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Sample records for planer silicon pixel

  1. ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Manzari, V

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the innermost two layers of the 6-layer barrel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The SPD plays a key role in the determination of the position of the primary collision and in the reconstruction of the secondary vertices from particle decays.

  2. The ATLAS Silicon Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, M S; Einsweiler, K F; Emes, J; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Marchesini, R; McCormack, F; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Pengg, F; Richardson, J; Zizka, G; Ackers, M; Andreazza, A; Comes, G; Fischer, P; Keil, M; Klasen, V; Kühl, T; Meuser, S; Ockenfels, W; Raith, B; Treis, J; Wermes, N; Gössling, C; Hügging, F G; Wüstenfeld, J; Wunstorf, R; Barberis, D; Beccherle, R; Darbo, G; Gagliardi, G; Gemme, C; Morettini, P; Musico, P; Osculati, B; Parodi, F; Rossi, L; Blanquart, L; Breugnon, P; Calvet, D; Clemens, J-C; Delpierre, P A; Hallewell, G D; Laugier, D; Mouthuy, T; Rozanov, A; Valin, I; Aleppo, M; Caccia, M; Ragusa, F; Troncon, C; Lutz, Gerhard; Richter, R H; Rohe, T; Brandl, A; Gorfine, G; Hoeferkamp, M; Seidel, SC; Boyd, GR; Skubic, P L; Sícho, P; Tomasek, L; Vrba, V; Holder, M; Ziolkowski, M; D'Auria, S; del Papa, C; Charles, E; Fasching, D; Becks, K H; Lenzen, G; Linder, C

    2001-01-01

    Prototype sensors for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector have been developed. The design of the sensors is guided by the need to operate them in the severe LHC radiation environment at up to several hundred volts while maintaining a good signal-to-noise ratio, small cell size, and minimal multiple scattering. The ability to be operated under full bias for electrical characterization prior to the attachment of the readout integrated circuit electronics is also desired.

  3. ISPA (imaging silicon pixel array) experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The bump-bonded silicon pixel detector, developed at CERN by the EP-MIC group, is shown here in its ceramic carrier. Both represent the ISPA-tube anode. The chip features between 1024 (called OMEGA-1) and 8196 (ALICE-1) active pixels.

  4. Electrical Characteristics of Silicon Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelov, I; Hoeferkamp, M; Mata-Bruni, V; Santistevan, G; Seidel, S C; Ciocio, A; Einsweiler, K F; Emes, J; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Marchesini, R; McCormack, F; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Pengg, F; Richardson, J; Zizka, G; Ackers, M; Comes, G; Fischer, P; Keil, M; Klasen, V; Kühl, T; Meuser, S; Ockenfels, W; Raith, B; Treis, J; Wermes, N; Gössling, C; Hügging, F G; Klaiber Lodewigs, Jonas M; Krasel, O; Wüstenfeld, J; Wunstorf, R; Barberis, D; Beccherle, R; Caso, Carlo; Cervetto, M; Darbo, G; Gagliardi, G; Gemme, C; Morettini, P; Netchaeva, P; Osculati, B; Rossi, L; Charles, E; Fasching, D; Blanquart, L; Breugnon, P; Calvet, D; Clemens, J-C; Delpierre, P A; Hallewell, G D; Laugier, D; Mouthuy, T; Rozanov, A; Valin, I; Andreazza, A; Caccia, M; Citterio, M; Lari, T; Meroni, C; Ragusa, F; Troncon, C; Vegni, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Richter, R H; Rohe, T; Boyd, GR; Skubic, P L; Sícho, P; Tomasek, L; Vrba, V; Holder, M; Ziolkowski, M; Cauz, D; Cobal-Grassmann, M; D'Auria, S; De Lotto, B; del Papa, C; Grassmann, H; Santi, L; Becks, K H; Lenzen, G; Linder, C

    2001-01-01

    Prototype sensors for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector have been electrically characterized. The current and voltage characteristics, charge collection efficiencies, and resolutions have been examined. Devices were fabricated on oxygenated and standard detector-grade silicon wafers. Results from prototypes which examine p-stop and standard and moderated p-spray isolation are presented for a variety of geometrical options. Some of the comparisons relate unirradiated sensors with those that have received fluences relevant to LHC operation.

  5. Radiation hardness studies of silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, T

    2006-01-01

    At the LHC silicon vertex detectors will be exposed to hadron fluences of the order of . In order to study the effects of radiation damage on the performances of the ATLAS Pixel Vertex Detector, several full-size detector modules were irradiated to a fluence of and tested in a beam at CERN. After irradiation only a modest degradation of the detector performances is observed. At the operating ATLAS bias voltage of 600 V the average signal is still 80% of the pre-irradiation value, the spatial resolution is and the detection efficiency is 98.2%. The LHC luminosity upgrade will increase the radiation hardness requirements by a factor of 10 and will require the development of new ultra-radiation hard vertex detectors. A detailed simulation of silicon pixel detectors irradiated to very high fluence is presented and used to study the possibility to use silicon pixel detectors at the LHC after the luminosity upgrade. The charge collection properties and the detector response were computed for different silicon mater...

  6. Silicon buried channels for pixel detector cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscardin, M., E-mail: boscardi@fbk.eu [Fondazione Bruno Kessler Trento, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Conci, P.; Crivellari, M.; Ronchin, S. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler Trento, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Bettarini, S. [Universitá di Pisa, L.go B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Pisa, L.go B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bosi, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Pisa, L.go B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    The support and cooling structures add important contributions to the thickness, in radiation length, of vertex detectors. In order to minimize the material budget of pixel sensors, we developed a new approach to integrate the cooling into the silicon devices. The microchannels are formed in silicon using isotropic SF{sub 6} plasma etching in a DRIE (deep reactive ion etcher) equipment. Due to their peculiar profiles, the channels can be sealed by a layer of a PECVD silicon oxide. We have realized on a silicon wafer microchannels with different geometries and hydraulic diameters. We describe the main fabrication steps of microchannels with focus on the channel definition. The experimental results are reported on the thermal characterization of several prototypes, using a mixture of glycol and water as a liquid coolant. The prototypes have shown high cooling efficiency and high-pressure breaking strength.

  7. ISPA (imaging silicon pixel array) experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The ISPA tube is a position-sensitive photon detector. It belongs to the family of hybrid photon detectors (HPD), recently developed by CERN and INFN with leading photodetector firms. HPDs confront in a vacuum envelope a photocathode and a silicon detector. This can be a single diode or a pixelized detector. The electrons generated by the photocathode are efficiently detected by the silicon anode by applying a high-voltage difference between them. ISPA tube can be used in high-energy applications as well as bio-medical and imaging applications.

  8. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    Fadmar Osmic, FO

    2006-01-01

    The European Organization for Particle Physics (CERN) in Geneva is currently constructing the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which will allow the study of the subnuclear ranges of physics with an accuracy never achieved before. Within the LHC project, ALICE is to the study of strongly interacting matter at extreme densities and high temperatures. ALICE as many other modern High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments uses silicon pixel detectors for tracking close to the interaction point (IP). The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) will constitute the two innermost layers of ALICE, and will due to its high granularity provide precise tracking information. In heavy ion collisions, the track density could be as high as 80 tracks/cm2 in the first SPD layer. The SPD will provide tracking information at radii of 3.9 and 7.6 cm from the IP. It is a fundamental element for the study of the weak decays of the particles carrying heavy flavour, whose typical signature will be a secondary vertex separated from the primary verte...

  9. Silicon pixel R&D for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)754303

    2016-01-01

    Challenging detector requirements are imposed by the physics goals at the future multi-TeV e+e- Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). A single point resolution of 3μm for the vertex detector and 7μm for the tracker is required. Moreover, the CLIC vertex detector and tracker need to be extremely light weighted with a material budget of 0.2 % X0 per layer in the ver- tex detector and 1-2%X0 in the tracker. A fast time slicing of 10ns is further required to suppress background from beam-beam interactions. A wide range of sensor and readout ASIC technologies are investigated within the CLIC silicon pixel R&D effort. Various hybrid planar sensor assemblies with a pixel size of 25x25μm2 and 55x55μm2 have been produced and characterised by laboratory measurements and during test-beam campaigns. Experimental and simulation results for thin (50μm-500μm) slim edge and active-edge planar, and High-Voltage CMOS sensors hybridised to various readout ASICs (Timepix, Timepix3, CLICpix) are presented.

  10. Silicon pixel R&D for CLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munker, M.

    2017-01-01

    Challenging detector requirements are imposed by the physics goals at the future multi-TeV e+ e‑ Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). A single point resolution of 3 μm for the vertex detector and 7 μm for the tracker is required. Moreover, the CLIC vertex detector and tracker need to be extremely light weighted with a material budget of 0.2% X0 per layer in the vertex detector and 1–2% X0 in the tracker. A fast time slicing of 10 ns is further required to suppress background from beam-beam interactions. A wide range of sensor and readout ASIC technologies are investigated within the CLIC silicon pixel R&D effort. Various hybrid planar sensor assemblies with a pixel size of 25×25 μm2 and 55×55 μm2 have been produced and characterised by laboratory measurements and during test-beam campaigns. Experimental and simulation results for thin (50 μm–500 μm) slim edge and active-edge planar, and High-Voltage CMOS sensors hybridised to various readout ASICs (Timepix, Timepix3, CLICpix) are presented.

  11. Diamond and silicon pixel detectors in high radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsung, Jieh-Wen

    2012-10-15

    Diamond pixel detector is a promising candidate for tracking of collider experiments because of the good radiation tolerance of diamond. The diamond pixel detector must withstand the radiation damage from 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2}, which is the expected total fluence in High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. The performance of diamond and silicon pixel detectors are evaluated in this research in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Single-crystal diamond pixel detectors with the most recent readout chip ATLAS FE-I4 are produced and characterized. Based on the results of the measurement, the SNR of diamond pixel detector is evaluated as a function of radiation fluence, and compared to that of planar-silicon ones. The deterioration of signal due to radiation damage is formulated using the mean free path of charge carriers in the sensor. The noise from the pixel readout circuit is simulated and calculated with leakage current and input capacitance to the amplifier as important parameters. The measured SNR shows good agreement with the calculated and simulated results, proving that the performance of diamond pixel detectors can exceed the silicon ones if the particle fluence is more than 10{sup 15} particles per cm{sup 2}.

  12. Performance of silicon pixel detectors at small track incidence angles

    CERN Document Server

    Viel, Simon; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN, as well as simulated data.

  13. Silicon pixel detector prototyping in SOI CMOS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Roma; Bugiel, Szymon; Idzik, Marek; Kapusta, Piotr; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Turala, Michal

    2016-12-01

    The Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) CMOS is one of the most advanced and promising technology for monolithic pixel detectors design. The insulator layer that is implemented inside the silicon crystal allows to integrate sensors matrix and readout electronic on a single wafer. Moreover, the separation of electronic and substrate increases also the SOI circuits performance. The parasitic capacitances to substrate are significantly reduced, so the electronic systems are faster and consume much less power. The authors of this presentation are the members of international SOIPIX collaboration, that is developing SOI pixel detectors in 200 nm Lapis Fully-Depleted, Low-Leakage SOI CMOS. This work shows a set of advantages of SOI technology and presents possibilities for pixel detector design SOI CMOS. In particular, the preliminary results of a Cracow chip are presented.

  14. Silicon Pixel Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Graeme Douglas

    Recent advances in particle accelerators have increased the demands being placed on detectors. Novel detector designs are being implemented in many different areas including, for example, high luminosity experiments at the LHC or at next generation synchrotrons. The purpose of this thesis was to characterise some of these novel detectors. The first of the new detector types is called a 3D detector. This design was first proposed by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). In this design, doped electrodes are created that extend through the silicon substrate. When compared to a traditional photodiode with electrodes on the opposing surfaces, the 3D design can combine a reasonable detector thickness with a small electrode spacing resulting in fast charge collection and limited charge sharing. The small electrode spacing leads to the detectors having lower depletion voltages. This, combined with the fast collection time, makes 3D detectors a candidate for radiation hard applications. These applications include the upgra...

  15. 3D silicon pixel sensors: Recent test beam results

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, P; Sandaker, H; Korolkov, I; Barrera, C; Wermes, N; Borri, M; Grinstein, S; Troyano, I; Grenier, P; Devetak, E; Fleta, C; Kenney, C; Tsybychev, D; Nellist, C; Chmeissan, M; Su, D; DeWilde, B; Silverstein, D; Dorholt, O; Tsung, J; Sjoebaek, K; Stupak, J; Slaviec, T; Micelli, A; Helle, K; Bolle, E; Huegging, F; Kocian, M; Fazio, S; Balbuena, J; Dalla Betta, G F; La Rosa, A; Rivero, F; Mastroberardino, A; Hasi, J; Darbo, G; Boscardin, M; Da Via, C; Nordahl, P; Giordani, M; Jackson, P; Rohne, O; Gemme, C; Young, C

    2011-01-01

    The 3D silicon sensors aimed for the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade have been tested with a high energy pion beam at the CERN SPS in 2009. Two types of sensor layouts were tested: full-3D assemblies fabricated in Stanford, where the electrodes penetrate the entire silicon wafer thickness, and modified-3D assemblies fabricated at FBK-irst with partially overlapping electrodes. In both cases three read-out electrodes are ganged together to form pixels of dimension 50 x 400 mu m(2). Data on the pulse height distribution, tracking efficiency and resolution were collected for various particle incident angles, with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field. Data from a planar sensor of the type presently used in the ATLAS detector were used at the same time to give comparison. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. 3D silicon pixel sensors: Recent test beam results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, P., E-mail: phansson@cern.c [University of Oslo (Norway); Balbuena, J.; Barrera, C. [CNM Barcelona (Spain); Bolle, E. [University of Oslo (Norway); Borri, M. [Torino University (Italy); Boscardin, M. [FBK Trento (Italy); Chmeissan, M. [IFAE Barcelona (Spain); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Universita di Trento and INFN Trento (Italy); Darbo, G. [INFN Genova (Italy); Da Via, C. [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Devetak, E.; DeWilde, B. [Stony Brook University (United States); Su, D. [SLAC (United States); Dorholt, O. [University of Oslo (Norway); Fazio, S. [Calabria University (Italy); Fleta, C. [CNM Barcelona (Spain); Gemme, C. [INFN Genova (Italy); Giordani, M. [University of Udine and INFN Udine (Italy); Gjersdal, H. [University of Oslo (Norway); Grenier, P. [SLAC (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The 3D silicon sensors aimed for the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade have been tested with a high energy pion beam at the CERN SPS in 2009. Two types of sensor layouts were tested: full-3D assemblies fabricated in Stanford, where the electrodes penetrate the entire silicon wafer thickness, and modified-3D assemblies fabricated at FBK-irst with partially overlapping electrodes. In both cases three read-out electrodes are ganged together to form pixels of dimension 50x400{mu}m{sup 2}. Data on the pulse height distribution, tracking efficiency and resolution were collected for various particle incident angles, with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field. Data from a planar sensor of the type presently used in the ATLAS detector were used at the same time to give comparison.

  17. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector Control and Calibration Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Calì, Ivan Amos; Manzari, Vito; Stefanini, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis was carried out in the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) group of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The SPD is the innermost part (two cylindrical layers of silicon pixel detec- tors) of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). During the last three years I have been strongly involved in the SPD hardware and software development, construction and commissioning. This thesis is focused on the design, development and commissioning of the SPD Control and Calibration Systems. I started this project from scratch. After a prototyping phase now a stable version of the control and calibration systems is operative. These systems allowed the detector sectors and half-barrels test, integration and commissioning as well as the SPD commissioning in the experiment. The integration of the systems with the ALICE Experiment Control System (ECS), DAQ and Trigger system has been accomplished and the SPD participated in the experimental December 2007 commissioning run. The complex...

  18. ATLAS Inner Detector (Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker)

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach

    2006-01-01

    To raise awareness of the basic functions of the Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker in the ATLAS detector on the LHC at CERN. This colorful 3D animation is an excerpt from the film "ATLAS-Episode II, The Particles Strike Back." Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is taken on a tour of the inner workings of the detector, seeing critical pieces of the detector and hearing short explanations of how each works.

  19. Descent of the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) for ALICE Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) constitutes the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) at radii of 3.9 cm and 7.6 cm, respectively. It is a fundamental element for the determination of the position of the primary vertex as well as for the measurement of the impact parameter of secondary tracks originating from the weak decays of strange, charm and beauty particles.

  20. GigaTracker, a Thin and Fast Silicon Pixels Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Velghe, Bob; Bonacini, Sandro; Ceccucci, Augusto; Kaplon, Jan; Kluge, Alexander; Mapelli, Alessandro; Morel, Michel; Noël, Jérôme; Noy, Matthew; Perktold, Lukas; Petagna, Paolo; Poltorak, Karolina; Riedler, Petra; Romagnoli, Giulia; Chiozzi, Stefano; Cotta Ramusino, Angelo; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Gianoli, Alberto; Petrucci, Ferruccio; Wahl, Heinrich; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Jarron, Pierre; Marchetto, Flavio; Gil, Eduardo Cortina; Nuessle, Georg; Szilasi, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    GigaTracker, the NA62’s upstream spectrometer, plays a key role in the kinematically constrained background suppression for the study of the K + ! p + n ̄ n decay. It is made of three independent stations, each of which is a six by three cm 2 hybrid silicon pixels detector. To meet the NA62 physics goals, GigaTracker has to address challenging requirements. The hit time resolution must be better than 200 ps while keeping the total thickness of the sensor to less than 0.5 mm silicon equivalent. The 200 μm thick sensor is divided into 18000 300 μm 300 μm pixels bump-bounded to ten independent read-out chips. The chips use an end-of-column architecture and rely on time-over- threshold discriminators. A station can handle a crossing rate of 750 MHz. Microchannel cooling technology will be used to cool the assembly. It allows us to keep the sensor close to 0 C with 130 μm of silicon in the beam area. The sensor and read-out chip performance were validated using a 45 pixel demonstrator with a laser test setu...

  1. Detector performance of the ALICE silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cavicchioli, C

    2011-01-01

    The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). It consists of two barrel layers of hybrid silicon pixel detectors at radii of 39 and 76 mm. The physics targets of the ALICE experiment require that the material budget of the SPD is kept within approximate to 1\\%X(0) per layer. This has set some stringent constraints on the design and construction of the SPD. A unique feature of the ALICE SPD is that it is capable of providing a prompt trigger signal, called Fast-OR, which contributes to the L0 trigger decision. The pixel trigger system allows to apply a set of algorithms for the trigger selection, and its output is sent to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). The detector has been installed in the experiment in summer 2007. During the first injection tests in June 2008 the SPD was able to record the very first sign of life of the LHC by registering secondary particles from the beam dumped upstream the ALICE experiment. In the following months the...

  2. Silicon Avalanche Pixel Sensor for High Precision Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ascenzo, N; Moon, C S; Morsani, F; Ratti, L; Saveliev, V; Navarro, A Savoy; Xie, Q

    2013-01-01

    The development of an innovative position sensitive pixelated sensor to detect and measure with high precision the coordinates of the ionizing particles is proposed. The silicon avalanche pixel sensors (APiX) is based on the vertical integration of avalanche pixels connected in pairs and operated in coincidence in fully digital mode and with the processing electronics embedded on the chip. The APiX sensor addresses the need to minimize the material budget and related multiple scattering effects in tracking systems requiring a high spatial resolution in the presence of a large occupancy. The expected operation of the new sensor features: low noise, low power consumption and suitable radiation tolerance. The APiX device provides on-chip digital information on the position of the coordinate of the impinging charged particle and can be seen as the building block of a modular system of pixelated arrays, implementing a sparsified readout. The technological challenges are the 3D integration of the device under CMOS ...

  3. Edge pixel response studies of edgeless silicon sensor technology for pixellated imaging detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneuski, D.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Doonan, K.; Eklund, L.; Gimenez, E. N.; Hynds, D.; Kachkanov, S.; Kalliopuska, J.; McMullen, T.; O'Shea, V.; Tartoni, N.; Plackett, R.; Vahanen, S.; Wraight, K.

    2015-03-01

    Silicon sensor technologies with reduced dead area at the sensor's perimeter are under development at a number of institutes. Several fabrication methods for sensors which are sensitive close to the physical edge of the device are under investigation utilising techniques such as active-edges, passivated edges and current-terminating rings. Such technologies offer the goal of a seamlessly tiled detection surface with minimum dead space between the individual modules. In order to quantify the performance of different geometries and different bulk and implant types, characterisation of several sensors fabricated using active-edge technology were performed at the B16 beam line of the Diamond Light Source. The sensors were fabricated by VTT and bump-bonded to Timepix ROICs. They were 100 and 200 μ m thick sensors, with the last pixel-to-edge distance of either 50 or 100 μ m. The sensors were fabricated as either n-on-n or n-on-p type devices. Using 15 keV monochromatic X-rays with a beam spot of 2.5 μ m, the performance at the outer edge and corners pixels of the sensors was evaluated at three bias voltages. The results indicate a significant change in the charge collection properties between the edge and 5th (up to 275 μ m) from edge pixel for the 200 μ m thick n-on-n sensor. The edge pixel performance of the 100 μ m thick n-on-p sensors is affected only for the last two pixels (up to 110 μ m) subject to biasing conditions. Imaging characteristics of all sensor types investigated are stable over time and the non-uniformities can be minimised by flat-field corrections. The results from the synchrotron tests combined with lab measurements are presented along with an explanation of the observed effects.

  4. A Beam Monitor Using Silicon Pixel Sensors for Hadron Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhen; Fan, Yan; Liu, Jun; Sun, Xiangming; Wang, Dong; Kang, Huili; Sun, Daming; Yang, Ping; Pei, Hua; Huang, Guangming; Xu, Nu; Gao, Chaosong; Xiao, Le

    2016-01-01

    We report the design and test results of a beam monitor developed for online monitoring in hadron therapy. The beam monitor uses eight silicon pixel sensors, \\textit{Topmetal-${II}^-$}, as the anode array. \\textit{Topmetal-${II}^-$} is a charge sensor designed in a CMOS 0.35 $\\mu$m technology. Each \\textit{Topmetal-${II}^-$} sensor has $72\\times72$ pixels. Each pixel size is about $83\\times83$ $\\mu$m$^2$. In our design the beam passes through the beam monitor without hitting the electrodes, making the beam monitor especially suitable for monitoring heavy ion beams. This design also reduces radiation damage to the beam monitor itself. The beam monitor is tested at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) which provides a carbon ion beam. Results indicate that the beam monitor can measure position, incident angle and intensity of the beam with a position resolution better than 20 $\\mu$m, angular resolution about 0.5$^\\circ$ and intensity statistical accuracy better than 2$\\%$.

  5. A beam monitor using silicon pixel sensors for hadron therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Zou, Shuguang; Fan, Yan; Liu, Jun; Sun, Xiangming; Wang, Dong; Kang, Huili; Sun, Daming; Yang, Ping; Pei, Hua; Huang, Guangming; Xu, Nu; Gao, Chaosong; Xiao, Le

    2017-03-01

    We report the design and test results of a beam monitor developed for online monitoring in hadron therapy. The beam monitor uses eight silicon pixel sensors, Topmetal-II-, as the anode array. Topmetal-II- is a charge sensor designed in a CMOS 0.35 μm technology. Each Topmetal-II- sensor has 72×72 pixels and the pixel size is 83×83 μm2. In our design, the beam passes through the beam monitor without hitting the electrodes, making the beam monitor especially suitable for monitoring heavy ion beams. This design also reduces radiation damage to the beam monitor itself. The beam monitor is tested with a carbon ion beam at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). Results indicate that the beam monitor can measure position, incidence angle and intensity of the beam with a position resolution better than 20 μm, angular resolution about 0.5° and intensity statistical accuracy better than 2%.

  6. Study of silicon pixel sensor for synchrotron radiation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Jie; Jia, Yun-Cong; Hu, Ling-Fei; Liu, Peng; Yin, Hua-Xiang

    2016-03-01

    The silicon pixel sensor (SPS) is one of the key components of hybrid pixel single-photon-counting detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray detection (SRD). In this paper, the design, fabrication, and characterization of SPSs for single beam X-ray photon detection is reported. The designed pixel sensor is a p+-in-n structure with guard-ring structures operated in full-depletion mode and is fabricated on 4-inch, N type, 320 μm thick, high-resistivity silicon wafers by a general Si planar process. To achieve high energy resolution of X-rays and obtain low dark current and high breakdown voltage as well as appropriate depletion voltage of the SPS, a series of technical optimizations of device structure and fabrication process are explored. With optimized device structure and fabrication process, excellent SPS characteristics with dark current of 2 nA/cm2, full depletion voltage 150 V are achieved. The fabricated SPSs are wire bonded to ASIC circuits and tested for the performance of X-ray response to the 1W2B synchrotron beam line of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The measured S-curves for SRD demonstrate a high discrimination for different energy X-rays. The extracted energy resolution is high (10 keV) and the linear properties between input photo energy and the equivalent generator amplitude are well established. It confirmed that the fabricated SPSs have a good energy linearity and high count rate with the optimized technologies. The technology is expected to have a promising application in the development of a large scale SRD system for the Beijing Advanced Photon Source. Supported by Prefabrication Research of Beijing Advanced Photon Source (R&D for BAPS) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11335010)

  7. Development and characterization of diamond and 3D-silicon pixel detectors with ATLAS-pixel readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-12-15

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2} per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 x 50 {mu}m{sup 2} have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm{sup 2} and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 x 6 cm{sup 2}). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection inside a pixel cell as well as the charge sharing between adjacent pixels was studied using a high energy particle beam. (orig.)

  8. Silicon pixel-detector R&D for CLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nürnberg, A.

    2016-11-01

    The physics aims at the future CLIC high-energy linear e+e- collider set very high precision requirements on the performance of the vertex and tracking detectors. Moreover, these detectors have to be well adapted to the experimental conditions, such as the time structure of the collisions and the presence of beam-induced backgrounds. The principal challenges are: a point resolution of a few μm, ultra-low mass (~ 0.2%X0 per layer for the vertex region and ~ 1%X0 per layer for the outer tracker), very low power dissipation (compatible with air-flow cooling in the inner vertex region) and pulsed power operation, complemented with ~ 10 ns time stamping capabilities. A highly granular all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system is under development, following an integrated approach addressing simultaneously the physics requirements and engineering constraints. For the vertex-detector region, hybrid pixel detectors with small pitch (25 μm) and analog readout are explored. For the outer tracking region, both hybrid concepts and fully integrated CMOS sensors are under consideration. The feasibility of ultra-thin sensor layers is validated with Timepix3 readout ASICs bump bonded to active edge planar sensors with 50 μm to 150 μm thickness. Prototypes of CLICpix readout ASICs implemented in 6525 nm CMOS technology with 25 μm pixel pitch have been produced. Hybridisation concepts have been developed for interconnecting these chips either through capacitive coupling to active HV-CMOS sensors or through bump-bonding to planar sensors. Recent R&D achievements include results from beam tests with all types of hybrid assemblies. Simulations based on Geant4 and TCAD are used to validate the experimental results and to assess and optimise the performance of various detector designs.

  9. Silicon pixel R&D for the CLIC detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hynds, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The physics aims at the future CLIC high-energy linear e+e collider set very high precision requirements on the performance of the vertex and tracking detectors. Moreover, these detectors have to be well adapted to the experimental conditions, such as the time structure of the collisions and the presence of beam-induced backgrounds. The principal challenges are: a point resolution of a few microns, ultra-low mass (~0.2% X0 per layer for the vertex region and ~1% X0 per layer for the outer tracker), very low power dissipation (compatible with air-flow cooling in the inner vertex region) and pulsed power operation, complemented with ~10 ns time stamping capabilities. A highly granular all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system is under development, following an integrated approach addressing simultaneously the physics requirements and engineering constraints. For the vertex-detector region, hy- brid pixel detectors with small pitch (25 μm) and analogue readout are explored. For the outer tracking region,...

  10. Silicon pixel-detector R&D for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)718101

    2016-01-01

    The physics aims at the future CLIC high-energy linear e+e- collider set very high precision requirements on the performance of the vertex and tracking detectors. Moreover, these detectors have to be well adapted to the experimental conditions, such as the time structure of the collisions and the presence of beam-induced backgrounds. The principal challenges are: a point resolution of a few μm, ultra-low mass (∼ 0.2% X${}_0$ per layer for the vertex region and ∼ 1 % X${}_0$ per layer for the outer tracker), very low power dissipation (compatible with air-flow cooling in the inner vertex region) and pulsed power operation, complemented with ∼ 10 ns time stamping capabilities. A highly granular all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system is under development, following an integrated approach addressing simultaneously the physics requirements and engineering constraints. For the vertex-detector region, hybrid pixel detectors with small pitch (25 μm) and analog readout are explored. For the outer trac...

  11. The barrel sector assembly system of the ALICE silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Antinori, F; Cinausero, M; Dima, R; Fabris, D; Fioretto, E; Lunardon, M; Moretto, S; Pepato, Adriano; Prete, G; Scarlassara, F; Segato, G F; Soramel, F; Turrisi, R; Vannucci, L; Viesti, G

    2004-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector is the inner part of the ITS tracking system of the ALICE experiment at LHC. The 240 silicon modules, hosting almost 10 million pixel cells with dimension 50 . 425 mu m /sup 2/, have to be assembled on a carbon fiber support with micrometric precision. To reach this result, a dedicated high- precision computer-controlled tooling system has been developed at the INFN Padova. The assembly system and the mounting procedures are presented. (10 refs).

  12. Beam test results of the BTeV silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Appel, J A

    2001-01-01

    We report the results of the BTeV silicon pixel detector tests carried out in the MTest beam at Fermilab in 1999-2000. The pixel detector spatial resolution has been studied as a function of track inclination, sensor bias, and readout threshold.

  13. IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype BTeV silicon pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria R. Coluccia et al.

    2002-07-16

    The authors present IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype n{sup +}/n/p{sup +} silicon pixel sensors, intended for use in the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. They tested pixel sensors from various vendors and with two pixel isolation layouts: p-stop and p-spray. Results are based on exposure with 200 MeV protons up to 6 x 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2}.

  14. Development of hybrid photon detectors with integrated silicon pixel readout for the RICH counters of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Alemi, M; Formenti, F; Gys, Thierry; Piedigrossi, D; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E; Snoeys, W; Wyllie, Ken H

    1999-01-01

    We report on the ongoing work towards a hybrid photon detector with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The photon detector is based $9 on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a fast, binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The $9 performance of a half-scale prototype is presented, together with the developments and tests of a full-scale tube with large active area. Specific requirements for pixel front-end and readout electronics in LHCb are outlined, and $9 recent results obtained from pixel chips applicable to hybrid photon detector design are summarized.

  15. The Phase-1 upgrade of the CMS silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Menichelli, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The present CMS pixel detector will be replaced in the shutdown period 2016/17 by an upgraded version due to the following reasons: increased luminosity at reduced bunch spacing ( from 7 x 10 33 cm - 2 s - 1 at 50 ns bunch spacing to 2 x 10 34 cm - 2 s - 1 at 25 ns bunch spacing) in the LHC , and radiation damage effects that will significantly degrade the present detector. The new upgraded detector will have higher tracking efficiency and lower mass with four barrel layer and three forward/backward disks to provide higher hit pixel coverage out to pseudorapidities of ±2.5. In this paper we will describe the new pixel detector focus ing mostly on the barrel detector design, construction and expected performances

  16. Performance of silicon pixel detectors at small track incidence angles for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Simon; Banerjee, Swagato; Brandt, Gerhard; Carney, Rebecca; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Hard, Andrew Straiton; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kashif, Lashkar; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Rieger, Julia; Wolf, Julian; Wu, Sau Lan; Yang, Hongtao

    2016-09-01

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of the ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of the ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN.

  17. Performance of Silicon Pixel Detectors at Small Track Incidence Angles for the ATLAS Inner Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Viel, Simon; The ATLAS collaboration; Brandt, Gerhard; Carney, Rebecca; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Hard, Andrew; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kashif, Lashkar; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Rieger, Julia; Wolf, Julian Choate; Wu, Sau Lan; Yang, Hongtao

    2015-01-01

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of the ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of the ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN.

  18. Silicon Pixel Detector for the PHENIX experiment at the BNL RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Ichimiya, Ryo; Akiba, Yasuyuki; Atomssa, Ermias; Chollet, Simon; Drapier, Olivier; En'yo, Hideto; Fujiwara, Kohei; Gastaldi, Franck; de Cassagnac, Raphael Granier; Kasai, Miki; Kurita, Kazuyosi; Kurosawa, Maki; Mannel, Eric J; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Pak, Robart; Pancake, Charles; Sekimoto, Michiko; Shafto, Eugene; Sondheim, Walter; Taketani, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    PHENIX is one of the major experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. It has been exploring the spin structure of the nucleon utilizing polarized proton-proton collisions and characteristics of the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) created in heavy ion collisions. The Silicon Vertex Tracker (VTX) will be implemented in 2010 to enhance physics capabilities. It will be installed very close to the collision point and will cover | \\eta | < 1.2 and | \\phi | ~2{\\pi} by four layers of silicon sensors. Inner two layers are silicon pixel detectors and outer two layers are silicon strip layers. In this paper, the inner silicon pixel detector is reported. We used 200 {\\mu}m thick silicon sensor and readout chip developed for ALICE experiment. As a part of PHENIX detector, it needs to be read out by four times faster from ALICE experiment and to be thin in material to minimize the radiation length. To meet the criteria, the PHENIX silicon pixel detector has been designed an...

  19. Electrical characterization of irradiated prototype silicon pixel sensors for BTeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Rita Coluccia et al.

    2002-11-13

    The pixel detector in the BteV experiment at the Tevatron (Fermi Laboratory) is an important detector component for high-resolution tracking and vertex identification. For this task the hybrid pixel detector has to work in a very harsh radiation environment with up to 10{sup 14} minimum ionizing particles/cm{sup 2}/year. Radiation hardness of prototype n{sup +}/n/p{sup +} silicon pixel sensors has been investigated. We present Electrical characterization curves for irradiated prototype n{sup +}/n/p{sup +} sensors, intended for use in the BTeV experiment. We tested pixel sensors from various vendors and with two pixel isolation techniques: p-stop and p-spray. Results are based on irradiation with 200 MeV protons up to 6 x 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2}.

  20. Performance of silicon pixel detectors at small track incidence angles for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viel, Simon, E-mail: sviel@lbl.gov [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Banerjee, Swagato [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States); Brandt, Gerhard; Carney, Rebecca; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Hard, Andrew Straiton; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kashif, Lashkar [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States); Pranko, Aliaksandr [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Rieger, Julia [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); II Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen (Germany); Wolf, Julian [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Wu, Sau Lan; Yang, Hongtao [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States)

    2016-09-21

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of the ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of the ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN. - Highlights: • Extended inner pixel barrel layers are proposed for the ATLAS ITk upgrade. • Test beam results at small track incidence angles validate this ATLAS ITk design. • Long pixel clusters are reconstructed with high efficiency at low threshold values. • Excellent angular resolution is achieved using pixel cluster length information.

  1. Silicon Sensors for the Upgrades of the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Centis Vignali, Matteo; Schleper, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC luminosity is constantly increased through upgrades of the accel- erator and its injection chain. Two major upgrades will take place in the next years. The rst upgrade involves the LHC injector chain and allows the collider to achieve a luminosity of about 2 10 34 cm-2 s-1 A further upgrade of the LHC foreseen for 2025 will boost its luminosity to 5 10 34 cm-2 s1. As a consequence of the increased luminosity, the detectors need to be upgraded. In particular, the CMS pixel detector will undergo two upgrades in the next years. The rst upgrade (phase I) consists in the substitution of the current pixel detector in winter 2016/2017. The upgraded pixel detector will implement new readout elec- tronics that allow ecient data taking up to a luminosity of 2 10 34 cm-2s-1,twice as much as the LHC design luminosity. The modules that will constitute the upgraded detector are being produced at dierent institutes. Ham...

  2. arXiv Time resolution of silicon pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, W.

    We derive expressions for the time resolution of silicon detectors, using the Landau theory and a PAI model for describing the charge deposit of high energy particles. First we use the centroid time of the induced signal and derive analytic expressions for the three components contributing to the time resolution, namely charge deposit fluctuations, noise and fluctuations of the signal shape due to weighting field variations. Then we derive expressions for the time resolution using leading edge discrimination of the signal for various electronics shaping times. Time resolution of silicon detectors with internal gain is discussed as well.

  3. The CMS Silicon Pixel detector for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbrueck, Georg

    2016-01-01

    The LHC is planning an upgrade program which will bring the luminosity to about 5~$\\times10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ in 2026, with the goal of an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by the end of 2037. This High Luminosity scenario, HL-LHC, will present new challenges of higher data rates and increased radiation. To maintain its physics potential in this harsh environment, the CMS detector will undergo a major upgrade program known as the Phase II upgrade. The new Phase II pixel detector will require a high bandwidth readout system and highly radiation tolerant sensors and on-detector ASICs. Several technologies for the sensors are being studied. Serial powering schemes are under consideration to accommodate significant constraints on the system. These prospective designs, as well as new layout geometries that include very forward pixel discs with acceptance extended from $\\vert\\eta\\vert<2.4$ to $\\vert\\eta\\vert<4$, are presented together with performance estimates.

  4. Processing and characterization of a MEDIPIX2-compatible silicon sensor with 220 {mu}m pixel size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froejdh, Anna; Froejdh, Erik; Thungstroem, Goeran; Froejdh, Christer [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden); Norlin, Boerje, E-mail: Borje.Norlin@miun.se [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden)

    2011-05-15

    Pixellated silicon detectors with a pixel size of 220 {mu}m have been fabricated at Mid-Sweden University. The purpose was to make a detector compatible with the MEDIPIX2 readout chip with pixels large enough to avoid charge sharing to do spectral imaging. Two different guard ring structures have been tested to investigate leakage current and interpixel isolation in a sensor made on high resistivity silicon.

  5. Performance improvement in amorphous silicon based uncooled microbolometers through pixel design and materials development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmera, Sameer; Brady, John; Hanson, Charles; Schimert, Tom; Syllaios, A. J.; Taylor, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Uncooled amorphous silicon microbolometers have been established as a field-worthy technology for a broad range of applications where performance and form factor are paramount, such as soldier-borne systems. Recent developments in both bolometer materials and pixel design at L-3 in the 17μm pixel node have further advanced the state-of-the-art. Increasing the a-Si material temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) has the impact of improving NETD sensitivity without increasing thermal time constant (TTC), leading to an improvement in the NETD×TTC product. By tuning the amorphous silicon thin-film microstructure using hydrogen dilution during deposition, films with high TCR have been developed. The electrical properties of these films have been shown to be stable even after thermal cycling to temperatures greater than 300oC enabling wafer-level vacuum packaging currently performed at L-3 to reduce the size and weight of the vacuum packaged unit. Through appropriate selection of conditions during deposition, amorphous silicon of ~3.4% TCR has been integrated into the L-3 microbolometer manufacturing flow. By combining pixel design enhancements with improvements to amorphous silicon thin-film technology, L-3's amorphous silicon microbolometer technology will continue to provide the performance required to meet the needs to tomorrow's war-fighter.

  6. Silicon sensors development for the CMS pixel system

    CERN Document Server

    Arndt, Kirk; Bortoletto, Daniela; Giolo, Kim; Horisberger, R P; Rohe, T; Roy, Amitava; Son Seung Hee

    2003-01-01

    The CMS experiment will operate at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A hybrid pixel detector located close to the interaction region of the colliding beams will provide high resolution tracking and vertex identification which will be crucial for b quark identification. Because of the radiation environment of the LHC, the performance of the sensors must be carefully evaluated up to a fluence of 6 multiplied by 10**1**4n//e//qcm **-**2. We expect that the sensors will be operated partially depleted during their operation at the LHC and we have implemented an n**+ on n sensor design. We have irradiated prototype sensors to a dose of 1 multiplied by 10 **1**5n //e//qcm**-**2. We present the results of our testing before and after irradiation.

  7. Silicon micro-fluidic cooling for NA62 GTK pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Romagnoli, G; Brunel, B; Catinaccio, A; Degrange, J; Mapelli, A; Morel, M; Noel, J; Petagna, P

    2015-01-01

    Silicon micro-channel cooling is being studied for efficient thermal management in application fields such as high power computing and 3D electronic integration. This concept has been introduced in 2010 for the thermal management of silicon pixel detectors in high energy physics experiments. Combining the versatility of standard micro-fabrication processes with the high thermal efficiency typical of micro-fluidics, it is possible to produce effective thermal management devices that are well adapted to different detector configurations. The production of very thin cooling devices in silicon enables a minimization of material of the tracking sensors and eliminates mechanical stresses due to the mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between detectors and cooling systems. The NA62 experiment at CERN will be the first high particle physics experiment that will install a micro-cooling system to perform the thermal management of the three detection planes of its Gigatracker pixel detector.

  8. Pre- and post-irradiation performance of FBK 3D silicon pixel detectors for CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzywda, A., E-mail: akrzywda@purdue.edu [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Alagoz, E.; Bubna, M. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Obertino, M. [Università del Piemonte Orientale, Novara (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Solano, A. [Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Arndt, K. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Uplegger, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States); Betta, G.F. Dalla [TIFPA INFN and Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive 9, I-38123 Povo di Trento, TN (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Centro per Materiali e i Microsistemi Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento, TN (Italy); Ngadiuba, J. [Università di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Rivera, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States); Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Terzo, S. [Università di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Bortoletto, D. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Prosser, A.; Adreson, J.; Kwan, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States); Osipenkov, I. [Texas A and M University, Department of Physics, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Bolla, G. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); and others

    2014-11-01

    In preparation for the tenfold luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (the HL-LHC) around 2020, three-dimensional (3D) silicon pixel sensors are being developed as a radiation-hard candidate to replace the planar ones currently being used in the CMS pixel detector. This study examines an early batch of FBK sensors (named ATLAS08) of three 3D pixel geometries: 1E, 2E, and 4E, which respectively contain one, two, and four readout electrodes for each pixel, passing completely through the bulk. We present electrical characteristics and beam test performance results for each detector before and after irradiation. The maximum fluence applied is 3.5×10{sup 15} n {sub eq}/cm{sup 2}.

  9. Design of a 16 gray scales 320×240 pixels OLED-on-silicon driving circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Ran; Wang Xiaohui; Wang Wenbo; Du Huan; Han Zhengsheng

    2009-01-01

    A 320×240 pixel organic-light-emitting-diode-on-silicon (OLEDoS) driving circuit is implemented using the standard 0.5 μm CMOS process of CSMC. It gives 16 gray scales with integrated 4 bit D/A converters. A three-transistor voltage-programmed OLED pixel driver is proposed, which can realize the very small current driving required for the OLEDoS microdisplay. Both the D/A converter and the pixel driver are implemented with pMOS devices. The pass-transistor and capacitance in the OLED pixel driver can be used to sample the output of the D/A converter. An additional pMOS is added to OLED pixel driver, which is used to control the D/A converter operating only when one row is on. This can reduce the circuit's power consumption. This driving circuit can work properly in a frame frequency of 50 Hz, and the final layout of this circuit is given. The pixel area is 28.4×28.4 μm2 and the display area is 10.7×8.0 mm2 (the diagonal is about 13 mm). The measured pixel gray scale voltage shows that the function of the driver circuit is correct, and the power consumption of the chip is about 350 mW.

  10. 3D track reconstruction capability of a silicon hybrid active pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Benedikt; Pichotka, Martin; Pospisil, Stanislav; Vycpalek, Jiri; Burian, Petr; Broulim, Pavel; Jakubek, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Timepix3 detectors are the latest generation of hybrid active pixel detectors of the Medipix/Timepix family. Such detectors consist of an active sensor layer which is connected to the readout ASIC (application specific integrated circuit), segmenting the detector into a square matrix of 256 × 256 pixels (pixel pitch 55 μm). Particles interacting in the active sensor material create charge carriers, which drift towards the pixelated electrode, where they are collected. In each pixel, the time of the interaction (time resolution 1.56 ns) and the amount of created charge carriers are measured. Such a device was employed in an experiment in a 120 GeV/c pion beam. It is demonstrated, how the drift time information can be used for "4D" particle tracking, with the three spatial dimensions and the energy losses along the particle trajectory (dE/dx). Since the coordinates in the detector plane are given by the pixelation ( x, y), the x- and y-resolution is determined by the pixel pitch (55 μm). A z-resolution of 50.4 μm could be achieved (for a 500 μm thick silicon sensor at 130 V bias), whereby the drift time model independent z-resolution was found to be 28.5 μm.

  11. Optimization of radiation hardness and charge collection of edgeless silicon pixel sensors for photon science

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jiaguo; Pennicard, David; Sarajlic, Milija; Graafsma, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in active-edge technology of silicon sensors enables the development of large-area tiled silicon pixel detectors with small dead space between modules by utilizing edgeless sensors. Such technology has been proven in successful productions of ATLAS and Medipix-based silicon pixel sensors by a few foundries. However, the drawbacks of edgeless sensors are poor radiation hardness for ionizing radiation and non-uniform charge collection by edge pixels. In this work, the radiation hardness of edgeless sensors with different polarities has been investigated using Synopsys TCAD with X-ray radiation-damage parameters implemented. Results show that if no conventional guard ring is present, none of the current designs are able to achieve a high breakdown voltage (typically < 30 V) after irradiation to a dose of ~10 MGy. In addition, a charge-collection model has been developed and was used to calculate the charges collected by the edge pixels of edgeless sensors when illuminated with X-rays. The mode...

  12. Novel Silicon n-in-p Pixel Sensors for the future ATLAS Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, A; Macchiolo, A; Nisius, R; Pernegger, H; Richter,R H; Weigell, P

    2013-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards HL-LHC the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all silicon system. The n-in-p silicon technology is a promising candidate for the pixel upgrade thanks to its radiation hardness and cost eectiveness, that allow for enlarging the area instrumented with pixel detectors. We present the characterization and performance of novel n-in-p planar pixel sensors produced by CiS (Germany) connected by bump bonding to the ATLAS readout chip FE-I3. These results are obtained before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 1016 1-MeV $n_{eq}cm^{-2}$, and prove the operability of this kind of sensors in the harsh radiation environment foreseen for the pixel system at HL-LHC. We also present an overview of the new pixel production, which is on-going at CiS for sensors compatible with the new ATLAS readout chip FE-I4.

