel capacitances

  5. Advances in the development of pixel detector for the SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoloni, E., E-mail: eugenio.paoloni@pi.infn.it [Università degli Studi di Pisa (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Comotti, D. [Università degli Studi di Bergamo (Italy); Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G. [Università degli Studi di Bergamo (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia (Italy); Fabbri, L.; Gabrielli, A. [Università degli Studi di Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Giorgi, F.; Pellegrini, G.; Sbarra, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Semprini-Cesari, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A. [Università degli Studi di Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Berra, A.; Lietti, D.; Prest, M. [Università dell' Insubria, Como (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Bevan, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Wilson, F. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell, Oxford Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Beck, G. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-12-11

    The latest advances in the design and characterization of several pixel sensors developed to satisfy the very demanding requirements of the innermost layer of the SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker will be presented in this paper. The SuperB machine is an electron positron collider operating at the ϒ(4S) peak to be built in the very near future by the Cabibbo Lab consortium. A pixel detector based on extremely thin, radiation hard devices able to cope with rate in the tens of MHz/cm{sup 2} range will be the optimal solution for the upgrade of the inner layer of the SuperB tracking system. At present several options with different levels of maturity are being investigated to understand advantages and potential issues of the different technologies: thin hybrid pixels, Deep N-Well CMOS MAPS, INMAPS CMOS MAPS featuring a quadruple well and high resistivity substrates and CMOS MAPS realized with Vertical Integration technology. The newest results from beam test, the outcomes of the radiation damage studies and the laboratory characterization of the latest prototypes will be reported.

  6. Advances in the development of pixel detector for the SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoloni, E.; Comotti, D.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Fabbri, L.; Gabrielli, A.; Giorgi, F.; Pellegrini, G.; Sbarra, C.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; Berra, A.; Lietti, D.; Prest, M.; Bevan, A.; Wilson, F.; Beck, G.

    2013-01-01

    The latest advances in the design and characterization of several pixel sensors developed to satisfy the very demanding requirements of the innermost layer of the SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker will be presented in this paper. The SuperB machine is an electron positron collider operating at the ϒ(4S) peak to be built in the very near future by the Cabibbo Lab consortium. A pixel detector based on extremely thin, radiation hard devices able to cope with rate in the tens of MHz/cm 2 range will be the optimal solution for the upgrade of the inner layer of the SuperB tracking system. At present several options with different levels of maturity are being investigated to understand advantages and potential issues of the different technologies: thin hybrid pixels, Deep N-Well CMOS MAPS, INMAPS CMOS MAPS featuring a quadruple well and high resistivity substrates and CMOS MAPS realized with Vertical Integration technology. The newest results from beam test, the outcomes of the radiation damage studies and the laboratory characterization of the latest prototypes will be reported

  7. A liquid-crystal-on-silicon color sequential display using frame buffer pixel circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangrok

    Next generation liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCOS) high definition (HD) televisions and image projection displays will need to be low-cost and high quality to compete with existing systems based on digital micromirror devices (DMDs), plasma displays, and direct view liquid crystal displays. In this thesis, a novel frame buffer pixel architecture that buffers data for the next image frame while displaying the current frame, offers such a competitive solution is presented. The primary goal of the thesis is to demonstrate the LCOS microdisplay architecture for high quality image projection displays and at potentially low cost. The thesis covers four main research areas: new frame buffer pixel circuits to improve the LCOS performance, backplane architecture design and testing, liquid crystal modes for the LCOS microdisplay, and system integration and demonstration. The design requirements for the LCOS backplane with a 64 x 32 pixel array are addressed and measured electrical characteristics matches to computer simulation results. Various liquid crystal (LC) modes applicable for LCOS microdisplays and their physical properties are discussed. One- and two-dimensional director simulations are performed for the selected LC modes. Test liquid crystal cells with the selected LC modes are made and their electro-optic effects are characterized. The 64 x 32 LCOS microdisplays fabricated with the best LC mode are optically tested with interface circuitry. The characteristics of the LCOS microdisplays are summarized with the successful demonstration.

  8. Characterization of Ni/SnPb-TiW/Pt Flip Chip Interconnections in Silicon Pixel Detector Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Härkönen, Jaakko; Luukka, Panja-riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Haeggstrom, Edward; Kalliopuska, Juha; Vahanen, Sami; Kassamakov, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    In contemporary high energy physics experiments, silicon detectors are essential for recording the trajectory of new particles generated by multiple simultaneous collisions. Modern particle tracking systems may feature 100 million channels, or pixels, which need to be individually connected to read-out chains. Silicon pixel detectors are typically connected to readout chips by flip-chip bonding using solder bumps. High-quality electro-mechanical flip-chip interconnects minimizes the number of dead read-out channels in the particle tracking system. Furthermore, the detector modules must endure handling during installation and withstand heat generation and cooling during operation. Silicon pixel detector modules were constructed by flip-chip bonding 16 readout chips to a single sensor. Eutectic SnPb solder bumps were deposited on the readout chips and the sensor chips were coated with TiW/Pt thin film UBM (under bump metallization). The modules were assembled at Advacam Ltd, Finland. We studied the uniformity o...

  9. First operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon pixel readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemi, M.; Campbell, M.; Gys, T.; Mikulec, B.; Piedigrossi, D.; Puertolas, D.; Rosso, E.; Schomaker, R.; Snoeys, W.; Wyllie, K.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the first operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The prototype has been characterized using a low-intensity light-emitting diode operated in pulsed mode. Its performance in terms of single-photoelectron detection efficiency and imaging properties is presented. A model of photoelectron detection is proposed, and is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. It includes an estimate of the charge signal generated in the silicon detector, and the combined effects of the comparator threshold spread of the pixel readout chip, charge sharing at the pixel boundaries and back-scattering of the photoelectrons at the silicon detector surface

  10. First operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon pixel readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alemi, M.; Campbell, M.; Gys, T. E-mail: thierry.gys@cern.ch; Mikulec, B.; Piedigrossi, D.; Puertolas, D.; Rosso, E.; Schomaker, R.; Snoeys, W.; Wyllie, K

    2000-07-11

    We report on the first operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The prototype has been characterized using a low-intensity light-emitting diode operated in pulsed mode. Its performance in terms of single-photoelectron detection efficiency and imaging properties is presented. A model of photoelectron detection is proposed, and is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. It includes an estimate of the charge signal generated in the silicon detector, and the combined effects of the comparator threshold spread of the pixel readout chip, charge sharing at the pixel boundaries and back-scattering of the photoelectrons at the silicon detector surface.

  11. Characterisation of edgeless technologies for pixellated and strip silicon detectors with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Christophersen, M.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Gimenez, E.; Kachkanov, V.; Kalliopuska, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Maneuski, D.; Phlips, B. F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Stewart, G.; Tartoni, N.; Zain, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced edge or ``edgeless'' detector design offers seamless tileability of sensors for a wide range of applications from particle physics to synchrotron and free election laser (FEL) facilities and medical imaging. Combined with through-silicon-via (TSV) technology, this would allow reduced material trackers for particle physics and an increase in the active area for synchrotron and FEL pixel detector systems. In order to quantify the performance of different edgeless fabrication methods, 2 edgeless detectors were characterized at the Diamond Light Source using an 11 μm FWHM 15 keV micro-focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were: a 150 μm thick silicon active edge pixel sensor fabricated at VTT and bump-bonded to a Medipix2 ROIC; and a 300 μm thick silicon strip sensor fabricated at CIS with edge reduction performed by SCIPP and the NRL and wire bonded to an ALiBaVa readout system. Sub-pixel resolution of the 55 μm active edge pixels was achieved. Further scans showed no drop in charge collection recorded between the centre and edge pixels, with a maximum deviation of 5% in charge collection between scanned edge pixels. Scans across the cleaved and standard guard ring edges of the strip detector also show no reduction in charge collection. These results indicate techniques such as the scribe, cleave and passivate (SCP) and active edge processes offer real potential for reduced edge, tiled sensors for imaging detection applications.

  12. Design of a radiation hard silicon pixel sensor for X-ray science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwandt, Joern

    2014-06-15

    At DESY Hamburg the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (EuXFEL) is presently under construction. The EuXFEL has unique properties with respect to X-ray energy, instantaneous intensity, pulse length, coherence and number of pulses/sec. These properties of the EuXFEL pose very demanding requirements for imaging detectors. One of the detector systems which is currently under development to meet these challenges is the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector, AGIPD. It is a hybrid pixel-detector system with 1024 x 1024 p{sup +} pixels of dimensions 200 μm x 200 μm, made of 16 p{sup +}nn{sup +}- silicon sensors, each with 10.52 cm x 2.56 cm sensitive area and 500 μm thickness. The particular requirements for the AGIPD are a separation between noise and single photons down to energies of 5 keV, more than 10{sup 4} photons per pixel for a pulse duration of less than 100 fs, negligible pile-up at the EuXFEL repetition rate of 4.5 MHz, operation for X-ray doses up to 1 GGy, good efficiency for X-rays with energies between 5 and 20 keV, and minimal inactive regions at the edges. The main challenge in the sensor design is the required radiation tolerance and high operational voltage, which is required to reduce the so-called plasma effect. This requires a specially optimized sensor. The X-ray radiation damage results in a build-up of oxide charges and interface traps which lead to a reduction of the breakdown voltage, increased leakage current, increased interpixel capacitances and charge losses. Extensive TCAD simulations have been performed to understand the impact of X-ray radiation damage on the detector performance and optimize the sensor design. To take radiation damage into account in the simulation, radiation damage parameters have been determined on MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes as function of dose. The optimized sensor design was fabricated by SINTEF. Irradiation tests on test structures and sensors show that the sensor design is radiation hard and

  13. Study of Charge Diffusion in a Silicon Detector Using an Energy Sensitive Pixel Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Schioppa, E. J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Visser, J.; Koffeman, E.; Heijne, E.; Engel, K. J.; Uher, J.

    2015-01-01

    A 300 μm thick thin p-on-n silicon sensor was connected to an energy sensitive pixel readout ASIC and exposed to a beam of highly energetic charged particles. By exploiting the spectral information and the fine segmentation of the detector, we were able to measure the evolution of the transverse profile of the charge carriers cloud in the sensor as a function of the drift distance from the point of generation. The result does not rely on model assumptions or electric field calculations. The data are also used to validate numerical simulations and to predict the detector spectral response to an X-ray fluorescence spectrum for applications in X-ray imaging.

  14. 3D silicon pixel detectors for the ATLAS Forward Physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, J.; Cavallaro, E.; Grinstein, S.; Paz, I. López

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project plans to install 3D silicon pixel detectors about 210 m away from the interaction point and very close to the beamline (2–3 mm). This implies the need of slim edges of about 100–200 μm width for the sensor side facing the beam to minimise the dead area. Another challenge is an expected non-uniform irradiation of the pixel sensors. It is studied if these requirements can be met using slightly-modified FE-I4 3D pixel sensors from the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer production. AFP-compatible slim edges are obtained with a simple diamond-saw cut. Electrical characterisations and beam tests are carried out and no detrimental impact on the leakage current and hit efficiency is observed. For devices without a 3D guard ring a remaining insensitive edge of less than 15 μm width is found. Moreover, 3D detectors are non-uniformly irradiated up to fluences of several 10 15 n eq /cm 2 with either a focussed 23 GeV proton beam or a 23 MeV proton beam through holes in Al masks. The efficiency in the irradiated region is found to be similar to the one in the non-irradiated region and exceeds 97% in case of favourable chip-parameter settings. Only in a narrow transition area at the edge of the hole in the Al mask, a significantly lower efficiency is seen. A follow-up study of this effect using arrays of small pad diodes for position-resolved dosimetry via the leakage current is carried out

  15. Investigating the Inverse Square Law with the Timepix Hybrid Silicon Pixel Detector: A CERN [at] School Demonstration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyntie, T.; Parker, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Timepix hybrid silicon pixel detector has been used to investigate the inverse square law of radiation from a point source as a demonstration of the CERN [at] school detector kit capabilities. The experiment described uses a Timepix detector to detect the gamma rays emitted by an [superscript 241]Am radioactive source at a number of different…

  16. Quasi-static analysis and control of planer and spatial bending fluidic actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Benjamin Che-Ming

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a novel silicone-based millimetre scale bending fluidic actuator. Two designs of the bending fluidic actuator are studied: a planer actuator that bends about one axis; and a spatial actuator able to bend about two orthogonal axes. The unique parallel micro-channel design of the fluidic actuators enables operation at low working pressures, while at the same time having a very limited thickness expansion during pressurization. The fluidic actuators can be easily scaled to des...

  17. Characterization of irradiated thin silicon sensors for the CMS phase II pixel upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centis Vignali, Matteo; Garutti, Erika; Junkes, Alexandra; Steinbrueck, Georg [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg (Germany); Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY) (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The high-luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, foreseen for 2025, necessitates the replacement of the tracker of the CMS experiment. The innermost layer of the new pixel detector will be exposed to severe radiation corresponding to a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence up to Φ{sub eq} = 2 . 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} and an ionizing dose of ∼ 10 MGy after an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup -1}. Silicon crystals grown with different methods and sensor designs are under investigation in order to optimize the sensors for such high fluences. Thin planar silicon sensors are good candidates to achieve this goal, since the degradation of the signal produced by traversing particles is less severe than for thicker devices. Epitaxial pad diodes and strip sensors irradiated up to fluences of Φ{sub eq} = 1.3 . 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} have been characterized in laboratory measurements and beam tests at the DESY II facility. The active thickness of the strip sensors and pad diodes is 100 μm. In addition, strip sensors produced using other growth techniques with a thickness of 200 μm have been studied. In this talk, the results obtained for p-bulk sensors are shown.

  18. Performance of hybrid photon detector prototypes with encapsulated silicon pixel detector and readout for the RICH counters of LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.; George, K.A.; Girone, M.; Gys, T.; Jolly, S.; Piedigrossi, D.; Riedler, P.; Rozema, P.; Snoeys, W.; Wyllie, K.

    2003-01-01

    These proceedings report on the performance of the latest prototype pixel hybrid photon detector in preparation for the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. The prototype encapsulates a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a binary read-out chip with short (25 ns) peaking time and low ( - ) detection threshold. A brief description of the prototype is given, followed by the preliminary results of the characterisation of the prototype behaviour when tested using a low intensity pulsed light emitting diode. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained using previous prototypes. The proceedings conclude with a summary of the current status and future plans

  19. submitter Commissioning of the Silicon Pixel Detector of ALICE and perspectives for beauty production at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bombonati, Carlo

    The activities carried out within the present work were aimed at the preparation for heavy quarks measurements, thus including the construction and commissioning of the SPD. More in detail, they can be summarised in the following: • Assembly of the silicon pixel sensors on the carbon fibre support. Given its role as a precision tracker, the assembly of the SPD requires the use of specific procedures to ensure a high degree of accuracy. • Tuning and maintenance of the cooling system of the SPD. The SPD power dissipation is of about 1.5 kW. This means that, without cooling, the temperature of the sensors would rise at about 1°C/s. The cooling system is thus of vital importance for the operation of the detector. • Development of a set of tools for the monitoring of the alignment procedures of the ITS and, in particular of the SPD. The misalignment of the detector must be accounted for in the software description of the geometry in order to optimize the spatial resolution. The matching of the geometry with...

  20. Characterization and Performance of Silicon n-in-p Pixel Detectors for the ATLAS Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Weigell, Philipp; Gallrapp, Christian; La Rosa, Alessandro; Macchiolo, Anna; Nisius, Richard; Pernegger, Heinz; Richter, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The existing ATLAS Tracker will be at its functional limit for particle fluences of 10^15 neq/cm^2 (LHC). Thus for the upgrades at smaller radii like in the case of the planned Insertable B-Layer (IBL) and for increased LHC luminosities (super LHC) the development of new structures and materials which can cope with the resulting particle fluences is needed. N-in-p silicon devices are a promising candidate for tracking detectors to achieve these goals, since they are radiation hard, cost efficient and are not type inverted after irradiation. A n-in-p pixel production based on a MPP/HLL design and performed by CiS (Erfurt, Germany) on 300 \\mu m thick Float-Zone material is characterised and the electrical properties of sensors and single chip modules (SCM) are presented, including noise, charge collection efficiencies, and measurements with MIPs as well as an 241Am source. The SCMs are built with sensors connected to the current the ATLAS read-out chip FE-I3. The characterisation has been performed with the ATL...

  1. Laser Soldering and Thermal Cycling Tests of Monolithic Silicon Pixel Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Strand, Frode Sneve

    2015-01-01

    An ALPIDE-1 monolithic silicon pixel sensor prototype has been laser soldered to a flex printed circuit using a novel interconnection technique using lasers. This technique is to be optimised to ensure stable, good quality connections between the sensor chips and the FPCs. To test the long-term stability of the connections, as well as study the effects on hit thresholds and noise in the sensor, it was thermally cycled in a climate chamber 1200 times. The soldered connections showed good qualities like even melting and good adhesion on pad/flex surfaces, and the chip remained in working condition for 1080 cycles. After this, a few connections failed, having cracks in the soldering tin, rendering the chip unusable. Threshold and noise characteristics seemed stable, except for the noise levels of sector 2 in the chip, for 1000 cycles in a temperature interval of "10^{\\circ}" and "50^{\\circ}" C. Still, further testing with wider temperature ranges and more cycles is needed to test the limitations of the chi...

  2. Development of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderini, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Dipartimento di Fisica E. Fermi, Universitá di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bagolini, A. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); Beccherle, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Pisa (Italy); Bomben, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Università degli studi di Trieste (Italy); INFN-Trieste (Italy); Chauveau, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Giacomini, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); La Rosa, A. [Section de Physique (DPNC), Universitè de Geneve, Geneve (Switzerland); Marchiori, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2016-09-21

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The presentation describes the performance of novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology, some feedback from preliminary results of the first beam test will be discussed.

  3. Performance of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00052711; Boscardin, Maurizio; Bosisio, Luciano; Calderini, Giovanni; Chauveau, Jacques; Ducourthial, Audrey; Giacomini, Gabriele; Marchiori, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The paper reports on the performance of novel n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology an overview of the first beam test results will be given.

  4. Production and characterization of SLID interconnected n-in-p pixel modules with 75 micron thin silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Andricek, L; Macchiolo, A; Moser, H.G; Nisius, R; Richter, R.H; Terzo, S; Weigell, P

    2014-01-01

    The performance of pixel modules built from 75 micrometer thin silicon sensors and ATLAS read-out chips employing the Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection technology is presented. This technology, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It allows for stacking of different interconnected chip and sensor layers without destroying the already formed bonds. In combination with Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs) this paves the way for vertical integration. Both technologies are combined in a pixel module concept which is the basis for the modules discussed in this paper. Mechanical and electrical parameters of pixel modules employing both SLID interconnections and sensors of 75 micrometer thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tuning characteristics, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. T...

  5. Production and Characterisation of SLID Interconnected n-in-p Pixel Modules with 75 Micrometer Thin Silicon Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Andricek, L; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R.H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of pixel modules built from 75 micrometer thin silicon sensors and ATLAS read-out chips employing the Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection technology is presented. This technology, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It allows for stacking of different interconnected chip and sensor layers without destroying the already formed bonds. In combination with Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs) this paves the way for vertical integration. Both technologies are combined in a pixel module concept which is the basis for the modules discussed in this paper. Mechanical and electrical parameters of pixel modules employing both SLID interconnections and sensors of 75 micrometer thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tunability, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. Targeting at ...

  6. Theoretical and experimental comparison of proton and helium-beam radiography using silicon pixel detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, T.; Amato, C.; Berke, S.; Martišíková, M.

    2018-02-01

    Ion-beam radiography (iRAD) could potentially improve the quality control of ion-beam therapy. The main advantage of iRAD is the possibility to directly measure the integrated stopping power. Until now there is no clinical implementation of iRAD. Topics of ongoing research include developing dedicated detection systems to achieve the desired spatial resolution (SR) and investigating different ion types as imaging radiation. This work focuses on the theoretical and experimental comparison of proton (pRAD) and helium-beam radiography (αRAD). The experimental comparison was performed with an in-house developed detection system consisting of silicon pixel detectors. This system enables the measurement of energy deposition of single ions, their tracking, and the identification of the ion type, which is important for αRAD due to secondary fragments. A 161 mm-thick PMMA phantom with an air gap of 1 mm placed at different depths was imaged with a 168 MeV u-1 proton/helium-ion beam at the Heidelberg ion-beam therapy center. The image quality in terms of SR and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was evaluated. After validating MC simulations against experiments, pRAD and αRAD were compared to carbon-beam radiography (cRAD) in simulations. The theoretical prediction that the CNR of pRAD and αRAD is equal at similar imaging doses was experimentally confirmed. The measured SR of αRAD was 55% better compared to pRAD. The simulated cRads showed the expected improvement in SR and the decreased CNR at the same dose compared to the αRads, however only at dose levels exceeding typical doses of diagnostic x-ray projections. For clinically applicable dose levels, the cRads suffered from an insufficient number of carbon ions per pixel (220 μm  ×  220 μm). In conclusion, it was theoretically and experimentally shown that αRAD provides a better SR than pRAD without any disadvantages concerning the CNR. Using carbon ions instead of helium ions leads to a better SR at the

  7. Integrated X-ray and charged particle active pixel CMOS sensor arrays using an epitaxial silicon sensitive region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinfelder, Stuart; Bichsel, Hans; Bieser, Fred; Matis, Howard S.; Rai, Gulshan; Retiere, Fabrice; Weiman, Howard; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    Integrated CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) arrays have been fabricated and tested using X-ray and electron sources. The 128 by 128 pixel arrays, designed in a standard 0.25 micron process, use a ∼10 micron epitaxial silicon layer as a deep detection region. The epitaxial layer has a much greater thickness than the surface features used by standard CMOS APS, leading to stronger signals and potentially better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). On the other hand, minority carriers confined within the epitaxial region may diffuse to neighboring pixels, blur images and reduce peak signal intensity. But for low-rate, sparse-event images, centroid analysis of this diffusion may be used to increase position resolution. Careful trade-offs involving pixel size and sense-node area verses capacitance must be made to optimize overall performance. The prototype sensor arrays, therefore, include a range of different pixel designs, including different APS circuits and a range of different epitaxial layer contact structures. The fabricated arrays were tested with 1.5 GeV electrons and Fe-55 X-ray sources, yielding a measured noise of 13 electrons RMS and an SNR for single Fe-55 X-rays of greater than 38

  8. Neural network based cluster creation in the ATLAS silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The read-out from individual pixels on planar semi-conductor sensors are grouped into clusters to reconstruct the location where a charged particle passed through the sensor. The resolution given by individual pixel sizes is significantly improved by using the information from the charge sharing between pixels. Such analog cluster creation techniques have been used by the ATLAS experiment for many years to obtain an excellent performance. However, in dense environments, such as those inside high-energy jets, clusters have an increased probability of merging the charge deposited by multiple particles. Recently, a neural network based algorithm which estimates both the cluster position and whether a cluster should be split has been developed for the ATLAS Pixel Detector. The algorithm significantly reduces ambiguities in the assignment of pixel detector measurement to tracks within jets and improves the position accuracy with respect to standard interpolation techniques by taking into account the 2-dimensional ...

  9. Neural network based cluster creation in the ATLAS silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Selbach, K E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The read-out from individual pixels on planar semi-conductor sensors are grouped into clusters to reconstruct the location where a charged particle passed through the sensor. The resolution given by individual pixel sizes is significantly improved by using the information from the charge sharing between pixels. Such analog cluster creation techniques have been used by the ATLAS experiment for many years to obtain an excellent performance. However, in dense environments, such as those inside high-energy jets, clusters have an increased probability of merging the charge deposited by multiple particles. Recently, a neural network based algorithm which estimates both the cluster position and whether a cluster should be split has been developed for the ATLAS pixel detector. The algorithm significantly reduces ambiguities in the assignment of pixel detector measurement to tracks within jets and improves the position accuracy with respect to standard interpolation techniques by taking into account the 2-dimensional ...

  10. Initial steps toward the realization of large area arrays of single photon counting pixels based on polycrystalline silicon TFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Albert K.; Koniczek, Martin; Antonuk, Larry E.; El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua; Jiang, Hao; Street, Robert A.; Lu, Jeng Ping

    2014-03-01

    The thin-film semiconductor processing methods that enabled creation of inexpensive liquid crystal displays based on amorphous silicon transistors for cell phones and televisions, as well as desktop, laptop and mobile computers, also facilitated the development of devices that have become ubiquitous in medical x-ray imaging environments. These devices, called active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs), measure the integrated signal generated by incident X rays and offer detection areas as large as ~43×43 cm2. In recent years, there has been growing interest in medical x-ray imagers that record information from X ray photons on an individual basis. However, such photon counting devices have generally been based on crystalline silicon, a material not inherently suited to the cost-effective manufacture of monolithic devices of a size comparable to that of AMFPIs. Motivated by these considerations, we have developed an initial set of small area prototype arrays using thin-film processing methods and polycrystalline silicon transistors. These prototypes were developed in the spirit of exploring the possibility of creating large area arrays offering single photon counting capabilities and, to our knowledge, are the first photon counting arrays fabricated using thin film techniques. In this paper, the architecture of the prototype pixels is presented and considerations that influenced the design of the pixel circuits, including amplifier noise, TFT performance variations, and minimum feature size, are discussed.

  11. A Low-Noise X-ray Astronomical Silicon-On-Insulator Pixel Detector Using a Pinned Depleted Diode Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamehama, Hiroki; Kawahito, Shoji; Shrestha, Sumeet; Nakanishi, Syunta; Yasutomi, Keita; Takeda, Ayaki; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Arai, Yasuo

    2017-12-23

    This paper presents a novel full-depletion Si X-ray detector based on silicon-on-insulator pixel (SOIPIX) technology using a pinned depleted diode structure, named the SOIPIX-PDD. The SOIPIX-PDD greatly reduces stray capacitance at the charge sensing node, the dark current of the detector, and capacitive coupling between the sensing node and SOI circuits. These features of the SOIPIX-PDD lead to low read noise, resulting high X-ray energy resolution and stable operation of the pixel. The back-gate surface pinning structure using neutralized p-well at the back-gate surface and depleted n-well underneath the p-well for all the pixel area other than the charge sensing node is also essential for preventing hole injection from the p-well by making the potential barrier to hole, reducing dark current from the Si-SiO₂ interface and creating lateral drift field to gather signal electrons in the pixel area into the small charge sensing node. A prototype chip using 0.2 μm SOI technology shows very low readout noise of 11.0 e - rms , low dark current density of 56 pA/cm² at -35 °C and the energy resolution of 200 eV(FWHM) at 5.9 keV and 280 eV (FWHM) at 13.95 keV.

  12. Readout and characterisation of new silicon pixel photodiode array for use in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, P.; Ward, G.; Lerch, R.; Rozenfeld, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a functional imaging tool, which is able to quantify physiological, and biochemical processes in vivo using short-lived cyclotron-produced radiotracers. The main physical principle of PET is the simultaneous measurement of two 511 keV photons which are emitted in opposite directions following the annihilation of a positron in tissue. The accuracy of tracking these photons determines the accuracy of localising the radiotracer in the body, which is referred to as the spatial resolution of the system. Compared with conventional single photon imaging with gamma cameras, PET provides superior spatial resolution and sensitivity. However, compared with anatomical imaging techniques, the spatial resolution remains relatively poor at approximately 4-6 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM), compared with 1 mm FWHM for MRI. The Centre for Medical Radiation Physics at the University of Wollongong is developing a new Positron Emission Tomography (PET) detection sub-module that will significantly improve the spatial resolution of PET. The new sub-module design is simple and robust to minimise module assembly complications and is completely independent of photomultiplier tubes. The new sub-module has also been designed to maximise its flexibility for easy sub-module coupling so as to form a complete, customised, detection module to be used in PET scanners dedicated to human brain and breast, and small animal studies. A new computer controlled gantry allows the system to be used for PET and SPECT applications. Silicon 8x8 detector arrays have been developed by CMRP and will be optically coupled scintillation crystals and readout using the VIKING tM hybrid preamplifier chip to form the basis of the new module Characterisation of the pixel photodiode array has been performed to check the uniformity of the response of the array. This characterisation has been done using a pulsed, near infra-red laser diode system and alpha particles

  13. Initial testing of a pixelated silicon detector prototype in proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroe, Andrew J; McAuley, Grant; Teran, Anthony V; Wong, Jeannie; Petasecca, Marco; Lerch, Michael; Slater, James M; Rozenfeld, Anatoly B

    2017-09-01

    As technology continues to develop, external beam radiation therapy is being employed, with increased conformity, to treat smaller targets. As this occurs, the dosimetry methods and tools employed to quantify these fields for treatment also have to evolve to provide increased spatial resolution. The team at the University of Wollongong has developed a pixelated silicon detector prototype known as the dose magnifying glass (DMG) for real-time small-field metrology. This device has been tested in photon fields and IMRT. The purpose of this work was to conduct the initial performance tests with proton radiation, using beam energies and modulations typically associated with proton radiosurgery. Depth dose and lateral beam profiles were measured and compared with those collected using a PTW parallel-plate ionization chamber, a PTW proton-specific dosimetry diode, EBT3 Gafchromic film, and Monte Carlo simulations. Measurements of the depth dose profile yielded good agreement when compared with Monte Carlo, diode and ionization chamber. Bragg peak location was measured accurately by the DMG by scanning along the depth dose profile, and the relative response of the DMG at the center of modulation was within 2.5% of that for the PTW dosimetry diode for all energy and modulation combinations tested. Real-time beam profile measurements of a 5 mm 127 MeV proton beam also yielded FWHM and FW90 within ±1 channel (0.1 mm) of the Monte Carlo and EBT3 film data across all depths tested. The DMG tested here proved to be a useful device at measuring depth dose profiles in proton therapy with a stable response across the entire proton spread-out Bragg peak. In addition, the linear array of small sensitive volumes allowed for accurate point and high spatial resolution one-dimensional profile measurements of small radiation fields in real time to be completed with minimal impact from partial volume averaging. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published

  14. Test beam measurement of the first prototype of the fast silicon pixel monolithic detector for the TT-PET project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolozzi, L.; Bandi, Y.; Benoit, M.; Cardarelli, R.; Débieux, S.; Forshaw, D.; Hayakawa, D.; Iacobucci, G.; Kaynak, M.; Miucci, A.; Nessi, M.; Ratib, O.; Ripiccini, E.; Rücker, H.; Valerio, P.; Weber, M.

    2018-04-01

    The TT-PET collaboration is developing a PET scanner for small animals with 30 ps time-of-flight resolution and sub-millimetre 3D detection granularity. The sensitive element of the scanner is a monolithic silicon pixel detector based on state-of-the-art SiGe BiCMOS technology. The first ASIC prototype for the TT-PET was produced and tested in the laboratory and with minimum ionizing particles. The electronics exhibit an equivalent noise charge below 600 e‑ RMS and a pulse rise time of less than 2 ns , in accordance with the simulations. The pixels with a capacitance of 0.8 pF were measured to have a detection efficiency greater than 99% and, although in the absence of the post-processing, a time resolution of approximately 200 ps .

  15. Results from the NA62 Gigatracker Prototype: A Low-Mass and sub-ns Time Resolution Silicon Pixel Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, M.; Rinella, G. Aglieri; Carassiti, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Gil, E. Cortina; Ramusino, A. Cotta; Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Mapelli, A.; Martin, E.; Mazza, G.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Nuessle, G.; Petagna, P.; Petrucci, F.; Perktold, L.; Riedler, P.; Rivetti, A.; Statera, M.; Velghe, B.

    The Gigatracker (GTK) is a hybrid silicon pixel detector developed for NA62, the experiment aimed at studying ultra-rare kaon decays at the CERN SPS. Three GTK stations will provide precise momentum and angular measurements on every track of the high intensity NA62 hadron beam with a time-tagging resolution of 150 ps. Multiple scattering and hadronic interactions of beam particles in the GTK have to be minimized to keep background events at acceptable levels, hence the total material budget is fixed to 0.5% X0 per station. In addition the calculated fluence for 100 days of running is 2×1014 1 MeV neq/cm2, comparable to the one expected for the inner trackers of LHC detectors in 10 years of operation. These requirements pose challenges for the development of an efficient and low-mass cooling system, to be operated in vacuum, and on the thinning of read-out chips to 100 μm or less. The most challenging requirement is represented by the time resolution, which can be achieved by carefully compensating for the discriminator time-walk. For this purpose, two complementary read-out architectures have been designed and produced as small-scale prototypes: the first is based on the use of a Time-over-Threshold circuit followed by a TDC shared by a group of pixels, while the other uses a constant-fraction discriminator followed by an on-pixel TDC. The readout pixel ASICs are produced in 130 nm IBM CMOS technology and bump-bonded to 200 μm thick silicon sensors. The Gigatracker detector system is described with particular emphasis on recent experimental results obtained from laboratory and beam tests of prototype bump-bonded assemblies, which show a time resolution of less than 200 ps for single hits.

  16. The upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System - Status of the R&D; on monolithic silicon pixel sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem

    2014-01-01

    s a major part of its upgrade plans, the ALICE experiment schedules the installation of a novel Inner Tracking System (ITS) during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in 2018/19. It will replace the present silicon tracker with seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) and significantly improve the detector performance in terms of tracking and rate capabilities. The choice of technology has been guided by the tight requirements on the material budget of 0 : 3 % X = X 0 /layer fo...

  17. Conception and modelling of photo-detection pixels. PIN photodiodes conceived in amorphous silicon for particles detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negru, R.

    2008-06-01

    The research done has revealed that the a-Si:H is a material ideally suited for the detection of particles, while being resistant to radiation. It also has a low manufacturing cost, is compatible with existing technology and can be deposited over large areas. Thus, despite the low local mobility of charges (30 cm 2 /V/s), a-Si:H is a material of particular interest for manufacturing high-energy particle detection pixels. As a consequence of this, we have studied the feasibility of an experimental pixel stacked structure based on a-Si:H as a basic sensor element for an electromagnetic calorimeter. The structure of such a pixel consists of different components. First, a silicon PIN diode in a-Si:H is fabricated, followed by a bias resistor and a decoupling capacitor. Before such a structure is made and in order to optimize its design, it is essential to have an efficient behavioural model of the various components. Thus, our primary goal was to develop a two-dimensional physical model of the PIN diode using the SILVACO finite element calculation software. This a-Si:H PIN diode two-dimensional physical model allowed us to study the problem of crosstalk between pixels in a matrix structure of detectors. In particular, we concentrated on the leakage current and the current generated in the volume between neighbouring pixels. The successful implementation of this model in SPICE ensures its usefulness in other professional simulators and especially its integration into a complete electronic structure (PIN diode, bias resistor, decoupling capacity and low noise amplifier). Thanks to these modelling tools, we were able to simulate PIN diode structures in a-Si:H with different thicknesses and different dimensions. These simulations have allowed us to predict that the thicker structures are relevant to the design of the pixel detectors for high energy physics. Applications in astronomy, medical imaging and the analysis of the failure of silicon integrated circuits, can also

  18. X-ray radiation damage studies and design of a silicon pixel sensor for science at the XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiaguo

    2013-06-15

    Experiments at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) require silicon pixel sensors which can withstand X-ray doses up to 1 GGy. For the investigation of Xray radiation damage up to these high doses, MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes built on high resistivity n-doped silicon with crystal orientations left angle 100 right angle and left angle 111 right angle produced by four vendors, CiS, Hamamatsu, Canberra and Sintef have been irradiated with 12 keV X-rays at the DESY DORIS III synchrotron-light source. Using capacitance/ conductance-voltage, current-voltage and thermal dielectric relaxation current measurements, the densities of oxide charges and interface traps at the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface, and the surface-current densities have been determined as function of dose. Results indicate that the dose dependence of the oxide-charge density, the interface-trap density and the surface-current density depend on the crystal orientation and producer. In addition, the influence of the voltage applied to the gates of the MOS capacitor and the gate-controlled diode during X-ray irradiation on the oxide-charge density, the interface-trap density and the surface-current density has been investigated at doses of 100 kGy and 100 MGy. It is found that both strongly depend on the gate voltage if the electric field in the oxide points from the surface of the SiO{sub 2} to the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface. To verify the long-term stability of irradiated silicon sensors, annealing studies have been performed at 60 C and 80 C on MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes irradiated to 5 MGy as well, and the annealing kinetics of oxide charges and surface current were determined. Moreover, the macroscopic electrical properties of segmented sensors have slao been investigated as function of dose. It is found that the defects introduced by X-rays increase the full depletion voltage, the surface leakage current and the inter-electrode capacitance of the segmented sensor. An

  19. X-ray radiation damage studies and design of a silicon pixel sensor for science at the XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jiaguo

    2013-06-01

    Experiments at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) require silicon pixel sensors which can withstand X-ray doses up to 1 GGy. For the investigation of Xray radiation damage up to these high doses, MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes built on high resistivity n-doped silicon with crystal orientations left angle 100 right angle and left angle 111 right angle produced by four vendors, CiS, Hamamatsu, Canberra and Sintef have been irradiated with 12 keV X-rays at the DESY DORIS III synchrotron-light source. Using capacitance/ conductance-voltage, current-voltage and thermal dielectric relaxation current measurements, the densities of oxide charges and interface traps at the Si-SiO 2 interface, and the surface-current densities have been determined as function of dose. Results indicate that the dose dependence of the oxide-charge density, the interface-trap density and the surface-current density depend on the crystal orientation and producer. In addition, the influence of the voltage applied to the gates of the MOS capacitor and the gate-controlled diode during X-ray irradiation on the oxide-charge density, the interface-trap density and the surface-current density has been investigated at doses of 100 kGy and 100 MGy. It is found that both strongly depend on the gate voltage if the electric field in the oxide points from the surface of the SiO 2 to the Si-SiO 2 interface. To verify the long-term stability of irradiated silicon sensors, annealing studies have been performed at 60 C and 80 C on MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes irradiated to 5 MGy as well, and the annealing kinetics of oxide charges and surface current were determined. Moreover, the macroscopic electrical properties of segmented sensors have slao been investigated as function of dose. It is found that the defects introduced by X-rays increase the full depletion voltage, the surface leakage current and the inter-electrode capacitance of the segmented sensor. An electron

  20. Nuclear resonant scattering measurements on (57)Fe by multichannel scaling with a 64-pixel silicon avalanche photodiode linear-array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, S; Mitsui, T; Haruki, R; Yoda, Y; Taniguchi, T; Shimazaki, S; Ikeno, M; Saito, M; Tanaka, M

    2014-11-01

    We developed a silicon avalanche photodiode (Si-APD) linear-array detector for use in nuclear resonant scattering experiments using synchrotron X-rays. The Si-APD linear array consists of 64 pixels (pixel size: 100 × 200 μm(2)) with a pixel pitch of 150 μm and depletion depth of 10 μm. An ultrafast frontend circuit allows the X-ray detector to obtain a high output rate of >10(7) cps per pixel. High-performance integrated circuits achieve multichannel scaling over 1024 continuous time bins with a 1 ns resolution for each pixel without dead time. The multichannel scaling method enabled us to record a time spectrum of the 14.4 keV nuclear radiation at each pixel with a time resolution of 1.4 ns (FWHM). This method was successfully applied to nuclear forward scattering and nuclear small-angle scattering on (57)Fe.

  1. 3D silicon sensors: Design, large area production and quality assurance for the ATLAS IBL pixel detector upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Via, Cinzia; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Darbo, Giovanni; Fleta, Celeste; Gemme, Claudia; Grenier, Philippe; Grinstein, Sebastian; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Chris; Kok, Angela; Parker, Sherwood; Pellegrini, Giulio; Vianello, Elisa; Zorzi, Nicola

    2012-12-01

    3D silicon sensors, where electrodes penetrate the silicon substrate fully or partially, have successfully been fabricated in different processing facilities in Europe and USA. The key to 3D fabrication is the use of plasma micro-machining to etch narrow deep vertical openings allowing dopants to be diffused in and form electrodes of pin junctions. Similar openings can be used at the sensor's edge to reduce the perimeter's dead volume to as low as ˜4 μm. Since 2009 four industrial partners of the 3D ATLAS R&D Collaboration started a joint effort aimed at one common design and compatible processing strategy for the production of 3D sensors for the LHC Upgrade and in particular for the ATLAS pixel Insertable B-Layer (IBL). In this project, aimed for installation in 2013, a new layer will be inserted as close as 3.4 cm from the proton beams inside the existing pixel layers of the ATLAS experiment. The detector proximity to the interaction point will therefore require new radiation hard technologies for both sensors and front end electronics. The latter, called FE-I4, is processed at IBM and is the biggest front end of this kind ever designed with a surface of ˜4 cm2. The performance of 3D devices from several wafers was evaluated before and after bump-bonding. Key design aspects, device fabrication plans and quality assurance tests during the 3D sensors prototyping phase are discussed in this paper.

  2. Insertable B-Layer integration in the ATLAS experiment and development of future 3D silicon pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00371528; Røhne, Ole

    This work has two distinct objectives: the development of software for the integration of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) in the ATLAS offline software framework and the study of the performance of 3D silicon sensors produced by SINTEF for future silicon pixel detectors. The former task consists in the implementation of the IBL byte stream converter. This offline tool performs the decoding of the binary-formatted data coming from the detector into information (e.g. hit position and Time over Threshold) that is stored in a format used in the reconstruction data flow. It also encodes the information extracted from simulations into a simulated IBL byte stream. The tool has been successfully used since the beginning of the LHC Run II data taking. The experimental work on SINTEF 3D sensors was performed in the framework of the development of pixel sensors for the next generation of tracking detectors. Preliminary tests on SINTEF 3D sensors showed that the majority of these devices suffers from high leakage currents, ...

  3. The Gigatracker: An ultra-fast and low-mass silicon pixel detector for the NA62 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, M.; Carassiti, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Cortina, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Mapelli, A.; Marchetto, F.; Martin, E.; Martoiu, S.; Mazza, G.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Nuessle, G.; Petrucci, F.; Riedler, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Gigatracker is a hybrid silicon pixel detector developed to track the highly intense NA62 hadron beam with a time resolution of 150 ps (rms). The beam spectrometer of the experiment is composed of three Gigatracker stations installed in vacuum in order to precisely measure momentum, time and direction of every traversing particle. Precise tracking demands a very low mass of the detector assembly ( 0 per station) in order to limit multiple scattering and beam hadronic interactions. The high rate and especially the high timing precision requirements are very demanding: two R and D options are ongoing and the corresponding prototype read-out chips have been recently designed and produced in 0.13μm CMOS technology. One solution makes use of a constant fraction discriminator and on-pixel analogue-based time-to-digital-converter (TDC); the other comprises a delay-locked loop based TDC placed at the end of each pixel column and a time-over-threshold discriminator with time-walk correction technique. The current status of the R and D program is overviewed and results from the prototype read-out chips test are presented.

  4. The Gigatracker: An ultra-fast and low-mass silicon pixel detector for the NA62 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, M.; Carassiti, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Cortina, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Mapelli, A.; Marchetto, F.; Martin, E.; Martoiu, S.; Mazza, G.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Nuessle, G.; Petrucci, F.; Riedler, P.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Rivetti, A.; Tiuraniemi, S.

    2011-02-01

    The Gigatracker is a hybrid silicon pixel detector developed to track the highly intense NA62 hadron beam with a time resolution of 150 ps (rms). The beam spectrometer of the experiment is composed of three Gigatracker stations installed in vacuum in order to precisely measure momentum, time and direction of every traversing particle. Precise tracking demands a very low mass of the detector assembly ( beam hadronic interactions. The high rate and especially the high timing precision requirements are very demanding: two R&D options are ongoing and the corresponding prototype read-out chips have been recently designed and produced in 0.13 μm CMOS technology. One solution makes use of a constant fraction discriminator and on-pixel analogue-based time-to-digital-converter (TDC); the other comprises a delay-locked loop based TDC placed at the end of each pixel column and a time-over-threshold discriminator with time-walk correction technique. The current status of the R&D program is overviewed and results from the prototype read-out chips test are presented.

  5. The Gigatracker: An ultra-fast and low-mass silicon pixel detector for the NA62 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorini, M; Morel, M; Petrucci, F; Marchetto, F; Garbolino, S; Cortina, E; Tiuraniemi, S; Ceccucci, A; Martin, E; Riedler, P; Martoiu, S; Ramusino, A C; Rinella, G A; Mapelli, A; Mazza, G; Noy, M; Jarron, P; Nuessle, G; Dellacasa, G; Kluge, A; Rivetti, A; Kaplon, J

    2011-01-01

    The Gigatracker is a hybrid silicon pixel detector developed to track the highly intense NA62 hadron beam with a time resolution of 150 ps (rms). The beam spectrometer of the experiment is composed of three Gigatracker stations installed in vacuum in order to precisely measure momentum, time and direction of every traversing particle. Precise tracking demands a very low mass of the detector assembly (<0.5\\% X(O) per station) in order to limit multiple scattering and beam hadronic interactions. The high rate and especially the high timing precision requirements are very demanding: two R\\&D options are ongoing and the corresponding prototype read-out chips have been recently designed and produced in 0.13 mu m CMOS technology. One solution makes use of a constant fraction discriminator and on-pixel analogue-based time-to-digital-converter (TDC); the other comprises a delay-locked loop based TDC placed at the end of each pixel column and a time-over-threshold discriminator with time-walk correction techniq...

  6. A wireless beta-microprobe based on pixelated silicon for in vivo brain studies in freely moving rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märk, J.; Benoit, D.; Balasse, L.; Benoit, M.; Clémens, J. C.; Fieux, S.; Fougeron, D.; Graber-Bolis, J.; Janvier, B.; Jevaud, M.; Genoux, A.; Gisquet-Verrier, P.; Menouni, M.; Pain, F.; Pinot, L.; Tourvielle, C.; Zimmer, L.; Morel, C.; Laniece, P.

    2013-07-01

    The investigation of neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the functional specificity of brain regions requires the development of technologies that are well adjusted to in vivo studies in small animals. An exciting challenge remains the combination of brain imaging and behavioural studies, which associates molecular processes of neuronal communications to their related actions. A pixelated intracerebral probe (PIXSIC) presents a novel strategy using a submillimetric probe for beta+ radiotracer detection based on a pixelated silicon diode that can be stereotaxically implanted in the brain region of interest. This fully autonomous detection system permits time-resolved high sensitivity measurements of radiotracers with additional imaging features in freely moving rats. An application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) allows for parallel signal processing of each pixel and enables the wireless operation. All components of the detector were tested and characterized. The beta+ sensitivity of the system was determined with the probe dipped into radiotracer solutions. Monte Carlo simulations served to validate the experimental values and assess the contribution of gamma noise. Preliminary implantation tests on anaesthetized rats proved PIXSIC's functionality in brain tissue. High spatial resolution allows for the visualization of radiotracer concentration in different brain regions with high temporal resolution.

  7. Production and characterisation of SLID interconnected n-in-p pixel modules with 75 μm thin silicon sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andricek, L. [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 München (Germany); Beimforde, M.; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.-G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Nisius, R., E-mail: Richard.Nisius@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Richter, R.H. [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 München (Germany); Terzo, S.; Weigell, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany)

    2014-09-11

    The performance of pixel modules built from 75 μm thin silicon sensors and ATLAS read-out chips employing the Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection technology is presented. This technology, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It allows for stacking of different interconnected chip and sensor layers without destroying the already formed bonds. In combination with Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs) this paves the way for vertical integration. Both technologies are combined in a pixel module concept which is the basis for the modules discussed in this paper. Mechanical and electrical parameters of pixel modules employing both SLID interconnections and sensors of 75 μm thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tuning characteristics, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. Targeting at a usage at the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC accelerator called HL-LHC, the results were obtained before and after irradiation up to fluences of 10{sup 16}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}.

  8. Vectors and submicron precision: redundancy and 3D stacking in silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, E H M; Wong, W; Idarraga, J; Visser, J; Jakubek, J; Leroy, C; Turecek, D; Visschers, J; Pospisil, S; Ballabriga, R; Vykydal, Z; Vermeulen, J; Plackett, R; Heijne, E H M; Llopart, X; Boltje, D; Campbell, M

    2010-01-01

    Measurements are shown of GeV pions and muons in two 300 mu m thick, Si Medipix pixel detector assemblies that are stacked on top of each other, with a 25 mu m thick brass foil in between. In such a radiation imaging semiconductor matrix with a large number of pixels along the particle trail, one can determine local space vectors for the particle trajectory instead of points. This improves pattern recognition and track reconstruction, especially in a crowded environment. Stacking of sensor planes is essential for resolving directional ambiguities. Signal charge sharing can be employed for measuring positions with submicron precision. In the measurements one notices accompanying `delta' electrons that emerge outside the particle trail, far beyond the boundaries of the 55 mu m pixel cells. The frequency of such corrupted position measurements is similar to one per 2.5mm of traversed Si.

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of the response of a pixellated 3D photo-detector in silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Dubaric, E; Froejdh, C; Norlin, B

    2002-01-01

    The charge transport and X-ray photon absorption in three-dimensional (3D) X-ray pixel detectors have been studied using numerical simulations. The charge transport has been modelled using the drift-diffusion simulator MEDICI, while photon absorption has been studied using MCNP. The response of the entire pixel detector system in terms of charge sharing, line spread function and modulation transfer function, has been simulated using a system level Monte Carlo simulation approach. A major part of the study is devoted to the effect of charge sharing on the energy resolution in 3D-pixel detectors. The 3D configuration was found to suppress charge sharing much better than conventional planar detectors.

  10. Ultra-thin silicon (UTSi) on insulator CMOS transceiver and time-division multiplexed switch chips for smart pixel integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Sawchuk, Alexander A.

    2001-12-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and functionality of two different 0.5 micron CMOS optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) chips based on the Peregrine Semiconductor Ultra-Thin Silicon on insulator technology. The Peregrine UTSi silicon- on-sapphire (SOS) technology is a member of the silicon-on- insulator (SOI) family. The low-loss synthetic sapphire substrate is optically transparent and has good thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion properties, which meet the requirements for flip-chip bonding of VCSELs and other optoelectronic input-output components. One chip contains transceiver and network components, including four channel high-speed CMOS transceiver modules, pseudo-random bit stream (PRBS) generators, a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and other test circuits. The transceiver chips can operate in both self-testing mode and networking mode. An on- chip clock and true-single-phase-clock (TSPC) D-flip-flop have been designed to generate a PRBS at over 2.5 Gb/s for the high-speed transceiver arrays to operate in self-testing mode. In the networking mode, an even number of transceiver chips forms a ring network through free-space or fiber ribbon interconnections. The second chip contains four channel optical time-division multiplex (TDM) switches, optical transceiver arrays, an active pixel detector and additional test devices. The eventual applications of these chips will require monolithic OEICs with integrated optical input and output. After fabrication and testing, the CMOS transceiver array dies will be packaged with 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), and metal-semiconductor- metal (MSM) or GaAs p-i-n detector die arrays to achieve high- speed optical interconnections. The hybrid technique could be either wire bonding or flip-chip bonding of the CMOS SOS smart-pixel arrays with arrays of VCSELs and photodetectors onto an optoelectronic chip carrier as a multi-chip module (MCM).

  11. The First JFET-based Silicon Carbide Active Pixel Sensor UV Imager, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) imaging is critically important in the fields of space astronomy, national defense, and bio-chemistry. United Silicon Carbide, Inc....

  12. The First JFET-Based Silicon Carbide Active Pixel Sensor UV Imager, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) imaging is needed in the fields of astronomy, national defense, and bio-chemistry. United Silicon Carbide, Inc. proposes to develop a...

  13. Mass test of AdvanSiD model ASD-NUV3S-P SiliconPMs for the Pixel Timing Counter of the MEG II experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossella, M.; Bariani, S.; Barnaba, O.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cervi, T.; Menegolli, A.; Nardò, R.; Prata, M. C.; Romano, E.; Scagliotti, C.; Simonetta, M.; Vercellati, F.

    2017-02-01

    The MEG II Timing Counter will measure the positron time of arrival with a resolution of 30 ps relying on two arrays of scintillator pixels read out by 6144 Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) from AdvanSiD. They must be characterized, measuring their breakdown voltage, to assure that the gains of the SiPMs of each pixel are as uniform as possible, to maximize the pixel resolution. To do this an automatic test system that can measure sequentially the parameters of 32 devices has been developed.

  14. Charge-sensitive poly-silicon TFT amplifiers for a-Si:H pixel particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, G.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Hack, M.; Lewis, A.

    1992-04-01

    Prototype charge-sensitive poly-Si TFT amplifiers have been made for the amplification of signals (from an a-Si:H pixel diode used as an ionizing particle detector). They consist of a charge-sensitive gain stage, a voltage gain stage and a source follower output stage. The gain-bandwidth product of the amplifier is ∼ 300 MHz. When the amplifier is connected to a pixel detector of 0.2 pF, it gives a charge-to-voltage gain of ∼ 0.02 mV/electrons with a pulse rise time less than 100 nsec. An equivalent noise charge of the front-end TFT is ∼ 1000 electrons for a shaping time of 1 μsec

  15. DEPFET: A silicon pixel detector for future colliders. Fundamentals, characterization and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Marinas Pardo, Carlos Manuel; Vos, Marcel Andre

    2011-01-01

    The future electron-positron colliders, either breaking the energy frontier (like ILC or CLIC) or the luminosity frontier (SuperKEKB), impose unprecedented constraints over the new generation of detectors that will be operated in those facilities. In particular, the vertex detectors must be designed for an efficient flavour tagging and excellent vertex reconstruction. To cope with these requirements, highly pixelated sensors with a fast readout, very low material budget and low power consumption must be developed. Although the combination of these factors is a substantial challenge, the DEPFET Collaboration has developed a new generation of sensors that can be operated in such a harsh environment. The DEpleted P-channel Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) is a pixel sensor that combines detection and internal amplification at the same time. With such configuration, thin detectors with good signal-to-noise ratio and low power consumption can be produced. In this thesis, the optimization and performance of two gen...

  16. Development of edgeless silicon pixel sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS high-luminosity upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderini, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Dipartimento di Fisica E. Fermi, Universitá di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bagolini, A. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); Bomben, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Università degli studi di Trieste and INFN-Trieste (Italy); Chauveau, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Giacomini, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); La Rosa, A. [Section de Physique (DPNC), Universitè de Geneve, Geneve (Switzerland); Marchiori, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2014-11-21

    In view of the LHC upgrade for the high luminosity phase (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment is planning to replace the inner detector with an all-silicon system. The n-in-p bulk technology represents a valid solution for the modules of most of the layers, given the significant radiation hardness of this option and the reduced cost. The large area necessary to instrument the outer layers will demand to tile the sensors, a solution for which the inefficient region at the border of each sensor needs to be reduced to the minimum size. This paper reports on a joint R and D project by the ATLAS LPNHE Paris group and FBK Trento on a novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel design, based on the deep-trench process available at FBK.

  17. Investigation of properties of novel silicon pixel assemblies employing thin n-in-p sensors and 3D-integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigell, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Until the end of the 2020 decade the LHC programme will be defining the high energy frontier of particle physics. During this time, three upgrade steps of the accelerator are currently planned to further increase the luminosity and energy reach. In the course of these upgrades the specifications of several parts of the current LHC detectors will be exceeded. Especially, the innermost tracking detectors are challenged by the increasing track densities and the radiation damage. This thesis focuses on the implications for the ATLAS experiment. Here, around 2021/2, after having collected an integrated luminosity of around 300 fb -1 , the silicon and gas detector components of the inner tracker will reach the end of their lifetime and will need to be replaced to ensure sufficient performance for continued running - especially if the luminosity is raised to about 5 x 10 35 cm -2 s -1 as currently planned. An all silicon inner detector is foreseen to be installed. This upgrade demands cost effective pixel assemblies with a minimal material budget, a larger active area fraction as compared to the current detectors, and a higher granularity. Furthermore, the assemblies must be able to withstand received fluences up to 2 . 10 16 n eq /cm 2 . A new pixel assembly concept answering the challenges posed by the high instantaneous luminosities is investigated in this thesis. It employs five novel technologies, namely n-in-p pixel sensors, thin pixel sensors, slim edges with or without implanted sensor sides, and 3D-integration incorporating a new interconnection technology, named Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) as well as Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs). n-in-p sensors are cost-effective, since they only need patterned processing on one side. Their performance before and after irradiation is investigated and compared to results obtained with currently used n-in-n sensors. Reducing the thickness of the sensors lowers the amount of multiple scattering within the tracking system and leads

  18. Investigation of properties of novel silicon pixel assemblies employing thin n-in-p sensors and 3D-integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigell, Philipp

    2013-01-15

    Until the end of the 2020 decade the LHC programme will be defining the high energy frontier of particle physics. During this time, three upgrade steps of the accelerator are currently planned to further increase the luminosity and energy reach. In the course of these upgrades the specifications of several parts of the current LHC detectors will be exceeded. Especially, the innermost tracking detectors are challenged by the increasing track densities and the radiation damage. This thesis focuses on the implications for the ATLAS experiment. Here, around 2021/2, after having collected an integrated luminosity of around 300 fb{sup -1}, the silicon and gas detector components of the inner tracker will reach the end of their lifetime and will need to be replaced to ensure sufficient performance for continued running - especially if the luminosity is raised to about 5 x 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} as currently planned. An all silicon inner detector is foreseen to be installed. This upgrade demands cost effective pixel assemblies with a minimal material budget, a larger active area fraction as compared to the current detectors, and a higher granularity. Furthermore, the assemblies must be able to withstand received fluences up to 2 . 10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. A new pixel assembly concept answering the challenges posed by the high instantaneous luminosities is investigated in this thesis. It employs five novel technologies, namely n-in-p pixel sensors, thin pixel sensors, slim edges with or without implanted sensor sides, and 3D-integration incorporating a new interconnection technology, named Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) as well as Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs). n-in-p sensors are cost-effective, since they only need patterned processing on one side. Their performance before and after irradiation is investigated and compared to results obtained with currently used n-in-n sensors. Reducing the thickness of the sensors lowers the amount of multiple scattering

  19. 3D silicon sensors: Design, large area production and quality assurance for the ATLAS IBL pixel detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Via, Cinzia [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco, E-mail: dallabe@disi.unitn.it [DISI, Universita degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Darbo, Giovanni [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-14146 Genova (Italy); Fleta, Celeste [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona E-08193 (Spain); Gemme, Claudia [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-14146 Genova (Italy); Grenier, Philippe [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Grinstein, Sebastian [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE) and ICREA, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Hansen, Thor-Erik [SINTEF MiNaLab, Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Chris [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kok, Angela [SINTEF MiNaLab, Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); Parker, Sherwood [University of Hawaii, c/o Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Pellegrini, Giulio [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona E-08193 (Spain); Vianello, Elisa; Zorzi, Nicola [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy)

    2012-12-01

    3D silicon sensors, where electrodes penetrate the silicon substrate fully or partially, have successfully been fabricated in different processing facilities in Europe and USA. The key to 3D fabrication is the use of plasma micro-machining to etch narrow deep vertical openings allowing dopants to be diffused in and form electrodes of pin junctions. Similar openings can be used at the sensor's edge to reduce the perimeter's dead volume to as low as {approx}4 {mu}m. Since 2009 four industrial partners of the 3D ATLAS R and D Collaboration started a joint effort aimed at one common design and compatible processing strategy for the production of 3D sensors for the LHC Upgrade and in particular for the ATLAS pixel Insertable B-Layer (IBL). In this project, aimed for installation in 2013, a new layer will be inserted as close as 3.4 cm from the proton beams inside the existing pixel layers of the ATLAS experiment. The detector proximity to the interaction point will therefore require new radiation hard technologies for both sensors and front end electronics. The latter, called FE-I4, is processed at IBM and is the biggest front end of this kind ever designed with a surface of {approx}4 cm{sup 2}. The performance of 3D devices from several wafers was evaluated before and after bump-bonding. Key design aspects, device fabrication plans and quality assurance tests during the 3D sensors prototyping phase are discussed in this paper.

  20. The upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System - Status of the R&D; on monolithic silicon pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem

    2014-01-01

    s a major part of its upgrade plans, the ALICE experiment schedules the installation of a novel Inner Tracking System (ITS) during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in 2018/19. It will replace the present silicon tracker with seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) and significantly improve the detector performance in terms of tracking and rate capabilities. The choice of technology has been guided by the tight requirements on the material budget of 0 : 3 % X = X 0 /layer for the three innermost layers and backed by the significant progress in the field of MAPS in recent years. The pixel chips are manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging sensor process on wafers with a high resistivity epitaxial layer. Within the ongoing R&D; phase, several sensor chip prototypes have been developed and produced on different epitaxial layer thicknesses and resistivities. These chips are being characterized for their performance before and after irradiation using source tests, test beam and measu...

  1. First study of small-cell 3D Silicon Pixel Detectors for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    E. Currás (1), J. Duarte-Campderrós (1), M. Fernández (1), A. García (1), G. Gómez (1), J. González (1), R. Jaramillo (1), D. Moya (1), I. Vila (1), S. Hidalgo (2), M. Manna (2), G. Pellegrini (2), D. Quirion (2), D. Pitzl (3), A. Ebrahimi (4), T. Rohe (5), S. Wiederkehr (5); ((1) Instituto de Física de Cantabria, (2) Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona - Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, (3) Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron, (4) University of Hamburg, (5) Paul Scherrer Institut)

    2018-01-01

    A study of 3D pixel sensors of cell size 50 {\\mu}m x 50 {\\mu}m fabricated at IMB-CNM using double-sided n-on-p 3D technology is presented. Sensors were bump-bonded to the ROC4SENS readout chip. For the first time in such a small-pitch hybrid assembly, the sensor response to ionizing radiation in a test beam of 5.6 GeV electrons was studied. Results for non-irradiated sensors are presented, including efficiency, charge sharing, signal-to-noise, and resolution for different incidence angles.

  2. Characterisation of micro-strip and pixel silicon detectors before and after hadron irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Allport, P.P

    2012-01-01

    The use of segmented silicon detectors for tracking and vertexing in particle physics has grown substantially since their introduction in 1980. It is now anticipated that roughly 50,000 six inch wafers of high resistivity silicon will need to be processed into sensors to be deployed in the upgraded experiments in the future high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) at CERN. These detectors will also face an extremely severe radiation environment, varying with distance from the interaction point. The volume of required sensors is large and their delivery is required during a relatively short time, demanding a high throughput from the chosen suppliers. The current situation internationally, in this highly specialist market, means that security of supply for large orders can therefore be an issue and bringing additional potential vendors into the field can only be an advantage. Semiconductor companies that could include planar sensors suitable for particle physics in their product lines will, however, need to prove their pro...

  3. Development of an Indium Bump Bond Process for Silicon Pixel Detectors at PSI

    CERN Document Server

    Brönnimann, C; Gobrecht, J; Heising, S; Horisberger, M; Horisberger, R P; Kästli, H C; Lehmann, J; Rohe, T; Streuli, S; Broennimann, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    The hybrid pixel detectors used in the high energy physics experiments currently under construction use a three dimensional connection technique, the so-called bump bonding. As the pitch below 100um, required in these applications, cannot be fullfilled with standard industrial processes (e.g. the IBM C4 process), an in-house bump bond process using reflown indium bumps was developed at PSI as part of the R&D for the CMS-pixel detector. The bump deposition on the sensor is performed in two subsequent lift-off steps. As the first photolithographic step a thin under bump metalization (UBM) is sputtered onto bump pads. It is wettable by indium and defines the diameter of the bump. The indium is evaporated via a second photolithographic step with larger openings and is reflown afterwards. The height of the balls is defined by the volume of the indium. On the readout chip only one photolithographic step is carried out to deposit the UBM and a thin indium layer for better adhesion. After mating both parts a seco...

  4. Investigation of Properties of Novel Silicon Pixel Assemblies Employing Thin n-in-p Sensors and 3D-Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Weigell, Philipp

    Until the end of the 2020 decade the LHC programme will be defining the high energy frontier of particle physics. During this time, three upgrade steps of the accelerator are currently planned to further increase the luminosity and energy reach. In the course of these upgrades the specifications of several parts of the current LHC detectors will be exceeded. Especially, the innermost tracking detectors are challenged by the increasing track densities and the radiation damage. This thesis focuses on the implications for the ATLAS experiment. Here, around 2021/2, after having collected an integrated luminosity of around 300/fb¹ , the silicon and gas detector components of the inner tracker will reach the end of their lifetime and will need to be replaced to ensure sufficient performance for continued running|especially if the luminosity is raised to about 5x10^35/(cm²s¹ ) as currently planned. An all silicon inner detector is foreseen to be installed. This upgrade demands cost-effective pixel assemblies with...

  5. A neural network clustering algorithm for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; 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Battaglia, Marco; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; 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Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; 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Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; 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Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; 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Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; 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Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; 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Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-09-15

    A novel technique to identify and split clusters created by multiple charged particles in the ATLAS pixel detector using a set of artificial neural networks is presented. Such merged clusters are a common feature of tracks originating from highly energetic objects, such as jets. Neural networks are trained using Monte Carlo samples produced with a detailed detector simulation. This technique replaces the former clustering approach based on a connected component analysis and charge interpolation. The performance of the neural network splitting technique is quantified using data from proton-proton collisions at the LHC collected by the ATLAS detector in 2011 and from Monte Carlo simulations. This technique reduces the number of clusters shared between tracks in highly energetic jets by up to a factor of three. It also provides more precise position and error estimates of the clusters in both the transverse and longitudinal impact parameter resolution.

  6. Simulation of Heavily Irradiated Silicon Pixel Sensors and Comparison with Test Beam Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Chiochia, Vincenzo; Bortoletto, Daniela; Cremaldi, Lucien; Cucciarelli, Susanna; Dorokhov, Andrei; Hoermann, Christoph; Kim, Dongwook; Konecki, Marcin; Kotlinski, Danek; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Rohe, Tilman; Sanders, David A.; Son, Seunghee; Speer, Thomas; Chiochia, Vincenzo; Swartz, Morris; Bortoletto, Daniela; Cremaldi, Lucien; Cucciarelli, Susanna; Dorokhov, Andrei; Hoermann, Christoph; Kim, Dongwook; Konecki, Marcin; Kotlinski, Danek; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Rohe, Tilman; Sanders, David A.; Son, Seunghee; Speer, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Charge collection measurements performed on heavily irradiated p-spray DOFZ pixel sensors with a grazing angle hadron beam provide a sensitive determination of the electric field within the detectors. The data are compared with a complete charge transport simulation of the sensor which includes signal trapping and charge induction effects. A linearly varying electric field based upon the standard picture of a constant type-inverted effective doping density is inconsistent with the data. A two-trap double junction model implemented in the ISE TCAD software can be tuned to produce a doubly-peaked electric field which describes the data reasonably well. The modeled field differs somewhat from previous determinations based upon the transient current technique. The model can also account for the level of charge trapping observed in the data.

  7. Prototype of the front-end circuit for the GOSSIP (Gas On Slimmed Silicon Pixel) chip in the 0.13 μm CMOS technology

    CERN Document Server

    Gromov, V; van der Graaf, H

    2007-01-01

    The new GOSSIP detector, capable to detect single electrons in gas, has certain advantages with respect silicon (pixel) detectors. It does not require a Si sensor; it has a very low detector parasitic capacitance and a zero bias current at the pixel input. These are attractive features to design a compact, low-noise and low-power integrated input circuit. A prototype of the integrated circuit has been developed in 0.13 μm CMOS technology. It includes a few channels equipped with preamplifier, discriminator and the digital circuit to study the feasibility of the TDC-perpixel concept. The design demonstrates very low input referred noise (60e- RMS) in combination with a fast peaking time (40 ns) and an analog power dissipation as low as 2 μW per channel. Switching activity on the clock bus (up to 100 MHz) in the close vicinity of the pixel input pads does not cause noticeable extra noise.

  8. Conception and modelling of photo-detection pixels. PIN photodiodes conceived in amorphous silicon for particles detection; Conception et modelisation de pixels de photodetection: Photodiodes PIN en silicium amorphe en vue de leurs utilisations comme detecteurs de particules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negru, R

    2008-06-15

    The research done has revealed that the a-Si:H is a material ideally suited for the detection of particles, while being resistant to radiation. It also has a low manufacturing cost, is compatible with existing technology and can be deposited over large areas. Thus, despite the low local mobility of charges (30 cm{sup 2}/V/s), a-Si:H is a material of particular interest for manufacturing high-energy particle detection pixels. As a consequence of this, we have studied the feasibility of an experimental pixel stacked structure based on a-Si:H as a basic sensor element for an electromagnetic calorimeter. The structure of such a pixel consists of different components. First, a silicon PIN diode in a-Si:H is fabricated, followed by a bias resistor and a decoupling capacitor. Before such a structure is made and in order to optimize its design, it is essential to have an efficient behavioural model of the various components. Thus, our primary goal was to develop a two-dimensional physical model of the PIN diode using the SILVACO finite element calculation software. This a-Si:H PIN diode two-dimensional physical model allowed us to study the problem of crosstalk between pixels in a matrix structure of detectors. In particular, we concentrated on the leakage current and the current generated in the volume between neighbouring pixels. The successful implementation of this model in SPICE ensures its usefulness in other professional simulators and especially its integration into a complete electronic structure (PIN diode, bias resistor, decoupling capacity and low noise amplifier). Thanks to these modelling tools, we were able to simulate PIN diode structures in a-Si:H with different thicknesses and different dimensions. These simulations have allowed us to predict that the thicker structures are relevant to the design of the pixel detectors for high energy physics. Applications in astronomy, medical imaging and the analysis of the failure of silicon integrated circuits, can

  9. Mr. Lorenzo Dellai, presidente della provincia Autonoma di Trento and Professor Andrea Zanotti, president dell'Instituto Trentino di Cultura, visit ALICE experiment underground area and Pixel Silicon Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    Mr. Lorenzo Dellai, presidente della provincia Autonoma di Trento and Professor Andrea Zanotti, president dell'Instituto Trentino di Cultura, visit ALICE experiment underground area and Pixel Silicon Laboratory

  10. Spectroscopy study of imaging devices based on silicon Pixel Array Detector coupled to VATAGP7 read-out chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linhart, V; Lacasta, C; Llosa, G; Stankova, V; Burdette, D; Chessi, E; Cochran, E; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Weilhammer, P; Cindro, V; Grosicar, B; Mikuz, M; Studen, A; Zontar, D; Clinthorne, N H

    2011-01-01

    Spectroscopic and timing response studies have been conducted on a detector module consisting of a silicon Pixel Array Detector bonded on two VATAGP7 read-out chips manufactured by Gamma-Medica Ideas using laboratory gamma sources and the internal calibration facilities (the calibration system of the read-out chips). The performed tests have proven that the chips have (i) non-linear calibration curves which can be approximated by power functions, (ii) capability to measure the energy of photons with energy resolution better than 2 keV (exact range and resolution depend on experimental setup), (iii) the internal calibration facility which provides 6 out of 16 available internal calibration charges within our region of interest (spanning the Compton edge of 511 keV photons). The peaks induced by the internal calibration facility are suitable for a fit of the calibration curves. However, they are not suitable for measurements of equivalent noise charge because their full width at half maximum varies with their amplitude. These facts indicate that the VATAGP7 chips are useful and precise tools for a wide variety of spectroscopic devices. We have also explored time walk of the module and peaking time of the spectroscopy signals provided by the chips. We have observed that (iv) the time walk is caused partly by the peaking time of the signals provided by the fast shaper of the chips and partly by the timing uncertainty related to the varying position of the photon interaction, (v) the peaking time of the spectroscopy signals provided by the chips increases with increasing pulse height.

  11. arXiv Test beam measurement of the first prototype of the fast silicon pixel monolithic detector for the TT-PET project

    CERN Document Server

    Paolozzi, L.; Benoit, M.; Cardarelli, R.; Débieux, S.; Forshaw, D.; Hayakawa, D.; Iacobucci, G.; Kaynak, M.; Miucci, A.; Nessi, M.; Ratib, O.; Ripiccini, E.; Rücker, H.; Valerio, P.; Weber, M.

    2018-04-12

    The TT-PET collaboration is developing a PET scanner for small animals with  30 ps  time-of-flight resolution and sub-millimetre 3D detection granularity. The sensitive element of the scanner is a monolithic silicon pixel detector based on state-of-the-art SiGe BiCMOS technology. The first ASIC prototype for the TT-PET was produced and tested in the laboratory and with minimum ionizing particles. The electronics exhibit an equivalent noise charge below  600 e− RMS  and a pulse rise time of less than  2 ns , in accordance with the simulations. The pixels with a capacitance of  0.8 pF  were measured to have a detection efficiency greater than  99%  and, although in the absence of the post-processing, a time resolution of approximately  200 ps .

  12. A pixel segmented silicon strip detector for ultra fast shaping at low noise and low power consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misiakos, K.; Kavadias, S.

    1996-01-01

    A new radiation imaging device is proposed based on strips segmented into small pixels. Every pixel contains a submicron transistor that is normally biased in weak inversion. The ionization charge, upon collection by the pixel, changes the bias of the transistor to strong inversion and supplies a current up to several tens of a microA. This is a consequence of the small pixel capacitance (12 fF). The drains and sources of the transistors on the same row and column are shorted to bus lines that effectively become the Y and X coordinates. These bus lines are connected to the off chip ICON amplifiers to provide a 10 ns peaking time at a noise of about 150 electrons and 1 nW power consumption, for a 10x10 cm 2 detector and a MIP excitation. The noise performance is dominated by the ICON transistors. The cross talk between adjacent strips can be kept at a few percentage points provided a low transistor bias current is used

  13. Study and Development of a novel Silicon Pixel Detector for the Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    van Hoorn, Jacobus Willem; Riedler, Petra

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the heavy-ion experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As an important part of its upgrade plans, the ALICE experiment schedules the installation of a new Inner Tracking System (ITS) during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in 2019/20. The new ITS will consist of seven concentric layers, covering about 10m2 with Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). This choice of technology has been guided by the tight requirements on the material budget of 0.3 % x/X0 per layer for the three innermost layers and backed by the significant progress in the field of MAPS in recent years. The pixel chips are manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS process on wafers with a high-resistivity epitaxial layer on top of the substrate. During the R&D phase several chip architectures have been investigated, which take full advantage of a particular process feature, the deep p-well, that allows for full CMOS circuitry within the pixel matrix while retaining full charge colle...

  14. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  15. Evaluation of the PANDA silicon pixel front-end electronics and investigation of the anti ΛΛ final state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, Simone

    2014-04-28

    high precision particle beams for several experiments. The AntiProton Annihilation at Darmstadt (PANDA) experiment is one of the large detectors at FAIR. PANDAs main physics objectives center around the properties of particles and excited particles made from quarks of the first and second quark family. It is a fixed target experiment within the High Energy Storage Ring (HESR), which delivers an intense, phase-space cooled antiproton beam in the momentum range of 1.5 to 15 GeV/c. With the high precision of the HESR, PANDA will be able to perform precise spectroscopic studies of hadronic states in the charm quark mass range. The luminosity will be up to 2.10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, thus enabling very rare processes to be studied. This high luminosity leads to a high particle flux and a high radiation environment which the sub-detectors must withstand. The most highly affected sub-detector of this high radiation environment is the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD), the innermost detector of PANDA. The main task of the MVD is the detection of the interaction points of events (vertexing). This vertex finding is crucial for the analysis of short living particles like e.g. D-mesons, particles consisting of a c-quark and a light antiquark. An essential part of the MVD detector is the readout of the semiconductor sensors. The ToPix (Torino Pixel) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is the front-end electronics for the MVD sensor, developed at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Turin, Italy. It measures the spatial coordinate, the time and the deposited charge of incident charged particles. The most recent prototype of this ASIC is the ToPix 3, a version of reduced size and functionality. The Juelich Digital Readout System (JDRS) was adopted and extended to be able to readout this prototype, thus enabling specific test measurements of the prototype. In addition, the performance of PANDA for detecting long lived. particles was studied, and the

  16. ATLAS ITk Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gemme, Claudia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) in 2026 will provide new challenge to the ATLAS tracker. The current inner detector will be replaced with a whole silicon tracker which will consist of a five barrel layer Pixel detector surrounded by a four barrel layer Strip detector. The expected high radiation level are requiring the development of upgraded silicon sensors as well as new a front-end chip. The dense tracking environment will require finer granularity detectors. The data rates will require new technologies for high bandwidth data transmission and handling. The current status of the HL-LHC ATLA Pixel detector developments as well as the various layout options will be reviewed.

  17. Gossip: Gaseous pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffeman, E. N.

    2007-12-01

    Several years ago a revolutionary miniature TPC was developed using a pixel chip with a Micromegas foil spanned over it. To overcome the mechanical stability problems and improve the positioning accuracy while spanning a foil on top of a small readout chip a process has been developed in which a Micromegas-like grid is applied on a CMOS wafer in a post-processing step. This aluminum grid is supported on insulating pillars that are created by etching after the grid has been made. The energy resolution (measured on the absorption of the X-rays from a 55Fe source) was remarkably good. Several geometries have since been tested and we now believe that a Gas On Slimmed Silicon Pixel chip' (Gossip) may be realized. The drift region of such a gaseous pixel detector would be reduced to a millimeter. Such a detector is potentially very radiation hard (SLHC vertexing) but aging and sparking must be eliminated.

  18. Gossip: Gaseous pixels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koffeman, E.N. [Nikhef, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: d77@nikhef.nl

    2007-12-01

    Several years ago a revolutionary miniature TPC was developed using a pixel chip with a Micromegas foil spanned over it. To overcome the mechanical stability problems and improve the positioning accuracy while spanning a foil on top of a small readout chip a process has been developed in which a Micromegas-like grid is applied on a CMOS wafer in a post-processing step. This aluminum grid is supported on insulating pillars that are created by etching after the grid has been made. The energy resolution (measured on the absorption of the X-rays from a {sup 55}Fe source) was remarkably good. Several geometries have since been tested and we now believe that a Gas On Slimmed Silicon Pixel chip' (Gossip) may be realized. The drift region of such a gaseous pixel detector would be reduced to a millimeter. Such a detector is potentially very radiation hard (SLHC vertexing) but aging and sparking must be eliminated.

  19. Gossip: Gaseous pixels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koffeman, E.N.

    2007-01-01

    Several years ago a revolutionary miniature TPC was developed using a pixel chip with a Micromegas foil spanned over it. To overcome the mechanical stability problems and improve the positioning accuracy while spanning a foil on top of a small readout chip a process has been developed in which a Micromegas-like grid is applied on a CMOS wafer in a post-processing step. This aluminum grid is supported on insulating pillars that are created by etching after the grid has been made. The energy resolution (measured on the absorption of the X-rays from a 55 Fe source) was remarkably good. Several geometries have since been tested and we now believe that a Gas On Slimmed Silicon Pixel chip' (Gossip) may be realized. The drift region of such a gaseous pixel detector would be reduced to a millimeter. Such a detector is potentially very radiation hard (SLHC vertexing) but aging and sparking must be eliminated

  20. CMS Pixel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00038772

    2011-01-01

    The present Compact Muon Solenoid silicon pixel tracking system has been designed for a peak luminosity of 1034cm-2s-1 and total dose corresponding to two years of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operation. With the steady increase of the luminosity expected at the LHC, a new pixel detector with four barrel layers and three endcap disks is being designed. We will present the key points of the design: the new geometry, which minimizes the material budget and increases the tracking points, and the development of a fast digital readout architecture, which ensures readout efficiency even at high rate. The expected performances for tracking and vertexing of the new pixel detector are also addressed.

  1. Pixel Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Augustesen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Pixel Experiments The term pixel is traditionally defined as any of the minute elements that together constitute a larger context or image. A pixel has its own form and is the smallest unit seen within a larger structure. In working with the potentials of LED technology in architectural lighting...... for using LED lighting in lighting design practice. The speculative experiments that have been set-up have aimed to clarify the variables that can be used as parameters in the design of lighting applications; including, for example, the structuring and software control of light. The experiments also...... elucidate and exemplify already well-known problems in relation to the experience of vertical and horizontal lighting. Pixel Experiments exist as a synergy between speculative test setups and lighting design in practice. This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research...

  2. ATLAS Pixel Detector Operational Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Di Girolamo, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.9% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  3. Pixel Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Augustesen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Pixel Experiments The term pixel is traditionally defined as any of the minute elements that together constitute a larger context or image. A pixel has its own form and is the smallest unit seen within a larger structure. In working with the potentials of LED technology in architectural lighting...... lighting design in practice, one quickly experiences and realises that there are untapped potentials in the attributes of LED technology. In this research, speculative studies have been made working with the attributes of LEDs in architectural contexts, with the ambition to ascertain new strategies...... for using LED lighting in lighting design practice. The speculative experiments that have been set-up have aimed to clarify the variables that can be used as parameters in the design of lighting applications; including, for example, the structuring and software control of light. The experiments also...

  4. The Phase-2 ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The upgrade of the ATLAS experiment for the operation at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider requires a new and more performant inner tracker, the ITk. The innermost part of this tracker will be built using silicon pixel detectors. This paper describes the ITk pixel project, which, after few years of design and test e ort, is now defined in detail.

  5. Building CMS Pixel Barrel Detectur Modules

    CERN Document Server

    König, S; Horisberger, R.; Meier, B.; Rohe, T.; Streuli, S.; Weber, R.; Kastli, H.Chr.; Erdmann, W.

    2007-01-01

    For the barrel part of the CMS pixel tracker about 800 silicon pixel detector modules are required. The modules are bump bonded, assembled and tested at the Paul Scherrer Institute. This article describes the experience acquired during the assembly of the first ~200 modules.

  6. Functional MR imaging of the primary motor area in patients with brain tumors of the motor cortex. Evaluation with echo-planer imaging on a clinical 1.0 T MR imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Yoshie; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Tamaki, Norihiko; Ehara, Kazumasa; Kitamura, Junji

    1998-01-01

    The study included 3 healthy volunteers and 8 patients with a brain tumor of the motor cortex. The fMRI study was based on the spin echo (SE) type single shot echo-planer technique. Ten contiguous axial slices consisted of 40-60 echo-planer images acquired during 80-120 seconds of repeated task performances and resting periods. Activation maps were calculated by a Z-score method with thresholding, and interpolated on T1 images and surface anatomy scans. In all cases, areas of a significant signal increase were detected as clusters of several pixels on the precentral gyrus contralateral to the motor task performance. The mean signal change was 3.6±0.9% in normal subjects, and 7.2±4.1% in brain tumor patients. There was no significant difference between the two groups. In 5 brain tumor patients significant displacement of the precentral gyrus was observed on T1- or T2-weighted SE images. Of these, 2 also had marked peritumoral edema spreading over the precentral gyrus. There was no significant difference in the size, or the degree, of signal change between patients with or without compression or edema, nor between patients with and without preoperative motor impairment. During surgical intervention, displacement of the precentral gyrus was observed as had been demonstrated on preoperative images of patients. In all patients the precentral gyrus was preserved in all cases, and no deterioration of motor function occurred. Resolution of the displacement and edema was detected on postoperative MRI. Using the echo-planer technique on a clinical 1.0 T imager fMRI localization of the primary motor cortex was obtained in normal and brain tumor subjects. The activated areas were detected on the precentral gyrus of both groups, and even when there was marked brain compression or edema. It is important to identify and preserve the precentral gyrus during surgery to avoid deterioration of motor function. (K.H.)

  7. Performance of new radiation tolerant thin n-in-p Silicon pixel sensors for the CMS experiment at High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dalla Betta, G.F; Darbo, G; Dinardo, Mauro; Giacomini, G; Menasce, Dario; Meschini, Marco; Messineo, Alberto; Moroni, Luigi; Rivera, Ryan Allen; Ronchin, S; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Viliani, Lorenzo; Zoi, Irene; Zuolo, Davide

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the CERN-LHC (HL-LHC) demands for a new high-radiation tolerant solid-state pixel sensor capable of surviving fluencies up to a few 10$^{16}$ particles/cm$^2$ at $\\sim$3 cm from the interaction point. To this extent the INFN ATLAS-CMS joint research activity in collaboration with Fondazione Bruno Kessler-FBK, is aiming at the development of thin n-in-p type pixel sensors for the HL-LHC. The R and D covers both planar and single-sided 3D columnar pixel devices made with the Si-Si Direct Wafer Bonding technique, which allows for the production of sensors with 100~$\\mu {\\rm m}$ and 130~$\\mu {\\rm m}$ active thickness for planars, and 130~$\\mu {\\rm m}$ for 3D sensors, the thinnest ones ever produced so far. First prototypes of hybrid modules bump-bonded to the present CMS readout chip have been tested in beam tests. Preliminary results on their performance before and after irradiation are presented.

  8. On the evening of June 15, 2008, ALICE physicists saw the first tracks at LHC during the first injection test in transfer line TI 2. The Silicon Pixel detector recorded muon tracks produced in the beam dump near Point 2 of the LHC.

    CERN Multimedia

    Manzari, Vito

    2008-01-01

    On the evening of June 15, 2008, ALICE physicists saw the first tracks at LHC during the first injection test in transfer line TI 2. The Silicon Pixel detector recorded muon tracks produced in the beam dump near Point 2 of the LHC

  9. Developments of the ATLAS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreazza, Attilio

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS silicon pixel detector is the innermost tracking device of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hardon Collider, consisting of more than 1700 modules for a total sensitive area of about 1.7m2 and over 80 million pixel cells. The concept is a hybrid of front-end chips bump bonded to the pixel sensor. The elementary pixel cell has 50μmx400μm size, providing pulse height information via the time over threshold technique. Prototype devices with oxygenated silicon sensor and rad-hard electronics built in the IBM 0.25μm process have been tested and maintain good resolution, efficiency and timing performances even after receiving the design radiation damage of 1015neq/cm2

  10. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ince, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost element of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.2% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  11. Operational experience of the ATLAS Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschbuehl, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  12. Operational experience of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Marcisovsky, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  13. Overview of the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cerati, Giuseppe B

    2008-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment (CMS) will start taking data at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2009. It will investigate the proton-proton collisions at $14~TeV$. A robust tracking combined with a precise vertex reconstruction is crucial to address the physics challenge of proton collisions at this energy. To this extent an all-silicon tracking system with very fine granularity has been built and now is in the final commissioning phase. It represents the largest silicon tracking detector ever built. The system is composed by an outer part, made of micro-strip detectors, and an inner one, made of pixel detectors. The pixel detector consists of three pixel barrel layers and two forward disks at each side of the interaction region. Each pixel sensor, both for the barrel and forward detectors, has $100 \\times 150$ $\\mu m^2$ cells for a total of 66 million pixels covering a total area of about $1~m^2$. The pixel detector will play a crucial role in the pattern recognition and the track reconstruction both...

  14. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2001-01-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles

  15. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L. E-mail: perera@physics.rutgers.edu; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2001-06-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles.

  16. PIXEL 2010 - A Resume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wermes, N.

    2011-01-01

    The Pixel 2010 conference focused on semiconductor pixel detectors for particle tracking/vertexing as well as for imaging, in particular for synchrotron light sources and XFELs. The big LHC hybrid pixel detectors have impressively started showing their capabilities. X-ray imaging detectors, also using the hybrid pixel technology, have greatly advanced the experimental possibilities for diffraction experiments. Monolithic or semi-monolithic devices like CMOS active pixels and DEPFET pixels have now reached a state such that complete vertex detectors for RHIC and superKEKB are being built with these technologies. Finally, new advances towards fully monolithic active pixel detectors, featuring full CMOS electronics merged with efficient signal charge collection, exploiting standard CMOS technologies, SOI and/or 3D integration, show the path for the future. This resume attempts to extract the main statements of the results and developments presented at this conference.

  17. Initial Measurements on Pixel Detector Modules for the ATLAS Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Gallrapp, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Delicate conditions in terms of peak and integrated luminosity in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will raise the ATLAS Pixel Detector to its performance limits. Silicon planar, silicon 3D and diamond pixel sensors are three possible sensor technologies which could be implemented in the upcoming Pixel Detector upgrades of the ATLAS experiment. Measurements of the IV-behavior and measurements with radioactive Americium-241 and Strontium-90 are used to characterize the sensor properties and to understand the interaction between the ATLAS FE-I4 front-end chip and the sensor. Comparisons of results from before and after irradiation for silicon planar and 3D pixel sensors, which give a first impression on the charge collection properties of the different sensor technologies, are presented.

  18. Commissioning of the ATLAS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golling, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is a high precision silicon tracking device located closest to the LHC interaction point. It belongs to the first generation of its kind in a hadron collider experiment. It will provide crucial pattern recognition information and will largely determine the ability of ATLAS to precisely track particle trajectories and find secondary vertices. It was the last detector to be installed in ATLAS in June 2007, has been fully connected and tested in-situ during spring and summer 2008, and is ready for the imminent LHC turn-on. The highlights of the past and future commissioning activities of the ATLAS pixel system are presented

  19. Technology development for SOI monolithic pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczewski, J.; Domanski, K.; Grabiec, P.; Grodner, M.; Jaroszewicz, B.; Kociubinski, A.; Kucharski, K.; Tomaszewski, D.; Caccia, M.; Kucewicz, W.; Niemiec, H.

    2006-01-01

    A monolithic detector of ionizing radiation has been manufactured using silicon on insulator (SOI) wafers with a high-resistivity substrate. In our paper the integration of a standard 3 μm CMOS technology, originally designed for bulk devices, with fabrication of pixels in the bottom wafer of a SOI substrate is described. Both technological sequences have been merged minimizing thermal budget and providing suitable properties of all the technological layers. The achieved performance proves that fully depleted monolithic active pixel matrix might be a viable option for a wide spectrum of future applications

  20. Operational Experience with the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00205212

    2015-05-15

    In the first LHC running period the CMS-pixel detector had to face various operational challenges and had to adapt to the rapidly changing beam conditions. In order to maximize the physics potential and the quality of the data, online and offline calibrations were performed on a regular basis. The detector performed excellently with an average hit efficiency above 99\\% for all layers and disks. In this contribution the operational challenges of the silicon pixel detector in the first LHC run and the current long shutdown are summarized and the expectations for 2015 are discussed.

  1. ISPA (imaging silicon pixel array) experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Application components of ISPA tubes are shown: the CERN-developed anode chip, special windows for gamma and x-ray detection, scintillating crystal and fibre arrays for imaging and tracking of ionizing particles.

  2. Simulation study of pixel detector charge digitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuyue; Nachman, Benjamin; Sciveres, Maurice; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Team

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of tracks from nearly overlapping particles, called Tracking in Dense Environments (TIDE), is an increasingly important component of many physics analyses at the Large Hadron Collider as signatures involving highly boosted jets are investigated. TIDE makes use of the charge distribution inside a pixel cluster to resolve tracks that share one of more of their pixel detector hits. In practice, the pixel charge is discretized using the Time-over-Threshold (ToT) technique. More charge information is better for discrimination, but more challenging for designing and operating the detector. A model of the silicon pixels has been developed in order to study the impact of the precision of the digitized charge distribution on distinguishing multi-particle clusters. The output of the GEANT4-based simulation is used to train neutral networks that predict the multiplicity and location of particles depositing energy inside one cluster of pixels. By studying the multi-particle cluster identification efficiency and position resolution, we quantify the trade-off between the number of ToT bits and low-level tracking inputs. As both ATLAS and CMS are designing upgraded detectors, this work provides guidance for the pixel module designs to meet TIDE needs. Work funded by the China Scholarship Council and the Office of High Energy Physics of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  3. First large DEPFET pixel modules for the Belle II Pixel Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Felix; Avella, Paola; Kiesling, Christian; Koffmane, Christian; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Valentan, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Andricek, Ladislav; Richter, Rainer [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: Belle II-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    DEPFET pixel detectors offer excellent signal to noise ratio, resolution and low power consumption with a low material budget. They will be used at Belle II and are a candidate for an ILC vertex detector. The pixels are integrated in a monolithic piece of silicon which also acts as PCB providing the signal and control routings for the ASICs on top. The first prototype DEPFET sensor modules for Belle II have been produced. The modules have 192000 pixels and are equipped with SMD components and three different kinds of ASICs to control and readout the pixels. The entire readout chain has to be studied; the metal layer interconnectivity and routings need to be verified. The modules are fully characterized, and the operation voltages and control sequences of the ASICs are investigated. An overview of the DEPFET concept and first characterization results is presented.

  4. Upgrade of ATLAS ITk Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Huegging, Fabian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) in 2026 will provide new challenges to the ATLAS tracker. The current inner detector will be replaced with an entirely-silicon inner tracker (ITk) which will consist of a five barrel layer Pixel detector surrounded by a four barrel layer Strip detector. The expected high radiation levels are requiring the development of upgraded silicon sensors as well as new a front-end chip. The dense tracking environment will require finer granularity detectors and low mass global and local support structures. The data rates will require new technologies for high bandwidth data transmission and handling. The current status of the ITk ATLAS Pixel detector developments as well as different layout options will be reviewed.

  5. Active Pixel Sensors: Are CCD's Dinosaurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    Charge-coupled devices (CCD's) are presently the technology of choice for most imaging applications. In the 23 years since their invention in 1970, they have evolved to a sophisticated level of performance. However, as with all technologies, we can be certain that they will be supplanted someday. In this paper, the Active Pixel Sensor (APS) technology is explored as a possible successor to the CCD. An active pixel is defined as a detector array technology that has at least one active transistor within the pixel unit cell. The APS eliminates the need for nearly perfect charge transfer -- the Achilles' heel of CCDs. This perfect charge transfer makes CCD's radiation 'soft,' difficult to use under low light conditions, difficult to manufacture in large array sizes, difficult to integrate with on-chip electronics, difficult to use at low temperatures, difficult to use at high frame rates, and difficult to manufacture in non-silicon materials that extend wavelength response.