  13. Novel silicon n-in-p pixel sensors for the future ATLAS upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Rosa, A., E-mail: alessandro.larosa@cern.ch [Section de Physique (DPNC), Université de Genève, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, Genève 4, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Gallrapp, C. [CERN, Geneva 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Macchiolo, A.; Nisius, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Pernegger, H. [CERN, Geneva 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Richter, R.H. [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 München (Germany); Weigell, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards HL-LHC the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the inner detector with an all silicon system. The n-in-p silicon technology is a promising candidate for the pixel upgrade thanks to its radiation hardness and cost effectiveness that allow for enlarging the area instrumented with pixel detectors. We present the characterization and performance of novel n-in-p planar pixel sensors produced by CiS (Germany) connected by bump bonding to the ATLAS readout chip FE-I3. These results are obtained before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 10{sup 16}1-MeV n{sub eq}cm{sup −2}, and prove the operability of this kind of sensors in the harsh radiation environment foreseen for the pixel system at HL-LHC. We also present an overview of the new pixel production, which is on-going at CiS for sensors compatible with the new ATLAS readout chip FE-I4.

  14. Beam test characterization of CMS silicon pixel detectors for the phase-1 upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, I.

    2015-10-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector forms the innermost part of the CMS tracking system and is critical to track and vertex reconstruction. Being in close proximity to the beam interaction point, it is exposed to the highest radiation levels in the silicon tracker. In order to preserve the tracking performance with the LHC luminosity increase which is foreseen for the next years, the CMS collaboration has decided to build a new pixel detector with four barrel layers mounted around a reduced diameter beam pipe, as compared to the present three layer pixel detector in the central region. A new digital version of the front-end readout chip has been designed and tested; it has increased data buffering and readout link speed to maintain high efficiency at increasing occupancy. In addition, it offers lower charge thresholds that will improve the tracking efficiency and position resolution. Single chip modules have been evaluated in the DESY electron test beam in terms of charge collection, noise, tracking efficiency and position resolution before and after irradiation with 24 GeV protons from the CERN Proton Synchroton equivalent to the fluence expected after 500 fb-1 of integrated luminosity in the fourth layer of the pixel tracker. High efficiency and an excellent position resolution have been observed which are well maintained even after the proton irradiation. The results are well described by the CMS pixel detector simulation.

  15. Assembly procedure of the module (half-stave) of the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Caselle, M; Antinori, F; Burns, M; Campbell, M; Chochula, P; Dinapoli, R; Elia, D; Formenti, F; Fini, R A; Ghidini, B; Kluge, A; Lenti, V; Manzari, V; Meddi, F; Morel, M; Navach, F; Nilsson, P; Pepato, Adriano; Riedler, P; Santoro, R; Stefanini, G; Viesti, G; Wyllie, K

    2004-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). The detector includes 1200 readout ASICs, each containing 8192 pixel cells, bump-bonded to Si sensor elements. The thickness of the readout chip and the sensor element is 150mum and 200mum, respectively. Low-mass solutions are implemented for the bus and the mechanical support. In this contribution, we describe the basic module (half-stave) of the two SPD layers and we give an overview of its assembly procedure.

  16. Extending the dynamic range of silicon photomultipliers without increasing pixel count

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Kurtis F., E-mail: kurtis.johnson@cern.c [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2010-09-21

    A silicon photomultiplier, sometimes called 'multipixel photon counter', which we here refer to as a 'SiPM', is a photo-sensitive device built from an avalanche photodiode array of pixels on a common silicon substrate, such that it can detect single photon events. The dimensions of a pixel may vary from 20 to 100 {mu}m and their density can be greater than 1000 per square millimeter. Each pixel in a SiPM operates in Geiger mode and is coupled to the output by a quenching resistor. Although each pixel operates in digital mode, the SiPM is an analog device because all the pixels are read in parallel, making it possible to generate signals within a dynamic range from a single photon to a large number of photons, ultimately limited by the number of pixels on the chip. In this note we describe a simple and general method of increasing the dynamic range of a SiPM beyond that one may naively assume from the shape of the cumulative distribution function of the SiPM response to the average number of photons per pixel. We show that by rendering the incoming flux of photons to be non-uniform in a prescribed manner, a significant increase in dynamic range is achievable. Such re-distribution of the incoming flux may be accomplished with simple, non-focusing lenses, prisms, interference films, mirrors or attenuating films. Almost any optically non-inert interceding device can increase the dynamic range of the SiPM.

  17. Planar n{sup +}-in-n silicon pixel sensors for the ATLAS IBL upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessling, C.; Klingenberg, R. [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Muenstermann, D., E-mail: Daniel.Muenstermann@TU-Dortmund.de [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Rummler, A.; Troska, G.; Wittig, T. [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2011-09-11

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC is planning to upgrade its pixel detector by the installation of a 4th pixel layer, the insertable b-layer IBL with a mean sensor radius of only 32 mm from the beam axis. Being very close to the beam, the radiation damage of the IBL sensors might be as high as 5x10{sup 15} n{sub eq} cm{sup -2} at their end-of-life. To investigate the radiation hardness and suitability of the current ATLAS pixel sensors for IBL fluences, n{sup +}-in-n silicon pixel sensors from the ATLAS Pixel production have been irradiated by reactor neutrons to the IBL design fluence and been tested with pions at the SPS and with electrons from a {sup 90}Sr source in the laboratory. The collected charge was found to exceed 10 000 electrons per MIP at 1 kV of bias voltage which is in agreement with data collected with strip sensors. With an expected threshold of 3000-4000 electrons, this result suggests that planar n{sup +}-in-n pixel sensors are radiation hard enough to be used as IBL sensor technology.

  18. A Medipix2-based imaging system for digital mammography with silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bisogni, M G; Fantacci, M E; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C; Novelli, M; Quattrocchi, M; Rosso, V; Russo, P; Stefanini, A

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present the first tests of a digital imaging system based on a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to an integrated circuit operating in single photon counting mode. The X-rays sensor is a 300 mu m thick silicon, 14 by 14 mm/sup 2/, upon which a matrix of 256 * 256 pixels has been built. The read-out chip, named MEDIPIX2, has been developed at CERN within the MEDIPIX2 Collaboration and it is composed by a matrix of 256 * 256 cells, 55 * 55 mu m/sup 2/. The spatial resolution properties of the system have been assessed by measuring the square wave resolution function (SWRF) and first images of a standard mammographic phantom were acquired using a radiographic tube in the clinical irradiation condition. (5 refs).

  19. Test beam results of 3D silicon pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, P., E-mail: grenier@slac.stanford.ed [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Alimonti, G. [INFN Sezione di Milano (Italy); Barbero, M. [Bonn University (Germany); Bates, R. [Glasgow University (United Kingdom); Bolle, E. [Oslo University (Norway); Borri, M. [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Boscardin, M. [FBK-irst, Trento (Italy); Buttar, C. [Glasgow University (United Kingdom); Capua, M. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza and Universita della Calabria (Italy); Cavalli-Sforza, M. [IFAE Barcelona (Spain); Cobal, M.; Cristofoli, A. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Udine and Universita di Udine (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Trento and DISI Universita di Trento (Italy); Darbo, G. [INFN Sezione di Genova (Italy); Da Via, C. [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Devetak, E.; DeWilde, B. [Stony Brook University (United States); Di Girolamo, B.; Dobos, D. [CERN (Switzerland); Einsweiler, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)

    2011-05-11

    Results on beam tests of 3D silicon pixel sensors aimed at the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrades are presented. Measurements include charge collection, tracking efficiency and charge sharing between pixel cells, as a function of track incident angle, and were performed with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field oriented as the ATLAS inner detector solenoid field. Sensors were bump-bonded to the front-end chip currently used in the ATLAS pixel detector. Full 3D sensors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire wafer thickness and active edge, and double-sided 3D sensors with partially overlapping bias and read-out electrodes were tested and showed comparable performance.

  20. Test Beam Results of 3D Silicon Pixel Sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, P; Barbero, M; Bates, R; Bolle, E; Borri, M; Boscardin, M; Buttar, C; Capua, M; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cobal, M; Cristofoli, A; Dalla Betta, G F; Darbo, G; Da Via, C; Devetak, E; DeWilde, B; Di Girolamo, B; Dobos, D; Einsweiler, K; Esseni, D; Fazio, S; Fleta, C; Freestone, J; Gallrapp, C; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gariano, G; Gemme, C; Giordani, M P; Gjersdal, H; Grinstein, S; Hansen, T; Hansen, T E; Hansson, P; Hasi, J; Helle, K; Hoeferkamp, M; Hugging, F; Jackson, P; Jakobs, K; Kalliopuska, J; Karagounis, M; Kenney, C; Köhler, M; Kocian, M; Kok, A; Kolya, S; Korokolov, I; Kostyukhin, V; Krüger, H; La Rosa, A; Lai, C H; Lietaer, N; Lozano, M; Mastroberardino, A; Micelli, A; Nellist, C; Oja, A; Oshea, V; Padilla, C; Palestri, P; Parker, S; Parzefall, U; Pater, J; Pellegrini, G; Pernegger, H; Piemonte, C; Pospisil, S; Povoli, M; Roe, S; Rohne, O; Ronchin, S; Rovani, A; Ruscino, E; Sandaker, H; Seidel, S; Selmi, L; Silverstein, D; Sjøbaek, K; Slavicek, T; Stapnes, S; Stugu, B; Stupak, J; Su, D; Susinno, G; Thompson, R; Tsung, J W; Tsybychev, D; Watts, S J; Wermes, N; Young, C; Zorzi, N

    2011-01-01

    Results on beam tests of 3D silicon pixel sensors aimed at the ATLAS Insertable-B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC)) upgrades are presented. Measurements include charge collection, tracking efficiency and charge sharing between pixel cells, as a function of track incident angle, and were performed with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field oriented as the ATLAS Inner Detector solenoid field. Sensors were bump bonded to the front-end chip currently used in the ATLAS pixel detector. Full 3D sensors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire wafer thickness and active edge, and double-sided 3D sensors with partially overlapping bias and read-out electrodes were tested and showed comparable performance.

  1. How Planer Settings Affect Timber Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Axelsson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There are different reasons for planing timber. One is to adjust the cross-sectional dimensions of thickness and width. Another is to adjust the timber's outer shape, usually in order to reduce warp resulting from drying and having the forms of cup, twist, bow, and crook. The end-result depends on the properties of the timber before planing and on the planer design and settings. In the present work it was found that increasing or decreasing the forces exerted on the timber by a four-sided planer does not affect the cutting depth or the twist reduction. The pressure settings do not affect the rectangularity or the amount of unplaned areas on the surfaces either. The possibility to impact the result with this type of planer, apart from the cutting depth and planed dimensions, is slim to none.

  2. Test Beam Results of 3D Silicon Pixel Sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, P.; /SLAC; Alimonti, G.; /INFN, Milan; Barbero, M.; /Bonn U.; Bates, R.; /Glasgow U.; Bolle, E.; /Oslo U.; Borri, M.; /Manchester U.; Boscardin, M.; /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo; Buttar, C.; /Glasgow U.; Capua, M.; /Calabria U. /INFN, Cosenza; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Cobal, M.; /Udine U. /INFN, Udine; Cristofoli, A.; /Udine U. /INFN, Udine; Dalla Betta, G.F.; /Trento U. /INFN, Trento; Darbo, G.; /INFN, Genoa; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Devetak, E.; /SUNY, Stony Brook; DeWilde, B.; /SUNY, Stony Brook; Di Girolamo, B.; /CERN; Dobos, D.; /CERN; Einsweiler, K.; /LBL, Berkeley; Esseni, D.; /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Calabria U. /INFN, Cosenza /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /Manchester U. /CERN /LBL, Berkeley /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Oslo U. /ICREA, Barcelona /Barcelona, IFAE /SINTEF, Oslo /SINTEF, Oslo /SLAC /SLAC /Bergen U. /New Mexico U. /Bonn U. /SLAC /Freiburg U. /VTT Electronics, Espoo /Bonn U. /SLAC /Freiburg U. /SLAC /SINTEF, Oslo /Manchester U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Bonn U. /Bonn U. /CERN /Manchester U. /SINTEF, Oslo /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /Calabria U. /INFN, Cosenza /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Manchester U. /VTT Electronics, Espoo /Glasgow U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Hawaii U. /Freiburg U. /Manchester U. /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /CERN /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo /Prague, Tech. U. /Trento U. /INFN, Trento /CERN /Oslo U. /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Bergen U. /New Mexico U. /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /SLAC /Oslo U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Oslo U. /Bergen U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /SLAC /Calabria U. /INFN, Cosenza /Manchester U. /Bonn U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Manchester U. /Bonn U. /SLAC /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo

    2011-08-19

    Results on beam tests of 3D silicon pixel sensors aimed at the ATLAS Insertable-B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrades are presented. Measurements include charge collection, tracking efficiency and charge sharing between pixel cells, as a function of track incident angle, and were performed with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field oriented as the ATLAS Inner Detector solenoid field. Sensors were bump bonded to the front-end chip currently used in the ATLAS pixel detector. Full 3D sensors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire wafer thickness and active edge, and double-sided 3D sensors with partially overlapping bias and read-out electrodes were tested and showed comparable performance. Full and partial 3D pixel detectors have been tested, with and without a 1.6T magnetic field, in high energy pion beams at the CERN SPS North Area in 2009. Sensors characteristics have been measured as a function of the beam incident angle and compared to a regular planar pixel device. Overall full and partial 3D devices have similar behavior. Magnetic field has no sizeable effect on 3D performances. Due to electrode inefficiency 3D devices exhibit some loss of tracking efficiency for normal incident tracks but recover full efficiency with tilted tracks. As expected due to the electric field configuration 3D sensors have little charge sharing between cells.

  3. Performance of novel silicon n-in-p planar Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Gallrapp, C; Macchiolo, A; Nisius, R; Pernegger, H; Richter, R H; Weigell, P

    2012-01-01

    The performance of novel n-in-p planar pixel detectors, designed for future upgrades of the ATLAS Pixel system is presented. The n-in-p silicon sensors technology is a promising candidate for the pixel upgrade thanks to its radiation hardness and cost effectiveness, that allow for enlarging the area instrumented with pixel detectors. The n-in-p modules presented here, are composed of pixel sensors produced by CiS connected by bump-bonding to the ATLAS readout chip FE-I3. The characterization of these devices has been performed before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 5 x 10**15 neq/cm2 . Charge collection measurements carried out with radioactive sources have proven the functioning of this technology up to these particle fluences. First results from beam test data with a 120 GeV/c pion beam at the CERN-SPS are also discussed, demonstrating a high tracking efficiency before irradiation, and a high collected charge for a device irradiated at a fluence of 5 x 10**15 neq/cm2 .

  4. Signal height in silicon pixel detectors irradiated with pions and protons

    CERN Document Server

    Rohe, T.; Bean, A.; Dambach, S.; Erdmann, W.; Langenegger, U.; Martin, C.; Meier, B.; Radicci, V.; Sibille, J.; Trub, P.

    2009-01-01

    Pixel detectors are used in the innermost part of multi purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and are therefore exposed to the highest fluences of ionising radiation, which in this part of the detectors consists mainly of charged pions. The radiation hardness of the detectors has thoroughly been tested up to the fluences expected at the LHC. In case of an LHC upgrade the fluence will be much higher and it is not yet clear up to which radii the present pixel technology can be used. In order to establish such a limit, pixel sensors of the size of one CMS pixel readout chip (PSI46V2.1) have been bump bonded and irradiated with positive pions up to 6E14 Neq/cm^2 at PSI and with protons up to 5E15 Neq/cm^2. The sensors were taken from production wafers of the CMS barrel pixel detector. They use n-type DOFZ material with a resistance of about 3.7kOhm cm and an n-side read out. As the performance of silicon sensors is limited by trapping, the response to a Sr-90 source was investigated. The highly e...

  5. Observation, modeling, and temperature dependence of doubly peaked electric fields in irradiated silicon pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Swartz, M.; Allkofer, Y.; Bortoletto, D.; Cremaldi, L.; Cucciarelli, S.; Dorokhov, A.; Hoermann, C.; Kim, D.; Konecki, M.; Kotlinski, D.; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Rohe, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Son, S.; Speer, T.

    2006-01-01

    We show that doubly peaked electric fields are necessary to describe grazing-angle charge collection measurements of irradiated silicon pixel sensors. A model of irradiated silicon based upon two defect levels with opposite charge states and the trapping of charge carriers can be tuned to produce a good description of the measured charge collection profiles in the fluence range from 0.5x10^{14} Neq/cm^2 to 5.9x10^{14} Neq/cm^2. The model correctly predicts the variation in the profiles as the temperature is changed from -10C to -25C. The measured charge collection profiles are inconsistent with the linearly-varying electric fields predicted by the usual description based upon a uniform effective doping density. This observation calls into question the practice of using effective doping densities to characterize irradiated silicon.

  6. Amorphous silicon pixel layers with cesium iodide converters for medical radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, T.; Cho, G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Goodman, C.A. [Air Techniques, Inc., Hicksville, NY (United States)] [and others

    1993-11-01

    We describe the properties of evaporated layers of Cesium Iodide (Thallium activated) deposited on substrates that enable easy coupling to amorphous silicon pixel arrays. The CsI(Tl) layers range in thickness from 65 to 220{mu}m. We used the two-boat evaporator system to deposit CsI(Tl) layers. This system ensures the formation of the scintillator film with homogenous thallium concentration which is essential for optimizing the scintillation light emission efficiency. The Tl concentration was kept to 0.1--0.2 mole percent for the highest light output. Temperature annealing can affect the microstructure as well as light output of the CsI(Tl) film. 200--300C temperature annealing can increase the light output by a factor of two. The amorphous silicon pixel arrays are p-i-n diodes approximately l{mu}m thick with transparent electrodes to enable them to detect the scintillation light produced by X-rays incident on the CsI(Tl). Digital radiography requires a good spatial resolution. This is accomplished by making the detector pixel size less then 50{mu}m. The light emission from the CsI(Tl) is collimated by techniques involving the deposition process on pattered substrates. We have measured MTF of greater than 12 line pairs per mm at the 10% level.

  7. 3D silicon pixel detectors for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, J.

    2016-01-01

    3D silicon pixel detectors have been investigated as radiation-hard candidates for the innermost layers of the HL-LHC upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector. 3D detectors are already in use today in the ATLAS IBL and AFP experiments. These are based on 50x250 um2 large pixels connected to the FE-I4 readout chip. Detectors of this generation were irradiated to HL-LHC fluences and demonstrated excellent radiation hardness with operational voltages as low as 180 V and power dissipation of 12--15 mW/cm2 at a fluence of about 1e16 neq/cm2, measured at -25 degree C. Moreover, to cope with the higher occupancies expected at the HL-LHC, a first run of a new generation of 3D detectors designed for the HL-LHC was produced at CNM with small pixel sizes of 50x50 and 25x100 um2, matched to the FE-I4 chip. They demonstrated a good performance in the laboratory and in beam tests with hit efficiencies of about 97% at already 1--2V before irradiation.

  8. Simulations of a silicon pixel based on MOS Deep Trapping Gate Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Fourches, Nicolas T

    2016-01-01

    The concept of the deep trapping gate device was introduced fairly recently on the basis of technological and transport simulations currently used in the field of classical electron devices. The concept of a buried gate containing localized deep level centers for holes (Deep Trapping Gate or DTG) renders possible the operation of this field effect pixel detector. One alternative to Deep Level introduction is the use of a quantum box, which is a hole quantum-well and an electron barrier. In all of these cases the buried gate modulates the drain-source current. This principle was formerly evaluated with realistic simulations parameters and this shows that a measurable signal is obtained for an energy deposition of a minimum-ionizing particle within a limited silicon thickness. In this work a quantitative study of the response of such a pixel to Minimum Ionizing Particles. The influence of some parameters such as the thickness of the pixel and its lateral dimensions, on the operation of the pixel is studied here...

  9. Thin pixel development for the SuperB silicon vertex tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, G., E-mail: giuliana.rizzo@pi.infn.it [INFN-Pisa and Universita di Pisa (Italy); Avanzini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Ceccanti, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Crescioli, F.; Dell' Orso, M.; Forti, F.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.A. [INFN-Pisa and Universita di Pisa (Italy); Lusiani, A. [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN-Pisa (Italy); Gregucci, S.; Mammini, P.; Marchiori, G.; Massa, M.; Morsani, F.; Neri, N. [INFN-Pisa and Universita di Pisa (Italy); and others

    2011-09-11

    The high luminosity SuperB asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, to be built near the INFN National Frascati Laboratory in Italy, has been designed to deliver a luminosity greater than 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} with moderate beam currents and a reduced center of mass boost with respect to earlier B-Factories. An improved vertex resolution is required for precise time-dependent measurements and the SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker will be equipped with an innermost layer of small radius (about 1.5 cm), resolution of 10-15{mu}m in both coordinates, low material budget (<1% X0), and able to withstand a background rate of several tens of MHz/cm{sup 2}. The ambitious goal of designing a thin pixel device with these stringent requirements is being pursued with specific R and D programs on different technologies: hybrid pixels, CMOS MAPS and pixel sensors developed with vertical integration technology. The latest results on the various pixel options for the SuperB SVT will be presented.

  10. 3D silicon pixel detectors for the High-Luminosity LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, J.; Carulla Areste, M.; Cavallaro, E.; Förster, F.; Grinstein, S.; López Paz, I.; Manna, M.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.; Terzo, S.; Vázquez Furelos, D.

    2016-11-01

    3D silicon pixel detectors have been investigated as radiation-hard candidates for the innermost layers of the HL-LHC upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector. 3D detectors are already in use today in the ATLAS IBL and AFP experiments. These are based on 50 × 250 μm2 large pixels connected to the FE-I4 readout chip. Detectors of this generation were irradiated to HL-LHC fluences and demonstrated excellent radiation hardness with operational voltages as low as 180 V and power dissipation of 12-15 mW/cm2 at a fluence of about 1016 neq/cm2, measured at -25°C. Moreover, to cope with the higher occupancies expected at the HL-LHC, a first run of a new generation of 3D detectors designed for the HL-LHC was produced at CNM with small pixel sizes of 50 × 50 and 25 × 100 μm2, matched to the FE-I4 chip. They demonstrated a good performance in the laboratory and in beam tests with hit efficiencies of about 97% at already 1-2 V before irradiation.

  11. Study of the Tracking Method and Expected Performance of the Silicon Pixel Inner Tracker Applied in BESIII

    CERN Document Server

    Xiu, Qinglei; Li, Weidong; Liu, Huaimin; Ma, Qiumei; Ouyang, Qun; Qin, Zhonghua; Wang, Liangliang; Wu, Linghui; Yuan, Ye; Zhang, Yao

    2015-01-01

    The inner drift chamber of the BESIII is encountering serious aging problem after five year's running. For the first layer, the decrease in gas gain is about 26% from 2009 to 2013. The upgrade of the inner tracking detector has become an urgent problem for the BESIII experiment. An inner tracker using CMOS pixel sensors is an important candidate because of its great advantages on spatial resolution and radiation hardness. In order to carry out a Monte Carlo study on the expected performance, a Geant4-based full simulation for the silicon pixel detector has been implemented. The tracking method combining the silicon pixel inner tracker and outer drift chamber has been studied and a preliminary reconstruction software was developed. The Monte Carlo study shows that the performances including momentum resolution, vertex resolution and the tracking efficiency are significantly improved due to the good spatial resolution and moderate material budget of the silicon pixel detector.

  12. High-Sensitivity X-ray Polarimetry with Amorphous Silicon Active-Matrix Pixel Proportional Counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J. K.; Deines-Jones, P.; Jahoda, K.; Ready, S. E.; Street, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    Photoelectric X-ray polarimeters based on pixel micropattern gas detectors (MPGDs) offer order-of-magnitude improvement in sensitivity over more traditional techniques based on X-ray scattering. This new technique places some of the most interesting astronomical observations within reach of even a small, dedicated mission. The most sensitive instrument would be a photoelectric polarimeter at the focus of 2 a very large mirror, such as the planned XEUS. Our efforts are focused on a smaller pathfinder mission, which would achieve its greatest sensitivity with large-area, low-background, collimated polarimeters. We have recently demonstrated a MPGD polarimeter using amorphous silicon thin-film transistor (TFT) readout suitable for the focal plane of an X-ray telescope. All the technologies used in the demonstration polarimeter are scalable to the areas required for a high-sensitivity collimated polarimeter. Leywords: X-ray polarimetry, particle tracking, proportional counter, GEM, pixel readout

  13. Amorphous silicon pixel radiation detectors and associated thin film transistor electronics readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Drewery, J.; Hong, W.S.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Lee, H.; Mireshghi, A.

    1994-10-01

    We describe the characteristics of thin (1 {mu}m) and thick (>30 {mu}m) hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes which are optimized for detecting and recording the spatial distribution of charged particles, x-rays and {gamma} rays. For x-ray, {gamma} ray, and charged particle detection we can use thin p-i-n photosensitive diode arrays coupled to evaporated layers of suitable scintillators. For direct detection of charged particles with high resistance to radiation damage, we use the thick p-i-n diode arrays. Deposition techniques using helium dilution, which produce samples with low stress are described. Pixel arrays for flux exposures can be readout by transistor, single diode or two diode switches. Polysilicon charge sensitive pixel amplifiers for single event detection are described. Various applications in nuclear, particle physics, x-ray medical imaging, neutron crystallography, and radionuclide chromatography are discussed.

  14. Development of the Pixelated Photon Detector Using Silicon on Insulator Technology for TOF-PET

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, Akihiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Orita, Tadashi; Arai, Yasuo; Kurachi, Ikuo; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Nio, Daisuke; Hamasaki, Ryutaro

    2015-01-01

    To measure light emission pattern in scintillator, higher sensitivity and faster response are required to photo detector. Such as single photon avalanche diode (SPAD), conventional pixelated photo detector is operated at Geiger avalanche multiplication. However higher gain of SPAD seems very attractive, photon detection efficiency per unit area is low. This weak point is mainly caused by Geiger avalanche mechanism. To overcome these difficulties, we designed Pixelated Linear Avalanche Integration Detector using Silicon on Insulator technology (SOI-Plaid). To avoid dark count noise and dead time comes from quench circuit, we are planning to use APD in linear multiplication mode. SOI technology enables laminating readout circuit and APD layer, and high-speed and low-noise signal reading regardless smaller gain of linear APD. This study shows design of linear APD by using SOI fabrication process. We designed test element group (TEG) of linear APD and inspected optimal structure of linear APD.

  15. New concept of a submillimetric pixellated Silicon detector for intracerebral application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoit, M. [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire (LAL, Universite Paris Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 8608), Orsay (France); Maerk, J.; Weiss, P. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille (CPPM, Universite Aix-Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 6550), Marseille (France); Benoit, D. [Imagerie et Modelisation en Neurobiologie et Cancerologie (IMNC, Universite Paris Sud et Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, IMNC, Centre Universitaire, batiment 440, 91406 Orsay Cedex, UMR 8165), Orsay (France); Clemens, J.C.; Fougeron, D. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille (CPPM, Universite Aix-Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 6550), Marseille (France); Janvier, B. [Imagerie et Modelisation en Neurobiologie et Cancerologie (IMNC, Universite Paris Sud et Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, IMNC, Centre Universitaire, batiment 440, 91406 Orsay Cedex, UMR 8165), Orsay (France); Jevaud, M.; Karkar, S.; Menouni, M. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille (CPPM, Universite Aix-Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 6550), Marseille (France); Pain, F.; Pinot, L. [Imagerie et Modelisation en Neurobiologie et Cancerologie (IMNC, Universite Paris Sud et Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, IMNC, Centre Universitaire, batiment 440, 91406 Orsay Cedex, UMR 8165), Orsay (France); Morel, C. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille (CPPM, Universite Aix-Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 6550), Marseille (France); and others

    2011-12-11

    A new beta{sup +} radiosensitive microprobe implantable in rodent brain dedicated to in vivo and autonomous measurements of local time activity curves of beta radiotracers in a volume of brain tissue of a few mm{sup 3} has been developed recently. This project expands the concept of the previously designed beta microprobe, which has been validated extensively in neurobiological experiments performed on anesthetized animals. Due to its limitations considering recordings on awake and freely moving animals, we have proposed to develop a wireless setup that can be worn by an animal without constraining its movements. To that aim, we have chosen a highly beta sensitive Silicon-based detector to devise a compact pixellated probe. Miniaturized wireless electronics is used to read-out and transfer the measurement data. Initial Monte-Carlo simulations showed that high resistive Silicon pixels are appropriate for this purpose, with their dimensions to be adapted to our specific signals. More precisely, we demonstrated that 200 {mu}m thick pixels with an area of 200 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 500 {mu}m are optimized in terms of beta{sup +}sensitivity versus relative transparency to the gamma background. Based on this theoretical study, we now present the development of the novel sensor, including the system simulations with technology computer-assisted design (TCAD) to investigate specific configurations of guard rings and their potential to increase the electrical isolation and stabilization of the pixel, as well as the corresponding physical tests to validate the particular geometries of this new sensor.

  16. High rate particle tracking and ultra-fast timing with a thin hybrid silicon pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorini, M., E-mail: Massimiliano.Fiorini@cern.ch [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Aglieri Rinella, G. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Carassiti, V. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara (Italy); Ceccucci, A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cortina Gil, E. [Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Cotta Ramusino, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara (Italy); Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P. [INFN Sezione di Torino (Italy); Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Mapelli, A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Martin, E. [Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Mazza, G. [INFN Sezione di Torino (Italy); Morel, M.; Noy, M. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Nuessle, G. [Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Perktold, L.; Petagna, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); and others

    2013-08-01

    The Gigatracker (GTK) is a hybrid silicon pixel detector designed for the NA62 experiment at CERN. The beam spectrometer, made of three GTK stations, has to sustain high and non-uniform particle rate (∼1GHz in total) and measure momentum and angles of each beam track with a combined time resolution of 150 ps. In order to reduce multiple scattering and hadronic interactions of beam particles, the material budget of a single GTK station has been fixed to 0.5% X{sub 0}. The expected fluence for 100 days of running is 2×10{sup 14} 1 MeV n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, comparable to the one foreseen in the inner trackers of LHC detectors during 10 years of operation. To comply with these requirements, an efficient and very low-mass (<0.15%X{sub 0}) cooling system is being constructed, using a novel microchannel cooling silicon plate. Two complementary read-out architectures have been produced as small-scale prototypes: one is based on a Time-over-Threshold circuit followed by a TDC shared by a group of pixels, while the other makes use of a constant-fraction discriminator followed by an on-pixel TDC. The read-out ASICs are produced in 130 nm IBM CMOS technology and will be thinned down to 100μm or less. An overview of the Gigatracker detector system will be presented. Experimental results from laboratory and beam tests of prototype bump-bonded assemblies will be described as well. These results show a time resolution of about 170 ps for single hits from minimum ionizing particles, using 200μm thick silicon sensors.

  17. A silicon pixel readout ASIC with 100 ps time resolution for the NA62 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellacasa, G; Garbolino, S; Marchetto, F; Martoiu, S; Mazza, G; Rivetti, A; Wheadon, R, E-mail: mazza@to.infn.it [INFN sez. di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    The silicon tracker of the NA62 experiment requires the measurement of the particles arrival time with a resolution better than 200 ps rms and a spatial resolution of 300 {mu}m. A time measurement technique based on a Time to Amplitude Converter has been implemented in an ASIC in order to prove the possibility to integrate a TDC with resolution better than 200 ps in a pixel cell. Time-walk problem has been addressed with the use of the Constant Fraction Discriminator technique. The ASIC has been designed in a CMOS 0.13 {mu}m technology with single event upset protection of the digital logic.

  18. 3D silicon pixel detectors for the ATLAS Forward Physics experiment

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00397348; Cavallaro, E.; Grinstein, S.; López Paz, I.

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project plans to install 3D silicon pixel detectors about 210 m away from the interaction point and very close to the beamline (2-3 mm). This implies the need of slim edges of about 100-200 $\\mu$m width for the sensor side facing the beam to minimise the dead area. Another challenge is an expected non-uniform irradiation of the pixel sensors. It is studied if these requirements can be met using slightly-modified FE-I4 3D pixel sensors from the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer production. AFP-compatible slim edges are obtained with a simple diamond-saw cut. Electrical characterisations and beam tests are carried out and no detrimental impact on the leakage current and hit efficiency is observed. For devices without a 3D guard ring a remaining insensitive edge of less than 15 $\\mu$m width is found. Moreover, 3D detectors are non-uniformly irradiated up to fluences of several 10$^{15}$ n$_{eq}$/cm$^2$ with either a focussed 23 GeV proton beam or a 23 MeV proton beam through holes in Al ma...

  19. High rate particle tracking and ultra-fast timing with a thin hybrid silicon pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Carassiti, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Cortina Gil, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Mapelli, A.; Martin, E.; Mazza, G.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Nuessle, G.; Perktold, L.; Petagna, P.; Petrucci, F.; Poltorak, K.; Riedler, P.; Rivetti, A.; Statera, M.; Velghe, B.

    2013-08-01

    The Gigatracker (GTK) is a hybrid silicon pixel detector designed for the NA62 experiment at CERN. The beam spectrometer, made of three GTK stations, has to sustain high and non-uniform particle rate (∼ 1 GHz in total) and measure momentum and angles of each beam track with a combined time resolution of 150 ps. In order to reduce multiple scattering and hadronic interactions of beam particles, the material budget of a single GTK station has been fixed to 0.5% X0. The expected fluence for 100 days of running is 2 ×1014 1 MeV neq /cm2, comparable to the one foreseen in the inner trackers of LHC detectors during 10 years of operation. To comply with these requirements, an efficient and very low-mass (architectures have been produced as small-scale prototypes: one is based on a Time-over-Threshold circuit followed by a TDC shared by a group of pixels, while the other makes use of a constant-fraction discriminator followed by an on-pixel TDC. The read-out ASICs are produced in 130 nm IBM CMOS technology and will be thinned down to 100 μm or less. An overview of the Gigatracker detector system will be presented. Experimental results from laboratory and beam tests of prototype bump-bonded assemblies will be described as well. These results show a time resolution of about 170 ps for single hits from minimum ionizing particles, using 200 μm thick silicon sensors.

  20. Characterization of Ni/SnPb-TiW/Pt Flip Chip Interconnections in Silicon Pixel Detector Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Härkönen, Jaakko; Luukka, Panja-riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Haeggstrom, Edward; Kalliopuska, Juha; Vahanen, Sami; Kassamakov, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    In contemporary high energy physics experiments, silicon detectors are essential for recording the trajectory of new particles generated by multiple simultaneous collisions. Modern particle tracking systems may feature 100 million channels, or pixels, which need to be individually connected to read-out chains. Silicon pixel detectors are typically connected to readout chips by flip-chip bonding using solder bumps. High-quality electro-mechanical flip-chip interconnects minimizes the number of dead read-out channels in the particle tracking system. Furthermore, the detector modules must endure handling during installation and withstand heat generation and cooling during operation. Silicon pixel detector modules were constructed by flip-chip bonding 16 readout chips to a single sensor. Eutectic SnPb solder bumps were deposited on the readout chips and the sensor chips were coated with TiW/Pt thin film UBM (under bump metallization). The modules were assembled at Advacam Ltd, Finland. We studied the uniformity o...

  1. First operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon pixel readout

    CERN Document Server

    Alemi, M; Gys, Thierry; Mikulec, B; Piedigrossi, D; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E; Schomaker, R; Snoeys, W; Wyllie, Ken H

    2000-01-01

    We report on the first operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The prototype has been characterized using a low-intensity light-emitting diode operated in pulsed mode. Its performance in terms of single-photoelectron detection efficiency and imaging properties is presented. A model of photoelectron detection is proposed, and is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. It includes an estimate of the charge signal generated in the silicon detector, and the combined effects of the comparator threshold spread of the pixel readout chip, charge sharing at the pixel boundaries and back-scattering of the photoelectrons at the silicon detector surface...

  2. Characterisation of edgeless technologies for pixellated and strip silicon detectors with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Christophersen, M.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Gimenez, E.; Kachkanov, V.; Kalliopuska, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Maneuski, D.; Phlips, B. F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Stewart, G.; Tartoni, N.; Zain, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced edge or ``edgeless'' detector design offers seamless tileability of sensors for a wide range of applications from particle physics to synchrotron and free election laser (FEL) facilities and medical imaging. Combined with through-silicon-via (TSV) technology, this would allow reduced material trackers for particle physics and an increase in the active area for synchrotron and FEL pixel detector systems. In order to quantify the performance of different edgeless fabrication methods, 2 edgeless detectors were characterized at the Diamond Light Source using an 11 μm FWHM 15 keV micro-focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were: a 150 μm thick silicon active edge pixel sensor fabricated at VTT and bump-bonded to a Medipix2 ROIC; and a 300 μm thick silicon strip sensor fabricated at CIS with edge reduction performed by SCIPP and the NRL and wire bonded to an ALiBaVa readout system. Sub-pixel resolution of the 55 μm active edge pixels was achieved. Further scans showed no drop in charge collection recorded between the centre and edge pixels, with a maximum deviation of 5% in charge collection between scanned edge pixels. Scans across the cleaved and standard guard ring edges of the strip detector also show no reduction in charge collection. These results indicate techniques such as the scribe, cleave and passivate (SCP) and active edge processes offer real potential for reduced edge, tiled sensors for imaging detection applications.

  3. Design of a radiation hard silicon pixel sensor for X-ray science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwandt, Joern

    2014-06-15

    At DESY Hamburg the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (EuXFEL) is presently under construction. The EuXFEL has unique properties with respect to X-ray energy, instantaneous intensity, pulse length, coherence and number of pulses/sec. These properties of the EuXFEL pose very demanding requirements for imaging detectors. One of the detector systems which is currently under development to meet these challenges is the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector, AGIPD. It is a hybrid pixel-detector system with 1024 x 1024 p{sup +} pixels of dimensions 200 μm x 200 μm, made of 16 p{sup +}nn{sup +}- silicon sensors, each with 10.52 cm x 2.56 cm sensitive area and 500 μm thickness. The particular requirements for the AGIPD are a separation between noise and single photons down to energies of 5 keV, more than 10{sup 4} photons per pixel for a pulse duration of less than 100 fs, negligible pile-up at the EuXFEL repetition rate of 4.5 MHz, operation for X-ray doses up to 1 GGy, good efficiency for X-rays with energies between 5 and 20 keV, and minimal inactive regions at the edges. The main challenge in the sensor design is the required radiation tolerance and high operational voltage, which is required to reduce the so-called plasma effect. This requires a specially optimized sensor. The X-ray radiation damage results in a build-up of oxide charges and interface traps which lead to a reduction of the breakdown voltage, increased leakage current, increased interpixel capacitances and charge losses. Extensive TCAD simulations have been performed to understand the impact of X-ray radiation damage on the detector performance and optimize the sensor design. To take radiation damage into account in the simulation, radiation damage parameters have been determined on MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes as function of dose. The optimized sensor design was fabricated by SINTEF. Irradiation tests on test structures and sensors show that the sensor design is radiation hard and

  4. Silicon MOS Pixel Based on the Deep Trapping Gate Principle: Design and Material Science Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Fourches, Nicolas T

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the deep trapping gate device was introduced fairly recently on the basis of technological and transport simulations currently used in the field of classical electron devices. The concept of a buried gate containing localized deep level centers (Deep Trapping Gate or DTG) renders possible the operation of this field effect pixel detector. The deep centers can be deep defects or localized states in a quantum dot. This gate modulates the drain-source current. This principle was formerly evaluated with realistic simulations parameters and this shows that a measurable signal is obtained for an energy deposition of a minimum ionizing particle within a limited silicon thickness. We will study here the potential techniques usable for the fabrication of the device with their drawbacks, advantages and limits. The first technique introduced is impurity implantation, followed by annealing. The problems related to the control of the defects in the DTG will be examined in the light of recent work on ion imp...

  5. Study of Charge Diffusion in a Silicon Detector Using an Energy Sensitive Pixel Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Schioppa, E. J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Visser, J.; Koffeman, E.; Heijne, E.; Engel, K. J.; Uher, J.

    2015-01-01

    A 300 μm thick thin p-on-n silicon sensor was connected to an energy sensitive pixel readout ASIC and exposed to a beam of highly energetic charged particles. By exploiting the spectral information and the fine segmentation of the detector, we were able to measure the evolution of the transverse profile of the charge carriers cloud in the sensor as a function of the drift distance from the point of generation. The result does not rely on model assumptions or electric field calculations. The data are also used to validate numerical simulations and to predict the detector spectral response to an X-ray fluorescence spectrum for applications in X-ray imaging.

  6. Characterisation of micro-strip and pixel silicon detectors before and after hadron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allport, P. P.; Ball, K.; Casse, G.; Chmill, V.; Forshaw, D.; Hadfield, K.; Pritchard, A.; Pool, P.; Tsurin, I.

    2012-01-01

    The use of segmented silicon detectors for tracking and vertexing in particle physics has grown substantially since their introduction in 1980. It is now anticipated that roughly 50,000 six inch wafers of high resistivity silicon will need to be processed into sensors to be deployed in the upgraded experiments in the future high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) at CERN. These detectors will also face an extremely severe radiation environment, varying with distance from the interaction point. The volume of required sensors is large and their delivery is required during a relatively short time, demanding a high throughput from the chosen suppliers. The current situation internationally, in this highly specialist market, means that security of supply for large orders can therefore be an issue and bringing additional potential vendors into the field can only be an advantage. Semiconductor companies that could include planar sensors suitable for particle physics in their product lines will, however, need to prove their products meet all the stringent technical requirements. A semiconductor company with very widespread experience of producing science grade CCDs (including deep depletion devices) has adapted their CCD process to fabricate for the first time several wafers of pixel and micro-strip radiation hard sensors, suitable for future high energy physics experiments. The results of the pre-irradiation characterization of devices fabricated with different processing parameters and the measurements of charge collection properties after different hadron irradiation doses up to those anticipated for the (larger area) outer pixel layers at the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) are presented and compared with results from more established particle physics suppliers.

  7. Investigating the Inverse Square Law with the Timepix Hybrid Silicon Pixel Detector: A CERN [at] School Demonstration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyntie, T.; Parker, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Timepix hybrid silicon pixel detector has been used to investigate the inverse square law of radiation from a point source as a demonstration of the CERN [at] school detector kit capabilities. The experiment described uses a Timepix detector to detect the gamma rays emitted by an [superscript 241]Am radioactive source at a number of different…

  8. Characterization of thin irradiated epitaxial silicon sensors for the CMS phase II pixel upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Centis Vignali, Matteo; Eichhorn, Thomas; Garutti, Erika; Junkes, Alexandra; Steinbrueck, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The high-luminosity upgrade fo the large hadron collider foreseen for 2023 resulted in the decision to replace the tracker system of the CMS experiment. The innermost layer of the new pixel detector will experience fluences in the order of $\\phi_{eq} \\approx 10^{16}$~cm$^{-2}$ and a dose of $\\approx 5$~MGy after an integrated luminosity of 3000~fb$^{-1}$. Several materials and designs are under investigation in order to build a detector that can withstand such high fluences. Thin planar silicon sensors are good canditates to achieve this goal since the degradation of the signal produced by traversing particles is less severe than for thicker devices. A study has been carried out in order to characterize highly irradiated planar epitaxial silicon sensors with an active thickness of 100~$\\mu$m. The investigation includes pad diodes and strip detectors irradiated up to a fluence of $\\phi_{eq} = 1.3 \\times 10^{16}$~cm$^{-2}$. The electrical properties of diodes have bee...

  9. Spectral response of a silicon detector with 220 {mu}m pixel size bonded to MEDIPIX2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froejdh, Erik, E-mail: erik.frojdh@miun.se [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden); Froejdh, Anna; Norlin, Boerje; Froejdh, Christer [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden)

    2011-05-15

    Pixellated radiation detectors with single photon processing can be used for spectral X-ray imaging. A problem using such detectors with small pixels is that the spectral information is distorted by charge sharing. In order to get images with good spectral resolution a number of silicon sensors with a pixel size of 220 {mu}m were fabricated and bonded to a MEDIPIX2 readout chip using only a limited number of pixels on the readout chip. The device was then used in an X-ray microscopy setup to obtain good spatial resolution as well. It is shown that spectral imaging can provide good contrast images of embedded structures by selecting an appropriate energy window.

  10. A brief account of Julius Planer's life and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bilyy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief account of the life and research activities of Julius Planer is presented. Professor Planer is a scientist who lived one and half century ago. However, his studies, in particular, during the years when he headed Department of Anatomy at Universität in Lemberg, nowadays known as the Ivan Franko National University of Lviv in Ukraine, were essential to a modern understanding of liquid crystals. While working at Lviv University, Planer also made several landmark contributions to biomedical science.