  6. Clinical evaluation of left ventricular wall thickness by combined technique with gated planer 201Tl image and gated cardiac pool image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Kenji; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Matsushita, Kazuo; Kawamura, Akiyoshi

    1983-01-01

    To evaluate the left ventricular (LV) wall thickness, combined technique with gated planer 201-Thallium image and gated cardiac pool image was applied to 6 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and 4 patients with secondary hypertrophy due to hypertension (HHD) proven by electrocardiography and ultrasonic-echocardiography. Scintigraphic pattern of hypertrophy on reconstructed planer 201 Tl image showed diffuse or asymmetrical apical hypertrophy in HHD, asymmetrical septal hypertrophy in HCM. It was very interesting that abnormal perfusion was shown in 201 Tl image, despite symmetrical hypertrophy in echocardiography. This techniques provided useful information for evaluating the LV wall thickness and cardiac performance. (author)

  7. Clinical evaluation of left ventricular wall thickness by combined technique with gated planer /sup 201/Tl image and gated cardiac pool image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, Kenji; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Matsushita, Kazuo; Kawamura, Akiyoshi

    1983-11-01

    To evaluate the left ventricular (LV) wall thickness, a combined technique with gated planer 201-thallium image and gated cardiac pool image was applied to 6 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and 4 patients with secondary hypertrophy due to hypertension (HHD) proven by electrocardiography and ultrasonic-echocardiography. Scintigraphic pattern of hypertrophy on reconstructed planer /sup 201/Tl image showed diffuse or asymmetrical apical hypertrophy in HHD, asymmetrical septal hypertrophy in HCM. It was very interesting that abnormal perfusion was shown in /sup 201/Tl image, despite symmetrical hypertrophy in echocardiography. This techniques provided useful information for evaluating the LV wall thickness and cardiac performance.

  8. Small pitch pixel sensors for the CMS Phase II upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069790

    2016-01-01

    The CMS collaboration has undertaken two sensor R\\&D programs on thin n-in-p planar and 3D silicon sensor technologies. To cope with the increase in instantaneous luminosity, the pixel area has to be reduced to approximately 2500 $\\mu$m$^{2}$ to keep the occupancy at the percent level. Suggested pixel cell geometries to match this requirement are {50$\\times$50 }$\\mu$...

  9. Radiation damage monitoring in the ATLAS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Sally

    2013-01-01

    We describe the implementation of radiation damage monitoring using measurement of leakage current in the ATLAS silicon pixel sensors. The dependence of the leakage current upon the integrated luminosity is presented. The measurement of the radiation damage corresponding to an integrated luminosity 5.6 fb −1 is presented along with a comparison to a model. -- Highlights: ► Radiation damage monitoring via silicon leakage current is implemented in the ATLAS (LHC) pixel detector. ► Leakage currents measured are consistent with the Hamburg/Dortmund model. ► This information can be used to validate the ATLAS simulation model.

  10. Design optimization of pixel sensors using device simulations for the phase-II CMS tracker upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, G.; Bhardwaj, A.; Dalal, R.; Eber, R.; Eichorn, T.; Fernandez, M.; Lalwani, K.; Messineo, A.; Palomo, F. R.; Peltola, T.; Printz, M.; Ranjan, K.; Villa, I.; Hidalgo, S.; CMS Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    In order to address the problems caused by the harsh radiation environment during the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC), all silicon tracking detectors (pixels and strips) in the CMS experiment will undergo an upgrade. And so to develop radiation hard pixel sensors, simulations have been performed using the 2D TCAD device simulator, SILVACO, to obtain design parameters. The effect of various design parameters like pixel size, pixel depth, implant width, metal overhang, p-stop concentration, p-stop depth and bulk doping density on the leakage current and critical electric field are studied for both non-irradiated as well as irradiated pixel sensors. These 2D simulation results of planar pixels are useful for providing insight into the behaviour of non-irradiated and irradiated silicon pixel sensors and further work on 3D simulation is underway.

  11. Design optimization of pixel sensors using device simulations for the phase-II CMS tracker upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, G.; Bhardwaj, A.; Dalal, R.; Eber, R.; Eichorn, T.; Fernandez, M.; Lalwani, K.; Messineo, A.; Palomo, F.R.; Peltola, T.; Printz, M.; Ranjan, K.; Villa, I.; Hidalgo, S.

    2016-01-01

    In order to address the problems caused by the harsh radiation environment during the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC), all silicon tracking detectors (pixels and strips) in the CMS experiment will undergo an upgrade. And so to develop radiation hard pixel sensors, simulations have been performed using the 2D TCAD device simulator, SILVACO, to obtain design parameters. The effect of various design parameters like pixel size, pixel depth, implant width, metal overhang, p-stop concentration, p-stop depth and bulk doping density on the leakage current and critical electric field are studied for both non-irradiated as well as irradiated pixel sensors. These 2D simulation results of planar pixels are useful for providing insight into the behaviour of non-irradiated and irradiated silicon pixel sensors and further work on 3D simulation is underway.

  12. Design optimization of pixel sensors using device simulations for the phase-II CMS tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, G., E-mail: geetikajain.hep@gmail.com [CDRST, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Bhardwaj, A.; Dalal, R. [CDRST, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Eber, R. [Institute fur Experimentelle Kernphysik (Germany); Eichorn, T. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (Germany); Fernandez, M. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (Spain); Lalwani, K. [CDRST, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Messineo, A. [Universita di Pisa & INFN sez. di Pisa (Italy); Palomo, F.R. [Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Peltola, T. [Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland); Printz, M. [Institute fur Experimentelle Kernphysik (Germany); Ranjan, K. [CDRST, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Villa, I. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (Spain); Hidalgo, S. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (Spain)

    2016-07-11

    In order to address the problems caused by the harsh radiation environment during the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC), all silicon tracking detectors (pixels and strips) in the CMS experiment will undergo an upgrade. And so to develop radiation hard pixel sensors, simulations have been performed using the 2D TCAD device simulator, SILVACO, to obtain design parameters. The effect of various design parameters like pixel size, pixel depth, implant width, metal overhang, p-stop concentration, p-stop depth and bulk doping density on the leakage current and critical electric field are studied for both non-irradiated as well as irradiated pixel sensors. These 2D simulation results of planar pixels are useful for providing insight into the behaviour of non-irradiated and irradiated silicon pixel sensors and further work on 3D simulation is underway.

  13. Vertically integrated pixel readout chip for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Khalid, Farah; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of the vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics for the International Linear Collider. Some testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second iteration of the silicon implementation of the prototype, data-pushed concept of the readout developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the 3D MIT-LL 0.15 (micro)m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 (micro)m 2 pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

  14. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  15. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschbuehl, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.7% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  16. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lapoire, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  17. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lapoire, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as B-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.2% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification.

  18. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: approximately 97% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  19. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ince, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.8% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  20. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Deluca, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5\\% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, ...

  1. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump- bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, a...

  2. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Deluca, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  3. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented, including calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: ~96 % of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency e...

  4. Irradiation and beam tests qualification for ATLAS IBL Pixel Modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinskiy, Igor

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will have different steps towards HL-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine (foreseen for 2013–2014). The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing Pixel Detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of 33 mm. The IBL will require the development of several new technologies to cope with the increase in the radiation damage and the pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance, which will be achieved by reduction of the pixel size and of the material budget. Two different promising silicon sensor technologies (Planar n-in-n and 3D) are currently under investigation for the Pixel Detector. An overview of the sensor technologies' qualification with particular emphasis on irradiation and beam tests is presented. -- Highlights: ► The ATLAS inner tracker will be extended with a so called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). ► The IBL modules are required to withstand irradiation up to 5×10 15 n eq /cm 2 . ► Two types of silicon pixel detector technologies (Planar and 3D) were tested in beam. ► The irradiated sensor efficiency exceeds 97% both with and without magnetic field. ► The leakage current, power dissipation, module active area ratio requirements are met.

  5. The ATLAS Pixel Detector operation and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It consists of 1744 silicon sensors equipped with approximately $80 imes 10^6$~electronic channels, providing typically three measurement points with high resolution for particles emerging from the beam-interaction region. The complete Pixel Detector has been taking part in cosmic-ray data-taking since 2008. Since November 2009 it has been operated with LHC colliding beams at $sqrt{s}=900$~GeV, 2.36~TeV and 7 TeV. The detector operated with an active fraction of 97.2% at a threshold of 3500~$e$, showing a noise occupancy rate better than $10^{-9}$~hit/pixel/BC and a track association efficiency of 99%. The Lorentz angle for electrons in silicon is measured to be $ heta_mathrm{L}=12.11^circ pm 0.09^circ$ and its temperature dependence has been verified. The pulse height information from the time-over-threshold technique allows to improve the point resolution using charge sharing and to perform parti...

  6. ATLAS ITk and new pixel sensors technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gaudiello, A

    2016-01-01

    During the 2023–2024 shutdown, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be upgraded to reach an instantaneous luminosity up to 7×10$^{34}$ cm$^{−2}$s$^{−1}$. This upgrade of the accelerator is called High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The ATLAS detector will be changed to meet the challenges of HL-LHC: an average of 200 pile-up events in every bunch crossing, and an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb $^{−1}$ over ten years. The HL-LHC luminosity conditions are too extreme for the current silicon (pixel and strip) detectors and straw tube transition radiation tracker (TRT) of the current ATLAS tracking system. Therefore the ATLAS inner tracker is being completely rebuilt for data-taking and the new system is called Inner Tracker (ITk). During this upgrade the TRT will be removed in favor of an all-new all-silicon tracker composed only by strip and pixel detectors. An overview of new layouts in study will be reported and the new pixel sensor technologies in development will be explained.

  7. Pixel electronics for the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.

    2001-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at LHC will use 3 barrel layers and 2x5 disks of silicon pixel detectors as the innermost elements of the semiconductor tracker. The basic building blocks are pixel modules with an active area of 16.4 mmx60.8 mm which include an n + on n-type silicon sensor and 16 VLSI front-end (FE) chips. Every FE chip contains a low power, high speed charge sensitive preamplifier, a fast discriminator, and a readout system which operates at the 40 MHz rate of LHC. The addresses of hit pixels (as well as a low resolution pulse height information) are stored on the FE chips until arrival of a level 1 trigger signal. Hits are then transferred to a module controller chip (MCC) which collects the data of all 16 FE chips, builds complete events and sends the data through two optical links to the data acquisition system. The MCC receives clock and data through an additional optical link and provides timing and configuration information for the FE chips. Two additional chips are used to amplify and decode the pin diode signal and to drive the VCSEL laser diodes of the optical links

  8. The ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Huegging, Fabian

    2006-06-26

    The contruction of the ATLAS Pixel Detector which is the innermost layer of the ATLAS tracking system is prgressing well. Because the pixel detector will contribute significantly to the ATLAS track and vertex reconstruction. The detector consists of identical sensor-chip-hybrid modules, arranged in three barrels in the centre and three disks on either side for the forward region. The position of the detector near the interaction point requires excellent radiation hardness, mechanical and thermal robustness, good long-term stability for all parts, combined with a low material budget. The final detector layout, new results from production modules and the status of assembly are presented.

  9. Characterization of Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Felipe Ferraz

    2017-01-01

    It was commissioned at CERN ATLAS pixel group a fluorescence setup for characterization of pixel sensors. The idea is to measure the energies of different targets to calibrate your sensor. It was measured four matrices (80, 95, 98 and 106) of the Investigator1 sensor with different deep PW using copper, iron and titanium as target materials. The matrix 80 has a higher gain (0.065 ± 0.002) and matrix 106 has a better energy resolution (0.05 ± 0.04). The noise of the setup is around 3.6 mV .

  10. The DELPHI pixels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becks, K.H.; Brunet, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    To improve tracking in the very forward direction for running at LEP200, the angular acceptance of the DELPHI Vertex detector has been extended from 45 to 11 with respect to the beam axis. Pixel detector crowns cover the region between 25 and 13 . Due to very tight space and material thickness constraints it was necessary to develop new techniques (integrated busses in the detector substrate, high density layout on Kapton, etc.). About 1000 cm 2 of pixels are already installed and working in DELPHI. Techniques, tests and production of these detectors will be described, as well as the main problems encountered during this work. (orig.)

  11. Sensor development for the CMS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bölla, G; Horisberger, R P; Kaufmann, R; Rohe, T; Roy, A

    2002-01-01

    The CMS experiment which is currently under construction at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will contain a pixel detector which provides in its final configuration three space points per track close to the interaction point of the colliding beams. Because of the harsh radiation environment of the LHC, the technical realization of the pixel detector is extremely challenging. The readout chip as the most damageable part of the system is believed to survive a particle fluence of 6x10 sup 1 sup 4 n sub e sub q /cm sup 2 (All fluences are normalized to 1 MeV neutrons and therefore all components of the hybrid pixel detector have to perform well up to at least this fluence. As this requires a partially depleted operation of the silicon sensors after irradiation-induced type inversion of the substrate, an ''n in n'' concept has been chosen. In order to perform IV-tests on wafer level and to hold accidentally unconnected pixels close to ground potential, a resistive path between the pixe...

  12. Planar pixel sensors in commercial CMOS technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Macchiolo, Anna [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    For the upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at the high luminosity LHC, an all-silicon tracker is foreseen to cope with the increased rate and radiation levels. Pixel and strip detectors will have to cover an area of up to 200m2. To produce modules in high number at reduced costs, new sensor and bonding technologies have to be investigated. Commercial CMOS technologies on high resistive substrates can provide significant advantages in this direction. They offer cost effective, large volume sensor production. In addition to this, production is done on 8'' wafers allowing wafer-to-wafer bonding to the electronics, an interconnection technology substantially cheaper than the bump bonding process used for hybrid pixel detectors at the LHC. Both active and passive n-in-p pixel sensor prototypes have been submitted in a 150 nm CMOS technology on a 2kΩ cm substrate. The passive sensor design will be used to characterize sensor properties and to investigate wafer-to-wafer bonding technologies. This first prototype is made of a matrix of 36 x 16 pixels of size compatible with the FE-I4 readout chip (i.e. 50 μm x 250 μm). Results from lab characterization of this first submission are shown together with TCAD simulations. Work towards a full size FE-I4 sensor for wafer-to-wafer bonding is discussed.

  13. ATLAS Pixel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Flick, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The first upgrade for higher luminosity at LHC for the ATLAS pixel detector is the insertion of a forth layer, the IBL. The talk gives an overview about what the IBL is and how it will be set up, as well as to give a status of the research and develoment work.

  14. Gas pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellazzini, R.; Baldini, L.; Brez, A.; Cavalca, F.; Latronico, L.; Massai, M.M.; Minuti, M.; Omodei, N.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Sgro, C.; Spandre, G.; Costa, E.; Soffitta, P.

    2007-01-01

    With the Gas Pixel Detector (GPD), the class of micro-pattern gas detectors has reached a complete integration between the gas amplification structure and the read-out electronics. To obtain this goal, three generations of application-specific integrated circuit of increased complexity and improved functionality has been designed and fabricated in deep sub-micron CMOS technology. This implementation has allowed manufacturing a monolithic device, which realizes, at the same time, the pixelized charge-collecting electrode and the amplifying, shaping and charge measuring front-end electronics of a GPD. A big step forward in terms of size and performances has been obtained in the last version of the 0.18 μm CMOS analog chip, where over a large active area of 15x15 mm 2 a very high channel density (470 pixels/mm 2 ) has been reached. On the top metal layer of the chip, 105,600 hexagonal pixels at 50 μm pitch have been patterned. The chip has customable self-trigger capability and includes a signal pre-processing function for the automatic localization of the event coordinates. In this way, by limiting the output signal to only those pixels belonging to the region of interest, it is possible to reduce significantly the read-out time and data volume. In-depth tests performed on a GPD built up by coupling this device to a fine pitch (50 μm) gas electron multiplier are reported. Matching of the gas amplification and read-out pitch has let to obtain optimal results. A possible application of this detector for X-ray polarimetry of astronomical sources is discussed

  15. The Belle II DEPFET pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Hans-Günther, E-mail: moser@mpp.mpg.de

    2016-09-21

    The Belle II experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) will explore heavy flavour physics (B, charm and tau) at the starting of 2018 with unprecedented precision. Charged particles are tracked by a two-layer DEPFET pixel device (PXD), a four-layer silicon strip detector (SVD) and the central drift chamber (CDC). The PXD will consist of two layers at radii of 14 mm and 22 mm with 8 and 12 ladders, respectively. The pixel sizes will vary, between 50 μm×(55–60) μm in the first layer and between 50 μm×(70–85) μm in the second layer, to optimize the charge sharing efficiency. These innermost layers have to cope with high background occupancy, high radiation and must have minimal material to reduce multiple scattering. These challenges are met using the DEPFET technology. Each pixel is a FET integrated on a fully depleted silicon bulk. The signal charge collected in the ‘internal gate’ modulates the FET current resulting in a first stage amplification and therefore very low noise. This allows very thin sensors (75 μm) reducing the overall material budget of the detector (0.21% X{sub 0}). Four fold multiplexing of the column parallel readout allows read out a full frame of the pixel matrix in only 20 μs while keeping the power consumption low enough for air cooling. Only the active electronics outside the detector acceptance has to be cooled actively with a two phase CO{sub 2} system. Furthermore the DEPFET technology offers the unique feature of an electronic shutter which allows the detector to operate efficiently in the continuous injection mode of superKEKB.

  16. Radiation Damage Monitoring in the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Seidel, S

    2013-01-01

    We describe the implementation of radiation damage monitoring using measurement of leakage current in the ATLAS silicon pixel sensors. The dependence of the leakage current upon the integrated luminosity is presented. The measurement of the radiation damage corresponding to integrated luminosity 5.6 fb$^{-1}$ is presented along with a comparison to the theoretical model.

  17. Fabrication of ATLAS pixel detector prototypes at IRST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscardin, M.; Betta, G.-F. Dalla; Gregori, P.; Zen, M.; Zorzi, N.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the development of a fabrication technology for n-on-n silicon pixel detectors oriented to the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The main processing issues and some selected results from the electrical characterization of detector prototypes and related test structures are presented and discussed

  18. Initial Measurements On Pixel Detector Modules For The ATLAS Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Gallrapp, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Sophisticated conditions in terms of peak and integrated luminosity in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will raise the ATLAS Pixel detector to its performance limits. Silicon planar, silicon 3D and diamond pixel sensors are three possible sensor technologies which could be implemented in the upcoming pixel detector upgrades of the ATLAS experiment. Measurements of the IV-behavior and measurements with radioactive Americium-241 and Strontium-90 are used to characterize the sensor properties and to understand the interaction between the ATLAS FE-I4 front-end chip and the sensor. Comparisons of results from before and after irradiation, which give a first impression on the charge collection properties of the different sensor technologies are presented.

  19. CMS pixel upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    Kaestli, Hans-Christian

    2010-01-01

    The LHC machine at CERN finished its first year of pp collisions at a center of mass energy of 7~TeV. While the commissioning to exploit its full potential is still ongoing, there are plans to upgrade its components to reach instantaneous luminosities beyond the initial design value after 2016. A corresponding upgrade of the innermost part of the CMS detector, the pixel detector, is needed. A full replacement of the pixel detector is planned in 2016. It will not only address limitations of the present system at higher data rates, but will aggressively lower the amount of material inside the fiducial tracking volume which will lead to better tracking and b-tagging performance. This article gives an overview of the project and illuminates the motivations and expected improvements in the detector performance.

  20. CMS pixel upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00575876

    2011-01-01

    The LHC machine at CERN finished its first year of pp collisions at a center of mass energy of 7 TeV. While the commissioning to exploit its full potential is still ongoing, there are plans to upgrade its components to reach instantaneous luminosities beyond the initial design value after 2016. A corresponding upgrade of the innermost part of the CMS detector, the pixel detector, is needed. A full replacement of the pixel detector is planned in 2016. It will not only address limitations of the present system at higher data rates, but will aggressively lower the amount of material inside the fiducial tracking volume which will lead to better tracking and b-tagging performance. This article gives an overview of the project and illuminates the motivations and expected improvements in the detector performance.

  1. The Phase-2 ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced in 2025 during the LHC Phase-II shutdown by an all-silicon detector called the “ITk” (Inner Tracker). The innermost part of ITk will be a pixel detector containing about 12.5m2 of sensitive silicon. The silicon modules are arranged on 5 layers of stave-like support structures in the most central region and ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions covering out to |η| < 4; a mid-eta region (~1 < |η| < ~2) will be occupied by novel inclined support structures which keep the angle of incidence of high-momentum tracks more closely normal to the sensitive silicon. All supports will be based on low mass, highly stable and highly thermally-conductive carbon-based materials cooled by evaporative carbon dioxide flowing in thin-walled titanium pipes. An extensive prototyping programme, including thermal, mechanical and electrical studies, is being carried out on all the types of support structures. The HL-LHC is expected to deliver up t...

  2. A passive CMOS pixel sensor for the high luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daas, Michael; Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Janssen, Jens; Krueger, Hans; Pohl, David-Leon; Wermes, Norbert [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Macchiolo, Anna [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The high luminosity upgrade for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN requires a new inner tracking detector for the ATLAS experiment. About 200 m{sup 2} of silicon detectors are needed demanding new, low cost hybridization- and sensor technologies. One promising approach is to use commercial CMOS technologies to produce the passive sensor for a hybrid pixel detector design. In this talk a fully functional prototype of a 300 μm thick, backside biased CMOS pixel sensor in 150 nm LFoundry technology is presented. The sensor is bump bonded to the ATLAS FE-I4 with AC and DC coupled pixels. Results like leakage current, noise performance, and charge collection efficiency are presented and compared to the actual ATLAS pixel sensor design.

  3. The Level 0 Pixel Trigger system for the ALICE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinella, G Aglieri; Kluge, A; Krivda, M

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector contains 1200 readout chips. Fast-OR signals indicate the presence of at least one hit in the 8192 pixel matrix of each chip. The 1200 bits are transmitted every 100 ns on 120 data readout optical links using the G-Link protocol. The Pixel Trigger System extracts and processes them to deliver an input signal to the Level 0 trigger processor targeting a latency of 800 ns. The system is compact, modular and based on FPGA devices. The architecture allows the user to define and implement various trigger algorithms. The system uses advanced 12-channel parallel optical fiber modules operating at 1310 nm as optical receivers and 12 deserializer chips closely packed in small area receiver boards. Alternative solutions with multi-channel G-Link deserializers implemented directly in programmable hardware devices were investigated. The design of the system and the progress of the ALICE Pixel Trigger project are described in this paper

  4. The Phase II ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Terzo, Stefano; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the "ITk" (Inner Tracker). The innermost portion of ITk will consist of a pixel detector with five layers in the barrel region and and ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions. It will be instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the HL-LHC environment, which will be severe in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total surface area of silicon in the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m$^2$ , depending on the final layout choice, which is expected to take place in early 2017. Several layout options are being investigated at the moment, including some with novel inclined support structures in the barrel-endcap overlap region and others with very long innermost barrel layers. Forward coverage could be as high as $|\\eta| < 4$. Supporting structures will be ...

  5. The Phase-2 ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Flick, Tobias; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the “ITk” (Inner Tracker). The pixel detector will comprise the five innermost layers, and will be instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the HL-LHC environment, which will be severe in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total surface area of silicon in the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m2, depending on the final layout choice, which is expected to take place in early 2017. Four layout options are being investigated at the moment, two with forward coverage to |eta| < 3.2 and two to |eta| < 4. For each coverage option, a layout with long barrel staves and a layout with novel inclined support structures in the barrel-endcap overlap region are considered. All potential layouts include modules mounted on ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions...

  6. Semiconductor pixel detectors for digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novelli, M.; Amendolia, S.R.; Bisogni, M.G.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Delogu, P.; Fantacci, M.E.; Quattrocchi, M.; Rosso, V.; Stefanini, A.; Venturelli, L.; Zucca, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present some results obtained with silicon and gallium arsenide pixel detectors to be applied in the field of digital mammography. Even though GaAs is suitable for medical imaging applications thanks to its atomic number, which allows a very good detection efficiency, it often contains an high concentrations of traps which decrease the charge collection efficiency (CCE). So we have analysed both electrical and spectroscopic performance of different SI GaAs diodes as a function of concentrations of dopants in the substrate, in order to find a material by which we can obtain a CCE allowing the detection of all the photons that interact in the detector. Nevertheless to be able to detect low contrast details, efficiency and CCE are not the only parameters to be optimized; also the stability of the detection system is fundamental. In the past we have worked with Si pixel detectors; even if its atomic number does not allow a good detection efficiency at standard thickness, it has a very high stability. So keeping in mind the need to increase the Silicon detection efficiency we performed simulations to study the behaviour of the electrical potential in order to find a geometry to avoid the risk of electrical breakdown

  7. Semiconductor pixel detectors for digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, M. E-mail: marzia.novelli@pi.infn.it; Amendolia, S.R.; Bisogni, M.G.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Delogu, P.; Fantacci, M.E.; Quattrocchi, M.; Rosso, V.; Stefanini, A.; Venturelli, L.; Zucca, S

    2003-08-21

    We present some results obtained with silicon and gallium arsenide pixel detectors to be applied in the field of digital mammography. Even though GaAs is suitable for medical imaging applications thanks to its atomic number, which allows a very good detection efficiency, it often contains an high concentrations of traps which decrease the charge collection efficiency (CCE). So we have analysed both electrical and spectroscopic performance of different SI GaAs diodes as a function of concentrations of dopants in the substrate, in order to find a material by which we can obtain a CCE allowing the detection of all the photons that interact in the detector. Nevertheless to be able to detect low contrast details, efficiency and CCE are not the only parameters to be optimized; also the stability of the detection system is fundamental. In the past we have worked with Si pixel detectors; even if its atomic number does not allow a good detection efficiency at standard thickness, it has a very high stability. So keeping in mind the need to increase the Silicon detection efficiency we performed simulations to study the behaviour of the electrical potential in order to find a geometry to avoid the risk of electrical breakdown.

  8. The ALICE Pixel Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado-Perez, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    The present document is a brief summary of the performed activities during the 2001 Summer Student Programme at CERN under the Scientific Summer at Foreign Laboratories Program organized by the Particles and Fields Division of the Mexican Physical Society (Sociedad Mexicana de Fisica). In this case, the activities were related with the ALICE Pixel Group of the EP-AIT Division, under the supervision of Jeroen van Hunen, research fellow in this group. First, I give an introduction and overview to the ALICE experiment; followed by a description of wafer probing. A brief summary of the test beam that we had from July 13th to July 25th is given as well

  9. Status and future of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanov, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of disks in each forward end-cap. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-on-n silicon substrates. Intensive calibration, tuning, timing optimization and monitoring resulted in the successful five years of operation with good detector performance. The record breaking instantaneous luminosities of 7.7×10 33 cm −2 s −1 recently surpassed at the LHC generated a rapidly increasing particle fluence in the ATLAS Pixel Detector. As the radiation dose accumulated, the first effects of radiation damage became observable in the silicon sensors as an increase in the silicon leakage current and the change of the voltage required to fully deplete the sensor. A fourth pixel layer at a radius of 3.3 cm will be added during the long shutdown (2013–2014) together with the replacement of pixel services. A letter of intent was submitted for a completely new Pixel Detector after 2023, capable to take data with extremely high leveled luminosities of 5×10 34 cm −2 s −1 at the high luminosity LHC. -- Highlights: •The ATLAS Pixel Detector provides hermetic coverage with three layers with 80 million pixels. •Calibration, tuning, timing optimization and monitoring resulted in the successful five years of operation with good detector performance. •First effects of radiation damage became observable in the silicon sensors. •A fourth pixel layer at a radius of 3.3 cm will be added during the long shutdown (2013–2014). •Replacement of pixel services in 2013–2014. •A letter of intent was submitted for new Pixel Detector after 2023 for high luminosity LHC

  10. Fully integrated CMOS pixel detector for high energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanstraelen, G.; Debusschere, I.; Claeys, C.; Declerck, G.

    1989-01-01

    A novel type of position and energy sensitive, monolithic pixel array with integrated readout electronics is proposed. Special features of the design are a reduction of the number of output channels and of the amount of output data, and the use of transistors on the high resistivity silicon. The number of output channels for the detector array is reduced by handling in parallel a number of pixels, chosen as a function of the time resolution required for the system, and by the use of an address decoder. A further reduction of data is achieved by reading out only those pixels which have been activated. The pixel detector circuit will be realized in a 3 μm p-well CMOS process, which is optimized for the full integration of readout electronics and detector diodes on high resistivity Si. A retrograde well is formed by means of a high energy implantation, followed by the appropriate temperature steps. The optimization of the well shape takes into account the high substrate bias applied during the detector operation. The design is largely based on the use of MOS transistors on the high resistivity silicon itself. These have proven to perform as well as transistors on standard doped substrate. The basic building elements as well as the design strategy of the integrated pixel detector are presented in detail. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of a single-pixel one-transistor active pixel sensor for fingerprint imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Man; Ou, Hai; Chen, Jun; Wang, Kai

    2015-08-01

    Since it first appeared in iPhone 5S in 2013, fingerprint identification (ID) has rapidly gained popularity among consumers. Current fingerprint-enabled smartphones unanimously consists of a discrete sensor to perform fingerprint ID. This architecture not only incurs higher material and manufacturing cost, but also provides only static identification and limited authentication. Hence as the demand for a thinner, lighter, and more secure handset grows, we propose a novel pixel architecture that is a photosensitive device embedded in a display pixel and detects the reflected light from the finger touch for high resolution, high fidelity and dynamic biometrics. To this purpose, an amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) dual-gate photo TFT working in both fingerprint-imaging mode and display-driving mode will be developed.

  12. SLHC upgrade plans for the ATLAS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicho, Petr

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is an 80 million channels silicon tracking system designed to detect charged tracks and secondary vertices with very high precision. An upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector is presently being considered, enabling to cope with higher luminosity at Super Large Hadron Collider (SLHC). The increased luminosity leads to extremely high radiation doses in the innermost region of the ATLAS tracker. Options considered for a new detector are discussed, as well as some important R and D activities, such as investigations towards novel detector geometries and novel processes.

  13. The hardware of the ATLAS Pixel Detector Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henss, T; Andreani, A; Boek, J; Boyd, G; Citterio, M; Einsweiler, K; Kersten, S; Kind, P; Lantzsch, K; Latorre, S; Maettig, P; Meroni, C; Sabatini, F; Schultes, J

    2007-01-01

    The innermost part of the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) experiment, which is currently under construction at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider), will be a silicon pixel detector comprised of 1744 individual detector modules. To operate these modules, the readout electronics, and other detector components, a complex power supply and control system is necessary. The specific powering and control requirements, as well as the custom made components of our power supply and control systems, are described. These include remotely programmable regulator stations, the power supply system for the optical transceivers, several monitoring units, and the Interlock System. In total, this comprises the Pixel Detector Control System (DCS)

  14. Study of run time errors of the ATLAS Pixel Detector in the 2012 data taking period

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00339072

    2013-05-16

    The high resolution silicon Pixel detector is critical in event vertex reconstruction and in particle track reconstruction in the ATLAS detector. During the pixel data taking operation, some modules (Silicon Pixel sensor +Front End Chip+ Module Control Chip (MCC)) go to an auto-disable state, where the Modules don’t send the data for storage. Modules become operational again after reconfiguration. The source of the problem is not fully understood. One possible source of the problem is traced to the occurrence of single event upset (SEU) in the MCC. Such a module goes to either a Timeout or Busy state. This report is the study of different types and rates of errors occurring in the Pixel data taking operation. Also, the study includes the error rate dependency on Pixel detector geometry.

  15. Performance Studies of Pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors for the LHCb RICH Counters

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri Rinella, G; Piedigrossi, D; Van Lysebetten, A

    2004-01-01

    The Pixel Hybrid Photon Detector is a vacuum tube with a multi-alkali photo cathode, high voltage cross-focused electron optics and an anode consisting of a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a readout CMOS electronic chip fully encapsulated in the device. The Pixel HPD fulfils the requirements of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov counters of the LHCb experiment at LHC. The performances of the Pixel HPD will be discussed with reference to laboratory measurements, Cherenkov light imaging in recent beam tests, image distortions due to a magnetic field.

  16. 3D, Flash, Induced Current Readout for Silicon Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Sherwood I. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2014-06-07

    A new method for silicon microstrip and pixel detector readout using (1) 65 nm-technology current amplifers which can, for the first time with silicon microstrop and pixel detectors, have response times far shorter than the charge collection time (2) 3D trench electrodes large enough to subtend a reasonable solid angle at most track locations and so have adequate sensitivity over a substantial volume of pixel, (3) induced signals in addition to, or in place of, collected charge

  17. Pixel Interpolation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Mintěl, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá akcelerací interpolačních metod s využitím GPU a architektury NVIDIA (R) CUDA TM. Grafický výstup je reprezentován demonstrační aplikací pro transformaci obrazu nebo videa s použitím vybrané interpolace. Časově kritické části kódu jsou přesunuty na GPU a vykonány paralelně. Pro práci s obrazem a videem jsou použity vysoce optimalizované algoritmy z knihovny OpenCV, od firmy Intel. This master's thesis deals with acceleration of pixel interpolation methods usi...

  18. The ALICE pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mercado Perez, J

    2002-01-01

    The present document is a brief summary of the performed activities during the 2001 Summer Student Programme at CERN under the Scientific Summer at Foreign Laboratories Program organized by the Particles and Fields Division of the Mexican Physical Society (Sociedad Mexicana de Fisica). In this case, the activities were related with the ALICE Pixel Group of the EP-AIT Division, under the supervision of Jeroen van Hunen, research fellow in this group. First, I give an introduction and overview to the ALICE experiment; followed by a description of wafer probing. A brief summary of the test beam that we had from July 13th to July 25th is given as well. (3 refs).

  19. Operational experience of ATLAS SCT and Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kocian, Martin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector based on silicon sensors is consisting of a strip detector (SCT) and a pixel detector. It is the crucial component for vertexing and tracking in the ATLAS experiment. With the excellent performance of the LHC well beyond the original specification the silicon tracking detectors are facing substantial challenges in terms of data acquisition, radiation damage to the sensors, and SEUs in the readout ASICs. The approaches on how the detector systems cope with the demands of high luminosity operation while maintaining excellent performance through hardware upgrades, software and firmware algorithms, and operational settings, are presented.

  20. Module and electronics developments for the ATLAS ITK pixel system

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for an extensive modification of its detectors in the course of the planned HL-LHC accelerator upgrade around 2025. The ATLAS upgrade includes the replacement of the entire tracking system by an all-silicon detector (Inner Tracker, ITk). The five innermost layers of ITk will be a pixel detector built of new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the severe HL-LHC environment in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total area of the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m2, depending on the final layout choice, which is expected to take place in 2017. In this paper an overview of the ongoing R\\&D activities on modules and electronics for the ATLAS ITk is given including the main developments and achievements in silicon planar and 3D sensor technologies, readout and power challenges.

  1. THE KEPLER PIXEL RESPONSE FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryson, Stephen T.; Haas, Michael R.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Koch, David G.; Borucki, William J.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Jenkins, Jon M.; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Klaus, Todd; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    2010-01-01

    Kepler seeks to detect sequences of transits of Earth-size exoplanets orbiting solar-like stars. Such transit signals are on the order of 100 ppm. The high photometric precision demanded by Kepler requires detailed knowledge of how the Kepler pixels respond to starlight during a nominal observation. This information is provided by the Kepler pixel response function (PRF), defined as the composite of Kepler's optical point-spread function, integrated spacecraft pointing jitter during a nominal cadence and other systematic effects. To provide sub-pixel resolution, the PRF is represented as a piecewise-continuous polynomial on a sub-pixel mesh. This continuous representation allows the prediction of a star's flux value on any pixel given the star's pixel position. The advantages and difficulties of this polynomial representation are discussed, including characterization of spatial variation in the PRF and the smoothing of discontinuities between sub-pixel polynomial patches. On-orbit super-resolution measurements of the PRF across the Kepler field of view are described. Two uses of the PRF are presented: the selection of pixels for each star that maximizes the photometric signal-to-noise ratio for that star, and PRF-fitted centroids which provide robust and accurate stellar positions on the CCD, primarily used for attitude and plate scale tracking. Good knowledge of the PRF has been a critical component for the successful collection of high-precision photometry by Kepler.

  2. The Pixelated Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Stamenković

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The text foregrounds the relationship between three main elements: gaze, image and violence. Framed by the theoretical propositions in the selected texts by Marie-José Mondzain and Jean-Luc Nancy, this relationship is considered in the context of the current socio-political realities in the Middle East (Syria but also in the broader, global sense. I take contemporary visual practice as my starting point and consider “The Pixelated Revolution” (the project by the Lebanese artist Rabih Mroué as exemplary in this context in order to engage with the following phenomenon - recording one’s own death in the revolutionary and wartime conditions, at a level that connects several key elements of the debate: the visual character of mobile (phone technology, image-producing operations, the concept of self-sacrifice, and the mobilization of communities towards radical transformations. The purpose of this text is to encourage future reflections about the role images perform nowadays (in particular those created under the conditions of lethal threat and violence and about the implications of an external observer in this process, when looking at such images in the exhibition context from a ‘lateral’ (i.e., supposedly safe and neutral perspective.

  3. Diamond pixel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asner, D.; Barbero, M.; Bellini, V.; Belyaev, V.; Brom, J-M.; Bruzzi, M.; Chren, D.; Cindro, V.; Claus, G.; Cristinziani, M.; Costa, S.; D'Alessandro, R.; Boer, W. de; Dobos, D.; Dolenc, I.; Dulinski, W.; Duris, J.; Eremin, V.; Eusebi, R.; Frais-Koelbl, H.

    2011-01-01

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8x10 16 protons/cm 2 illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel modules.

  4. Diamond pixel modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asner, D. [Carleton University, Ottawa (Canada); Barbero, M. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Bellini, V. [INFN/University of Catania (Italy); Belyaev, V. [MEPHI Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Brom, J-M. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Bruzzi, M. [INFN/University of Florence (Italy); Chren, D. [Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Cindro, V. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Claus, G. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Cristinziani, M. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Costa, S. [INFN/University of Catania (Italy); D' Alessandro, R. [Department of Energetics/INFN Florence (Italy); Boer, W. de [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Dobos, D. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Dolenc, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dulinski, W. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Duris, J. [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Eremin, V. [Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Eusebi, R. [FNAL, Batavia (United States); Frais-Koelbl, H. [Fachhochschule fuer Wirtschaft und Technik, Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2011-04-21

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8x10{sup 16} protons/cm{sup 2} illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel modules.

  5. Performance of the INTPIX6 SOI pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Y.; Bugiel, Sz.; Dasgupta, R.; Idzik, M.; Kapusta, P.; Kucewicz, W.; Miyoshi, T.; Turala, M.

    2017-01-01

    Characterization of the monolithic pixel detector INPTIX6, designed at KEK and fabricated in Lapis 0.2 μ m Fully-Depleted, Low-Leakage Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) CMOS technology, was performed. The INTPIX6 comprises a large area of 1408 × 896 integrating type squared pixels of 12 micron pitch. In this work the performance and measurement results of the prototypes produced on lower resistivity Czochralski type (CZ-n) and high resistivity floating zone (FZ-n) sensor wafers are presented. Using 241Am radioactive source the noise of INTPIX6 was measured, showing the ENC (Equivalent Noise Charge) of about 70 e-. The resolution calculated from the FWHM of the Iron-55 X-ray peak was about 100 e-. The radiation hardness of the SOI pixel detector was also investigated. The CZ-n type INTPIX6 received a dose of 60 krad and its performance has been continuously monitored during the irradiation.

  6. Studies of mono-crystalline CVD diamond pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bartz, E; Atramentov, O; Yang, Z; Hall-Wilton, R; Schnetzer, S; Patel, R; Bugg, W; Hebda, P; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Marlow, D; Steininger, H; Ryjov, V; Hits, D; Spanier, S; Pernicka, M; Johns, W; Doroshenko, J; Hollingsworth, M; Harrop, B; Farrow, C; Stone, R

    2011-01-01

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a dedicated luminosity monitor, presently under construction, for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It measures the particle flux in several three layered pixel diamond detectors that are aligned precisely with respect to each other and the beam direction. At a lower rate it also performs particle track position measurements. The PLTs mono-crystalline CVD diamonds are bump-bonded to the same readout chip used in the silicon pixel system in CMS. Mono-crystalline diamond detectors have many attributes that make them desirable for use in charged particle tracking in radiation hostile environments such as the LHC. In order to further characterize the applicability of diamond technology to charged particle tracking we performed several tests with particle beams that included a measurement of the intrinsic spatial resolution with a high resolution beam telescope. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pan, L.S.; Peitz, A.; Pernicka, M.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Steuerer, J.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Gilchriese, M.; Joshi, A.; Kleinfelder, S.; Milgrome, O.; Palaio, N.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Zizka, G.

    1999-01-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98% of the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 μm was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch

  8. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Fried, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Palmieri, V G; Pan, L S; Peitz, A; Pernicka, Manfred; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Steuerer, J; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Turchetta, R; Vittone, E; Wagner, A; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Zeuner, W; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M; Charles, E; Ciocio, A; Dao, K; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Fasching, D; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Richardson, J; Sinervo, P K; Zizka, G

    1999-01-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98565544f the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 mu m was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch. (13 refs).

  9. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pan, L.S.; Peitz, A.; Pernicka, M.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Steuerer, J.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W. E-mail: william@physics.utoronto.ca; Turchetta, R.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Gilchriese, M.; Joshi, A.; Kleinfelder, S.; Milgrome, O.; Palaio, N.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Zizka, G

    1999-11-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98% of the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 {mu}m was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch.

  10. Online calibrations and performance of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It consists of 1744 silicon sensors equipped with approximately 80 M electronic channels, providing typically three measurement points with high resolution for particles emerging from the beam-interaction region, thus allowing measuring particle tracks and secondary vertices with very high precision. The readout system of the Pixel Detector is based on a bi-directional optical data transmission system between the detector and the data acquisition system with an individual link for each of the 1744 modules. Signal conversion components are located on both ends, approximately 80 m apart. The talk will give an overview of the calibration and performance of both the detector and its optical readout. The most basic parameter to be tuned and calibrated for the detector electronics is the readout threshold of the individual pixel channels. These need to be carefully tuned to optimise position resolution a...

  11. Modeling Radiation Damage to Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Nachman, Benjamin Philip; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector. As the detector in closest proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the HL-LHC, the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of $10^{15}$ 1 MeV $n_\\mathrm{eq}/\\mathrm{cm}^2$ and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This talk presents a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS Pixel sensors for the first time. After a thorough description of the setup, predictions for basic Pixel cluster properties are presented alongside first validation studies with Run 2 collision data.

  12. Studies of mono-crystalline CVD diamond pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugg, W. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); Hollingsworth, M., E-mail: mhollin3@utk.edu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); Bartz, E.; Doroshenko, J.; Hits, D.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Atramentov, O.; Patel, R.; Barker, A. [Rutgers University, Piscataway (United States); Hall-Wilton, R.; Ryjov, V.; Farrow, C. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Pernicka, M.; Steininger, H. [HEPHY, Vienna (Austria); Johns, W. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville (United States); Halyo, V.; Harrop, B. [Princeton University, Princeton (United States); and others

    2011-09-11

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a dedicated luminosity monitor, presently under construction, for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It measures the particle flux in several three layered pixel diamond detectors that are aligned precisely with respect to each other and the beam direction. At a lower rate it also performs particle track position measurements. The PLT's mono-crystalline CVD diamonds are bump-bonded to the same readout chip used in the silicon pixel system in CMS. Mono-crystalline diamond detectors have many attributes that make them desirable for use in charged particle tracking in radiation hostile environments such as the LHC. In order to further characterize the applicability of diamond technology to charged particle tracking we performed several tests with particle beams that included a measurement of the intrinsic spatial resolution with a high resolution beam telescope.

  13. Development of Pixel Front-End Electronics using Advanced Deep Submicron CMOS Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Havránek, Miroslav; Dingfelder, Jochen

    The content of this thesis is oriented on the R&D; of microelectronic integrated circuits for processing the signal from particle sensors and partially on the sensors themselves. This work is motivated by ongoing upgrades of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at CERN laboratory and by exploration of new technologies for the future experiments in particle physics. Evolution of technologies for the fabrication of microelectronic circuits follows Moore’s laws. Transistors become smaller and electronic chips reach higher complexity. Apart from this, silicon foundries become more open to smaller customers and often provide non-standard process options. Two new directions in pixel technologies are explored in this thesis: design of pixel electronics using ultra deep submicron (65 nm) CMOS technology and Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS). An independent project concerning the measurement of pixel capacitance with a dedicated measurement chip is a part of this thesis. Pixel capacitance is one of the key pa...

  14. Laser tests of silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolezal, Zdenek; Escobar, Carlos; Gadomski, Szymon; Garcia, Carmen; Gonzalez, Sergio; Kodys, Peter; Kubik, Petr; Lacasta, Carlos; Marti, Salvador; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Moorhead, Gareth F.; Phillips, Peter W.; Reznicek, Pavel; Slavik, Radan

    2007-01-01

    This paper collects experiences from the development of a silicon sensor laser testing setup and from tests of silicon strip modules (ATLAS End-cap SCT), pixel modules (DEPFET) and large-area diodes using semiconductor lasers. Lasers of 1060 and 680 nm wavelengths were used. A sophisticated method of focusing the laser was developed. Timing and interstrip properties of modules were measured. Analysis of optical effects involved and detailed discussion about the usability of laser testing for particle detectors are presented

  15. ATLAS Pixel Detector Design For HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Ben; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) running in 2026. The new Inner Detector will be called the Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk will cover an extended eta-range: at least to |eta|<3.2, and likely up to |eta|<4.0. The ITk will be an all-Silicon based detector, consisting of a Silicon strip detector outside of a radius of 362mm, and a Silicon pixel detector inside of this radius. Several novel designs are being considered for the ITk pixel detector, to cope with high-eta charged particle tracks. These designs are grouped into 'extended' and 'inclined' design-types. Extended designs have long pixel staves with sensors parallel to the beamline. High-eta particles will therefore hit these sensors at shallow angles, leaving elongated charge clusters. The length of such a charge cluster can be used to estimate the angle of the passing particle. This information can then be used in track reconstruction to improve tracking efficiency and reduce fake rates. Inclined designs ...

  16. From Pixels to Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownston, Lee; Jenkins, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Mission was launched in 2009 as NASAs first mission capable of finding Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. Its telescope consists of a 1.5-m primary mirror and a 0.95-m aperture. The 42 charge-coupled devices in its focal plane are read out every half hour, compressed, and then downlinked monthly. After four years, the second of four reaction wheels failed, ending the original mission. Back on earth, the Science Operations Center developed the Science Pipeline to analyze about 200,000 target stars in Keplers field of view, looking for evidence of periodic dimming suggesting that one or more planets had crossed the face of its host star. The Pipeline comprises several steps, from pixel-level calibration, through noise and artifact removal, to detection of transit-like signals and the construction of a suite of diagnostic tests to guard against false positives. The Kepler Science Pipeline consists of a pipeline infrastructure written in the Java programming language, which marshals data input to and output from MATLAB applications that are executed as external processes. The pipeline modules, which underwent continuous development and refinement even after data started arriving, employ several analytic techniques, many developed for the Kepler Project. Because of the large number of targets, the large amount of data per target and the complexity of the pipeline algorithms, the processing demands are daunting. Some pipeline modules require days to weeks to process all of their targets, even when run on NASA's 128-node Pleiades supercomputer. The software developers are still seeking ways to increase the throughput. To date, the Kepler project has discovered more than 4000 planetary candidates, of which more than 1000 have been independently confirmed or validated to be exoplanets. Funding for this mission is provided by NASAs Science Mission Directorate.

  17. Alignment of the upgraded CMS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Schroder, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    The all-silicon tracking system of the CMS experiment provides excellent resolution for charged tracks and an efficient tagging of heavy-flavour jets. After a new pixel detector has been installed during the LHC technical stop at the beginning of 2017, the positions, orientations, and surface curvatures of the sensors needed to be determined with a precision at the order of a few micrometres to ensure the required physics performance. This is far beyond the mechanical mounting precision but can be achieved using a track-based alignment procedure that minimises the track-hit residuals of reconstructed tracks. The results are carefully validated with data-driven methods. In this article, results of the CMS tracker alignment in 2017 from the early detector-commissioning phase and the later operation are presented, that were derived using several million reconstructed tracks in pp-collision and cosmic-ray data. Special emphasis is put on the alignment of the new pixel detector.

  18. The Pixels system: last but not late!

    CERN Multimedia

    Kevin Einsweiler

    The Pixel Detector for ATLAS is one of the smallest, but most challenging components of the experiment. It lives in the dangerous territory directly outside the beampipe, where the radiation environment is particularly fierce, and it must be roughly one million times more radiation-hard than its human designers. Starting at a radius of just 5cm from the interaction point where the proton beams collide, it occupies a volume of slightly more than one meter in length and a half meter in diameter. In this compact region, there are eighty million channels of electronics (most of the electronics channels in ATLAS!), each capable of measuring the charge deposited by a track in a silicon pixel measuring only 50 microns by 400 microns in size (a volume of 0.005 cubic millimeters). A total cooling capacity of 15 KWatts is available to keep it operating comfortably at -5C. This detector is built around, and provides the support for, the central beampipe of ATLAS. It is supported on carbon fiber rails inside of the Pix...

  19. Quality control on planar n-in-n pixel sensors — Recent progress of ATLAS planar pixel sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingenberg, R.

    2013-01-01

    To extend the physics reach of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), upgrades to the accelerator are planned which will increase the peak luminosity by a factor 5–10. To cope with the increased occupancy and radiation damage, the ATLAS experiment plans to introduce an all-silicon inner tracker with the high luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). To investigate the suitability of pixel sensors using the proven planar technology for the upgraded tracker, the ATLAS Upgrade Planar Pixel Sensor (PPS) R and D Project was established. Main areas of research are the performance of planar pixel sensors at highest fluences, the exploration of possibilities for cost reduction to enable the instrumentation of large areas, the achievement of slim or active edges to provide low geometric inefficiencies without the need for shingling of modules and the investigation of the operation of highly irradiated sensors at low thresholds to increase the efficiency. The Insertable b-layer (IBL) is the first upgrade project within the ATLAS experiment and will employ a new detector layer consisting of silicon pixel sensors, which were improved and prototyped in the framework of the planar pixel sensor R and D project. A special focus of this paper is the status of the development and testing of planar n-in-n pixel sensors including the quality control of the on-going series production and postprocessing of sensor wafers. A high yield of produced planar sensor wafers and FE-I4 double chip sensors after first steps of post-processing including under bump metallization and dicing is observed. -- Highlights: ► Prototypes of irradiated planar n-in-n sensors have been successfully tested under laboratory conditions. ► A quality assurance programme on the series production of planar sensors for the IBL has started. ► A high yield of double chip sensors during the series production is observed which are compatible to the specifications to this detector component.

  20. CMS Barrel Pixel Detector Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Kästli, H C; Erdmann, W; Gabathuler, K; Hörmann, C; Horisberger, Roland Paul; König, S; Kotlinski, D; Meier, B; Robmann, P; Rohe, T; Streuli, S

    2007-01-01

    The pixel detector is the innermost tracking device of the CMS experiment at the LHC. It is built from two independent sub devices, the pixel barrel and the end disks. The barrel consists of three concentric layers around the beam pipe with mean radii of 4.4, 7.3 and 10.2 cm. There are two end disks on each side of the interaction point at 34.5 cm and 46.5 cm. This article gives an overview of the pixel barrel detector, its mechanical support structure, electronics components, services and its expected performance.

  1. The Phase-2 ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Benoit, Mathieu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the “ITk” (Inner Tracker). The innermost portion of the ITk will consist of a pixel detector with stave-like support structures in the most central region and ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions; there may also be novel inclined support structures in the barrel-endcap overlap regions. The new detector could have as much as 14 m2 of sensitive silicon. Support structures will be based on low mass, highly stable and highly thermally conductive carbon-based materials cooled by evaporative carbon dioxide. The ITk will be instrumented with new sensors and readout electronics to provide improved tracking performance compared to the current detector. All the module components must be performant enough and robust enough to cope with the expected high particle multiplicity and severe radiation background of the High-Luminosity LHC. Readout...

  2. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus crucial for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via front-end chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-on-n silicon substrates. In this paper results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including calibration procedures, detector performance and measurements of radiation damage. The detector performance is excellent: more than 95% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the des...

  3. Parallel encoders for pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikityuk, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    A new method of fast encoding and determining the multiplicity and coordinates of fired pixels is described. A specific example construction of parallel encodes and MCC for n=49 and t=2 is given. 16 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  4. Mechanical design and material budget of the CMS barrel pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsler, C; Boesiger, K; Chiochia, V; Maier, R; Meyer, Hp; Robmann, P; Scherr, S; Schmidt, A; Steiner, S [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Winterthurerstr. 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Erdmann, W; Gabathuler, K; Horisberger, R; Koenig, S; Kotlinski, D; Meier, B; Streuli, S [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Rizzi, A [ETH Zuerich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: Alexander.Schmidt@cern.ch

    2009-05-15

    The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN includes a silicon pixel detector as its innermost component. Its main task is the precise reconstruction of charged particles close to the primary interaction vertex. This paper gives an overview of the mechanical requirements and design choices for the barrel pixel detector. The distribution of material in the detector as well as its description in the Monte Carlo simulation are discussed in detail.

  5. Mechanical Design and Material Budget of the CMS Barrel Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Amsler, C; Chiochia, V; Erdmann, W; Gabathuler, K; Horisberger, R; König, S; Kotlinski, D; Maier, R; Meyer, H; Meier, B; Meyer, Hp; Rizzi, A; Robmann, P; Scherr, S; Schmidt, A; Steiner, S; Erdmann, W; Gabathuler, K; Horisberger, R; König, S; Kotlinski, D; Meier, B; Streuli, S; Rizzi, A

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN includes a silicon pixel detector as its innermost component. Its main task is the precise reconstruction of charged particles close to the primary interaction vertex. This paper gives an overview of the mechanical requirements and design choices for the barrel pixel detector. The distribution of material in the detector as well as its description in the Monte Carlo simulation are discussed in detail.

  6. Planering med BIM

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Kristoffer

    2016-01-01

    New technical solutions is popping up all the time. In the construction industry today there is a development to find methods that can take advantage of these modern technological solutions. BIM is a term that stands for this development of information handling and therefore for the streamline and improvement of the construction process. But many in the industry still do not know what the term stands for and therefore not what it means to work with the tools.   A good planning is an important...

  7. Track parameter resolution study of a pixel only detector for LHC geometry and future high rate experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blago, Michele Piero; Kar, Tamasi Rameshchandra; Schoening, Andre [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Recent progress in pixel detector technology, for example using High Voltage-Monolithic Pixel Sensors (HV-MAPS), makes it feasible to construct an all-silicon pixel detector for large scale particle experiments like ATLAS and CMS or other future collider experiments. Preliminary studies have shown that nine layers of pixel sensors are sufficient to reliably reconstruct particle trajectories. The performance of such an all-pixel detector is studied based on a full GEANT simulation for high luminosity conditions at the upgraded LHC. Furthermore, the ability of an all-pixel detector to form trigger decisions using a special triplet pixel layer design is studied. Such a design could be used to reconstruct all tracks originating from the proton-proton interaction at the first hardware level at 40 MHz collision frequency.

  8. Probing and irradiation tests of ALICE pixel chip wafers and sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Cinausero, M; Antinori, F; Chochula, P; Dinapoli, R; Dima, R; Fabris, D; Galet, G; Lunardon, M; Manea, C; Marchini, S; Martini, S; Moretto, S; Pepato, Adriano; Prete, G; Riedler, P; Scarlassara, F; Segato, G F; Soramel, F; Stefanini, G; Turrisi, R; Vannucci, L; Viesti, G

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) project a system dedicated to the tests of the ALICE1LHCb chip wafers has been assembled and is now in use for the selection of pixel chips to be bump-bonded to sensor ladders. In parallel, radiation hardness tests of the SPD silicon sensors have been carried out using the 27 MeV proton beam delivered by the XTU TANDEM accelerator at the SIRAD facility in LNL. In this paper we describe the wafer probing and irradiation set-ups and we report the obtained results. (6 refs).

  9. Limits in point to point resolution of MOS based pixels detector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourches, N.; Desforge, D.; Kebbiri, M.; Kumar, V.; Serruys, Y.; Gutierrez, G.; Leprêtre, F.; Jomard, F.

    2018-01-01

    In high energy physics point-to-point resolution is a key prerequisite for particle detector pixel arrays. Current and future experiments require the development of inner-detectors able to resolve the tracks of particles down to the micron range. Present-day technologies, although not fully implemented in actual detectors, can reach a 5-μm limit, this limit being based on statistical measurements, with a pixel-pitch in the 10 μm range. This paper is devoted to the evaluation of the building blocks for use in pixel arrays enabling accurate tracking of charged particles. Basing us on simulations we will make here a quantitative evaluation of the physical and technological limits in pixel size. Attempts to design small pixels based on SOI technology will be briefly recalled here. A design based on CMOS compatible technologies that allow a reduction of the pixel size below the micrometer is introduced here. Its physical principle relies on a buried carrier-localizing collecting gate. The fabrication process needed by this pixel design can be based on existing process steps used in silicon microelectronics. The pixel characteristics will be discussed as well as the design of pixel arrays. The existing bottlenecks and how to overcome them will be discussed in the light of recent ion implantation and material characterization experiments.

  10. Characterization of pixel sensor designed in 180 nm SOI CMOS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benka, T.; Havranek, M.; Hejtmanek, M.; Jakovenko, J.; Janoska, Z.; Marcisovska, M.; Marcisovsky, M.; Neue, G.; Tomasek, L.; Vrba, V.

    2018-01-01

    A new type of X-ray imaging Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS), X-CHIP-02, was developed using a 180 nm deep submicron Silicon On Insulator (SOI) CMOS commercial technology. Two pixel matrices were integrated into the prototype chip, which differ by the pixel pitch of 50 μm and 100 μm. The X-CHIP-02 contains several test structures, which are useful for characterization of individual blocks. The sensitive part of the pixel integrated in the handle wafer is one of the key structures designed for testing. The purpose of this structure is to determine the capacitance of the sensitive part (diode in the MAPS pixel). The measured capacitance is 2.9 fF for 50 μm pixel pitch and 4.8 fF for 100 μm pixel pitch at -100 V (default operational voltage). This structure was used to measure the IV characteristics of the sensitive diode. In this work, we report on a circuit designed for precise determination of sensor capacitance and IV characteristics of both pixel types with respect to X-ray irradiation. The motivation for measurement of the sensor capacitance was its importance for the design of front-end amplifier circuits. The design of pixel elements, as well as circuit simulation and laboratory measurement techniques are described. The experimental results are of great importance for further development of MAPS sensors in this technology.

  11. X-ray imaging with photon counting hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Manolopoulos, S; Campbell, M; Snoeys, W; Heijne, Erik H M; Pernigotti, E; Raine, C; Smith, K; Watt, J; O'Shea, V; Ludwig, J; Schwarz, C

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor pixel detectors, originally developed for particle physics experiments, have been studied as X-ray imaging devices. The performance of devices using the OMEGA 3 read-out chip bump-bonded to pixellated silicon semiconductor detectors is characterised in terms of their signal-to-noise ratio when exposed to 60 kVp X-rays. Although parts of the devices achieve values of this ratio compatible with the noise being photon statistics limited, this is not found to hold for the whole pixel matrix, resulting in the global signal-to-noise ratio being compromised. First results are presented of X-ray images taken with a gallium arsenide pixel detector bump-bonded to a new read-out chip, (MEDIPIX), which is a single photon counting read-out chip incorporating a 15-bit counter in every pixel. (author)

  12. Detector Performance and Upgrade Plans of the Pixel Luminosity Telescope for Online per-Bunch Luminosity Measurement at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a dedicated system for luminosity measurement at the CMS experiment using silicon pixel sensors. It was installed during LS1 and has been providing luminosity measurements throughout Run 2. The online bunch-by-bunch luminosity measurement employs the "fast-or" capability of the pixel readout chip (PSI46) to quickly identify likely tracks at the full 40MHz interaction rate. In addition, the full pixel information is read out at a lower rate, allowing for more detailed offline analysis. In this talk, we will present details of the commissioning, performance and operational history of the currently installed hardware and upgrade plans for LS2.

  13. A measurement of Lorentz Angle of radiation-hard Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Aleppo, M

    2001-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors developed to meet LHC requirements were tested in a beam at CERN in the framework of the ATLAS collaboration. The experimental behaviour of irradiated and not-irradiated sensors in a magnetic field is discussed. The measurement of the Lorentz angle for these sensors at different operating conditions is presented. A simple model of the charge drift in silicon before and after irradiation is presented. The good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental results is shown.

  14. Silicone metalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  15. Testbeam and laboratory test results of irradiated 3D CMS pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubna, Mayur [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Purdue University, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Alagoz, Enver, E-mail: enver.alagoz@cern.ch [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Cervantes, Mayra; Krzywda, Alex; Arndt, Kirk [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Obertino, Margherita; Solano, Ada [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienzadella Informazione, Universitá di Trento, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Menace, Dario; Moroni, Luigi [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Universitá degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milano (Italy); Uplegger, Lorenzo; Rivera, Ryan [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States); Osipenkov, Ilya [Texas A and M University, Department of Physics, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Andresen, Jeff [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States); Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Boscardin, Maurizio [Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Marie Brom, Jean [Strasbourg IPHC, Institut Pluriedisciplinaire Hubert Curien, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Brosius, Richard [State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY), Department of Physics, Buffalo, NY 14260-1500 (United States); Chramowicz, John [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States); and others

    2013-12-21

    The CMS silicon pixel detector is the tracking device closest to the LHC p–p collisions, which precisely reconstructs the charged particle trajectories. The planar technology used in the current innermost layer of the pixel detector will reach the design limit for radiation hardness at the end of Phase I upgrade and will need to be replaced before the Phase II upgrade in 2020. Due to its unprecedented performance in harsh radiation environments, 3D silicon technology is under consideration as a possible replacement of planar technology for the High Luminosity-LHC or HL-LHC. 3D silicon detectors are fabricated by the Deep Reactive-Ion-Etching (DRIE) technique which allows p- and n-type electrodes to be processed through the silicon substrate as opposed to being implanted through the silicon surface. The 3D CMS pixel devices presented in this paper were processed at FBK. They were bump bonded to the current CMS pixel readout chip, tested in the laboratory, and testbeams carried out at FNAL with the proton beam of 120 GeV/c. In this paper we present the laboratory and beam test results for the irradiated 3D CMS pixel devices. -- Highlights: •Pre-irradiation and post-irradiation electrical properties of 3D sensors and 3D diodes from various FBK production batches were measured and analyzed. •I–T measurements of gamma irradiated diodes were analyzed to understand leakage current generation mechanism in 3D diodes. •Laboratory measurements: signal to noise ratio and charge collection efficiency of 3D sensors before and after irradiation. •Testbeam measurements: pre- and post-irradiation pixel cell efficiency and position resolution of 3D sensors.

  16. Module and Electronics Developments for the ATLAS ITK Pixel System

    CERN Document Server

    Rummler, Andr{e}; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown around 2025 by an all-silicon detector (Inner Tracker, ITk). The pixel detector will be composed by the five innermost layers, instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the severe HL-LHC environment in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total area of the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m^2, depending on the final layout choice that is expected to take place in early 2017. Different designs of planar, 3D, CMOS sensors are being investigated to identify the optimal technology for the different pixel layers. In parallel sensor-chip interconnection options are evaluated in collaboration with industrial partners to identify reliable technologies when employing 100-150 μm thin chips. While the new read-out chip is being developed by the RD53 Collaboration, the pixel off detector read-out electronics will be implemented in the frame...

  17. Module and Electronics Developments for the ATLAS ITK Pixel System

    CERN Document Server

    Nellist, Clara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS is preparing for an extensive modification of its detector in the course of the planned HL-LHC accelerator upgrade around 2025 which includes a replacement of the entire tracking system by an all-silicon detector (Inner Tracker, ITk). The five innermost layers of ITk will comprise of a pixel detector built of new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the severe HL-LHC environment in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total area of the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m$^{2}$, depending on the final layout choice that is expected to take place in early 2017. An intense R\\&D activity is taking place in the field of planar, 3D, CMOS sensors to identify the optimal technology for the different pixel layers. In parallel various sensor-chip interconnection options are explored to identify reliable technologies when employing 100-150~$\\mu$m thin chips. While the new read-out chip is being developed by the RD53 Collaboration, the pixel off de...

  18. Electron imaging with Medipix2 hybrid pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    McMullan, G; Chen, S; Henderson, R; Llopart, X; Summerfield, C; Tlustos, L; Faruqi, A R

    2007-01-01

    The electron imaging performance of Medipix2 is described. Medipix2 is a hybrid pixel detector composed of two layers. It has a sensor layer and a layer of readout electronics, in which each 55 μm×55 μm pixel has upper and lower energy discrimination and MHz rate counting. The sensor layer consists of a 300 μm slab of pixellated monolithic silicon and this is bonded to the readout chip. Experimental measurement of the detective quantum efficiency, DQE(0) at 120 keV shows that it can reach 85% independent of electron exposure, since the detector has zero noise, and the DQE(Nyquist) can reach 35% of that expected for a perfect detector (4/π2). Experimental measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF) at Nyquist resolution for 120 keV electrons using a 60 keV lower energy threshold, yields a value that is 50% of that expected for a perfect detector (2/π). Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of electron tracks and energy deposited in adjacent pixels have been performed and used to calculate expected v...

  19. Electron imaging with Medipix2 hybrid pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullan, G.; Cattermole, D.M.; Chen, S.; Henderson, R.; Llopart, X.; Summerfield, C.; Tlustos, L.; Faruqi, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    The electron imaging performance of Medipix2 is described. Medipix2 is a hybrid pixel detector composed of two layers. It has a sensor layer and a layer of readout electronics, in which each 55 μmx55 μm pixel has upper and lower energy discrimination and MHz rate counting. The sensor layer consists of a 300 μm slab of pixellated monolithic silicon and this is bonded to the readout chip. Experimental measurement of the detective quantum efficiency, DQE(0) at 120 keV shows that it can reach ∼85% independent of electron exposure, since the detector has zero noise, and the DQE(Nyquist) can reach ∼35% of that expected for a perfect detector (4/π 2 ). Experimental measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF) at Nyquist resolution for 120 keV electrons using a 60 keV lower energy threshold, yields a value that is 50% of that expected for a perfect detector (2/π). Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of electron tracks and energy deposited in adjacent pixels have been performed and used to calculate expected values for the MTF and DQE as a function of the threshold energy. The good agreement between theory and experiment allows suggestions for further improvements to be made with confidence. The present detector is already very useful for experiments that require a high DQE at very low doses

  20. Electron imaging with Medipix2 hybrid pixel detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, G; Cattermole, D M; Chen, S; Henderson, R; Llopart, X; Summerfield, C; Tlustos, L; Faruqi, A R

    2007-01-01

    The electron imaging performance of Medipix2 is described. Medipix2 is a hybrid pixel detector composed of two layers. It has a sensor layer and a layer of readout electronics, in which each 55 microm x 55 microm pixel has upper and lower energy discrimination and MHz rate counting. The sensor layer consists of a 300 microm slab of pixellated monolithic silicon and this is bonded to the readout chip. Experimental measurement of the detective quantum efficiency, DQE(0) at 120 keV shows that it can reach approximately 85% independent of electron exposure, since the detector has zero noise, and the DQE(Nyquist) can reach approximately 35% of that expected for a perfect detector (4/pi(2)). Experimental measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF) at Nyquist resolution for 120 keV electrons using a 60 keV lower energy threshold, yields a value that is 50% of that expected for a perfect detector (2/pi). Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of electron tracks and energy deposited in adjacent pixels have been performed and used to calculate expected values for the MTF and DQE as a function of the threshold energy. The good agreement between theory and experiment allows suggestions for further improvements to be made with confidence. The present detector is already very useful for experiments that require a high DQE at very low doses.

  1. CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors for high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoeys, W., E-mail: walter.snoeys@cern.ch

    2014-11-21

    Monolithic pixel detectors integrating sensor matrix and readout in one piece of silicon are only now starting to make their way into high energy physics. Two major requirements are radiation tolerance and low power consumption. For the most extreme radiation levels, signal charge has to be collected by drift from a depletion layer onto a designated collection electrode without losing the signal charge elsewhere in the in-pixel circuit. Low power consumption requires an optimization of Q/C, the ratio of the collected signal charge over the input capacitance [1]. Some solutions to combine sufficient Q/C and collection by drift require exotic fabrication steps. More conventional solutions up to now require a simple in-pixel readout circuit. Both high voltage CMOS technologies and Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) technologies with high resistivity epitaxial layers offer high voltage diodes. The choice between the two is not fundamental but more a question of how much depletion can be reached and also of availability and cost. This paper tries to give an overview.

  2. The ATLAS Planar Pixel Sensor R and D project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beimforde, M.

    2011-01-01

    Within the R and D project on Planar Pixel Sensor Technology for the ATLAS inner detector upgrade, the use of planar pixel sensors for highest fluences as well as large area silicon detectors is investigated. The main research goals are optimizing the signal size after irradiations, reducing the inactive sensor edges, adjusting the readout electronics to the radiation induced decrease of the signal sizes, and reducing the production costs. Planar n-in-p sensors have been irradiated with neutrons and protons up to fluences of 2x10 16 n eq /cm 2 and 1x10 16 n eq /cm 2 , respectively, to study the collected charge as a function of the irradiation dose received. Furthermore comparisons of irradiated standard 300μm and thin 140μm sensors will be presented showing an increase of signal sizes after irradiation in thin sensors. Tuning studies of the present ATLAS front end electronics show possibilities to decrease the discriminator threshold of the present FE-I3 read out chips to less than 1500 electrons. In the present pixel detector upgrade scenarios a flat stave design for the innermost layers requires reduced inactive areas at the sensor edges to ensure low geometric inefficiencies. Investigations towards achieving slim edges presented here show possibilities to reduce the width of the inactive area to less than 500μm. Furthermore, a brief overview of present simulation activities within the Planar Pixel R and D project is given.

  3. Results from the commissioning of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Masetti, L

    2008-01-01

    The Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is an 80 million channel silicon tracking system designed to detect charged tracks and secondary vertices with very high precision. After connection of cooling and services and verification of their operation, the ATLAS Pixel Detector is now in the final stage of its commissioning phase. Calibration of optical connections, verification of the analog performance and special DAQ runs for noise studies have been performed and the first tracks in combined operation with the other subdetectors of the ATLAS Inner Detector were observed. The results from calibration tests on the whole detector and from cosmic muon data are presented.

  4. A prototype pixel readout chip for asynchronous detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, D.M.; Hall, G.; Lewis, A.J.; Sharp, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    A two-dimensional array of amplifier cells has been fabricated as a prototype readout system for a matching array of silicon diode detectors. Each cell contains a preamplifier, shaping amplifier, comparator and analogue signal storage in an area of 300 μmx320 μm using 3 μm CMOS technology. Full size chips will be bump bonded to pixel detector arrays. Low noise and asynchronous operation are novel design features. With noise levels of less than 250 rms electrons for input capacitances up to 600 fF, pixel detectors will be suitable for autoradiography, synchrotron X-ray and high energy particle detection applications. The design of the prototype chip is presented and future developments and prospects for applications are discussed. (orig.)

  5. On the basic mechanism of Pixelized Photon Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otono, H. [Department of Physics, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)], E-mail: otono@icepp.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Oide, H. [Department of Physics, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yamashita, S. [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yoshioka, T. [Neutron Science Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2009-10-21

    A Pixelized Photon Detector (PPD) is a generic name for the semiconductor devices operated in the Geiger-mode, such as Silicon PhotoMultiplier and Multi-Pixel Photon Counter, which has high photon counting capability. While the internal mechanisms of the PPD have been intensively studied in recent years, the existing models do not include the avalanche process. We have simulated the multiplication and quenching of the avalanche process and have succeeded in reproducing the output waveform of the PPD. Furthermore our model predicts the existence of dead-time in the PPD which has never been numerically predicted. For searching the dead-time, we also have developed waveform analysis method using deconvolution which has the potential to distinguish neighboring pulses precisely. In this paper, we discuss our improved model and waveform analysis method.

  6. Results from the Commissioning of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Strandberg, S

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is a high resolution, silicon based, tracking detector with its innermost layer located only 5 cm away from the ATLAS interaction point. It is designed to provide good hit resolution and low noise, both important qualities for pattern recognition and for finding secondary vertices originating from decays of long-lived particles. The pixel detector has 80 million readout channels and is built up of three barrel layers and six disks, three on each side of the barrel. The detector was installed in the center of ATLAS in June 2007 and is currently being calibrated and commissioned. Details from the installation, commissioning and calibration are presented together with the current status.

  7. Study of the CMS Phase-1 Pixel Pilot Blade Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Vami, Tamas Almos

    2017-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector is one of two general-purpose detectors that measure the products of high energy particle interactions in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system. The detector which was in operation between 2009 and 2016 has now been replaced with an upgraded one in the beginning of 2017. During the previous shutdown period of the LHC, a prototype readout system and a third disk was inserted into the old forward pixel detector with eight prototype blades constructed using the new digital read-out chips. Testing the performance of these pilot modules enabled us to gain operational experience with the upgraded detector. In this paper, the reconstruction and analysis of the data taken with the new modules are presented including information on the calibration of the reconstruction software. The hit finding efficiency and track-hit residual distributions are also shown.

  8. Study of the CMS Phase 1 Pixel Pilot Blade Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system. It was replaced in March 2017 with an upgraded one, called the Phase 1 upgrade detector. During Long Shutdown 1, a third disk was inserted into the present forward pixel detector with eight prototype blades constructed using a new digital read-out chip architecture and a prototype readout chain. Testing the performance of these pilot modules enabled us to gain experience with the Phase 1 upgrade modules. In this document, the data reconstruction with the pilot system is presented. The hit finding efficiency and residual of these new modules is also shown, and how these observables were used to adjust the timing of the pilot blades.

  9. Online Calibration and Performance of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It consists of 1744 silicon sensors equipped with approximately 80 million electronic channels, providing typically three measurement points with high resolution for particles emerging from the beam-interaction region, thus allowing measuring particle tracks and secondary vertices with very high precision. The readout system of the Pixel Detector is based on a bi-directional optical data transmission system between the detector and the data acquisition system with an individual link for each of the 1744 modules. Signal conversion components are located on both ends, approximately 80 m apart. This paper describes the tuning and calibration of the optical links and the detector modules, including measurements of threshold, noise, charge measurement, timing performance and the sensor leakage current.

  10. ATLAS Phase-II upgrade pixel data transmission development

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00111400; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The current tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced by an all-silicon detector (ITk) in the course of the planned HL-LHC accelerator upgrade around 2025. The readout of the ITk pixel system will be most challenging in terms of data rate and readout speed. Simulation of the on-detector electronics indicates that the planned trigger rate of 1 MHz will require readout speeds up to 5.12 Gb/s per data link. The high-radiation environment precludes optical data transmission, so the first part of the data transmission has to be implemented electrically, over a 6-m distance between the pixel modules and the optical transceivers. Several high-speed electrical data transmission solutions involving small-gauge wire cables or flexible circuits have been prototyped and characterized. A combination of carefully-selected physical layers and aggressive signal conditioning are required to achieve the proposed specifications.

  11. Test-beam results of a SOI pixel detector prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Bugiel, Roma; Dannheim, Dominik; Fiergolski, Adrian; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Kapusta, P; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Munker, Ruth Magdalena; Nurnberg, Andreas Matthias

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the test-beam results of a monolithic pixel-detector prototype fabricated in 200 nm Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) CMOS technology. The SOI detector was tested at the CERN SPS H6 beam line. The detector is fabricated on a 500 μm thick high-resistivity float- zone n-type (FZ-n) wafer. The pixel size is 30 μm × 30 μm and its readout uses a source- follower configuration. The test-beam data are analysed in order to compute the spatial resolution and detector efficiency. The analysis chain includes pedestal and noise calculation, cluster reconstruction, as well as alignment and η-correction for non-linear charge sharing. The results show a spatial resolution of about 4.3 μm.

  12. Silicon solid state devices and radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Claude

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses the fundamental principles of interaction between radiation and matter, the principles of working and the operation of particle detectors based on silicon solid state devices. It covers a broad scope with respect to the fields of application of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices from low to high energy physics experiments including in outer space and in the medical environment. This book covers stateof- the-art detection techniques in the use of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices and their readout electronics, including the latest developments on pixelated silicon radiation detector and their application.

  13. Active pixel sensor array as a detector for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Anna-Clare; Leblanc, Philippe; Duttweiler, Fred; Jin, Liang; Bouwer, James C; Peltier, Steve; Ellisman, Mark; Bieser, Fred; Matis, Howard S; Wieman, Howard; Denes, Peter; Kleinfelder, Stuart; Xuong, Nguyen-Huu

    2005-09-01

    A new high-resolution recording device for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is urgently needed. Neither film nor CCD cameras are systems that allow for efficient 3-D high-resolution particle reconstruction. We tested an active pixel sensor (APS) array as a replacement device at 200, 300, and 400 keV using a JEOL JEM-2000 FX II and a JEM-4000 EX electron microscope. For this experiment, we used an APS prototype with an area of 64 x 64 pixels of 20 microm x 20 microm pixel pitch. Single-electron events were measured by using very low beam intensity. The histogram of the incident electron energy deposited in the sensor shows a Landau distribution at low energies, as well as unexpected events at higher absorbed energies. After careful study, we concluded that backscattering in the silicon substrate and re-entering the sensitive epitaxial layer a second time with much lower speed caused the unexpected events. Exhaustive simulation experiments confirmed the existence of these back-scattered electrons. For the APS to be usable, the back-scattered electron events must be eliminated, perhaps by thinning the substrate to less than 30 microm. By using experimental data taken with an APS chip with a standard silicon substrate (300 microm) and adjusting the results to take into account the effect of a thinned silicon substrate (30 microm), we found an estimate of the signal-to-noise ratio for a back-thinned detector in the energy range of 200-400 keV was about 10:1 and an estimate for the spatial resolution was about 10 microm.

  14. Development of pixel front-end electronics using advanced deep submicron CMOS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havranek, Miroslav

    2014-09-01

    The content of this thesis is oriented on the R and D of microelectronic integrated circuits for processing the signal from particle sensors and partially on the sensors themselves. This work is motivated by ongoing upgrades of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at CERN laboratory and by exploration of new technologies for the future experiments in particle physics. Evolution of technologies for the fabrication of microelectronic circuits follows Moore's laws. Transistors become smaller and electronic chips reach higher complexity. Apart from this, silicon foundries become more open to smaller customers and often provide non-standard process options. Two new directions in pixel technologies are explored in this thesis: design of pixel electronics using ultra deep submicron (65 nm) CMOS technology and Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS). An independent project concerning the measurement of pixel capacitance with a dedicated measurement chip is a part of this thesis. Pixel capacitance is one of the key parameters for design of the pixel front-end electronics and thus it is closely related to the content of the thesis. The theoretical background, aspects of chip design, performance of chip prototypes and prospect for design of large pixel chips are comprehensively described in five chapters of the thesis.

  15. Development of pixel front-end electronics using advanced deep submicron CMOS technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havranek, Miroslav

    2014-09-15

    The content of this thesis is oriented on the R and D of microelectronic integrated circuits for processing the signal from particle sensors and partially on the sensors themselves. This work is motivated by ongoing upgrades of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at CERN laboratory and by exploration of new technologies for the future experiments in particle physics. Evolution of technologies for the fabrication of microelectronic circuits follows Moore's laws. Transistors become smaller and electronic chips reach higher complexity. Apart from this, silicon foundries become more open to smaller customers and often provide non-standard process options. Two new directions in pixel technologies are explored in this thesis: design of pixel electronics using ultra deep submicron (65 nm) CMOS technology and Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS). An independent project concerning the measurement of pixel capacitance with a dedicated measurement chip is a part of this thesis. Pixel capacitance is one of the key parameters for design of the pixel front-end electronics and thus it is closely related to the content of the thesis. The theoretical background, aspects of chip design, performance of chip prototypes and prospect for design of large pixel chips are comprehensively described in five chapters of the thesis.

  16. MCC:the Module Controller Chip for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beccherle, R.; Darbo, G.; Gagliardi, G.; Šícho, Petr

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 492, 1-2 (2002), s. 117-133 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MPO RP-4210/69 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : ASIC * radiation hardness * silicon pixel detectors * ATLAS * LHC Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2002

  17. ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker and Pixel Detector: Status and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) and the Pixel Detector are the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is a silicon strip detector and is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. The Pixel Detector consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In the talk the current status of the SCT and Pixel Detector will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detectors including an overview of the issues we encountered and the observation of significant increases in leakage currents (as expected) from bulk ...

  18. Development of a pixel sensor with fine space-time resolution based on SOI technology for the ILC vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Shun, E-mail: s-ono@champ.hep.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka (Japan); Togawa, Manabu; Tsuji, Ryoji; Mori, Teppei [Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka (Japan); Yamada, Miho; Arai, Yasuo; Tsuboyama, Toru; Hanagaki, Kazunori [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Org. (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2017-02-11

    We have been developing a new monolithic pixel sensor with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology for the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detector system. The SOI monolithic pixel detector is realized using standard CMOS circuits fabricated on a fully depleted sensor layer. The new SOI sensor SOFIST can store both the position and timing information of charged particles in each 20×20 μm{sup 2} pixel. The position resolution is further improved by the position weighted with the charges spread to multiple pixels. The pixel also records the hit timing with an embedded time-stamp circuit. The sensor chip has column-parallel analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) circuits and zero-suppression logic for high-speed data readout. We are designing and evaluating some prototype sensor chips for optimizing and minimizing the pixel circuit.

  19. Results from the Commissioning of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ibragimov, I

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is the innermost tracking detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It has a total active area of 1.7 m2 of silicon read out by approximately 80 million electronic channels, which will detect particle tracks and decay vertices with a very high precision. After more than 10 years of development and construction it is the first time ever the whole detector has been operated together. The paper will illustrate the detector performance and give first results from the combined ATLAS cosmics runs.

  20. Training and validation of the ATLAS pixel clustering neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The high centre-of-mass energy of the LHC gives rise to dense environments, such as the core of high-pT jets, in which the charge clusters left by ionising particles in the silicon sensors of the pixel detector can merge, compromising the tracking and vertexing efficiency. To recover optimal performance, a neural network-based approach is used to separate clusters originating from single and multiple particles and to estimate all hit positions within clusters. This note presents the training strategy employed and a set of benchmark performance measurements on a Monte Carlo sample of high-pT dijet events.

  1. Low noise signal-to-noise ratio enhancing readout circuit for current-mediated active pixel sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottaviani, Tony; Karim, Karim S.; Nathan, Arokia; Rowlands, John A.

    2006-01-01

    Diagnostic digital fluoroscopic applications continuously expose patients to low doses of x-ray radiation, posing a challenge to both the digital imaging pixel and readout electronics when amplifying small signal x-ray inputs. Traditional switch-based amorphous silicon imaging solutions, for instance, have produced poor signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) at low exposure levels owing to noise sources from the pixel readout circuitry. Current-mediated amorphous silicon pixels are an improvement over conventional pixel amplifiers with an enhanced SNR across the same low-exposure range, but whose output also becomes nonlinear with increasing dosage. A low-noise SNR enhancing readout circuit has been developed that enhances the charge gain of the current-mediated active pixel sensor (C-APS). The solution takes advantage of the current-mediated approach, primarily integrating the signal input at the desired frequency necessary for large-area imaging, while adding minimal noise to the signal readout. Experimental data indicates that the readout circuit can detect pixel outputs over a large bandwidth suitable for real-time digital diagnostic x-ray fluoroscopy. Results from hardware testing indicate that the minimum achievable C-APS output current that can be discerned at the digital fluoroscopic output from the enhanced SNR readout circuit is 0.341 nA. The results serve to highlight the applicability of amorphous silicon current-mediated pixel amplifiers for large-area flat panel x-ray imagers

  2. Digital column readout architecture for the ATLAS pixel 025 mum front end IC

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelli, E; Blanquart, L; Comes, G; Denes, P; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Fischer, P; Marchesini, R; Meddeler, G; Peric, I

    2002-01-01

    A fast low noise, limited power, radiation-hard front-end chip was developed for reading out the Atlas Pixel Silicon Detector. As in the past prototypes, every chip is used to digitize and read out charge and time information from hits on each one of its 2880 inputs. The basic column readout architecture idea was adopted and modified to allow a safe transition to quarter micron technology. Each pixel cell, organized in a 160 multiplied by 18 matrix, can be independently enabled and configured in order to optimize the analog signal response and to prevent defective pixels from saturating the readout. The digital readout organizes hit data coming from each column, with respect to time, and output them on a low-level serial interface. A considerable effort was made to design state machines free of undefined states, where single-point defects and charge deposited by heavy ions in the silicon could have led to unpredicted forbidden states. 7 Refs.

  3. CMOS pixel sensor development for the ATLAS experiment at the High Luminosity-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rimoldi, Marco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced with a fully silicon based detector called Inner Tracker (ITk) before the start of the High Luminosity-LHC project (HL-LHC) in 2026. To cope with the harsh environment expected at the HL-LHC, new approaches are being developed for pixel detector based on CMOS pixel techology. Such detectors provide charge collection, analog and digital amplification in the same silicon bulk. The radiation hardness is obtained with multiple nested wells that have embedded the CMOS electronics with sufficient shielding. The goal of this programme is to demonstrate that depleted CMOS pixels are suitable for high rate, fast timing and high radiation operation at the LHC. A number of alternative solutions have been explored and characterised, and are presented in this document.

  4. The Dosepix detector—an energy-resolving photon-counting pixel detector for spectrometric measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Zang, A; Ballabriga, R; Bisello, F; Campbell, M; Celi, J C; Fauler, A; Fiederle, M; Jensch, M; Kochanski, N; Llopart, X; Michel, N; Mollenhauer, U; Ritter, I; Tennert, F; Wölfel, S; Wong, W; Michel, T

    2015-01-01

    The Dosepix detector is a hybrid photon-counting pixel detector based on ideas of the Medipix and Timepix detector family. 1 mm thick cadmium telluride and 300 μm thick silicon were used as sensor material. The pixel matrix of the Dosepix consists of 16 x 16 square pixels with 12 rows of (200 μm)2 and 4 rows of (55 μm)2 sensitive area for the silicon sensor layer and 16 rows of pixels with 220 μm pixel pitch for CdTe. Besides digital energy integration and photon-counting mode, a novel concept of energy binning is included in the pixel electronics, allowing energy-resolved measurements in 16 energy bins within one acquisition. The possibilities of this detector concept range from applications in personal dosimetry and energy-resolved imaging to quality assurance of medical X-ray sources by analysis of the emitted photon spectrum. In this contribution the Dosepix detector, its response to X-rays as well as spectrum measurements with Si and CdTe sensor layer are presented. Furthermore, a first evaluation wa...

  5. Monolithic active pixel radiation detector with shielding techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W.

    2018-03-20

    A monolithic active pixel radiation detector including a method of fabricating thereof. The disclosed radiation detector can include a substrate comprising a silicon layer upon which electronics are configured. A plurality of channels can be formed on the silicon layer, wherein the plurality of channels are connected to sources of signals located in a bulk part of the substrate, and wherein the signals flow through electrically conducting vias established in an isolation oxide on the substrate. One or more nested wells can be configured from the substrate, wherein the nested wells assist in collecting charge carriers released in interaction with radiation and wherein the nested wells further separate the electronics from the sensing portion of the detector substrate. The detector can also be configured according to a thick SOA method of fabrication.

  6. The FPGA Pixel Array Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hromalik, Marianne S.; Green, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Tate, Mark W.; Gruner, Sol M.

    2013-01-01

    A proposed design for a reconfigurable x-ray Pixel Array Detector (PAD) is described. It operates by integrating a high-end commercial field programmable gate array (FPGA) into a 3-layer device along with a high-resistivity diode detection layer and a custom, application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) layer. The ASIC layer contains an energy-discriminating photon-counting front end with photon hits streamed directly to the FPGA via a massively parallel, high-speed data connection. FPGA resources can be allocated to perform user defined tasks on the pixel data streams, including the implementation of a direct time autocorrelation function (ACF) with time resolution down to 100 ns. Using the FPGA at the front end to calculate the ACF reduces the required data transfer rate by several orders of magnitude when compared to a fast framing detector. The FPGA-ASIC high-speed interface, as well as the in-FPGA implementation of a real-time ACF for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy experiments has been designed and simulated. A 16×16 pixel prototype of the ASIC has been fabricated and is being tested. -- Highlights: ► We describe the novelty and need for the FPGA Pixel Array Detector. ► We describe the specifications and design of the Diode, ASIC and FPGA layers. ► We highlight the Autocorrelation Function (ACF) for speckle as an example application. ► Simulated FPGA output calculates the ACF for different input bitstreams to 100 ns. ► Reduced data transfer rate by 640× and sped up real-time ACF by 100× other methods.

  7. Ultra-fast silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadrozinski, H. F.-W., E-mail: hartmut@scipp.ucsc.edu [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Ngo, J.; Parker, C.; Petersen, B.; Seiden, A.; Zatserklyaniy, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Cartiglia, N.; Marchetto, F. [INFN Torino, Torino (Italy); Bruzzi, M.; Mori, R.; Scaringella, M.; Vinattieri, A. [University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    We propose to develop a fast, thin silicon sensor with gain capable to concurrently measure with high precision the space (∼10 μm) and time (∼10 ps) coordinates of a particle. This will open up new application of silicon detector systems in many fields. Our analysis of detector properties indicates that it is possible to improve the timing characteristics of silicon-based tracking sensors, which already have sufficient position resolution, to achieve four-dimensional high-precision measurements. The basic sensor characteristics and the expected performance are listed, the wide field of applications are mentioned and the required R and D topics are discussed. -- Highlights: •We are proposing thin pixel silicon sensors with 10's of picoseconds time resolution. •Fast charge collection is coupled with internal charge multiplication. •The truly 4-D sensors will revolutionize imaging and particle counting in many applications.

  8. Low complexity pixel-based halftone detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Jiheon; Han, Seong Wook; Jarno, Mielikainen; Lee, Chulhee

    2011-10-01

    With the rapid advances of the internet and other multimedia technologies, the digital document market has been growing steadily. Since most digital images use halftone technologies, quality degradation occurs when one tries to scan and reprint them. Therefore, it is necessary to extract the halftone areas to produce high quality printing. In this paper, we propose a low complexity pixel-based halftone detection algorithm. For each pixel, we considered a surrounding block. If the block contained any flat background regions, text, thin lines, or continuous or non-homogeneous regions, the pixel was classified as a non-halftone pixel. After excluding those non-halftone pixels, the remaining pixels were considered to be halftone pixels. Finally, documents were classified as pictures or photo documents by calculating the halftone pixel ratio. The proposed algorithm proved to be memory-efficient and required low computation costs. The proposed algorithm was easily implemented using GPU.

  9. 3D-FBK Pixel sensors: recent beam tests results with irradiated devices

    CERN Document Server

    Micelli, A; Sandaker, H; Stugu, B; Barbero, M; Hugging, F; Karagounis, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kruger, H; Tsung, J W; Wermes, N; Capua, M; Fazio, S; Mastroberardino, A; Susinno, G; Gallrapp, C; Di Girolamo, B; Dobos, D; La Rosa, A; Pernegger, H; Roe, S; Slavicek, T; Pospisil, S; Jakobs, K; Kohler, M; Parzefall, U; Darbo, G; Gariano, G; Gemme, C; Rovani, A; Ruscino, E; Butter, C; Bates, R; Oshea, V; Parker, S; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Grinstein, S; Korokolov, I; Pradilla, C; Einsweiler, K; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Borri, M; Da Via, C; Freestone, J; Kolya, S; Lai, C H; Nellist, C; Pater, J; Thompson, R; Watts, S J; Hoeferkamp, M; Seidel, S; Bolle, E; Gjersdal, H; Sjobaek, K N; Stapnes, S; Rohne, O; Su, D; Young, C; Hansson, P; Grenier, P; Hasi, J; Kenney, C; Kocian, M; Jackson, P; Silverstein, D; Davetak, H; DeWilde, B; Tsybychev, D; Dalla Betta, G F; Gabos, P; Povoli, M; Cobal, M; Giordani, M P; Selmi, L; Cristofoli, A; Esseni, D; Palestri, P; Fleta, C; Lozano, M; Pellegrini, G; Boscardin, M; Bagolini, A; Piemonte, C; Ronchin, S; Zorzi, N; Hansen, T E; Hansen, T; Kok, A; Lietaer, N; Kalliopuska, J; Oja, A

    2011-01-01

    The Pixel detector is the innermost part of the ATLAS experiment tracking device at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and plays a key role in the reconstruction of the primary and secondary vertices of short-lived particles. To cope with the high level of radiation produced during the collider operation, it is planned to add to the present three layers of silicon pixel sensors which constitute the Pixel Detector, an additional layer (Insertable B-Layer, or IBL) of sensors. 3D silicon sensors are one of the technologies which are under study for the IBL. 3D silicon technology is an innovative combination of very-large-scale integration (VLSI) and Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) where electrodes are fabricated inside the silicon bulk instead of being implanted on the wafer surfaces. 3D sensors, with electrodes fully or partially penetrating the silicon substrate, are currently fabricated at different processing facilities in Europe and USA. This paper reports on the 2010 June beam test results for irradi...

  10. Mapping Electrical Crosstalk in Pixelated Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Suresh (Inventor); Cole, David (Inventor); Smith, Roger M. (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The effects of inter pixel capacitance in a pixilated array may be measured by first resetting all pixels in the array to a first voltage, where a first image is read out, followed by resetting only a subset of pixels in the array to a second voltage, where a second image is read out, where the difference in the first and second images provide information about the inter pixel capacitance. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  11. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Djama, Fares; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Run 2 of the LHC collider sets new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction because of its higher energy, pileup and luminosity. The ATLAS tracking performance relies critically on the Pixel Detector. Therefore, in view of Run 2, the ATLAS collaboration has constructed the first 4-layer pixel detector in Particle Physics by installing a new pixel layer, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). Operational experience and performance of the 4-layer Pixel Detector during Run 2 are presented.

  12. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Wedenig, R; Bauer, C; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Procario, M; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Runólfsson, O; Russ, J; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Wagner, A; Walsh, A M; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Zeuner, W; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described. (9 refs).