  11. Characterization of silicon 3D pixel detectors for the ATLAS Forward Physics experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Paz, I.; Cavallaro, E.; Lange, J. [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies - IFAE, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Grinstein, S. [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies - IFAE, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies - ICREA, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    The ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project aims to measure protons scattered under a small angle from the pp collisions in ATLAS. In order to perform such measurements, a new silicon tracker, together with a time-of-flight detector for pile-up removal, are planned to be installed at ∼210 m from the interaction point and at 2-3 mm from the LHC proton beam. To cope with such configuration and maximize the physics outcome, the tracker has to fulfil three main requirements: endure highly non-uniform radiation doses, due to the very inhomogeneous beam profile, have slim and efficient edges to improve the acceptance of the tracker, and provide good position resolution. Recent laboratory and beam test characterization results of AFP prototypes will be presented. Slim-edged 3D pixel detectors down to 100-200 μm were studied and later non-uniformly irradiated (with a peak fluence of several 10{sup 15} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}) to determine the fulfilment of the AFP requirements. (authors)

  12. Laser Soldering and Thermal Cycling Tests of Monolithic Silicon Pixel Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Strand, Frode Sneve

    2015-01-01

    An ALPIDE-1 monolithic silicon pixel sensor prototype has been laser soldered to a flex printed circuit using a novel interconnection technique using lasers. This technique is to be optimised to ensure stable, good quality connections between the sensor chips and the FPCs. To test the long-term stability of the connections, as well as study the effects on hit thresholds and noise in the sensor, it was thermally cycled in a climate chamber 1200 times. The soldered connections showed good qualities like even melting and good adhesion on pad/flex surfaces, and the chip remained in working condition for 1080 cycles. After this, a few connections failed, having cracks in the soldering tin, rendering the chip unusable. Threshold and noise characteristics seemed stable, except for the noise levels of sector 2 in the chip, for 1000 cycles in a temperature interval of "10^{\\circ}" and "50^{\\circ}" C. Still, further testing with wider temperature ranges and more cycles is needed to test the limitations of the chi...

  13. A Measurement of Lorentz Angle and Spatial Resolution of Radiation Hard Silicon Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelov, I; Hoeferkamp, M; Seidel, S C; Ciocio, A; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Marchesini, R; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Pengg, F X; Richardson, J; Zizka, G; Ackers, M; Fischer, P; Keil, M; Meuser, S; Stockmanns, T; Treis, J; Wermes, N; Gössling, C; Hügging, F G; Wüstenfeld, J; Wunstorf, R; Barberis, D; Beccherle, R; Cervetto, M; Darbo, G; Gagliardi, G; Gemme, C; Morettini, P; Netchaeva, P; Osculati, B; Parodi, F; Rossi, L; Dao, K; Fasching, D; Blanquart, L; Breugnon, P; Calvet, D; Clemens, J C; Delpierre, P A; Hallewell, G D; Laugier, D; Mouthuy, T; Rozanov, A N; Trouilleau, C; Valin, I; Aleppo, M; Andreazza, A; Caccia, M; Lari, T; Meroni, C; Ragusa, F; Troncon, C; Vegni, G; Rohe, T; Boyd, G; Severini, H; Skubic, P L; Snow, J; Sícho, P; Tomasek, L; Vrba, V; Holder, M; Lipka, D; Ziolkowski, M; Cauz, D; D'Auria, S; del Papa, C; Grassman, H; Santi, L; Becks, K H; Gerlach, P; Grah, C; Gregor, I; Harenberg, T; Linder, C

    2002-01-01

    Silicon pixel sensors developed by the ATLAS collaboration to meet LHC requirements and to withstand hadronic irradiation to fluences of up to $10^{15} n_eq/cm^{2}$ have been evaluated using a test beam facility at CERN providing a magnetic field. The Lorentz angle was measured and found to alter from 9.0 deg. before irradiation, when the detectors operated at 150 V bias at B=1.48 T, to 3.1 deg after irradiation and operating at 600 V bias at 1.01 T. In addition to the effect due to magnetic field variation, this change is explained by the variation of the electric field inside the detectors arising from the different bias conditions. The depletion depths of irradiated sensors at various bias voltages were also measured. At 600 V bias 280 micron thick sensors depleted to ~200 micron after irradiation at the design fluence of 1 10^{15} 1 MeV n_eq/cm2 and were almost fully depleted at a fluence of 0.5 * 10^{15} 1 MeV n_eq/cm2. The spatial resolution was measured for angles of incidence between 0 deg and 30 deg....

  14. submitter Commissioning of the Silicon Pixel Detector of ALICE and perspectives for beauty production at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bombonati, Carlo

    The activities carried out within the present work were aimed at the preparation for heavy quarks measurements, thus including the construction and commissioning of the SPD. More in detail, they can be summarised in the following: • Assembly of the silicon pixel sensors on the carbon fibre support. Given its role as a precision tracker, the assembly of the SPD requires the use of specific procedures to ensure a high degree of accuracy. • Tuning and maintenance of the cooling system of the SPD. The SPD power dissipation is of about 1.5 kW. This means that, without cooling, the temperature of the sensors would rise at about 1°C/s. The cooling system is thus of vital importance for the operation of the detector. • Development of a set of tools for the monitoring of the alignment procedures of the ITS and, in particular of the SPD. The misalignment of the detector must be accounted for in the software description of the geometry in order to optimize the spatial resolution. The matching of the geometry with...

  15. Characterization and Performance of Silicon n-in-p Pixel Detectors for the ATLAS Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Weigell, Philipp; Gallrapp, Christian; La Rosa, Alessandro; Macchiolo, Anna; Nisius, Richard; Pernegger, Heinz; Richter, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The existing ATLAS Tracker will be at its functional limit for particle fluences of 10^15 neq/cm^2 (LHC). Thus for the upgrades at smaller radii like in the case of the planned Insertable B-Layer (IBL) and for increased LHC luminosities (super LHC) the development of new structures and materials which can cope with the resulting particle fluences is needed. N-in-p silicon devices are a promising candidate for tracking detectors to achieve these goals, since they are radiation hard, cost efficient and are not type inverted after irradiation. A n-in-p pixel production based on a MPP/HLL design and performed by CiS (Erfurt, Germany) on 300 \\mu m thick Float-Zone material is characterised and the electrical properties of sensors and single chip modules (SCM) are presented, including noise, charge collection efficiencies, and measurements with MIPs as well as an 241Am source. The SCMs are built with sensors connected to the current the ATLAS read-out chip FE-I3. The characterisation has been performed with the ATL...

  16. Development of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderini, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Dipartimento di Fisica E. Fermi, Universitá di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bagolini, A. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); Beccherle, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Pisa (Italy); Bomben, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Università degli studi di Trieste (Italy); INFN-Trieste (Italy); Chauveau, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Giacomini, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); La Rosa, A. [Section de Physique (DPNC), Universitè de Geneve, Geneve (Switzerland); Marchiori, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2016-09-21

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The presentation describes the performance of novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology, some feedback from preliminary results of the first beam test will be discussed.

  17. Development of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderini, G.; Bagolini, A.; Beccherle, R.; Bomben, M.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Chauveau, J.; Giacomini, G.; La Rosa, A.; Marchiori, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2016-09-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The presentation describes the performance of novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology, some feedback from preliminary results of the first beam test will be discussed.

  18. Performance of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00052711; Boscardin, Maurizio; Bosisio, Luciano; Calderini, Giovanni; Chauveau, Jacques; Ducourthial, Audrey; Giacomini, Gabriele; Marchiori, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The paper reports on the performance of novel n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology an overview of the first beam test results will be given.

  19. Production and Characterisation of SLID Interconnected n-in-p Pixel Modules with 75 Micrometer Thin Silicon Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Andricek, L; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R.H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of pixel modules built from 75 micrometer thin silicon sensors and ATLAS read-out chips employing the Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection technology is presented. This technology, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It allows for stacking of different interconnected chip and sensor layers without destroying the already formed bonds. In combination with Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs) this paves the way for vertical integration. Both technologies are combined in a pixel module concept which is the basis for the modules discussed in this paper. Mechanical and electrical parameters of pixel modules employing both SLID interconnections and sensors of 75 micrometer thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tunability, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. Targeting at ...

  20. Optimal scan strategy for mega-pixel and kilo-gray-level OLED-on-silicon microdisplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuan; Ran, Feng; Ji, Weigui; Xu, Meihua; Chen, Zhangjing; Jiang, Yuxi; Shen, Weixin

    2012-06-10

    The digital pixel driving scheme makes the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) microdisplays more immune to the pixel luminance variations and simplifies the circuit architecture and design flow compared to the analog pixel driving scheme. Additionally, it is easily applied in full digital systems. However, the data bottleneck becomes a notable problem as the number of pixels and gray levels grow dramatically. This paper will discuss the digital driving ability to achieve kilogray-levels for megapixel displays. The optimal scan strategy is proposed for creating ultra high gray levels and increasing light efficiency and contrast ratio. Two correction schemes are discussed to improve the gray level linearity. A 1280×1024×3 OLED-on-silicon microdisplay, with 4096 gray levels, is designed based on the optimal scan strategy. The circuit driver is integrated in the silicon backplane chip in the 0.35 μm 3.3 V-6 V dual voltage one polysilicon layer, four metal layers (1P4M) complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process with custom top metal. The design aspects of the optimal scan controller are also discussed. The test results show the gray level linearity of the correction schemes for the optimal scan strategy is acceptable by the human eye.

  1. NOTE: First images of a digital autoradiography system based on a Medipix2 hybrid silicon pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettivier, Giovanni; Montesi, Maria Cristina; Russo, Paolo

    2003-06-01

    We present the first images of beta autoradiography obtained with the high-resolution hybrid pixel detector consisting of the Medipix2 single photon counting read-out chip bump-bonded to a 300 µm thick silicon pixel detector. This room temperature system has 256 × 256 square pixels of 55 µm pitch (total sensitive area of 14 × 14 mm2), with a double threshold discriminator and a 13-bit counter in each pixel. It is read out via a dedicated electronic interface and control software, also developed in the framework of the European Medipix2 Collaboration. Digital beta autoradiograms of 14C microscale standard strips (containing separate bands of increasing specific activity in the range 0.0038-32.9 kBq g-1) indicate system linearity down to a total background noise of 1.8 × 10-3 counts mm-2 s-1. The minimum detectable activity is estimated to be 0.012 Bq for 36 000 s exposure and 0.023 Bq for 10 800 s exposure. The measured minimum detection threshold is less than 1600 electrons (equivalent to about 6 keV Si). This real-time system for beta autoradiography offers lower pixel pitch and higher sensitive area than the previous Medipix1-based system. It has a 14C sensitivity better than that of micro channel plate based systems, which, however, shows higher spatial resolution and sensitive area.

  2. Integrated X-ray and charged particle active pixel CMOS sensor arrays using an epitaxial silicon sensitive region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinfelder, Stuart; Bichsel, Hans; Bieser, Fred; Matis, Howard S.; Rai, Gulshan; Retiere, Fabrice; Weiman, Howard; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2002-07-01

    Integrated CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) arrays have been fabricated and tested using X-ray and electron sources. The 128 by 128 pixel arrays, designed in a standard 0.25 micron process, use a {approx}10 micron epitaxial silicon layer as a deep detection region. The epitaxial layer has a much greater thickness than the surface features used by standard CMOS APS, leading to stronger signals and potentially better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). On the other hand, minority carriers confined within the epitaxial region may diffuse to neighboring pixels, blur images and reduce peak signal intensity. But for low-rate, sparse-event images, centroid analysis of this diffusion may be used to increase position resolution. Careful trade-offs involving pixel size and sense-node area verses capacitance must be made to optimize overall performance. The prototype sensor arrays, therefore, include a range of different pixel designs, including different APS circuits and a range of different epitaxial layer contact structures. The fabricated arrays were tested with 1.5 GeV electrons and Fe-55 X-ray sources, yielding a measured noise of 13 electrons RMS and an SNR for single Fe-55 X-rays of greater than 38.

  3. Optimization of the Radiation Hardness of Silicon Pixel Sensors for High X-ray Doses using TCAD Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Schwandt, J; Klanner, R; Pintilie, I; Zhang, J

    2011-01-01

    The European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) will deliver 27000 fully coherent, high brilliance X-ray pulses per second each with a duration below 100 fs. This will allow the recording of diffraction patterns of single molecules and the study of ultra-fast processes. One of the detector systems under development for the XFEL is the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD), which consists of a pixel array with readout ASICs bump-bonded to a silicon sensor with pixels of 200 {\\mu}m \\times 200 {\\mu}m. The particular requirements for the detector are a high dynamic range (0, 1 up to 10E5 12 keV photons/XFEL-pulse), a fast read-out and radiation tolerance up to doses of 1 GGy of 12 keV X-rays for 3 years of operation. At this X-ray energy no bulk damage in silicon is expected. However fixed oxide charges in the SiO2 layer and interface traps at the Si-SiO2 interface will build up. As function of the 12 keV X-ray dose the microscopic defects in test structures and the macro- scopic electrical properties of...

  4. Neural network based cluster creation in the ATLAS silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The read-out from individual pixels on planar semi-conductor sensors are grouped into clusters to reconstruct the location where a charged particle passed through the sensor. The resolution given by individual pixel sizes is significantly improved by using the information from the charge sharing between pixels. Such analog cluster creation techniques have been used by the ATLAS experiment for many years to obtain an excellent performance. However, in dense environments, such as those inside high-energy jets, clusters have an increased probability of merging the charge deposited by multiple particles. Recently, a neural network based algorithm which estimates both the cluster position and whether a cluster should be split has been developed for the ATLAS Pixel Detector. The algorithm significantly reduces ambiguities in the assignment of pixel detector measurement to tracks within jets and improves the position accuracy with respect to standard interpolation techniques by taking into account the 2-dimensional ...

  5. Neural network based cluster creation in the ATLAS silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Perez Cavalcanti, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The hit signals read out from pixels on planar semi-conductor sensors are grouped into clusters, to reconstruct the location where a charged particle passed through. The resolution of the individual pixel sizes can be improved significantly using the information from the cluster of adjacent pixels. Such analog cluster creation techniques have been used by the ATLAS experiment for many years giving an excellent performance. However, in dense environments, such as those inside high-energy jets, is likely that the charge deposited by two or more close-by tracks merges into one single cluster. A new pattern recognition algorithm based on neural network methods has been developed for the ATLAS Pixel Detector. This can identify the shared clusters, split them if necessary, and estimate the positions of all particles traversing the cluster. The algorithm significantly reduces ambiguities in the assignment of pixel detector measurements to tracks within jets, and improves the positional accuracy with respect to stand...

  6. The ToPiX v4 prototype for the triggerless readout of the PANDA silicon pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, G.; Calvo, D.; De Remigis, P.; Mignone, M.; Olave, J.; Rivetti, A.; Wheadon, R.; Zotti, L.

    2015-01-01

    ToPiX v4 is the prototype for the readout of the silicon pixel sensors for the Micro Vertex Detector of the PANDA experiment. ToPiX provides position, time and energy measurement of the incoming particles and is designed for the triggerless environment foreseen in PANDA. The prototype includes 640 pixels with a size of 100 × 100 μm2, a 160 MHz time stamp distribution circuit to measure both particle arrival time and released energy (via ToT technique) and the full control logic. The ASIC is designed in a 0.13 μm CMOS technology with SEU protection techniques for the digital parts.

  7. The Gigatracker: An ultra-fast and low-mass silicon pixel detector for the NA62 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, M.; Carassiti, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Cortina, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Mapelli, A.; Marchetto, F.; Martin, E.; Martoiu, S.; Mazza, G.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Nuessle, G.; Petrucci, F.; Riedler, P.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Rivetti, A.; Tiuraniemi, S.

    2011-02-01

    The Gigatracker is a hybrid silicon pixel detector developed to track the highly intense NA62 hadron beam with a time resolution of 150 ps (rms). The beam spectrometer of the experiment is composed of three Gigatracker stations installed in vacuum in order to precisely measure momentum, time and direction of every traversing particle. Precise tracking demands a very low mass of the detector assembly ( delay-locked loop based TDC placed at the end of each pixel column and a time-over-threshold discriminator with time-walk correction technique. The current status of the R&D program is overviewed and results from the prototype read-out chips test are presented.

  8. A New Low Temperature Polycrystalline Silicon Thin Film Transistor Pixel Circuit for Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ching-Lin; Lin, Yi-Yan; Chang, Jyu-Yu; Sun, Bo-Jhang; Liu, Yan-Wei

    2010-06-01

    This study presents one novel compensation pixel design and driving method for active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays that use low-temperature polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs) with a voltage feed-back method and the simulation results are proposed and verified by SPICE simulator. The measurement and simulation of LTPS TFT characteristics demonstrate the good fitting result. The proposed circuit consists of four TFTs and two capacitors with an additional signal line. The error rates of OLED anode voltage variation are below 0.3% under the threshold voltage deviation of driving TFT (ΔVTH = ±0.33 V). The simulation results show that the pixel design can improve the display image non-uniformity by compensating the threshold voltage deviation of driving TFT and the degradation of OLED threshold voltage at the same time.

  9. Light prototype support using micro-channel technology as high efficiency system for silicon pixel detector cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosi, F., E-mail: filippo.bosi@pi.infn.it [INFN Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Balestri, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Mammini, P.; Massa, M.; Petragnani, G.; Ragonesi, A.; Soldani, A. [INFN Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-09-11

    The development of micro-scale mechanical systems has been moving rapidly, allowing an opportunity to the semiconductor detectors to have ever more power located on the active region. Miniaturization associated with micro-channel technologies allows the design of micro-system structures that are able to cool silicon pixel detectors with power of the order of some W/cm{sup 2} with thickness less than 0.3% of radiation length. We present the design and thermo-hydraulic test results for low material budget support and cooling obtained through forced liquid convection in micro-channels, developed for the innermost layer (Layer 0) of SuperB silicon vertex tracker.

  10. X-ray radiation damage studies and design of a silicon pixel sensor for science at the XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiaguo

    2013-06-15

    Experiments at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) require silicon pixel sensors which can withstand X-ray doses up to 1 GGy. For the investigation of Xray radiation damage up to these high doses, MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes built on high resistivity n-doped silicon with crystal orientations left angle 100 right angle and left angle 111 right angle produced by four vendors, CiS, Hamamatsu, Canberra and Sintef have been irradiated with 12 keV X-rays at the DESY DORIS III synchrotron-light source. Using capacitance/ conductance-voltage, current-voltage and thermal dielectric relaxation current measurements, the densities of oxide charges and interface traps at the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface, and the surface-current densities have been determined as function of dose. Results indicate that the dose dependence of the oxide-charge density, the interface-trap density and the surface-current density depend on the crystal orientation and producer. In addition, the influence of the voltage applied to the gates of the MOS capacitor and the gate-controlled diode during X-ray irradiation on the oxide-charge density, the interface-trap density and the surface-current density has been investigated at doses of 100 kGy and 100 MGy. It is found that both strongly depend on the gate voltage if the electric field in the oxide points from the surface of the SiO{sub 2} to the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface. To verify the long-term stability of irradiated silicon sensors, annealing studies have been performed at 60 C and 80 C on MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes irradiated to 5 MGy as well, and the annealing kinetics of oxide charges and surface current were determined. Moreover, the macroscopic electrical properties of segmented sensors have slao been investigated as function of dose. It is found that the defects introduced by X-rays increase the full depletion voltage, the surface leakage current and the inter-electrode capacitance of the segmented sensor. An

  11. Production and characterisation of SLID interconnected n-in-p pixel modules with 75 μm thin silicon sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andricek, L. [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 München (Germany); Beimforde, M.; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.-G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Nisius, R., E-mail: Richard.Nisius@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Richter, R.H. [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 München (Germany); Terzo, S.; Weigell, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany)

    2014-09-11

    The performance of pixel modules built from 75 μm thin silicon sensors and ATLAS read-out chips employing the Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection technology is presented. This technology, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It allows for stacking of different interconnected chip and sensor layers without destroying the already formed bonds. In combination with Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs) this paves the way for vertical integration. Both technologies are combined in a pixel module concept which is the basis for the modules discussed in this paper. Mechanical and electrical parameters of pixel modules employing both SLID interconnections and sensors of 75 μm thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tuning characteristics, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. Targeting at a usage at the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC accelerator called HL-LHC, the results were obtained before and after irradiation up to fluences of 10{sup 16}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}.

  12. The Gigatracker: An ultra-fast and low-mass silicon pixel detector for the NA62 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorini, M; Morel, M; Petrucci, F; Marchetto, F; Garbolino, S; Cortina, E; Tiuraniemi, S; Ceccucci, A; Martin, E; Riedler, P; Martoiu, S; Ramusino, A C; Rinella, G A; Mapelli, A; Mazza, G; Noy, M; Jarron, P; Nuessle, G; Dellacasa, G; Kluge, A; Rivetti, A; Kaplon, J

    2011-01-01

    The Gigatracker is a hybrid silicon pixel detector developed to track the highly intense NA62 hadron beam with a time resolution of 150 ps (rms). The beam spectrometer of the experiment is composed of three Gigatracker stations installed in vacuum in order to precisely measure momentum, time and direction of every traversing particle. Precise tracking demands a very low mass of the detector assembly (<0.5\\% X(O) per station) in order to limit multiple scattering and beam hadronic interactions. The high rate and especially the high timing precision requirements are very demanding: two R\\&D options are ongoing and the corresponding prototype read-out chips have been recently designed and produced in 0.13 mu m CMOS technology. One solution makes use of a constant fraction discriminator and on-pixel analogue-based time-to-digital-converter (TDC); the other comprises a delay-locked loop based TDC placed at the end of each pixel column and a time-over-threshold discriminator with time-walk correction techniq...

  13. The Gigatracker: An ultra-fast and low-mass silicon pixel detector for the NA62 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorini, M., E-mail: Massimiliano.Fiorini@cern.c [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Carassiti, V. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Ceccucci, A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cortina, E. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Cotta Ramusino, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S. [INFN Sezione di Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mapelli, A. [EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Marchetto, F. [INFN Sezione di Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Martin, E. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Martoiu, S.; Mazza, G. [INFN Sezione di Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Morel, M.; Noy, M. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Nuessle, G. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Petrucci, F. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Riedler, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2011-02-01

    The Gigatracker is a hybrid silicon pixel detector developed to track the highly intense NA62 hadron beam with a time resolution of 150 ps (rms). The beam spectrometer of the experiment is composed of three Gigatracker stations installed in vacuum in order to precisely measure momentum, time and direction of every traversing particle. Precise tracking demands a very low mass of the detector assembly (<0.5% X{sub 0} per station) in order to limit multiple scattering and beam hadronic interactions. The high rate and especially the high timing precision requirements are very demanding: two R and D options are ongoing and the corresponding prototype read-out chips have been recently designed and produced in 0.13{mu}m CMOS technology. One solution makes use of a constant fraction discriminator and on-pixel analogue-based time-to-digital-converter (TDC); the other comprises a delay-locked loop based TDC placed at the end of each pixel column and a time-over-threshold discriminator with time-walk correction technique. The current status of the R and D program is overviewed and results from the prototype read-out chips test are presented.

  14. Vectors and submicron precision: redundancy and 3D stacking in silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, E H M; Wong, W; Idarraga, J; Visser, J; Jakubek, J; Leroy, C; Turecek, D; Visschers, J; Pospisil, S; Ballabriga, R; Vykydal, Z; Vermeulen, J; Plackett, R; Heijne, E H M; Llopart, X; Boltje, D; Campbell, M

    2010-01-01

    Measurements are shown of GeV pions and muons in two 300 mu m thick, Si Medipix pixel detector assemblies that are stacked on top of each other, with a 25 mu m thick brass foil in between. In such a radiation imaging semiconductor matrix with a large number of pixels along the particle trail, one can determine local space vectors for the particle trajectory instead of points. This improves pattern recognition and track reconstruction, especially in a crowded environment. Stacking of sensor planes is essential for resolving directional ambiguities. Signal charge sharing can be employed for measuring positions with submicron precision. In the measurements one notices accompanying `delta' electrons that emerge outside the particle trail, far beyond the boundaries of the 55 mu m pixel cells. The frequency of such corrupted position measurements is similar to one per 2.5mm of traversed Si.

  15. Overview of Silicon Pixel Sensor Development for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL)

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost part of the ATLAS tracking system and is critical for track and vertex reconstruction. In order to preserve the tracking performance notwithstanding the increasing instantaneous luminosity delivered by the LHC, ATLAS plans to introduce a new pixel layer (IBL) mounted directly on a reduced diameter beam pipe. The IBL will have to sustain an estimated radiation dose, including safety factors, of $5 imes 10^{15}$~n$_{eq}$/cm$^2$. Two sensor technologies are currently being considered for the IBL, planar n-on-n slim edge and 3D double sided designs. Results of the characterization, irradiation and beam test studies of IBL pixel devices are presented.

  16. The First JFET-based Silicon Carbide Active Pixel Sensor UV Imager Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) imaging is critically important in the fields of space astronomy, national defense, and bio-chemistry. United Silicon Carbide, Inc....

  17. The First JFET-Based Silicon Carbide Active Pixel Sensor UV Imager Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) imaging is needed in the fields of astronomy, national defense, and bio-chemistry. United Silicon Carbide, Inc. proposes to develop a...

  18. Mass test of AdvanSiD model ASD-NUV3S-P SiliconPMs for the Pixel Timing Counter of the MEG II experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossella, M.; Bariani, S.; Barnaba, O.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cervi, T.; Menegolli, A.; Nardò, R.; Prata, M. C.; Romano, E.; Scagliotti, C.; Simonetta, M.; Vercellati, F.

    2017-02-01

    The MEG II Timing Counter will measure the positron time of arrival with a resolution of 30 ps relying on two arrays of scintillator pixels read out by 6144 Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) from AdvanSiD. They must be characterized, measuring their breakdown voltage, to assure that the gains of the SiPMs of each pixel are as uniform as possible, to maximize the pixel resolution. To do this an automatic test system that can measure sequentially the parameters of 32 devices has been developed.

  19. DEPFET: A silicon pixel detector for future colliders. Fundamentals, characterization and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Marinas Pardo, Carlos Manuel; Vos, Marcel Andre

    2011-01-01

    The future electron-positron colliders, either breaking the energy frontier (like ILC or CLIC) or the luminosity frontier (SuperKEKB), impose unprecedented constraints over the new generation of detectors that will be operated in those facilities. In particular, the vertex detectors must be designed for an efficient flavour tagging and excellent vertex reconstruction. To cope with these requirements, highly pixelated sensors with a fast readout, very low material budget and low power consumption must be developed. Although the combination of these factors is a substantial challenge, the DEPFET Collaboration has developed a new generation of sensors that can be operated in such a harsh environment. The DEpleted P-channel Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) is a pixel sensor that combines detection and internal amplification at the same time. With such configuration, thin detectors with good signal-to-noise ratio and low power consumption can be produced. In this thesis, the optimization and performance of two gen...

  20. Evaluation of the breakdown behaviour of ATLAS silicon pixel sensors after partial guard-ring removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessling, C.; Klingenberg, R. [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Muenstermann, D., E-mail: Daniel.Muenstermann@TU-Dortmund.d [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Wittig, T. [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-12-11

    To avoid geometrical inefficiencies in the ATLAS pixel detector, the concept of shingling is used up to now in the barrel section. For the upgrades of ATLAS, it is desired to avoid this as it increases the volume and material budget of the pixel layers and complicates the cooling. A direct planar edge-to-edge arrangement of pixel modules has not been possible in the past due to about 1100{mu}m of inactive edge composed of approximately 600{mu}m of guard rings and 500{mu}m of safety margin. In this work, the safety margin and guard rings of ATLAS SingleChip sensors were cut at different positions using a standard diamond dicing saw and irradiated afterwards to explore the breakdown behaviour and the leakage current development. It is found that the inactive edge can be reduced to about 400{mu}m of guard rings with almost no reduction in pre-irradiation testability and leakage current performance. This is in particular important for the insertable b-layer upgrade of ATLAS (IBL) where inactive edges of less than 450{mu}m width are required.

  1. Theoretical investigation of the noise performance of active pixel imaging arrays based on polycrystalline silicon thin film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniczek, Martin; Antonuk, Larry E; El-Mohri, Youcef; Liang, Albert K; Zhao, Qihua

    2017-07-01

    Active matrix flat-panel imagers, which typically incorporate a pixelated array with one a-Si:H thin-film transistor (TFT) per pixel, have become ubiquitous by virtue of many advantages, including large monolithic construction, radiation tolerance, and high DQE. However, at low exposures such as those encountered in fluoroscopy, digital breast tomosynthesis and breast computed tomography, DQE is degraded due to the modest average signal generated per interacting x-ray relative to electronic additive noise levels of ~1000 e, or greater. A promising strategy for overcoming this limitation is to introduce an amplifier into each pixel, referred to as the active pixel (AP) concept. Such circuits provide in-pixel amplification prior to readout as well as facilitate correlated multiple sampling, enhancing signal-to-noise and restoring DQE at low exposures. In this study, a methodology for theoretically investigating the signal and noise performance of imaging array designs is introduced and applied to the case of AP circuits based on low-temperature polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si), a semiconductor suited to manufacture of large area, radiation tolerant arrays. Computer simulations employing an analog circuit simulator and performed in the temporal domain were used to investigate signal characteristics and major sources of electronic additive noise for various pixel amplifier designs. The noise sources include photodiode shot noise and resistor thermal noise, as well as TFT thermal and flicker noise. TFT signal behavior and flicker noise were parameterized from fits to measurements performed on individual poly-Si test TFTs. The performance of three single-stage and three two-stage pixel amplifier designs were investigated under conditions relevant to fluoroscopy. The study assumes a 20 × 20 cm(2) , 150 μm pitch array operated at 30 fps and coupled to a CsI:Tl x-ray converter. Noise simulations were performed as a function of operating conditions, including

  2. Development of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Calderini, G; Bomben, M; Boscardin, M; Bosisio, L; Chauveau, J; Giacomini, G; La Rosa, A; Marchiori, G; Zorzi, N

    2014-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade for the high luminosity phase (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment is planning to replace the inner detector with an all-silicon system. The n-in-p bulk technology represents a valid solution for the modules of most of the layers, given the significant radiation hardness of this option and the reduced cost. The large area necessary to instrument the outer layers will demand to tile the sensors, a solution for which the inefficient region at the border of each sensor needs to be reduced to the minimum size. This paper reports on a joint R&D project by the ATLAS LPNHE Paris group and FBK Trento on a novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel design, based on the deep-trench process available at FBK.

  3. Investigation of properties of novel silicon pixel assemblies employing thin n-in-p sensors and 3D-integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigell, Philipp

    2013-01-15

    Until the end of the 2020 decade the LHC programme will be defining the high energy frontier of particle physics. During this time, three upgrade steps of the accelerator are currently planned to further increase the luminosity and energy reach. In the course of these upgrades the specifications of several parts of the current LHC detectors will be exceeded. Especially, the innermost tracking detectors are challenged by the increasing track densities and the radiation damage. This thesis focuses on the implications for the ATLAS experiment. Here, around 2021/2, after having collected an integrated luminosity of around 300 fb{sup -1}, the silicon and gas detector components of the inner tracker will reach the end of their lifetime and will need to be replaced to ensure sufficient performance for continued running - especially if the luminosity is raised to about 5 x 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} as currently planned. An all silicon inner detector is foreseen to be installed. This upgrade demands cost effective pixel assemblies with a minimal material budget, a larger active area fraction as compared to the current detectors, and a higher granularity. Furthermore, the assemblies must be able to withstand received fluences up to 2 . 10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. A new pixel assembly concept answering the challenges posed by the high instantaneous luminosities is investigated in this thesis. It employs five novel technologies, namely n-in-p pixel sensors, thin pixel sensors, slim edges with or without implanted sensor sides, and 3D-integration incorporating a new interconnection technology, named Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) as well as Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs). n-in-p sensors are cost-effective, since they only need patterned processing on one side. Their performance before and after irradiation is investigated and compared to results obtained with currently used n-in-n sensors. Reducing the thickness of the sensors lowers the amount of multiple scattering

  4. 3D silicon sensors: Design, large area production and quality assurance for the ATLAS IBL pixel detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Via, Cinzia [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco, E-mail: dallabe@disi.unitn.it [DISI, Universita degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Darbo, Giovanni [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-14146 Genova (Italy); Fleta, Celeste [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona E-08193 (Spain); Gemme, Claudia [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-14146 Genova (Italy); Grenier, Philippe [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Grinstein, Sebastian [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE) and ICREA, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Hansen, Thor-Erik [SINTEF MiNaLab, Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Chris [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kok, Angela [SINTEF MiNaLab, Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); Parker, Sherwood [University of Hawaii, c/o Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Pellegrini, Giulio [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona E-08193 (Spain); Vianello, Elisa; Zorzi, Nicola [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy)

    2012-12-01

    3D silicon sensors, where electrodes penetrate the silicon substrate fully or partially, have successfully been fabricated in different processing facilities in Europe and USA. The key to 3D fabrication is the use of plasma micro-machining to etch narrow deep vertical openings allowing dopants to be diffused in and form electrodes of pin junctions. Similar openings can be used at the sensor's edge to reduce the perimeter's dead volume to as low as {approx}4 {mu}m. Since 2009 four industrial partners of the 3D ATLAS R and D Collaboration started a joint effort aimed at one common design and compatible processing strategy for the production of 3D sensors for the LHC Upgrade and in particular for the ATLAS pixel Insertable B-Layer (IBL). In this project, aimed for installation in 2013, a new layer will be inserted as close as 3.4 cm from the proton beams inside the existing pixel layers of the ATLAS experiment. The detector proximity to the interaction point will therefore require new radiation hard technologies for both sensors and front end electronics. The latter, called FE-I4, is processed at IBM and is the biggest front end of this kind ever designed with a surface of {approx}4 cm{sup 2}. The performance of 3D devices from several wafers was evaluated before and after bump-bonding. Key design aspects, device fabrication plans and quality assurance tests during the 3D sensors prototyping phase are discussed in this paper.

  5. The upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System - Status of the R&D; on monolithic silicon pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem

    2014-01-01

    s a major part of its upgrade plans, the ALICE experiment schedules the installation of a novel Inner Tracking System (ITS) during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in 2018/19. It will replace the present silicon tracker with seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) and significantly improve the detector performance in terms of tracking and rate capabilities. The choice of technology has been guided by the tight requirements on the material budget of 0 : 3 % X = X 0 /layer for the three innermost layers and backed by the significant progress in the field of MAPS in recent years. The pixel chips are manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging sensor process on wafers with a high resistivity epitaxial layer. Within the ongoing R&D; phase, several sensor chip prototypes have been developed and produced on different epitaxial layer thicknesses and resistivities. These chips are being characterized for their performance before and after irradiation using source tests, test beam and measu...

  6. Beam Test Characterization of CMS Silicon Pixel Detectors for the Phase-1 Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Korol, Ievgen

    2015-01-01

    a reduced diameter beam pipe, as compared to the present three layer pixel detector in the central region. A new digital version of the front-end readout chip has been designed and tested; it has increased data buffering and readout link speed to maintain high efficiency at increasing occupancy. In addition, it offers lower charge thresholds that will improve the tracking efficiency and position resolution.\\\\ Single chip modules have been evaluated in the DESY electron test beam in terms of charge collection, noise, tracking effici...

  7. Characterisation of micro-strip and pixel silicon detectors before and after hadron irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Allport, P.P

    2012-01-01

    The use of segmented silicon detectors for tracking and vertexing in particle physics has grown substantially since their introduction in 1980. It is now anticipated that roughly 50,000 six inch wafers of high resistivity silicon will need to be processed into sensors to be deployed in the upgraded experiments in the future high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) at CERN. These detectors will also face an extremely severe radiation environment, varying with distance from the interaction point. The volume of required sensors is large and their delivery is required during a relatively short time, demanding a high throughput from the chosen suppliers. The current situation internationally, in this highly specialist market, means that security of supply for large orders can therefore be an issue and bringing additional potential vendors into the field can only be an advantage. Semiconductor companies that could include planar sensors suitable for particle physics in their product lines will, however, need to prove their pro...

  8. Microchannel cooling in low material budget supports for silicon pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestri, G. [INFN Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56010 Pisa (Italy); Bosi, F., E-mail: filippo.bosi@pi.infn.i [INFN Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56010 Pisa (Italy); Ceccanti, M.; Mammini, P.; Massa, M.; Petragnani, G.; Ragonesi, A.; Soldani, A. [INFN Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56010 Pisa (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    Pixel detectors at future colliders will need to match very stringent requirement on position resolution. To ensure the needed mechanical stability and the removal of the power dissipated by the read-out electronic, the support structure and cooling add an important contribution to the total material in the active area, in terms of radiation length. We present the development, the construction and the mechanical-thermal characterization of prototypes of light material support for pixel detectors with microchannel for heat evacuation through forced convection of liquid coolant. The solution we choose shows several advantages: heat exchange is taking place efficiently due to the high ratio surface/volume and so high thermal conductivities can be obtained, minimally affecting the stiffness of the structure; the thermal resistances are reduced because of the contiguity between the fluid and the circuit dissipating power; the uniformity of temperature on the surface covered by of the sensors is also kept under control. Several prototypes implementing different geometries of micro-machined channels have been realized in composites materials (CFRP). FEA studies have been performed to validated the experimental test conducted in the thermo-fluid dynamic test bench we recently assembled in the INFN Pisa laboratory.

  9. Investigation of Properties of Novel Silicon Pixel Assemblies Employing Thin n-in-p Sensors and 3D-Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Weigell, Philipp

    Until the end of the 2020 decade the LHC programme will be defining the high energy frontier of particle physics. During this time, three upgrade steps of the accelerator are currently planned to further increase the luminosity and energy reach. In the course of these upgrades the specifications of several parts of the current LHC detectors will be exceeded. Especially, the innermost tracking detectors are challenged by the increasing track densities and the radiation damage. This thesis focuses on the implications for the ATLAS experiment. Here, around 2021/2, after having collected an integrated luminosity of around 300/fb¹ , the silicon and gas detector components of the inner tracker will reach the end of their lifetime and will need to be replaced to ensure sufficient performance for continued running|especially if the luminosity is raised to about 5x10^35/(cm²s¹ ) as currently planned. An all silicon inner detector is foreseen to be installed. This upgrade demands cost-effective pixel assemblies with...

  10. Preliminary test results of a new high-energy-resolution silicon and CdZnTe pixel detectors for application to x-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushkov, V. V.; Hamilton, William J.; Hurley, Kevin; Maeding, Dale G.; Ogelman, Hakki; Paulos, Robert J.; Puetter, Richard C.; Tumer, Tumay O.; Zweerink, Jeffrey

    1999-10-01

    New, high spatial resolution CdZnTe (CZT) and silicon (Si) pixel detectors are highly suitable for x-ray astronomy. These detectors are planned for use in wide field of view, imaging x-ray, and low energy gamma-ray all-sky monitor (AXGAM) in a future space mission. The high stopping power of CZT detectors combined with low-noise front-end readout makes possible an order of magnitude improvement in spatial and energy resolution in x-ray detection. The AXGAM instrument will be built in the form of a fine coded aperture placed over two-dimensional, high spatial resolution and low energy threshold CZT pixel detector array. The preliminary result of CZT and silicon pixel detector test with low-noise readout electronics system are presented. These detectors may also be used with or without modification for medical and industrial imaging.

  11. A neural network clustering algorithm for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire, Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    A novel technique to identify and split clusters created by multiple charged particles in the ATLAS pixel detector using a set of artificial neural networks is presented. Such merged clusters are a common feature of tracks originating from highly energetic objects, such as jets. Neural networks are trained using Monte Carlo samples produced with a detailed detector simulation. This technique replaces the former clustering approach based on a connected component analysis and charge interpolation. The performance of the neural network splitting technique is quantified using data from proton-proton collisions at the LHC collected by the ATLAS detector in 2011 and from Monte Carlo simulations. This technique reduces the number of clusters shared between tracks in highly energetic jets by up to a factor of three. It also provides more precise position and error estimates of the clusters in both the transverse and longitudinal impact parameter resolution.

  12. Novel Multi-pixel Silicon Photon Detectors and Applications in T2K

    CERN Document Server

    Beznosko, Dmitriy

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, numerous fields such as High Energy Physics (HEP), medical imaging devices, portable radiation detectors etc., require a robust, miniature, reliable and readily available photon detector that is stable in a variety of environments, such as the presence of strong magnetic fields. The recently available $\\sim$1mm$^{\\textrm{2}}$ active area Multi-pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) sensors, produced by Hamamatsu Photonics, have been found to be reliable and an attractive choice for the HEP applications. The following sensor characteristics have been thoroughly tested by T2K collaboration: gain, dark noise, detection efficiency, reliability. These appear to be stable; in addition, the characteristic spread between numerous devices was assessed. Sensors with larger area are being developed for imaging and direct-to-scintillator coupling purposes.

  13. Performance of CMS 3D silicon pixel detectors before and after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obertino, M., E-mail: margherita.obertino@cern.ch [Università del Piemonte Orientale, Novara, and INFN, Torino (Italy); Solano, A. [Università di Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Alagoz, E. [Physics Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Andresen, J. [University of Colorado, Boulder (United States); Arndt, K.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D. [Physics Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Boscardin, M. [Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Povo di Trento (Italy); Brosius, R. [SUNY, Buffalo (United States); Bubna, M. [Physics Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [INFN Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) and Università di Trento, Povo di Trento (Italy); Jensen, F. [University of Colorado, Boulder (United States); Krzywda, A. [Physics Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Kumar, A. [SUNY, Buffalo (United States); Kwan, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Lei, C.M. [University of Colorado, Boulder (United States); Menasce, D.; Moroni, L. [INFN Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Ngadiuba, J. [Università di Milano Bicocca and INFN, Milano (Italy); Osipenkov, I. [Texas A and M University, TX (United States); and others

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) silicon detectors are emerging as one of the most promising technologies for the innermost layers of tracking devices for the foreseen upgrades of the LHC. 3D sensors compatible with the CMS readout, fabricated at FBK (Trento, Italy), were tested in the laboratory and with a 120 GeV/c proton beam at the FNAL test beam facility, before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 3.5×10{sup 15}neq/cm{sup 2}. Preliminary results of the data analysis are presented. -- Highlights: •3D characterized in laboratory, tested with beam and irradiated with 800 MeV protons. •Leakage current: few hundred nA before irradiation, ∼10 μA after irradiation. •Depletion voltage: 20 V. Breakdown voltage: 25–35 V, not increasing after irradiation. •Efficiency: 97.5%, increasing when tilting sensors with respect to the beam. •Radiation effect: lower efficiency and lower collected charge.

  14. Prototype of the front-end circuit for the GOSSIP (Gas On Slimmed Silicon Pixel) chip in the 0.13 μm CMOS technology

    CERN Document Server

    Gromov, V; van der Graaf, H

    2007-01-01

    The new GOSSIP detector, capable to detect single electrons in gas, has certain advantages with respect silicon (pixel) detectors. It does not require a Si sensor; it has a very low detector parasitic capacitance and a zero bias current at the pixel input. These are attractive features to design a compact, low-noise and low-power integrated input circuit. A prototype of the integrated circuit has been developed in 0.13 μm CMOS technology. It includes a few channels equipped with preamplifier, discriminator and the digital circuit to study the feasibility of the TDC-perpixel concept. The design demonstrates very low input referred noise (60e- RMS) in combination with a fast peaking time (40 ns) and an analog power dissipation as low as 2 μW per channel. Switching activity on the clock bus (up to 100 MHz) in the close vicinity of the pixel input pads does not cause noticeable extra noise.

  15. A bio-inspired analog silicon retina with Michaelis-Menten auto-adaptive pixels sensitive to small and large changes in light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafrica, Stefano; Godiot, Stéphanie; Menouni, Mohsine; Boyron, Marc; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Marchand, Nicolas; Ruffier, Franck; Viollet, Stéphane

    2015-03-09

    In this paper, we present: (i) a novel analog silicon retina featuring auto-adaptive pixels that obey the Michaelis-Menten law, i.e. V=V(m) I(n)/I(n)+σ(n); (ii) a method of characterizing silicon retinas, which makes it possible to accurately assess the pixels' response to transient luminous changes in a ±3-decade range, as well as changes in the initial steady-state intensity in a 7-decade range. The novel pixel, called M(2)APix, which stands for Michaelis-Menten Auto-Adaptive Pixel, can auto-adapt in a 7-decade range and responds appropriately to step changes up to ±3 decades in size without causing any saturation of the Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) transistors. Thanks to the intrinsic properties of the Michaelis-Menten equation, the pixel output always remains within a constant limited voltage range. The range of the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) was therefore adjusted so as to obtain a Least Significant Bit (LSB) voltage of 2.35mV and an effective resolution of about 9 bits. The results presented here show that the M(2)APix produced a quasi-linear contrast response once it had adapted to the average luminosity. Differently to what occurs in its biological counterparts, neither the sensitivity to changes in light nor the contrast response of the M(2)APix depend on the mean luminosity (i.e. the ambient lighting conditions). Lastly, a full comparison between the M(2)APix and the Delbrück auto-adaptive pixel is provided.

  16. Beam-test results of 4k pixel CMOS MAPS and high resistivity striplet detectors equipped with digital sparsified readout in the Slim5 low mass silicon demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, M., E-mail: villa@bo.infn.i [Universita degli Studi di Bologna and INFN-Bologna (Italy); Bruschi, M.; Di Sipio, R.; Fabbri, L.; Giacobbe, B.; Gabrielli, A.; Giorgi, F.; Pellegrini, G.; Sbarra, C.; Semprini, N.; Spighi, R.; Valentinetti, S.; Zoccoli, A. [Universita degli Studi di Bologna and INFN-Bologna (Italy); Avanzini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Calderini, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Cenci, R. [Universita degli Studi di Pisa and INFN-Pisa (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    The results obtained by the Slim5 collaboration on a low material budget tracking silicon demonstrator put on a 12 GeV/c proton test beam at CERN are reported. Inside a reference telescope, two different and innovative detectors were placed for careful tests. The first was a 4k-Pixel Matrix of Deep N Well MAPS, developed in a 130 nm CMOS Technology, square pixels 50{mu}m wide, thinned down to 100{mu}m and equipped with a digital sparsified readout running up to 50 MHz. The other was a high resistivity double sided silicon detector, 200{mu}m thick, with short strips with 50{mu}m pitch at 45{sup 0} angle to the detector's edge. The detectors were equipped with dedicated fast readout architectures performing on-chip data sparsification and providing the timing information for the hits. The criteria followed in the design of the pixel sensor and of the pixel readout architecture will be reviewed. Preliminary measurements of the pixel charge collection, track detection efficiencies and resolutions of pixel and strip sensors are discussed. The data driven architecture of the readout chips has been fully exploited in the test beam by a data acquisition system able to collect on electronic board up to 2.5 Million events per second before triggering. By using a dedicated Associative Memory board, we were able to perform a level 1 trigger system, with minimal latency, identifying cleanly tracks traversing the detectors. System architecture and main performances are shown.