  13. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N

    1999-08-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described.

  14. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described

  15. CMS has a heart of pixels

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    In the immediate vicinity of the collision point, CMS will be equipped with pixel detectors consisting of no fewer than 50 million pixels measuring 150 microns along each side. Each of the pixels, which receive the signal, is connected to its own electronic circuit by a tiny sphere (seen here in the electron microscope image) measuring 15 to 20 microns in diameter.

  16. Current Status of the Pixel Phase I Upgrade in CMS: Barrel Module Production

    CERN Document Server

    Bartek, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system, providing high precision space point measurements of charged particle trajectories. Before 2018 the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC is expected to reach about 2~x~$10^{34}~\\rm{cm}^{-2}\\rm{s}^{-1}$, which will significantly increase the number of interactions per bunch crossing. To maintain a high tracking efficiency, CMS has planned to replace the current pixel system during phase I by a new lightweight detector, equipped with an additional 4th layer in the barrel, and one additional forward/backward disk. The present status of barrel modules production will be presented, including preliminary results from tests on the first production pixel modules of the new pixel tracker.

  17. Status of the ATLAS Pixel Detector and its performance after three years of operation

    CERN Document Server

    Favareto, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is very important for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. The detector performance is excellent: ~96 % of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, and a good alignment allows high quality track resolution

  18. Status of the ATLAS Pixel Detector and its performance after three years of operation

    CERN Document Server

    Favareto, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is very important for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. The detector performance is excellent: ~96% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, and a good alignment allows high quality track resolution.

  19. Status and perspectives of pixel sensors based on 3D vertical integration

    CERN Document Server

    Re, V

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the most recent developments of 3D integration in the field of silicon pixel sensors and readout integrated circuits. This technology may address the needs of future high energy physics and photon science experiments by increasing the electronic functional density in small pixel readout cells and by stacking various device layers based on different technologies, each optimized for a different function. Current efforts are aimed at improving the performance of both hybrid pixel detectors and of CMOS sensors. The status of these activities is discussed here, taking into account experimental results on 3D devices developed in the frame of the 3D-IC consortium. The paper also provides an overview of the ideas that are being currently devised for novel 3D vertically integrated pixel sensors.

  20. New pixel circuit compensating poly-si TFT threshold-voltage shift for a driving AMOLED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, C. L.; Lin, Y. Y.; Lin, B. S.; Chang, J. Y.; Fan, C. L.; Chang, H. C.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a novel pixel circuit that uses only n-type low-temperature polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs) to simplify the fabrication process of active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays. The proposed pixel circuit consists of five switching TFTs, one driving TFT (DTFT), and two capacitors. The output current and the OLED anode voltage error rates are about 3% and 0.7%, respectively. Thus, the pixel circuit can realize uniform output current with high immunity to the poly-Si TFT threshold voltage deviation. The proposed novel pixel design has great potential for use in large-size, high-resolution AMOLED displays.

  1. Performance of the Pixel Luminosity Telescope for Luminosity Measurement at CMS during Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a dedicated system for luminosity measurement at the CMS experiment using silicon pixel sensors arranged into "telescopes", each consisting of three planes. It was installed during LS1 at the beginning of 2015 and has been providing online and offline luminosity measurements throughout Run 2. The online bunch-by-bunch luminosity measurement employs the "fast-or" capability of the pixel readout chip (PSI46) to identify events where a hit is registered in all three sensors in a telescope corresponding primarily to tracks originating from the interaction point. In addition, the full pixel information is read out at a lower rate, allowing for the calculation of corrections to the online luminosity from effects such as the miscounting of tracks not originating from the interaction point and detector efficiency. In this talk, we will present results from 2016 running and preliminary 2017 results, including commissioning and operational history, luminosity calibration using Va...

  2. Performance of the Pixel Luminosity Telescope for Luminosity Measurement at CMS during Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Lujan, Paul Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a dedicated system for luminosity measurement at the CMS experiment using silicon pixel sensors arranged into telescopes, each consisting of three sensor planes. It was installed in CMS at the beginning of 2015 and has been providing online and offline luminosity measurements throughout Run 2 of the LHC. The online bunch-by-bunch luminosity measurement employs the fast-or capability of the pixel readout chip to identify events where a hit is registered in all three sensors in a telescope, corresponding primarily to tracks originating from the interaction point. In addition, the full pixel information is read out at a lower rate, allowing for the calculation of corrections to the online luminosity from effects such as the miscounting of tracks not originating from the interaction point and detector efficiency. This paper presents results from the 2016 running of the PLT, including commissioning and operational history, luminosity calibration using Van der Meer scans, and...

  3. Fully depleted CMOS pixel sensor development and potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudot, J.; Kachel, M. [Universite de Strasbourg, IPHC, 23 rue du Loess 67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR7178, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2015-07-01

    CMOS pixel sensors are often opposed to hybrid pixel sensors due to their very different sensitive layer. In standard CMOS imaging processes, a thin (about 20 μm) low resistivity epitaxial layer acts as the sensitive volume and charge collection is mostly driven by thermal agitation. In contrast, the so-called hybrid pixel technology exploits a thick (typically 300 μm) silicon sensor with high resistivity allowing for the depletion of this volume, hence charges drift toward collecting electrodes. But this difference is fading away with the recent availability of some CMOS imaging processes based on a relatively thick (about 50 μm) high resistivity epitaxial layer which allows for full depletion. This evolution extents the range of applications for CMOS pixel sensors where their known assets, high sensitivity and granularity combined with embedded signal treatment, could potentially foster breakthrough in detection performances for specific scientific instruments. One such domain is the Xray detection for soft energies, typically below 10 keV, where the thin sensitive layer was previously severely impeding CMOS sensor usage. Another application becoming realistic for CMOS sensors, is the detection in environment with a high fluence of non-ionizing radiation, such as hadron colliders. However, when considering highly demanding applications, it is still to be proven that micro-circuits required to uniformly deplete the sensor at the pixel level, do not mitigate the sensitivity and efficiency required. Prototype sensors in two different technologies with resistivity higher than 1 kΩ, sensitive layer between 40 and 50 μm and featuring pixel pitch in the range 25 to 50 μm, have been designed and fabricated. Various biasing architectures were adopted to reach full depletion with only a few volts. Laboratory investigations with three types of sources (X-rays, β-rays and infrared light) demonstrated the validity of the approach with respect to depletion, keeping a

  4. Silicon Micromachined Microlens Array for THz Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choonsup; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Mehdi, IImran; Gill, John J.; Jung-Kubiak, Cecile D.; Llombart, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    5 5 silicon microlens array was developed using a silicon micromachining technique for a silicon-based THz antenna array. The feature of the silicon micromachining technique enables one to microfabricate an unlimited number of microlens arrays at one time with good uniformity on a silicon wafer. This technique will resolve one of the key issues in building a THz camera, which is to integrate antennas in a detector array. The conventional approach of building single-pixel receivers and stacking them to form a multi-pixel receiver is not suited at THz because a single-pixel receiver already has difficulty fitting into mass, volume, and power budgets, especially in space applications. In this proposed technique, one has controllability on both diameter and curvature of a silicon microlens. First of all, the diameter of microlens depends on how thick photoresist one could coat and pattern. So far, the diameter of a 6- mm photoresist microlens with 400 m in height has been successfully microfabricated. Based on current researchers experiences, a diameter larger than 1-cm photoresist microlens array would be feasible. In order to control the curvature of the microlens, the following process variables could be used: 1. Amount of photoresist: It determines the curvature of the photoresist microlens. Since the photoresist lens is transferred onto the silicon substrate, it will directly control the curvature of the silicon microlens. 2. Etching selectivity between photoresist and silicon: The photoresist microlens is formed by thermal reflow. In order to transfer the exact photoresist curvature onto silicon, there needs to be etching selectivity of 1:1 between silicon and photoresist. However, by varying the etching selectivity, one could control the curvature of the silicon microlens. The figure shows the microfabricated silicon microlens 5 x5 array. The diameter of the microlens located in the center is about 2.5 mm. The measured 3-D profile of the microlens surface has a

  5. The Phase II ATLAS Pixel Upgrade: The Inner Tracker (ITk)

    CERN Document Server

    Flick, Tobias; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the ITk (Inner Tracker). The pixel detector will comprise the five innermost layers, and will be instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the HL-LHC environment, which will be severe in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total surface area of silicon in the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m^2, depending on the final layout choice, which is expected to take place in early 2017. Four layout options are being investigated at the moment, two with forward coverage to eta < 3.2 and two to eta < 4. For each coverage option, a layout with long barrel staves and a layout with novel inclined support structures in the barrel-endcap overlap region are considered. All potential layouts include modules mounted on ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions. Support...

  6. The Phase-II ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00349918; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase~2 shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the ``ITk'' (Inner Tracker). The innermost portion of ITk will consist of a pixel detector with five layers in the barrel region and ring-shaped supports in the end-cap regions. It will be instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the HL-LHC environment, which will be severe in terms of occupancy and radiation levels. The new pixel system could include up to 14 $\\mathrm{m^2}$ of silicon, depending on the final layout, which is expected to be decided in 2017. Several layout options are being investigated at the moment, including some with novel inclined support structures in the barrel end-cap overlap region and others with very long innermost barrel layers. Forward coverage could be as high as |eta| $<4$. Supporting structures will be based on low mass, highly stabl...

  7. Pixel-by-pixel mean transit time without deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbeleir, Andre A; Piepsz, Amy; Ham, Hamphrey R

    2008-04-01

    Mean transit time (MTT) within a kidney is given by the integral of the renal activity on a well-corrected renogram between time zero and time t divided by the integral of the plasma activity between zero and t, providing that t is close to infinity. However, as the data acquisition of a renogram is finite, the MTT calculated using this approach might result in the underestimation of the true MTT. To evaluate the degree of this underestimation we conducted a simulation study. One thousand renograms were created by convoluting various plasma curves obtained from patients with different renal clearance levels with simulated retentions curves having different shapes and mean transit times. For a 20 min renogram, the calculated MTT started to underestimate the MTT when the MTT was higher than 6 min. The longer the MTT, the greater was the underestimation. Up to a MTT value of 6 min, the error on the MTT estimation is negligible. As normal cortical transit is less than 2 min, this approach is used for patients to calculate pixel-to-pixel cortical mean transit time and to create a MTT parametric image without deconvolution.

  8. Status and perspectives of pixel sensors based on 3D vertical integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Re, Valerio [Università di Bergamo, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Viale Marconi, 5, 24044 Dalmine (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2014-11-21

    This paper reviews the most recent developments of 3D integration in the field of silicon pixel sensors and readout integrated circuits. This technology may address the needs of future high energy physics and photon science experiments by increasing the electronic functional density in small pixel readout cells and by stacking various device layers based on different technologies, each optimized for a different function. Current efforts are aimed at improving the performance of both hybrid pixel detectors and of CMOS sensors. The status of these activities is discussed here, taking into account experimental results on 3D devices developed in the frame of the 3D-IC consortium. The paper also provides an overview of the ideas that are being currently devised for novel 3D vertically integrated pixel sensors. - Highlights: • 3D integration is a promising technology for pixel sensors in high energy physics. • Experimental results on two-layer 3D CMOS pixel sensors are presented. • The outcome of the first run from the 3D-IC consortium is discussed. • The AIDA network is studying via-last 3D integration of heterogeneous layers. • New ideas based on 3D vertically integrated pixels are being developed for HEP.

  9. Status and perspectives of pixel sensors based on 3D vertical integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Re, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the most recent developments of 3D integration in the field of silicon pixel sensors and readout integrated circuits. This technology may address the needs of future high energy physics and photon science experiments by increasing the electronic functional density in small pixel readout cells and by stacking various device layers based on different technologies, each optimized for a different function. Current efforts are aimed at improving the performance of both hybrid pixel detectors and of CMOS sensors. The status of these activities is discussed here, taking into account experimental results on 3D devices developed in the frame of the 3D-IC consortium. The paper also provides an overview of the ideas that are being currently devised for novel 3D vertically integrated pixel sensors. - Highlights: • 3D integration is a promising technology for pixel sensors in high energy physics. • Experimental results on two-layer 3D CMOS pixel sensors are presented. • The outcome of the first run from the 3D-IC consortium is discussed. • The AIDA network is studying via-last 3D integration of heterogeneous layers. • New ideas based on 3D vertically integrated pixels are being developed for HEP

  10. Development of the Continuous Acquisition Pixel (CAP) sensor for high luminosity lepton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varner, G.; Aihara, H.; Barbero, M.; Bozek, A.; Browder, T.; Hazumi, M.; Kennedy, J.; Martin, E.; Mueller, J.; Olsen, S.; Palka, H.; Rosen, M.; Ruckman, L.; Stanic, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uchida, K.; Yang, Q.; Yarema, R.

    2006-01-01

    A future higher luminosity B-factory detector and concept study detectors for the proposed International Linear Collider require precision vertex reconstruction while coping with high track densities and radiation exposures. Compared with current silicon strip and hybrid pixels, a significant reduction in the overall detector material thickness is needed to achieve the desired vertex resolution. Considerable progress in the development of thin CMOS-based Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in recent years makes them a viable technology option and feasibility studies are being actively pursued. The most serious concerns are their radiation hardness and their readout speed. To address these, several prototypes denoted as the Continuous Acquisition Pixel (CAP) sensors have been developed and tested. The latest of the CAP sensor prototypes is CAP3, designed in the TSMC 0.25μm process with a 5-deep Correlated Double Sample (CDS) pair pipeline in each pixel. A setup with several CAP3 sensors is under evaluation to assess the performance of a full-scale pixel readout system running at realistic readout speed. Given the similarity in the occupancy numbers and hit throughput requirements, per unit area, between a Belle vertex detector upgradation and the requirements for a future ILC pixel detector, this effort can be considered a small-scale functioning prototype for such a future system. The results and plans for the next stages of R and D towards a full Belle Pixel Vertex Detector (PVD) are presented

  11. Modeling Radiation Damage to Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ducourthial, Audrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of $10^{15} n_{eq}/cm^2$ and the HL-HLC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is critical in order to make accurate predictions for current future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we present first predictions for basic pixel cluster properties alongside...

  12. Performance of the INTPIX6 SOI pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Y.; Miyoshi, T.; Bugiel, Sz.; Dasgupta, R.; Idzik, M.; Kapusta, P.; Turala, M.; Kucewicz, W.

    2017-01-01

    Characterization of the monolithic pixel detector INPTIX6, designed at KEK and fabricated in Lapis 0.2 μ  m Fully-Depleted, Low-Leakage Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) CMOS technology, was performed. The INTPIX6 comprises a large area of 1408 × 896 integrating type squared pixels of 12 micron pitch. In this work the performance and measurement results of the prototypes produced on lower resistivity Czochralski type (CZ-n) and high resistivity floating zone (FZ-n) sensor wafers are presented. Using 241 Am radioactive source the noise of INTPIX6 was measured, showing the ENC (Equivalent Noise Charge) of about 70 e − . The resolution calculated from the FWHM of the Iron-55 X-ray peak was about 100 e − . The radiation hardness of the SOI pixel detector was also investigated. The CZ-n type INTPIX6 received a dose of 60 krad and its performance has been continuously monitored during the irradiation.

  13. Studies on a 300 k pixel detector telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelkamp, Peter; Antinori, F.; Barberis, D.; Becks, K. H.; Beker, H.; Beusch, W.; Burger, P.; Campbell, M.; Cantatore, E.; Catanesi, M. G.; Chesi, E.; Darbo, G.; D'Auria, S.; Davia, C.; di Bari, D.; di Liberto, S.; Elia, D.; Gys, T.; Heijne, E. H. M.; Helstrup, H.; Jacholkowski, A.; Jæger, J. J.; Jakubek, J.; Jarron, P.; Klempt, W.; Krummenacher, F.; Knudson, K.; Kralik, I.; Kubasta, J.; Lasalle, J. C.; Leitner, R.; Lemeilleur, F.; Lenti, V.; Letheren, M.; Lopez, L.; Loukas, D.; Luptak, M.; Martinengo, P.; Meddeler, G.; Meddi, F.; Morando, M.; Munns, A.; Pellegrini, F.; Pengg, F.; Pospisil, S.; Quercigh, E.; Ridky, J.; Rossi, L.; Safarik, K.; Scharfetter, L.; Segato, G.; Simone, S.; Smith, K.; Snoeys, W.; Vrba, V.

    1996-02-01

    Four silicon pixel detector planes are combined to form a tracking telescope in the lead ion experiment WA97 at CERN with 290 304 sensitive elements each of 75 μm by 500 μm area. An electronic pulse processing circuit is associated with each individual sensing element and the response for ionizing particles is binary with an adjustable threshold. The noise rate for a threshold of 6000 e- has been measured to be less than 10-10. The inefficient area due to malfunctioning pixels is 2.8% of the 120 cm2. Detector overlaps within one plane have been used to determine the alignment of the components of the plane itself, without need for track reconstruction using external detectors. It is the first time that such a big surface covered with active pixels has been used in a physics experiment. Some aspects concerning inclined particle tracks and time walk have been measured separately in a beam test at the CERN SPS H6 beam.

  14. Studies on a 300 k pixel detector telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middelkamp, P.; Antinori, F.; Barberis, D.

    1996-01-01

    Four silicon pixel detector planes are combined to form a tracking telescope in the lead ion experiment WA97 at CERN with 290 304 sensitive elements each of 75 μm by 500 μm area. An electronic pulse processing circuit is associated with each individual sensing element and the response for ionizing particles is binary with an adjustable threshold. The noise rate for a threshold of 6000 e - has been measured to be less than 10 -10 . The inefficient area due to malfunctioning pixels is 2.8% of the 120 cm 2 . Detector overlaps within one plane have been used to determine the alignment of the components of the plane itself, without need for track reconstruction using external detectors. It is the first time that such a big surface covered with active pixels has been used in a physics experiment. Some aspects concerning inclined particle tracks and time walk have been measured separately in a beam test at the CERN SPS H6 beam. (orig.)

  15. Status of the CMS Phase 1 Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Mattig, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system, providing high precision space point measurements of charged particle trajectories. Before 2018 the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC is expected to reach 2\\,$\\times 10^{34}\\,{\\rm cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$, which will significantly increase the number of interactions per bunch crossing. The current pixel detector of CMS was not designed to work efficiently in such a high occupancy environment and will be degraded by substantial data-loss introduced by buffer filling in the analog Read-Out Chip (ROC) and effects of radiation damage in the sensors, built up over the operational period. To maintain a high tracking efficiency, CMS has planned to replace the current pixel system during ``Phase 1'' (2016/17) by a new lightweight detector, equipped with an additional 4th layer in the barrel, and one additional forward/backward disk. A new digital ROC has been designed, with increased buffers to minimize data-loss, and a digital read-out protoc...

  16. Monitoring radiation damage in the ATLAS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Schorlemmer, André Lukas; Quadt, Arnulf; Große-Knetter, Jörn; Rembser, Christoph; Di Girolamo, Beniamino

    2014-11-05

    Radiation hardness is one of the most important features of the ATLAS pixel detector in order to ensure a good performance and a long lifetime. Monitoring of radiation damage is crucial in order to assess and predict the expected performance of the detector. Key values for the assessment of radiation damage in silicon, such as the depletion voltage and depletion depth in the sensors, are measured on a regular basis during operations. This thesis summarises the monitoring program that is conducted in order to assess the impact of radiation damage and compares it to model predictions. In addition, the physics performance of the ATLAS detector highly depends on the amount of disabled modules in the ATLAS pixel detector. A worrying amount of module failures was observed during run I. Thus it was decided to recover repairable modules during the long shutdown (LS1) by extracting the pixel detector. The impact of the module repairs and module failures on the detector performance is analysed in this thesis.

  17. Module and electronics developments for the ATLAS ITK pixel system

    CERN Document Server

    Nellist, Clara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Summary ATLAS is preparing for an extensive modification of its detector in the course of the planned HL‐ LHC accelerator upgrade around 2025 which includes a replacement of the entire tracking system by an all‐silicon detector (Inner Tracker, ITk). A revised trigger and data taking system is foreseen with triggers expected at lowest level at an average rate of 1 MHz. The five innermost layers of ITk will comprise of a pixel detector built of new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the severe HL‐LHC environment in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total area of the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m2, depending on the final layout choice that is expected to take place in early 2017. A new on‐detector readout chip is designed in the context of the RD53 collaboration in 65 nm CMOS technology. This paper will present the on‐going R&D within the ATLAS ITK project towards the new pixel modules and the off‐detector electronics. Pla...

  18. Module and electronics developments for the ATLAS ITK pixel system

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    ATLAS is preparing for an extensive modification of its detector in the course of the planned HL-LHC accelerator upgrade around 2025 which includes a replacement of the entire tracking system by an all-silicon detector (Inner Tracker, ITk). The five innermost layers of ITk will comprise of a pixel detector built of new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the severe HL-LHC environment in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total area of the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m2, depending on the final layout choice that is expected to take place in 2017. A new on-detector readout chip is designed in the context of the RD53 collaboration in 65 nm CMOS technology. This paper will present the on-going R&D within the ATLAS ITK project towards the new pixel modules and the off-detector electronics. Planar and 3D sensors are being re-designed with cell sizes of 50x50 or 25x100 μm2, compatible with the RD53 chip. A sensor thickness equal or less th...

  19. Modeling radiation damage to pixel sensors in the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ducourthial, Audrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of $10^{15}n_{eq}/cm^2$ and the HL-HLC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is critical in order to make accurate predictions for current future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we present first predictions for basic pixel cluster properties alongside ...

  20. Modeling radiation damage to pixel sensors in the ATLAS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducourthial, A.

    2018-03-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subject to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) [1], the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 1015 neq/cm2 and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is essential in order to make accurate predictions for current and future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects on the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we present first predictions for basic pixel cluster properties alongside early studies with LHC Run 2 proton-proton collision data.

  1. Test-beam activities and results for the ATLAS ITk pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisanz, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Phase-II upgrade of the LHC aims at an increase of the instantaneous luminosity up to about 5×1034 cm-2 s-1. To cope with the resulting challenges the current Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) system. The Pixel Detector will have to deal with occupancies of about 300 hits/FE/s as well as a fluence of around 2×1016 neq cm-2. Various sensor layouts are under development, aiming at providing a high performance, cost effective pixel instrumentation to cover an active area of about 10 m2. These range from thin planar silicon, 3D silicon, to active CMOS sensors. After extensive characterization of the sensors in the lab, their charge collection properties and hit efficiency are measured in common testbeam campaigns, which provide valuable feedback for improvements of the layout. Testbeam measurements of the final prototypes will be used for the decision of which sensor types will be installed in ITk. The setups used in the ITk Pixel testbeam campaigns will be presented, including the common track reconstruction and analysis software. Results from the latest measurements will be shown, highlighting some of the developments and challenges for the ITk Pixel sensors.

  2. Serial powering of pixel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockmanns, Tobias; Fischer, Peter; Huegging, Fabian; Peric, Ivan; Runolfsson, O.; Wermes, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Modern pixel detectors for the next generation of high-energy collider experiments like LHC use readout electronics in deep sub-micron technology. Chips in this technology need a low supply voltage of 2-2.5 V alongside high current consumption to achieve the desired performance. The high supply current leads to significant voltage drops in the long and low mass supply cables so that voltage fluctuations at the chips are induced, when the supply current changes. This problem scales with the number of modules when connected in parallel to the power supplies. An alternative powering scheme connects several modules in series resulting in a higher supply voltage but a lower current consumption of the chain and therefore a much lower voltage drop in the cables. In addition the amount of cables needed to supply the detector is vastly reduced. The concept and features of serial powering are presented and studies of the implementation of this technology as an alternative for the ATLAS pixel detector are shown. In particular, it is shown that the potential risk of powering in series can be addressed and eliminated

  3. Serial powering of pixel modules

    CERN Document Server

    Stockmanns, Tobias; Hügging, Fabian Georg; Peric, I; Runólfsson, O; Wermes, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Modern pixel detectors for the next generation of high-energy collider experiments like LHC use readout electronics in deep sub- micron technology. Chips in this technology need a low supply voltage of 2-2.5 V alongside high current consumption to achieve the desired performance. The high supply current leads to significant voltage drops in the long and low mass supply cables so that voltage fluctuations at the chips are induced, when the supply current changes. This problem scales with the number of modules when connected in parallel to the power supplies. An alternative powering scheme connects several modules in series resulting in a higher supply voltage but a lower current consumption of the chain and therefore a much lower voltage drop in the cables. In addition the amount of cables needed to supply the detector is vastly reduced. The concept and features of serial powering are presented and studies of the implementation of this technology as an alternative for the ATLAS pixel detector are shown. In par...

  4. Development of a super B-factory monolithic active pixel detector-the Continuous Acquisition Pixel (CAP) prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varner, G.; Barbero, M.; Bozek, A.; Browder, T.; Fang, F.; Hazumi, M.; Igarashi, A.; Iwaida, S.; Kennedy, J.; Kent, N.; Olsen, S.; Palka, H.; Rosen, M.; Ruckman, L.; Stanic, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uchida, K.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last few years great progress has been made in the technological development of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) such that upgrades to existing vertex detectors using this technology are now actively being considered. Future vertex detection at an upgraded KEK-B factory, already the highest luminosity collider in the world, will require a detector technology capable of withstanding the increased track densities and larger radiation exposures. Near the beam pipe the current silicon strip detectors have projected occupancies in excess of 100%. Deep sub-micron MAPS look very promising to address this problem. In the context of an upgrade to the Belle vertex detector, the major obstacles to realizing such a device have been concerns about radiation hardness and readout speed. Two prototypes implemented in the TSMC 0.35 μm process have been developed to address these issues. Denoted the Continuous Acquisition Pixel, or CAP, the two variants of this architecture are distinguished in that CAP2 includes an 8-deep sampling pipeline within each 22.5 μm 2 pixel. Preliminary test results and remaining R and D issues are presented

  5. Finite-element simulations of coupling capacitances in capacitively coupled pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)755510

    2017-01-01

    Capacitively coupled hybrid silicon pixel-detector assemblies are under study for the vertex detector at the proposed future CLIC linear electron-positron collider. The assemblies consist of active CCPDv3 sensors, with 25 μm pixel pitch implemented in a 180 nm High- Voltage CMOS process, which are glued to the CLICpix readout ASIC, with the same pixel pitch and processed in a commercial 65 nm CMOS technology. The signal created in the silicon bulk of the active sensors passes a two-stage amplifier, in each pixel, and gets transferred as a voltage pulse to metal pads facing the readout chip (ROC). The coupling of the signal to the metal pads on the ROC side proceeds through the capacitors formed between the two chips by a thin layer of epoxy glue. The coupling strength and the amount of unwanted cross coupling to neighbouring pixels depends critically on the uniformity of the glue layer, its thickness and on the alignment precision during the flip-chip assembly process. Finite-element calculations of the coup...

  6. Active pixel sensor with intra-pixel charge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node.

  7. Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanner, R.

    1984-08-01

    The status and recent progress of silicon detectors for high energy physics is reviewed. Emphasis is put on detectors with high spatial resolution and the use of silicon detectors in calorimeters. (orig.)

  8. Development of a readout technique for the high data rate BTeV pixel detector at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Bradley K.

    2001-01-01

    The pixel detector for the BTeV experiment at Fermilab provides digitized data from approximately 22 million silicon pixel channels. Portions of the detector are six millimeters from the beam providing a substantial hit rate and high radiation dose. The pixel detector data will be employed by the lowest level trigger system for track reconstruction every beam crossing. These requirements impose a considerable constraint on the readout scheme. This paper presents a readout technique that provides the bandwidth that is adequate for high hit rates, minimizes the number of radiation hard components, and satisfies all other design constraints

  9. Investigation of photon counting pixel detectors for X-ray spectroscopy and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talla, Patrick Takoukam

    2011-04-07

    The Medipix2 and Medipix3 detectors are hybrid pixelated photon counting detectors with a pixel pitch of 55 {mu}m. The sensor material used in this thesis was silicon. Because of their small pixel size they suffer from charge sharing i.e. an incoming photon can be registered by more than one pixel. In order to correct for charge sharing due to lateral diffusion of charge carriers, the Medipix3 detector was developed: with its Charge Summing Mode, the charge collected in a cluster of 2 x 2 pixel is added up and attributed to only one pixel whose counter is incremented. The adjustable threshold of the detectors allows to count the photons and to gain information on their energy. The main purposes of the thesis are to investigate spectral and imaging properties of pixelated photon counting detectors from the Medipix family such as Medipix2 and Medipix3. The investigations are based on simulations and measurements. In order to investigate the spectral properties of the detectors measurements were performed using fluorescence lines of materials such as molybdenum, silver but also some radioactive sources such as Am-241 or Cd-109. From the measured data, parameters like the threshold dispersion and the gain variation from pixel-to-pixel were extracted and used as input in the Monte Carlo code ROSI to model the responses of the detector to monoenergetic photons. The measured data are well described by the simulations for Medipix2 and for Medipix3 operating in Charge Summing Mode. Due to charge sharing and due to the energy dependence of attenuation processes in silicon and to Compton scattering the incoming and the measured spectrum differ substantially from each other. Since the responses to monoenergetic photons are known, a deconvolution was performed to determine the true incoming spectrum. Several direct and iterative methods were successfully applied on measured and simulated data of an X-ray tube and radioactive sources. The knowledge of the X-ray spectrum is

  10. Investigation of photon counting pixel detectors for X-ray spectroscopy and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talla, Patrick Takoukam

    2011-01-01

    The Medipix2 and Medipix3 detectors are hybrid pixelated photon counting detectors with a pixel pitch of 55 μm. The sensor material used in this thesis was silicon. Because of their small pixel size they suffer from charge sharing i.e. an incoming photon can be registered by more than one pixel. In order to correct for charge sharing due to lateral diffusion of charge carriers, the Medipix3 detector was developed: with its Charge Summing Mode, the charge collected in a cluster of 2 x 2 pixel is added up and attributed to only one pixel whose counter is incremented. The adjustable threshold of the detectors allows to count the photons and to gain information on their energy. The main purposes of the thesis are to investigate spectral and imaging properties of pixelated photon counting detectors from the Medipix family such as Medipix2 and Medipix3. The investigations are based on simulations and measurements. In order to investigate the spectral properties of the detectors measurements were performed using fluorescence lines of materials such as molybdenum, silver but also some radioactive sources such as Am-241 or Cd-109. From the measured data, parameters like the threshold dispersion and the gain variation from pixel-to-pixel were extracted and used as input in the Monte Carlo code ROSI to model the responses of the detector to monoenergetic photons. The measured data are well described by the simulations for Medipix2 and for Medipix3 operating in Charge Summing Mode. Due to charge sharing and due to the energy dependence of attenuation processes in silicon and to Compton scattering the incoming and the measured spectrum differ substantially from each other. Since the responses to monoenergetic photons are known, a deconvolution was performed to determine the true incoming spectrum. Several direct and iterative methods were successfully applied on measured and simulated data of an X-ray tube and radioactive sources. The knowledge of the X-ray spectrum is

  11. Status of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC and its performance after three years of operation

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: ~96 % of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit ...

  12. A compact readout system for multi-pixel hybrid photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datema, C.P.; Meng, L.J.; Ramsden, D.

    1999-01-01

    Although the first Multi-pixel Hybrid Photodiode (M-HPD) was developed in the early 1990s by Delft Electronic Products, the main obstacle to its application has been the lack of availability of a compact read-out system. A fast, parallel readout system has been constructed for use with the earlier 25-pixel tube with High-energy Physics applications in mind. The excellent properties of the recently developed multi-pixel hybrid photodiodes (M-HPD) will be easier to exploit following the development of the new hybrid read-out circuits described in this paper. This system will enable all of the required read-out functions to be accommodate on a single board into which the M-HPD is plugged. The design and performance of a versatile system is described in which a trigger-signal, derived from the common-side of the silicon anode in the M-HPD, is used to trigger the readout of the 60-anode pixels in the M-HPD. The multi-channel amplifier section is based on the use of a new, commercial VLSI chip, whilst the read-out sequencer uses a chip of its own design. The common anode signal is processed by a fast amplifier and discriminator to provide a trigger signal when a single event is detected. In the prototype version, the serial analogue output data-stream is processed using a PC-mounted, high speed ADC. Results obtained using the new read-out system in a compact gamma-camera and with a small muon tracking-chamber demonstrate the low-noise performance of the system. The application of this read-out system in other position-sensitive or multi-anode photomultiplier tube applications are also described

  13. Si and gaas pixel detectors for medical imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisogni, M. G.

    2001-01-01

    As the use of digital radiographic equipment in the morphological imaging field is becoming the more and more diffuse, the research of new and more performing devices from public institutions and industrial companies is in constant progress. Most of these devices are based on solid-state detectors as X-ray sensors. Semiconductor pixel detectors, originally developed in the high energy physics environment, have been then proposed as digital detector for medical imaging applications. In this paper a digital single photon counting device, based on silicon and GaAs pixel detector, is presented. The detector is a thin slab of semiconductor crystal where an array of 64 by 64 square pixels, 170- m side, has been built on one side. The data read-out is performed by a VLSI integrated circuit named Photon Counting Chip (PCC), developed within the MEDIPIX collaboration. Each chip cell geometrically matches the sensor pixel. It contains a charge preamplifier, a threshold comparator and a 15 bits pseudo-random counter and it is coupled to the detector by means of bump bonding. Most important advantages of such system, with respect to a traditional X-rays film/screen device, are the wider linear dynamic range (3x104) and the higher performance in terms of MTF and DQE. Besides the single photon counting architecture allows to detect image contrasts lower than 3%. Electronics read-out performance as well as imaging capabilities of the digital device will be presented. Images of mammographic phantoms acquired with a standard Mammographic tube will be compared with radiographs obtained with traditional film/screen systems

  14. Radiation Damage Modeling for 3D Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wallangen, Veronica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector. As the detector in closest proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the HL-LHC, the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 10^15 neq/cm2 and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This poster presents the details of a new digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the 3D Pixel sensors for the ATLAS Detector.

  15. Modeling Radiation Damage Effects in 3D Pixel Digitization for the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Giugliarelli, Gilberto; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector. As the detector in closest proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the HL-LHC, the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 10^15 neq/cm2 and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This poster presents the details of a new digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the 3D Pixel sensors for the ATLAS Detector.

  16. Radiation Damage Observations in the ATLAS Pixel Detector Using the High Voltage Delivery System

    CERN Document Server

    Toms, K

    2011-01-01

    We describe the implementation of radiation damage monitoring using leakage current measurement of the silicon pixel sensors provided by the circuits of the ATLAS Pixel Detector high voltage delivery (HVPP4) system. The dependence of the leakage current upon the integrated luminosity for several temperature scenarios is presented. Based on the analysis we have determined the sensitivity specifications for a Current Measurement System. The status of the system and the first measurement of the radiation damage corresponding to 2--4 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity are presented, as well as the comparison with the theoretical model.

  17. Modeling Radiation Damage Effects in 3D Pixel Digitization for the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wallangen, Veronica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector. As the detector in closest proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the HL-LHC, the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 10$^{15}$ n$_\\mathrm{eq}$/cm$^2$ and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This work presents the details of a new digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the 3D Pixel sensors for the ATLAS detector.

  18. Development of pixellated Ir-TESs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kunieda, Yuichi; Damayanthi, Rathnayaka M. T.; Mori, Fumiakira; Fujita, Kaoru; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2006-04-01

    We have been developing Ir-based pixellated superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs). In the area of material or astronomical applications, the sensor with few eV energy resolution and over 1000 pixels imaging property is desired. In order to achieve this goal, we have been analyzing signals from pixellated TESs. In the case of a 20 pixel array of Ir-TESs, with 45 μm×45 μm pixel sizes, the incident X-ray signals have been classified into 16 groups. We have applied numerical signal analysis. On the one hand, the energy resolution of our pixellated TES is strongly degraded. However, using pulse shape analysis, we can dramatically improve the resolution. Thus, we consider that the pulse signal analysis will lead this device to be used as a practical photon incident position identifying TES.

  19. Development of pixellated Ir-TESs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zen, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kunieda, Yuichi; Dayanthi, Rathnayaka M.T.; Mori, Fumiakira; Fujita, Kaoru; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2006-01-01

    We have been developing Ir-based pixellated superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs). In the area of material or astronomical applications, the sensor with few eV energy resolution and over 1000 pixels imaging property is desired. In order to achieve this goal, we have been analyzing signals from pixellated TESs. In the case of a 20 pixel array of Ir-TESs, with 45 μmx45 μm pixel sizes, the incident X-ray signals have been classified into 16 groups. We have applied numerical signal analysis. On the one hand, the energy resolution of our pixellated TES is strongly degraded. However, using pulse shape analysis, we can dramatically improve the resolution. Thus, we consider that the pulse signal analysis will lead this device to be used as a practical photon incident position identifying TES

  20. Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Bradley M; Tyo, J Scott; Boger, James K; Black, Wiley T; Bowers, David L; Fetrow, Matthew P

    2007-06-11

    LWIR imaging arrays are often affected by nonresponsive pixels, or "dead pixels." These dead pixels can severely degrade the quality of imagery and often have to be replaced before subsequent image processing and display of the imagery data. For LWIR arrays that are integrated with arrays of micropolarizers, the problem of dead pixels is amplified. Conventional dead pixel replacement (DPR) strategies cannot be employed since neighboring pixels are of different polarizations. In this paper we present two DPR schemes. The first is a modified nearest-neighbor replacement method. The second is a method based on redundancy in the polarization measurements.We find that the redundancy-based DPR scheme provides an order-of-magnitude better performance for typical LWIR polarimetric data.

  1. Advanced pixel architectures for scientific image sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Coath, R; Godbeer, A; Wilson, M; Turchetta, R

    2009-01-01

    We present recent developments from two projects targeting advanced pixel architectures for scientific applications. Results are reported from FORTIS, a sensor demonstrating variants on a 4T pixel architecture. The variants include differences in pixel and diode size, the in-pixel source follower transistor size and the capacitance of the readout node to optimise for low noise and sensitivity to small amounts of charge. Results are also reported from TPAC, a complex pixel architecture with ~160 transistors per pixel. Both sensors were manufactured in the 0.18μm INMAPS process, which includes a special deep p-well layer and fabrication on a high resistivity epitaxial layer for improved charge collection efficiency.

  2. Radiation hardness and timing studies of a monolithic TowerJazz pixel design for the new ATLAS Inner Tracker

    OpenAIRE

    Riegel, C; Backhaus, M; Hoorne, J W Van; Kugathasan, T; Musa, L; Pernegger, H; Riedler, P; Schaefer, D; Snoeys, W; Wagner, W

    2017-01-01

    A part of the upcoming HL-LHC upgrade of the ATLAS Detector is the construction of a new Inner Tracker. This upgrade opens new possibilities, but also presents challenges in terms of occupancy and radiation tolerance. For the pixel detector inside the inner tracker, hybrid modules containing passive silicon sensors and connected readout chips are presently used, but require expensive assembly techniques like fine-pitch bump bonding. Silicon devices fabricated in standard commercial CMOS techn...

  3. STAR PIXEL detector mechanical design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieman, H H; Anderssen, E; Greiner, L; Matis, H S; Ritter, H G; Sun, X; Szelezniak, M [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: hhwieman@lbl.gov

    2009-05-15

    A high resolution pixel detector is being designed for the STAR [1] experiment at RHIC. This device will use MAPS as the detector element and will have a pointing accuracy of {approx}25 microns. We will be reporting on the mechanical design required to support this resolution. The radiation length of the first layer ({approx}0.3% X{sub 0}) and its distance from the interaction point (2.5 cm) determines the resolution. The design makes use of air cooling and thin carbon composite structures to limit the radiation length. The mechanics are being developed to achieve spatial calibrations and stability to 20 microns and to permit rapid detector replacement in event of radiation damage or other potential failures from operation near the beam.

  4. Pixelated coatings and advanced IR coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradal, Fabien; Portier, Benjamin; Oussalah, Meihdi; Leplan, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Reosc developed pixelated infrared coatings on detector. Reosc manufactured thick pixelated multilayer stacks on IR-focal plane arrays for bi-spectral imaging systems, demonstrating high filter performance, low crosstalk, and no deterioration of the device sensitivities. More recently, a 5-pixel filter matrix was designed and fabricated. Recent developments in pixelated coatings, shows that high performance infrared filters can be coated directly on detector for multispectral imaging. Next generation space instrument can benefit from this technology to reduce their weight and consumptions.

  5. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lantzsch, Kerstin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run 2 of the LHC is providing new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). In addition the Pixel detector was refurbished with new service quarter panels to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during run 1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. The commissioning, operation and performance of the 4-layer Pixel Detector will be presented.

  6. Belle II silicon vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Angelini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Aziz, T.; Babu, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bacher, S. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Bahinipati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Satya Nagar (India); Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Basith, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Batignani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bauer, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Behera, P.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bettarini, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhuyan, B. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Bilka, T. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Bosi, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); INFN Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2016-09-21

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan is designed to indirectly probe new physics using approximately 50 times the data recorded by its predecessor. An accurate determination of the decay-point position of subatomic particles such as beauty and charm hadrons as well as a precise measurement of low-momentum charged particles will play a key role in this pursuit. These will be accomplished by an inner tracking device comprising two layers of pixelated silicon detector and four layers of silicon vertex detector based on double-sided microstrip sensors. We describe herein the design, prototyping and construction efforts of the Belle-II silicon vertex detector.

  7. The CMS silicon strip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focardi, E.; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Bartalini, P.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Civinini, C.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; Demaria, N.; De Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Marina, R. Della; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammerstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B. Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Raffaelli, F.; Raso, G.; Raymond, M.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Skog, K.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Wang, Y.; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) is the intermediate part of the CMS Central Tracker System. SST is based on microstrip silicon devices and in combination with pixel detectors and the Microstrip Gas Chambers aims at performing pattern recognition, track reconstruction and momentum measurements for all tracks with p T ≥2 GeV/c originating from high luminosity interactions at √s=14 TeV at LHC. We aim at exploiting the advantages and the physics potential of the precise tracking performance provided by the microstrip silicon detectors on a large scale apparatus and in a much more difficult environment than ever. In this paper we describe the actual SST layout and the readout system. (author)

  8. Comparative study of various pixel photodiodes for digital radiography: Junction structure, corner shape and noble window opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong-Uk; Cho, Minsik; Lee, Dae Hee; Yoo, Hyunjun; Kim, Myung Soo; Bae, Jun Hyung; Kim, Hyoungtaek; Kim, Jongyul; Kim, Hyunduk; Cho, Gyuseong

    2012-05-01

    Recently, large-size 3-transistors (3-Tr) active pixel complementary metal-oxide silicon (CMOS) image sensors have been being used for medium-size digital X-ray radiography, such as dental computed tomography (CT), mammography and nondestructive testing (NDT) for consumer products. We designed and fabricated 50 µm × 50 µm 3-Tr test pixels having a pixel photodiode with various structures and shapes by using the TSMC 0.25-m standard CMOS process to compare their optical characteristics. The pixel photodiode output was continuously sampled while a test pixel was continuously illuminated by using 550-nm light at a constant intensity. The measurement was repeated 300 times for each test pixel to obtain reliable results on the mean and the variance of the pixel output at each sampling time. The sampling rate was 50 kHz, and the reset period was 200 msec. To estimate the conversion gain, we used the mean-variance method. From the measured results, the n-well/p-substrate photodiode, among 3 photodiode structures available in a standard CMOS process, showed the best performance at a low illumination equivalent to the typical X-ray signal range. The quantum efficiencies of the n+/p-well, n-well/p-substrate, and n+/p-substrate photodiodes were 18.5%, 62.1%, and 51.5%, respectively. From a comparison of pixels with rounded and rectangular corners, we found that a rounded corner structure could reduce the dark current in large-size pixels. A pixel with four rounded corners showed a reduced dark current of about 200fA compared to a pixel with four rectangular corners in our pixel sample size. Photodiodes with round p-implant openings showed about 5% higher dark current, but about 34% higher sensitivities, than the conventional photodiodes.

  9. Comparative study of various pixel photodiodes for digital radiography: junction structure, corner shape and noble window opening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong-Uk; Cho, Min-Sik; Lee, Dae-Hee; Yoo, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Myung-Soo; Bae, Jun-Hyung; Kim, Hyoung-Taek; Kim, Jong-Yul; Kim, Hyun-Duk; Cho, Gyu-Seong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Recently, large-size 3-transistors (3-Tr) active pixel complementary metal-oxide silicon (CMOS) image sensors have been being used for medium-size digital X-ray radiography, such as dental computed tomography (CT), mammography and nondestructive testing (NDT) for consumer products. We designed and fabricated 50 μm x 50 μm 3-Tr test pixels having a pixel photodiode with various structures and shapes by using the TSMC 0.25-m standard CMOS process to compare their optical characteristics. The pixel photodiode output was continuously sampled while a test pixel was continuously illuminated by using 550-nm light at a constant intensity. The measurement was repeated 300 times for each test pixel to obtain reliable results on the mean and the variance of the pixel output at each sampling time. The sampling rate was 50 kHz, and the reset period was 200 msec. To estimate the conversion gain, we used the mean-variance method. From the measured results, the n-well/p-substrate photodiode, among 3 photodiode structures available in a standard CMOS process, showed the best performance at a low illumination equivalent to the typical X-ray signal range. The quantum efficiencies of the n+/p-well, n-well/p-substrate, and n+/p-substrate photodiodes were 18.5%, 62.1%, and 51.5%, respectively. From a comparison of pixels with rounded and rectangular corners, we found that a rounded corner structure could reduce the dark current in large-size pixels. A pixel with four rounded corners showed a reduced dark current of about 200 fA compared to a pixel with four rectangular corners in our pixel sample size. Photodiodes with round p-implant openings showed about 5% higher dark current, but about 34% higher sensitivities, than the conventional photodiodes.

  10. Tracking performance of a single-crystal and a polycrystalline diamond pixel-detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menasce, D.; et al.

    2013-06-01

    We present a comparative characterization of the performance of a single-crystal and a polycrystalline diamond pixel-detector employing the standard CMS pixel readout chips. Measurements were carried out at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility, FTBF, using protons of momentum 120 GeV/c tracked by a high-resolution pixel telescope. Particular attention was directed to the study of the charge-collection, the charge-sharing among adjacent pixels and the achievable position resolution. The performance of the single-crystal detector was excellent and comparable to the best available silicon pixel-detectors. The measured average detection-efficiency was near unity, ε = 0.99860±0.00006, and the position-resolution for shared hits was about 6 μm. On the other hand, the performance of the polycrystalline detector was hampered by its lower charge collection distance and the readout chip threshold. A new readout chip, capable of operating at much lower threshold (around 1 ke$-$), would be required to fully exploit the potential performance of the polycrystalline diamond pixel-detector.

  11. Recent progress in the development of a B-factory monolithic active pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanic, S.; Aihara, H.; Barbero, M.; Bozek, A.; Browder, T.; Hazumi, M.; Kennedy, J.; Kent, N.; Olsen, S.; Palka, H.; Rosen, M.; Ruckman, L.; Trabelsi, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uchida, K.; Varner, G.; Yang, Q.

    2006-01-01

    Due to the need for precise vertexing at future higher luminosity B-factories with the expectedly increasing track densities and radiation exposures, upgrade of present silicon strip detectors with thin, radiation resistant pixel detectors is highly desired. Considerable progress in the technological development of thin CMOS based Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in the last years makes them a realistic upgrade option and the feasibility studies of their application in Belle are actively pursued. The most serious concerns are their radiation hardness and their read-out speed. To address them, several prototypes denoted as Continuous Acquisition Pixel (CAP) sensors have been developed and tested. The latest of the CAP sensor prototypes is CAP3, designed in the TSMC 0.25μm process with a 5-deep sample pair pipeline in each pixel. A setup with several CAP3 sensors will be used to assess the performance of a full scale pixel read-out system running at realistic read-out speed. The results and plans for the next stages of R and D towards a full Pixel Vertex Detector (PVD) are presented

  12. High-speed X-ray imaging pixel array detector for synchrotron bunch isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Hugh T; Tate, Mark W; Purohit, Prafull; Shanks, Katherine S; Weiss, Joel T; Gruner, Sol M

    2016-03-01

    A wide-dynamic-range imaging X-ray detector designed for recording successive frames at rates up to 10 MHz is described. X-ray imaging with frame rates of up to 6.5 MHz have been experimentally verified. The pixel design allows for up to 8-12 frames to be stored internally at high speed before readout, which occurs at a 1 kHz frame rate. An additional mode of operation allows the integration capacitors to be re-addressed repeatedly before readout which can enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of cyclical processes. This detector, along with modern storage ring sources which provide short (10-100 ps) and intense X-ray pulses at megahertz rates, opens new avenues for the study of rapid structural changes in materials. The detector consists of hybridized modules, each of which is comprised of a 500 µm-thick silicon X-ray sensor solder bump-bonded, pixel by pixel, to an application-specific integrated circuit. The format of each module is 128 × 128 pixels with a pixel pitch of 150 µm. In the prototype detector described here, the three-side buttable modules are tiled in a 3 × 2 array with a full format of 256 × 384 pixels. The characteristics, operation, testing and application of the detector are detailed.

  13. The CMS all silicon Tracker simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Biasini, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) tracker detector is the world's largest silicon detector with about 201 m$^2$ of silicon strips detectors and 1 m$^2$ of silicon pixel detectors. It contains 66 millions pixels and 10 million individual sensing strips. The quality of the physics analysis is highly correlated with the precision of the Tracker detector simulation which is written on top of the GEANT4 and the CMS object-oriented framework. The hit position resolution in the Tracker detector depends on the ability to correctly model the CMS tracker geometry, the signal digitization and Lorentz drift, the calibration and inefficiency. In order to ensure high performance in track and vertex reconstruction, an accurate knowledge of the material budget is therefore necessary since the passive materials, involved in the readout, cooling or power systems, will create unwanted effects during the particle detection, such as multiple scattering, electron bremsstrahlung and photon conversion. In this paper, we present the CM...

  14. Fast readout logic interfacing a 256-pixel matrix of a dual-layer 3D device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielli, A; Giorgi, F; Villa, M; Morsani, F

    2010-01-01

    A prototype of a 3D ASIC built up of a fast readout architecture, with sparsification capabilities, which interfaces with a matrix of a 256-pixel sensor, was recently submitted. The chosen technology is CMOS Chartered 130 nm as it is compatible with the Tezzaron facility to interconnect face-to-face two silicon wafers allowing for a vertical integration structure by means of through-silicon-vias. Particularly, the readout logic uses one layer that will be stacked on a sensor layer at the end of the fabrication process.

  15. Fast readout logic interfacing a 256-pixel matrix of a dual-layer 3D device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrielli, A; Giorgi, F; Villa, M [INFN-Bologna and Physics Department, University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat, 6/2, 40127, Bologna (Italy); Morsani, F, E-mail: alessandro.gabrielli@bo.infn.i [INFN-Pisa and University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3, 56127, Pisa (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    A prototype of a 3D ASIC built up of a fast readout architecture, with sparsification capabilities, which interfaces with a matrix of a 256-pixel sensor, was recently submitted. The chosen technology is CMOS Chartered 130 nm as it is compatible with the Tezzaron facility to interconnect face-to-face two silicon wafers allowing for a vertical integration structure by means of through-silicon-vias. Particularly, the readout logic uses one layer that will be stacked on a sensor layer at the end of the fabrication process.

  16. Study of prototypes of LFoundry active CMOS pixels sensors for the ATLAS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigani, L.; Bortoletto, D.; Ambroz, L.; Plackett, R.; Hemperek, T.; Rymaszewski, P.; Wang, T.; Krueger, H.; Hirono, T.; Caicedo Sierra, I.; Wermes, N.; Barbero, M.; Bhat, S.; Breugnon, P.; Chen, Z.; Godiot, S.; Pangaud, P.; Rozanov, A.

    2018-02-01

    Current high energy particle physics experiments at the LHC use hybrid silicon detectors, in both pixel and strip configurations, for their inner trackers. These detectors have proven to be very reliable and performant. Nevertheless, there is great interest in depleted CMOS silicon detectors, which could achieve a similar performance at lower cost of production. We present recent developments of this technology in the framework of the ATLAS CMOS demonstrator project. In particular, studies of two active sensors from LFoundry, CCPD_LF and LFCPIX, are shown.

  17. Study of prototypes of LFoundry active CMOS pixels sensors for the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Vigani, L.; Ambroz, L.; Plackett, R.; Hemperek, T.; Rymaszewski, P.; Wang, T.; Krueger, H.; Hirono, T.; Caicedo Sierra, I.; Wermes, N.; Barbero, M.; Bhat, S.; Breugnon, P.; Chen, Z.; Godiot, S.; Pangaud, P.; Rozanov, A.

    2018-01-01

    Current high energy particle physics experiments at the LHC use hybrid silicon detectors, in both pixel and strip configurations, for their inner trackers. These detectors have proven to be very reliable and performant. Nevertheless, there is great interest in depleted CMOS silicon detectors, which could achieve a similar performance at lower cost of production. We present recent developments of this technology in the framework of the ATLAS CMOS demonstrator project. In particular, studies of two active sensors from LFoundry, CCPD_LF and LFCPIX, are shown.

  18. Hot pixel generation in active pixel sensors: dosimetric and micro-dosimetric response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheick, Leif; Novak, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The dosimetric response of an active pixel sensor is analyzed. heavy ions are seen to damage the pixel in much the same way as gamma radiation. The probability of a hot pixel is seen to exhibit behavior that is not typical with other microdose effects.

  19. CMOS pixel sensor development for the ATLAS experiment at the High Luminosity-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, M.

    2017-12-01

    The current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced with a fully silicon based detector called Inner Tracker (ITk) before the start of the High Luminosity-LHC project (HL-LHC) in 2026. To cope with the harsh environment expected at the HL-LHC, new approaches are being developed for pixel detectors based on CMOS technology. Such detectors can provide charge collection, analog amplification and digital processing in the same silicon wafer. The radiation hardness is improved thanks to multiple nested wells which give the embedded CMOS electronics sufficient shielding. The goal of this programme is to demonstrate that depleted CMOS pixels are suitable for high rate, fast timing and high radiation operation at the LHC . A number of alternative solutions have been explored and characterised. In this document, test results of the sensors fabricated in different CMOS processes are reported.

  20. Preliminary test results from a telescope of Hughes pixel arrays at FNAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jernigan, J.G.; Arens, J.; Vezie, D.; Collins, T.; Krider, J.; Skubic, P.

    1992-09-01

    In December of 1991 three silicon hybrid pixel detectors each having 2.56 x 2.56 pixels 30 μm square, made by the Hughes Aircraft Company, were placed in a high energy muon beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Straight tracks were recorded in these detectors at angles to the normal to the plane of the silicon ranging from 0 to 45 degrees. In this note, preliminary results are presented on the straight through tracks, i.e., those passing through the telescope at normal incidence. Pulse height data, signal-to-noise data, and preliminary straight line fits to the data resulting in residual distributions are presented. Preliminary calculations show spatial resolution of less than 5 μm in two dimensions

  1. Low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gonella, Laura; Desch, Klaus

    2013-11-11

    Reducing material in silicon trackers is of major importance for a good overall detector performance, and poses severe challenges to the design of the tracking system. To match the low mass constraints for trackers in High Energy Physics experiments at high luminosity, dedicated technological developments are required. This dissertation presents three technologies to design low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity upgrades of the LHC. The work targets specifically the reduction of the material from the detector services and modules, with novel powering schemes, flip chip and interconnection technologies. A serial powering scheme is prototyped, featuring a new regulator concept, a control and protection element, and AC-coupled data transmission. A modified flip chip technology is developed for thin, large area Front-End chips, and a via last Through Silicon Via process is demonstrated on existing pixel modules. These technologies, their developments, and the achievable material reduction are dis...

  2. Electrical characterization of thin edgeless N-on-p planar pixel sensors for ATLAS upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomben, M; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; Marchiori, G; Bagolini, A; Boscardin, M; Giacomini, G; Zorzi, N; Bosisio, L; Rosa, A La

    2014-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. Because of its radiation hardness and cost effectiveness, the n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate for a large area pixel detector. The paper reports on the joint development, by LPNHE and FBK of novel n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors, making use of the active trench concept for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology, and presenting some sensors' simulation results, a complete overview of the electrical characterization of the produced devices will be given

  3. Technological aspects of gaseous pixel detectors fabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco Carballo, V.M.; Salm, Cora; Smits, Sander M.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Melai, J.; Chefdeville, M.A.; van der Graaf, H.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated gaseous pixel detectors consisting of a metal punctured foil suspended in the order of 50μm over a pixel readout chip by means by SU-8 insulating pillars have been fabricated. SU-8 is used as sacrificial layer but metallization over uncrosslinked SU-8 presents adhesion and stress

  4. 18k Channels single photon counting readout circuit for hybrid pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maj, P.; Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Zoladz, M.; Sakumura, T.; Tsuji, Y.

    2013-01-01

    We have performed measurements of an integrated circuit named PXD18k designed for hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used in X-ray imaging applications. The PXD18k integrated circuit, fabricated in CMOS 180 nm technology, has dimensions of 9.64 mm×20 mm and contains approximately 26 million transistors. The core of the IC is a matrix of 96×192 pixels with 100 μm×100 μm pixel size. Each pixel works in a single photon counting mode. A single pixel contains two charge sensitive amplifiers with Krummenacher feedback scheme, two shapers, two discriminators (with independent thresholds A and B) and two 16-bit ripple counters. The data are read out via eight low voltage differential signaling (LVDS) outputs with 100 Mbps rate. The power consumption is dominated by analog blocks and it is about 23 μW/pixel. The effective peaking time at the discriminator input is 30 ns and is mainly determined by the time constants of the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA). The gain is equal to 42.5 μV/e − and the equivalent noise charge is 168 e − rms (with bump-bonded silicon pixel detector). Thanks to the use of trim DACs in each pixel, the effective threshold spread at the discriminator input is only 1.79 mV. The dead time of the front end electronics for a standard setting is 172 ns (paralyzable model). In the standard readout mode (when the data collection time is separated from the time necessary to readout data from the chip) the PXD18k IC works with two energy thresholds per pixel. The PXD18k can also be operated in the continuous readout mode (with a zero dead time) where one can select the number of bits readout from each pixel to optimize the PXD18k frame rate. For example, for reading out 16 bits/pixel the frame rate is 2.7 kHz and for 4 bits/pixel it rises to 7.1 kHz.

  5. 18k Channels single photon counting readout circuit for hybrid pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maj, P., E-mail: piotr.maj@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurements and Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Zoladz, M. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurements and Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Sakumura, T.; Tsuji, Y. [X-ray Analysis Division, Rigaku Corporation, Matsubara, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8666 (Japan)

    2013-01-01

    We have performed measurements of an integrated circuit named PXD18k designed for hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used in X-ray imaging applications. The PXD18k integrated circuit, fabricated in CMOS 180 nm technology, has dimensions of 9.64 mm Multiplication-Sign 20 mm and contains approximately 26 million transistors. The core of the IC is a matrix of 96 Multiplication-Sign 192 pixels with 100 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 100 {mu}m pixel size. Each pixel works in a single photon counting mode. A single pixel contains two charge sensitive amplifiers with Krummenacher feedback scheme, two shapers, two discriminators (with independent thresholds A and B) and two 16-bit ripple counters. The data are read out via eight low voltage differential signaling (LVDS) outputs with 100 Mbps rate. The power consumption is dominated by analog blocks and it is about 23 {mu}W/pixel. The effective peaking time at the discriminator input is 30 ns and is mainly determined by the time constants of the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA). The gain is equal to 42.5 {mu}V/e{sup -} and the equivalent noise charge is 168 e{sup -} rms (with bump-bonded silicon pixel detector). Thanks to the use of trim DACs in each pixel, the effective threshold spread at the discriminator input is only 1.79 mV. The dead time of the front end electronics for a standard setting is 172 ns (paralyzable model). In the standard readout mode (when the data collection time is separated from the time necessary to readout data from the chip) the PXD18k IC works with two energy thresholds per pixel. The PXD18k can also be operated in the continuous readout mode (with a zero dead time) where one can select the number of bits readout from each pixel to optimize the PXD18k frame rate. For example, for reading out 16 bits/pixel the frame rate is 2.7 kHz and for 4 bits/pixel it rises to 7.1 kHz.

  6. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Djama, Fares; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Run-2 of the LHC is providing new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction imposed by the higher collision energy, pileup and luminosity that are being delivered. The ATLAS tracking performance relies critically on the Pixel Detector, therefore, in view of Run-2 of LHC, the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). Pixel detector was refurbished with a new service quarter panel to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during run-1 and an additional optical link per module was added to overcome in some layers the readout bandwidth limitation when LHC will exceed the nominal peak luminosity by almost a factor of 3. The key features and challenges met during the IBL project will be presented, as well as its operational experience and Pixel Detector performance in LHC.

  7. A high efficiency readout architecture for a large matrix of pixels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielli, A; Giorgi, F; Villa, M

    2010-01-01

    In this work we present a fast readout architecture for silicon pixel matrix sensors that has been designed to sustain very high rates, above 1 MHz/mm 2 for matrices greater than 80k pixels. This logic can be implemented within MAPS (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors), a kind of high resolution sensor that integrates on the same bulk the sensor matrix and the CMOS logic for readout, but it can be exploited also with other technologies. The proposed architecture is based on three main concepts. First of all, the readout of the hits is performed by activating one column at a time; all the fired pixels on the active column are read, sparsified and reset in parallel in one clock cycle. This implies the use of global signals across the sensor matrix. The consequent reduction of metal interconnections improves the active area while maintaining a high granularity (down to a pixel pitch of 40 μm). Secondly, the activation for readout takes place only for those columns overlapping with a certain fired area, thus reducing the sweeping time of the whole matrix and reducing the pixel dead-time. Third, the sparsification (x-y address labeling of the hits) is performed with a lower granularity with respect to single pixels, by addressing vertical zones of 8 pixels each. The fine-grain Y resolution is achieved by appending the zone pattern to the zone address of a hit. We show then the benefits of this technique in presence of clusters. We describe this architecture from a schematic point of view, then presenting the efficiency results obtained by VHDL simulations.

  8. A high efficiency readout architecture for a large matrix of pixels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, A.; Giorgi, F.; Villa, M.

    2010-07-01

    In this work we present a fast readout architecture for silicon pixel matrix sensors that has been designed to sustain very high rates, above 1 MHz/mm2 for matrices greater than 80k pixels. This logic can be implemented within MAPS (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors), a kind of high resolution sensor that integrates on the same bulk the sensor matrix and the CMOS logic for readout, but it can be exploited also with other technologies. The proposed architecture is based on three main concepts. First of all, the readout of the hits is performed by activating one column at a time; all the fired pixels on the active column are read, sparsified and reset in parallel in one clock cycle. This implies the use of global signals across the sensor matrix. The consequent reduction of metal interconnections improves the active area while maintaining a high granularity (down to a pixel pitch of 40 μm). Secondly, the activation for readout takes place only for those columns overlapping with a certain fired area, thus reducing the sweeping time of the whole matrix and reducing the pixel dead-time. Third, the sparsification (x-y address labeling of the hits) is performed with a lower granularity with respect to single pixels, by addressing vertical zones of 8 pixels each. The fine-grain Y resolution is achieved by appending the zone pattern to the zone address of a hit. We show then the benefits of this technique in presence of clusters. We describe this architecture from a schematic point of view, then presenting the efficiency results obtained by VHDL simulations.

  9. The INFN-FBK pixel R&D program for HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschini, M.; Dalla Betta, G. F.; Boscardin, M.; Calderini, G.; Darbo, G.; Giacomini, G.; Messineo, A.; Ronchin, S.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the ATLAS and CMS joint research activity, which is aiming at the development of new, thin silicon pixel detectors for the Large Hadron Collider Phase-2 detector upgrades. This R&D is performed under special agreement between Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and FBK foundation (Trento, Italy). New generations of 3D and planar pixel sensors with active edges are being developed in the R&D project, and will be fabricated at FBK. A first planar pixel batch, which was produced by the end of year 2014, will be described in this paper. First clean room measurement results on planar sensors obtained before and after neutron irradiation will be presented.

  10. Studies for an upgrade of ALICE Inner Tracking System: Pixel chip characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jonghan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inner Tracking System (ITS of ALICE is used for vertex determination and tracking. Future heavy-ion program at the LHC aims to run with high luminosity. To address this challenge, upgrade program of ITS is underway, which aims at better position resolution (factor of 3, high detection efficiency (>99%, high-rate readout capabilities (100 kHz for Pb-Pb and moderate radiation hardness (> 700 krad. The new ITS will be composed with 7 layers of silicon pixel chip based on Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS technology. The characterization test of various version of prototype chips at different phases of development has been performed. This contribution will provide the main characterization results obtained from the measurements performed at laboratories and using test beam for finalizing the pixel chip specification.

  11. Development of radiation hard CMOS active pixel sensors for HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernegger, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    New pixel detectors, based on commercial high voltage and/or high resistivity full CMOS processes, hold promise as next-generation active pixel sensors for inner and intermediate layers of the upgraded ATLAS tracker. The use of commercial CMOS processes allow cost-effective detector construction and simpler hybridisation techniques. The paper gives an overview of the results obtained on AMS-produced CMOS sensors coupled to the ATLAS Pixel FE-I4 readout chips. The SOI (silicon-on-insulator) produced sensors by XFAB hold great promise as radiation hard SOI-CMOS sensors due to their combination of partially depleted SOI transistors reducing back-gate effects. The test results include pre-/post-irradiation comparison, measurements of charge collection regions as well as test beam results.

  12. Development of thin pixel sensors and a novel interconnection technology for the SLHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macchiolo, A.; Andricek, L.; Beimforde, M.; Dubbert, J.; Ghodbane, N.; Kortner, O.; Kroha, H.; Moser, H.G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    We present an R and D activity aiming to develop a new detector concept in the framework of the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade in view of the Super-LHC. The new devices combine 75-150 μm thick pixels sensors with a vertical integration technology. A new production of thin pixel sensors on n- and p-type material is under way at the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory. These devices will be connected to the ATLAS read-out electronics with the new Solid-Liquid InterDiffusion technique as an alternative to the bump-bonding process. We also plan for the signals to be extracted from the back of the electronics wafer through Inter-Chip-Vias. The compatibility of the Solid-Liquid InterDiffusion process with the silicon sensor functionality has already been demonstrated by measurements on two wafers hosting diodes with an active thickness of 50 μm

  13. Depleted Monolithic Pixels (DMAPS) in a 150 nm technology: lab and beam results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermann, T.; Hemperek, T.; Hügging, F.; Krüger, H.; Pohl, D.-L.; Wermes, N.; Schwenker, B.

    2017-01-01

    The fully depleted monolithic active pixel sensor (DMAPS) is a new concept integrating full CMOS circuitry onto a fully depletable silicon substrate wafer. The realization of prototypes of the DMAPS concept relies on the availability of multiple well CMOS processes and high resistive substrates. The CMOS foundry ESPROS Photonics offers both and was chosen for prototyping. Two prototypes, EPCB01 and EPCB02, were developed in a 150 nm process on a high resistive n-type wafer of 50 μm thickness. The prototypes have 352 square pixels of 40 μm pitch and small n-well charge collection node with very low capacitance (n + -implantation size: 5 μm by 5 μm) and about 150 transistors per pixel (CSA and discriminator plus a small digital part).

  14. The INFN-FBK pixel R&D program for HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschini, M.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Boscardin, M.; Calderini, G.; Darbo, G.; Giacomini, G.; Messineo, A.; Ronchin, S.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the ATLAS and CMS joint research activity, which is aiming at the development of new, thin silicon pixel detectors for the Large Hadron Collider Phase-2 detector upgrades. This R&D is performed under special agreement between Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and FBK foundation (Trento, Italy). New generations of 3D and planar pixel sensors with active edges are being developed in the R&D project, and will be fabricated at FBK. A first planar pixel batch, which was produced by the end of year 2014, will be described in this paper. First clean room measurement results on planar sensors obtained before and after neutron irradiation will be presented.

  15. Design of readout drivers for ATLAS pixel detectors using field programmable gate arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Sivasubramaniyan, Sriram

    Microstrip detectors are an integral patt of high energy physics research . Special protocols are used to transmit the data from these detectors . To readout the data from such detectors specialized instrumentation have to be designed . To achieve this task, creative and innovative high speed algorithms were designed simulated and implemented in Field Programmable gate arrays, using CAD/CAE tools. The simulation results indicated that these algorithms would be able to perform all the required tasks quickly and efficiently. This thesis describes the design of data acquisition system called the Readout Drivers (ROD) . It focuses on the ROD data path for ATLAS Pixel detectors. The data path will be an integrated part of Readout Drivers setup to decode the data from the silicon micro strip detectors and pixel detectors. This research also includes the design of Readout Driver controller. This Module is used to control the operation of the ROD. This module is responsible for the operation of the Pixel decoders bas...

  16. 320 x 240 uncooled IRFPA with pixel wise thin film vacuum packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, J.-J.; Dumont, G.; Rabaud, W.; Becker, S.; Carle, L.; Goudon, V.; Vialle, C.; Hamelin, A.; Arnaud, A.

    2012-10-01

    Silicon based vacuum packaging is a key enabling technology for achieving affordable uncooled Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (IRFPA) as required by the promising mass market for very low cost IR applications, such as automotive driving assistance, energy loss monitoring in buildings, motion sensors… Among the various approaches studied worldwide, the CEA, LETI is developing a unique technology where each bolometer pixel is sealed under vacuum at the wafer level, using an IR transparent thin film deposition. This technology referred to as PLP (Pixel Level Packaging), leads to an array of hermetic micro-caps each containing a single microbolometer. Since the successful demonstration that the PLP technology, when applied on a single microbolometer pixel, can provide the required vacuum noise and NETD distributions, the paper also puts emphasis on additional key features such as thermal time constant, image quality, and ageing properties.

  17. The color of X-rays: Spectral X-ray computed tomography using energy sensitive pixel detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schioppa, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy sensitive X-ray imaging detectors are produced by connecting a semiconductor sensor to a spectroscopic pixel readout chip. In this thesis, the applicability of such detectors to X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is studied. A prototype Medipix based silicon detector is calibrated using X-ray

  18. The column architecture -- A novel architecture for event driven 2D pixel imagers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millaud, J.; Nygren, D.

    1996-01-01

    The authors describe an electronic architecture for two-dimensional pixel arrays that permits very large increases in rate capability for event- or data-driven applications relative to conventional x-y architectures. The column architecture also permits more efficient use of silicon area in applications requiring local buffering, frameless data acquisition, and it avoids entirely the problem of ambiguities that may arise in conventional approaches. Two examples of active implementation are described: high energy physics and protein crystallography

  19. Towards a new generation of pixel detector readout chips

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, M; Ballabriga, R.; Frojdh, E.; Heijne, E.; Llopart, X.; Poikela, T.; Tlustos, L.; Valerio, P.; Wong, W.

    2016-01-01

    The Medipix3 Collaboration has broken new ground in spectroscopic X-ray imaging and in single particle detection and tracking. This paper will review briefly the performance and limitations of the present generation of pixel detector readout chips developed by the Collaboration. Through Silicon Via technology has the potential to provide a significant improvement in the tile- ability and more flexibility in the choice of readout architecture. This has been explored in the context of 3 projects with CEA-LETI using Medipix3 and Timepix3 wafers. The next generation of chips will aim to provide improved spectroscopic imaging performance at rates compatible with human CT. It will also aim to provide full spectroscopic images with unprecedented energy and spatial resolution. Some of the opportunities and challenges posed by moving to a more dense CMOS process will be discussed.

  20. Pixel readout chips in deep submicron CMOS for ALICE and LHCb tolerant to 10 Mrad and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snoeys, W.; Burns, M.; Campbell, M.; Cantatore, E.; Cencelli, V.; Dinapoli, R.; Heijne, E.; Jarron, P.; Lamanna, P.; Minervini, D.; Morel, M.; O'Shea, V.; Quiquempoix, V.; Bello, D.S.S.D.San Segundo; Van Koningsveld, B.; Wyllie, K.

    2001-01-01

    The ALICE1LHCB chip is a mixed-mode integrated circuit designed to read out silicon pixel detectors for two different applications: particle tracking in the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector and particle identification in the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector. To satisfy the different needs for these two experiments, the chip can be operated in two different modes. In tracking mode all the 50 μmx425 μm pixel cells in the 256x32 array are read out individually, whilst in particle identification mode they are combined in groups of 8 to form a 32x32 array of 400 μmx425 μm cells. Radiation tolerance was enhanced through special circuit layout. Sensitivity to coupling of digital signals into the analog front end was minimized. System issues such as testability and uniformity further constrained the design. The circuit is currently being manufactured in a commercial 0.25 μm CMOS technology

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of the imaging properties of scintillator-coated X-ray pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, M.; Norlin, B.; Nilsson, H.-E.; Froejdh, C.; Badel, X.

    2003-01-01

    The spatial resolution of scintillator-coated X-ray pixel detectors is usually limited by the isotropic light spread in the scintillator. One way to overcome this limitation is to use a pixellated scintillating layer on top of the semiconductor pixel detector. Using advanced etching and filling techniques, arrays of CsI columns have been successfully fabricated and characterized. Each CsI waveguide matches one pixel of the semiconductor detector, limiting the spatial spread of light. Another concept considered in this study is to detect the light emitted from the scintillator by diodes formed in the silicon pore walls. There is so far no knowledge regarding the theoretical limits for these two approaches, which makes the evaluation of the fabrication process difficult. In this work we present numerical calculations of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for detector designs based on scintillator-filled pores in silicon. The calculations are based on separate Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of X-ray absorption and light transport in scintillator waveguides. The resulting data are used in global MC simulations of flood exposures of the detector array, from which the SNR values are obtained. Results are presented for two scintillator materials, namely CsI(Tl) and GADOX

  2. Testbeam results of irradiated ams H18 HV-CMOS pixel sensor prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, M.; Braccini, S.; Casse, G.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Di Bello, F. A.; Ferrere, D.; Golling, T.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Iacobucci, G.; Kiehn, M.; Lanni, F.; Liu, H.; Meng, L.; Merlassino, C.; Miucci, A.; Muenstermann, D.; Nessi, M.; Okawa, H.; Perić, I.; Rimoldi, M.; Ristić, B.; Barrero Pinto, M. Vicente; Vossebeld, J.; Weber, M.; Weston, T.; Wu, W.; Xu, L.; Zaffaroni, E.

    2018-02-01

    HV-CMOS pixel sensors are a promising option for the tracker upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, as well as for other future tracking applications in which large areas are to be instrumented with radiation-tolerant silicon pixel sensors. We present results of testbeam characterisations of the 4th generation of Capacitively Coupled Pixel Detectors (CCPDv4) produced with the ams H18 HV-CMOS process that have been irradiated with different particles (reactor neutrons and 18 MeV protons) to fluences between 1× 1014 and 5× 1015 1-MeV- neq. The sensors were glued to ATLAS FE-I4 pixel readout chips and measured at the CERN SPS H8 beamline using the FE-I4 beam telescope. Results for all fluences are very encouraging with all hit efficiencies being better than 97% for bias voltages of 85 V. The sample irradiated to a fluence of 1× 1015 neq—a relevant value for a large volume of the upgraded tracker—exhibited 99.7% average hit efficiency. The results give strong evidence for the radiation tolerance of HV-CMOS sensors and their suitability as sensors for the experimental HL-LHC upgrades and future large-area silicon-based tracking detectors in high-radiation environments.

  3. Study of planar pixel sensors hardener to radiations for the upgrade of the ATLAS vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, M.

    2011-05-01

    In this work, we present a study, using TCAD (Technology Computer-Assisted Design) simulation, of the possible methods of designing planar pixel sensors by reducing their inactive area and improving their radiation hardness for use in the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) project and for SLHC upgrade phase for the ATLAS experiment. Different physical models available have been studied to develop a coherent model of radiation damage in silicon that can be used to predict silicon pixel sensor behavior after exposure to radiation. The Multi-Guard Ring Structure, a protection structure used in pixel sensor design was studied to obtain guidelines for the reduction of inactive edges detrimental to detector operation while keeping a good sensor behavior through its lifetime in the ATLAS detector. A campaign of measurement of the sensor process parameters and electrical behavior to validate and calibrate the TCAD simulation models and results are also presented. A model for diode charge collection in highly irradiated environment was developed to explain the high charge collection observed in highly irradiated devices. A simple planar pixel sensor digitization model to be used in test beam and full detector system is detailed. It allows for easy comparison between experimental data and prediction by the various radiation damage models available. The digitizer has been validated using test beam data for unirradiated sensors and can be used to produce the first full scale simulation of the ATLAS detector with the IBL that include sensor effects such as slim edge and thinning of the sensor. (author)

  4. Readout architecture for the Pixel-Strip module of the CMS Outer Tracker Phase-2 upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Caratelli, Alessandro; Jan Kaplon; Kloukinas, Konstantinos; Simone Scarfi

    2017-01-01

    The Outer Tracker upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN introduces new challenges for the front-end readout electronics. In particular, the capability of identifying particles with high transverse momentum using modules with double sensor layers requires high speed real time interconnects between readout ASICs. The Pixel-Strip module combines a pixelated silicon layer with a silicon-strip layer. Consequently, it needs two different readout ASICs, namely the Short Strip ASIC (SSA) for the strip sensor and the Macro Pixel ASIC (MPA) for the pixelated sensor. The architecture proposed in this paper allows for a total data flow between readout ASICs of $\\sim$100\\,Gbps and reduces the output data flow from 1.3\\,Tbps to 30\\,Gbps per module while limiting the total power density to below 100\\,mW/cm$^2$. In addition a system-level simulation framework of all the front-end readout ASICs is developed in order to verify the data processing algorithm and the hardware implementation allowing mult...

  5. Evaluation of testing strategies for the radiation tolerant ATLAS n **+-in-n pixel sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Klaiber Lodewigs, Jonas M

    2003-01-01

    The development of particle tracker systems for high fluence environments in new high-energy physics experiments raises new challenges for the development, manufacturing and reliable testing of radiation tolerant components. The ATLAS pixel detector for use at the LHC, CERN, is designed to cover an active sensor area of 1.8 m**2 with 1.1 multiplied by 10 **8 read-out channels usable for a particle fluence up to 10 **1**5 cm**-**2 (1 MeV neutron equivalent) and an ionization dose up to 500 kGy of mainly charged hadron radiation. To cope with such a harsh environment the ATLAS Pixel Collaboration has developed a radiation hard n **+-in-n silicon pixel cell design with a standard cell size of 50 multiplied by 400 mum**2. Using this design on an oxygenated silicon substrate, sensor production has started in 2001. This contribution describes results gained during the development of testing procedures of the ATLAS pixel sensor and evaluates quality assurance procedures regarding their relevance for detector operati...

  6. The data acquisition system of the Belle II Pixel Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münchow, D.; Dingfelder, J.; Geßler, T.; Konorov, I.; Kühn, W.; Lange, S.; Lautenbach, K.; Levit, D.; Liu, Z.; Marinas, C.; Schnell, M.; Spruck, B.; Zhao, J.

    2014-08-01

    At the future Belle II experiment the DEPFET (DEPleted Field Effect Transistor) pixel detector will consist of about 8 million channels and is placed as the innermost detector. Because of its small distance to the interaction region and the high luminosity in Belle II, for a trigger rate of about 30 kHz with an estimated occupancy of about 3 % a data rate of about 22 GB/s is expected. Due to the high data rate, a data reduction factor higher than 30 is needed in order to stay inside the specifications of the event builder. The main hardware to reduce the data rate is a xTCA based Compute Node (CN) developed in cooperation between IHEP Beijing and University Giessen. Each node has as main component a Xilinx Virtex-5 FX70T FPGA and is equipped with 2 × 2 GB RAM , GBit Ethernet and 4 × 6.25 Gb/s optical links. An ATCA carrier board is able to hold up to four CN and supplies high bandwidth connections between the four CNs and to the ATCA backplane. To achieve the required data reduction on the CNs, regions of interest (ROI) are used. These regions are calculated in two independent systems by projecting tracks back to the pixel detector. One is the High Level Trigger (HLT) which uses data from the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD), a silicon strip detector, and outer detectors. The other is the Data Concentrator (DATCON) which calculates ROIs based on SVD data only, in order to get low momentum tracks. With this information, only PXD data inside these ROIs will be forwarded to the event builder, while data outside of these regions will be discarded. First results of the test beam time in January 2014 at DESY with a Belle II vertex detector prototype and full DAQ chain will be presented.

  7. Test-beam activities and results for the ATLAS ITk pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bisanz, Tobias; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Phase-II upgrade of the LHC will result in an increase of the instantaneous luminosity up to about 5×1034 cm−2s−1. To cope with the challenges the current Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) system. The Pixel Detector will have to deal with occupancies of about 300~hits/FE/s as well as a fluence of 2×1016neqcm−2. Various sensor layouts are under development, aiming at providing a high performance, cost effective pixel instrumentation to cover an active area of about 10~m2. These range from thin planar silicon, over 3D silicon, to active CMOS sensors. After extensive characterization of the sensors in the lab, their charge collection properties and hit efficiency are measured in common testbeam campaigns, which provide valuable feedback for improvements of the layout. Testbeam measurements of the final prototypes will be used for the decision of which sensor types will be installed in ITk. The setups used in the ITk Pixel testbeam campaigns will be presented, inclu...

  8. Neutron irradiation test of depleted CMOS pixel detector prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandić, I.; Cindro, V.; Gorišek, A.; Hiti, B.; Kramberger, G.; Mikuž, M.; Zavrtanik, M.; Hemperek, T.; Daas, M.; Hügging, F.; Krüger, H.; Pohl, D.-L.; Wermes, N.; Gonella, L.

    2017-01-01

    Charge collection properties of depleted CMOS pixel detector prototypes produced on p-type substrate of 2 kΩ cm initial resistivity (by LFoundry 150 nm process) were studied using Edge-TCT method before and after neutron irradiation. The test structures were produced for investigation of CMOS technology in tracking detectors for experiments at HL-LHC upgrade. Measurements were made with passive detector structures in which current pulses induced on charge collecting electrodes could be directly observed. Thickness of depleted layer was estimated and studied as function of neutron irradiation fluence. An increase of depletion thickness was observed after first two irradiation steps to 1 · 10 13 n/cm 2 and 5 · 10 13 n/cm 2 and attributed to initial acceptor removal. At higher fluences the depletion thickness at given voltage decreases with increasing fluence because of radiation induced defects contributing to the effective space charge concentration. The behaviour is consistent with that of high resistivity silicon used for standard particle detectors. The measured thickness of the depleted layer after irradiation with 1 · 10 15 n/cm 2 is more than 50 μm at 100 V bias. This is sufficient to guarantee satisfactory signal/noise performance on outer layers of pixel trackers in HL-LHC experiments.

  9. Performance of Radiation Hard Pixel Sensors for the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Dorokhov, Andrei

    2005-01-01

    Position sensitive detectors in particle physics experiments are used for the detection of the particles trajectory produced in high energy collisions. To study physics phenomena at high energies the high particle interaction rate is unavoidable, as the number of interesting events falls with the energy and the total number of events is dominated by the soft processes. The position resolution of vertex detectors has to be of few microns in order to distinguish between particle tracks produced in b-quark or tau-decays, because of the short flight path before the decay. The high spatial position resolution and the ability to detect a large number of superimposed track are the key features for tracking detectors. Modern silicon microstrip and pixel detectors with high resolution are currently most suitable devices for the tracking systems of high energy physics experiments. In this work the performance of the sensors designed for the CMS pixel detector are studied and the position resolution is estimated. In the...

  10. Modeling Radiation Damage to Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Rossini, Lorenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 10^15 neq/cm^2 and the HL-HLC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is critical in order to make accurate predictions for current and future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time and considers both planar and 3D sensor designs. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we compare predictions for b...

  11. Modeling Radiation Damage to Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Rossini, Lorenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High- Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 10^15 neq/cm2 and the HL-HLC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is critical in order to make accurate predictions for current future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time and considers both planar and 3D sensor designs. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we compare predictions for basic...

  12. Charge amplitude distribution of the Gossip gaseous pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Carballo, V.M. [Twente University, Enschede (Netherlands); Chefdeville, M. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Colas, P.; Giomataris, Y. [Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Graaf, H. van der; Gromov, V. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hartjes, F. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: F.Hartjes@nikhef.nl; Kluit, R.; Koffeman, E. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Salm, C.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S.M. [Twente University, Enschede (Netherlands); Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J.L. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-12-11

    The Gossip gaseous pixel detector is being developed for the detection of charged particles in extreme high radiation environments as foreseen close to the interaction point of the proposed super LHC. The detecting medium is a thin layer of gas. Because of the low density of this medium, only a few primary electron/ion pairs are created by the traversing particle. To get a detectable signal, the electrons drift towards a perforated metal foil (Micromegas) whereafter they are multiplied in a gas avalanche to provide a detectable signal. The gas avalanche occurs in the high field between the Micromegas and the pixel readout chip (ROC). Compared to a silicon pixel detector, Gossip features a low material budget and a low cooling power. An experiment using X-rays has indicated a possible high radiation tolerance exceeding 10{sup 16} hadrons/cm{sup 2}. The amplified charge signal has a broad amplitude distribution due to the limited statistics of the primary ionization and the statistical variation of the gas amplification. Therefore, some degree of inefficiency is inevitable. This study presents experimental results on the charge amplitude distribution for CO{sub 2}/DME (dimethyl-ether) and Ar/iC{sub 4}H{sub 10} mixtures. The measured curves were fitted with the outcome of a theoretical model. In the model, the physical Landau distribution is approximated by a Poisson distribution that is convoluted with the variation of the gas gain and the electronic noise. The value for the fraction of pedestal events is used for a direct calculation of the cluster density. For some gases, the measured cluster density is considerably lower than given in literature.

  13. Charge amplitude distribution of the Gossip gaseous pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Carballo, V. M.; Chefdeville, M.; Colas, P.; Giomataris, Y.; van der Graaf, H.; Gromov, V.; Hartjes, F.; Kluit, R.; Koffeman, E.; Salm, C.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S. M.; Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    The Gossip gaseous pixel detector is being developed for the detection of charged particles in extreme high radiation environments as foreseen close to the interaction point of the proposed super LHC. The detecting medium is a thin layer of gas. Because of the low density of this medium, only a few primary electron/ion pairs are created by the traversing particle. To get a detectable signal, the electrons drift towards a perforated metal foil (Micromegas) whereafter they are multiplied in a gas avalanche to provide a detectable signal. The gas avalanche occurs in the high field between the Micromegas and the pixel readout chip (ROC). Compared to a silicon pixel detector, Gossip features a low material budget and a low cooling power. An experiment using X-rays has indicated a possible high radiation tolerance exceeding 10 16 hadrons/cm 2. The amplified charge signal has a broad amplitude distribution due to the limited statistics of the primary ionization and the statistical variation of the gas amplification. Therefore, some degree of inefficiency is inevitable. This study presents experimental results on the charge amplitude distribution for CO 2/DME (dimethyl-ether) and Ar/iC 4H 10 mixtures. The measured curves were fitted with the outcome of a theoretical model. In the model, the physical Landau distribution is approximated by a Poisson distribution that is convoluted with the variation of the gas gain and the electronic noise. The value for the fraction of pedestal events is used for a direct calculation of the cluster density. For some gases, the measured cluster density is considerably lower than given in literature.

  14. Charge amplitude distribution of the Gossip gaseous pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Carballo, V.M.; Chefdeville, M.; Colas, P.; Giomataris, Y.; Graaf, H. van der; Gromov, V.; Hartjes, F.; Kluit, R.; Koffeman, E.; Salm, C.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S.M.; Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    The Gossip gaseous pixel detector is being developed for the detection of charged particles in extreme high radiation environments as foreseen close to the interaction point of the proposed super LHC. The detecting medium is a thin layer of gas. Because of the low density of this medium, only a few primary electron/ion pairs are created by the traversing particle. To get a detectable signal, the electrons drift towards a perforated metal foil (Micromegas) whereafter they are multiplied in a gas avalanche to provide a detectable signal. The gas avalanche occurs in the high field between the Micromegas and the pixel readout chip (ROC). Compared to a silicon pixel detector, Gossip features a low material budget and a low cooling power. An experiment using X-rays has indicated a possible high radiation tolerance exceeding 10 16 hadrons/cm 2 . The amplified charge signal has a broad amplitude distribution due to the limited statistics of the primary ionization and the statistical variation of the gas amplification. Therefore, some degree of inefficiency is inevitable. This study presents experimental results on the charge amplitude distribution for CO 2 /DME (dimethyl-ether) and Ar/iC 4 H 10 mixtures. The measured curves were fitted with the outcome of a theoretical model. In the model, the physical Landau distribution is approximated by a Poisson distribution that is convoluted with the variation of the gas gain and the electronic noise. The value for the fraction of pedestal events is used for a direct calculation of the cluster density. For some gases, the measured cluster density is considerably lower than given in literature

  15. Development of a serial powering scheme and a versatile characterization system for the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filimonov, Viacheslav

    2017-08-15

    In order to increase the probability of new discoveries the LHC will be upgraded to the HL-LHC. The upgrade of the ATLAS detector is an essential part of this program. The entire ATLAS tracking system will be replaced by an all-silicon detector called Inner Tracker (ITk) which should be able to withstand the increased luminosity of 5 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The work presented in this thesis is focused on the ATLAS ITk pixel detector upgrade. Advanced silicon pixel detectors will be an essential part of the ITk pixel detector where they will be used for tracking and vertexing. Characterization of the pixel detectors is one of the required tasks for a successful ATLAS tracker upgrade. Therefore, the work presented in this thesis includes the development of a versatile and modular test system for advanced silicon pixel detectors for the HL-LHC. The performance of the system is verified. Single and quad FE-I4 modules functionalities are characterized with the developed system. The reduction of the material budget of the ATLAS ITk pixel detector is essential for a successful operation at high luminosity. Therefore, a low mass, efficient power distribution scheme to power detector modules (serial powering scheme) is investigated as well in the framework of this thesis. A serially powered pixel detector prototype is built with all the components that are needed for current distribution, data transmission, sensor biasing, bypassing and redundancy in order to prove the feasibility of implementing the serial powering scheme in the ITk. Detailed investigations of the electrical performance of the detector prototype equipped with FE-I4 quad modules are made with the help of the developed readout system.

  16. Development of a serial powering scheme and a versatile characterization system for the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filimonov, Viacheslav

    2017-08-01

    In order to increase the probability of new discoveries the LHC will be upgraded to the HL-LHC. The upgrade of the ATLAS detector is an essential part of this program. The entire ATLAS tracking system will be replaced by an all-silicon detector called Inner Tracker (ITk) which should be able to withstand the increased luminosity of 5 x 10 34 cm -2 s -1 . The work presented in this thesis is focused on the ATLAS ITk pixel detector upgrade. Advanced silicon pixel detectors will be an essential part of the ITk pixel detector where they will be used for tracking and vertexing. Characterization of the pixel detectors is one of the required tasks for a successful ATLAS tracker upgrade. Therefore, the work presented in this thesis includes the development of a versatile and modular test system for advanced silicon pixel detectors for the HL-LHC. The performance of the system is verified. Single and quad FE-I4 modules functionalities are characterized with the developed system. The reduction of the material budget of the ATLAS ITk pixel detector is essential for a successful operation at high luminosity. Therefore, a low mass, efficient power distribution scheme to power detector modules (serial powering scheme) is investigated as well in the framework of this thesis. A serially powered pixel detector prototype is built with all the components that are needed for current distribution, data transmission, sensor biasing, bypassing and redundancy in order to prove the feasibility of implementing the serial powering scheme in the ITk. Detailed investigations of the electrical performance of the detector prototype equipped with FE-I4 quad modules are made with the help of the developed readout system.

  17. Applying Statistical Mechanics to pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pindo, Massimiliano

    2002-01-01

    Pixel detectors, being made of a large number of active cells of the same kind, can be considered as significant sets to which Statistical Mechanics variables and methods can be applied. By properly redefining well known statistical parameters in order to let them match the ones that actually characterize pixel detectors, an analysis of the way they work can be performed in a totally new perspective. A deeper understanding of pixel detectors is attained, helping in the evaluation and comparison of their intrinsic characteristics and performance

  18. LISe pixel detector for neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Elan; Hamm, Daniel [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wiggins, Brenden [Technology Development, Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Milburn, Rob [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Burger, Arnold [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Department of Life and Physical Sciences, Fisk University, Nashville, TN (United States); Bilheux, Hassina [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Santodonato, Louis [Instrument and Source Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chvala, Ondrej [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Stowe, Ashley [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Technology Development, Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Lukosi, Eric, E-mail: elukosi@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-10-11

    Semiconducting lithium indium diselenide, {sup 6}LiInSe{sub 2} or LISe, has promising characteristics for neutron detection applications. The 95% isotopic enrichment of {sup 6}Li results in a highly efficient thermal neutron-sensitive material. In this study, we report on a proof-of-principle investigation of a semiconducting LISe pixel detector to demonstrate its potential as an efficient neutron imager. The LISe pixel detector had a 4×4 of pixels with a 550 µm pitch on a 5×5×0.56 mm{sup 3} LISe substrate. An experimentally verified spatial resolution of 300 µm was observed utilizing a super-sampling technique.

  19. Pixelated CdZnTe drift detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    2005-01-01

    A technique, the so-called Drift Strip Method (DSM), for improving the CdZnTe detector energy response to hard X-rays and gamma-rays was applied as a pixel geometry. First tests have confirmed that this detector type provides excellent energy resolution and imaging performance. We specifically...... report on the performance of 3 mm thick prototype CZT drift pixel detectors fabricated using material from eV-products. We discuss issues associated with detector module performance. Characterization results obtained from several prototype drift pixel detectors are presented. Results of position...