  17. Conception and modelling of photo-detection pixels. PIN photodiodes conceived in amorphous silicon for particles detection; Conception et modelisation de pixels de photodetection: Photodiodes PIN en silicium amorphe en vue de leurs utilisations comme detecteurs de particules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negru, R

    2008-06-15

    The research done has revealed that the a-Si:H is a material ideally suited for the detection of particles, while being resistant to radiation. It also has a low manufacturing cost, is compatible with existing technology and can be deposited over large areas. Thus, despite the low local mobility of charges (30 cm{sup 2}/V/s), a-Si:H is a material of particular interest for manufacturing high-energy particle detection pixels. As a consequence of this, we have studied the feasibility of an experimental pixel stacked structure based on a-Si:H as a basic sensor element for an electromagnetic calorimeter. The structure of such a pixel consists of different components. First, a silicon PIN diode in a-Si:H is fabricated, followed by a bias resistor and a decoupling capacitor. Before such a structure is made and in order to optimize its design, it is essential to have an efficient behavioural model of the various components. Thus, our primary goal was to develop a two-dimensional physical model of the PIN diode using the SILVACO finite element calculation software. This a-Si:H PIN diode two-dimensional physical model allowed us to study the problem of crosstalk between pixels in a matrix structure of detectors. In particular, we concentrated on the leakage current and the current generated in the volume between neighbouring pixels. The successful implementation of this model in SPICE ensures its usefulness in other professional simulators and especially its integration into a complete electronic structure (PIN diode, bias resistor, decoupling capacity and low noise amplifier). Thanks to these modelling tools, we were able to simulate PIN diode structures in a-Si:H with different thicknesses and different dimensions. These simulations have allowed us to predict that the thicker structures are relevant to the design of the pixel detectors for high energy physics. Applications in astronomy, medical imaging and the analysis of the failure of silicon integrated circuits, can

  18. Mr. Lorenzo Dellai, presidente della provincia Autonoma di Trento and Professor Andrea Zanotti, president dell'Instituto Trentino di Cultura, visit ALICE experiment underground area and Pixel Silicon Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    Mr. Lorenzo Dellai, presidente della provincia Autonoma di Trento and Professor Andrea Zanotti, president dell'Instituto Trentino di Cultura, visit ALICE experiment underground area and Pixel Silicon Laboratory

  19. Modeling the Effect of P-N Junction Depth on the Output of Planer and Rectangular Textured Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jahanshah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: High cost of the solar cells is one of the important limitations in extensively using of the photovoltaic panels. Thin monocrystalline silicon solar cell could be reduce the cost but lost the absorption efficiency. Surface texturing help to enhance absorption. Using of advance texturing by diffraction grating was suggested for high absorption. It is necessary to investigate the scattering effect of diffraction grating with other solar cell parameter for optimization. In first step we concentrate on p-n junction position impact by modeling. Approach: The effect of position of p-n junction on the output current for both micro rectangular texturing and planer surface in solar cell has been investigated by ray tracing. Modeling of nine pairs solar cells with the same texture and planer surfaces but with different p-n junction position are done by using Atlas software. The output short current is a criterion for determining of efficiency performance. By comparing of the short current for each pair we was find the impacts of texturing and p-n junction depth on the monocrystalline thin film. Results: Light scattering due to diffraction grating inside the silicon with rectangular depth of 5 µm and a range of 5-40 µm p-n junction depths are investigated. The difference of short current in textured to bare silicon showed the enhancement from 4-8 µA when the p-n junction depths vary from 5-45 µm. Conclusions: Comparison of short current output confirms the correlation between p-n junction depth and texturing. Advanced texturing improve the solar cell efficiency but the effectiveness change with the p-n junction depth and need a simultaneous optimization for getting the high efficiency solar cell.

  20. Performance of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon Pixel readout for Cherenkov ring detection

    CERN Document Server

    Alemi, M; Bibby, J H; Campbell, M; Duane, A; Easo, S; Gys, Thierry; Halley, A W; Piedigrossi, D; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E; Simmons, B; Snoeys, W; Websdale, David M; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, Ken H

    1999-01-01

    We report on the first test beam performance of a hybrid photon detector prototype, using binary readout electronics, intended for use in the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The detector has been installed in a quarter-scale prototype vessel of the LHCb ring imaging Cherenkov system. Focussed ring images produced by 120 GeV/c negative pions traversing an air radiator have been recorded. The observed light yield and Cherenkov angle resolution are discussed.

  1. Performance of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon pixel readout for Cherenkov ring detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alemi, M.; Barber, G.; Bibby, J.; Campbell, M.; Duane, A.; Easo, S.; Gys, T.; Halley, A.; Piedigrossi, D.; Puertolas, D.; Rosso, E.; Simmons, B.; Snoeys, W.; Websdale, D.; Wotton, S.; Wyllie, K

    1999-08-01

    We report on the first test beam performance of a hybrid photon detector prototype, using binary readout electronics, intended for use in the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The detector has been installed in a quarter-scale prototype vessel of the LHCb ring imaging Cherenkov system. Focussed ring images produced by 120 GeV/c negative pions traversing an air radiator have been recorded. The observed light yield and Cherenkov angle resolution are discussed.

  2. Pixel structures to compensate nonuniform threshold voltage and mobility of polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors using subthreshold current for large-size active matrix organic light-emitting diode displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jun-Seok; Kwon, Oh-Kyong

    2014-01-01

    We propose pixel structures for large-size and high-resolution active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays using a polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistor (TFT) backplane. The proposed pixel structures compensate the variations of the threshold voltage and mobility of the driving TFT using the subthreshold current. The simulated results show that the emission current error of the proposed pixel structure B ranges from -2.25 to 2.02 least significant bit (LSB) when the variations of the threshold voltage and mobility of the driving TFT are ±0.5 V and ±10%, respectively.

  3. Study and Development of a novel Silicon Pixel Detector for the Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    van Hoorn, Jacobus Willem; Riedler, Petra

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the heavy-ion experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As an important part of its upgrade plans, the ALICE experiment schedules the installation of a new Inner Tracking System (ITS) during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in 2019/20. The new ITS will consist of seven concentric layers, covering about 10m2 with Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). This choice of technology has been guided by the tight requirements on the material budget of 0.3 % x/X0 per layer for the three innermost layers and backed by the significant progress in the field of MAPS in recent years. The pixel chips are manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS process on wafers with a high-resistivity epitaxial layer on top of the substrate. During the R&D phase several chip architectures have been investigated, which take full advantage of a particular process feature, the deep p-well, that allows for full CMOS circuitry within the pixel matrix while retaining full charge colle...

  4. First detective quantum efficiency measurement of 500 {mu}m silicon hybrid pixel sensor with photon counting readout for X-ray medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surre, Benjamin [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France)]. E-mail: Benjamin.surre@u-clermontl.fr; Caria, Mario [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Chaput, Julien [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Hassoun, Thierry [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Laverroux, Fabien [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Sarry, Laurent [Equipe de Recherche en Signal et Imagerie Medicale, EA3295, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2005-07-01

    We report the performances of a 500 {mu}m pixellated silicon sensor bonded to the photon counting chip Medipix2 [1]. In order to perform an absolute characterization of our detector, we measured both the pre-sampling MTF and NPS with respect to the International standard IEC-62220-1. From those data we have been able to extract the Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) and hence to assess the suitability of our detector for X-ray medical imaging purpose. Due to poor absorption of the Si at 70 kV the DQE peaked at 0.06 for null frequency. Nevertheless, these results are very promising since thicker Si or more absorbing material such as GaAs will soon be available.

  5. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  6. Development of an Ultrahigh Resolution Block Detector Based on 0.4 mm Pixel Ce:GAGG Scintillators and a Silicon Photomultiplier Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Yeom, Jung Yeol; Kamada, Kei; Endo, Takanori; Levin, Craig S.

    2013-12-01

    Ce doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (Ce:GAGG) is a newly developed single-crystal scintillator which has a large light output and longer emission light wavelength. The longer wavelength of the scintillation photons will produce a larger signal when coupled to typical silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) as the quantum efficiency of semiconductor based photodetector is generally higher for light with longer wavelength. A block detector with higher spatial resolution may thus be realized by combining Ce:GAGG with Si-PM arrays. To achieve the highest possible spatial resolution for PET and SPECT detectors, we developed an ultrahigh resolution block detector using 0.4 mm × 0.4 mm × 5 mm Ce:GAGG pixels assembled to form a 24 × 24 matrix that is coupled to an Si-PM array and evaluated the performance. All Ce:GAGG pixels were separated in the 2-dimensional position histograms for Cs-137 (662 keV) gamma photons with an average peak-to-valley (P/V) ratio of 2.4. The energy resolution was 21.6% FWHM for Cs-137 (662 keV) and 23.8% for Co-57 (122 keV) gamma photons. Since Ce:GAGG does not contain naturally occurring radioisotope (Lu), beta-gamma true coincidences can be avoided and randoms are reduced when used for PET detectors. Furthermore, this property, together with its high light output and good intrinsic energy resolution, make the scintillator suited for SPECT detectors. An ultrahigh resolution PET/SPECT hybrid system might be an interesting application using Ce:GAGG/Si-PM block detectors.

  7. Pixel Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Augustesen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Pixel Experiments The term pixel is traditionally defined as any of the minute elements that together constitute a larger context or image. A pixel has its own form and is the smallest unit seen within a larger structure. In working with the potentials of LED technology in architectural lighting...... design it became relevant to investigate the use of LEDs as the physical equivalent of a pixel as a design approach. In this book our interest has been in identifying how the qualities of LEDs can be used in lighting applications. With experiences in the planning and implementation of architectural...... elucidate and exemplify already well-known problems in relation to the experience of vertical and horizontal lighting. Pixel Experiments exist as a synergy between speculative test setups and lighting design in practice. This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research...

  8. ATLAS ITk Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gemme, Claudia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) in 2026 will provide new challenge to the ATLAS tracker. The current inner detector will be replaced with a whole silicon tracker which will consist of a five barrel layer Pixel detector surrounded by a four barrel layer Strip detector. The expected high radiation level are requiring the development of upgraded silicon sensors as well as new a front-end chip. The dense tracking environment will require finer granularity detectors. The data rates will require new technologies for high bandwidth data transmission and handling. The current status of the HL-LHC ATLA Pixel detector developments as well as the various layout options will be reviewed.

  9. Evaluation of the PANDA silicon pixel front-end electronics and investigation of the anti ΛΛ final state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, Simone

    2014-04-28

    high precision particle beams for several experiments. The AntiProton Annihilation at Darmstadt (PANDA) experiment is one of the large detectors at FAIR. PANDAs main physics objectives center around the properties of particles and excited particles made from quarks of the first and second quark family. It is a fixed target experiment within the High Energy Storage Ring (HESR), which delivers an intense, phase-space cooled antiproton beam in the momentum range of 1.5 to 15 GeV/c. With the high precision of the HESR, PANDA will be able to perform precise spectroscopic studies of hadronic states in the charm quark mass range. The luminosity will be up to 2.10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, thus enabling very rare processes to be studied. This high luminosity leads to a high particle flux and a high radiation environment which the sub-detectors must withstand. The most highly affected sub-detector of this high radiation environment is the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD), the innermost detector of PANDA. The main task of the MVD is the detection of the interaction points of events (vertexing). This vertex finding is crucial for the analysis of short living particles like e.g. D-mesons, particles consisting of a c-quark and a light antiquark. An essential part of the MVD detector is the readout of the semiconductor sensors. The ToPix (Torino Pixel) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is the front-end electronics for the MVD sensor, developed at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Turin, Italy. It measures the spatial coordinate, the time and the deposited charge of incident charged particles. The most recent prototype of this ASIC is the ToPix 3, a version of reduced size and functionality. The Juelich Digital Readout System (JDRS) was adopted and extended to be able to readout this prototype, thus enabling specific test measurements of the prototype. In addition, the performance of PANDA for detecting long lived. particles was studied, and the

  10. On Julius Planer's 1861 paper "Notiz über das Cholestearin" in Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Trokhymchuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Brief review of the literature on the history of thermotropic liquid crystal discovery and the role of the observations reported by Julius Planer in his note published almost 150 years ago.

  11. Pixel Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wermes, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    Pixel detectors for precise particle tracking in high energy physics have been developed to a level of maturity during the past decade. Three of the LHC detectors will use vertex detectors close to the interaction point based on the hybrid pixel technology which can be considered the state of the art in this field of instrumentation. A development period of almost 10 years has resulted in pixel detector modules which can stand the extreme rate and timing requirements as well as the very harsh...

  12. Status of the ATLAS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Saavedra Aldo, F

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is currently being constructed and will be installed in 2006 to be ready for commissioning at the Large Hadron Collider. The complete pixel detector is composed of three concentric barrels and six disks that are populated by 1744 ATLAS Pixel modules. The main components of the pixel module are the readout electronics and the silicon sensor whose active region is instrumented with rectangular pixels. The module has been designed to be able to survive 10 years of operation within the ATLAS detector. A brief description of the pixel detector will be presented with results and problems encountered during the production stage.

  13. Pixel-Level Digital-to-Analog Conversion Scheme for Compact Data Drivers of Active Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Low-Temperature Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae-Wook Kim,; Byong-Deok Choi,

    2010-03-01

    This paper shows that a part of a digital-to-analog conversion (DAC) function can be included in a pixel circuit to save the circuit area of an integrated data driver fabricated with low-temperature polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs). Because the pixel-level DAC can be constructed by two TFTs and one small capacitor, the pixel circuit does not become markedly complex. The design of an 8-bit DAC, which combines a 6-bit resistor-string-based DAC and a 2-bit pixel-level DAC for a 4-in. diagonal VGA format active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED), is shown in detail. In addition, analysis results are presented, revealing that the 8-bit DAC scheme including a 2-bit pixel-level DAC with 1:3 demultiplexing can be applied to very high video formats, such as XGA, for a 3 to 4-in. diagonal AMOLED. Even for a 9- to 12-in. diagonal AMOLED, the proposed scheme can still be applied to the XGA format, even though no demultiplexing is allowed. The total height of the proposed 8-bit DAC is approximately 960 μm, which is almost one-half of that of the previous 6-bit resistor-string-based DAC.

  14. Functional MR imaging of the primary motor area in patients with brain tumors of the motor cortex. Evaluation with echo-planer imaging on a clinical 1.0 T MR imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Yoshie; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Tamaki, Norihiko; Ehara, Kazumasa [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Kitamura, Junji

    1998-04-01

    The study included 3 healthy volunteers and 8 patients with a brain tumor of the motor cortex. The fMRI study was based on the spin echo (SE) type single shot echo-planer technique. Ten contiguous axial slices consisted of 40-60 echo-planer images acquired during 80-120 seconds of repeated task performances and resting periods. Activation maps were calculated by a Z-score method with thresholding, and interpolated on T1 images and surface anatomy scans. In all cases, areas of a significant signal increase were detected as clusters of several pixels on the precentral gyrus contralateral to the motor task performance. The mean signal change was 3.6{+-}0.9% in normal subjects, and 7.2{+-}4.1% in brain tumor patients. There was no significant difference between the two groups. In 5 brain tumor patients significant displacement of the precentral gyrus was observed on T1- or T2-weighted SE images. Of these, 2 also had marked peritumoral edema spreading over the precentral gyrus. There was no significant difference in the size, or the degree, of signal change between patients with or without compression or edema, nor between patients with and without preoperative motor impairment. During surgical intervention, displacement of the precentral gyrus was observed as had been demonstrated on preoperative images of patients. In all patients the precentral gyrus was preserved in all cases, and no deterioration of motor function occurred. Resolution of the displacement and edema was detected on postoperative MRI. Using the echo-planer technique on a clinical 1.0 T imager fMRI localization of the primary motor cortex was obtained in normal and brain tumor subjects. The activated areas were detected on the precentral gyrus of both groups, and even when there was marked brain compression or edema. It is important to identify and preserve the precentral gyrus during surgery to avoid deterioration of motor function. (K.H.)

  15. Pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Passmore, M S

    2001-01-01

    positions on the detector. The loss of secondary electrons follows the profile of the detector and increases with higher energy ions. studies of the spatial resolution predict a value of 5.3 lp/mm. The image noise in photon counting systems is investigated theoretically and experimentally and is shown to be given by Poisson statistics. The rate capability of the LAD1 was measured to be 250 kHz per pixel. Theoretical and experimental studies of the difference in contrast for ideal charge integrating and photon counting imaging systems were carried out. It is shown that the contrast differs and that for the conventional definition (contrast = (background - signal)/background) the photon counting device will, in some cases, always give a better contrast than the integrating system. Simulations in MEDICI are combined with analytical calculations to investigate charge collection efficiencies (CCE) in semiconductor detectors. Different pixel sizes and biasing conditions are considered. The results show charge shari...

  16. Tunneling planer Hall effect in Ni81Fe19/Al2O3/Nix Fe1-x junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧余; 冯永嘉; 熊曹水

    1999-01-01

    Tunneling planer Hall (TPH) effect in Ni81Fe19/Al2O3/NixFe1-x trilayer junction is different from general planer Hall effect in single-layer film or two-layer junction. This effect concerns the spin-polarized transport, so that the TPH voltage depends on the angle between magnetic vectors of two ferromagnetic layers. The TPH effect is reported to be influenced by composition and magnetic properties of FM layers and the thickness of the insulating layer.

  17. Development of SOI pixel detector in Cracow

    CERN Document Server

    Bugiel, Szymon; Glab, Sebastian; Idzik, Marek; Moron, Jakub; Kapusta, Piotr Julian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Turala, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a new monolithic Silicon-On-Insulator pixel sensor in $200~nm$ SOI CMOS technology. The main application of the proposed pixel detector is the spectroscopy, but it can also be used for the minimum ionizing particle (MIP) tracking in particle physics experiments. For this reason few different versions of pixel cells are developed: a source-follower based pixel for tracking, a low noise pixel with preamplifier for spectroscopy, and a self-triggering pixel for time and amplitude measurements. In addition the design of a Successive Approximation Register Analog-to-Digital Converter (SAR ADC) is also presented. A 10-bit SAR ADC is developed for spectroscopic measurements and a lower resolution 6-bit SAR ADC is integrated in the pixel matrix as a column ADC, for tracking applications.

  18. VNR CMS Pixel detector replacement

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Joel Butler, spokesperson of the CMS collaboration explains how a team from many different partner institutes installed a new detector in CMS. This detector is the silicon pixel detector and they’ve been working on it for about five years, to replace one of our existing detectors. This detectors measures particles closer to the beam than any of the other components of this huge detector behind me. It gives us the most precise picture of tracks as they come out of the collisions and expand and travel through the detector. This particular device has twice as many pixels, 120 million, as opposed to about 68 million in the old detector and it can take data faster and pump it out to the analysis more quickly. 00’53’’ Images of the descent, insertion and installation of first piece of the Pixel detector on Tue Feb 28. Images of the descent, insertion and installation of second piece of the Pixel and the two cylinders being joined.

  19. Proceedings of PIXEL98 -- International pixel detector workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S. [eds.

    1998-08-01

    Experiments around the globe face new challenges of more precision in the face of higher interaction rates, greater track densities, and higher radiation doses, as they look for rarer and rarer processes, leading many to incorporate pixelated solid-state detectors into their plans. The highest-readout rate devices require new technologies for implementation. This workshop reviewed recent, significant progress in meeting these technical challenges. Participants presented many new results; many of them from the weeks--even days--just before the workshop. Brand new at this workshop were results on cryogenic operation of radiation-damaged silicon detectors (dubbed the Lazarus effect). Other new work included a diamond sensor with 280-micron collection distance; new results on breakdown in p-type silicon detectors; testing of the latest versions of read-out chip and interconnection designs; and the radiation hardness of deep-submicron processes.

  20. ATLAS IBL Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, A

    2011-01-01

    The upgrade for ATLAS detector will undergo different phase towards super-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel detector will consist of the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine (LHC phase-I upgrade). The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. The IBL will require the development of several new technologies to cope with increase of radiation or pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance which will be achieved by reducing the pixel size and of the material budget. Three different promising sensor technologies (planar-Si, 3D-Si and diamond) are currently under investigation for the pixel detector. An overview of the project with particular emphasis on pixel module is presented in this paper

  1. Upgrades of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hügging, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will undergo different phases towards HL-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector (Phase 1) consists in the construction of a new pixel layer, which will be installed during the 1st long shutdown of the LHC machine (LS1) in 2013/14. The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of about 3.2 cm. The IBL requires the development of several new technologies to cope with the increase of radiation and pixel occupancy as well as to improve the physics performance of the existing pixel detector. The pixel size is reduced and the material budget is minimized by using new lightweight mechanical support materials and a CO2 based cooling system. For Phase 2 upgrade of LHC a complete new 4-layer pixel system is planned as part of a new all silicon Inner Detector. The increase in luminosity to about $5\\cdot 10^{34}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ together with a total expected lifetime of ab...

  2. Commissioning of the ATLAS pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ATLAS Collaboration; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is a high precision silicon tracking device located closest to the LHC interaction point. It belongs to the first generation of its kind in a hadron collider experiment. It will provide crucial pattern recognition information and will largely determine the ability of ATLAS to precisely track particle trajectories and find secondary vertices. It was the last detector to be installed in ATLAS in June 2007, has been fully connected and tested in-situ during spring and summer 2008, and is ready for the imminent LHC turn-on. The highlights of the past and future commissioning activities of the ATLAS pixel system are presented.

  3. Pixel Vertex Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wermes, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    Pixel vertex detectors are THE instrument of choice for the tracking of charged particles close to the interaction point at the LHC. Hybrid pixel detectors, in which sensor and read-out IC are separate entities, constitute the present state of the art in detector technology. Three of the LHC detectors use vertex detectors based on this technology. A development period of almost 10 years has resulted in pixel detector modules which can stand the extreme rate and timing requirements as well as ...

  4. ISPA (imaging silicon pixel array) experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Application components of ISPA tubes are shown: the CERN-developed anode chip, special windows for gamma and x-ray detection, scintillating crystal and fibre arrays for imaging and tracking of ionizing particles.

  5. ISPA (imaging silicon pixel array) experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    On the table, under the scrutiny of some collaboration members, an ISPA tube (upper-left of the table) with some of its application components is shown: they consist of the CERN-developed anode chip, special windows for gamma and x-ray detection, scintillating crystal and fibre arrays for imaging and tracking of ionizing particles.

  6. Simulation study of pixel detector charge digitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuyue; Nachman, Benjamin; Sciveres, Maurice; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Team

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of tracks from nearly overlapping particles, called Tracking in Dense Environments (TIDE), is an increasingly important component of many physics analyses at the Large Hadron Collider as signatures involving highly boosted jets are investigated. TIDE makes use of the charge distribution inside a pixel cluster to resolve tracks that share one of more of their pixel detector hits. In practice, the pixel charge is discretized using the Time-over-Threshold (ToT) technique. More charge information is better for discrimination, but more challenging for designing and operating the detector. A model of the silicon pixels has been developed in order to study the impact of the precision of the digitized charge distribution on distinguishing multi-particle clusters. The output of the GEANT4-based simulation is used to train neutral networks that predict the multiplicity and location of particles depositing energy inside one cluster of pixels. By studying the multi-particle cluster identification efficiency and position resolution, we quantify the trade-off between the number of ToT bits and low-level tracking inputs. As both ATLAS and CMS are designing upgraded detectors, this work provides guidance for the pixel module designs to meet TIDE needs. Work funded by the China Scholarship Council and the Office of High Energy Physics of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  7. Upgrade of ATLAS ITk Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Huegging, Fabian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) in 2026 will provide new challenges to the ATLAS tracker. The current inner detector will be replaced with an entirely-silicon inner tracker (ITk) which will consist of a five barrel layer Pixel detector surrounded by a four barrel layer Strip detector. The expected high radiation levels are requiring the development of upgraded silicon sensors as well as new a front-end chip. The dense tracking environment will require finer granularity detectors and low mass global and local support structures. The data rates will require new technologies for high bandwidth data transmission and handling. The current status of the ITk ATLAS Pixel detector developments as well as different layout options will be reviewed.

  8. Active Pixel Sensors: Are CCD's Dinosaurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    Charge-coupled devices (CCD's) are presently the technology of choice for most imaging applications. In the 23 years since their invention in 1970, they have evolved to a sophisticated level of performance. However, as with all technologies, we can be certain that they will be supplanted someday. In this paper, the Active Pixel Sensor (APS) technology is explored as a possible successor to the CCD. An active pixel is defined as a detector array technology that has at least one active transistor within the pixel unit cell. The APS eliminates the need for nearly perfect charge transfer -- the Achilles' heel of CCDs. This perfect charge transfer makes CCD's radiation 'soft,' difficult to use under low light conditions, difficult to manufacture in large array sizes, difficult to integrate with on-chip electronics, difficult to use at low temperatures, difficult to use at high frame rates, and difficult to manufacture in non-silicon materials that extend wavelength response.

  9. Irradiation and beam tests qualification for ATLAS IBL Pixel Modules.

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinskiy, Igor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will undergo different phases towards HL-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine (foreseen for 2013-14). The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of 3.2 cm. The IBL will require the development of several new technologies to cope with increase of radiation or pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance which will be achieved by reduction of the pixel size and of the material budget. Two different promising Silicon sensor technologies (Planar n-in-n and 3D) are currently under investigation for the pixel detector. An overview of the sensor technologies qualification with particular emphasis on irradiation and beam tests will be presented.

  10. Irradiation and beam tests qualification for ATLAS IBL Pixel Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinskiy, I

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will have different steps towards HL-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine (foreseen for 2013–2014). The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing Pixel Detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of 33 mm. The IBL will require the development of several new technologies to cope with the increase in the radiation damage and the pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance, which will be achieved by reduction of the pixel size and of the material budget. Two different promising silicon sensor technologies (Planar n-in-n and 3D) are currently under investigation for the Pixel Detector. An overview of the sensor technologies' qualification with particular emphasis on irradiation and beam tests is presented.

  11. Irradiation and beam tests qualification for ATLAS IBL Pixel Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinskiy, Igor

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will have different steps towards HL-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine (foreseen for 2013-14). The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of 33 mm. The IBL will require the development of several new technologies to cope with the increase of the radiation damage and the pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance, which will be achieved by reduction of the pixel size and of the material budget. Two different promising silicon sensor technologies (Planar n-in-n and 3D) are currently under investigation for the pixel detector. An overview of the sensor technologies’ qualification with particular emphasis on irradiation and beam tests are presented.

  12. Small-Scale Readout Systems Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szelezniak, Michal A.; Besson, Auguste; Colledani, Claude; Dorokhov, Andrei; Dulinski, Wojciech; Greiner, Leo C.; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hu, Christine; Matis, Howard S.; Ritter, Hans Georg; Rose, Andrew; Shabetai, Alexandre; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Thomas, Jim H.; Valin, Isabelle; Vu, Chinh Q.; Wieman, Howard H.; Winter, Marc

    2008-10-01

    A prototype readout system for the STAR PIXEL detector in the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) vertex detector upgrade is presented. The PIXEL detector is a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) based silicon pixel vertex detector fabricated in a commercial CMOS process that integrates the detector and front-end electronics layers in one silicon die. Two generations ofMAPS prototypes designed specifically for the PIXEL are discussed. We have constructed a prototype telescope system consisting of three small MAPS sensors arranged in three parallel and coaxial planes with a readout system based on the readout architecture for PIXEL. This proposed readout architecture is simple and scales to the size required to readout the final detector. The real-time hit finding algorithm necessary for data rate reduction in the 400 million pixel detector is described, and aspects of the PIXEL system integration into the existing STAR framework are addressed. The complete system has been recently tested and shown to be fully functional.

  13. The pixelated detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Sutton, C

    1990-01-01

    "Collecting data as patterns of light or subatomic particles is vitally important in all the sciences. The new generation of solid-state detectors called pixel devices could transform experimental research at all levels" (4 pages).

  14. Small pitch pixel sensors\\\\ for the CMS Phase II upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbrueck, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The CMS collaboration has undertaken two sensor R\\&D programs on thin n-in-p planar and 3D silicon sensor technologies. To cope with the increase in instantaneous luminosity, the pixel area has to be reduced to approximately 2500 $\\mu$m$^{2}$ to keep the occupancy at the percent level. Suggested pixel cell geometries to match this requirement are {50$\\times$50 }$\\mu$...

  15. Design optimization of pixel sensors using device simulations for the phase-II CMS tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, G., E-mail: geetikajain.hep@gmail.com [CDRST, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Bhardwaj, A.; Dalal, R. [CDRST, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Eber, R. [Institute fur Experimentelle Kernphysik (Germany); Eichorn, T. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (Germany); Fernandez, M. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (Spain); Lalwani, K. [CDRST, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Messineo, A. [Universita di Pisa & INFN sez. di Pisa (Italy); Palomo, F.R. [Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Peltola, T. [Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland); Printz, M. [Institute fur Experimentelle Kernphysik (Germany); Ranjan, K. [CDRST, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Villa, I. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (Spain); Hidalgo, S. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (Spain)

    2016-07-11

    In order to address the problems caused by the harsh radiation environment during the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC), all silicon tracking detectors (pixels and strips) in the CMS experiment will undergo an upgrade. And so to develop radiation hard pixel sensors, simulations have been performed using the 2D TCAD device simulator, SILVACO, to obtain design parameters. The effect of various design parameters like pixel size, pixel depth, implant width, metal overhang, p-stop concentration, p-stop depth and bulk doping density on the leakage current and critical electric field are studied for both non-irradiated as well as irradiated pixel sensors. These 2D simulation results of planar pixels are useful for providing insight into the behaviour of non-irradiated and irradiated silicon pixel sensors and further work on 3D simulation is underway.

  16. DEPFET--a pixel device with integrated amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Neeser, W; Buchholz, P; Fischer, P; Holl, P; Kemmer, J; Klein, P; Koch, H; Löcker, M; Lutz, Gerhard; Matthäy, H; Strüder, L; Trimpl, M; Ulrici, J; Wermes, N

    2002-01-01

    In the DEPFET pixel concept, the absorbed radiation directly modulates the channel current of a p-JFET transistor being integrated into a fully depleted high ohmic silicon substrate in every pixel cell, offering very low noise operation at room temperature. Hence, DEPFET pixels open new possibilities in biomedical applications, but also have a potential in particle physics and astrophysics. Second prototype 50 mu mx50 mu m single pixels as well as large (64x64) DEPFET matrices have been successfully produced and operated confirming the low noise behavior (12e). Device studies as well as a full DEPFET pixel Bioscope system to be used in real-time digital autoradiography with excellent spatial and energy resolution for X-rays are presented.

  17. DC-DC powering for the CMS pixel upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Lutz; Fleck, Martin; Friedrichs, Marcel; Hensch, Richard; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Rittich, David; Sammet, Jan; Wlochal, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The CMS experiment plans to replace its silicon pixel detector with a new one with improved rate capability and an additional detection layer at the end of 2016. In order to cope with the increased number of detector modules the new pixel detector will be powered via DC-DC converters close to the sensitive detector volume. This paper reviews the DC-DC powering scheme and reports on the ongoing R&D program to develop converters for the pixel upgrade. Design choices are discussed and results from the electrical and thermal characterisation of converter prototypes are shown. An emphasis is put on system tests with up to 24 converters. The performance of pixel modules powered by DC-DC converters is compared to conventional powering. The integration of the DC-DC powering scheme into the pixel detector is described and system design issues are reviewed.

  18. DC-DC Powering for the CMS Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Feld, Lutz Werner; Marcel Friedrichs; Richard Hensch; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Rittich, David Michael; Sammet, Jan Domenik; Wlochal, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The CMS experiment plans to replace its silicon pixel detector with a new one with improved rate capability and an additional detection layer at the end of 2016. In order to cope with the increased number of detector modules the new pixel detector will be powered via DC-DC converters close to the sensitive detector volume. This paper reviews the DC-DC powering scheme and reports on the ongoing R and D program to develop converters for the pixel upgrade. Design choices are discussed and results from the electrical and thermal characterisation of converter prototypes are shown. An emphasis is put on system tests with up to24 converters. The performance of pixel modules powered by DC-DC converters is compared to conventional powering. The integration of the DC-DC powering scheme into the pixel detector is described and system design issues are reviewed.

  19. DC–DC powering for the CMS pixel upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feld, Lutz, E-mail: Lutz.Feld@rwth-aachen.de; Fleck, Martin; Friedrichs, Marcel; Hensch, Richard; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Rittich, David; Sammet, Jan; Wlochal, Michael

    2013-12-21

    The CMS experiment plans to replace its silicon pixel detector with a new one with improved rate capability and an additional detection layer at the end of 2016. In order to cope with the increased number of detector modules the new pixel detector will be powered via DC–DC converters close to the sensitive detector volume. This paper reviews the DC–DC powering scheme and reports on the ongoing R and D program to develop converters for the pixel upgrade. Design choices are discussed and results from the electrical and thermal characterisation of converter prototypes are shown. An emphasis is put on system tests with up to 24 converters. The performance of pixel modules powered by DC–DC converters is compared to conventional powering. The integration of the DC–DC powering scheme into the pixel detector is described and system design issues are reviewed.

  20. Near Future Upgrades for the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system, providing high precision space point measurements of charged particle trajectories. The current pixel detector is designed to operate at a maximum luminosity of $1\\times10^{34}cm^{-2}s^{-1}$. Before 2018 the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC is expected to reach $2\\times10^{34}cm^{-2}s^{-1}$, which will significantly increase the number of interactions per bunch crossing. The performance of the current pixel detector in such high occupancy environment will be degraded due to substantial data-loss and effects of radiation damage of sensors, built up over the operational period. In order to maintain or exceed its current performance, the CMS pixel detector will be replaced by a new lightweight system with additional detection layers, better acceptance and improved readout electronics. The upgraded pixel detector will provide improved track and vertex reconstruction, standalone tracking capabilities, as well as identification of ...

  1. Silicon Drift Detectors for ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Navach, F; CERN. Geneva

    1992-01-01

    The Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) is a semiconductor, not yet extensively used in HEP experiment, which has an excellent spatial resolution and granularity about comparable to a pixel device requiring a number of readout channels two order of magnitude less.

  2. Characterization of Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Felipe Ferraz

    2017-01-01

    It was commissioned at CERN ATLAS pixel group a fluorescence setup for characterization of pixel sensors. The idea is to measure the energies of different targets to calibrate your sensor. It was measured four matrices (80, 95, 98 and 106) of the Investigator1 sensor with different deep PW using copper, iron and titanium as target materials. The matrix 80 has a higher gain (0.065 ± 0.002) and matrix 106 has a better energy resolution (0.05 ± 0.04). The noise of the setup is around 3.6 mV .

  3. ATLAS ITk and new pixel sensors technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gaudiello, A

    2016-01-01

    During the 2023–2024 shutdown, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be upgraded to reach an instantaneous luminosity up to 7×10$^{34}$ cm$^{−2}$s$^{−1}$. This upgrade of the accelerator is called High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The ATLAS detector will be changed to meet the challenges of HL-LHC: an average of 200 pile-up events in every bunch crossing, and an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb $^{−1}$ over ten years. The HL-LHC luminosity conditions are too extreme for the current silicon (pixel and strip) detectors and straw tube transition radiation tracker (TRT) of the current ATLAS tracking system. Therefore the ATLAS inner tracker is being completely rebuilt for data-taking and the new system is called Inner Tracker (ITk). During this upgrade the TRT will be removed in favor of an all-new all-silicon tracker composed only by strip and pixel detectors. An overview of new layouts in study will be reported and the new pixel sensor technologies in development will be explained.

  4. Pixel detector insertion

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS

    2015-01-01

    Insertion of the Pixel Tracker, the 66-million-channel device used to pinpoint the vertex of each colliding proton pair, located at the heart of the detector. The geometry of CMS is a cylinder lying on its side (22 meters long and 15 meters high in dia

  5. Planar pixel sensors in commercial CMOS technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Macchiolo, Anna [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    For the upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at the high luminosity LHC, an all-silicon tracker is foreseen to cope with the increased rate and radiation levels. Pixel and strip detectors will have to cover an area of up to 200m2. To produce modules in high number at reduced costs, new sensor and bonding technologies have to be investigated. Commercial CMOS technologies on high resistive substrates can provide significant advantages in this direction. They offer cost effective, large volume sensor production. In addition to this, production is done on 8'' wafers allowing wafer-to-wafer bonding to the electronics, an interconnection technology substantially cheaper than the bump bonding process used for hybrid pixel detectors at the LHC. Both active and passive n-in-p pixel sensor prototypes have been submitted in a 150 nm CMOS technology on a 2kΩ cm substrate. The passive sensor design will be used to characterize sensor properties and to investigate wafer-to-wafer bonding technologies. This first prototype is made of a matrix of 36 x 16 pixels of size compatible with the FE-I4 readout chip (i.e. 50 μm x 250 μm). Results from lab characterization of this first submission are shown together with TCAD simulations. Work towards a full size FE-I4 sensor for wafer-to-wafer bonding is discussed.

  6. Sensor development for the CMS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bölla, G; Horisberger, R P; Kaufmann, R; Rohe, T; Roy, A

    2002-01-01

    The CMS experiment which is currently under construction at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will contain a pixel detector which provides in its final configuration three space points per track close to the interaction point of the colliding beams. Because of the harsh radiation environment of the LHC, the technical realization of the pixel detector is extremely challenging. The readout chip as the most damageable part of the system is believed to survive a particle fluence of 6x10 sup 1 sup 4 n sub e sub q /cm sup 2 (All fluences are normalized to 1 MeV neutrons and therefore all components of the hybrid pixel detector have to perform well up to at least this fluence. As this requires a partially depleted operation of the silicon sensors after irradiation-induced type inversion of the substrate, an ''n in n'' concept has been chosen. In order to perform IV-tests on wafer level and to hold accidentally unconnected pixels close to ground potential, a resistive path between the pixe...

  7. Combustion characteristics of Douglas Fir planer shavings. Technical progress report No. 4, September 16, 1977--September 15, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junge, D.C.

    1978-12-01

    Significant quantities of wood residue fuels are presently being used in industrial steam generating facilities. Recent studies indicate that substantial additional quantities of wood residue fuels are available for energy generation in the form of steam and/or electricity. A limited data base on the combustion characteristics of wood residue fuels has resulted in the installation and operation of inefficient combustion systems for these fuels. This investigation of the combustion characteristics of wood residue fuels was undertaken to provide a data base which could be used to optimize the combustion of such fuels. Optimization of the the combustion process in industrial boilers serves to improve combustion efficiency and to reduce air pollutant emissions generated in the combustion process. This report presents data on the combustion characteristics of Douglas Fir planer shavings. The data were obtained in a pilot scale combustion test facility at Oregon State Univerisity. Other technical reports present data on the combustion characteristics of: Douglas Fir bark, Red Alder sawdust, Red Alder bark, Ponderosa pine bark, Hemlock bark, and Eastern White Pine bark. An executive summary report is also available which compares the combustion characteristics of the various fuel species.

  8. Monolithic pixel detectors for high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Snoeys, W

    2013-01-01

    Monolithic pixel detectors integrating sensor matrix and readout in one piece of silicon have revolutionized imaging for consumer applications, but despite years of research they have not yet been widely adopted for high energy physics. Two major requirements for this application, radiation tolerance and low power consumption, require charge collection by drift for the most extreme radiation levels and an optimization of the collected signal charge over input capacitance ratio ( Q / C ). It is shown that monolithic detectors can achieve Q / C for low analog power consumption and even carryout the promise to practically eliminate analog power consumption, but combining suf fi cient Q / C , collection by drift, and integration of readout circuitry within the pixel remains a challenge. An overview is given of different approaches to address this challenge, with possible advantages and disadvantages.

  9. The Belle II DEPFET pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Hans-Günther, E-mail: moser@mpp.mpg.de

    2016-09-21

    The Belle II experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) will explore heavy flavour physics (B, charm and tau) at the starting of 2018 with unprecedented precision. Charged particles are tracked by a two-layer DEPFET pixel device (PXD), a four-layer silicon strip detector (SVD) and the central drift chamber (CDC). The PXD will consist of two layers at radii of 14 mm and 22 mm with 8 and 12 ladders, respectively. The pixel sizes will vary, between 50 μm×(55–60) μm in the first layer and between 50 μm×(70–85) μm in the second layer, to optimize the charge sharing efficiency. These innermost layers have to cope with high background occupancy, high radiation and must have minimal material to reduce multiple scattering. These challenges are met using the DEPFET technology. Each pixel is a FET integrated on a fully depleted silicon bulk. The signal charge collected in the ‘internal gate’ modulates the FET current resulting in a first stage amplification and therefore very low noise. This allows very thin sensors (75 μm) reducing the overall material budget of the detector (0.21% X{sub 0}). Four fold multiplexing of the column parallel readout allows read out a full frame of the pixel matrix in only 20 μs while keeping the power consumption low enough for air cooling. Only the active electronics outside the detector acceptance has to be cooled actively with a two phase CO{sub 2} system. Furthermore the DEPFET technology offers the unique feature of an electronic shutter which allows the detector to operate efficiently in the continuous injection mode of superKEKB.

  10. The Belle II DEPFET pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Hans-Günther

    2016-09-01

    The Belle II experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) will explore heavy flavour physics (B, charm and tau) at the starting of 2018 with unprecedented precision. Charged particles are tracked by a two-layer DEPFET pixel device (PXD), a four-layer silicon strip detector (SVD) and the central drift chamber (CDC). The PXD will consist of two layers at radii of 14 mm and 22 mm with 8 and 12 ladders, respectively. The pixel sizes will vary, between 50 μm×(55-60) μm in the first layer and between 50 μm×(70-85) μm in the second layer, to optimize the charge sharing efficiency. These innermost layers have to cope with high background occupancy, high radiation and must have minimal material to reduce multiple scattering. These challenges are met using the DEPFET technology. Each pixel is a FET integrated on a fully depleted silicon bulk. The signal charge collected in the 'internal gate' modulates the FET current resulting in a first stage amplification and therefore very low noise. This allows very thin sensors (75 μm) reducing the overall material budget of the detector (0.21% X0). Four fold multiplexing of the column parallel readout allows read out a full frame of the pixel matrix in only 20 μs while keeping the power consumption low enough for air cooling. Only the active electronics outside the detector acceptance has to be cooled actively with a two phase CO2 system. Furthermore the DEPFET technology offers the unique feature of an electronic shutter which allows the detector to operate efficiently in the continuous injection mode of superKEKB.

  11. Novel integrated CMOS pixel structures for vertex detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinfelder, Stuart; Bieser, Fred; Chen, Yandong; Gareus, Robin; Matis, Howard S.; Oldenburg, Markus; Retiere, Fabrice; Ritter, Hans Georg; Wieman, Howard H.; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2003-10-29

    Novel CMOS active pixel structures for vertex detector applications have been designed and tested. The overriding goal of this work is to increase the signal to noise ratio of the sensors and readout circuits. A large-area native epitaxial silicon photogate was designed with the aim of increasing the charge collected per struck pixel and to reduce charge diffusion to neighboring pixels. The photogate then transfers the charge to a low capacitance readout node to maintain a high charge to voltage conversion gain. Two techniques for noise reduction are also presented. The first is a per-pixel kT/C noise reduction circuit that produces results similar to traditional correlated double sampling (CDS). It has the advantage of requiring only one read, as compared to two for CDS, and no external storage or subtraction is needed. The technique reduced input-referred temporal noise by a factor of 2.5, to 12.8 e{sup -}. Finally, a column-level active reset technique is explored that suppresses kT/C noise during pixel reset. In tests, noise was reduced by a factor of 7.6 times, to an estimated 5.1 e{sup -} input-referred noise. The technique also dramatically reduces fixed pattern (pedestal) noise, by up to a factor of 21 in our tests. The latter feature may possibly reduce pixel-by-pixel pedestal differences to levels low enough to permit sparse data scan without per-pixel offset corrections.

  12. ATLAS Tracker and Pixel Operational Experience

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00222525; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The tracking performance of the ATLAS detector relies critically on the silicon and gaseous tracking subsystems that form the ATLAS Inner Detector. Those subsystems have undergone significant hardware and software upgrades to meet the challenges imposed by the higher collision energy, pileup and luminosity that are being delivered by the LHC during Run2. The key status and performance metrics of the Pixel Detector and the Semi Conductor Tracker, are summarised, and the operational experience and requirements to ensure optimum data quality and data taking efficiency are described.

  13. Fabrication of ATLAS pixel detector prototypes at IRST

    CERN Document Server

    Boscardin, M; Gregori, P; Zen, M; Zori, N

    2001-01-01

    We report on the development of a fabrication technology for n-on-n silicon pixel detectors oriented to the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The main processing issues and some selected results from the electrical characterization of detector prototypes and related test structures are presented and discussed. (5 refs).

  14. Alpine Pixel Detector Layout

    CERN Document Server

    Delebecque, P; The ATLAS collaboration; Geffroy, N; Massol, N; Rambure, T; Todorov, T

    2013-01-01

    A description of an optimized layout of pixel sensors based on a stave that combines both barrel and endcap module orientations. The mechanical stiffness of the structure is provided by carbon fiber shells spaced by carbon foam. The cooling of the modules is provided by two-phase $CO_{2}$ flowing in a thin titanium pipe glued inside the carbon fiber foam. The electrical services of all modules are provided by a single stave flex. This layout eliminates the need for separate barrel and endcap detector structures, and therefore the barrel services material in front of the endcap. The transition from barrel to endcap module orientation is optimized separately for each layer in order to minimize the active pixel area and the traversed material. The sparse module spacing in the endcap part of the stave allows for multiple fixation points, and for a stiff overall structure composed only of staves interconnected by stiff disks.