  20. The silicon vertex tracker for star and future applications of silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellwied, Rene

    2001-01-01

    The Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) for the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory has recently been completed and installed. First data were taken in July 2001. The SVT is based on a novel semi-conductor technology called Silicon Drift Detectors. 216 large area (6 by 6 cm) Silicon wafers were employed to build a three barrel device capable of vertexing and tracking in a high occupancy environment. Its intrinsic radiation hardness, its operation at room temperature and its excellent position resolution (better than 20 micron) in two dimensions with a one dimensional detector readout, make this technology very robust and inexpensive and thus a viable alternative to CCD, Silicon pixel and Silicon strip detectors in a variety of applications from fundamental research in high-energy and nuclear physics to astrophysics to medical imaging. I will describe the development that led to the STAR-SVT, its performance and possible applications for the near future

  1. Integrated Lens Antennas for Multi-Pixel Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choonsup; Chattopadhyay, Goutam

    2011-01-01

    Future astrophysics and planetary experiments are expected to require large focal plane arrays with thousands of detectors. Feedhorns have excellent performance, but their mass, size, fabrication challenges, and expense become prohibitive for very large focal plane arrays. Most planar antenna designs produce broad beam patterns, and therefore require additional elements for efficient coupling to the telescope optics, such as substrate lenses or micromachined horns. An antenna array with integrated silicon microlenses that can be fabricated photolithographically effectively addresses these issues. This approach eliminates manual assembly of arrays of lenses and reduces assembly errors and tolerances. Moreover, an antenna array without metallic horns will reduce mass of any planetary instrument significantly. The design has a monolithic array of lens-coupled, leaky-wave antennas operating in the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave frequencies. Electromagnetic simulations show that the electromagnetic fields in such lens-coupled antennas are mostly confined in approximately 12 15 . This means that one needs to design a small-angle sector lens that is much easier to fabricate using standard lithographic techniques, instead of a full hyper-hemispherical lens. Moreover, this small-angle sector lens can be easily integrated with the antennas in an array for multi-pixel imager and receiver implementation. The leaky antenna is designed using double-slot irises and fed with TE10 waveguide mode. The lens implementation starts with a silicon substrate. Photoresist with appropriate thickness (optimized for the lens size) is spun on the substrate and then reflowed to get the desired lens structure. An antenna array integrated with individual lenses for higher directivity and excellent beam profile will go a long way in realizing multi-pixel arrays and imagers. This technology will enable a new generation of compact, low-mass, and highly efficient antenna arrays for use in multi-pixel

  2. Characterization of Si pixel detectors of different thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisogni, M.G.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Delogu, P.; Fantacci, M.E.; Gregori, P.; Linsalata, S.; Novelli, M. E-mail: marzia.novelli@pi.infn.it; Piemonte, C.; Quattrocchi, M.; Rosso, V.; Stefanini, A.; Zorzi, N.; Zucca, S

    2004-02-01

    Tests on silicon pixel detector in the mammographic energy range have shown good imaging performances so, in order to improve the efficiency in this energy range, we have designed thicker detectors of the p{sup +}/n type. The detectors have been fabricated by ITC-IRST (Trento, Italy) in high resistivity silicon substrates (300 and 525 {mu}m thick). A TCAD simulation work has been carried out to optimize the electric field distribution and to enhance the breakdown voltage. Very low leakage current and high breakdown voltage characteristics have been measured on detectors in preliminary on-wafer tests. After that, detectors have been bump-bonded to a dedicated VLSI electronic chips, realizing an assembly. Choosing the best set-up condition and using a standard mammographic tube, we have acquired a large area image (8x8 cm{sup 2}) of the RMI 156 phantom, recommended for mammographic quality checks. In order to cover the whole surface, we have acquired different images translating the phantom over the assembly. We present some selected results for these assemblies both for the electrical characteristics and for the imaging performances.

  3. Characterization of Si pixel detectors of different thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisogni, M.G.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Delogu, P.; Fantacci, M.E.; Gregori, P.; Linsalata, S.; Novelli, M.; Piemonte, C.; Quattrocchi, M.; Rosso, V.; Stefanini, A.; Zorzi, N.; Zucca, S.

    2004-01-01

    Tests on silicon pixel detector in the mammographic energy range have shown good imaging performances so, in order to improve the efficiency in this energy range, we have designed thicker detectors of the p + /n type. The detectors have been fabricated by ITC-IRST (Trento, Italy) in high resistivity silicon substrates (300 and 525 μm thick). A TCAD simulation work has been carried out to optimize the electric field distribution and to enhance the breakdown voltage. Very low leakage current and high breakdown voltage characteristics have been measured on detectors in preliminary on-wafer tests. After that, detectors have been bump-bonded to a dedicated VLSI electronic chips, realizing an assembly. Choosing the best set-up condition and using a standard mammographic tube, we have acquired a large area image (8x8 cm 2 ) of the RMI 156 phantom, recommended for mammographic quality checks. In order to cover the whole surface, we have acquired different images translating the phantom over the assembly. We present some selected results for these assemblies both for the electrical characteristics and for the imaging performances

  4. Characterization and correction of charge-induced pixel shifts in DECam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruen, D.; Bernstein, G. M.; Jarvis, M.; Rowe, B.; Vikram, V.; Plazas, A. A.; Seitz, S.

    2015-05-01

    Interaction of charges in CCDs with the already accumulated charge distribution causes both a flux dependence of the point-spread function (an increase of observed size with flux, also known as the brighter/fatter effect) and pixel-to-pixel correlations of the {Poissonian} noise in flat fields. We describe these effects in the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) with charge dependent shifts of effective pixel borders, i.e. the Antilogus et al. (2014) model, which we fit to measurements of flat-field {Poissonian} noise correlations. The latter fall off approximately as a power-law r(-)(2.5) with pixel separation r, are isotropic except for an asymmetry in the direct neighbors along rows and columns, are stable in time, and are weakly dependent on wavelength. They show variations from chip to chip at the 20% level that correlate with the silicon resistivity. The charge shifts predicted by the model cause biased shape measurements, primarily due to their effect on bright stars, at levels exceeding weak lensing science requirements. We measure the flux dependence of star images and show that the effect can be mitigated by applying the reverse charge shifts at the pixel level during image processing. Differences in stellar size, however, remain significant due to residuals at larger distance from the centroid.

  5. Plasmonic nanospherical dimers for color pixels

    KAUST Repository

    Alrasheed, Salma; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2018-01-01

    Display technologies are evolving more toward higher resolution and miniaturization. Plasmonic color pixels can offer solutions to realize such technologies due to their sharp resonances and selective scattering and absorption at particular

  6. Characterization of Ir/Au pixel TES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Zen, N.; Damayanthi, R.M.T.; Mori, F.; Fujita, K.; Nakazawa, M.; Fukuda, D.; Ohkubo, M.

    2006-01-01

    Signal shapes and noise characteristics of an asymmetrical ten-pixel Ir/Au-TES have been studied. The asymmetric design may be effective to realize an imaging spectrometer. Distinct two exponential decays observed for X-ray events are consistent with a two-step R-T curve. A theoretical thermal model for noise in multi-pixel devices reasonably explains the experimental data

  7. Pixel array detector for X-ray free electron laser experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, Hugh T., E-mail: htp2@cornell.edu [Department of Physics, Laboratory of Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Hromalik, Marianne [Electrical and Computer Engineering, SUNY Oswego, Oswego, NY 13126 (United States); Tate, Mark; Koerner, Lucas [Department of Physics, Laboratory of Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M. [Department of Physics, Laboratory of Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Wilson Laboratory, Cornell University, CHESS, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) promise to revolutionize X-ray science with extremely high peak brilliances and femtosecond X-ray pulses. This will require novel detectors to fully realize the potential of these new sources. There are many current detector development projects aimed at the many challenges of meeting the XFEL requirements . This paper describes a pixel array detector (PAD) that has been developed for the Coherent X-ray Imaging experiment at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Laboratory . The detector features 14-bit in-pixel digitization; a 2-level in-pixel gain setting that can be used to make an arbitrary 2-D gain pattern that is adaptable to a particular experiment; the ability to handle instantaneous X-ray flux rates of 10{sup 17} photons per second; and continuous frames rates in excess of 120 Hz. The detector uses direct detection of X-rays in a silicon diode. The charge produced by the diode is integrated in a pixilated application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) which digitizes collected holes with single X-ray photon capability. Each ASIC is 194x185 pixels, each pixel is 110{mu}mx110{mu}m on a side. Each pixel can detect up to 2500 X-rays per frame in low-gain mode, yet easily detects single photons at high-gain. Cooled, single-chip detectors have been built and meet all the required specifications. SLAC National Laboratory is engaged in constructing a tiled, multi-chip 1516x1516 pixel detector.

  8. Fabrication of X-ray Microcalorimeter Focal Planes Composed of Two Distinct Pixel Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassell, Edward J.; Adams, Joseph S.; Bandler, Simon R.; Betancour-Martinez, Gabriele L; Chiao, Meng P.; Chang, Meng Ping; Chervenak, James A.; Datesman, Aaron M.; Eckart, Megan E.; Ewin, Audrey J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We develop superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter focal planes for versatility in meeting the specifications of X-ray imaging spectrometers, including high count rate, high energy resolution, and large field of view. In particular, a focal plane composed of two subarrays: one of fine pitch, high count-rate devices and the other of slower, larger pixels with similar energy resolution, offers promise for the next generation of astrophysics instruments, such as the X-ray Integral Field Unit Instrument on the European Space Agencys ATHENA mission. We have based the subarrays of our current design on successful pixel designs that have been demonstrated separately. Pixels with an all-gold X-ray absorber on 50 and 75 micron pitch, where the Mo/Au TES sits atop a thick metal heatsinking layer, have shown high resolution and can accommodate high count rates. The demonstrated larger pixels use a silicon nitride membrane for thermal isolation, thinner Au, and an added bismuth layer in a 250-sq micron absorber. To tune the parameters of each subarray requires merging the fabrication processes of the two detector types. We present the fabrication process for dual production of different X-ray absorbers on the same substrate, thick Au on the small pixels and thinner Au with a Bi capping layer on the larger pixels to tune their heat capacities. The process requires multiple electroplating and etching steps, but the absorbers are defined in a single-ion milling step. We demonstrate methods for integrating the heatsinking of the two types of pixel into the same focal plane consistent with the requirements for each subarray, including the limiting of thermal crosstalk. We also discuss fabrication process modifications for tuning the intrinsic transition temperature (T(sub c)) of the bilayers for the different device types through variation of the bilayer thicknesses. The latest results on these 'hybrid' arrays will be presented.

  9. Steganography based on pixel intensity value decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Alan Anwar; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on steganography based on pixel intensity value decomposition. A number of existing schemes such as binary, Fibonacci, Prime, Natural, Lucas, and Catalan-Fibonacci (CF) are evaluated in terms of payload capacity and stego quality. A new technique based on a specific representation is proposed to decompose pixel intensity values into 16 (virtual) bit-planes suitable for embedding purposes. The proposed decomposition has a desirable property whereby the sum of all bit-planes does not exceed the maximum pixel intensity value, i.e. 255. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique offers an effective compromise between payload capacity and stego quality of existing embedding techniques based on pixel intensity value decomposition. Its capacity is equal to that of binary and Lucas, while it offers a higher capacity than Fibonacci, Prime, Natural, and CF when the secret bits are embedded in 1st Least Significant Bit (LSB). When the secret bits are embedded in higher bit-planes, i.e., 2nd LSB to 8th Most Significant Bit (MSB), the proposed scheme has more capacity than Natural numbers based embedding. However, from the 6th bit-plane onwards, the proposed scheme offers better stego quality. In general, the proposed decomposition scheme has less effect in terms of quality on pixel value when compared to most existing pixel intensity value decomposition techniques when embedding messages in higher bit-planes.

  10. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

    2014-12-09

    A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

  11. Alignment of the Pixel and SCT Modules for the 2004 ATLAS Combined Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ATLAS Collaboration; Ahmad, A.; Andreazza, A.; Atkinson, T.; Baines, J.; Barr, A.J.; Beccherle, R.; Bell, P.J.; Bernabeu, J.; Broklova, Z.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Cauz, D.; Chevalier, L.; Chouridou, S.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cobal, M.; Cornelissen, T.; Correard, S.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Cuneo, S.; Dameri, M.; Darbo, G.; de Vivie, J.B.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dobos, D.; Drasal, Z.; Drohan, J.; Einsweiler, K.; Elsing, M.; Emelyanov, D.; Escobar, C.; Facius, K.; Ferrari, P.; Fergusson, D.; Ferrere, D.; Flick,, T.; Froidevaux, D.; Gagliardi, G.; Gallas, M.; Gallop, B.J.; Gan, K.K.; Garcia, C.; Gavrilenko, I.L.; Gemme, C.; Gerlach, P.; Golling, T.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodrick, M.J.; Gorfine, G.; Gottfert, T.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Hansen, P.H.; Hara, K.; Hartel, R.; Harvey, A.; Hawkings, R.J.; Heinemann, F.E.W.; Henss, T.; Hill, J.C.; Huegging, F.; Jansen, E.; Joseph, J.; Unel, M. Karagoz; Kataoka, M.; Kersten, S.; Khomich, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kostyukhin, V.; Lacasta, C.; Lari, T.; Latorre, S.; Lester, C.G.; Liebig, W.; Lipniacka, A.; Lourerio, K.F.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Mathes, M.; Meroni, C.; Mikulec, B.; Mindur, B.; Moed, S.; Moorhead, G.; Morettini, P.; Moyse, E.W.J.; Nakamura, K.; Nechaeva, P.; Nikolaev, K.; Parodi, F.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Pater, J.; Petti, R.; Phillips, P.W.; Pinto, B.; Poppleton, A.; Reeves, K.; Reisinger, I.; Reznicek, P.; Risso, P.; Robinson, D.; Roe, S.; Rozanov, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sandaker, H.; Santi, L.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schultes, J.; Sfyrla, A.; Shaw, C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Toczek, B.; Troncon, C.; Tyndel, M.; Vernocchi, F.; Virzi, J.; Anh, T. Vu; Warren, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Wellsf, P.S.; Zhelezkow, A.

    2008-06-02

    A small set of final prototypes of the ATLAS Inner Detector silicon tracking system(Pixel Detector and SemiConductor Tracker), were used to take data during the 2004 Combined Test Beam. Data were collected from runs with beams of different flavour (electrons, pions, muons and photons) with a momentum range of 2 to 180 GeV/c. Four independent methods were used to align the silicon modules. The corrections obtained were validated using the known momenta of the beam particles and were shown to yield consistent results among the different alignment approaches. From the residual distributions, it is concluded that the precision attained in the alignmentof the silicon modules is of the order of 5 mm in their most precise coordinate.

  12. Test beam results of a depleted monolithic active pixel sensor (DMAPS) prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obermann, Theresa; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Bonn Univ. (Germany); Schwenker, Benjamin [Goettingen Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: ATLAS Pixel-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    New monolithic detector concepts are currently being explored for future particle physics experiments, in particular for the upgrade of the ATLAS detector. Common to monolithic pixel detectors is the integration of the front-end circuitry and the sensor on the same silicon substrate. The DMAPS concept makes use of high resistive silicon as substrate. It enables the application of a high bias voltage to create a drift field for the charge collection in the sensor part as well as the full usage of CMOS logic in the same piece of silicon. DMAPS prototypes from several foundries are available since three years and have been extensively characterized in the lab. In this talk, results of test beam campaigns, with neutron irradiated prototypes implemented in the ESPROS process, are presented.

  13. Silicon sensor technologies for ATLAS IBL upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    New pixel sensors are currently under development for ATLAS Upgrades. The first upgrade stage will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer that will be installed in the detector during the 2013 LHC shutdown. The new layer (Insertable-B-Layer, IBL) will be inserted between the inner most layer of the current pixel detector and the beam pipe at a radius of 3.2cm. The expected high radiation levels require the use of radiation hard technology for both the front-end chip and the sensor. Two different pixel sensor technologies are envisaged for the IBL. The sensor choice will occur in July 2011. One option is developed by the ATLAS Planar Pixel Sensor (PPS) Collaboration and is based on classical n-in-n planar silicon sensors which have been used for the ATLAS Pixel detector. For the IBL, two changes were required: The thickness was reduced from 250 um to 200 um to improve the radiation hardness. In addition, so-called "slim edges" were designed to reduce the inactive edge of the sensors from 1100 um to o...

  14. Spatial clustering of pixels of a multispectral image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, James Lynn

    2014-08-19

    A method and system for clustering the pixels of a multispectral image is provided. A clustering system computes a maximum spectral similarity score for each pixel that indicates the similarity between that pixel and the most similar neighboring. To determine the maximum similarity score for a pixel, the clustering system generates a similarity score between that pixel and each of its neighboring pixels and then selects the similarity score that represents the highest similarity as the maximum similarity score. The clustering system may apply a filtering criterion based on the maximum similarity score so that pixels with similarity scores below a minimum threshold are not clustered. The clustering system changes the current pixel values of the pixels in a cluster based on an averaging of the original pixel values of the pixels in the cluster.

  15. Silicon vertex tracker for RHIC PHENIX experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taketani, A [RIKEN, Nishina Ctr Accelerator Based Sci, Wako, Saitama, Japan; Cianciolo, Vince [ORNL; Enokizono, Akitomo [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); PHENIX, Collaboration [The

    2010-01-01

    The PHENIX experiment at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider will be equipped with Silicon Vertex tracker to enhance its physics capability. There are four layers of silicon sensor to reconstruct charged tracks with 50 {micro}m resolution of decay length measurement. The VTX surrounds the collision point. The inner two layers and the outer two layers are composed of 30 pixel ladders and 44 stripixel ladders, respectively. We have been developing these detectors and done a performance test with 120 GeV proton beam.

  16. PIXEL PATTERN BASED STEGANOGRAPHY ON IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rejani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the drawback of most of the existing steganography methods is that it alters the bits used for storing color information. Some of the examples include LSB or MSB based steganography. There are also various existing methods like Dynamic RGB Intensity Based Steganography Scheme, Secure RGB Image Steganography from Pixel Indicator to Triple Algorithm etc that can be used to find out the steganography method used and break it. Another drawback of the existing methods is that it adds noise to the image which makes the image look dull or grainy making it suspicious for a person about existence of a hidden message within the image. To overcome these shortcomings we have come up with a pixel pattern based steganography which involved hiding the message within in image by using the existing RGB values whenever possible at pixel level or with minimum changes. Along with the image a key will also be used to decrypt the message stored at pixel levels. For further protection, both the message stored as well as the key file will be in encrypted format which can have same or different keys or decryption. Hence we call it as a RGB pixel pattern based steganography.

  17. SVM Pixel Classification on Colour Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barui, Subhrajit; Latha, S.; Samiappan, Dhanalakshmi; Muthu, P.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of image segmentation is to simplify the representation of an image with the help of cluster pixels into something meaningful to analyze. Segmentation is typically used to locate boundaries and curves in an image, precisely to label every pixel in an image to give each pixel an independent identity. SVM pixel classification on colour image segmentation is the topic highlighted in this paper. It holds useful application in the field of concept based image retrieval, machine vision, medical imaging and object detection. The process is accomplished step by step. At first we need to recognize the type of colour and the texture used as an input to the SVM classifier. These inputs are extracted via local spatial similarity measure model and Steerable filter also known as Gabon Filter. It is then trained by using FCM (Fuzzy C-Means). Both the pixel level information of the image and the ability of the SVM Classifier undergoes some sophisticated algorithm to form the final image. The method has a well developed segmented image and efficiency with respect to increased quality and faster processing of the segmented image compared with the other segmentation methods proposed earlier. One of the latest application result is the Light L16 camera.

  18. Pixels, Blocks of Pixels, and Polygons: Choosing a Spatial Unit for Thematic Accuracy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pixels, polygons, and blocks of pixels are all potentially viable spatial assessment units for conducting an accuracy assessment. We develop a statistical population-based framework to examine how the spatial unit chosen affects the outcome of an accuracy assessment. The populati...

  19. Three-dimensional cascaded system analysis of a 50 µm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C; Vassiljev, N; Konstantinidis, A C; Speller, R D; Kanicki, J

    2017-03-07

    High-resolution, low-noise x-ray detectors based on the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been developed and proposed for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this study, we evaluated the three-dimensional (3D) imaging performance of a 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). The two-dimensional (2D) angle-dependent modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were experimentally characterized and modeled using the cascaded system analysis at oblique incident angles up to 30°. The cascaded system model was extended to the 3D spatial frequency space in combination with the filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction method to calculate the 3D and in-plane MTF, NNPS and DQE parameters. The results demonstrate that the beam obliquity blurs the 2D MTF and DQE in the high spatial frequency range. However, this effect can be eliminated after FBP image reconstruction. In addition, impacts of the image acquisition geometry and detector parameters were evaluated using the 3D cascaded system analysis for DBT. The result shows that a wider projection angle range (e.g.  ±30°) improves the low spatial frequency (below 5 mm -1 ) performance of the CMOS APS detector. In addition, to maintain a high spatial resolution for DBT, a focal spot size of smaller than 0.3 mm should be used. Theoretical analysis suggests that a pixelated scintillator in combination with the 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS detector could further improve the 3D image resolution. Finally, the 3D imaging performance of the CMOS APS and an indirect amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistor (TFT) passive pixel sensor (PPS) detector was simulated and compared.

  20. The CMS Pixel Detector Upgrade and R\\&D for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Viliani, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) at CERN is expected to collide protons at a centre-of-mass energy of 14\\,TeV and to reach an unprecedented peak instantaneous luminosity of $5 \\times 10^{34}\\,{\\rm cm}^{-2} {\\rm s}^{-1}$ with an average number of pileup events of 140. This will allow the ATLAS and CMS experiments to collect integrated luminosities of up to $3000\\,{\\rm fb}^{-1}$ during the project lifetime. To cope with this extreme scenario the CMS detector will be substantially upgraded before starting the HL-LHC, a plan known as CMS Phase-2 Upgrade. In the upgrade the entire CMS silicon pixel detector will be replaced and the new detector will feature increased radiation hardness, higher granularity and capability to handle higher data rate and longer trigger latency. In this report the Phase-2 Upgrade of the CMS silicon pixel detector will be reviewed, focusing on the features of the detector layout and on the development of new pixel devices.

  1. Low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity LHC upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonella, Laura

    2013-10-15

    Reducing material in silicon trackers is of major importance for a good overall detector performance, and poses severe challenges to the design of the tracking system. To match the low mass constraints for trackers in High Energy Physics experiments at high luminosity, dedicated technological developments are required. This dissertation presents three technologies to design low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity upgrades of the LHC. The work targets specifically the reduction of the material from the detector services and modules, with novel powering schemes, flip chip and interconnection technologies. A serial powering scheme is prototyped, featuring a new regulator concept, a control and protection element, and AC-coupled data transmission. A modified flip chip technology is developed for thin, large area Front-End chips, and a via last Through Silicon Via process is demonstrated on existing pixel modules. These technologies, their developments, and the achievable material reduction are discussed using the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel detector as a case study.

  2. Low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity LHC upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonella, Laura

    2013-10-01

    Reducing material in silicon trackers is of major importance for a good overall detector performance, and poses severe challenges to the design of the tracking system. To match the low mass constraints for trackers in High Energy Physics experiments at high luminosity, dedicated technological developments are required. This dissertation presents three technologies to design low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity upgrades of the LHC. The work targets specifically the reduction of the material from the detector services and modules, with novel powering schemes, flip chip and interconnection technologies. A serial powering scheme is prototyped, featuring a new regulator concept, a control and protection element, and AC-coupled data transmission. A modified flip chip technology is developed for thin, large area Front-End chips, and a via last Through Silicon Via process is demonstrated on existing pixel modules. These technologies, their developments, and the achievable material reduction are discussed using the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel detector as a case study.

  3. Response of a hybrid pixel detector (MEDIPIX3) to different radiation sources for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumacero, E. Miguel; De Celis Alonso, B.; Martínez Hernández, M. I.; Vargas, G.; Moreno Barbosa, E., E-mail: emoreno.emb@gmail.com [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Av. San Claudio y Rio Verde, Puebla (Mexico); Moreno Barbosa, F. [Hospital General del Sur Hospital de la Mujer, Puebla (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    The development in semiconductor CMOS technology has enabled the creation of sensitive detectors for a wide range of ionizing radiation. These devices are suitable for photon counting and can be used in imaging and tomography X-ray diagnostics. The Medipix[1] radiation detection system is a hybrid silicon pixel chip developed for particle tracking applications in High Energy Physics. Its exceptional features (high spatial and energy resolution, embedded ultra fast readout, different operation modes, etc.) make the Medipix an attractive device for applications in medical imaging. In this work the energy characterization of a third-generation Medipix chip (Medipix3) coupled to a silicon sensor is presented. We used different radiation sources (strontium 90, iron 55 and americium 241) to obtain the response curve of the hybrid detector as a function of energy. We also studied the contrast of the Medipix as a measure of pixel noise. Finally we studied the response to fluorescence X rays from different target materials (In, Pd and Cd) for the two data acquisition modes of the chip; single pixel mode and charge summing mode.

  4. The pin pixel detector--neutron imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Marsh, A S; Rhodes, N J; Schooneveld, E M; Simmons, J E; Stephenson, R

    2002-01-01

    The development and testing of a neutron gas pixel detector intended for application in neutron diffraction studies is reported. Using standard electrical connector pins as point anodes, the detector is based on a commercial 100 pin connector block. A prototype detector of aperture 25.4 mmx25.4 mm has been fabricated, giving a pixel size of 2.54 mm which matches well to the spatial resolution typically required in a neutron diffractometer. A 2-Dimensional resistive divide readout system has been adapted to permit the imaging properties of the detector to be explored in advance of true pixel readout electronics. The timing properties of the device match well to the requirements of the ISIS-pulsed neutron source.

  5. Performance of active edge pixel sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomben, M.; Ducourthial, A.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Calderini, G.; D'Eramo, L.; Giacomini, G.; Marchiori, G.; Zorzi, N.; Rummler, A.; Weingarten, J.

    2017-05-01

    To cope with the High Luminosity LHC harsh conditions, the ATLAS inner tracker has to be upgraded to meet requirements in terms of radiation hardness, pile up and geometrical acceptance. The active edge technology allows to reduce the insensitive area at the border of the sensor thanks to an ion etched trench which avoids the crystal damage produced by the standard mechanical dicing process. Thin planar n-on-p pixel sensors with active edge have been designed and produced by LPNHE and FBK foundry. Two detector module prototypes, consisting of pixel sensors connected to FE-I4B readout chips, have been tested with beams at CERN and DESY. In this paper the performance of these modules are reported. In particular the lateral extension of the detection volume, beyond the pixel region, is investigated and the results show high hit efficiency also at the detector edge, even in presence of guard rings.

  6. Dense Iterative Contextual Pixel Classification using Kriging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Loog, Marco; Brandt, Sami

    2009-01-01

    have been proposed to this end, e.g., iterative contextual pixel classification, iterated conditional modes, and other approaches related to Markov random fields. A problem of these methods, however, is their computational complexity, especially when dealing with high-resolution images in which......In medical applications, segmentation has become an ever more important task. One of the competitive schemes to perform such segmentation is by means of pixel classification. Simple pixel-based classification schemes can be improved by incorporating contextual label information. Various methods...... relatively long range interactions may play a role. We propose a new method based on Kriging that makes it possible to include such long range interactions, while keeping the computations manageable when dealing with large medical images....

  7. Wafer-scale pixelated detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Farah; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Zimmerman, Tom

    2017-10-17

    A large area, gapless, detection system comprises at least one sensor; an interposer operably connected to the at least one sensor; and at least one application specific integrated circuit operably connected to the sensor via the interposer wherein the detection system provides high dynamic range while maintaining small pixel area and low power dissipation. Thereby the invention provides methods and systems for a wafer-scale gapless and seamless detector systems with small pixels, which have both high dynamic range and low power dissipation.

  8. Multi-Step Deep Reactive Ion Etching Fabrication Process for Silicon-Based Terahertz Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung-Kubiak, Cecile (Inventor); Reck, Theodore (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Perez, Jose Vicente Siles (Inventor); Lin, Robert H. (Inventor); Mehdi, Imran (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor); Cooper, Ken B. (Inventor); Peralta, Alejandro (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A multi-step silicon etching process has been developed to fabricate silicon-based terahertz (THz) waveguide components. This technique provides precise dimensional control across multiple etch depths with batch processing capabilities. Nonlinear and passive components such as mixers and multipliers waveguides, hybrids, OMTs and twists have been fabricated and integrated into a small silicon package. This fabrication technique enables a wafer-stacking architecture to provide ultra-compact multi-pixel receiver front-ends in the THz range.

  9. Planning, installation and use of ventilation systems for smoke and heat removal. Cooperation between architects, planners, and builder-owners; Planung, Einbau und Anwendung von Rauch- und Waermeabzugsanlagen. Zusammenwirken zwischen Architekt, Planer und Bauherr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koschnitzki, K. [Duisburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anlagenplanung und Systemtechnik; Berg, M. [e.t.s. Umwelt- und Sicherheitstechnik GmbH, Kleve (Germany)

    1998-05-01

    Cooperation between planners, builder-owners and technical experts is important for efficient fire prevention. This involves ventilation systems for smoke and heat removal as well as other safety components. Legal regulations must be implemented so as to obtain a fire protection concept with defined goals and to achieve maximum protection of furniture and inhabitants. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei der Umsetzung von Brandschutzkonzepten in der Gebaeude- und Anlagenplanung ist das gemeinsame Vorgehen von Planer, Bauherr und Fachunternehmen von elementarer Wichtigkeit fuer ein ausgereiftes Sicherheitskonzept. Hierzu gehoeren Rauch- und Waermeabzugsanlagen und weitergehende sicherheitstechnische Komponenten. Auflagen und behoerdliche Bestimmungen sind so umzusetzen, dass ein Brandschutzkonzept mit definierten Schutzzielen entsteht. Fuer den Bauherrn soll ein maximaler Sachwert- und Personenschutz gewaehrleistet sein. (orig.)

  10. Test-beam activities and results for the ATLAS ITk pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bisanz, Tobias; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Phase-II upgrade of the LHC will result in an increase of the instantaneous luminosity up to about $5\\times10^{34}~\\text{cm}^{-2}\\text{s}^{-1}$. To cope with the resulting challenges the current Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) system. The Pixel Detector will have to deal with occupancies of about 300~hits/FE/s as well as a fluence of $2\\times10^{16}~\\text{n}_\\text{eq}\\text{cm}^{-2}$. Various sensor layouts are under development, aiming at providing a high performance, cost effective pixel instrumentation to cover an active area of about $10~\\text{m}^2$. These range from thin planar silicon, over 3D silicon, to active CMOS sensors.\\par After extensive characterization of the sensors in the lab, their charge collection properties and hit efficiency are measured in common testbeam campaigns, which provide valuable feedback for improvements of the layout. Testbeam measurements of the final prototypes will be used for the decision of which sensor types will be installed in...

  11. Modeling crosstalk in silicon photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, L; Rosado, J; Blanco, F; Arqueros, F

    2013-01-01

    Optical crosstalk seriously limits the photon-counting resolution of silicon photomultipliers. In this work, realistic analytical models to describe the crosstalk effects on the response of these photodetectors are presented and compared with experimental data. The proposed models are based on the hypothesis that each pixel of the array has a finite number of available neighboring pixels to excite via crosstalk. Dead-time effects and geometrical aspects of the propagation of crosstalk between neighbors are taken into account in the models for different neighborhood configurations. Simple expressions to account for crosstalk effects on the pulse-height spectrum as well as to evaluate the excess noise factor due to crosstalk are also given. Dedicated measurements were carried out under both dark-count conditions and pulsed illumination. Moreover, the influence of afterpulsing on the measured pulse-height spectrum was studied, and a measurement of the recovery time of pixels was reported. High-resolution pulse-height spectra were obtained by means of a detailed waveform analysis, and the results have been used to validate our crosstalk models.

  12. Silicon Qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladd, Thaddeus D. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States); Carroll, Malcolm S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-28

    Silicon is a promising material candidate for qubits due to the combination of worldwide infrastructure in silicon microelectronics fabrication and the capability to drastically reduce decohering noise channels via chemical purification and isotopic enhancement. However, a variety of challenges in fabrication, control, and measurement leaves unclear the best strategy for fully realizing this material’s future potential. In this article, we survey three basic qubit types: those based on substitutional donors, on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures, and on Si/SiGe heterostructures. We also discuss the multiple schema used to define and control Si qubits, which may exploit the manipulation and detection of a single electron charge, the state of a single electron spin, or the collective states of multiple spins. Far from being comprehensive, this article provides a brief orientation to the rapidly evolving field of silicon qubit technology and is intended as an approachable entry point for a researcher new to this field.

  13. Preliminary test of an imaging probe for nuclear medicine using hybrid pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolucci, E.; Maiorino, M.; Mettivier, G.; Montesi, M.C.; Russo, P.

    2002-01-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of an intraoperative imaging probe for lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-99m tracer, for sentinel node radioguided surgery, using the Medipix series of hybrid detectors coupled to a collimator. These detectors are pixelated semiconductor detectors bump-bonded to the Medipix1 photon counting read-out chip (64x64 pixel, 170 μm pitch) or to the Medipix2 chip (256x256 pixel, 55 μm pitch), developed by the European Medipix collaboration. The pixel detector we plan to use in the final version of the probe is a semi-insulating GaAs detector or a 1-2 mm thick CdZnTe detector. For the preliminary tests presented here, we used 300-μm thick silicon detectors, hybridized via bump-bonding to the Medipix1 chip. We used a tungsten parallel-hole collimator (7 mm thick, matrix array of 64x64 100 μm circular holes with 170 μm pitch), and a 22, 60 and 122 keV point-like (1 mm diameter) radioactive sources, placed at various distances from the detector. These tests were conducted in order to investigate the general feasibility of this imaging probe and its resolving power. Measurements show the high resolution but low efficiency performance of the detector-collimator set, which is able to image the 122 keV source with <1 mm FWHM resolution

  14. Investigation of thin n-in-p planar pixel modules for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Savic, Natascha

    2016-01-01

    In view of the High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), planned to start around 2023-2025, the ATLAS experiment will undergo a replacement of the Inner Detector. A higher luminosity will imply higher irradiation levels and hence will demand more ra- diation hardness especially in the inner layers of the pixel system. The n-in-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to instrument this region, also thanks to its cost-effectiveness because it only requires a single sided processing in contrast to the n-in-n pixel technology presently employed in the LHC experiments. In addition, thin sensors were found to ensure radiation hardness at high fluences. An overview is given of recent results obtained with not irradiated and irradiated n-in-p planar pixel modules. The focus will be on n-in-p planar pixel sensors with an active thickness of 100 and 150 {\\mu}m recently produced at ADVACAM. To maximize the active area of the sensors, slim and active edges are implemented. The performance of th...

  15. Effets de rayonnement sur les detecteurs au silicium a pixels du detecteur ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Lebel, Celine

    2007-01-01

    Two detection systems are using pixel silicon detectors in the ATLAS detector: the Pixel, which is the subdetector closest to the interaction point, and the MPX network. The activation of the materials present in the Pixel produced by radiation has been measured in two experiments which we performed at CERF (CERN) and NPI-ASCR (Czech Republic). These experimental studies of activation are com- pared with GEANT4 simulations. The results of these comparisons show that the simulation can predict the activities with a precision of an order of magnitude. They also show that GEANT4 fails to produce certain radioisotopes seen in the experimental activation studies. The contribution to background and the resid- ual doses due to the desintegration of the radioisotopes produced by fast neutrons (category in which falls the expected average neutron energy of 1 MeV in ATLAS) are extrapolated to ATLAS conditions. It is found that this background in the AT- LAS Pixel subdetector will be negligible and that the doses are we...

  16. Investigation of thin n-in-p planar pixel modules for the ATLAS upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savic, N.; Beyer, J.; Rosa, A. La; Macchiolo, A.; Nisius, R.

    2016-01-01

    In view of the High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), planned to start around 2023–2025, the ATLAS experiment will undergo a replacement of the Inner Detector. A higher luminosity will imply higher irradiation levels and hence will demand more radiation hardness especially in the inner layers of the pixel system. The n-in-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to instrument this region, also thanks to its cost-effectiveness because it only requires a single sided processing in contrast to the n-in-n pixel technology presently employed in the LHC experiments. In addition, thin sensors were found to ensure radiation hardness at high fluences. An overview is given of recent results obtained with not irradiated and irradiated n-in-p planar pixel modules. The focus will be on n-in-p planar pixel sensors with an active thickness of 100 and 150 μm recently produced at ADVACAM. To maximize the active area of the sensors, slim and active edges are implemented. The performance of these modules is investigated at beam tests and the results on edge efficiency will be shown.

  17. Analysis of pixel systematics and space point reconstruction with DEPFET PXD5 matrices using high energy beam test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuen, Lars

    2011-02-15

    To answer the current questions in particle physics vertex-detectors, the innermost sub-detector system of a multipurpose particle detector, with brilliant spatial resolution and at the same time with as little sensor material as possible are mandatory. These requirements are the driving force behind the newest generation of silicon pixel sensors like the DEPFET pixel, which incorporates the first amplification stage in form of a transistor in the fully depleted sensor bulk, allowing for a high spatial resolution even with thinned down sensors. A DEPFET pixel prototype system, build for the future TeV-scale liner collider ILC, was characterized in a high energy beam test at CERN with a spatial resolution and statistics that allowed for the first time in-pixel homogeneity measurements of DEPFET pixels. Yet, in the quest for higher precision the sensor development must be accompanied by progress in position reconstruction algorithms. A study with three novel approaches in position reconstruction was undertaken. The results of the in-pixel beam test and the performance of the new methods with an emphasis on {delta}-electrons will be presented here. (orig.)

  18. Analysis of pixel systematics and space point reconstruction with DEPFET PXD5 matrices using high energy beam test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuen, Lars

    2011-02-01

    To answer the current questions in particle physics vertex-detectors, the innermost sub-detector system of a multipurpose particle detector, with brilliant spatial resolution and at the same time with as little sensor material as possible are mandatory. These requirements are the driving force behind the newest generation of silicon pixel sensors like the DEPFET pixel, which incorporates the first amplification stage in form of a transistor in the fully depleted sensor bulk, allowing for a high spatial resolution even with thinned down sensors. A DEPFET pixel prototype system, build for the future TeV-scale liner collider ILC, was characterized in a high energy beam test at CERN with a spatial resolution and statistics that allowed for the first time in-pixel homogeneity measurements of DEPFET pixels. Yet, in the quest for higher precision the sensor development must be accompanied by progress in position reconstruction algorithms. A study with three novel approaches in position reconstruction was undertaken. The results of the in-pixel beam test and the performance of the new methods with an emphasis on δ-electrons will be presented here. (orig.)

  19. From hybrid to CMOS pixels ... a possibility for LHC's pixel future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wermes, N.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors have been invented for the LHC to make tracking and vertexing possible at all in LHC's radiation intense environment. The LHC pixel detectors have meanwhile very successfully fulfilled their promises and R and D for the planned HL-LHC upgrade is in full swing, targeting even higher ionising doses and non-ionising fluences. In terms of rate and radiation tolerance hybrid pixels are unrivaled. But they have disadvantages as well, most notably material thickness, production complexity, and cost. Meanwhile also active pixel sensors (DEPFET, MAPS) have become real pixel detectors but they would by far not stand the rates and radiation faced from HL-LHC. New MAPS developments, so-called DMAPS (depleted MAPS) which are full CMOS-pixel structures with charge collection in a depleted region have come in the R and D focus for pixels at high rate/radiation levels. This goal can perhaps be realised exploiting HV technologies, high ohmic substrates and/or SOI based technologies. The paper covers the main ideas and some encouraging results from prototyping R and D, not hiding the difficulties

  20. Monolithic pixel development in TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS for the outer pixel layers in the ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdalovic, I.; Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Cardella, R.; Egidos Plaja, N.; Hemperek, T.; Hiti, B.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Kugathasan, T.; Mandic, I.; Maneuski, D.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Moustakas, K.; Musa, L.; Pernegger, H.; Riedler, P.; Riegel, C.; Schaefer, D.; Schioppa, E. J.; Sharma, A.; Snoeys, W.; Solans Sanchez, C.; Wang, T.; Wermes, N.

    2018-01-01

    The upgrade of the ATLAS tracking detector (ITk) for the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider at CERN requires the development of novel radiation hard silicon sensor technologies. Latest developments in CMOS sensor processing offer the possibility of combining high-resistivity substrates with on-chip high-voltage biasing to achieve a large depleted active sensor volume. We have characterised depleted monolithic active pixel sensors (DMAPS), which were produced in a novel modified imaging process implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS process in the framework of the monolithic sensor development for the ALICE experiment. Sensors fabricated in this modified process feature full depletion of the sensitive layer, a sensor capacitance of only a few fF and radiation tolerance up to 1015 neq/cm2. This paper summarises the measurements of charge collection properties in beam tests and in the laboratory using radioactive sources and edge TCT. The results of these measurements show significantly improved radiation hardness obtained for sensors manufactured using the modified process. This has opened the way to the design of two large scale demonstrators for the ATLAS ITk. To achieve a design compatible with the requirements of the outer pixel layers of the tracker, a charge sensitive front-end taking 500 nA from a 1.8 V supply is combined with a fast digital readout architecture. The low-power front-end with a 25 ns time resolution exploits the low sensor capacitance to reduce noise and analogue power, while the implemented readout architectures minimise power by reducing the digital activity.

  1. The Phase-2 ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Macchiolo, Anna; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The new ATLAS ITk pixel system will be installed during the LHC Phase-II shutdown, to better take advantage of the increased luminosity of the HL-LHC. The detector will consist of 5 layers of stave-like support structures in the most central region and ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions, covering up to |η| < 4. While the outer 3 layers of the Pixel Detector are designed to operate for the full HL-LHC data taking period, the innermost 2 layers of the detector will be replaced around half of the lifetime. The ITk pixel detector will be instrumented with new sensors and readout electronics to provide improved tracking performance and radiation hardness compared to the current detector. Sensors will be read out by new ASICs based on the chip developed by the RD53 Collaboration. The pixel off-detector readout electronics will be implemented in the framework of the general ATLAS trigger and DAQ system with a readout speed of up to 5 Gb/s per data link for the innermost layers. Results of extensive tests...

  2. Plasmonic nanospherical dimers for color pixels

    KAUST Repository

    Alrasheed, Salma

    2018-04-20

    Display technologies are evolving more toward higher resolution and miniaturization. Plasmonic color pixels can offer solutions to realize such technologies due to their sharp resonances and selective scattering and absorption at particular wavelengths. Metal nanosphere dimers are capable of supporting plasmon resonances that can be tuned to span the entire visible spectrum. In this article, we demonstrate numerically bright color pixels that are highly polarized and broadly tuned using periodic arrays of metal nanosphere dimers on a glass substrate. We show that it is possible to obtain RGB pixels in the reflection mode. The longitudinal plasmon resonance of nanosphere dimers along the axis of the dimer is the main contributor to the color of the pixel, while far-field diffractive coupling further enhances and tunes the plasmon resonance. The computational method used is the finite-difference time-domain method. The advantages of this approach include simplicity of the design, bright coloration, and highly polarized function. In addition, we show that it is possible to obtain different colors by varying the angle of incidence, the periodicity, the size of the dimer, the gap, and the substrate thickness.

  3. ATLAS Pixel Group - Photo Gallery from Irradiation

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Photos 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 - Photos taken before irradiation of Pixel Test Analog Chip and Pmbars (April 2000) Photos 8,9,10,11 - Irradiation of VDC chips (May 2000) Photos 12, 13 - Irradiation of Passive Components (June 2000) Photos 14,15, 16 - Irradiation of Marebo Chip (November 1999)

  4. What's A Pixel Particle Sensor Chip?

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS particle physics experiment aided with collaboration ON Semiconductor was recently honored by the European Council for Nuclear Research (CERN), with an Industrial Award recognizing the company's contribution in supplying complex "Pixel Particle Sensor" chips for use in CERN's ATLAS particle physics experiment.

  5. Access To The PMM's Pixel Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monet, D.; Levine, S.

    1999-12-01

    The U.S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station is in the process of enabling access to the Precision Measuring Machine (PMM) program's pixel database. The initial release will include the pixels from the PMM's scans of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey I (POSS-I) -O and -E surveys, the Whiteoak Extension, the European Southern Observatory-R survey, the Science and Engineering Council-J, -EJ, and -ER surveys, and the Anglo- Australian Observatory-R survey. (The SERC-ER and AAO-R surveys are currently incomplete.) As time allows, access to the POSS-II -J, -F, and -N surveys, the Palomar Infrared Milky Way Atlas, the Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion survey, and plates rejected by various surveys will be added. (POSS-II -J and -F are complete, but -N was never finished.) Eventually, some 10 Tbytes of pixel data will be available. Due to funding and technology limitations, the initial interface will have only limited functionality, and access time will be slow since the archive is stored on Digital Linear Tape (DLT). Usage of the pixel data will be restricted to non-commercial, scientific applications, and agreements on copyright issues have yet to be finalized. The poster presentation will give the URL.

  6. JPL CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, E. R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will present the JPL-developed complementary metal- oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology. The CMOS APS has achieved performance comparable to charge coupled devices, yet features ultra low power operation, random access readout, on-chip timing and control, and on-chip analog to digital conversion. Previously published open literature will be reviewed.

  7. CMS has a heart of pixels

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    At the core of CMS, particles will come into contact with tiny detector components, known as pixels, which are almost invisible to the naked eye. With these elementary cells measuring a mere 150 microns (or about 1/10 of a millimetre) along each side, a real technological leap has been made.

  8. Modeling Radiation Damage Effects in 3D Pixel Digitization for the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Giugliarelli, Gilberto; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS experiment. They constitute the part of ATLAS closest to the interaction point and for this reason they will be exposed – over their lifetime – to a significant amount of radiation: prior to the HL-LHC, the innermost layers will receive a fluence of 10^15 neq/cm2 and their HL–LHC upgrades will have to cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This poster presents the details of a new digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the 3D Pixel sensors for the ATLAS Detector.

  9. Recent achievements of the ATLAS upgrade Planar Pixel Sensors R and D project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, G

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS upgrade Planar Pixel Sensors (PPS) project aims to prove the suitability of silicon detectors processed with planar technology to equip all layers of the pixel vertex detector proposed for the upgrade of the ATLAS experiment for the future High Luminosity LHC at CERN (HL-LHC). The detectors need to be radiation tolerant to the extreme fluences expected to be received during the experimental lifetime, with optimised geometry for full coverage and high granularity and affordable in term of cost, due to the relatively large area of the upgraded ATLAS detector system. Here several solutions for the detector geometry and results with radiation hard technologies (n-in-n, n-in-p) are discussed

  10. An AMOLED AC-Biased Pixel Design Compensating the Threshold Voltage and I-R Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Fan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel pixel design and an AC bias driving method for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AM-OLED displays using low-temperature polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs. The proposed threshold voltage and I-R drop compensation circuit, which comprised three transistors and one capacitor, have been verified to supply uniform output current by simulation work using the Automatic Integrated Circuit Modeling Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (AIM-SPICE simulator. The simulated results demonstrate excellent properties such as low error rate of OLED anode voltage variation (<0.7% and low voltage drop of VDD power line. The proposed pixel circuit effectively enables threshold-voltage-deviation correction of driving TFT and compensates for the voltage drop of VDD power line using AC bias on OLED cathode.