  15. Planar Pixel Sensors for the ATLAS Upgrade: Beam Tests results

    CERN Document Server

    Weingarten, J; Beimforde, M; Benoit, M; Bomben, M; Calderini, G; Gallrapp, C; George, M; Gibson, S; Grinstein, S; Janoska, Z; Jentzsch, J; Jinnouchi, O; Kishida, T; La Rosa, A; Libov, V; Macchiolo, A; Marchiori, G; Münstermann, D; Nagai, R; Piacquadio, G; Ristic, B; Rubinskiy, I; Rummler, A; Takubo, Y; Troska, G; Tsiskaridtze, S; Tsurin, I; Unno, Y; Weigel, P; Wittig, T

    2012-01-01

    Results of beam tests with planar silicon pixel sensors aimed towards the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrades are presented. Measurements include spatial resolution, charge collection performance and charge sharing between neighbouring cells as a function of track incidence angle for different bulk materials. Measurements of n-in-n pixel sensors are presented as a function of fluence for different irradiations. Furthermore p-type silicon sensors from several vendors with slightly differing layouts were tested. All tested sensors were connected by bump-bonding to the ATLAS Pixel read-out chip. We show that both n-type and p-type tested planar sensors are able to collect significant charge even after integrated fluences expected at HL-LHC.

  16. Design and test of pixel sensors for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bölla, G; Rott, C; Roy, A; Kwan, S; Chien, C Y; Cho, H; Gobbi, B; Horisberger, R P; Kaufmann, R

    2001-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will have a silicon pixel detector as its innermost tracking device. The pixel system will be exposed to the harsh radiation environment of the LHC. Prototype sensors have been designed to meet the specifications of the CMS experiment. The sensors are n/sup +/-n devices to allow partial depletion operation after bulk type inversion. The isolation of the n/sup +/ pixels is provided through a novel double open p-ring design that allows sensor testing before bump bonding and flip chipping. The prototype wafers contain a variety of p-stop designs and are fabricated by two vendors on different bulk substrates including oxygenated silicon. A study of the static measurement of the prototype sensors before irradiation is presented. (2 refs).

  17. The DELPHI silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Pernegger, H

    1997-01-01

    The DELPHI collaboration has upgraded the Silicon Vertex Detector in order to cope with the physics requirements for LEP200. The new detector consists of a barrel section with three layers of microstrip detectors and a forward extension made of hybrid pixel and large pitch strip detectors. The layout of the detector and the techniques used for the different parts of the new silicon detector shall be described.

  18. Pixelated neutron image plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapp, M.; Conrad, H.; von Seggern, H.

    2004-09-01

    Neutron image plates (NIPs) have found widespread application as neutron detectors for single-crystal and powder diffraction, small-angle scattering and tomography. After neutron exposure, the image plate can be read out by scanning with a laser. Commercially available NIPs consist of a powder mixture of BaFBr : Eu2+ and Gd2O3 dispersed in a polymer matrix and supported by a flexible polymer sheet. Since BaFBr : Eu2+ is an excellent x-ray storage phosphor, these NIPs are particularly sensitive to ggr-radiation, which is always present as a background radiation in neutron experiments. In this work we present results on NIPs consisting of KCl : Eu2+ and LiF that were fabricated into ceramic image plates in which the alkali halides act as a self-supporting matrix without the necessity for using a polymeric binder. An advantage of this type of NIP is the significantly reduced ggr-sensitivity. However, the much lower neutron absorption cross section of LiF compared with Gd2O3 demands a thicker image plate for obtaining comparable neutron absorption. The greater thickness of the NIP inevitably leads to a loss in spatial resolution of the image plate. However, this reduction in resolution can be restricted by a novel image plate concept in which a ceramic structure with square cells (referred to as a 'honeycomb') is embedded in the NIP, resulting in a pixelated image plate. In such a NIP the read-out light is confined to the particular illuminated pixel, decoupling the spatial resolution from the optical properties of the image plate material and morphology. In this work, a comparison of experimentally determined and simulated spatial resolutions of pixelated and unstructured image plates for a fixed read-out laser intensity is presented, as well as simulations of the properties of these NIPs at higher laser powers.

  19. The Kepler Pixel Response Function

    CERN Document Server

    Bryson, Stephen T; Jenkins, Jon M; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Klaus, Todd; Caldwell, Douglas A; Gilliland, Ronald L; Haas, Michael R; Dotson, Jessie L; Koch, David G; Borucki, William J

    2010-01-01

    Kepler seeks to detect sequences of transits of Earth-size exoplanets orbiting Solar-like stars. Such transit signals are on the order of 100 ppm. The high photometric precision demanded by Kepler requires detailed knowledge of how the Kepler pixels respond to starlight during a nominal observation. This information is provided by the Kepler pixel response function (PRF), defined as the composite of Kepler's optical point spread function, integrated spacecraft pointing jitter during a nominal cadence and other systematic effects. To provide sub-pixel resolution, the PRF is represented as a piecewise-continuous polynomial on a sub-pixel mesh. This continuous representation allows the prediction of a star's flux value on any pixel given the star's pixel position. The advantages and difficulties of this polynomial representation are discussed, including characterization of spatial variation in the PRF and the smoothing of discontinuities between sub-pixel polynomial patches. On-orbit super-resolution measurement...

  20. ATLAS-IBL Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    LaRosa, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will undergo different phase towards Super-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine (SLHC Phase I). The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of 3.2 cm. The IBL will require the development of several new technologies to cope with increase of radiation or pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance which will be achieved by reduction of the pixel size and of the material budget. Three different promising sensor technologies (Planar-Si, 3D-Si and Diamond) are currently under investigation for the pixel detector. An overview of the project with particular emphasis on pixel module studies, irradiation and beam test plans will be presented.

  1. The Phase II ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Terzo, Stefano; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the "ITk" (Inner Tracker). The innermost portion of ITk will consist of a pixel detector with five layers in the barrel region and and ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions. It will be instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the HL-LHC environment, which will be severe in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total surface area of silicon in the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m$^2$ , depending on the final layout choice, which is expected to take place in early 2017. Several layout options are being investigated at the moment, including some with novel inclined support structures in the barrel-endcap overlap region and others with very long innermost barrel layers. Forward coverage could be as high as $|\\eta| < 4$. Supporting structures will be ...

  2. The Phase-2 ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Flick, Tobias; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the “ITk” (Inner Tracker). The pixel detector will comprise the five innermost layers, and will be instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the HL-LHC environment, which will be severe in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total surface area of silicon in the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m2, depending on the final layout choice, which is expected to take place in early 2017. Four layout options are being investigated at the moment, two with forward coverage to |eta| < 3.2 and two to |eta| < 4. For each coverage option, a layout with long barrel staves and a layout with novel inclined support structures in the barrel-endcap overlap region are considered. All potential layouts include modules mounted on ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions...

  3. Electrical-modelling, design and simulation of cumulative radiation effects in semiconductor pixels detectors: prospects and limits

    CERN Document Server

    Fourches, Nicolas T; Chipaux, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    Silicon detectors have gained in popularity since silicon became a widely used micro/nanoelectronic semiconductor material. Silicon detectors are used in particle physics as well as imaging for pixel based detecting systems. Over the past twenty years a lot of experimental efforts have been focused on the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on silicon pixels. Some of this research was done in the framework of high luminosity particle physics experiments, along with radiation hardness studies of basic semiconductors devices. In its simplest form the semiconductor pixel detectors reduce to a PIN or PN structure partially or totally depleted, or in some MOS and APD (Avalanche PhotoDiode) structures. Bulk or surface defects affect considerably transport of free carriers. We propose guidelines for pixel design, which will be tested through a few pixel structures. This design method includes into the design the properties of defects. The electrical properties reduce to parameters, which can be introduced...

  4. Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Keith; Loudin, James; Goetz, Georges; Huie, Philip; Wang, Lele; Kamins, Theodore I.; Galambos, Ludwig; Smith, Richard; Harris, James S.; Sher, Alexander; Palanker, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases lead to blindness due to loss of the `image capturing' photoreceptors, while neurons in the `image-processing' inner retinal layers are relatively well preserved. Electronic retinal prostheses seek to restore sight by electrically stimulating the surviving neurons. Most implants are powered through inductive coils, requiring complex surgical methods to implant the coil-decoder-cable-array systems that deliver energy to stimulating electrodes via intraocular cables. We present a photovoltaic subretinal prosthesis, in which silicon photodiodes in each pixel receive power and data directly through pulsed near-infrared illumination and electrically stimulate neurons. Stimulation is produced in normal and degenerate rat retinas, with pulse durations of 0.5-4 ms, and threshold peak irradiances of 0.2-10 mW mm-2, two orders of magnitude below the ocular safety limit. Neural responses were elicited by illuminating a single 70 µm bipolar pixel, demonstrating the possibility of a fully integrated photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density.

  5. Modelling semiconductor pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieson, K

    2001-01-01

    expected after 200 ps in most cases. The effect of reducing the charge carrier lifetime and examining the charge collection efficiency has been utilised to explore how these detectors would respond in a harsh radiation environment. It is predicted that over critical carrier lifetimes (10 ps to 0.1 ns) an improvement of 40 % over conventional detectors can be expected. This also has positive implications for fabricating detectors, in this geometry, from materials which might otherwise be considered substandard. An analysis of charge transport in CdZnTe pixel detectors has been performed. The analysis starts with simulation studies into the formation of contacts and their influence on the internal electric field of planar detectors. The models include a number of well known defect states and these are balanced to give an agreement with a typical experimental I-V curve. The charge transport study extends to the development of a method for studying the effect of charge sharing in highly pixellated detectors. The ...

  6. A germanium hybrid pixel detector with 55μm pixel size and 65,000 channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennicard, D.; Struth, B.; Hirsemann, H.; Sarajlic, M.; Smoljanin, S.; Zuvic, M.; Lampert, M. O.; Fritzsch, T.; Rothermund, M.; Graafsma, H.

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors provide high performance through a combination of direct detection, a relatively small pixel size, fast readout and sophisticated signal processing circuitry in each pixel. For X-ray detection above 20 keV, high-Z sensor layers rather than silicon are needed to achieve high quantum efficiency, but many high-Z materials such as GaAs and CdTe often suffer from poor material properties or nonuniformities. Germanium is available in large wafers of extremely high quality, making it an appealing option for high-performance hybrid pixel X-ray detectors, but suitable technologies for finely pixelating and bump-bonding germanium have not previously been available. A finely-pixelated germanium photodiode sensor with a 256 by 256 array of 55μm pixels has been produced. The sensor has an n-on-p structure, with 700μm thickness. Using a low-temperature indium bump process, this sensor has been bonded to the Medipix3RX photoncounting readout chip. Tests with the LAMBDA readout system have shown that the detector works successfully, with a high bond yield and higher image uniformity than comparable high-Z systems. During cooling, the system is functional around -80°C (with warmer temperatures resulting in excessive leakage current), with -100°C sufficient for good performance.

  7. The ALICE pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mercado Perez, J

    2002-01-01

    The present document is a brief summary of the performed activities during the 2001 Summer Student Programme at CERN under the Scientific Summer at Foreign Laboratories Program organized by the Particles and Fields Division of the Mexican Physical Society (Sociedad Mexicana de Fisica). In this case, the activities were related with the ALICE Pixel Group of the EP-AIT Division, under the supervision of Jeroen van Hunen, research fellow in this group. First, I give an introduction and overview to the ALICE experiment; followed by a description of wafer probing. A brief summary of the test beam that we had from July 13th to July 25th is given as well. (3 refs).

  8. Pixelated gamma detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolinsky, Sergei Ivanovich; Yanoff, Brian David; Guida, Renato; Ivan, Adrian

    2016-12-27

    A pixelated gamma detector includes a scintillator column assembly having scintillator crystals and optical transparent elements alternating along a longitudinal axis, a collimator assembly having longitudinal walls separated by collimator septum, the collimator septum spaced apart to form collimator channels, the scintillator column assembly positioned adjacent to the collimator assembly so that the respective ones of the scintillator crystal are positioned adjacent to respective ones of the collimator channels, the respective ones of the optical transparent element are positioned adjacent to respective ones of the collimator septum, and a first photosensor and a second photosensor, the first and the second photosensor each connected to an opposing end of the scintillator column assembly. A system and a method for inspecting and/or detecting defects in an interior of an object are also disclosed.

  9. Comprehensive measurements of GaAs pixel detectors capacitance

    CERN Document Server

    Caria, M; D'Auria, S; Lai, A; Randaccio, P; Cadeddu, S

    2002-01-01

    We have studied GaAs pixel detectors on semi-insulating wafers with Schottky contacts. We performed comprehensive measurements on the inter-pixel and capacitance to back plane. Being semi-insulating, the behaviour is totally different with respect to other common semiconductors, such as high resistivity silicon. Non-homogeneities are also an issue, due to both the contacts and the crystal bulk. In order to detect them and their influence on capacitance, we undertook systematic measurements with different configurations of the measuring electrodes.

  10. The Use of AC Servo in Heavy Duty Double Housing Planer%交流伺服在重型龙门刨床的使用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭慧锋

    2015-01-01

    Reduce heavy planer workbench fast moving system, the impact on the reducer , heavy duty double housing plan-er workbench electrical control movement diversification, application of cost-effective, reliable operation of the control scheme has been imperative. Ac servo and speed feedback control with speed/position, etc. From two aspects of optimization design to achieve the workbench infinitely adjustable-speed.%减小重型刨床工作台快速移动换向时,对减速箱的冲击,重型龙门刨床工作台电气控制运动多样化,应用性价比高,运行可靠的控制方案已势在必行。交流伺服兼速度反馈跟速度/位置等多种控制。从2个方面优化设计来实现工作台的无级调速。

  11. Planar Pixelations and Image Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Rowekamp, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    Any subset of the plane can be approximated by a set of square pixels. This transition from a shape to its pixelation is rather brutal since it destroys geometric and topological information about the shape. Using a technique inspired by Morse Theory, we algorithmically produce a PL approximation of the original shape using only information from its pixelation. This approximation converges to the original shape in a very strong sense: as the size of the pixels goes to zero we can recover important geometric and topological invariants of the original shape such as Betti numbers, area, perimeter and curvature measures.

  12. Performance Studies of Pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors for the LHCb RICH Counters

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri Rinella, G; Piedigrossi, D; Van Lysebetten, A

    2004-01-01

    The Pixel Hybrid Photon Detector is a vacuum tube with a multi-alkali photo cathode, high voltage cross-focused electron optics and an anode consisting of a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a readout CMOS electronic chip fully encapsulated in the device. The Pixel HPD fulfils the requirements of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov counters of the LHCb experiment at LHC. The performances of the Pixel HPD will be discussed with reference to laboratory measurements, Cherenkov light imaging in recent beam tests, image distortions due to a magnetic field.

  13. Performance studies of pixel hybrid photon detectors for the LHCb RICH counters

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri-Rinella, G; Piedigrossi, D; Van Lysebetten, A

    2006-01-01

    The Pixel Hybrid Photon Detector is a vacuum tube with a multi-alkali photo cathode, high voltage cross-focused electron optics and an anode consisting of a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a readout CMOS electronic chip fully encapsulated in the device. The Pixel HPD fulfils the requirements of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov counters of the LHCb experiment at LHC. The performances of the Pixel HPD will be discussed with reference to laboratory measurements, Cherenkov light imaging in recent beam tests, image distortions due to a magnetic field.

  14. Diamond pixel modules

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, K K; Robichaud, A; Potenza, R; Kuleshov, S; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Wermes, N; Dulinski, W; Eremin, V; Smith, S; Sopko, B; Olivero, P; Gorisek, A; Chren, D; Kramberger, G; Schnetzer, S; Weilhammer, P; Martemyanov, A; Hugging, F; Pernegger, H; Lagomarsino, S; Manfredotti, C; Mishina, M; Trischuk, W; Dobos, D; Cindro, V; Belyaev, V; Duris, J; Claus, G; Wallny, R; Furgeri, A; Tuve, C; Goldstein, J; Sciortino, S; Sutera, C; Asner, D; Mikuz, M; Lo Giudice, A; Velthuis, J; Hits, D; Griesmayer, E; Oakham, G; Frais-Kolbl, H; Bellini, V; D'Alessandro, R; Cristinziani, M; Barbero, M; Schaffner, D; Costa, S; Goffe, M; La Rosa, A; Bruzzi, M; Schreiner, T; de Boer, W; Parrini, G; Roe, S; Randrianarivony, K; Dolenc, I; Moss, J; Brom, J M; Golubev, A; Mathes, M; Eusebi, R; Grigoriev, E; Tsung, J W; Mueller, S; Mandic, I; Stone, R; Menichelli, D

    2011-01-01

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8 x 10(16) protons/cm(2) illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel m...

  15. Operational experience of ATLAS SCT and Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kocian, Martin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector based on silicon sensors is consisting of a strip detector (SCT) and a pixel detector. It is the crucial component for vertexing and tracking in the ATLAS experiment. With the excellent performance of the LHC well beyond the original specification the silicon tracking detectors are facing substantial challenges in terms of data acquisition, radiation damage to the sensors, and SEUs in the readout ASICs. The approaches on how the detector systems cope with the demands of high luminosity operation while maintaining excellent performance through hardware upgrades, software and firmware algorithms, and operational settings, are presented.

  16. 3D, Flash, Induced Current Readout for Silicon Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Sherwood I. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2014-06-07

    A new method for silicon microstrip and pixel detector readout using (1) 65 nm-technology current amplifers which can, for the first time with silicon microstrop and pixel detectors, have response times far shorter than the charge collection time (2) 3D trench electrodes large enough to subtend a reasonable solid angle at most track locations and so have adequate sensitivity over a substantial volume of pixel, (3) induced signals in addition to, or in place of, collected charge

  17. The ATLAS tracker Pixel detector for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gemme, Claudia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) in 2026 will provide new challenges to the ATLAS tracker. The current Inner Detector will be replaced with a whole silicon tracker which will consist of a five barrel layer Pixel detector surrounded by a four barrel layer Strip detector. The expected high radiation levels are requiring the development of upgraded silicon sensors as well as new a front-end chip. The dense tracking environment will require finer granularity detectors. The data rates will require new technologies for high bandwidth data transmission and handling. The current status of the HL-LHC ATLAS Pixel detector developments as well as the various layout options are reviewed.

  18. Module and electronics developments for the ATLAS ITK pixel system

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for an extensive modification of its detectors in the course of the planned HL-LHC accelerator upgrade around 2025. The ATLAS upgrade includes the replacement of the entire tracking system by an all-silicon detector (Inner Tracker, ITk). The five innermost layers of ITk will be a pixel detector built of new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the severe HL-LHC environment in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total area of the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m2, depending on the final layout choice, which is expected to take place in 2017. In this paper an overview of the ongoing R\\&D activities on modules and electronics for the ATLAS ITk is given including the main developments and achievements in silicon planar and 3D sensor technologies, readout and power challenges.

  19. Pixel History for Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borncamp, D.; Grogin, N.; Bourque, M.; Ogaz, S.

    2017-06-01

    Excess thermal energy present in a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) can result in additional electrical current. This excess charge is trapped within the silicon lattice structure of the CCD electronics. It can persist through multiple exposures and have an adverse effect on science performance of the detectors unless properly flagged and corrected for. The traditional way to correct for this extra charge is to take occasional long-exposure images with the camera shutter closed. These images, generally referred to as "dark" images, allow for the measurement of the thermal-electron contamination present in each pixel of the CCD lattice. This so-called "dark current" can then be subtracted from the science images by re-scaling the dark to the corresponding exposure times. Pixels that have signal above a certain threshold are traditionally marked as "hot" and flagged in the data quality array. Many users will discard these because of the extra current. However, these pixels may not be unusable because of an unreliable dark subtraction; if we find these pixels to be stable over an anneal period, we can properly subtract the charge and the extra Poisson noise from this dark current will be propagated into the error arrays. Here we present the results of a pixel history study that analyzes every individual pixel of the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Wide Field Channel (WFC) CCDs over time and allows pixels that were previously flagged as unusable to be brought back into the science image as a reliable pixel.

  20. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pan, L.S.; Peitz, A.; Pernicka, M.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Steuerer, J.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W. E-mail: william@physics.utoronto.ca; Turchetta, R.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Gilchriese, M.; Joshi, A.; Kleinfelder, S.; Milgrome, O.; Palaio, N.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Zizka, G

    1999-11-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98% of the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 {mu}m was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch.

  1. The Phase-1 Upgrade of the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The CMS experiment features a pixel detector with three barrel layers and two disks per side, corresponding to an active silicon area of 1\\,m$^2$. The detector delivered high-quality data during LHC Run~1. However, the CMS pixel detector was designed for the nominal instantaneous LHC luminosity of $1\\cdot 10^{34}\\,$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. It is expected that the instantaneous luminosity will increase and reach twice the design value before Long Shutdown 3, scheduled for 2023. Under such conditions, the present readout chip would suffer from data loss due to buffer overflow, leading to significant inefficiencies of up to~16\\,\\%. The CMS collaboration is presently constructing a new pixel detector to replace the present device during the winter shutdown 2016/2017. The design of this new detector will be outlined, the construction status summarized and the performance described.

  2. Performance of the INTPIX6 SOI pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Y.; Bugiel, Sz.; Dasgupta, R.; Idzik, M.; Kapusta, P.; Kucewicz, W.; Miyoshi, T.; Turala, M.

    2017-01-01

    Characterization of the monolithic pixel detector INPTIX6, designed at KEK and fabricated in Lapis 0.2 μ m Fully-Depleted, Low-Leakage Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) CMOS technology, was performed. The INTPIX6 comprises a large area of 1408 × 896 integrating type squared pixels of 12 micron pitch. In this work the performance and measurement results of the prototypes produced on lower resistivity Czochralski type (CZ-n) and high resistivity floating zone (FZ-n) sensor wafers are presented. Using 241Am radioactive source the noise of INTPIX6 was measured, showing the ENC (Equivalent Noise Charge) of about 70 e-. The resolution calculated from the FWHM of the Iron-55 X-ray peak was about 100 e-. The radiation hardness of the SOI pixel detector was also investigated. The CZ-n type INTPIX6 received a dose of 60 krad and its performance has been continuously monitored during the irradiation.

  3. Online calibrations and performance of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It consists of 1744 silicon sensors equipped with approximately 80 M electronic channels, providing typically three measurement points with high resolution for particles emerging from the beam-interaction region, thus allowing measuring particle tracks and secondary vertices with very high precision. The readout system of the Pixel Detector is based on a bi-directional optical data transmission system between the detector and the data acquisition system with an individual link for each of the 1744 modules. Signal conversion components are located on both ends, approximately 80 m apart. The talk will give an overview of the calibration and performance of both the detector and its optical readout. The most basic parameter to be tuned and calibrated for the detector electronics is the readout threshold of the individual pixel channels. These need to be carefully tuned to optimise position resolution a...

  4. The Phase-1 upgrade of the CMS pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Katja

    2017-02-01

    The CMS experiment features a pixel detector with three barrel layers and two discs per side, corresponding to an active silicon area of 1 m2. The detector delivered high-quality data during LHC Run 1. However, the CMS pixel detector was designed for the nominal instantaneous LHC luminosity of 1 ·1034cm-2s-1 . It is expected that the instantaneous luminosity will increase and reach twice the design value before Long Shutdown 3, scheduled for 2023. Under such conditions, the present readout chip would suffer from data loss due to buffer overflow, leading to significant inefficiencies of up to 16%. The CMS collaboration is presently constructing a new pixel detector to replace the present device during the winter shutdown 2016/2017. The design of this new detector will be outlined, the construction status summarized and the performance described.

  5. Testbeam and Laboratory Characterization of CMS 3D Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Bubna, M; Krzywda, A; Koybasi, O; Arndt, K; Bortoletto, D; Shipsey, I; Bolla, G; Kok, A; Hansen, T -E; Hansen, T A; Jensen, G U; Brom, J M; Boscardin, M; Chramowicz, J; Cumalat, J; Betta, G F Dalla; Dinardo, M; Godshalk, A; Jones, M; Krohn, M D; Kumar, A; Lei, C M; Moroni, L; Perera, L; Povoli, M; Prosser, A; Rivera, R; Solano, A; Obertino, M M; Kwan, S; Uplegger, L; Via, C D; Vigani, L; Wagner, S

    2014-01-01

    The pixel detector is the innermost tracking device in CMS, reconstructing interaction vertices and charged particle trajectories. The sensors located in the innermost layers of the pixel detector must be upgraded for the ten-fold increase in luminosity expected with the High- Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) phase. As a possible replacement for planar sensors, 3D silicon technology is under consideration due to its good performance after high radiation fluence. In this paper, we report on pre- and post- irradiation measurements for CMS 3D pixel sensors with different electrode configurations. The effects of irradiation on electrical properties, charge collection efficiency, and position resolution of 3D sensors are discussed. Measurements of various test structures for monitoring the fabrication process and studying the bulk and surface properties, such as MOS capacitors, planar and gate-controlled diodes are also presented.

  6. Modeling Radiation Damage to Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Nachman, Benjamin Philip; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector. As the detector in closest proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the HL-LHC, the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of $10^{15}$ 1 MeV $n_\\mathrm{eq}/\\mathrm{cm}^2$ and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This talk presents a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS Pixel sensors for the first time. After a thorough description of the setup, predictions for basic Pixel cluster properties are presented alongside first validation studies with Run 2 collision data.

  7. HEXITEC ASIC-a pixellated readout chip for CZT detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Lawrence [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: l.l.jones@stfc.ac.uk; Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew; Hardie, Alec [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-01

    HEXITEC is a collaborative project with the aim of developing a new range of detectors for high-energy X-ray imaging. High-energy X-ray imaging has major advantages over current lower energy imaging for the life and physical sciences, including improved phase-contrast images on larger, higher density samples and with lower accumulated doses. However, at these energies conventional silicon-based devices cannot be used, hence, the requirement for a new range of high Z-detector materials. Underpinning the HEXITEC programme are the development of a pixellated Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors and a pixellated readout ASIC which will be bump-bonded to the detector. The HEXITEC ASIC is required to have low noise (20 electrons rms) and tolerate detector leakage currents. A prototype 20x20 pixel ASIC has been developed and manufactured on a standard 0.35 {mu}m CMOS process.

  8. HEXITEC ASIC—a pixellated readout chip for CZT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lawrence; Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew; Hardie, Alec

    2009-06-01

    HEXITEC is a collaborative project with the aim of developing a new range of detectors for high-energy X-ray imaging. High-energy X-ray imaging has major advantages over current lower energy imaging for the life and physical sciences, including improved phase-contrast images on larger, higher density samples and with lower accumulated doses. However, at these energies conventional silicon-based devices cannot be used, hence, the requirement for a new range of high Z-detector materials. Underpinning the HEXITEC programme are the development of a pixellated Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors and a pixellated readout ASIC which will be bump-bonded to the detector. The HEXITEC ASIC is required to have low noise (20 electrons rms) and tolerate detector leakage currents. A prototype 20×20 pixel ASIC has been developed and manufactured on a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process.

  9. Operational Experience with the ALICE Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mastroserio, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) constitutes the two innermost layers of the Inner Tracking System of the ALICE experiment and it is the closest detector to the interaction point. As a vertex detector, it has the unique feature of generating a trigger signal that contributes to the L0 trigger of the ALICE experiment. The SPD started collecting data since the very first pp collisions at LHC in 2009 and since then it has taken part in all pp, Pb-Pb and p-Pb data taking campaigns. This contribution will present the main features of the SPD, the detector performance and the operational experience, including calibration and optimization activities from Run 1 to Run 2.

  10. From Pixels to Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownston, Lee; Jenkins, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Mission was launched in 2009 as NASAs first mission capable of finding Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. Its telescope consists of a 1.5-m primary mirror and a 0.95-m aperture. The 42 charge-coupled devices in its focal plane are read out every half hour, compressed, and then downlinked monthly. After four years, the second of four reaction wheels failed, ending the original mission. Back on earth, the Science Operations Center developed the Science Pipeline to analyze about 200,000 target stars in Keplers field of view, looking for evidence of periodic dimming suggesting that one or more planets had crossed the face of its host star. The Pipeline comprises several steps, from pixel-level calibration, through noise and artifact removal, to detection of transit-like signals and the construction of a suite of diagnostic tests to guard against false positives. The Kepler Science Pipeline consists of a pipeline infrastructure written in the Java programming language, which marshals data input to and output from MATLAB applications that are executed as external processes. The pipeline modules, which underwent continuous development and refinement even after data started arriving, employ several analytic techniques, many developed for the Kepler Project. Because of the large number of targets, the large amount of data per target and the complexity of the pipeline algorithms, the processing demands are daunting. Some pipeline modules require days to weeks to process all of their targets, even when run on NASA's 128-node Pleiades supercomputer. The software developers are still seeking ways to increase the throughput. To date, the Kepler project has discovered more than 4000 planetary candidates, of which more than 1000 have been independently confirmed or validated to be exoplanets. Funding for this mission is provided by NASAs Science Mission Directorate.

  11. Pixel detector modules performance for ATLAS IBL and future pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00355104; Pernegger, Heinz

    2015-11-06

    The ATLAS Detector is one of the four big particle physics experiments at CERN’s LHC. Its innermost tracking system consisted of the 3-Layer silicon Pixel Detector (~80M readout channels) in the first run (2010-2012). Over the past two years it was refurbished and equipped with new services as well as a new beam monitor. The major upgrade, however, was the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). It adds ~12M readout channels for improved vertexing, tracking robustness and b-tagging performance for the upcoming runs, before the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC will take place. This thesis covers two main aspects of Pixel detector performance studies: The main work was the planning, commissioning and operation of a test bench that meets the requirements of current pixel detector components. Each newly built ATLAS IBL stave was thoroughly tested, following a specifically developed procedure, and initially calibrated in that setup. A variety of production accompanying measurements as well as preliminary results after integ...

  12. Testbeam and laboratory characterization of 3D CMS pixel sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubna, Mayur; Krzwyda, Alex; Alagoz, Enver; Bortoletto, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    Future generations of colliders, like High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) at CERN will deliver much higher radiation doses to the particle detectors, specifically those closer to the beam line. Inner tracker detectors will be the most affected part, causing increased occupancy and radiation damage to Silicon detectors. Planar Silicon sensors have not shown enough radiation hardness for the innermost layers where the radiation doses can reach values around 10^16 neq/cm^2. As a possible replacement of planar pixel sensors, 3D Silicon technology is under consideration as they show higher radiation hardness, and efficiencies comparable to planar sensors. Several 3D CMS pixel designs were fabricated at FBK, CNM, and SINTEF. They were bump bonded to the CMS pixel readout chip and characterized in the laboratory using radioactive source (Sr90), and at Fermilab MTEST beam test facility. Sensors were also irradiated with 800 MeV protons at Los Alamos National Lab to study post-irradiation behavior. In addition, several diodes and test structures from FBK were studied before and after irradiation. We report the laboratory and testbeam measurement results for the irradiated 3D devices.

  13. ATLAS Pixel Detector Design For HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Ben; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) running in 2026. The new Inner Detector will be called the Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk will cover an extended eta-range: at least to |eta|<3.2, and likely up to |eta|<4.0. The ITk will be an all-Silicon based detector, consisting of a Silicon strip detector outside of a radius of 362mm, and a Silicon pixel detector inside of this radius. Several novel designs are being considered for the ITk pixel detector, to cope with high-eta charged particle tracks. These designs are grouped into 'extended' and 'inclined' design-types. Extended designs have long pixel staves with sensors parallel to the beamline. High-eta particles will therefore hit these sensors at shallow angles, leaving elongated charge clusters. The length of such a charge cluster can be used to estimate the angle of the passing particle. This information can then be used in track reconstruction to improve tracking efficiency and reduce fake rates. Inclined designs ...

  14. ATLAS Pixel Detector Design For HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00237541; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) running in 2026. The new Inner Detector will be called the Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk will cover an extended eta-range: at least to |eta|<3.2, and likely up to |eta|<4.0. The ITk will be an all-Silicon based detector, consisting of a Silicon strip detector outside of a radius of 362 mm, and a Silicon pixel detector inside of this radius. Several novel designs are being considered for the ITk pixel detector, to cope with high-eta charged particle tracks. These designs are grouped into 'extended' and 'inclined' design-types. Extended designs have long pixel staves with sensors parallel to the beamline, while inclined designs have sensors angled such that they point towards the interaction point. The relative advantages and challenges of these two classes of designs will be examined in this paper, along with the mechanical solutions being considered. Thermal management, radiation-length mapping, and electrical services will al...

  15. ATLAS pixel detector design for the HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, B.

    2017-02-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) running in 2026. The new Inner Detector is called the Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk will cover an extended η-range: at least to |η|<3.2, and likely up to 0|η|<4.. The ITk will be an all-Silicon based detector, consisting of a Silicon strip detector outside of a radius of 362 mm, and a Silicon pixel detector inside of this radius. Several novel designs are being considered for the ITk pixel detector, to cope with high-eta charged particle tracks. These designs are grouped into `extended' and `inclined' design-types. Extended designs have long pixel staves with sensors parallel to the beamline, while inclined designs have sensors angled such that they point towards the interaction point. The relative advantages and challenges of these two classes of designs will be examined in this paper, along with the mechanical solutions being considered. Thermal management, radiation-length mapping, and electrical services will also be discussed.

  16. optical links for the atlas pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Stucci, Stefania Antonia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Optical links are necessary to satisfy the high speed readout over long distances for advanced silicon detector systems. We report on the optical readout used in the newly installed central pixel layer (IBL) in the ATLAS experiment. The off detector readout employs commercial optical to analog converters, which were extensively tested for this application. Performance measurements during installation and commissioning will be shown. With the increasing instantaneous luminosity in the next years, the next layers outwards of IBL of the ATLAS Pixel detector (Layer 1 and Layer 2) will reach their bandwidth limits. A plan to increase the bandwidth by upgrading the off detector readout chain is put in place. The plan also involves new optical readout components, in particular the optical receivers, for which commercial units cannot be used and a new design has been made. The latter allows for a wider operational range in term of data frequency and light input power to match the on-detector sending units on the pres...

  17. Optical links for the ATLAS Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Stucci, Stefania Antonia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Optical links are necessary to satisfy the high speed readout over long distances for advanced silicon detector systems. We report on the optical readout used in the newly installed central pixel layer (IBL) in the ATLAS experiment. The off detector readout employs commercial optical to analog converters, which were extensively tested for this application. Performance measurements during installation and commissioning will be shown. With the increasing instantaneous luminosity in the next years, the next layers outwards of IBL of the ATLAS Pixel detector (Layer 1 and Layer 2) will reach their bandwidth limits. A plan to increase the bandwidth by upgrading the off detector readout chain is put in place. The plan also involves new optical readout components, in particular the optical receivers, for which commercial units cannot be used and a new design has been made. The latter allows for a wider operational range in term of data frequency and light input power to match the on-detector sending units on the pres...

  18. The Pixels system: last but not late!

    CERN Multimedia

    Kevin Einsweiler

    The Pixel Detector for ATLAS is one of the smallest, but most challenging components of the experiment. It lives in the dangerous territory directly outside the beampipe, where the radiation environment is particularly fierce, and it must be roughly one million times more radiation-hard than its human designers. Starting at a radius of just 5cm from the interaction point where the proton beams collide, it occupies a volume of slightly more than one meter in length and a half meter in diameter. In this compact region, there are eighty million channels of electronics (most of the electronics channels in ATLAS!), each capable of measuring the charge deposited by a track in a silicon pixel measuring only 50 microns by 400 microns in size (a volume of 0.005 cubic millimeters). A total cooling capacity of 15 KWatts is available to keep it operating comfortably at -5C. This detector is built around, and provides the support for, the central beampipe of ATLAS. It is supported on carbon fiber rails inside of the Pix...

  19. Bump bonding of pixel systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, M. E-mail: manuel.lozano@cnm.es; Cabruja, E.; Collado, A.; Santander, J.; Ullan, M

    2001-11-01

    A pixel detector consists of an array of radiation sensing elements which is connected to an electronic read-out unit. Many different ways of making this connection between these two different devices are currently being used or considered to be used in the next future. Bonding techniques such as flip chip technology can present real advantages because they allow very fine pitch and a high number of I/Os. This paper presents a review of the different flip chip technologies available and their suitability for manufacturing pixel detectors. The particular problems concerning testing of pixel detectors and thermal issues related to them are pointed out.

  20. Bump bonding of pixel systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, M; Collado, A; Santander, J; Ullán, M

    2001-01-01

    A pixel detector consists of an array of radiation sensing elements which is connected to an electronic read-out unit. Many different ways of making this connection between these two different devices are currently being used or considered to be used in the next future. Bonding techniques such as flip chip technology can present real advantages because they allow very fine pitch and a high number of I/Os. This paper presents a review of the different flip chip technologies available and their suitability for manufacturing pixel detectors. The particular problems concerning testing of pixel detectors and thermal issues related to them are pointed out.

  1. CMS Barrel Pixel Detector Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Kästli, H C; Erdmann, W; Gabathuler, K; Hörmann, C; Horisberger, Roland Paul; König, S; Kotlinski, D; Meier, B; Robmann, P; Rohe, T; Streuli, S

    2007-01-01

    The pixel detector is the innermost tracking device of the CMS experiment at the LHC. It is built from two independent sub devices, the pixel barrel and the end disks. The barrel consists of three concentric layers around the beam pipe with mean radii of 4.4, 7.3 and 10.2 cm. There are two end disks on each side of the interaction point at 34.5 cm and 46.5 cm. This article gives an overview of the pixel barrel detector, its mechanical support structure, electronics components, services and its expected performance.

  2. Combustion characteristics of eastern white pine bark and Douglas fir planer shavings. Technical Progress Report No. 5, September 16, 1977--September 15, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junge, D.C.

    1978-12-01

    Significant quantities of wood residue fuels are presently being used in industrial steam generating facilities. Recent studies indicate that substantial additional quantities of wood residue fuels are available for energy generation in the form of steam and/or electricity. A limited data base on the combustion characteristics of wood residue fuels has resulted in the installation and operation of inefficient combustion systems for these fuels. This investigation of the combustion characteristics of wood residue fuels was undertaken to provide a data base which could be used to optimize the combustion of such fuels. Optimization of the combustion process in industrial boilers serves to improve combustion efficiency and to reduce air pollutant emissions generated in the combustion process. Data are presented on the combustion characteristics of eastern white pine bark mixed with Douglas fir planer shavings.

  3. The Phase-2 ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Benoit, Mathieu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the “ITk” (Inner Tracker). The innermost portion of the ITk will consist of a pixel detector with stave-like support structures in the most central region and ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions; there may also be novel inclined support structures in the barrel-endcap overlap regions. The new detector could have as much as 14 m2 of sensitive silicon. Support structures will be based on low mass, highly stable and highly thermally conductive carbon-based materials cooled by evaporative carbon dioxide. The ITk will be instrumented with new sensors and readout electronics to provide improved tracking performance compared to the current detector. All the module components must be performant enough and robust enough to cope with the expected high particle multiplicity and severe radiation background of the High-Luminosity LHC. Readout...

  4. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus crucial for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via front-end chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-on-n silicon substrates. In this paper results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including calibration procedures, detector performance and measurements of radiation damage. The detector performance is excellent: more than 95% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the des...

  5. The pixel tracking telescope at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Simon; Lei, CM [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Ngadiuba, Jennifer [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, and Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Prosser, Alan; Rivera, Ryan [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Terzo, Stefano [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, and Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Turqueti, Marcos [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Uplegger, Lorenzo, E-mail: uplegger@fnal.gov [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Vigani, Luigi; Dinardo, Mauro E. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    An all silicon pixel telescope has been assembled and used at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) since 2009 to provide precise tracking information for different test beam experiments with a wide range of Detectors Under Test (DUTs) requiring high resolution measurement of the track impact point. The telescope is based on CMS pixel modules left over from the CMS forward pixel production. Eight planes are arranged to achieve a resolution of less than 8 μm on the 120 GeV proton beam transverse coordinate at the DUT position. In order to achieve such resolution with 100×150 μm{sup 2} pixel cells, the planes were tilted to 25 degrees to maximize charge sharing between pixels. Crucial for obtaining this performance is the alignment software, called Monicelli, specifically designed and optimized for this system. This paper will describe the telescope hardware, the data acquisition system and the alignment software constituting this particle tracking system for test beam users.

  6. 160×120 uncooled amorphous silicon TEC-less detector with 25 μm pixel-pitch%像元间距为25 μm、160×120元无热电制冷器的非致冷非晶硅探测器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.L.Tissot

    2007-01-01

    介绍用非晶硅微型辐射热量计制成的160×120元非致冷红外焦平面阵列的特点和性能,该阵列集成在一个无铅芯片载体封装中,像素间距为25 μm,适合于大批量生产.25 μm像元结构得益于较小的热时间常数,该技术使我们能够设计出更高的热隔离性能,从而能以35 μm技术为基础开发出25 μm技术.通过采用新的像素设计和更进一步推动设计方法,在没有采用复杂昂贵的双层结构的前提下,保持了较高填充因子.从读出集成电路结构、封装、可操作性和光电性能入手对该探测器进行了介绍.为该探测器设计了一种新型集成读出电路.可以通过串行链接对增益、图像翻转和积分时间等高级功能进行操控,降低电气对接的数量.研制的小型无铅芯片载体封装便于大规模生产探测器,主要用途为便携式摄像机或头盔摄像机.%This paper reviews characteristics and performance of a 160×120 uncooled infrared focal plane array made from amorphous silicon microbolometers with a pixel-pitch of 25 μm,integrated in a LCC package compatible with mass production.The 25 μm pixel architecture profits from the low thermal time constant which characterizes our technology, to design a higher pixel thermal insulation and therefore to develop a 25 μm version from the well mastered 35 μm technology. Thanks to a new pixel design and by pushing the design rules even further, a high fill factor has been kept, without the use of complex, as well as expensive, two-level structure. The detector is described in terms of ROIC architecture, packaging, operability and electro-optical performances.A new read out integrated circuit structure has been designed for this detector. High level functions like gain, image flip and integration time could be operated through a serial link to minimize the number of electrical interconnections.A small LCC package has been developed enabling a mass production of

  7. Performance study of new pixel hybrid photon detector prototypes for the LHCb RICH counters

    CERN Document Server

    Moritz, M; Allebone, L; Campbell, M; Gys, Thierry; Newby, C; Pickford, A; Piedigrossi, D; Wyllie, K

    2004-01-01

    A pixel Hybrid Photon Detector was developed according to the specific requirements of the LHCb ring imaging Cerenkov counters. This detector comprises a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a binary readout chip to achieve a 25 ns fast readout and a high signal-to-noise ratio. The detector performance was characterized by varying the pixel threshold, the tube high voltage, the silicon bias voltage and by the determination of the photoelectron detection efficiency. Furthermore accelerated aging and high pixel occupancy tests were performed to verify the long term stability. The results were obtained using Cerenkov light and a fast pulsed light emitting diode. All measurements results are within the expectations and fulfill the design goals. (8 refs).

  8. The LHCb Vertex Locator (VELO) Pixel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Buchanan, Emma

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and the decays of beauty and charm hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. There is a planned upgrade during Long Shutdown 2 (LS2), expected in 2019, which will allow the detector to run at higher luminosities by transforming the entire readout to a trigger-less system. This will include a substantial upgrade of the Vertex Locator (VELO), the silicon tracker that surrounds the LHCb interaction region. The VELO is moving from silicon strip technology to hybrid pixel sensors, where silicon sensors are bonded to VeloPix ASICs. Sensor prototypes have undergone rigorous testing using the Timepix3 Telescope at the SPS, CERN. The main components of the upgrade are summarised and testbeam results presented.

  9. A counting pixel chip and sensor system for X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, P.; Hausmann, J.; Helmich, A.; Lindner, M.; Wermes, N. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany). Physikalisches Institut; Blanquart, L. [CNRS, Marseille (France). Centre de Physique des Particules

    1999-08-01

    Results obtained with a (photon) counting pixel imaging chip connected to a silicon pixel sensor using the bump and flip-chip technology are presented. The performance of the chip electronics is characterized by an average equivalent noise charge (ENC) below 135 e and a threshold spread of less than 35 e after individual threshold adjust, both measured with a sensor attached. First results on the imaging performance are also reported.

  10. Probing and irradiation tests of ALICE pixel chip wafers and sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Cinausero, M; Antinori, F; Chochula, P; Dinapoli, R; Dima, R; Fabris, D; Galet, G; Lunardon, M; Manea, C; Marchini, S; Martini, S; Moretto, S; Pepato, Adriano; Prete, G; Riedler, P; Scarlassara, F; Segato, G F; Soramel, F; Stefanini, G; Turrisi, R; Vannucci, L; Viesti, G

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) project a system dedicated to the tests of the ALICE1LHCb chip wafers has been assembled and is now in use for the selection of pixel chips to be bump-bonded to sensor ladders. In parallel, radiation hardness tests of the SPD silicon sensors have been carried out using the 27 MeV proton beam delivered by the XTU TANDEM accelerator at the SIRAD facility in LNL. In this paper we describe the wafer probing and irradiation set-ups and we report the obtained results. (6 refs).

  11. A Leakage Current-based Measurement of the Radiation Damage in the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelov, Igor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A measurement has been made of the radiation damage incurred by the ATLAS Pixel Detector barrel silicon modules from the beginning of operations through the end of 2012. This translates to hadronic fluence received over the full period of operation at energies up to and including 8 TeV. The measurement is based on a per-module measurement of the silicon sensor leakage current. The results are presented as a function of integrated luminosity and compared to predictions by the Hamburg Model. This information can be used to predict limits on the lifetime of the Pixel Detector due to current, for various operating scenarios.

  12. Qualification of the modules for the Phase 1 upgrade of the CMS forward pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving; CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The innermost component of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector, the silicon pixel tracker, will be replaced by a new device in early 2017 to cope with the significant increase in instantaneous luminosity expected for the remainder of Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider. The upgraded detector is composed of two subcomponents: the barrel pixel (BPIX) and the forward pixel (FPIX). In this work, we describe the testing and calibration procedures that the FPIX detector subcomponents underwent as well as the quality assurance criteria used for selecting the best detector modules for the final installation. NSF

  13. Energy-recycling pixel for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Che-Yu; Cho, Ting-Yi; Chen, Yen-Yu; Yang, Chih-Jen; Meng, Chao-Yu; Yang, Chieh-Hung; Yang, Po-Chuan; Chang, Hsu-Yu; Hsueh, Chun-Yuan; Wu, Chung-Chih; Lee, Si-Chen

    2007-06-01

    The authors report a pixel structure for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays that has a hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cell inserted between the driving polycrystalline Si thin-film transistor and the pixel OLED. Such an active-matrix OLED pixel structure not only exhibits a reduced reflection (and thus improved contrast) compared to conventional OLEDs but also is capable of recycling both incident photon energies and internally generated OLED radiation. Such a feature of energy recycling may be of use for portable/mobile electronics, which are particularly power aware.

  14. Commissioning of the upgraded ATLAS Pixel Detector for Run2 at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00016406

    2016-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), a fourth layer of pixel detectors, installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and of the IBL project as well as early performance tests using cosmic rays and beam data will be presented.

  15. Commissioning of the upgraded ATLAS Pixel Detector for Run2 at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobos, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.dobos@cern.ch

    2016-07-11

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to the surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer, a fourth layer of pixel detectors, installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and of the IBL project as well as early performance tests using cosmic rays and beam data will be presented.

  16. X-ray imaging with photon counting hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Manolopoulos, S; Campbell, M; Snoeys, W; Heijne, Erik H M; Pernigotti, E; Raine, C; Smith, K; Watt, J; O'Shea, V; Ludwig, J; Schwarz, C

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor pixel detectors, originally developed for particle physics experiments, have been studied as X-ray imaging devices. The performance of devices using the OMEGA 3 read-out chip bump-bonded to pixellated silicon semiconductor detectors is characterised in terms of their signal-to-noise ratio when exposed to 60 kVp X-rays. Although parts of the devices achieve values of this ratio compatible with the noise being photon statistics limited, this is not found to hold for the whole pixel matrix, resulting in the global signal-to-noise ratio being compromised. First results are presented of X-ray images taken with a gallium arsenide pixel detector bump-bonded to a new read-out chip, (MEDIPIX), which is a single photon counting read-out chip incorporating a 15-bit counter in every pixel. (author)

  17. X-ray imaging with photon counting hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolopoulos, S.; Bates, R.; Campbell, M.; Snoeys, W.; Heijne, E.; Pernigotti, E.; Raine, C.; Smith, K. E-mail: k.smith@physics.gla.ac.uk; Watt, J.; O' Shea, V.; Ludwig, J.; Schwarz, C

    1999-09-11

    Semiconductor pixel detectors, originally developed for particle physics experiments, have been studied as X-ray imaging devices. The performance of devices using the {omega}3 read-out chip bump-bonded to pixellated silicon semiconductor detectors is characterised in terms of their signal-to-noise ratio when exposed to 60 kVp X-rays. Although parts of the devices achieve values of this ratio compatible with the noise being photon statistics limited, this is not found to hold for the whole pixel matrix, resulting in the global signal-to-noise ratio being compromised. First results are presented of X-ray images taken with a gallium arsenide pixel detector bump-bonded to a new read-out chip, (MEDIPIX), which is a single photon counting read-out chip incorporating a 15-bit counter in every pixel. (author)

  18. Running experience with the DELPHI pixel detector reflections on design characteristics and system features

    CERN Document Server

    Heuser, J M

    1999-01-01

    The DELPHI experiment at LEP is the first collider experiment with hybrid pixel detectors contributing to its track reconstruction. The pixel detector has been installed in 1996 with the final DELPHI silicon tracker, an assembly of microstrip, ministrip and pixel detectors optimized for the operation at LEP2. It was completed for the physics period in 1997. The pixel detector comprises 1.2 million detector cells of 330*330 mu m/sup 2/. 152 detector modules are arranged in 4 inclined cone-shaped layers which cover polar angles from 10 degrees to 25 degrees . Experience on the system's features has been gained during three years of operation. The article intends to provide information on positive and critical aspects which might be useful for designers of pixel detector systems in forthcoming experiments. (4 refs).

  19. MONOLITHIC ACTIVE PIXEL MATRIX WITH BINARY COUNTERS IN AN SOI PROCESS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUPTUCH,G.; YAREMA, R.

    2007-06-07

    The design of a Prototype monolithic active pixel matrix, designed in a 0.15 {micro}m CMOS SOI Process, is presented. The process allowed connection between the electronics and the silicon volume under the layer of buried oxide (BOX). The small size vias traversing through the BOX and implantation of small p-type islands in the n-type bulk result in a monolithic imager. During the acquisition time, all pixels register individual radiation events incrementing the counters. The counting rate is up to 1 MHz per pixel. The contents of counters are shifted out during the readout phase. The designed prototype is an array of 64 x 64 pixels and the pixel size is 26 x 26 {micro}m{sup 2}.

  20. Simulation of Silicon Photomultiplier Signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifert, Stefan; van Dam, Herman T.; Huizenga, Jan; Vinke, Ruud; Dendooven, Peter; Loehner, Herbert; Schaart, Dennis R.

    2009-01-01

    In a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM), also referred to as multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC), many Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GM-APDs) are connected in parallel so as to combine the photon counting capabilities of each of these so-called microcells into a proportional light sensor. The

  1. Simulation of silicon photomultiplier signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifert, S.; Van Dam, H.T.; Huizenga, J.; Vinke, R.; Dendooven, P.; Löhner, H.; Schaart, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    In a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM), also referred to as multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC), many Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GM-APDs) are connected in parallel so as to combine the photon counting capabilities of each of these so-called microcells into a proportional light sensor. The

  2. Physics benchmarks for the Belle II pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Gioi, L.

    2015-03-01

    SuperKEKB, the massive upgrade of the asymmetric electron positron collider KEKB in Tsukuba, Japan, aims at an integrated luminosity in excess of 50 ab-1. It will deliver an instantaneous luminosity of 8 ṡ 1035 cm-2s-1, which is 40 times higher than the world record set by KEKB. At this high luminosity, a large increase of the background relative to the previous KEKB machine is expected. This and the more demanding physics rate ask for an entirely new tracking system. The expected increase of background would in fact create an unacceptable high occupancy for a silicon strip detector, making an efficient tracks reconstruction and vertexing impossible. The solution for Belle II is a pixel detector which intrinsically provides three dimensional space points. The new two layers silicon pixel vertex detector, based on DEPFET technology, will be mounted directly on the beam pipe. It will provide an accurate measurement of the tracks position in order to precisely reconstruct the decay vertex of the short living particles.In this paper we will discuss the physics performance of the Belle II pixel vertex detector which will be essential for the precise measurement of the CP parameters in various B and D decay modes.

  3. Imaging by photon counting with 256x256 pixel matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlustos, Lukas; Campbell, Michael; Heijne, Erik H. M.; Llopart, Xavier

    2004-09-01

    Using 0.25µm standard CMOS we have developed 2-D semiconductor matrix detectors with sophisticated functionality integrated inside each pixel of a hybrid sensor module. One of these sensor modules is a matrix of 256x256 square 55µm pixels intended for X-ray imaging. This device is called 'Medipix2' and features a fast amplifier and two-level discrimination for signals between 1000 and 100000 equivalent electrons, with overall signal noise ~150 e- rms. Signal polarity and comparator thresholds are programmable. A maximum count rate of nearly 1 MHz per pixel can be achieved, which corresponds to an average flux of 3x10exp10 photons per cm2. The selected signals can be accumulated in each pixel in a 13-bit register. The serial readout takes 5-10 ms. A parallel readout of ~300 µs could also be used. Housekeeping functions such as local dark current compensation, test pulse generation, silencing of noisy pixels and threshold tuning in each pixel contribute to the homogeneous response over a large sensor area. The sensor material can be adapted to the energy of the X-rays. Best results have been obtained with high-resistivity silicon detectors, but also CdTe and GaAs detectors have been used. The lowest detectable X-ray energy was about 4 keV. Background measurements have been made, as well as measurements of the uniformity of imaging by photon counting. Very low photon count rates are feasible and noise-free at room temperature. The readout matrix can be used also with visible photons if an energy or charge intensifier structure is interposed such as a gaseous amplification layer or a microchannel plate or acceleration field in vacuum.

  4. Testbeam and laboratory test results of irradiated 3D CMS pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubna, Mayur [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Purdue University, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Alagoz, Enver, E-mail: enver.alagoz@cern.ch [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Cervantes, Mayra; Krzywda, Alex; Arndt, Kirk [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Obertino, Margherita; Solano, Ada [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienzadella Informazione, Universitá di Trento, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Menace, Dario; Moroni, Luigi [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Universitá degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milano (Italy); Uplegger, Lorenzo; Rivera, Ryan [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States); Osipenkov, Ilya [Texas A and M University, Department of Physics, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Andresen, Jeff [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States); Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Boscardin, Maurizio [Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Marie Brom, Jean [Strasbourg IPHC, Institut Pluriedisciplinaire Hubert Curien, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Brosius, Richard [State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY), Department of Physics, Buffalo, NY 14260-1500 (United States); Chramowicz, John [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States); and others

    2013-12-21

    The CMS silicon pixel detector is the tracking device closest to the LHC p–p collisions, which precisely reconstructs the charged particle trajectories. The planar technology used in the current innermost layer of the pixel detector will reach the design limit for radiation hardness at the end of Phase I upgrade and will need to be replaced before the Phase II upgrade in 2020. Due to its unprecedented performance in harsh radiation environments, 3D silicon technology is under consideration as a possible replacement of planar technology for the High Luminosity-LHC or HL-LHC. 3D silicon detectors are fabricated by the Deep Reactive-Ion-Etching (DRIE) technique which allows p- and n-type electrodes to be processed through the silicon substrate as opposed to being implanted through the silicon surface. The 3D CMS pixel devices presented in this paper were processed at FBK. They were bump bonded to the current CMS pixel readout chip, tested in the laboratory, and testbeams carried out at FNAL with the proton beam of 120 GeV/c. In this paper we present the laboratory and beam test results for the irradiated 3D CMS pixel devices. -- Highlights: •Pre-irradiation and post-irradiation electrical properties of 3D sensors and 3D diodes from various FBK production batches were measured and analyzed. •I–T measurements of gamma irradiated diodes were analyzed to understand leakage current generation mechanism in 3D diodes. •Laboratory measurements: signal to noise ratio and charge collection efficiency of 3D sensors before and after irradiation. •Testbeam measurements: pre- and post-irradiation pixel cell efficiency and position resolution of 3D sensors.

  5. WFC3 Pixel Area Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalirai, J. S.; Cox, C.; Dressel, L.; Fruchter, A.; Hack, W.; Kozhurina-Platais, V.; Mack, J.

    2010-04-01

    We present the pixel area maps (PAMs) for the WFC3/UVIS and WFC3/IR detectors, and discuss the normalization of these images. HST processed flt images suffer from geometric distortion and therefore have pixel areas that vary on the sky. The counts (electrons) measured for a source on these images depends on the position of the source on the detector, an effect that is implicitly corrected when these images are multidrizzled into drz files. The flt images can be multiplied by the PAMs to yield correct and uniform counts for a given source irrespective of its location on the image. To ensure consistency between the count rate measured for sources in drz images and near the center of flt images, we set the normalization of the PAMs to unity at a reference pixel near the center of the UVIS mosaic and IR detector, and set the SCALE in the IDCTAB equal to the square root of the area of this reference pixel. The implications of this choice for photometric measurements are discussed.

  6. Module and Electronics Developments for the ATLAS ITK Pixel System

    CERN Document Server

    Nellist, Clara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS is preparing for an extensive modification of its detector in the course of the planned HL-LHC accelerator upgrade around 2025 which includes a replacement of the entire tracking system by an all-silicon detector (Inner Tracker, ITk). The five innermost layers of ITk will comprise of a pixel detector built of new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the severe HL-LHC environment in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total area of the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m$^{2}$, depending on the final layout choice that is expected to take place in early 2017. An intense R\\&D activity is taking place in the field of planar, 3D, CMOS sensors to identify the optimal technology for the different pixel layers. In parallel various sensor-chip interconnection options are explored to identify reliable technologies when employing 100-150~$\\mu$m thin chips. While the new read-out chip is being developed by the RD53 Collaboration, the pixel off de...

  7. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pernegger, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS currently develops a new pixel detector for the first upgrade of its tracking system: The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer Pixel detector (IBL). The new layer will be inserted between the inner most layer of the current pixel detector and a new beam pipe. The sensors are placed at a radius of 3.4 cm. The expected high radiation levels and high hit occupancy require new developments for front-end chip and sensors which can stand radiation levels beyond 5$ imes$10$^{15}$ n$_{eq}$/cm$^{2}$ . ATLAS has developed the new FEI4 chip and new silicon sensors to be used as pixel modules. Furthermore a new lightweight support and cooling structure was developed, which minimizes the overall radiation length and allows detector cooling with CO$_{2}$ at -40 $^{circ}$C coolant temperature. Currently the overall integration and installation procedure is being developed and tested ready for installation in 2013. The paper summarizes the current state of development of IBL modules, first preliminary test results of the new chip ...

  8. Overview of the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pernegger, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS currently develops a new pixel detector for the first upgrade of its tracking system: The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer Pixel detector (IBL). The new layer will be inserted between the inner most layer of the current pixel detector and a new beam pipe. The sensors are placed at a radius of 3.4cm. The expected high radiation levels and high hit occupancy require new developments for front-end chip and the sensor which can stand radiation levels beyond 5E15 neq/cm2. ATLAS has developed the new FEI4 and new silicon sensors to be used as pixel modules. Furthermore a new lightweight support and cooling structure was developed, which minimizes the overall radiation and allows detector cooling with CO2 at -40C coolant temperature. Currently the overall integration and installation procedure is being developed and test ready for installation in ATLAS in 2013. The presentation summarizes the current state of development of IBL modules, first preliminary test results of the new chip with new sensors, the construction ...

  9. Module and Electronics Developments for the ATLAS ITK Pixel System

    CERN Document Server

    Rummler, Andr{e}; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown around 2025 by an all-silicon detector (Inner Tracker, ITk). The pixel detector will be composed by the five innermost layers, instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the severe HL-LHC environment in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total area of the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m^2, depending on the final layout choice that is expected to take place in early 2017. Different designs of planar, 3D, CMOS sensors are being investigated to identify the optimal technology for the different pixel layers. In parallel sensor-chip interconnection options are evaluated in collaboration with industrial partners to identify reliable technologies when employing 100-150 μm thin chips. While the new read-out chip is being developed by the RD53 Collaboration, the pixel off detector read-out electronics will be implemented in the frame...

  10. Electron imaging with Medipix2 hybrid pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    McMullan, G; Chen, S; Henderson, R; Llopart, X; Summerfield, C; Tlustos, L; Faruqi, A R

    2007-01-01

    The electron imaging performance of Medipix2 is described. Medipix2 is a hybrid pixel detector composed of two layers. It has a sensor layer and a layer of readout electronics, in which each 55 μm×55 μm pixel has upper and lower energy discrimination and MHz rate counting. The sensor layer consists of a 300 μm slab of pixellated monolithic silicon and this is bonded to the readout chip. Experimental measurement of the detective quantum efficiency, DQE(0) at 120 keV shows that it can reach 85% independent of electron exposure, since the detector has zero noise, and the DQE(Nyquist) can reach 35% of that expected for a perfect detector (4/π2). Experimental measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF) at Nyquist resolution for 120 keV electrons using a 60 keV lower energy threshold, yields a value that is 50% of that expected for a perfect detector (2/π). Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of electron tracks and energy deposited in adjacent pixels have been performed and used to calculate expected v...

  11. Online Calibration and Performance of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It consists of 1744 silicon sensors equipped with approximately 80 million electronic channels, providing typically three measurement points with high resolution for particles emerging from the beam-interaction region, thus allowing measuring particle tracks and secondary vertices with very high precision. The readout system of the Pixel Detector is based on a bi-directional optical data transmission system between the detector and the data acquisition system with an individual link for each of the 1744 modules. Signal conversion components are located on both ends, approximately 80 m apart. This paper describes the tuning and calibration of the optical links and the detector modules, including measurements of threshold, noise, charge measurement, timing performance and the sensor leakage current.

  12. Signal variations in high granularity Si pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Tlustos, L; Heijne, Erik H M; Llopart-Cudie, Xavier

    2004-01-01

    Fixed pattern noise is one of the limiting factors of image quality and degrades the achievable spatial resolution. In the case of silicon sensors non-uniformities due to doping inhomogeneities can be limited by operating the sensor in strong overdepletion. For high granularity photon counting pixel detectors an additional high frequency interpixel signal variation is an important factor for the achievable signal to noise ratio (SNR). It is common practice to apply flatfield corrections to increase the SNR of the detector system. For the case of direct conversion detectors it can be shown that the Poisson limit can be reached for floodfield irradiation. However when used for imaging with spectral X-ray sources flatfield corrections are less effective. This is partly a consequence of charge sharing between adjacent pixels, which gives rise to an effective energy spectrum seen by the readout, which is different from the spectral content of the incident beam. In this paper we present simulations and measurements...

  13. Study of the CMS Phase 1 Pixel Pilot Blade Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system. It was replaced in March 2017 with an upgraded one, called the Phase 1 upgrade detector. During Long Shutdown 1, a third disk was inserted into the present forward pixel detector with eight prototype blades constructed using a new digital read-out chip architecture and a prototype readout chain. Testing the performance of these pilot modules enabled us to gain experience with the Phase 1 upgrade modules. In this document, the data reconstruction with the pilot system is presented. The hit finding efficiency and residual of these new modules is also shown, and how these observables were used to adjust the timing of the pilot blades.

  14. Pixel detector system development at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, J.; Horswell, I.; Gimenez, E. N.; Tartoni, N.

    2010-10-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors consisting of an array of silicon photodiodes bump-bonded to CMOS read-out chips provide high signal-to-noise ratio and high dynamic range compared to CCD-based detectors and Image Plates. These detector features are important for SAXS experiments where a wide range of intensities are present in the images. For time resolved SAXS experiments, high frame rates are compulsory. The latest CMOS read-out chip developed by the MEDIPIX collaboration provides high frame rate and continuous acquisition mode. A read-out system for an array of MEDIPIX3 sensors is under development at Diamond Light Source. This system will support a full resolution frame rate of 1 kHz at a pixel counter depth of 12-bit and a frame rate of 30 kHz at a counter depth of 1 bit. Details concerning system design and MEDIPIX sensors characterization are presented.

  15. Validation studies of the ATLAS pixel detector control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultes, Joachim [University of Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany)]. E-mail: schultes@physik.uni-wuppertal.de; Becks, Karl-Heinz [University of Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Flick, Tobias [University of Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Henss, Tobias [University of Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Imhaeuser, Martin [University of Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Kersten, Susanne [University of Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Kind, Peter [University of Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Lantzsch, Kerstin [University of Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Maettig, Peter [University of Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Reeves, Kendall [University of Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Weingarten, Jens [University of Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2006-09-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector consists of 1744 identical silicon pixel modules arranged in three barrel layers providing coverage for the central region, and three disk layers on either side of the primary interaction point providing coverage of the forward regions. Once deployed into the experiment, the detector will employ optical data transfer, with the requisite powering being provided by a complex system of commercial and custom-made power supplies. However, during normal performance and production tests in the laboratory, only single modules are operated and electrical readout is used. In addition, standard laboratory power supplies are used. In contrast to these normal tests, the data discussed here were obtained from a multi-module assembly which was powered and read out using production items: the optical data path, the final design power supply system using close to final services, and the Detector Control System (DCS)

  16. Operational performance and status of the ATLAS pixel detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ince, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The record breaking instantaneous luminosities of 7.7 x 10^33 cm-2 s-1 recently surpassed at the Large Hadron Collider generate a rapidly increasing particle fluence in the ATLAS Pixel Detector. As the radiation dose accumulates, the first effects of radiation damage are now observable in the silicon sensors. A regular monitoring program has been conducted and reveals an increase in the silicon leakage ...

  17. Status and future of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rozanov, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The record breaking instantaneous luminosities of 7.7 x 10^33 cm-2 s-1 recently surpassed at the Large Hadron Collider generate a rapidly increasing particle fluence in the ATLAS Pixel Detector. As the radiation dose accumulates, the first effects of radiation damage are now observable in the silicon sensors. A regular monitoring program has been conducted and reveals an increase in the silicon leakage ...

  18. Operational Performance and Status of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jentzsch, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The record breaking instantaneous luminosities of 7.7 x 10^33 cm-2 s-1 recently surpassed at the Large Hadron Collider generate a rapidly increasing particle fluence in the ATLAS Pixel Detector. As the radiation dose accumulates, the first effects of radiation damage are now observable in the silicon sensors. A regular monitoring program has been conducted and reveals an increase in the silicon leakage ...

  19. Pixel hybrid photon detectors for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Somerville, L

    2005-01-01

    A Pixel Hybrid Photon Detector (pixel HPD) has been developed for the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. The pixel HPD is a vacuum tube with a multi-alkali photocathode, high-voltage cross- focused electron optics and an anode consisting of a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a CMOS readout chip; the readout chip is thus fully encapsulated in the device. The pixel HPD fulfils the stringent requirements for the RICH detectors of LHCb, combining single photon sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratio and fast readout with an ~8cm diameter active area and an effective pixel size of 2.5mm 2.5mm at the photocathode. The performance and characteristics of two prototype pixel HPDs have been studied in laboratory measurements and in recent beam tests. The results of all measurements agree with expectations and fulfil the LHCb RICH requirements. In readiness for production of the ~500pixel HPDs for the RICH detectors, a test programme was designed and implemented to ensure component quality control at eac...

  20. PLC和变频器在龙门刨床控制中的应用%The Application of the PLC and Inverter In the Planer Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石征锦; 孙继亮

    2011-01-01

    Requirements of the main drag control circuit in planer and design methods and procedures with PLC and Inverter are introduced. Then the PLC ladder programming procedures and Inverter parameter settings are presented. Through Machine reconstruction with PLC and Inverter, driving control is move simplified than original machine tool control. A lot of relay components is saved and maintenance and check is easy. The machine works more efficiently.%叙述了龙门刨床主拖动控制线路的控制要求及采用PLC和变频器进行改造设计的方法和步骤,给出PLC编程程序梯形图、变频器参数设置表.通过PLC和变频器对龙门刨床控制系统的改造,简化了原机床控制电路,节省大量的继电器元件,维修方便,使机床的工作效率更高.

  1. Effect of Pixel's Spatial Characteristics on Recognition of Isolated Pixelized Chinese Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Hong; Liu, Wei; Wu, Yaowei

    2015-01-01

    The influence of pixel's spatial characteristics on recognition of isolated Chinese character was investigated using simulated prosthestic vision. The accuracy of Chinese character recognition with 4 kinds of pixel number (6*6, 8*8, 10*10, and 12*12 pixel array) and 3 kinds of pixel shape (Square, Dot and Gaussian) and different pixel spacing were tested through head-mounted display (HMD). A captured image of Chinese characters in font style of Hei were pixelized with Square, Dot and Gaussian pixel. Results showed that pixel number was the most important factor which could affect the recognition of isolated pixelized Chinese Chartars and the accuracy of recognition increased with the addition of pixel number. 10*10 pixel array could provide enough information for people to recognize an isolated Chinese character. At low resolution (6*6 and 8*8 pixel array), there were little difference of recognition accuracy between different pixel shape and different pixel spacing. While as for high resolution (10*10 and 12*12 pixel array), the fluctuation of pixel shape and pixel spacing could not affect the performance of recognition of isolated pixelized Chinese Character.

  2. ATLAS Phase-II-Upgrade Pixel Data Transmission Development

    CERN Document Server

    Wensing, Marius; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS tracking system will be replaced by an all-silicon detector (ITk) in the course of the planned HL-LHC accelerator upgrade around 2025. The readout of the ITk pixel system will be most challenging in terms of data rate and readout speed. Simulation of the on-detector electronics based on the currently foreseen trigger rate of 1 MHz indicate that a readout speed of up to 5 Gbps per data link is necessary. Due to radiation levels, the first part of transmission has to be implemented electrically. System simulation and test results of cable candidates will be presented.

  3. ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade Pixel Data Transmission Development

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jason; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS tracking system will be replaced by an all-silicon detector (ITk) in the course of the planned HL-LHC accelerator upgrade around 2025. The readout of the ITk pixel system will be most challenging in terms of data rate and readout speed. Simulation of the on-detector electronics based on the currently foreseen trigger rate of 1 MHz indicate that a readout speed of up to 5 Gbps per data link is necessary. Due to radiation levels, the first part of transmission has to be implemented electrically. System simulation and test results of cable candidates will be presented.

  4. Development of a pixel sensor with fine space-time resolution based on SOI technology for the ILC vertex detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Shun; Togawa, Manabu; Tsuji, Ryoji; Mori, Teppei; Yamada, Miho; Arai, Yasuo; Tsuboyama, Toru; Hanagaki, Kazunori

    2017-02-01

    We have been developing a new monolithic pixel sensor with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology for the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detector system. The SOI monolithic pixel detector is realized using standard CMOS circuits fabricated on a fully depleted sensor layer. The new SOI sensor SOFIST can store both the position and timing information of charged particles in each 20×20 μm2 pixel. The position resolution is further improved by the position weighted with the charges spread to multiple pixels. The pixel also records the hit timing with an embedded time-stamp circuit. The sensor chip has column-parallel analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) circuits and zero-suppression logic for high-speed data readout. We are designing and evaluating some prototype sensor chips for optimizing and minimizing the pixel circuit.

  5. SAR Image Complex Pixel Representations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Complex pixel values for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of uniform distributed clutter can be represented as either real/imaginary (also known as I/Q) values, or as Magnitude/Phase values. Generally, these component values are integers with limited number of bits. For clutter energy well below full-scale, Magnitude/Phase offers lower quantization noise than I/Q representation. Further improvement can be had with companding of the Magnitude value.

  6. High Quality Factor MBE-grown Aluminum on Silicon Planar Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megrant, Anthony; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Quintana, C.; Campbell, B.; Barends, R.; Chen, Y.; Fowler, A.; Hoi, I.-C.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Mutus, J.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T.; Palmstrom, C.; Martinis, J. M.; Cleland, A. N.

    2015-03-01

    Linear arrays of planer Xmon qubit circuits fabricated using thin aluminum films on sapphire substrates have resulted in long coherence times and high fidelity gates. Scaling up to larger circuits, including two-dimensional qubit arrays, may however benefit from building circuits on silicon instead of sapphire substrates. I will present recent tests in this direction, reporting on measurements of superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators fabricated using aluminum films deposited on silicon in a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system. These resonators exhibit exceptional performance, with quality factors at low temperatures and single photon excitation energies exceeding 5x106. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), through the Army Research Office Grant W911NF-09-1-0375.

  7. The pixel hybrid photon detectors for the LHCb-RICH project

    CERN Document Server

    Gys, Thierry

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a hybrid photon detector with integrated silicon pixel readout to be used in the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 5. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The paper starts with the general specification of the baseline option. Followed by a summary of the main results achieved so far during the R&D phase. It concludes with a description of the remaining work towards the final photon detector. (17 refs).

  8. Digital column readout architecture for the ATLAS pixel 025 mum front end IC

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelli, E; Blanquart, L; Comes, G; Denes, P; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Fischer, P; Marchesini, R; Meddeler, G; Peric, I

    2002-01-01

    A fast low noise, limited power, radiation-hard front-end chip was developed for reading out the Atlas Pixel Silicon Detector. As in the past prototypes, every chip is used to digitize and read out charge and time information from hits on each one of its 2880 inputs. The basic column readout architecture idea was adopted and modified to allow a safe transition to quarter micron technology. Each pixel cell, organized in a 160 multiplied by 18 matrix, can be independently enabled and configured in order to optimize the analog signal response and to prevent defective pixels from saturating the readout. The digital readout organizes hit data coming from each column, with respect to time, and output them on a low-level serial interface. A considerable effort was made to design state machines free of undefined states, where single-point defects and charge deposited by heavy ions in the silicon could have led to unpredicted forbidden states. 7 Refs.

  9. CMOS pixel sensor development for the ATLAS experiment at the High Luminosity-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rimoldi, Marco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced with a fully silicon based detector called Inner Tracker (ITk) before the start of the High Luminosity-LHC project (HL-LHC) in 2026. To cope with the harsh environment expected at the HL-LHC, new approaches are being developed for pixel detector based on CMOS pixel techology. Such detectors provide charge collection, analog and digital amplification in the same silicon bulk. The radiation hardness is obtained with multiple nested wells that have embedded the CMOS electronics with sufficient shielding. The goal of this programme is to demonstrate that depleted CMOS pixels are suitable for high rate, fast timing and high radiation operation at the LHC. A number of alternative solutions have been explored and characterised, and are presented in this document.

  10. The Dosepix detector—an energy-resolving photon-counting pixel detector for spectrometric measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Zang, A; Ballabriga, R; Bisello, F; Campbell, M; Celi, J C; Fauler, A; Fiederle, M; Jensch, M; Kochanski, N; Llopart, X; Michel, N; Mollenhauer, U; Ritter, I; Tennert, F; Wölfel, S; Wong, W; Michel, T

    2015-01-01

    The Dosepix detector is a hybrid photon-counting pixel detector based on ideas of the Medipix and Timepix detector family. 1 mm thick cadmium telluride and 300 μm thick silicon were used as sensor material. The pixel matrix of the Dosepix consists of 16 x 16 square pixels with 12 rows of (200 μm)2 and 4 rows of (55 μm)2 sensitive area for the silicon sensor layer and 16 rows of pixels with 220 μm pixel pitch for CdTe. Besides digital energy integration and photon-counting mode, a novel concept of energy binning is included in the pixel electronics, allowing energy-resolved measurements in 16 energy bins within one acquisition. The possibilities of this detector concept range from applications in personal dosimetry and energy-resolved imaging to quality assurance of medical X-ray sources by analysis of the emitted photon spectrum. In this contribution the Dosepix detector, its response to X-rays as well as spectrum measurements with Si and CdTe sensor layer are presented. Furthermore, a first evaluation wa...

  11. Monolithic active pixel radiation detector with shielding techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W.

    2016-09-06

    A monolithic active pixel radiation detector including a method of fabricating thereof. The disclosed radiation detector can include a substrate comprising a silicon layer upon which electronics are configured. A plurality of channels can be formed on the silicon layer, wherein the plurality of channels are connected to sources of signals located in a bulk part of the substrate, and wherein the signals flow through electrically conducting vias established in an isolation oxide on the substrate. One or more nested wells can be configured from the substrate, wherein the nested wells assist in collecting charge carriers released in interaction with radiation and wherein the nested wells further separate the electronics from the sensing portion of the detector substrate. The detector can also be configured according to a thick SOA method of fabrication.

  12. Monolithic active pixel radiation detector with shielding techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W.

    2016-09-06

    A monolithic active pixel radiation detector including a method of fabricating thereof. The disclosed radiation detector can include a substrate comprising a silicon layer upon which electronics are configured. A plurality of channels can be formed on the silicon layer, wherein the plurality of channels are connected to sources of signals located in a bulk part of the substrate, and wherein the signals flow through electrically conducting vias established in an isolation oxide on the substrate. One or more nested wells can be configured from the substrate, wherein the nested wells assist in collecting charge carriers released in interaction with radiation and wherein the nested wells further separate the electronics from the sensing portion of the detector substrate. The detector can also be configured according to a thick SOA method of fabrication.

  13. CMOS digital pixel sensors: technology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorka, Orit; Joseph, Dileepan

    2014-04-01

    CMOS active pixel sensor technology, which is widely used these days for digital imaging, is based on analog pixels. Transition to digital pixel sensors can boost signal-to-noise ratios and enhance image quality, but can increase pixel area to dimensions that are impractical for the high-volume market of consumer electronic devices. There are two main approaches to digital pixel design. The first uses digitization methods that largely rely on photodetector properties and so are unique to imaging. The second is based on adaptation of a classical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for in-pixel data conversion. Imaging systems for medical, industrial, and security applications are emerging lower-volume markets that can benefit from these in-pixel ADCs. With these applications, larger pixels are typically acceptable, and imaging may be done in invisible spectral bands.

  14. Mapping Electrical Crosstalk in Pixelated Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Suresh (Inventor); Cole, David (Inventor); Smith, Roger M (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The effects of inter pixel capacitance in a pixilated array may be measured by first resetting all pixels in the array to a first voltage, where a first image is read out, followed by resetting only a subset of pixels in the array to a second voltage, where a second image is read out, where the difference in the first and second images provide information about the inter pixel capacitance. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  15. Mapping Electrical Crosstalk in Pixelated Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Suresh (Inventor); Cole, David (Inventor); Smith, Roger M. (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The effects of inter pixel capacitance in a pixilated array may be measured by first resetting all pixels in the array to a first voltage, where a first image is read out, followed by resetting only a subset of pixels in the array to a second voltage, where a second image is read out, where the difference in the first and second images provide information about the inter pixel capacitance. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  16. Silicon solid state devices and radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Claude

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses the fundamental principles of interaction between radiation and matter, the principles of working and the operation of particle detectors based on silicon solid state devices. It covers a broad scope with respect to the fields of application of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices from low to high energy physics experiments including in outer space and in the medical environment. This book covers stateof- the-art detection techniques in the use of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices and their readout electronics, including the latest developments on pixelated silicon radiation detector and their application.

  17. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N

    1999-08-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described.

  18. CMS has a heart of pixels

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    In the immediate vicinity of the collision point, CMS will be equipped with pixel detectors consisting of no fewer than 50 million pixels measuring 150 microns along each side. Each of the pixels, which receive the signal, is connected to its own electronic circuit by a tiny sphere (seen here in the electron microscope image) measuring 15 to 20 microns in diameter.

  19. 3D-FBK Pixel sensors: recent beam tests results with irradiated devices

    CERN Document Server

    Micelli, A; Sandaker, H; Stugu, B; Barbero, M; Hugging, F; Karagounis, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kruger, H; Tsung, J W; Wermes, N; Capua, M; Fazio, S; Mastroberardino, A; Susinno, G; Gallrapp, C; Di Girolamo, B; Dobos, D; La Rosa, A; Pernegger, H; Roe, S; Slavicek, T; Pospisil, S; Jakobs, K; Kohler, M; Parzefall, U; Darbo, G; Gariano, G; Gemme, C; Rovani, A; Ruscino, E; Butter, C; Bates, R; Oshea, V; Parker, S; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Grinstein, S; Korokolov, I; Pradilla, C; Einsweiler, K; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Borri, M; Da Via, C; Freestone, J; Kolya, S; Lai, C H; Nellist, C; Pater, J; Thompson, R; Watts, S J; Hoeferkamp, M; Seidel, S; Bolle, E; Gjersdal, H; Sjobaek, K N; Stapnes, S; Rohne, O; Su, D; Young, C; Hansson, P; Grenier, P; Hasi, J; Kenney, C; Kocian, M; Jackson, P; Silverstein, D; Davetak, H; DeWilde, B; Tsybychev, D; Dalla Betta, G F; Gabos, P; Povoli, M; Cobal, M; Giordani, M P; Selmi, L; Cristofoli, A; Esseni, D; Palestri, P; Fleta, C; Lozano, M; Pellegrini, G; Boscardin, M; Bagolini, A; Piemonte, C; Ronchin, S; Zorzi, N; Hansen, T E; Hansen, T; Kok, A; Lietaer, N; Kalliopuska, J; Oja, A

    2011-01-01

    The Pixel detector is the innermost part of the ATLAS experiment tracking device at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and plays a key role in the reconstruction of the primary and secondary vertices of short-lived particles. To cope with the high level of radiation produced during the collider operation, it is planned to add to the present three layers of silicon pixel sensors which constitute the Pixel Detector, an additional layer (Insertable B-Layer, or IBL) of sensors. 3D silicon sensors are one of the technologies which are under study for the IBL. 3D silicon technology is an innovative combination of very-large-scale integration (VLSI) and Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) where electrodes are fabricated inside the silicon bulk instead of being implanted on the wafer surfaces. 3D sensors, with electrodes fully or partially penetrating the silicon substrate, are currently fabricated at different processing facilities in Europe and USA. This paper reports on the 2010 June beam test results for irradi...

  20. Current Status of the Pixel Phase I Upgrade in CMS: Barrel Module Production

    CERN Document Server

    Bartek, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system, providing high precision space point measurements of charged particle trajectories. Before 2018 the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC is expected to reach about 2~x~$10^{34}~\\rm{cm}^{-2}\\rm{s}^{-1}$, which will significantly increase the number of interactions per bunch crossing. To maintain a high tracking efficiency, CMS has planned to replace the current pixel system during phase I by a new lightweight detector, equipped with an additional 4th layer in the barrel, and one additional forward/backward disk. The present status of barrel modules production will be presented, including preliminary results from tests on the first production pixel modules of the new pixel tracker.

  1. Performance of the Pixel Luminosity Telescope for Luminosity Measurement at CMS during Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a dedicated system for luminosity measurement at the CMS experiment using silicon pixel sensors arranged into "telescopes", each consisting of three planes. It was installed during LS1 at the beginning of 2015 and has been providing online and offline luminosity measurements throughout Run 2. The online bunch-by-bunch luminosity measurement employs the "fast-or" capability of the pixel readout chip (PSI46) to identify events where a hit is registered in all three sensors in a telescope corresponding primarily to tracks originating from the interaction point. In addition, the full pixel information is read out at a lower rate, allowing for the calculation of corrections to the online luminosity from effects such as the miscounting of tracks not originating from the interaction point and detector efficiency. In this talk, we will present results from 2016 running and preliminary 2017 results, including commissioning and operational history, luminosity calibration using Va...

  2. High-speed real-time single-pixel microscopy based on Fourier sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Qiang; Wang, Yuxi; Guo, Yong; Liu, Peng; Zhu, Xiurui; Cheng, Zheng; Yu, Zhenming; Chen, Minghua; Yang, Sigang; Xie, Shizhong

    2016-01-01

    Single-pixel cameras based on the concepts of compressed sensing (CS) leverage the inherent structure of images to retrieve them with far fewer measurements and operate efficiently over a significantly broader spectral range than conventional silicon-based cameras. Recently, photonic time-stretch (PTS) technique facilitates the emergence of high-speed single-pixel cameras. A significant breakthrough in imaging speed of single-pixel cameras enables observation of fast dynamic phenomena. However, according to CS theory, image reconstruction is an iterative process that consumes enormous amounts of computational time and cannot be performed in real time. To address this challenge, we propose a novel single-pixel imaging technique that can produce high-quality images through rapid acquisition of their effective spatial Fourier spectrum. We employ phase-shifting sinusoidal structured illumination instead of random illumination for spectrum acquisition and apply inverse Fourier transform to the obtained spectrum fo...

  3. A method for precise charge reconstruction with pixel detectors using binary hit information

    CERN Document Server

    Pohl, David-Leon; Hemperek, Tomasz; Hügging, Fabian; Wermes, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    A method is presented to precisely reconstruct charge spectra with pixel detectors using binary hit information of individual pixels. The method is independent of the charge information provided by the readout circuitry and has a resolution mainly limited by the electronic noise. It relies on the ability to change the detection threshold in small steps while counting hits from a particle source. The errors are addressed and the performance of the method is shown based on measurements with the ATLAS pixel chip FE-I4 bump bonded to a 230 {\\mu}m 3D-silicon sensor. Charge spectra from radioactive sources and from electron beams are presented serving as examples. It is demonstrated that a charge resolution ({\\sigma}<200 e) close to the electronic noise of the ATLAS FE-I4 pixel chip can be achieved.

  4. Making a trillion pixels dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vivek; Hu, Bin; Toh, Kenny; Bollepalli, Srinivas; Wagner, Stephan; Borodovsky, Yan

    2008-03-01

    In June 2007, Intel announced a new pixelated mask technology. This technology was created to address the problem caused by the growing gap between the lithography wavelength and the feature sizes patterned with it. As this gap has increased, the quality of the image has deteriorated. About a decade ago, Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) was introduced to bridge this gap, but as this gap continued to increase, one could not rely on the same basic set of techniques to maintain image quality. The computational lithography group at Intel sought to alleviate this problem by experimenting with additional degrees of freedom within the mask. This paper describes the resulting pixelated mask technology, and some of the computational methods used to create it. The first key element of this technology is a thick mask model. We realized very early in the development that, unlike traditional OPC methods, the pixelated mask would require a very accurate thick mask model. Whereas in the traditional methods, one can use the relatively coarse approximations such as the boundary layer method, use of such techniques resulted not just in incorrect sizing of parts of the pattern, but in whole features missing. We built on top of previously published domain decomposition methods, and incorporated limitations of the mask manufacturing process, to create an accurate thick mask model. Several additional computational techniques were invoked to substantially increase the speed of this method to a point that it was feasible for full chip tapeout. A second key element of the computational scheme was the comprehension of mask manufacturability, including the vital issue of the number of colors in the mask. While it is obvious that use of three or more colors will give the best image, one has to be practical about projecting mask manufacturing capabilities for such a complex mask. To circumvent this serious issue, we eventually settled on a two color mask - comprising plain glass and etched

  5. Fully depleted CMOS pixel sensor development and potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudot, J.; Kachel, M. [Universite de Strasbourg, IPHC, 23 rue du Loess 67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR7178, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2015-07-01

    CMOS pixel sensors are often opposed to hybrid pixel sensors due to their very different sensitive layer. In standard CMOS imaging processes, a thin (about 20 μm) low resistivity epitaxial layer acts as the sensitive volume and charge collection is mostly driven by thermal agitation. In contrast, the so-called hybrid pixel technology exploits a thick (typically 300 μm) silicon sensor with high resistivity allowing for the depletion of this volume, hence charges drift toward collecting electrodes. But this difference is fading away with the recent availability of some CMOS imaging processes based on a relatively thick (about 50 μm) high resistivity epitaxial layer which allows for full depletion. This evolution extents the range of applications for CMOS pixel sensors where their known assets, high sensitivity and granularity combined with embedded signal treatment, could potentially foster breakthrough in detection performances for specific scientific instruments. One such domain is the Xray detection for soft energies, typically below 10 keV, where the thin sensitive layer was previously severely impeding CMOS sensor usage. Another application becoming realistic for CMOS sensors, is the detection in environment with a high fluence of non-ionizing radiation, such as hadron colliders. However, when considering highly demanding applications, it is still to be proven that micro-circuits required to uniformly deplete the sensor at the pixel level, do not mitigate the sensitivity and efficiency required. Prototype sensors in two different technologies with resistivity higher than 1 kΩ, sensitive layer between 40 and 50 μm and featuring pixel pitch in the range 25 to 50 μm, have been designed and fabricated. Various biasing architectures were adopted to reach full depletion with only a few volts. Laboratory investigations with three types of sources (X-rays, β-rays and infrared light) demonstrated the validity of the approach with respect to depletion, keeping a

  6. Status of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC and its performance after three years of operation

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experi- ment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution mea- surements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. After three years of operation the detector performance is excellent: 96% of the pixels are opera- tional, at 3500 e threshold noise occupancy and efficiency exceed the design specification. The effect of radiation on the silicon sensor is measured and compared with model of radiation damage.

  7. The ultralight DEPFET pixel detector of the Belle II experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetticke, Florian

    2017-02-01

    An upgrade of the existing Japanese flavor factory (KEKB in Tsukuba, Japan) is under construction and foreseen for commissioning by the end of 2017. This new e+e- machine (SuperKEKB) will deliver an instantaneous luminosity 40 times higher than the luminosity world record set by KEKB. To fully exploit the increased number of events and provide high precision measurements of B-meson decay vertices in such a harsh environment, the Belle detector will be upgraded to Belle II, featuring a new silicon vertex detector with two pixel layers close to the interaction point based on the DEPFET (DEpleted P-channel Field Effect Transistor) technology. This technology combines particle detection together with in-pixel amplification by integrating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted silicon bulk. In Belle II, DEPFET sensors thinned down to 75 μm with low power consumption and low intrinsic noise will be used. The first large thin multi-chip production modules have been produced and characterization results on both large modules as well as small test systems will be presented in this contribution.

  8. The Phase II ATLAS Pixel Upgrade: The Inner Tracker (ITk)

    CERN Document Server

    Flick, Tobias; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the ITk (Inner Tracker). The pixel detector will comprise the five innermost layers, and will be instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the HL-LHC environment, which will be severe in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total surface area of silicon in the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m^2, depending on the final layout choice, which is expected to take place in early 2017. Four layout options are being investigated at the moment, two with forward coverage to eta < 3.2 and two to eta < 4. For each coverage option, a layout with long barrel staves and a layout with novel inclined support structures in the barrel-endcap overlap region are considered. All potential layouts include modules mounted on ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions. Support...

  9. The Phase-II ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00349918; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase~2 shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the ``ITk'' (Inner Tracker). The innermost portion of ITk will consist of a pixel detector with five layers in the barrel region and ring-shaped supports in the end-cap regions. It will be instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the HL-LHC environment, which will be severe in terms of occupancy and radiation levels. The new pixel system could include up to 14 $\\mathrm{m^2}$ of silicon, depending on the final layout, which is expected to be decided in 2017. Several layout options are being investigated at the moment, including some with novel inclined support structures in the barrel end-cap overlap region and others with very long innermost barrel layers. Forward coverage could be as high as |eta| $<4$. Supporting structures will be based on low mass, highly stabl...

  10. Pixel hybrid photon detector magnetic distortions characterization and compensation

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri-Rinella, G; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Forty, Roger W; Gys, Thierry; Patel, Mitesh; Piedigrossi, Didier; Van Lysebetten, Ann

    2004-01-01

    The LHCb experiment requires positive kaon identification in the momentum range 2-100 GeV/c. This is provided by two ring imaging Cherenkov detectors. The stringent requirements on the photon detectors are fully satisfied by the novel pixel hybrid photon detector, HPD. The HPD is a vacuum tube with a quartz window, S20 photo-cathode, cross-focusing electron optics and a silicon anode encapsulated within the tube. The anode is a 32*256 pixels hybrid detector, with a silicon sensor bump-bonded onto a readout chip containing 8192 channels with analogue front-end and digital read-out circuitry. An external magnetic field influences the trajectory of the photoelectrons and could thereby degrade the inherent excellent space resolution of the HPD. The HPDs must be operational in the fringe magnetic field of the LHCb magnet. This paper reports on an extensive experimental characterization of the distortion effects. The characterization has allowed the development of parameterisations and of a compensation algorithm. ...