  11. The Belle II DEPFET pixel vertex detector. Development of a full-scale module prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemarenko, Mikhail

    2013-11-01

    The Belle II experiment, which will start after 2015 at the SuperKEKB accelerator in Japan, will focus on the precision measurement of the CP-violation mechanism and on the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. A new detection system with an excellent spatial resolution and capable of coping with considerably increased background is required. To address this challenge, a pixel detector based on DEPFET technology has been proposed. A new all silicon integrated circuit, called Data Handling Processor (DHP), is implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology. It is designed to steer the detector and preprocess the generated data. The scope of this thesis covers DHP tests and optimization as well the development of its test environment, which is the first Full-Scale Module Prototype of the DEPFET Pixel Vertex detector.

  12. Development of CMOS pixel sensors for tracking and vertexing in high energy physics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Senyukov, Serhiy; Besson, Auguste; Claus, Giles; Cousin, Loic; Dulinski, Wojciech; Goffe, Mathieu; Hippolyte, Boris; Maria, Robert; Molnar, Levente; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Winter, Marc

    2014-01-01

    CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) represent a novel technological approach to building charged particle detectors. CMOS processes allow to integrate a sensing volume and readout electronics in a single silicon die allowing to build sensors with a small pixel pitch ($\\sim 20 \\mu m$) and low material budget ($\\sim 0.2-0.3\\% X_0$) per layer. These characteristics make CPS an attractive option for vertexing and tracking systems of high energy physics experiments. Moreover, thanks to the mass production industrial CMOS processes used for the manufacturing of CPS the fabrication construction cost can be significantly reduced in comparison to more standard semiconductor technologies. However, the attainable performance level of the CPS in terms of radiation hardness and readout speed is mostly determined by the fabrication parameters of the CMOS processes available on the market rather than by the CPS intrinsic potential. The permanent evolution of commercial CMOS processes towards smaller feature sizes and high resistivity ...

  13. The phase-II ATLAS pixel tracker upgrade: layout and mechanics.

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Abhishek; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will upgrade its tracking detector during the Phase-II LHC shutdown, to better take advantage of the increased luminosity of the HL-LHC. The upgraded tracker will consist of silicon-strip modules surrounding a pixel detector, and will likely cover an extended eta range, perhaps as far as |eta|<4.0. A number of layout and supporting-structure options are being considered for the pixel detector, with the final choice expected to be made in early 2017. The proposed supporting structures are based on lightweight, highly-thermally-conductive carbon-based materials and are cooled by evaporative carbon dioxide. The various layouts will be described and a description of the supporting structures will be presented, along with results from testing of prototypes.

  14. Module production of the one-arm AFP 3D pixel tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, S.; Chmeissani, M.; Dorholt, O.; Förster, F.; Lange, J.; Lopez Paz, I.; Manna, M.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rohne, O.; Stugu, B.

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is designed to identify events in which one or two protons emerge intact from the LHC collisions. AFP will consist of a tracking detector, to measure the momentum of the protons, and a time of flight system to reduce the background from multiple proton-proton interactions. Following an extensive qualification period, 3D silicon pixel sensors were selected for the AFP tracker. The sensors were produced at CNM (Barcelona) during 2014. The tracker module assembly and quality control was performed at IFAE during 2015. The assembly of the first AFP arm and the following installation in the LHC tunnel took place in February 2016. This paper reviews the fabrication process of the AFP tracker focusing on the pixel modules.

  15. Tests of UFXC32k chip with CdTe pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, P.; Taguchi, T.; Nakaye, Y.

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents the performance of the UFXC32K—a hybrid pixel detector readout chip working with CdTe detectors. The UFXC32K has a pixel pitch of 75 μm and can cope with both input signal polarities. This functionality allows operating with widely used silicon sensors collecting holes and CdTe sensors collecting electrons. This article describes the chip focusing on solving the issues connected to high-Z sensor material, namely high leakage currents, slow charge collection time and thick material resulting in increased charge-sharring effects. The measurements were conducted with higher X-ray energies including 17.4 keV from molybdenum. Conclusions drawn inside the paper show the UFXC32K's usability for CdTe sensors in high X-ray energy applications.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of porous silicon gas sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    abbas, Roaa A.; Alwan, Alwan M.; Abdulhamied, Zainab T.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, photo-electrochemical etching process of n-type Silicon of resistivity(10 Ω.cm) and (100) orientation, using two illumination sources IR and violet wavelength in HF acid have been used to produce PSi gas detection device. The fabrication process was carried out at a fixed etching current density of 25mA/cm2 and at different etching time (5, 10, 15 and 20) min and (8, 16, 24, and 30) min. Two configurations of gas sensor configuration planer and sandwich have been made and investigated. The morphological properties have been studied using SEM,the FTIR measurement show that the (Si-Hx) and (Si-O-Si) absorption peak were increases with increasing etching time,and Photoluminescence properties of PSi layer show decrease in the peak of PL peak toward the violet shift. The gas detection process is made on the CO2 gas at different operating temperature and fixed gas concentration. In the planner structure, the gas sensing was measured through, the change in the resistance readout as a function to the exposure time, while for sandwich structure J-V characteristic have been made to determine the sensitivity.

  17. Precision scans of the Pixel cell response of double sided 3D Pixel detectors to pion and X-ray beams

    CERN Document Server

    Mac Raighne, A; Crossley, M; Alianelli, L; Lozano, M; Dumps, R; Fleta, C; Collins, P; Rodrigues, E; Sawhney, K J S; Tlustos, L; Pennicard, D; Buytaert, J; Stewart, G; Parkes, C; Eklund, L; Campbell, M; Marchal, J; Akiba, K; Pellegrini, G; Llopart, X; Plackett, R; Maneuski, D; Gligorov, V V; Tartoni, N; Nicol, M; Bates, R; Gallas, A; Gimenez, E N; van Beuzekom, M; John, M

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) silicon sensors offer potential advantages over standard planar sensors for radiation hardness in future high energy physics experiments and reduced charge-sharing for X-ray applications, but may introduce inefficiencies due to the columnar electrodes. These inefficiencies are probed by studying variations in response across a unit pixel cell in a 55 m m pitch double-sided 3D pixel sensor bump bonded to TimePix and Medipix2 readout ASICs. Two complementary characterisation techniques are discussed: the first uses a custom built telescope and a 120GeV pion beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN; the second employs a novel technique to illuminate the sensor with a micro-focused synchrotron X-ray beam at the Diamond Light Source, UK. For a pion beam incident perpendicular to the sensor plane an overall pixel efficiency of 93.0 +/- 0.5\\% is measured. After a 10 degrees rotation of the device the effect of the columnar region becomes negligible and the overall efficiency rises ...

  18. Performance of irradiated thin n-in-p planar pixel sensors for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, N.; Beyer, J.; Hiti, B.; Kramberger, G.; La Rosa, A.; Macchiolo, A.; Mandić, I.; Nisius, R.; Petek, M.

    2017-12-01

    The ATLAS collaboration will replace its tracking detector with new all silicon pixel and strip systems. This will allow to cope with the higher radiation and occupancy levels expected after the 5-fold increase in the luminosity of the LHC accelerator complex (HL-LHC). In the new tracking detector (ITk) pixel modules with increased granularity will implement to maintain the occupancy with a higher track density. In addition, both sensors and read-out chips composing the hybrid modules will be produced employing more radiation hard technologies with respect to the present pixel detector. Due to their outstanding performance in terms of radiation hardness, thin n-in-p sensors are promising candidates to instrument a section of the new pixel system. Recently produced and developed sensors of new designs will be presented. To test the sensors before interconnection to chips, a punch-through biasing structure was implemented. Its design was optimized to decrease the possible tracking efficiency losses observed. After irradiation, they were caused by the punch-through biasing structure. A sensor compatible with the ATLAS FE-I4 chip with a pixel size of 50×250 μm2, subdivided into smaller pixel implants of 30×30 μm2 size was designed to investigate the performance of the 50×50 μm2 pixel cells foreseen for the HL-LHC. Results on sensor performance of 50×250 and 50×50 μm2 pixel cells in terms of efficiency, charge collection and electric field properties are obtained with beam tests and the Transient Current Technique.

  19. A pixel read-out architecture implementing a two-stage token ring, zero suppression and compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuvelmans, S; Boerrigter, M

    2011-01-01

    Increasing luminosity in high energy physics experiments leads to new challenges in the design of data acquisition systems for pixel detectors. With the upgrade of the LHCb experiment, the data processing will be changed; hit data from every collision will be transported off the pixel chip, without any trigger selection. A read-out architecture is proposed which is able to obtain low hit data loss on limited silicon area by using the logic beneath the pixels as a data buffer. Zero suppression and redundancy reduction ensure that the data rate off chip is minimized. A C++ model has been created for simulation of functionality and data loss, and for system development. A VHDL implementation has been derived from this model.

  20. A pixel read-out architecture implementing a two-stage token ring, zero suppression and compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuvelmans, S; Boerrigter, M, E-mail: sander.heuvelmans@bruco.nl [Bruco integrated circuits BV, Oostermaat 2, 7623 CS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Increasing luminosity in high energy physics experiments leads to new challenges in the design of data acquisition systems for pixel detectors. With the upgrade of the LHCb experiment, the data processing will be changed; hit data from every collision will be transported off the pixel chip, without any trigger selection. A read-out architecture is proposed which is able to obtain low hit data loss on limited silicon area by using the logic beneath the pixels as a data buffer. Zero suppression and redundancy reduction ensure that the data rate off chip is minimized. A C++ model has been created for simulation of functionality and data loss, and for system development. A VHDL implementation has been derived from this model.

  1. Experimental investigation on the influence of instrument settings on pixel size and nonlinearity in SEM image formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo; Genta, Gianfranco; Cantatore, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The work deals with an experimental investigation on the influence of three Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) instrument settings, accelerating voltage, spot size and magnification, on the image formation process. Pixel size and nonlinearity were chosen as output parameters related to image...... quality and resolution. A silicon grating calibrated artifact was employed to investigate qualitatively and quantitatively, through a designed experiment approach, the parameters relevance. SEM magnification was found to account by far for the largest contribution on both parameters under consideration...

  2. Operational Experience of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker and Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Dave; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The tracking performance of the ATLAS detector relies critically on the silicon and gaseous tracking subsystems that form the ATLAS Inner Detector. Those subsystems have undergone significant hardware and software upgrades to meet the challenges imposed by the higher collision energy, pileup and luminosity that are being delivered by the LHC during Run2. The key status and performance metrics of the Pixel Detector and the Semi Conductor Tracker are summarised, and the operational experience and requirements to ensure optimum data quality and data taking efficiency are described.

  3. Test su fascio di prototipi del rivelatore a pixel per l'esperimento ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Matera, Andrea; Andreazza, A

    2005-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors, developed to meet LHC requirements, were tested within the ATLAS collaboration in the H8 beam at CERN. Different sensor designs were studied using various versions of front end electronics developed during the R&D process. In this thesis a detailed experimental study of the overall performance of both irradiated and unirradiated detectors is presented, with special enphasis on efficiency, charge collection and spatial resolution. For the first time their dependence on timewalk is carefully investigated. Possible solutions to avoid spatial resolution deterioration due to timewalk are presented and discussed.

  4. Quality Assurance of Pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors for the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov Counters

    CERN Document Server

    Carson, Laurence

    Pion/kaon discrimination in the LHCb experiment will be provided by two Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters. These use arrays of 484 Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs) to detect the Cherenkov photons emitted by charged particles traversing the RICH. The results from comprehensive quality assurance tests on the 550 HPDs manufactured for LHCb are described. Leakage currents, dead channel probabilities, dark count rates and ion feedback rates are reported. Furthermore, measurements carried out on a sample of tubes to determine the efficiency of the HPD pixel chip by measuring the summed analogue response from the backplane of the silicon sensor are described.

  5. ATLAS pixel IBL modules construction experience and developments for future upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudiello, A.

    2015-10-01

    The first upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector is the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), installed in May 2014 in the core of ATLAS. Two different silicon sensor technologies, planar n-in-n and 3D, are used. Sensors are connected with the new generation 130 nm IBM CMOS FE-I4 read-out chip via solder bump-bonds. Production quality control tests were set up to verify and rate the performance of the modules before integration into staves. An overview of module design and construction, the quality control results and production yield will be discussed, as well as future developments foreseen for future detector upgrades.

  6. The power supply system for the DEPFET pixel detector at BELLE II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummel, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade of the KEKB accelerator towards 8×10 35 cm −2 s −1 poses several challenges for the BELLE II detector. Especially the innermost detector will be faced with a significant radiation of several MRad per year as well as a high hit density. To cope with this a silicon pixel detector will be used for the inner layers of the silicon tracker. The pixel detector (PXD) consists of two layers of DEPFET active pixel sensors. The DEPFET technology has an unique set of advantages like low power dissipation in the active area, flexible device size, radiation hardness and a thinning procedure allowing to adjust the thickness of the device over a wide range. The two layers close to the interaction point together with a low material budget will improve the IP resolution by a factor of 2 compared to the previous installed silicon detector. In addition silicon stand-alone pattern recognition will be possible together with the four layers of double sided strip detectors (DSSD) of the strip detector. The PXD detector system consists of the DEPFET modules with integrated readout chips, the data handling hybrid receiving the data and sending them to compute nodes performing an online pattern recognition. Moreover the power supply system provides the supply voltages for the DEPFET from a position outside of the detector. The power distribution is designed to provide low output impedance over all frequencies and transient response with appropriate overshoots. The PXD pose several challenges to the power distribution system—number of voltages, tight requirements on regulation and noise. -- Highlights: ► The KEKB accelerator receive a luminosity upgrade towards 8×10 35 cm −2 s −1 . ► A two layer pixel detector based on the DEPFET technology will be installed. ► An improvement of a factor of 2 in. impact parameter resolution is expected. ► The 34 A dedicated power supply system for the detector is under development which aims for low noise, low output impedance

  7. Development of the micro pixel chamber based on MEMS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, T.; Takada, A.; Kishimoto, T.; Komura, S.; Kubo, H.; Matsuoka, Y.; Miuchi, K.; Miyamoto, S.; Mizumoto, T.; Mizumura, Y.; Motomura, T.; Nakamasu, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Oda, M.; Ohta, K.; Parker, J. D.; Sawano, T.; Sonoda, S.; Tanimori, T.; Tomono, D.; Yoshikawa, K.

    2018-02-01

    Micro pixel chambers (μ-PIC) are gaseous two-dimensional imaging detectors originally manufactured using printed circuit board (PCB) technology. They are used in MeV gamma-ray astronomy, medicalimaging, neutron imaging, the search for dark matter, and dose monitoring. The position resolution of the present μ-PIC is approximately 120 μm (RMS), however some applications require a fine position resolution of less than 100 μm. To this end, we have started to develop a μ-PIC based on micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) technology, which provides better manufacturing accuracy than PCB technology. Our simulation predicted the gains of MEMS μ-PICs to be twice those of PCB μ-PICs at the same anode voltage. We manufactured two MEMS μ-PICs and tested them to study their behavior. In these experiments, we successfully operated the fabricatedMEMS μ-PICs and we achieved a maximum gain of approximately 7×103 and collected their energy spectra under irradiation of X-rays from 55Fe. However, the measured gains of the MEMS μ-PICs were less than half of the values predicted in the simulations. We postulated that the gains of the MEMS μ-PICs are diminished by the effect of the silicon used as a semiconducting substrate.

  8. Étude des détecteurs planaires pixels durcis aux radiations pour la mise à jour du détecteur de vertex d'ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Benoit, Mathieu

    In this work, is presented a study, using TCAD simulation, of the possible methods of designing of a planar pixel sensors by reducing their inactive area and improving their radiation hardness for use in the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) project and for SLHC upgrade phase for the ATLAS experiment. Different physical models available have been studied to develop a coherent model of radiation damage in silicon that can be used to predict silicon pixel sensor behavior after exposure to radiation. The Multi-Guard Ring Structure,a protection structure used in pixel sensor design was studied to obtain guidelines for the reduction of inactive edges detrimental to detector operation while keeping a good sensor behavior through its lifetime in the ATLAS detector. A campaign of measurement of the sensor's process parameters and electrical behavior to validate and calibrate the TCAD simulation models and results are also presented. A model for diode charge collection in highly irradiated environment was developed to explain ...

  9. Experience on 3D silicon sensors for ATLAS IBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbo, G.

    2015-01-01

    3D silicon sensors, where plasma micro-machining is used to etch deep narrow apertures in the silicon substrate to form electrodes of PIN junctions, represent possible solutions for inner pixel layers of the tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments. This type of sensors has been developed for the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), an additional pixel layer that has been installed in ATLAS during the present shutdown of the LHC collider at CERN. It is presented here the experience in designing, testing and qualifying sensors and detector modules that have been used to equip part of the IBL. Based on the gained experience with 3D silicon sensors for the ATLAS IBL, we discuss possible new developments for the upgrade of ATLAS and CMS at the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC)

  10. Recent achievements of the ATLAS upgrade Planar Pixel Sensors R and D Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, M

    2014-01-01

    After the foreseen upgrade of the LHC towards the HL-LHC, coming along with higher beam energies and increased peak luminosities, the experiments have to upgrade their detector systems to cope with the expected higher occupancies and radiation damages. In case of the ATLAS experiment a new Inner Tracker will be installed in this context. The ATLAS Planar Pixel Sensor R and D Project (PPS) is investigating the possibilities to cope with these new requirements, using planar pixel silicon sensors, working in a collaboration of 17 institutions and more than 80 scientists. Since the new Inner Tracker is supposed to have an active area on the order of 8 m 2 on the one side and has to withstand extreme irradiation on the other side, the PPS community is working on several approaches to reduce production costs, while increasing the radiation tolerance of the sensors. Another challenge is to produce sensors in such large quantities. During the production of the Insertable b-Layer (IBL) modules, the PPS community has proven to be able to produce a large scale production of planar silicon sensors with a high yield. For cost reduction reasons, it is desirable to produce larger sensors. There the PPS community is working on so called quad- and hex-modules, which have a size of four, respectively six FE-I4 readout chips. To cope with smaller radii and strict material budget requirements for the new pixel layers, developments towards sensors with small inactive areas are in the focus of research. Different production techniques, which even allow the production of sensors with active edges, have been investigated and the designs were qualified using lab and testbeam measurements. The short distance between the new innermost pixel layers and the interaction point, combined with the increase in luminosity, requires designs which are more radiation tolerant. Since charge collection on the one hand decreases with irradiation and on the other hand is not uniform within the pixel cells

  11. Radiation hardness and timing studies of a monolithic TowerJazz pixel design for the new ATLAS Inner Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, C.; Backhaus, M.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; Kugathasan, T.; Musa, L.; Pernegger, H.; Riedler, P.; Schaefer, D.; Snoeys, W.; Wagner, W.

    2017-01-01

    A part of the upcoming HL-LHC upgrade of the ATLAS Detector is the construction of a new Inner Tracker. This upgrade opens new possibilities, but also presents challenges in terms of occupancy and radiation tolerance. For the pixel detector inside the inner tracker, hybrid modules containing passive silicon sensors and connected readout chips are presently used, but require expensive assembly techniques like fine-pitch bump bonding. Silicon devices fabricated in standard commercial CMOS technologies, which include part or all of the readout chain, are also investigated offering a reduced cost as they are cheaper per unit area than traditional silicon detectors. If they contain the full readout chain, as for a fully monolithic approach, there is no need for the expensive flip-chip assembly, resulting in a further cost reduction and material savings. In the outer pixel layers of the ATLAS Inner Tracker, the pixel sensors must withstand non-ionising energy losses of up to 1015 n/cm2 and offer a timing resolution of 25 ns or less. This paper presents test results obtained on a monolithic test chip, the TowerJazz 180nm Investigator, towards these specifications. The presented program of radiation hardness and timing studies has been launched to investigate this technology's potential for the new ATLAS Inner Tracker.

  12. Radiation hardness and timing studies of a monolithic TowerJazz pixel design for the new ATLAS Inner Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riegel, C.; Backhaus, M.; Hoorne, J.W. Van; Kugathasan, T.; Musa, L.; Pernegger, H.; Riedler, P.; Schaefer, D.; Snoeys, W.; Wagner, W.

    2017-01-01

    A part of the upcoming HL-LHC upgrade of the ATLAS Detector is the construction of a new Inner Tracker. This upgrade opens new possibilities, but also presents challenges in terms of occupancy and radiation tolerance. For the pixel detector inside the inner tracker, hybrid modules containing passive silicon sensors and connected readout chips are presently used, but require expensive assembly techniques like fine-pitch bump bonding. Silicon devices fabricated in standard commercial CMOS technologies, which include part or all of the readout chain, are also investigated offering a reduced cost as they are cheaper per unit area than traditional silicon detectors. If they contain the full readout chain, as for a fully monolithic approach, there is no need for the expensive flip-chip assembly, resulting in a further cost reduction and material savings. In the outer pixel layers of the ATLAS Inner Tracker, the pixel sensors must withstand non-ionising energy losses of up to 10 15 n/cm 2 and offer a timing resolution of 25 ns or less. This paper presents test results obtained on a monolithic test chip, the TowerJazz 180nm Investigator, towards these specifications. The presented program of radiation hardness and timing studies has been launched to investigate this technology's potential for the new ATLAS Inner Tracker.

  13. Prototyping of larger structures for the Phase-II upgrade of the pixel detector of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez Feito, Diego; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    For the high luminosity era of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) it is forseen to replace the current inner tracker of the ATLAS experiment with a new detector to cope with the occuring increase in occupancy, bandwidth and radiation damage. It will consist of an inner pixel and outer strip detector aiming to provide tracking coverage up to |η|<4. The layout of the pixel detector is foreseen to consist of five layers of pixel silicon sensor modules in the central region and several ring-shaped layers in the forward region. It results in up to 14 m² of silicon depending on the selected layout. Beside the challenge of radiation hardness and high-rate capable silicon sensors and readout electronics many system aspects have to be considered for a fully functional detector. Both stable and low mass mechanical structures and services are important. Within the collaboration a large effort is started to prototype larger detector structures for both the central and forward region of the detector. The aspect of sy...

  14. Advances in Multi-Pixel Photon Counter technology: First characterization results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, G., E-mail: gbonanno@oact.inaf.it [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Marano, D.; Romeo, G.; Garozzo, S.; Grillo, A.; Timpanaro, M.C. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Catalano, O.; Giarrusso, S.; Impiombato, D.; La Rosa, G.; Sottile, G. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, Via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo Italy (Italy)

    2016-01-11

    Due to the recent advances in silicon photomultiplier technology, new types of Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM), also named Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) detectors have become recently available, demonstrating superior performance in terms of their most important electrical and optical parameters. This paper presents the latest characterization results of the novel Low Cross-Talk (LCT) MPPC families from Hamamatsu, where a noticeable fill-factor enhancement and cross-talk reduction is achieved. In addition, the newly adopted resin coating has been proven to yield improved photon detection capabilities in the 280–320 nm spectral range, making the new LCT MPPCs particularly suitable for emerging applications like Cherenkov Telescope Array, and Astroparticle Physics.

  15. PROTON RADIOGRAPHY WITH THE PIXEL DETECTOR TIMEPIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Olšanský

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the processing of radiographic data acquired using the position-sensitive hybrid semiconductor pixel detector Timepix. Measurements were made on thin samples at the medical ion-synchrotron HIT [1] in Heidelberg (Germany with a 221 MeV proton beam. The charge is energy by the particles crossing the sample is registered for generation of image contrast. Experimental data from the detector were processed for derivation of the energy loss of each proton using calibration matrices. The interaction point of the protons on the detector were determined with subpixel resolution by model fitting of the individual signals in the pixelated matrix. Three methods were used for calculation of these coordinates: Hough transformation, 2D Gaussian fitting and estimate the 2D mean. Parameters of calculation accuracy and calculation time are compared for each method. The final image was created by method with best parameters.

  16. ATLAS Pixel IBL: Stave Quality Assurance

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    For Run 2 of the LHC a fourth innermost Pixel Detector layer on a smaller radius beam pipe has been installed in the ATLAS Detector to add redundancy against radiation damage of the current Pixel Detector and to ensure a high quality tracking and b-tagging performance of the Inner Detector over the coming years until the High Luminosity Upgrade. State of the art components have been produced and assembled onto support structures known as staves over the last two years. In total, 20 staves have been built and qualified in a designated Quality Assurance setup at CERN of which 14 have been integrated onto the beam pipe. Results from the testing are presented.

  17. Chandra ACIS Sub-pixel Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Anderson, C. S.; Mossman, A. E.; Allen, G. E.; Fabbiano, G.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Karovska, M.; Kashyap, V. L.; McDowell, J. C.

    2011-05-01

    We investigate how to achieve the best possible ACIS spatial resolution by binning in ACIS sub-pixel and applying an event repositioning algorithm after removing pixel-randomization from the pipeline data. We quantitatively assess the improvement in spatial resolution by (1) measuring point source sizes and (2) detecting faint point sources. The size of a bright (but no pile-up), on-axis point source can be reduced by about 20-30%. With the improve resolution, we detect 20% more faint sources when embedded on the extended, diffuse emission in a crowded field. We further discuss the false source rate of about 10% among the newly detected sources, using a few ultra-deep observations. We also find that the new algorithm does not introduce a grid structure by an aliasing effect for dithered observations and does not worsen the positional accuracy

  18. Radiation hardness of CMS pixel barrel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohe, T.; Bean, A.; Erdmann, W.; Kaestli, H.-C.; Khalatyan, S.; Meier, B.; Radicci, V.; Sibille, J.

    2010-01-01

    Pixel detectors are used in the innermost part of the multi purpose experiments at the LHC and are therefore exposed to the highest fluences of ionising radiation, which in this part of the detectors consists mainly of charged pions. The radiation hardness of all detector components has been thoroughly tested up to the fluences expected at the LHC. In case of an LHC upgrade, the fluence will be much higher and it is not yet clear how long the present pixel modules will stay operative in such a harsh environment. The aim of this study was to establish such a limit as a benchmark for other possible detector concepts considered for the upgrade. As the sensors and the readout chip are the parts most sensitive to radiation damage, samples consisting of a small pixel sensor bump-bonded to a CMS-readout chip (PSI46V2.1) have been irradiated with positive 200 MeV pions at PSI up to 6x10 14 n eq /cm 2 and with 21 GeV protons at CERN up to 5x10 15 n eq /cm 2 . After irradiation the response of the system to beta particles from a 90 Sr source was measured to characterise the charge collection efficiency of the sensor. Radiation induced changes in the readout chip were also measured. The results show that the present pixel modules can be expected to be still operational after a fluence of 2.8x10 15 n eq /cm 2 . Samples irradiated up to 5x10 15 n eq /cm 2 still see the beta particles. However, further tests are needed to confirm whether a stable operation with high particle detection efficiency is possible after such a high fluence.

  19. Production chain of CMS pixel modules

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The pictures show the production chain of pixel modules for the CMS detector. Fig.1: overview of the assembly procedure. Fig.2: bump bonding with ReadOut Chip (ROC) connected to the sensor. Fig.3: glueing a raw module onto the baseplate strips. Fig.4: glueing of the High Density Interconnect (HDI) onto a raw module. Fig.5: pull test after heat reflow. Fig.6: wafer sensor processing, Indium evaporation.

  20. New generation of monolithic active pixel sensors for charged particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptuch, G.

    2002-09-01

    Vertex detectors are of great importance in particle physics experiments, as the knowledge of the event flavour is becoming an issue for the physics programme at Future Linear Colliders. Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) based on a novel detector structure have been proposed. Their fabrication is compatible with a standard CMOS process. The sensor is inseparable from the readout electronics, since both of them are integrated on the same, low-resistivity silicon wafer. The basic pixel configuration comprises only three MOS transistors and a diode collecting the charge through thermal diffusion. The charge is generated in the thin non-depleted epitaxial layer underneath the readout electronics. This approach provides, at low cost, a high resolution and thin device with the whole area sensitive to radiation. Device simulations using the ISE-TCAD package have been carried out to study the charge collection mechanism. In order to demonstrate the viability of the technique, four prototype chips have been fabricated using different submicrometer CMOS processes. The pixel gain has been calibrated using a 55 Fe source and the Poisson sequence method. The prototypes have been exposed to high-energy particle beams at CERN. The tests proved excellent detection performances expressed in a single-track spatial resolution of 1.5 μm and detection efficiency close to 100%, resulting from a SNR ratio of more than 30. Irradiation tests showed immunity of MAPS to a level of a few times 10 12 n/cm 2 and a few hundred kRad of ionising radiation. The ideas for future work, including on-pixel signal amplification, double sampling operation and current mode pixel design are present as well. (author)

  1. CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Technology and Reliability Characterization Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Guertin, Steven M.; Pain, Bedabrata; Kayaii, Sammy

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the technology, design features and reliability characterization methodology of a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. Both overall chip reliability and pixel reliability are projected for the imagers.

  2. Readout Architecture for Hybrid Pixel Readout Chips

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)694170; Westerlund, Tomi; Wyllie, Ken

    The original contribution of this thesis to knowledge are novel digital readout architectures for hybrid pixel readout chips. The thesis presents asynchronous bus-based architecture, a data-node based column architecture and a network-based pixel matrix architecture for data transportation. It is shown that the data-node architecture achieves readout efficiency 99 % with half the output rate as a bus-based system. The network-based solution avoids ``broken'' columns due to some manufacturing errors, and it distributes internal data traffic more evenly across the pixel matrix than column-based architectures. An improvement of $>$ 10 % to the efficiency is achieved with uniform and non-uniform hit occupancies. Architectural design has been done using transaction level modeling ($TLM$) and sequential high-level design techniques for reducing the design and simulation time. It has been possible to simulate tens of column and full chip architectures using the high-level techniques. A decrease of $>$ 10 in run-time...

  3. Baryon Acoustic Oscillations reconstruction with pixels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obuljen, Andrej [SISSA—International School for Advanced Studies, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco [Center for Computational Astrophysics, 160 5th Ave, New York, NY, 10010 (United States); Castorina, Emanuele [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Viel, Matteo, E-mail: aobuljen@sissa.it, E-mail: fvillaescusa@simonsfoundation.org, E-mail: ecastorina@berkeley.edu, E-mail: viel@oats.inaf.it [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy)

    2017-09-01

    Gravitational non-linear evolution induces a shift in the position of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) peak together with a damping and broadening of its shape that bias and degrades the accuracy with which the position of the peak can be determined. BAO reconstruction is a technique developed to undo part of the effect of non-linearities. We present and analyse a reconstruction method that consists of displacing pixels instead of galaxies and whose implementation is easier than the standard reconstruction method. We show that this method is equivalent to the standard reconstruction technique in the limit where the number of pixels becomes very large. This method is particularly useful in surveys where individual galaxies are not resolved, as in 21cm intensity mapping observations. We validate this method by reconstructing mock pixelated maps, that we build from the distribution of matter and halos in real- and redshift-space, from a large set of numerical simulations. We find that this method is able to decrease the uncertainty in the BAO peak position by 30-50% over the typical angular resolution scales of 21 cm intensity mapping experiments.

  4. Radiation hardness of CMS pixel barrel modules

    CERN Document Server

    Rohe, T; Erdmann, W; Kästli, H C; Khalatyan, S; Meier, B; Radicci, V; Sibille, J

    2010-01-01

    Pixel detectors are used in the innermost part of the multi purpose experiments at LHC and are therefore exposed to the highest fluences of ionising radiation, which in this part of the detectors consists mainly of charged pions. The radiation hardness of all detector components has thoroughly been tested up to the fluences expected at the LHC. In case of an LHC upgrade, the fluence will be much higher and it is not yet clear how long the present pixel modules will stay operative in such a harsh environment. The aim of this study was to establish such a limit as a benchmark for other possible detector concepts considered for the upgrade. As the sensors and the readout chip are the parts most sensitive to radiation damage, samples consisting of a small pixel sensor bump-bonded to a CMS-readout chip (PSI46V2.1) have been irradiated with positive 200 MeV pions at PSI up to 6E14 Neq and with 21 GeV protons at CERN up to 5E15 Neq. After irradiation the response of the system to beta particles from a Sr-90 source w...

  5. Characterization of the CMS Pixel Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Weihua

    2002-01-01

    In 2005 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will start the pp collisions at a high luminosity and at a center of mass energy of 14 TeV. The primary goal of the experimental programme is the search of the Higgs boson(s) and the supersymmetric particles. The programme is also proposed to detect a range of diverse signatures in order to provide guidance for future physics. The pixel detector system makes up the innermost part of the CMS experiment, which is one of the two general purpose detectors at the LHC. The main tasks of the system are vertex detection and flavor tagging. The high luminosity and the high particle multiplicity as well as the small bunch spacing at the LHC impose great challenges on the pixel detectors: radiation hardness of sensors and electronics, fast signal processing and a high granularity are the essential requirements. This thesis concentrates on the study of the suitability of two test stands, which are implemented to characterize the CMS pixel detectors: one is con-cerned with test puls...

  6. 4T CMOS Active Pixel Sensors under Ionizing Radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, J.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the ionizing radiation effects on 4T pixels and the elementary in-pixel test devices with regard to the electrical performance and the optical performance. In addition to an analysis of the macroscopic pixel parameter degradation, the radiation-induced degradation mechanisms

  7. Low-resistivity photon-transparent window attached to photo-sensitive silicon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    The invention comprises a combination of a low resistivity, or electrically conducting, silicon layer that is transparent to long or short wavelength photons and is attached to the backside of a photon-sensitive layer of silicon, such as a silicon wafer or chip. The window is applied to photon sensitive silicon devices such as photodiodes, charge-coupled devices, active pixel sensors, low-energy x-ray sensors and other radiation detectors. The silicon window is applied to the back side of a photosensitive silicon wafer or chip so that photons can illuminate the device from the backside without interference from the circuit printed on the frontside. A voltage sufficient to fully deplete the high-resistivity photosensitive silicon volume of charge carriers is applied between the low-resistivity back window and the front, patterned, side of the device. This allows photon-induced charge created at the backside to reach the front side of the device and to be processed by any circuitry attached to the front side. Using the inventive combination, the photon sensitive silicon layer does not need to be thinned beyond standard fabrication methods in order to achieve full charge-depletion in the silicon volume. In one embodiment, the inventive backside window is applied to high resistivity silicon to allow backside illumination while maintaining charge isolation in CCD pixels

  8. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run-II at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00407702

    2016-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of the LHC. Taking advantage of the detector development period 2013 – 2014, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface to equip it with new service panels and to repair modules furthermore this helped with the installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), fourth layer of pixel, installed in between the existing Pixel Detector and a new beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and increased pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been used. A new readout chip has been designed with CMOS 130nm technology with larger area, smaller pixel size and faster readout capability. Dedicated design features in combination with a new composite material were considered and used in order to reduce the material budget of the support structure while keeping the optimal thermo-mechanical perfor...

  9. Characterization and Beam Tests Results of Non-Uniformly Irradiated 3D Pixel Sensors for HEP Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, I.; Grinstein, S.; Micelli, A.; Tsiskaridze, S.

    2013-06-01

    3D Pixel detectors, with cylindrical electrodes that penetrate the silicon substrate, offer advantages over standard planar sensors in terms of radiation hardness, since the charge collection distance can be reduced independently of the bulk thickness. In the framework of the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) program, work has been carried out to study the suitability of 3D pixel devices for forward proton tracking. The AFP tracker unit will consist of an array of five pixel sensors placed at 2-3 mm from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) proton beam. The proximity to the beam is essential for the AFP physics program as it directly increases the sensitivity of the experiment. Thus, there are two critical requirements for the AFP pixel detector. First, the dead region of the sensor has to be minimized. Second, the device has to be able to cope with a very inhomogeneous radiation distribution. Recent results of the characterization and beam test studies of in-homogeneously irradiated 3D pixel sensors produced at CNM-Barcelona will be presented. (authors)

  10. Evaluation of the charge-sharing effects on spot intensity in XRD setup using photon-counting pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, H.-E.; Mattsson, C.G.; Norlin, B.; Froejdh, C.; Bethke, K.; Vries, R. de

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examine how charge loss due to charge sharing in photon-counting pixels detectors affects the recording of spot intensity in an X-ray diffraction (XRD) setup. In the photon-counting configuration, the charge from photons that are absorbed at the boarder of a pixel will be shared between two pixels. If the threshold is high enough, these photons will not be counted whereas if it is low enough, they will be counted twice. In an XRD setup, the intensity and position of various spots should be recorded. Thus, the intensity measure will be affected by the setting of the threshold. In this study, we used a system level Monte Carlo simulator to evaluate the variations in the intensity signals for different threshold settings and spot sizes. The simulated setup included an 8keV mono-chromatic source (providing a Gaussian shaped spot) and the MEDIPIX2 photon-counting pixel detector (55 μm x 55 μm pixel size with 300μm silicon) at various detector biases. Our study shows that the charge-sharing distortion can be compensated by numerical post processing and that high resolution in both charge distribution and position can be achieved

  11. How many pixels does it take to make a good 4"×6" print? Pixel count wars revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriss, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1980's the future of conventional silver-halide photographic systems was of great concern due to the potential introduction of electronic imaging systems then typified by the Sony Mavica analog electronic camera. The focus was on the quality of film-based systems as expressed in the number of equivalent number pixels and bits-per-pixel, and how many pixels would be required to create an equivalent quality image from a digital camera. It was found that 35-mm frames, for ISO 100 color negative film, contained equivalent pixels of 12 microns for a total of 18 million pixels per frame (6 million pixels per layer) with about 6 bits of information per pixel; the introduction of new emulsion technology, tabular AgX grains, increased the value to 8 bit per pixel. Higher ISO speed films had larger equivalent pixels, fewer pixels per frame, but retained the 8 bits per pixel. Further work found that a high quality 3.5" x 5.25" print could be obtained from a three layer system containing 1300 x 1950 pixels per layer or about 7.6 million pixels in all. In short, it became clear that when a digital camera contained about 6 million pixels (in a single layer using a color filter array and appropriate image processing) that digital systems would challenge and replace conventional film-based system for the consumer market. By 2005 this became the reality. Since 2005 there has been a "pixel war" raging amongst digital camera makers. The question arises about just how many pixels are required and are all pixels equal? This paper will provide a practical look at how many pixels are needed for a good print based on the form factor of the sensor (sensor size) and the effective optical modulation transfer function (optical spread function) of the camera lens. Is it better to have 16 million, 5.7-micron pixels or 6 million 7.8-micron pixels? How does intrinsic (no electronic boost) ISO speed and exposure latitude vary with pixel size? A systematic review of these issues will

  12. Active pixel sensor pixel having a photodetector whose output is coupled to an output transistor gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Nakamura, Junichi (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node. There is also a readout circuit, part of which can be disposed at the bottom of each column of cells and be common to all the cells in the column. A Simple Floating Gate (SFG) pixel structure could also be employed in the imager to provide a non-destructive readout and smaller pixel sizes.

  13. Geochemistry of silicon isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Tiping; Li, Yanhe; Gao, Jianfei; Hu, Bin [Chinese Academy of Geological Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of Mineral Resources; Jiang, Shaoyong [China Univ. of Geosciences, Wuhan (China).

    2018-04-01

    Silicon is one of the most abundant elements in the Earth and silicon isotope geochemistry is important in identifying the silicon source for various geological bodies and in studying the behavior of silicon in different geological processes. This book starts with an introduction on the development of silicon isotope geochemistry. Various analytical methods are described and compared with each other in detail. The mechanisms of silicon isotope fractionation are discussed, and silicon isotope distributions in various extraterrestrial and terrestrial reservoirs are updated. Besides, the applications of silicon isotopes in several important fields are presented.

  14. Optical Cloud Pixel Recovery via Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrina Tahsin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI is a widely used index to monitor vegetation and land use change. NDVI can be retrieved from publicly available data repositories of optical sensors such as Landsat, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS and several commercial satellites. Studies that are heavily dependent on optical sensors are subject to data loss due to cloud coverage. Specifically, cloud contamination is a hindrance to long-term environmental assessment when using information from satellite imagery retrieved from visible and infrared spectral ranges. Landsat has an ongoing high-resolution NDVI record starting from 1984. Unfortunately, this long time series NDVI data suffers from the cloud contamination issue. Though both simple and complex computational methods for data interpolation have been applied to recover cloudy data, all the techniques have limitations. In this paper, a novel Optical Cloud Pixel Recovery (OCPR method is proposed to repair cloudy pixels from the time-space-spectrum continuum using a Random Forest (RF trained and tested with multi-parameter hydrologic data. The RF-based OCPR model is compared with a linear regression model to demonstrate the capability of OCPR. A case study in Apalachicola Bay is presented to evaluate the performance of OCPR to repair cloudy NDVI reflectance. The RF-based OCPR method achieves a root mean squared error of 0.016 between predicted and observed NDVI reflectance values. The linear regression model achieves a root mean squared error of 0.126. Our findings suggest that the RF-based OCPR method is effective to repair cloudy pixels and provides continuous and quantitatively reliable imagery for long-term environmental analysis.

  15. Pixel 2010: A résumé

    CERN Document Server

    Wermes, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    The Pixel 2010 conference focused on semiconductor pixel detectors for particle tracking/vertexing as well as for imaging, in particular for synchrotron light sources and XFELs. The big LHC hybrid pixel detectors have impressively started showing their capabilities. X-ray imaging detectors, also using the hybrid pixel technology, have greatly advanced the experimental possibilities for diffraction experiments. Monolithic or semi-monolithic devices like CMOS active pixels and DEPFET pixels have now reached a state such that complete vertex detectors for RHIC and superKEKB are being built with these technologies. Finally, new advances towards fully monolithic active pixel detectors, featuring full CMOS electronics merged with efficient signal charge collection, exploiting standard CMOS technologies, SOI and/or 3D integration, show the path for the future. This résumé attempts to extract the main statements of the results and developments presented at this conference.

  16. The bipolar silicon microstrip detector: A proposal for a novel precision tracking device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horisberger, R.

    1990-01-01

    It is proposed to combine the technology of fully depleted microstrip detectors fabricated on n doped high resistivity silicon with the concept of the bipolar transistor. This is done by adding a n ++ doped region inside the normal p + implanted region of the reverse biased p + n diode. The resulting structure has amplifying properties and is referred to as bipaolar pixel transistor. The simplest readout scheme of a bipolar pixel array by an aluminium strip bus leads to the bipolar microstrip detector. The bipolar pixel structure is expected to give a better signal-to-noise performance for the detection of minimum ionizing charged particle tracks than the normal silicon diode strip detector and therefore should allow in future the fabrication of thinner silicon detectors for precision tracking. (orig.)

  17. Development of an X-ray imaging system with SOI pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Ryutaro, E-mail: ryunishi@post.kek.jp [School of High Energy Accelerator Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Arai, Yasuo; Miyoshi, Toshinobu [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK-IPNS), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Hirano, Keiichi; Kishimoto, Shunji; Hashimoto, Ryo [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK-IMSS), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2016-09-21

    An X-ray imaging system employing pixel sensors in silicon-on-insulator technology is currently under development. The system consists of an SOI pixel detector (INTPIX4) and a DAQ system based on a multi-purpose readout board (SEABAS2). To correct a bottleneck in the total throughput of the DAQ of the first prototype, parallel processing of the data taking and storing processes and a FIFO buffer were implemented for the new DAQ release. Due to these upgrades, the DAQ throughput was improved from 6 Hz (41 Mbps) to 90 Hz (613 Mbps). The first X-ray imaging system with the new DAQ software release was tested using 33.3 keV and 9.5 keV mono X-rays for three-dimensional computerized tomography. The results of these tests are presented. - Highlights: • The X-ray imaging system employing the SOI pixel sensor is currently under development. • The DAQ of the first prototype has the bottleneck in the total throughput. • The new DAQ release solve the bottleneck by parallel processing and FIFO buffer. • The new DAQ release was tested using 33.3 keV and 9.5 keV mono X-rays.

  18. Development of a cylindrical tracking detector with multichannel scintillation fibers and pixelated photon detector readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akazawa, Y.; Miwa, K.; Honda, R.; Shiozaki, T.; Chiga, N.

    2015-07-01

    We are developing a cylindrical tracking detector for a Σp scattering experiment in J-PARC with scintillation fibers and the Pixelated Photon Detector (PPD) readout, which is called as cylindrical fiber tracker (CFT), in order to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles emitted inside CFT. CFT works not only as a tracking detector but also a particle identification detector from energy deposits. A prototype CFT consisting of two straight layers and one spiral layer was constructed. About 1100 scintillation fibers with a diameter of 0.75 mm (Kuraray SCSF-78 M) were used. Each fiber signal was read by Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC, HPK S10362-11-050P, 1×1 mm{sup 2}, 400 pixels) fiber by fiber. MPPCs were handled with Extended Analogue Silicon Photomultipliers Integrated ReadOut Chip (EASIROC) boards, which were developed for the readout of a large number of MPPCs. The energy resolution of one layer was 28% for a 70 MeV proton where the energy deposit in fibers was 0.7 MeV.

  19. The NA62 Gigatracker: Detector properties and pixel read-out architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, M.; Carassiti, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Cortina, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Martin, E.; Martoiu, S.; Mazza, G.; Noy, M.; Petrucci, F.; Riedler, P.; Rivetti, A.; Tiuraniemi, S.

    2010-01-01

    The beam spectrometer of the NA62 experiment, named Gigatracker, has to perform single track reconstruction with unprecedented time resolution (150 ps rms) in a harsh radiation environment. To meet these requirements, and in order to reduce material budget to a minimum, three hybrid silicon pixel detector stations will be installed in vacuum. An adequate strategy to compensate for the discriminator time-walk must be implemented and R and D investigating two different options is ongoing. Two read-out chip prototypes have been designed in order to compare their performance: one approach is based on the use of a constant-fraction discriminator followed by an on-pixel TDC, while the other one is based on the use of a time-over-threshold circuit followed by a TDC shared by a group of pixels. This paper describes the Gigatracker system, presents the global architectures of both read-out ASICs and reviews the current status of the R and D project.

  20. Characterization of a pixelated CdTe Timepix detector operated in ToT mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billoud, T.; Leroy, C.; Papadatos, C.; Roux, J.S.; Pichotka, M.; Pospisil, S.

    2017-01-01

    A 1 mm thick CdTe sensor bump-bonded to a Timepix readout chip operating in Time-over-Threshold (ToT) mode has been characterized in view of possible applications in particle and medical physics. The CdTe sensor layer was segmented into 256 × 256 pixels, with a pixel pitch of 55  μm. This CdTe Timepix device, of ohmic contact type, has been exposed to alpha-particles and photons from an 241 Am source, photons from a 137 Cs source, and protons of different energies (0.8–10 MeV) delivered by the University of Montreal Tandem Accelerator. The device was irradiated on the negatively biased backside electrode. An X-ray per-pixel calibration commonly used for this type of detector was done and its accuracy and resolution were assessed and compared to those of a 300  μm thick silicon Timepix device. The electron mobility-lifetime product (μ e τ e ) of CdTe for protons of low energy has been obtained from the Hecht equation. Possible polarization effects have been also investigated. Finally, information about the homogeneity of the detector was obtained from X-ray irradiation.