  11. Thin hybrid pixel assembly with backside compensation layer on ROIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; McMullen, T.; Cunningham, L.; Ashby, J.; Doherty, F.; Gray, C.; Pares, G.; Vignoud, L.; Kholti, B.; Vahanen, S.

    2017-01-01

    The entire ATLAS inner tracking system will be replaced for operation at the HL-LHC . This will include a significantly larger pixel detector of approximately 15 m2. For this project, it is critical to reduce the mass of the hybrid pixel modules and this requires thinning both the sensor and readout chips to about 150 micrometres each. The thinning of the silicon chips leads to low bump yield for SnAg bumps due to bad co-planarity of the two chips at the solder reflow stage creating dead zones within the pixel array. In the case of the ATLAS FEI4 pixel readout chip thinned to 100 micrometres, the chip is concave, with the front side in compression, with a bow of +100 micrometres at room temperature which varies to a bow of -175 micrometres at the SnAg solder reflow temperature, caused by the CTE mismatch between the materials in the CMOS stack and the silicon substrate. A new wafer level process to address the issue of low bump yield be controlling the chip bow has been developed. A back-side dielectric and metal stack of SiN and Al:Si has been deposited on the readout chip wafer to dynamically compensate the stress of the front side stack. In keeping with a 3D process the materials used are compatible with Through Silicon Via (TSV) technology with a TSV last approach which is under development for this chip. It is demonstrated that the amplitude of the correction can be manipulated by the deposition conditions and thickness of the SiN/Al:Si stack. The bow magnitude over the temperature range for the best sample to date is reduced by almost a factor of 4 and the sign of the bow (shape of the die) remains constant. Further development of the backside deposition conditions is on-going with the target of close to zero bow at the solder reflow temperature and a minimal bow magnitude throughout the temperature range. Assemblies produced from FEI4 readout wafers thinned to 100 micrometres with the backside compensation layer have been made for the first time and

  12. Ultra-fast silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadrozinski, H. F.-W., E-mail: hartmut@scipp.ucsc.edu [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Ngo, J.; Parker, C.; Petersen, B.; Seiden, A.; Zatserklyaniy, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Cartiglia, N.; Marchetto, F. [INFN Torino, Torino (Italy); Bruzzi, M.; Mori, R.; Scaringella, M.; Vinattieri, A. [University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    We propose to develop a fast, thin silicon sensor with gain capable to concurrently measure with high precision the space (∼10 μm) and time (∼10 ps) coordinates of a particle. This will open up new application of silicon detector systems in many fields. Our analysis of detector properties indicates that it is possible to improve the timing characteristics of silicon-based tracking sensors, which already have sufficient position resolution, to achieve four-dimensional high-precision measurements. The basic sensor characteristics and the expected performance are listed, the wide field of applications are mentioned and the required R and D topics are discussed. -- Highlights: •We are proposing thin pixel silicon sensors with 10's of picoseconds time resolution. •Fast charge collection is coupled with internal charge multiplication. •The truly 4-D sensors will revolutionize imaging and particle counting in many applications.

  13. Design, optimization and evaluation of a "smart" pixel sensor array for low-dose digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Xinghui; Ou, Hai; Chen, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been widely used to build flat-panel X-ray detectors for digital radiography (DR). As the demand for low-dose X-ray imaging grows, a detector with high signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) pixel architecture emerges. "Smart" pixel is intended to use a dual-gate photosensitive TFT for sensing, storage, and switch. It differs from a conventional passive pixel sensor (PPS) and active pixel sensor (APS) in that all these three functions are combined into one device instead of three separate units in a pixel. Thus, it is expected to have high fill factor and high spatial resolution. In addition, it utilizes the amplification effect of the dual-gate photosensitive TFT to form a one-transistor APS that leads to a potentially high SNR. This paper addresses the design, optimization and evaluation of the smart pixel sensor and array for low-dose DR. We will design and optimize the smart pixel from the scintillator to TFT levels and validate it through optical and electrical simulation and experiments of a 4x4 sensor array.

  14. Construction of the Phase I Forward Pixel Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neylon, Ashton; Bartek, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system, providing high precision space point measurements of charged particle trajectories. The original CMS detector was designed for the nominal instantaneous LHC luminosity of 1 x 1034 cm-2s-1 . The LHC has already started to exceed this luminosity causing the CMS pixel detector to see a dynamic inefficiency caused by data losses due to buffer overflows. For this reason the CMS Collaboration has been building an upgraded pixel detector which is scheduled for installation during an extended year end technical stop during winter 2016/2017. The phase 1 upgrade includes four barrel layers and three forward disks, providing robust tracking and vertexing for LHC luminosities up to 2 x 1034 cm-2s-1 . The upgrade incorporates new readout chips, front-end electronics, DC-DC powering, and dual-phase CO2 cooling to achieve performance exceeding that of the present detector with a lower material budget. This contribution will review the design and technology choices of the Phase I detector and discuss the status of the detector. The challenges and difficulties encountered during the construction will also be presented, as well as the lessons learned for future upgrades. National Science Foundation.

  15. Monitoring Radiation Damage in the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Schorlemmer, André Lukas; Große-Knetter, Jörn; Rembser, Christoph; Di Girolamo, Beniamino

    2014-11-05

    Radiation hardness is one of the most important features of the ATLAS pixel detector in order to ensure a good performance and a long lifetime. Monitoring of radiation damage is crucial in order to assess and predict the expected performance of the detector. Key values for the assessment of radiation damage in silicon, such as the depletion voltage and depletion depth in the sensors, are measured on a regular basis during operations. This thesis summarises the monitoring program that is conducted in order to assess the impact of radiation damage and compares it to model predictions. In addition, the physics performance of the ATLAS detector highly depends on the amount of disabled modules in the ATLAS pixel detector. A worrying amount of module failures was observed during run I. Thus it was decided to recover repairable modules during the long shutdown (LS1) by extracting the pixel detector. The impact of the module repairs and module failures on the detector performance is analysed in this thesis.

  16. Modeling radiation damage to pixel sensors in the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ducourthial, Audrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of $10^{15}n_{eq}/cm^2$ and the HL-HLC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is critical in order to make accurate predictions for current future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we present first predictions for basic pixel cluster properties alongside ...

  17. Modeling Radiation Damage to Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ducourthial, Audrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of $10^{15} n_{eq}/cm^2$ and the HL-HLC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is critical in order to make accurate predictions for current future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we present first predictions for basic pixel cluster properties alongside...

  18. Module and electronics developments for the ATLAS ITK pixel system

    CERN Document Server

    Nellist, Clara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Summary ATLAS is preparing for an extensive modification of its detector in the course of the planned HL‐ LHC accelerator upgrade around 2025 which includes a replacement of the entire tracking system by an all‐silicon detector (Inner Tracker, ITk). A revised trigger and data taking system is foreseen with triggers expected at lowest level at an average rate of 1 MHz. The five innermost layers of ITk will comprise of a pixel detector built of new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the severe HL‐LHC environment in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total area of the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m2, depending on the final layout choice that is expected to take place in early 2017. A new on‐detector readout chip is designed in the context of the RD53 collaboration in 65 nm CMOS technology. This paper will present the on‐going R&D within the ATLAS ITK project towards the new pixel modules and the off‐detector electronics. Pla...

  19. Module and electronics developments for the ATLAS ITK pixel system

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    ATLAS is preparing for an extensive modification of its detector in the course of the planned HL-LHC accelerator upgrade around 2025 which includes a replacement of the entire tracking system by an all-silicon detector (Inner Tracker, ITk). The five innermost layers of ITk will comprise of a pixel detector built of new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the severe HL-LHC environment in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total area of the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m2, depending on the final layout choice that is expected to take place in 2017. A new on-detector readout chip is designed in the context of the RD53 collaboration in 65 nm CMOS technology. This paper will present the on-going R&D within the ATLAS ITK project towards the new pixel modules and the off-detector electronics. Planar and 3D sensors are being re-designed with cell sizes of 50x50 or 25x100 μm2, compatible with the RD53 chip. A sensor thickness equal or less th...

  20. The ALICE pixel detector upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidt, F.

    2016-12-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC is designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter, and in particular the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma, using proton-proton, proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. The ALICE collaboration is preparing a major upgrade of the experimental apparatus to be installed during the second long LHC shutdown in the years 2019-2020. A key element of the ALICE upgrade is the new, ultra-light, high-resolution Inner Tracking System. With respect to the current detector, the new Inner Tracking System will significantly enhance the pointing resolution, the tracking efficiency at low transverse momenta, and the read-out rate capabilities. This will be obtained by seven concentric detector layers based on a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor with a pixel pitch of about 30×30 μm2. A key feature of the new Inner Tracking System, which is optimised for high tracking accuracy at low transverse momenta, is the very low mass of the three innermost layers, which feature a material budget of 0.3% X0 per layer. This contribution presents the design goals and layout of the upgraded ALICE Inner Tracking System, summarises the R&D activities focussing on the technical implementation of the main detector components, and the projected detector performance.

  1. Serial powering of pixel modules

    CERN Document Server

    Stockmanns, Tobias; Hügging, Fabian Georg; Peric, I; Runólfsson, O; Wermes, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Modern pixel detectors for the next generation of high-energy collider experiments like LHC use readout electronics in deep sub- micron technology. Chips in this technology need a low supply voltage of 2-2.5 V alongside high current consumption to achieve the desired performance. The high supply current leads to significant voltage drops in the long and low mass supply cables so that voltage fluctuations at the chips are induced, when the supply current changes. This problem scales with the number of modules when connected in parallel to the power supplies. An alternative powering scheme connects several modules in series resulting in a higher supply voltage but a lower current consumption of the chain and therefore a much lower voltage drop in the cables. In addition the amount of cables needed to supply the detector is vastly reduced. The concept and features of serial powering are presented and studies of the implementation of this technology as an alternative for the ATLAS pixel detector are shown. In par...

  2. Signal and noise of Diamond Pixel Detectors at High Radiation Fluences

    CERN Document Server

    Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Hügging, Fabian; Kagan, Harris; Krüger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    CVD diamond is an attractive material option for LHC vertex detectors because of its strong radiation-hardness causal to its large band gap and strong lattice. In particular, pixel detectors operating close to the interaction point profit from tiny leakage currents and small pixel capacitances of diamond resulting in low noise figures when compared to silicon. On the other hand, the charge signal from traversing high energy particles is smaller in diamond than in silicon by a factor of about 2.2. Therefore, a quantitative determination of the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of diamond in comparison with silicon at fluences in excess of 10$^{15}$ n$_{eq}$ cm$^{-2}$, which are expected for the LHC upgrade, is important. Based on measurements of irradiated diamond sensors and the FE-I4 pixel readout chip design, we determine the signal and the noise of diamond pixel detectors irradiated with high particle fluences. To characterize the effect of the radiation damage on the materials and the signal decrease, the chang...

  3. Serial Pixel Analog-to-Digital Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, E D

    2010-02-01

    This method reduces the data path from the counter to the pixel register of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) from as many as 10 bits to a single bit. The reduction in data path width is accomplished by using a coded serial data stream similar to a pseudo random number (PRN) generator. The resulting encoded pixel data is then decoded into a standard hexadecimal format before storage. The high-speed serial pixel ADC concept is based on the single-slope integrating pixel ADC architecture. Previous work has described a massively parallel pixel readout of a similar architecture. The serial ADC connection is similar to the state-of-the art method with the exception that the pixel ADC register is a shift register and the data path is a single bit. A state-of-the-art individual-pixel ADC uses a single-slope charge integration converter architecture with integral registers and “one-hot” counters. This implies that parallel data bits are routed among the counter and the individual on-chip pixel ADC registers. The data path bit-width to the pixel is therefore equivalent to the pixel ADC bit resolution.

  4. DMAPS: a fully depleted monolithic active pixel sensor—analog performance characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havránek, M.; Hemperek, T.; Krüger, H.; Fu, Y.; Germic, L.; Kishishita, T.; Marinas, C.; Obermann, T.; Wermes, N.

    2015-02-01

    Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) have been developed since the late 1990s based on silicon substrates with a thin epitaxial layer (thickness of 10-15 μm) in which charge is collected on an electrode, albeit by disordered and slow diffusion rather than by drift in a directed electric field. As a consequence, the signal of these conventional MAPS is small (≈1000 e-) and the radiation tolerance is limited. In this paper, the development of a fully Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS) based on a high resistivity substrate allowing the creation of a fully depleted detection volume is presented. This concept overcomes the inherent limitations of charge collection by diffusion in the standard MAPS designs. We present results from a prototype chip EPCB01 designed in a commercial 150 nm CMOS technology. The technology provides a thin (≈50 μm) high resistivity n-type silicon substrate as well as an additional deep p-well which allows to integrate full CMOS circuitry inside the pixel. Different matrix types with several variants of collection electrodes and pixel electronics have been implemented. Measurements of the analog performance of this first implementation of DMAPS pixels are presented.

  5. Operational Performance and Status of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jentzsch, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experi- ment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individu- ally read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n+-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented, including moni- toring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The record breaking instantaneous luminosities of 7.7 · 1033 cm−2s−1 recently surpassed at the Large Hadron Collider generate a rapidly increasing particle fluence in the ATLAS Pixel Detector. As the radiation dose accumulates, the first effects of radiation damage are now observable in the silicon sensors. A regular monitoring program has been conducted and reveals an increase in the silico...

  6. Finite-element simulations of coupling capacitances in capacitively coupled pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)755510

    2017-01-01

    Capacitively coupled hybrid silicon pixel-detector assemblies are under study for the vertex detector at the proposed future CLIC linear electron-positron collider. The assemblies consist of active CCPDv3 sensors, with 25 μm pixel pitch implemented in a 180 nm High- Voltage CMOS process, which are glued to the CLICpix readout ASIC, with the same pixel pitch and processed in a commercial 65 nm CMOS technology. The signal created in the silicon bulk of the active sensors passes a two-stage amplifier, in each pixel, and gets transferred as a voltage pulse to metal pads facing the readout chip (ROC). The coupling of the signal to the metal pads on the ROC side proceeds through the capacitors formed between the two chips by a thin layer of epoxy glue. The coupling strength and the amount of unwanted cross coupling to neighbouring pixels depends critically on the uniformity of the glue layer, its thickness and on the alignment precision during the flip-chip assembly process. Finite-element calculations of the coup...

  7. Investigation of photon counting pixel detectors for X-ray spectroscopy and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talla, Patrick Takoukam

    2011-04-07

    The Medipix2 and Medipix3 detectors are hybrid pixelated photon counting detectors with a pixel pitch of 55 {mu}m. The sensor material used in this thesis was silicon. Because of their small pixel size they suffer from charge sharing i.e. an incoming photon can be registered by more than one pixel. In order to correct for charge sharing due to lateral diffusion of charge carriers, the Medipix3 detector was developed: with its Charge Summing Mode, the charge collected in a cluster of 2 x 2 pixel is added up and attributed to only one pixel whose counter is incremented. The adjustable threshold of the detectors allows to count the photons and to gain information on their energy. The main purposes of the thesis are to investigate spectral and imaging properties of pixelated photon counting detectors from the Medipix family such as Medipix2 and Medipix3. The investigations are based on simulations and measurements. In order to investigate the spectral properties of the detectors measurements were performed using fluorescence lines of materials such as molybdenum, silver but also some radioactive sources such as Am-241 or Cd-109. From the measured data, parameters like the threshold dispersion and the gain variation from pixel-to-pixel were extracted and used as input in the Monte Carlo code ROSI to model the responses of the detector to monoenergetic photons. The measured data are well described by the simulations for Medipix2 and for Medipix3 operating in Charge Summing Mode. Due to charge sharing and due to the energy dependence of attenuation processes in silicon and to Compton scattering the incoming and the measured spectrum differ substantially from each other. Since the responses to monoenergetic photons are known, a deconvolution was performed to determine the true incoming spectrum. Several direct and iterative methods were successfully applied on measured and simulated data of an X-ray tube and radioactive sources. The knowledge of the X-ray spectrum is

  8. Silicon Micromachined Microlens Array for THz Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choonsup; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Mehdi, IImran; Gill, John J.; Jung-Kubiak, Cecile D.; Llombart, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    5 5 silicon microlens array was developed using a silicon micromachining technique for a silicon-based THz antenna array. The feature of the silicon micromachining technique enables one to microfabricate an unlimited number of microlens arrays at one time with good uniformity on a silicon wafer. This technique will resolve one of the key issues in building a THz camera, which is to integrate antennas in a detector array. The conventional approach of building single-pixel receivers and stacking them to form a multi-pixel receiver is not suited at THz because a single-pixel receiver already has difficulty fitting into mass, volume, and power budgets, especially in space applications. In this proposed technique, one has controllability on both diameter and curvature of a silicon microlens. First of all, the diameter of microlens depends on how thick photoresist one could coat and pattern. So far, the diameter of a 6- mm photoresist microlens with 400 m in height has been successfully microfabricated. Based on current researchers experiences, a diameter larger than 1-cm photoresist microlens array would be feasible. In order to control the curvature of the microlens, the following process variables could be used: 1. Amount of photoresist: It determines the curvature of the photoresist microlens. Since the photoresist lens is transferred onto the silicon substrate, it will directly control the curvature of the silicon microlens. 2. Etching selectivity between photoresist and silicon: The photoresist microlens is formed by thermal reflow. In order to transfer the exact photoresist curvature onto silicon, there needs to be etching selectivity of 1:1 between silicon and photoresist. However, by varying the etching selectivity, one could control the curvature of the silicon microlens. The figure shows the microfabricated silicon microlens 5 x5 array. The diameter of the microlens located in the center is about 2.5 mm. The measured 3-D profile of the microlens surface has a

  9. R&D for the local support and cooling channel for the ATLAS Pixel Insertable B-Layer (IBL)

    CERN Document Server

    Coelli, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Pixel Detector is a Silicon Vertex Tracker installed into the ATLAS Experiment on the LHC at CERN. A new internal Pixel layer will be installed inside the existing three, in the space between the actual B-Layer and a new smaller beam-pipe. The Physics performances will be enhanced due to the smaller radius, and the presence of a fourth layer will give to the Pixel Detector a bigger redundancy and reliability. After a description of the project scope and of the relevant requirements, the work in progress on the design, FEM analyses, experimental prototyping, measurements and tests for the R&D are presented.

  10. ATLAS Pixel Opto-Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Arms, K E; Gan, K K; Holder, M; Jackson, P; Johnson, M; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Roggenbuck, A; Rush, C; Schade, P; Smith, S; Ter-Antonian, R; Ziolkowski, M; Zoeller, M M

    2005-01-01

    We have developed two radiation-hard ASICs for optical data transmission in the ATLAS pixel detector at the LHC at CERN: a driver chip for a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) diode for 80 Mbit/s data transmission from the detector, and a Bi-Phase Mark decoder chip to recover the control data and 40 MHz clock received optically by a PIN diode. We have successfully implemented both ASICs in 0.25 micron CMOS technology using enclosed layout transistors and guard rings for increased radiation hardness. We present results of the performance of these chips, including irradiation with 24 GeV protons up to 61 Mrad (2.3 x 10e15 p/cm^2).

  11. Pixel readout chip for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ackers, M; Blanquart, L; Bonzom, V; Comes, G; Fischer, P; Keil, M; Kühl, T; Meuser, S; Delpierre, P A; Treis, J; Raith, B A; Wermes, N

    1999-01-01

    Pixel detectors with a high granularity and a very large number of sensitive elements (cells) are a very recent development used for high precision particle detection. At the Large Hadron Collider LHC at CERN (Geneva) a pixel detector with 1.4*10/sup 8/ individual pixel cells is developed for the ATLAS detector. The concept is a hybrid detector. Consisting of a pixel sensor connected to a pixel electronics chip by bump and flip chip technology in one-to-one cell correspondence. The development and prototype results of the pixel front end chip are presented together with the physical and technical requirements to be met at LHC. Lab measurements are reported. (6 refs).

  12. Penrose Pixels for Super-Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ezra, M; Lin, Zhouchen; Wilburn, Bennett; Zhang, Wei

    2011-07-01

    We present a novel approach to reconstruction-based super-resolution that uses aperiodic pixel tilings, such as a Penrose tiling or a biological retina, for improved performance. To this aim, we develop a new variant of the well-known error back projection super-resolution algorithm that makes use of the exact detector model in its back projection operator for better accuracy. Pixels in our model can vary in shape and size, and there may be gaps between adjacent pixels. The algorithm applies equally well to periodic or aperiodic pixel tilings. We present analysis and extensive tests using synthetic and real images to show that our approach using aperiodic layouts substantially outperforms existing reconstruction-based algorithms for regular pixel arrays. We close with a discussion of the feasibility of manufacturing CMOS or CCD chips with pixels arranged in Penrose tilings.

  13. Advanced pixel architectures for scientific image sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Coath, R; Godbeer, A; Wilson, M; Turchetta, R

    2009-01-01

    We present recent developments from two projects targeting advanced pixel architectures for scientific applications. Results are reported from FORTIS, a sensor demonstrating variants on a 4T pixel architecture. The variants include differences in pixel and diode size, the in-pixel source follower transistor size and the capacitance of the readout node to optimise for low noise and sensitivity to small amounts of charge. Results are also reported from TPAC, a complex pixel architecture with ~160 transistors per pixel. Both sensors were manufactured in the 0.18μm INMAPS process, which includes a special deep p-well layer and fabrication on a high resistivity epitaxial layer for improved charge collection efficiency.

  14. Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Bradley M; Tyo, J Scott; Boger, James K; Black, Wiley T; Bowers, David L; Fetrow, Matthew P

    2007-06-11

    LWIR imaging arrays are often affected by nonresponsive pixels, or "dead pixels." These dead pixels can severely degrade the quality of imagery and often have to be replaced before subsequent image processing and display of the imagery data. For LWIR arrays that are integrated with arrays of micropolarizers, the problem of dead pixels is amplified. Conventional dead pixel replacement (DPR) strategies cannot be employed since neighboring pixels are of different polarizations. In this paper we present two DPR schemes. The first is a modified nearest-neighbor replacement method. The second is a method based on redundancy in the polarization measurements.We find that the redundancy-based DPR scheme provides an order-of-magnitude better performance for typical LWIR polarimetric data.

  15. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for the Run2 at the Large Hadron Collider -- Plot Approval (Pixel, IBL) : This is a submission of plot approval request for Pixel+IBL, facing on a talk at ICHEP 2014 conference

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelli, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and will be installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. IBL construction is now completed. An overview of the IBL project as well as the ...

  16. Radiation Damage Modeling for 3D Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wallangen, Veronica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector. As the detector in closest proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the HL-LHC, the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 10^15 neq/cm2 and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This poster presents the details of a new digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the 3D Pixel sensors for the ATLAS Detector.

  17. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lantzsch, Kerstin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run 2 of the LHC is providing new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). In addition the Pixel detector was refurbished with new service quarter panels to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during run 1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. The commissioning, operation and performance of the 4-layer Pixel Detector will be presented.

  18. Fully 3D-Integrated Pixel Detectors for X-Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gabriella, Carini [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Enquist, Paul [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Grybos, Pawel [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Holm, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lipton, Ronald [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Maj, Piotr [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Patti, Robert [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Siddons, David Peter [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Szczygiel, Robert [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yarema, Raymond [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The vertically integrated photon imaging chip (VIPIC1) pixel detector is a stack consisting of a 500-μm-thick silicon sensor, a two-tier 34-μm-thick integrated circuit, and a host printed circuit board (PCB). The integrated circuit tiers were bonded using the direct bonding technology with copper, and each tier features 1-μm-diameter through-silicon vias that were used for connections to the sensor on one side, and to the host PCB on the other side. The 80-μm-pixel-pitch sensor was the direct bonding technology with nickel bonded to the integrated circuit. The stack was mounted on the board using Sn–Pb balls placed on a 320-μm pitch, yielding an entirely wire-bond-less structure. The analog front-end features a pulse response peaking at below 250 ns, and the power consumption per pixel is 25 μW. We successful completed the 3-D integration and have reported here. Additionally, all pixels in the matrix of 64 × 64 pixels were responding on well-bonded devices. Correct operation of the sparsified readout, allowing a single 153-ns bunch timing resolution, was confirmed in the tests on a synchrotron beam of 10-keV X-rays. An equivalent noise charge of 36.2 e- rms and a conversion gain of 69.5 μV/e- with 2.6 e- rms and 2.7 μV/e- rms pixel-to-pixel variations, respectively, were measured.

  19. Implementation of TDI based digital pixel ROIC with 15μm pixel pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Omer; Shafique, Atia; Burak, A.; Caliskan, Can; Abbasi, Shahbaz; Yazici, Melik; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2016-05-01

    A 15um pixel pitch digital pixel for LWIR time delay integration (TDI) applications is implemented which occupies one fourth of pixel area compared to previous digital TDI implementation. TDI is implemented on 8 pixels with oversampling rate of 2. ROIC provides 16 bits output with 8 bits of MSB and 8 bits of LSB. Pixel can store 75 M electrons with a quantization noise of 500 electrons. Digital pixel TDI implementation is advantageous over analog counterparts considering power consumption, chip area and signal-to-noise ratio. Digital pixel TDI ROIC is fabricated with 0.18um CMOS process. In digital pixel TDI implementation photocurrent is integrated on a capacitor in pixel and converted to digital data in pixel. This digital data triggers the summation counters which implements TDI addition. After all pixels in a row contribute, the summed data is divided to the number of TDI pixels(N) to have the actual output which is square root of N improved version of a single pixel output in terms of signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR).

  20. The charge pump PLL clock generator designed for the 1.56 ns bin size time-to-digital converter pixel array of the Timepix3 readout ASIC

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Y et al.

    2014-01-01

    Timepix3 is a newly developed pixel readout chip which is expected to be operated in a wide range of gaseous and silicon detectors. It is made of 256×256 pixels organized in a square pixel-array with 55 µm pitch. Oscillators running at 640 MHz are distributed across the pixel-array and allow for a highly accurate measurement of the arrival time of a hit. This paper concentrates on a low-jitter phase locked loop (PLL) that is located in the chip periphery. This PLL provides a control voltage which regulates the actual frequency of the individual oscillators, allowing for compensation of process, voltage, and temperature variations.

  1. The Phase-II ATLAS ITk pixel upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzo, S.

    2017-07-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase-II shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the ``ITk'' (Inner Tracker). The innermost portion of ITk will consist of a pixel detector with five layers in the barrel region and ring-shaped supports in the end-cap regions. It will be instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the HL-LHC environment, which will be severe in terms of occupancy and radiation levels. The new pixel system could include up to 14 m2 of silicon, depending on the final layout, which is expected to be decided in 2017. Several layout options are being investigated at the moment, including some with novel inclined support structures in the barrel end-cap overlap region and others with very long innermost barrel layers. Forward coverage could be as high as |eta| carbon-based materials cooled by evaporative carbon dioxide circulated in thin-walled titanium pipes embedded in the structures. Planar, 3D, and CMOS sensors are being investigated to identify the optimal technology, which may be different for the various layers. The RD53 Collaboration is developing the new readout chip. The pixel off-detector readout electronics will be implemented in the framework of the general ATLAS trigger and DAQ system. A readout speed of up to 5 Gb/s per data link will be needed in the innermost layers going down to 640 Mb/s for the outermost. Because of the very high radiation level inside the detector, the first part of the transmission has to be implemented electrically, with signals converted for optical transmission at larger radii. Extensive tests are being carried out to prove the feasibility of implementing serial powering, which has been chosen as the baseline for the ITk pixel system due to the reduced material in the servicing cables foreseen for this option.

  2. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Backhaus, Malte; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Run-2 of the LHC will provide new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed as well as a new read-out chip within CMOS 130nm technology and with larger area, smaller pixel size and faster readout capability. The new detector is the first large scale application of of 3D detectors and CMOS 130nm technology. An overview of the lessons learned during the IBL project will be presented, focusing on the challenges and highlighting the issues met during the productio...

  3. High Dynamic Range Pixel Array Detector for Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Mark W; Purohit, Prafull; Chamberlain, Darol; Nguyen, Kayla X; Hovden, Robert; Chang, Celesta S; Deb, Pratiti; Turgut, Emrah; Heron, John T; Schlom, Darrell G; Ralph, Daniel C; Fuchs, Gregory D; Shanks, Katherine S; Philipp, Hugh T; Muller, David A; Gruner, Sol M

    2016-02-01

    We describe a hybrid pixel array detector (electron microscope pixel array detector, or EMPAD) adapted for use in electron microscope applications, especially as a universal detector for scanning transmission electron microscopy. The 128×128 pixel detector consists of a 500 µm thick silicon diode array bump-bonded pixel-by-pixel to an application-specific integrated circuit. The in-pixel circuitry provides a 1,000,000:1 dynamic range within a single frame, allowing the direct electron beam to be imaged while still maintaining single electron sensitivity. A 1.1 kHz framing rate enables rapid data collection and minimizes sample drift distortions while scanning. By capturing the entire unsaturated diffraction pattern in scanning mode, one can simultaneously capture bright field, dark field, and phase contrast information, as well as being able to analyze the full scattering distribution, allowing true center of mass imaging. The scattering is recorded on an absolute scale, so that information such as local sample thickness can be directly determined. This paper describes the detector architecture, data acquisition system, and preliminary results from experiments with 80-200 keV electron beams.

  4. High Dynamic Range Pixel Array Detector for Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Tate, Mark W; Chamberlain, Darol; Nguyen, Kayla X; Hovden, Robert M; Chang, Celesta S; Deb, Pratiti; Turgut, Emrah; Heron, John T; Schlom, Darrell G; Ralph, Daniel C; Fuchs, Gregory D; Shanks, Katherine S; Philipp, Hugh T; Muller, David A; Gruner, Sol M

    2015-01-01

    We describe a hybrid pixel array detector (EMPAD - electron microscope pixel array detector) adapted for use in electron microscope applications, especially as a universal detector for scanning transmission electron microscopy. The 128 x 128 pixel detector consists of a 500 um thick silicon diode array bump-bonded pixel-by-pixel to an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The in-pixel circuitry provides a 1,000,000:1 dynamic range within a single frame, allowing the direct electron beam to be imaged while still maintaining single electron sensitivity. A 1.1 kHz framing rate enables rapid data collection and minimizes sample drift distortions while scanning. By capturing the entire unsaturated diffraction pattern in scanning mode, one can simultaneously capture bright field, dark field, and phase contrast information, as well as being able to analyze the full scattering distribution, allowing true center of mass imaging. The scattering is recorded on an absolute scale, so that information such as loc...

  5. Tracking performance of a single-crystal and a polycrystalline diamond pixel-detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menasce, D.; et al.

    2013-06-01

    We present a comparative characterization of the performance of a single-crystal and a polycrystalline diamond pixel-detector employing the standard CMS pixel readout chips. Measurements were carried out at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility, FTBF, using protons of momentum 120 GeV/c tracked by a high-resolution pixel telescope. Particular attention was directed to the study of the charge-collection, the charge-sharing among adjacent pixels and the achievable position resolution. The performance of the single-crystal detector was excellent and comparable to the best available silicon pixel-detectors. The measured average detection-efficiency was near unity, ε = 0.99860±0.00006, and the position-resolution for shared hits was about 6 μm. On the other hand, the performance of the polycrystalline detector was hampered by its lower charge collection distance and the readout chip threshold. A new readout chip, capable of operating at much lower threshold (around 1 ke$-$), would be required to fully exploit the potential performance of the polycrystalline diamond pixel-detector.

  6. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for the Run2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00237659

    2015-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detect or and of the IBL project as...

  7. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Pernegger, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and of the IBL project as ...

  8. Commissioning of the upgraded ATLAS Pixel Detector for Run2 at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Pixel Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and of the IBL project as ...

  9. The ATLAS Pixel Detector for Run II at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Marx, Marilyn; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and of the IBL project as ...

  10. X-ray Characterization of a Multichannel Smart-Pixel Array Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Steve; Haji-Sheikh, Michael; Huntington, Andrew; Kline, David; Lee, Adam; Li, Yuelin; Rhee, Jehyuk; Tarpley, Mary; Walko, Donald A.; Westberg, Gregg; Williams, George; Zou, Haifeng; Landahl, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Voxtel VX-798 is a prototype X-ray pixel array detector (PAD) featuring a silicon sensor photodiode array of 48 x 48 pixels, each 130 mu m x 130 mu m x 520 mu m thick, coupled to a CMOS readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The first synchrotron X-ray characterization of this detector is presented, and its ability to selectively count individual X-rays within two independent arrival time windows, a programmable energy range, and localized to a single pixel is demonstrated. During our first trial run at Argonne National Laboratory's Advance Photon Source, the detector achieved a 60 ns gating time and 700 eV full width at half-maximum energy resolution in agreement with design parameters. Each pixel of the PAD holds two independent digital counters, and the discriminator for X-ray energy features both an upper and lower threshold to window the energy of interest discarding unwanted background. This smart-pixel technology allows energy and time resolution to be set and optimized in software. It is found that the detector linearity follows an isolated dead-time model, implying that megahertz count rates should be possible in each pixel. Measurement of the line and point spread functions showed negligible spatial blurring. When combined with the timing structure of the synchrotron storage ring, it is demonstrated that the area detector can perform both picosecond time-resolved X-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements.

  11. Synchrotron beam test of a photon counting pixel prototype based on Double-SOI technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Lu, Y.; Hashimoto, R.; Nishimura, R.; Kishimoto, S.; Arai, Y.; Ouyang, Q.

    2017-01-01

    The overall noise performances and first synchrotron beam measurement results of CPIXETEG3b, the first counting type Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) pixel sensor prototype without crosstalk issue, are reported. The prototype includes a 64 × 64 pixel matrix with 50 μm pitch size. Each pixel consists of an N-in-P charge collection diode, a charge sensitive preamplifier, a shaper, a discriminator with thresholds adjustable by an in-pixel 4-bit DAC, and a 6-bit counter. The study was performed using the beam line 14A at KEK Photon Factory (KEK-PF) . The homogeneous response of the prototype, including charging-sharing effects between pixels were studied. 16 keV and 8 keV monochromatic small size (~ 10 μm diameter) X-ray beams were used for the charge sharing study, and a flat-field was added for homogenous response investigation. The overall detector homogeneity and the influence of basic detector parameters on charge sharing between pixels has been investigated.

  12. Land Cover Heterogeneity Effects on Sub-Pixel and Per-Pixel Classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung V. Tran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Per-pixel and sub-pixel are two common classification methods in land cover studies. The characteristics of a landscape, particularly the land cover itself, can affect the accuracies of both methods. The objectives of this study were to: (1 compare the performance of sub-pixel vs. per-pixel classification methods for a broad heterogeneous region; and (2 analyze the impact of land cover heterogeneity (i.e., the number of land cover classes per pixel on both classification methods. The results demonstrated that the accuracy of both per-pixel and sub-pixel classification methods were generally reduced by increasing land cover heterogeneity. Urban areas, for example, were found to have the lowest accuracy for the per-pixel method, because they had the highest heterogeneity. Conversely, rural areas dominated by cropland and grassland had low heterogeneity and high accuracy. When a sub-pixel method was used, the producer’s accuracy for artificial surfaces was increased by more than 20%. For all other land cover classes, sub-pixel and per-pixel classification methods performed similarly. Thus, the sub-pixel classification was only advantageous for heterogeneous urban landscapes. Both creators and users of land cover datasets should be aware of the inherent landscape heterogeneity and its potential effect on map accuracy.

  13. Silicon photomultiplier timing performance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamal, Ahmed, E-mail: gamal.ahmed@assoc.oeaw.ac.at [Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Al-Azhar University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Cairo (Egypt); Paul, Buehler; Johann, Marton; Ken, Suzuki [Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-10-01

    Many characteristics of Silicon Photomultipliers can be tuned with temperature and operation voltage. We present preliminary results of a study of the effect of these two operation parameters on the time resolution of large active area Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs) manufactured by Hamamatsu. Measurements at -10, 0, and 10 deg. C at different bias voltages were performed. The time resolution is best at low temperature and high over-voltage. Most significant improvements can be achieved in cases with low number of fired pixels (<10pixels). Between the worst and best case among the considered conditions a factor of five improvement was observed. In cases with large number of fired pixels (>40pixels) the effect of temperature and operation voltage becomes smaller. The timing performance still improves with decreasing temperature ({approx}factor of 2) but it hardly depends on the operation voltage. The study shows that especially in applications where only few photons are available for detection a careful optimization of temperature and operation voltage are advisable to obtain optimum timing results with the MPPC.

  14. X-ray Polarimetry with an Active-Matrix Pixel Proportional Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J. K.; Deines-Jones, P.; Ready, S. E.; Street, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    We report the first results from an X-ray polarimeter with a micropattern gas proportional counter using an amorphous silicon active matrix readout. With 100% polarized X-rays at 4.5 keV, we obtain a modulation factor of 0.33+/- 0.03, confirming previous reports of the high polarization sensitivity of a finely segmented pixel proportional counter. The detector described here has a geometry suitable for the focal plane of an astronomical X-ray telescope. Amorphous silicon readout technology will enable additional extensions and improvements.

  15. A Monolithic active pixel sensor for ionizing radiation using a 180nm HV-SOI process

    OpenAIRE

    Hemperek, Tomasz; Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Krüger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    An improved SOI-MAPS (Silicon On Insulator Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor) for ionizing radiation based on thick-film High Voltage SOI technology (HV-SOI) has been developed. Similar to existing Fully Depleted SOI-based (FD-SOI) MAPS, a buried silicon oxide inter-dielectric (BOX) layer is used to separate the CMOS electronics from the handle wafer which is used as a depleted charge collection layer. FD-SOI MAPS suffer from radiation damage such as transistor threshold voltage shifts due to ch...

  16. 18k Channels single photon counting readout circuit for hybrid pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, P.; Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Zoladz, M.; Sakumura, T.; Tsuji, Y.

    2013-01-01

    We have performed measurements of an integrated circuit named PXD18k designed for hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used in X-ray imaging applications. The PXD18k integrated circuit, fabricated in CMOS 180 nm technology, has dimensions of 9.64 mm×20 mm and contains approximately 26 million transistors. The core of the IC is a matrix of 96×192 pixels with 100 μm×100 μm pixel size. Each pixel works in a single photon counting mode. A single pixel contains two charge sensitive amplifiers with Krummenacher feedback scheme, two shapers, two discriminators (with independent thresholds A and B) and two 16-bit ripple counters. The data are read out via eight low voltage differential signaling (LVDS) outputs with 100 Mbps rate. The power consumption is dominated by analog blocks and it is about 23 μW/pixel. The effective peaking time at the discriminator input is 30 ns and is mainly determined by the time constants of the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA). The gain is equal to 42.5 μV/e- and the equivalent noise charge is 168 e- rms (with bump-bonded silicon pixel detector). Thanks to the use of trim DACs in each pixel, the effective threshold spread at the discriminator input is only 1.79 mV. The dead time of the front end electronics for a standard setting is 172 ns (paralyzable model). In the standard readout mode (when the data collection time is separated from the time necessary to readout data from the chip) the PXD18k IC works with two energy thresholds per pixel. The PXD18k can also be operated in the continuous readout mode (with a zero dead time) where one can select the number of bits readout from each pixel to optimize the PXD18k frame rate. For example, for reading out 16 bits/pixel the frame rate is 2.7 kHz and for 4 bits/pixel it rises to 7.1 kHz.

  17. 18k Channels single photon counting readout circuit for hybrid pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maj, P., E-mail: piotr.maj@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurements and Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Zoladz, M. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurements and Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Sakumura, T.; Tsuji, Y. [X-ray Analysis Division, Rigaku Corporation, Matsubara, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8666 (Japan)

    2013-01-01

    We have performed measurements of an integrated circuit named PXD18k designed for hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used in X-ray imaging applications. The PXD18k integrated circuit, fabricated in CMOS 180 nm technology, has dimensions of 9.64 mm Multiplication-Sign 20 mm and contains approximately 26 million transistors. The core of the IC is a matrix of 96 Multiplication-Sign 192 pixels with 100 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 100 {mu}m pixel size. Each pixel works in a single photon counting mode. A single pixel contains two charge sensitive amplifiers with Krummenacher feedback scheme, two shapers, two discriminators (with independent thresholds A and B) and two 16-bit ripple counters. The data are read out via eight low voltage differential signaling (LVDS) outputs with 100 Mbps rate. The power consumption is dominated by analog blocks and it is about 23 {mu}W/pixel. The effective peaking time at the discriminator input is 30 ns and is mainly determined by the time constants of the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA). The gain is equal to 42.5 {mu}V/e{sup -} and the equivalent noise charge is 168 e{sup -} rms (with bump-bonded silicon pixel detector). Thanks to the use of trim DACs in each pixel, the effective threshold spread at the discriminator input is only 1.79 mV. The dead time of the front end electronics for a standard setting is 172 ns (paralyzable model). In the standard readout mode (when the data collection time is separated from the time necessary to readout data from the chip) the PXD18k IC works with two energy thresholds per pixel. The PXD18k can also be operated in the continuous readout mode (with a zero dead time) where one can select the number of bits readout from each pixel to optimize the PXD18k frame rate. For example, for reading out 16 bits/pixel the frame rate is 2.7 kHz and for 4 bits/pixel it rises to 7.1 kHz.

  18. Test of a fine pitch SOI pixel detector with laser beam

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yi; Ju, Xudong; Ouyang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    A fine pitch pixel detector, developed on SOI (Silicon on Insulator) technology, has been tested under the illumination of infrared laser pulses. As an alternative way beside particel beam test, the laser pulses are tuned to very short duration and small transverse profile to simulate tracks of MIPs (Minimum Ionization Particles) in silicon. Hit cluster size and substrate depletion characteristics of this SOI detector are obtained. When focused laser pulses propagate through SOI detector perpendicularly to its surface, the hit cluster is measured, and most of signal charges are collected directly by the seed pixel. The signal amplitude as a function of applied bias voltage has been measured on this SOI detector for the first time, which helps us better understand of depletion characteristics.

  19. Status of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC and its performance after three years of operation.

    CERN Document Server

    Heim, Timon; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The record breaking instantaneous luminosities of 7.7 x 10^33 cm-2 s-1 recently surpassed at the Large Hadron Collider generate a rapidly increasing particle fluence in the ATLAS Pixel Detector. As the radiation dose accumulates, the first effects of radiation damage are now observable in the silicon sensors. A regular monitoring program has been conducted and reveals an increase in the silicon leakage ...

  20. Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Gagan B

    2015-01-01

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan is designed to indirectly probe new physics using approximately 50 times the data recorded by its predecessor. An accurate determination of the decay-point position of subatomic particles such as beauty and charm hadrons as well as a precise measurement of low-momentum charged particles will play a key role in this pursuit. These will be accomplished by a vertex detector, which comprises two layers of pixelated silicon detector and four layers of silicon vertex detector. We describe herein the design, prototyping and construction efforts of the Belle-II silicon vertex detector that is aimed to be commissioned towards the middle of 2017.

  1. Belle II silicon vertex detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Enami, K.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C. W.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Maki, M.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rao, K. K.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

    2016-09-01

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan is designed to indirectly probe new physics using approximately 50 times the data recorded by its predecessor. An accurate determination of the decay-point position of subatomic particles such as beauty and charm hadrons as well as a precise measurement of low-momentum charged particles will play a key role in this pursuit. These will be accomplished by an inner tracking device comprising two layers of pixelated silicon detector and four layers of silicon vertex detector based on double-sided microstrip sensors. We describe herein the design, prototyping and construction efforts of the Belle-II silicon vertex detector.

  2. Belle II silicon vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Angelini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Aziz, T.; Babu, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bacher, S. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Bahinipati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Satya Nagar (India); Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Basith, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Batignani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bauer, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Behera, P.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bettarini, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhuyan, B. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Bilka, T. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Bosi, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); INFN Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2016-09-21

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan is designed to indirectly probe new physics using approximately 50 times the data recorded by its predecessor. An accurate determination of the decay-point position of subatomic particles such as beauty and charm hadrons as well as a precise measurement of low-momentum charged particles will play a key role in this pursuit. These will be accomplished by an inner tracking device comprising two layers of pixelated silicon detector and four layers of silicon vertex detector based on double-sided microstrip sensors. We describe herein the design, prototyping and construction efforts of the Belle-II silicon vertex detector.

  3. Development of radiation hard CMOS active pixel sensors for HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernegger, Heinz, E-mail: heinz.pernegger@cern.ch

    2016-07-11

    New pixel detectors, based on commercial high voltage and/or high resistivity full CMOS processes, hold promise as next-generation active pixel sensors for inner and intermediate layers of the upgraded ATLAS tracker. The use of commercial CMOS processes allow cost-effective detector construction and simpler hybridisation techniques. The paper gives an overview of the results obtained on AMS-produced CMOS sensors coupled to the ATLAS Pixel FE-I4 readout chips. The SOI (silicon-on-insulator) produced sensors by XFAB hold great promise as radiation hard SOI-CMOS sensors due to their combination of partially depleted SOI transistors reducing back-gate effects. The test results include pre-/post-irradiation comparison, measurements of charge collection regions as well as test beam results.

  4. The INFN-FBK pixel R&D program for HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meschini, M., E-mail: marco.meschini@cern.ch [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.F. [Università di Trento, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Trento (Italy); TIFPA INFN, Trento (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento (Italy); TIFPA INFN, Trento (Italy); Calderini, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Énergies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Darbo, G. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Giacomini, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento (Italy); Messineo, A. [Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, Pisa (Italy); INFN, Pisa (Italy); Ronchin, S. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento (Italy)

    2016-09-21

    We report on the ATLAS and CMS joint research activity, which is aiming at the development of new, thin silicon pixel detectors for the Large Hadron Collider Phase-2 detector upgrades. This R&D is performed under special agreement between Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and FBK foundation (Trento, Italy). New generations of 3D and planar pixel sensors with active edges are being developed in the R&D project, and will be fabricated at FBK. A first planar pixel batch, which was produced by the end of year 2014, will be described in this paper. First clean room measurement results on planar sensors obtained before and after neutron irradiation will be presented.

  5. The INFN-FBK pixel R&D program for HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschini, M.; Dalla Betta, G. F.; Boscardin, M.; Calderini, G.; Darbo, G.; Giacomini, G.; Messineo, A.; Ronchin, S.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the ATLAS and CMS joint research activity, which is aiming at the development of new, thin silicon pixel detectors for the Large Hadron Collider Phase-2 detector upgrades. This R&D is performed under special agreement between Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and FBK foundation (Trento, Italy). New generations of 3D and planar pixel sensors with active edges are being developed in the R&D project, and will be fabricated at FBK. A first planar pixel batch, which was produced by the end of year 2014, will be described in this paper. First clean room measurement results on planar sensors obtained before and after neutron irradiation will be presented.

  6. Modelling electron distributions within ESA's Gaia satellite CCD pixels to mitigate radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Seabroke, G M; Burt, D; Robbins, M S

    2009-01-01

    The Gaia satellite is a high-precision astrometry, photometry and spectroscopic ESA cornerstone mission, currently scheduled for launch in 2012. Its primary science drivers are the composition, formation and evolution of the Galaxy. Gaia will achieve its unprecedented positional accuracy requirements with detailed calibration and correction for radiation damage. At L2, protons cause displacement damage in the silicon of CCDs. The resulting traps capture and emit electrons from passing charge packets in the CCD pixel, distorting the image PSF and biasing its centroid. Microscopic models of Gaia's CCDs are being developed to simulate this effect. The key to calculating the probability of an electron being captured by a trap is the 3D electron density within each CCD pixel. However, this has not been physically modelled for the Gaia CCD pixels. In Seabroke, Holland & Cropper (2008), the first paper of this series, we motivated the need for such specialised 3D device modelling and outlined how its future resu...

  7. Electron Pattern Recognition using trigger mode SOI pixel sensor for Advanced Compton Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazoe, K.; Yoshihara, Y.; Fairuz, A.; Koyama, A.; Takahashi, H.; Takeda, A.; Tsuru, T.; Arai, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Compton imaging is a useful method for localizing sub MeV to a few MeV gamma-rays and widely used for environmental and medical applications. The direction of recoiled electrons in Compton scattering process provides the additional information to limit the Compton cones and increases the sensitivity in the system. The capability of recoiled electron tracking using trigger-mode Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) sensor is investigated with various radiation sources. The trigger-mode SOI sensor consists of 144 by 144 active pixels with 30 μm cells and the thickness of sensor is 500 μm. The sensor generates the digital output when it is hit by gamma-rays and 25 by 25 pixel pattern of surrounding the triggered pixel is readout to extract the recoiled electron track. The electron track is successfully observed for 60Co and 137Cs sources, which provides useful information for future electron tracking Compton camera.

  8. Achievements of the ATLAS Upgrade Planar Pixel Sensors R&D Project

    CERN Document Server

    Nellist, C

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the HL-LHC upgrade, the ATLAS experiment plans to introduce an all-silicon inner tracker to cope with the elevated occupancy. To investigate the suitability of pixel sensors using the proven planar technology for the upgraded tracker, the ATLAS Planar Pixel Sensor R&D Project (PPS) was established comprising 19 institutes and more than 90 scientists. The paper provides an overview of the research and development project and highlights accomplishments, among them: beam test results with planar sensors up to innermost layer fluences (> 10^16 n_eq cm^2); measurements obtained with irradiated thin edgeless n-in-p pixel assemblies; recent studies of the SCP technique to obtain almost active edges by postprocessing already existing sensors based on scribing, cleaving and edge passivation; an update on prototyping efforts for large areas: sensor design improvements and concepts for low-cost hybridisation; comparison between Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry results and TCAD simulations. Togethe...

  9. Towards a new generation of pixel detector readout chips

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, M; Ballabriga, R.; Frojdh, E.; Heijne, E.; Llopart, X.; Poikela, T.; Tlustos, L.; Valerio, P.; Wong, W.

    2016-01-01

    The Medipix3 Collaboration has broken new ground in spectroscopic X-ray imaging and in single particle detection and tracking. This paper will review briefly the performance and limitations of the present generation of pixel detector readout chips developed by the Collaboration. Through Silicon Via technology has the potential to provide a significant improvement in the tile- ability and more flexibility in the choice of readout architecture. This has been explored in the context of 3 projects with CEA-LETI using Medipix3 and Timepix3 wafers. The next generation of chips will aim to provide improved spectroscopic imaging performance at rates compatible with human CT. It will also aim to provide full spectroscopic images with unprecedented energy and spatial resolution. Some of the opportunities and challenges posed by moving to a more dense CMOS process will be discussed.

  10. The color of X-rays: Spectral X-ray computed tomography using energy sensitive pixel detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schioppa, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy sensitive X-ray imaging detectors are produced by connecting a semiconductor sensor to a spectroscopic pixel readout chip. In this thesis, the applicability of such detectors to X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is studied. A prototype Medipix based silicon detector is calibrated using X-ray flu

  11. The CMS all silicon Tracker simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Biasini, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) tracker detector is the world's largest silicon detector with about 201 m$^2$ of silicon strips detectors and 1 m$^2$ of silicon pixel detectors. It contains 66 millions pixels and 10 million individual sensing strips. The quality of the physics analysis is highly correlated with the precision of the Tracker detector simulation which is written on top of the GEANT4 and the CMS object-oriented framework. The hit position resolution in the Tracker detector depends on the ability to correctly model the CMS tracker geometry, the signal digitization and Lorentz drift, the calibration and inefficiency. In order to ensure high performance in track and vertex reconstruction, an accurate knowledge of the material budget is therefore necessary since the passive materials, involved in the readout, cooling or power systems, will create unwanted effects during the particle detection, such as multiple scattering, electron bremsstrahlung and photon conversion. In this paper, we present the CM...

  12. Readout architecture for the Pixel-Strip module of the CMS Outer Tracker Phase-2 upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Caratelli, Alessandro; Jan Kaplon; Kloukinas, Konstantinos; Simone Scarfi

    2016-01-01

    The Outer Tracker upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN introduces new challenges for the front-end readout electronics. In particular, the capability of identifying particles with high transverse momentum using modules with double sensor layers requires high speed real time interconnects between readout ASICs. The Pixel-Strip module combines a pixelated silicon layer with a silicon-strip layer. Consequently, it needs two different readout ASICs, namely the Short Strip ASIC (SSA) for the strip sensor and the Macro Pixel ASIC (MPA) for the pixelated sensor. The architecture proposed in this paper allows for a total data flow between readout ASICs of $\\sim$100\\,Gbps and reduces the output data flow from 1.3\\,Tbps to 30\\,Gbps per module while limiting the total power density to below 100\\,mW/cm$^2$. In addition a system-level simulation framework of all the front-end readout ASICs is developed in order to verify the data processing algorithm and the hardware implementation allowing mult...

  13. Sub-pixel mapping of water boundaries using pixel swapping algorithm (case study: Tagliamento River, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niroumand-Jadidi, Milad; Vitti, Alfonso

    2015-10-01

    Taking the advantages of remotely sensed data for mapping and monitoring of water boundaries is of particular importance in many different management and conservation activities. Imagery data are classified using automatic techniques to produce maps entering the water bodies' analysis chain in several and different points. Very commonly, medium or coarse spatial resolution imagery is used in studies of large water bodies. Data of this kind is affected by the presence of mixed pixels leading to very outstanding problems, in particular when dealing with boundary pixels. A considerable amount of uncertainty inescapably occurs when conventional hard classifiers (e.g., maximum likelihood) are applied on mixed pixels. In this study, Linear Spectral Mixture Model (LSMM) is used to estimate the proportion of water in boundary pixels. Firstly by applying an unsupervised clustering, the water body is identified approximately and a buffer area considered ensuring the selection of entire boundary pixels. Then LSMM is applied on this buffer region to estimate the fractional maps. However, resultant output of LSMM does not provide a sub-pixel map corresponding to water abundances. To tackle with this problem, Pixel Swapping (PS) algorithm is used to allocate sub-pixels within mixed pixels in such a way to maximize the spatial proximity of sub-pixels and pixels in the neighborhood. The water area of two segments of Tagliamento River (Italy) are mapped in sub-pixel resolution (10m) using a 30m Landsat image. To evaluate the proficiency of the proposed approach for sub-pixel boundary mapping, the image is also classified using a conventional hard classifier. A high resolution image of the same area is also classified and used as a reference for accuracy assessment. According to the results, sub-pixel map shows in average about 8 percent higher overall accuracy than hard classification and fits very well in the boundaries with the reference map.

  14. A support note for the use of pixel hybrid photon detectors in the RICH counters of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Gys, Thierry

    2001-01-01

    This document is a proposal for the use of a hybrid photon detector with integrated silicon pixel readout in the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 5. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The document starts with the general specification of the baseline option, followed by a summary of the main results achieved so far during the R&D phase. A future R&D programme and its related time table is also presented. The document concludes with the description of a photon detector production scheme and time schedule.

  15. It's not the pixel count, you fool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriss, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The first thing a "marketing guy" asks the digital camera engineer is "how many pixels does it have, for we need as many mega pixels as possible since the other guys are killing us with their "umpteen" mega pixel pocket sized digital cameras. And so it goes until the pixels get smaller and smaller in order to inflate the pixel count in the never-ending pixel-wars. These small pixels just are not very good. The truth of the matter is that the most important feature of digital cameras in the last five years is the automatic motion control to stabilize the image on the sensor along with some very sophisticated image processing. All the rest has been hype and some "cool" design. What is the future for digital imaging and what will drive growth of camera sales (not counting the cell phone cameras which totally dominate the market in terms of camera sales) and more importantly after sales profits? Well sit in on the Dark Side of Color and find out what is being done to increase the after sales profits and don't be surprised if has been done long ago in some basement lab of a photographic company and of course, before its time.

  16. Test-beam activities and results for the ATLAS ITk pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bisanz, Tobias; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Phase-II upgrade of the LHC will result in an increase of the instantaneous luminosity up to about 5×1034 cm−2s−1. To cope with the challenges the current Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) system. The Pixel Detector will have to deal with occupancies of about 300~hits/FE/s as well as a fluence of 2×1016neqcm−2. Various sensor layouts are under development, aiming at providing a high performance, cost effective pixel instrumentation to cover an active area of about 10~m2. These range from thin planar silicon, over 3D silicon, to active CMOS sensors. After extensive characterization of the sensors in the lab, their charge collection properties and hit efficiency are measured in common testbeam campaigns, which provide valuable feedback for improvements of the layout. Testbeam measurements of the final prototypes will be used for the decision of which sensor types will be installed in ITk. The setups used in the ITk Pixel testbeam campaigns will be presented, inclu...

  17. CMS 2017 Pixel detector replacement - A roll and B roll

    CERN Multimedia

    Paola Catapano

    2017-01-01

    On Thursday 2 March 2017 CERN physicists and engineers have carried out a highly complex operation right at the heart of one of the four main experiments of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC): the CMS detector, located 100 m below ground under French territory, at one of the LHC’s collision points. CMS is one of the four main detectors on the 27km LHC accelerator., and one of the two experiments which found the Higgs boson in 2012. The heart of the CMS experiment is the pixel detector, the innermost instrument in the very heart of the CMS apparatus, the very point where new particles, such as the Higgs boson, are produced by the energy of the proton proton collisions of the LHC accelerator. With thousands of silicon sensors, the new Pixel Tracker is now being upgraded to improve the particle-tracking capabilities of CMS. This operation, started on Tuesday Feb 28 when the first components of the new instrument were descended into the experiment’s cavern, is one of the most significant milestones ahead of the ...

  18. A CMOS Active Pixel Sensor for Charged Particle Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matis, Howard S.; Bieser, Fred; Kleinfelder, Stuart; Rai, Gulshan; Retiere, Fabrice; Ritter, Hans George; Singh, Kunal; Wurzel, Samuel E.; Wieman, Howard; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2002-12-02

    Active Pixel Sensor (APS) technology has shown promise for next-generation vertex detectors. This paper discusses the design and testing of two generations of APS chips. Both are arrays of 128 by 128 pixels, each 20 by 20 {micro}m. Each array is divided into sub-arrays in which different sensor structures (4 in the first version and 16 in the second) and/or readout circuits are employed. Measurements of several of these structures under Fe{sup 55} exposure are reported. The sensors have also been irradiated by 55 MeV protons to test for radiation damage. The radiation increased the noise and reduced the signal. The noise can be explained by shot noise from the increased leakage current and the reduction in signal is due to charge being trapped in the epi layer. Nevertheless, the radiation effect is small for the expected exposures at RHIC and RHIC II. Finally, we describe our concept for mechanically supporting a thin silicon wafer in an actual detector.

  19. Pixel area variations in sensors: a novel framework for predicting pixel fidelity and distortion in flat field response

    CERN Document Server

    Rasmussen, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We describe the drift field in thick depleted silicon sensors as a superposition of a one-dimensional backdrop field and various three-dimensional perturbative contributions that are physically motivated. We compute trajectories for the conversions along the field lines toward the channel and into volumes where conversions are confined by the perturbative fields. We validate this approach by comparing predictions against measured response distributions seen in five types of fixed pattern distortion features. We derive a quantitative connection between "tree ring" flat field distortions to astrometric and shape transfer errors with connections to measurable wavelength dependence - as ancillary pixel data that may be used in pipeline analysis for catalog population. Such corrections may be tested on DECam data, where correlations between tree ring flat field distortions and astrometric errors - together with their band dependence - are already under study. Dynamic effects, including the brighter-fatter phenomen...

  20. Pixelated CdZnTe drift detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    2005-01-01

    A technique, the so-called Drift Strip Method (DSM), for improving the CdZnTe detector energy response to hard X-rays and gamma-rays was applied as a pixel geometry. First tests have confirmed that this detector type provides excellent energy resolution and imaging performance. We specifically...... report on the performance of 3 mm thick prototype CZT drift pixel detectors fabricated using material from eV-products. We discuss issues associated with detector module performance. Characterization results obtained from several prototype drift pixel detectors are presented. Results of position...

  1. LISe pixel detector for neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Elan; Hamm, Daniel; Wiggins, Brenden; Milburn, Rob; Burger, Arnold; Bilheux, Hassina; Santodonato, Louis; Chvala, Ondrej; Stowe, Ashley; Lukosi, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Semiconducting lithium indium diselenide, 6LiInSe2 or LISe, has promising characteristics for neutron detection applications. The 95% isotopic enrichment of 6Li results in a highly efficient thermal neutron-sensitive material. In this study, we report on a proof-of-principle investigation of a semiconducting LISe pixel detector to demonstrate its potential as an efficient neutron imager. The LISe pixel detector had a 4×4 of pixels with a 550 μm pitch on a 5×5×0.56 mm3 LISe substrate. An experimentally verified spatial resolution of 300 μm was observed utilizing a super-sampling technique.

  2. Pixel detectors from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Leonardo; Rohe, Tilman; Wermes, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    Pixel detectors are a particularly important class of particle and radiation detection devices. They have an extremely broad spectrum of applications, ranging from high-energy physics to the photo cameras of everyday life. This book is a general purpose introduction into the fundamental principles of pixel detector technology and semiconductor-based hybrid pixel devices. Although these devices were developed for high-energy ionizing particles and radiation beyond visible light, they are finding new applications in many other areas. This book will therefore benefit all scientists and engineers working in any laboratory involved in developing or using particle detection.

  3. Anode readout for pixellated CZT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Tomohiko; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Hong, Jaesub; Niestemski, Francis C.

    2004-02-01

    Determination of the photon interaction depth offers numerous advantages for an astronomical hard X-ray telescope. The interaction depth is typically derived from two signals: anode and cathode, or collecting and non-collecting electrodes. We present some preliminary results from our depth sensing detectors using only the anode pixel signals. By examining several anode pixel signals simultaneously, we find that we can estimate the interaction depth, and get sub-pixel 2-D position resolution. We discuss our findings and the requirements for future ASIC development.

  4. Hardware solutions for the 65k pixel X-ray camera module of 75 μm pixel size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinski, K.; Maj, P.; Grybos, P.; Koziol, A.

    2016-02-01

    We present three hardware solutions designed for a detector module built with a 2 cm × 2 cm hybrid pixel detector built from a single 320 or 450 μ m thick silicon sensor designed and fabricated by Hamamatsu and two UFXC32k readout integrated circuits (128 × 256 pixels with 75μ m pitch, designed in CMOS 130 nm at AGH-UST). The chips work in a single photon counting mode and provide ultra-fast X-ray imaging. The presented hardware modules are designed according to requirements of various tests and applications: ṡDevice A: a fast and flexible system for tests with various radiation sources. ṡDevice B: a standalone, all-in-one imaging device providing three standard interfaces (USB 2.0, Ethernet, Camera Link) and up to 640 MB/s bandwidth. ṡDevice C: a prototype large-area imaging system. The paper shows the readout system structure for each case with highlighted circuit board designs with details on power distribution and cooling on both FR4 and LTCC (low temperature co-fired ceramic) based circuits.

  5. Integrated Lens Antennas for Multi-Pixel Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choonsup; Chattopadhyay, Goutam

    2011-01-01

    Future astrophysics and planetary experiments are expected to require large focal plane arrays with thousands of detectors. Feedhorns have excellent performance, but their mass, size, fabrication challenges, and expense become prohibitive for very large focal plane arrays. Most planar antenna designs produce broad beam patterns, and therefore require additional elements for efficient coupling to the telescope optics, such as substrate lenses or micromachined horns. An antenna array with integrated silicon microlenses that can be fabricated photolithographically effectively addresses these issues. This approach eliminates manual assembly of arrays of lenses and reduces assembly errors and tolerances. Moreover, an antenna array without metallic horns will reduce mass of any planetary instrument significantly. The design has a monolithic array of lens-coupled, leaky-wave antennas operating in the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave frequencies. Electromagnetic simulations show that the electromagnetic fields in such lens-coupled antennas are mostly confined in approximately 12 15 . This means that one needs to design a small-angle sector lens that is much easier to fabricate using standard lithographic techniques, instead of a full hyper-hemispherical lens. Moreover, this small-angle sector lens can be easily integrated with the antennas in an array for multi-pixel imager and receiver implementation. The leaky antenna is designed using double-slot irises and fed with TE10 waveguide mode. The lens implementation starts with a silicon substrate. Photoresist with appropriate thickness (optimized for the lens size) is spun on the substrate and then reflowed to get the desired lens structure. An antenna array integrated with individual lenses for higher directivity and excellent beam profile will go a long way in realizing multi-pixel arrays and imagers. This technology will enable a new generation of compact, low-mass, and highly efficient antenna arrays for use in multi-pixel

  6. Adopt a Pixel Photographs: 2013-Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The photographs in the Adopt a Pixel collection were provided by volunteers with a digital camera, a Global Positioning System (GPS), and a compass or a smart mobile...

  7. Adopt a Pixel Photographs: 2013-Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The photographs in the Adopt a Pixel collection were provided by volunteers with a digital camera, a Global Positioning System (GPS), and a compass or a smart mobile...

  8. Adopt a Pixel Photographs: 2013-Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The photographs in the Adopt a Pixel collection were provided by volunteers with a digital camera, a Global Positioning System (GPS), and a compass or a smart...

  9. ATLAS-TPX: a two-layer pixel detector setup for neutron detection and radiation field characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, B.; Caicedo, I.; Leroy, C.; Pospisil, S.; Vykydal, Z.

    2016-10-01

    A two-layer pixel detector setup (ATLAS-TPX), designed for thermal and fast neutron detection and radiation field characterization is presented. It consists of two segmented silicon detectors (256 × 256 pixels, pixel pitch 55 μm, thicknesses 300 μm and 500 μm) facing each other. To enhance the neutron detection efficiency a set of converter layers is inserted in between these detectors. The pixelation and the two-layer design allow a discrimination of neutrons against γs by pattern recognition and against charged particles by using the coincidence and anticoincidence information. The neutron conversion and detection efficiencies are measured in a thermal neutron field and fast neutron fields with energies up to 600 MeV. A Geant4 simulation model is presented, which is validated against the measured detector responses. The reliability of the coincidence and anticoincidence technique is demonstrated and possible applications of the detector setup are briefly outlined.

  10. HEPS-BPIX, a single photon counting pixel detector with a high frame rate for the HEPS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Ning, Zhe; Lu, Yunpeng; Fan, Lei; Li, Huaishen; Jiang, Xiaoshan; Lan, Allan K.; Ouyang, Qun; Wang, Zheng; Zhu, Kejun; Chen, Yuanbo; Liu, Peng

    2016-11-01

    China's next generation light source, named the High Energy Photon Source (HEPS), is currently under construction. HEPS-BPIX (HEPS-Beijing PIXel) is a dedicated pixel readout chip that operates in single photon counting mode for X-ray applications in HEPS. Designed using CMOS 0.13 μm technology, the chip contains a matrix of 104×72 pixels. Each pixel measures 150 μm×150 μm and has a counting depth of 20 bits. A bump-bonded prototyping detector module with a 300-μm thick silicon sensor was tested in the beamline of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. A fast stream of X-ray images was demonstrated, and a frame rate of 1.2 kHz was proven, with a negligible dead time. The test results showed an equivalent noise charge of 115 e- rms after bump bonding and a threshold dispersion of 55 e- rms after calibration.

  11. Direct charge sharing observation in single-photon-counting pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, G. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, IMB-CNM (CSIC), Barcelona 08193 (Spain)]. E-mail: Giulio.Pellegrini@cnm.es; Maiorino, M. [IFAE - Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, UAB Campus, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Blanchot, G. [IFAE - Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, UAB Campus, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Chmeissani, M. [IFAE - Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, UAB Campus, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Garcia, J. [IFAE - Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, UAB Campus, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Lozano, M. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, IMB-CNM (CSIC), Barcelona 08193 (Spain); Martinez, R. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, IMB-CNM (CSIC), Barcelona 08193 (Spain); Puigdengoles, C. [IFAE - Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, UAB Campus, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Ullan, M. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, IMB-CNM (CSIC), Barcelona 08193 (Spain)

    2007-04-01

    In photon-counting imaging devices, charge sharing can limit the detector spatial resolution and contrast, as multiple counts can be induced in adjacent pixels as a result of the spread of the charge cloud generated from a single X-ray photon of high energy in the detector bulk. Although debated for a long time, the full impact of charge sharing has not been completely assessed. In this work, the importance of charge sharing in pixellated CdTe and silicon detectors is studied by exposing imaging devices to different low activity sources. These devices are made of Si and CdTe pixel detector bump-bonded to Medipix2 single-photon-counting chips with a 55 {mu}m pixel pitch. We will show how charge sharing affects the spatial detector resolution depending on incident particle type (alpha, beta and gamma), detector bias voltage and read-out chip threshold. This study will give an insight on the impact on the design and operation of pixel detectors coupled to photon-counting devices for imaging applications.

  12. Direct charge sharing observation in single-photon-counting pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, G.; Maiorino, M.; Blanchot, G.; Chmeissani, M.; Garcia, J.; Lozano, M.; Martinez, R.; Puigdengoles, C.; Ullan, M.

    2007-04-01

    In photon-counting imaging devices, charge sharing can limit the detector spatial resolution and contrast, as multiple counts can be induced in adjacent pixels as a result of the spread of the charge cloud generated from a single X-ray photon of high energy in the detector bulk. Although debated for a long time, the full impact of charge sharing has not been completely assessed. In this work, the importance of charge sharing in pixellated CdTe and silicon detectors is studied by exposing imaging devices to different low activity sources. These devices are made of Si and CdTe pixel detector bump-bonded to Medipix2 single-photon-counting chips with a 55 μm pixel pitch. We will show how charge sharing affects the spatial detector resolution depending on incident particle type (alpha, beta and gamma), detector bias voltage and read-out chip threshold. This study will give an insight on the impact on the design and operation of pixel detectors coupled to photon-counting devices for imaging applications.

  13. Characterization and correction of charge-induced pixel shifts in DECam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruen, D.; Bernstein, G. M.; Jarvis, M.; Rowe, B.; Vikram, V.; Plazas, A. A.; Seitz, S.

    2015-05-01

    Interaction of charges in CCDs with the already accumulated charge distribution causes both a flux dependence of the point-spread function (an increase of observed size with flux, also known as the brighter/fatter effect) and pixel-to-pixel correlations of the {Poissonian} noise in flat fields. We describe these effects in the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) with charge dependent shifts of effective pixel borders, i.e. the Antilogus et al. (2014) model, which we fit to measurements of flat-field {Poissonian} noise correlations. The latter fall off approximately as a power-law r(-)(2.5) with pixel separation r, are isotropic except for an asymmetry in the direct neighbors along rows and columns, are stable in time, and are weakly dependent on wavelength. They show variations from chip to chip at the 20% level that correlate with the silicon resistivity. The charge shifts predicted by the model cause biased shape measurements, primarily due to their effect on bright stars, at levels exceeding weak lensing science requirements. We measure the flux dependence of star images and show that the effect can be mitigated by applying the reverse charge shifts at the pixel level during image processing. Differences in stellar size, however, remain significant due to residuals at larger distance from the centroid.

  14. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mullier, Geoffrey Andre; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), a fourth layer of pixel detectors, installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and increased pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. A new readout chip has been developed within CMOS 130nm technology with larger area, smaller pixel size and faster readout capability. Dedicated design features in combination with a new composite material were considered and used in order to reduce the material budget of the support structure while keeping the optimal thermo-mechanical performan...

  15. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for the Run 2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Oide, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run 1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long shutdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The IBL is the fourth layer of the Run 2 Pixel Detector, and it was installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and the new smaller-radius beam pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. IBL construction is now completed. An overview of the IBL project...

  16. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for the Run2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelli, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long shutdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and will be installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. IBL construction is now completed. An overview of the IBL project as well as the ...

  17. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for the Run2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Oide, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and will be installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. IBL construction is now completed. An overview of the IBL project as well as the ...

  18. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Pernegger, Heinz; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long shutdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and hit occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and of the IBL project as we...

  19. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

    2014-12-09

    A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

  20. High-speed X-ray imaging pixel array detector for synchrotron bunch isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, Hugh T., E-mail: htp2@cornell.edu; Tate, Mark W.; Purohit, Prafull; Shanks, Katherine S.; Weiss, Joel T. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-01-28

    A high-speed pixel array detector for time-resolved X-ray imaging at synchrotrons has been developed. The ability to isolate single synchrotron bunches makes it ideal for time-resolved dynamical studies. A wide-dynamic-range imaging X-ray detector designed for recording successive frames at rates up to 10 MHz is described. X-ray imaging with frame rates of up to 6.5 MHz have been experimentally verified. The pixel design allows for up to 8–12 frames to be stored internally at high speed before readout, which occurs at a 1 kHz frame rate. An additional mode of operation allows the integration capacitors to be re-addressed repeatedly before readout which can enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of cyclical processes. This detector, along with modern storage ring sources which provide short (10–100 ps) and intense X-ray pulses at megahertz rates, opens new avenues for the study of rapid structural changes in materials. The detector consists of hybridized modules, each of which is comprised of a 500 µm-thick silicon X-ray sensor solder bump-bonded, pixel by pixel, to an application-specific integrated circuit. The format of each module is 128 × 128 pixels with a pixel pitch of 150 µm. In the prototype detector described here, the three-side buttable modules are tiled in a 3 × 2 array with a full format of 256 × 384 pixels. The characteristics, operation, testing and application of the detector are detailed.

  1. Region based elimination of noise pixels towards optimized classifier models for skin pixel detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Kaur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of the skin pixels in a human image and rejection of non-skin pixels is called the skin segmentation. Skin pixel detection is the process of extracting the skin pixels in a human image which is typically used as a pre-processing step to extract the face regions from human image. In past, there are several computer vision approaches and techniques have been developed for skin pixel detection. In the process of skin detection, given pixels are been transformed into an appropriate color space such as RGB, HSV etc. And then skin classifier model have been applied to label the pixel into skin or non-skin regions. Here in this research a “Region based elimination of noise pixels and performance analysis of classifier models for skin pixel detection applied on human images” would be performed which involve the process of image representation in color models, elimination of non-skin pixels in the image, and then pre-processing and cleansing of the collected data, feature selection of the human image and then building the model for classifier. In this research and implementation of skin pixels classifier models are proposed with their comparative performance analysis. The definition of the feature vector is simply the selection of skin pixels from the human image or stack of human images. The performance is evaluated by comparing and analysing skin colour segmentation algorithms. During the course of research implementation, efforts are iterative which help in selection of optimized skin classifier based on the machine learning algorithms and their performance analysis.

  2. Alignment of the Pixel and SCT Modules for the 2004 ATLAS Combined Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ATLAS Collaboration; Ahmad, A.; Andreazza, A.; Atkinson, T.; Baines, J.; Barr, A.J.; Beccherle, R.; Bell, P.J.; Bernabeu, J.; Broklova, Z.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Cauz, D.; Chevalier, L.; Chouridou, S.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cobal, M.; Cornelissen, T.; Correard, S.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Cuneo, S.; Dameri, M.; Darbo, G.; de Vivie, J.B.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dobos, D.; Drasal, Z.; Drohan, J.; Einsweiler, K.; Elsing, M.; Emelyanov, D.; Escobar, C.; Facius, K.; Ferrari, P.; Fergusson, D.; Ferrere, D.; Flick,, T.; Froidevaux, D.; Gagliardi, G.; Gallas, M.; Gallop, B.J.; Gan, K.K.; Garcia, C.; Gavrilenko, I.L.; Gemme, C.; Gerlach, P.; Golling, T.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodrick, M.J.; Gorfine, G.; Gottfert, T.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Hansen, P.H.; Hara, K.; Hartel, R.; Harvey, A.; Hawkings, R.J.; Heinemann, F.E.W.; Henss, T.; Hill, J.C.; Huegging, F.; Jansen, E.; Joseph, J.; Unel, M. Karagoz; Kataoka, M.; Kersten, S.; Khomich, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kostyukhin, V.; Lacasta, C.; Lari, T.; Latorre, S.; Lester, C.G.; Liebig, W.; Lipniacka, A.; Lourerio, K.F.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Mathes, M.; Meroni, C.; Mikulec, B.; Mindur, B.; Moed, S.; Moorhead, G.; Morettini, P.; Moyse, E.W.J.; Nakamura, K.; Nechaeva, P.; Nikolaev, K.; Parodi, F.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Pater, J.; Petti, R.; Phillips, P.W.; Pinto, B.; Poppleton, A.; Reeves, K.; Reisinger, I.; Reznicek, P.; Risso, P.; Robinson, D.; Roe, S.; Rozanov, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sandaker, H.; Santi, L.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schultes, J.; Sfyrla, A.; Shaw, C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Toczek, B.; Troncon, C.; Tyndel, M.; Vernocchi, F.; Virzi, J.; Anh, T. Vu; Warren, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Wellsf, P.S.; Zhelezkow, A.

    2008-06-02

    A small set of final prototypes of the ATLAS Inner Detector silicon tracking system(Pixel Detector and SemiConductor Tracker), were used to take data during the 2004 Combined Test Beam. Data were collected from runs with beams of different flavour (electrons, pions, muons and photons) with a momentum range of 2 to 180 GeV/c. Four independent methods were used to align the silicon modules. The corrections obtained were validated using the known momenta of the beam particles and were shown to yield consistent results among the different alignment approaches. From the residual distributions, it is concluded that the precision attained in the alignmentof the silicon modules is of the order of 5 mm in their most precise coordinate.

  3. First operation of a pixel imaging matrix based on DEPFET pixels

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, P; Klein, P; Löcker, M; Lutz, Gerhard; Neeser, W; Strüder, L; Wermes, N

    2000-01-01

    In the DEPFET pixel concept the detected incident radiation is directly sensed and amplified by a JFET integrated in every pixel cell. While the DEPFET detector principle has already been demonstrated previously on single pixel structures, we present here the first successful operation of a large $32 \\times 32$ DEPFET pixel matrix as an imaging device. The matrix has been exposed to 60 keV gamma rays of a $^{241}$Am source and has been scanned using an IR laser. The principle of operation as well as the charge collection in the structure and possible improvements are discussed.

  4. How and why silicon sensors are becoming more and more intelligent?

    CERN Document Server

    Bortoletto, D

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the historical evolution of silicon detectors from simple strip configurations to hybrid pixel detectors for high energy physics applications. This development has been critical to maintain the necessary physics performance in the high-rate and highdensity environment of the LHC. The importance of pixel detectors and their evolution for future projects and other fields is also described.

  5. Spatial clustering of pixels of a multispectral image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, James Lynn

    2014-08-19

    A method and system for clustering the pixels of a multispectral image is provided. A clustering system computes a maximum spectral similarity score for each pixel that indicates the similarity between that pixel and the most similar neighboring. To determine the maximum similarity score for a pixel, the clustering system generates a similarity score between that pixel and each of its neighboring pixels and then selects the similarity score that represents the highest similarity as the maximum similarity score. The clustering system may apply a filtering criterion based on the maximum similarity score so that pixels with similarity scores below a minimum threshold are not clustered. The clustering system changes the current pixel values of the pixels in a cluster based on an averaging of the original pixel values of the pixels in the cluster.

  6. Spatial clustering of pixels of a multispectral image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, James Lynn

    2014-08-19

    A method and system for clustering the pixels of a multispectral image is provided. A clustering system computes a maximum spectral similarity score for each pixel that indicates the similarity between that pixel and the most similar neighboring. To determine the maximum similarity score for a pixel, the clustering system generates a similarity score between that pixel and each of its neighboring pixels and then selects the similarity score that represents the highest similarity as the maximum similarity score. The clustering system may apply a filtering criterion based on the maximum similarity score so that pixels with similarity scores below a minimum threshold are not clustered. The clustering system changes the current pixel values of the pixels in a cluster based on an averaging of the original pixel values of the pixels in the cluster.

  7. Heavily irradiated N-in-p thin planar pixel sensors with and without active edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzo, S.; Andricek, L.; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H. G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R. H.; Weigell, P.

    2014-05-01

    We present the results of the characterization of silicon pixel modules employing n-in-p planar sensors with an active thickness of 150 μm, produced at MPP/HLL, and 100-200 μm thin active edge sensor devices, produced at VTT in Finland. These thin sensors are designed as candidates for the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade to be operated at the HL-LHC, as they ensure radiation hardness at high fluences. They are interconnected to the ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips. Moreover, the n-in-p technology only requires a single side processing and thereby it is a cost-effective alternative to the n-in-n pixel technology presently employed in the LHC experiments. High precision beam test measurements of the hit efficiency have been performed on these devices both at the CERN SpS and at DESY, Hamburg. We studied the behavior of these sensors at different bias voltages and different beam incident angles up to the maximum one expected for the new Insertable B-Layer of ATLAS and for HL-LHC detectors. Results obtained with 150 μm thin sensors, assembled with the new ATLAS FE-I4 chip and irradiated up to a fluence of 4 × 1015 neq/cm2, show that they are excellent candidates for larger radii of the silicon pixel tracker in the upgrade of the ATLAS detector at HL-LHC. In addition, the active edge technology of the VTT devices maximizes the active area of the sensor and reduces the material budget to suit the requirements for the innermost layers. The edge pixel performance of VTT modules has been investigated at beam test experiments and the analysis after irradiation up to a fluence of 5 × 1015 neq/cm2 has been performed using radioactive sources in the laboratory.

  8. Silicon spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ron

    2012-04-23

    Worldwide efforts are underway to integrate semiconductors and magnetic materials, aiming to create a revolutionary and energy-efficient information technology in which digital data are encoded in the spin of electrons. Implementing spin functionality in silicon, the mainstream semiconductor, is vital to establish a spin-based electronics with potential to change information technology beyond imagination. Can silicon spintronics live up to the expectation? Remarkable advances in the creation and control of spin polarization in silicon suggest so. Here, I review the key developments and achievements, and describe the building blocks of silicon spintronics. Unexpected and puzzling results are discussed, and open issues and challenges identified. More surprises lie ahead as silicon spintronics comes of age.

  9. A logarithmic low dark current CMOS pixel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Alessandro Michel; Choubey, Bhaskar

    2016-04-01

    High dynamic range pixels are required in a number of automotive and scientific applications. CMOS pixels provide different approaches to achieve this. However, these suffer from poor performance under low light conditions due to inherently high leakage current that is present in CMOS processes, also known as dark current. The typical approach to reduce this dark current involves process modifications. Nevertheless, energy considerations suggest that the leakage current will be close to zero at a close to zero voltage on the photodiode. Hence, the reduction in dark current can be achieved by forcing a zero voltage across the photodiode. In this paper, a novel logarithmic CMOS pixel design capable of reducing dark current without any process modifications is proposed. This pixel is also able to produce a wide dynamic range response. This circuit utilizes two current mirrors to force the in-pixel photodiode at a close to zero voltage. Additionally, a bias voltage is used to reduce a higher order effect known as Drain Induced Barrier Lowering (DIBL). In fact, the contribution of this effect can be compensated by increasing the body effect. In this paper, we studied the consequences of a negative bias voltage applied to the body of the current mirror pair to compensate for the DIBL effect thereby achieving a very small voltage drop on the photodiode and consequently, a higher sensitivity in low light conditions.

  10. Evaluation of a photon-counting hybrid pixel detector array with a synchrotron X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchut, C.; Visschers, J. L.; Fornaini, A.; Graafsma, H.; Maiorino, M.; Mettivier, G.; Calvet, D.

    2002-05-01

    A photon-counting hybrid pixel detector (Medipix-1) has been characterized using a synchrotron X-ray source. The detector consists of a readout ASIC with 64×64 independent photon-counting cells of 170×170 μm 2 pitch, bump-bonded to a 300 μm thick silicon sensor, read out by a PCIbus-based electronics, and a graphical user interface (GUI) software. The intensity and the energy tunability of the X-ray source allow characterization of the detector in the time, space, and energy domains. The system can be read out on external trigger at a frame rate of 100 Hz with 3 ms exposure time per frame. The detector response is tested up to more than 7×10 5 detected events/pixel/s. The point-spread response shows beam reveals no loss in sensitivity between adjacent pixels as could result from charge sharing in the silicon sensor. Photons down to 6 keV can be detected after equalization of the thresholds of individual pixels. The obtained results demonstrate the advantages of photon-counting hybrid pixel detectors and particularly of the Medipix-1 chip for a wide range of X-ray imaging applications, including those using synchrotron X-ray beams.

  11. Radiation Tolerance of CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors with Self-Biased Pixels

    CERN Document Server

    Deveaux, M; Besson, A; Claus, G; Colledani, C; Dorokhov, M; Dritsa, C; Dulinski, W; Fröhlich, I; Goffe, M; Grandjean, D; Heini, S; Himmi, A; Hu, C; Jaaskelainen, K; Müntz, C; Shabetai, A; Stroth, J; Szelezniak, M; Valin, I; Winter, M

    2009-01-01

    CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are proposed as a technology for various vertex detectors in nuclear and particle physics. We discuss the mechanisms of ionizing radiation damage on MAPS hosting the the dead time free, so-called self bias pixel. Moreover, we discuss radiation hardened sensor designs which allow operating detectors after exposing them to irradiation doses above 1 Mrad

  12. Development of CMOS Pixel Sensors with digital pixel dedicated to future particle physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Wang, T.; Pham, H.; Hu-Guo, C.; Dorokhov, A.; Hu, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Two prototypes of CMOS pixel sensor with in-pixel analog to digital conversion have been developed in a 0.18 μm CIS process. The first design integrates a discriminator into each pixel within an area of 22 × 33 μm2 in order to meet the requirements of the ALICE inner tracking system (ALICE-ITS) upgrade. The second design features 3-bit charge encoding inside a 35 × 35 μm2 pixel which is motivated by the specifications of the outer layers of the ILD vertex detector (ILD-VXD). This work aims to validate the concept of in-pixel digitization which offers higher readout speed, lower power consumption and less dead zone compared with the column-level charge encoding.

  13. The pin pixel detector--neutron imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Marsh, A S; Rhodes, N J; Schooneveld, E M; Simmons, J E; Stephenson, R

    2002-01-01

    The development and testing of a neutron gas pixel detector intended for application in neutron diffraction studies is reported. Using standard electrical connector pins as point anodes, the detector is based on a commercial 100 pin connector block. A prototype detector of aperture 25.4 mmx25.4 mm has been fabricated, giving a pixel size of 2.54 mm which matches well to the spatial resolution typically required in a neutron diffractometer. A 2-Dimensional resistive divide readout system has been adapted to permit the imaging properties of the detector to be explored in advance of true pixel readout electronics. The timing properties of the device match well to the requirements of the ISIS-pulsed neutron source.

  14. Infrared single-pixel imaging utilising microscanning

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Ming-Jie; Phillips, David B; Gibson, Graham M; Padgett, Miles J

    2015-01-01

    Since the invention of digital cameras there has been a concerted drive towards detector arrays with higher spatial resolution. Microscanning is a technique that provides a final higher resolution image by combining multiple images of a lower resolution. Each of these low resolution images is subject to a sub-pixel sized lateral displacement. In this work we apply the microscanning approach to an infrared single-pixel camera. For the same final resolution and measurement resource, we show that microscanning improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of reconstructed images by approximately 50%. In addition, this strategy also provides access to a stream of low-resolution 'preview' images throughout each high-resolution acquisition. Our work demonstrates an additional degree of flexibility in the trade-off between SNR and spatial resolution in single-pixel imaging techniques.

  15. Towards spark-proof gaseous pixel detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigaridas, S.; Beuzekom, M. v.; Chan, H. W.; Graaf, H. v. d.; Hartjes, F.; Heijhoff, K.; Hessey, N. P.; Prodanovic, V.

    2016-11-01

    The micro-pattern gaseous pixel detector, is a promising technology for imaging and particle tracking applications. It is a combination of a gas layer acting as detection medium and a CMOS pixelated readout-chip. As a prevention against discharges we deposit a protection layer on the chip and then integrate on top a micromegas-like amplification structure. With this technology we are able to reconstruct 3D track segments of particles passing through the gas thanks to the functionality of the chip. We have turned a Timepix3 chip into a gaseous pixel detector and tested it at the SPS at Cern. The preliminary results are promising and within the expectations. However, the spark protection layer needs further improvement to make reliable detectors. For this reason, we have created a setup for spark-testing. We present the first results obtained from the lab-measurements along with preliminary results from the testbeam.

  16. Per-Pixel Lighting Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inanici, Mehlika

    2005-08-01

    This report presents a framework for per-pixel analysis of the qualitative and quantitative aspects of luminous environments. Recognizing the need for better lighting analysis capabilities and appreciating the new measurement abilities developed within the LBNL Lighting Measurement and Simulation Toolbox, ''Per-pixel Lighting Data Analysis'' project demonstrates several techniques for analyzing luminance distribution patterns, luminance ratios, adaptation luminance and glare assessment. The techniques are the syntheses of the current practices in lighting design and the unique practices that can be done with per-pixel data availability. Demonstrated analysis techniques are applicable to both computer-generated and digitally captured images (physically-based renderings and High Dynamic Range photographs).

  17. Performance of active edge pixel sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomben, M.; Ducourthial, A.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Calderini, G.; D'Eramo, L.; Giacomini, G.; Marchiori, G.; Zorzi, N.; Rummler, A.; Weingarten, J.

    2017-05-01

    To cope with the High Luminosity LHC harsh conditions, the ATLAS inner tracker has to be upgraded to meet requirements in terms of radiation hardness, pile up and geometrical acceptance. The active edge technology allows to reduce the insensitive area at the border of the sensor thanks to an ion etched trench which avoids the crystal damage produced by the standard mechanical dicing process. Thin planar n-on-p pixel sensors with active edge have been designed and produced by LPNHE and FBK foundry. Two detector module prototypes, consisting of pixel sensors connected to FE-I4B readout chips, have been tested with beams at CERN and DESY. In this paper the performance of these modules are reported. In particular the lateral extension of the detection volume, beyond the pixel region, is investigated and the results show high hit efficiency also at the detector edge, even in presence of guard rings.

  18. Silicon sensor technologies for ATLAS IBL upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    New pixel sensors are currently under development for ATLAS Upgrades. The first upgrade stage will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer that will be installed in the detector during the 2013 LHC shutdown. The new layer (Insertable-B-Layer, IBL) will be inserted between the inner most layer of the current pixel detector and the beam pipe at a radius of 3.2cm. The expected high radiation levels require the use of radiation hard technology for both the front-end chip and the sensor. Two different pixel sensor technologies are envisaged for the IBL. The sensor choice will occur in July 2011. One option is developed by the ATLAS Planar Pixel Sensor (PPS) Collaboration and is based on classical n-in-n planar silicon sensors which have been used for the ATLAS Pixel detector. For the IBL, two changes were required: The thickness was reduced from 250 um to 200 um to improve the radiation hardness. In addition, so-called "slim edges" were designed to reduce the inactive edge of the sensors from 1100 um to o...

  19. Three-dimensional cascaded system analysis of a 50 µm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C; Vassiljev, N; Konstantinidis, A C; Speller, R D; Kanicki, J

    2017-03-07

    High-resolution, low-noise x-ray detectors based on the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been developed and proposed for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this study, we evaluated the three-dimensional (3D) imaging performance of a 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). The two-dimensional (2D) angle-dependent modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were experimentally characterized and modeled using the cascaded system analysis at oblique incident angles up to 30°. The cascaded system model was extended to the 3D spatial frequency space in combination with the filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction method to calculate the 3D and in-plane MTF, NNPS and DQE parameters. The results demonstrate that the beam obliquity blurs the 2D MTF and DQE in the high spatial frequency range. However, this effect can be eliminated after FBP image reconstruction. In addition, impacts of the image acquisition geometry and detector parameters were evaluated using the 3D cascaded system analysis for DBT. The result shows that a wider projection angle range (e.g.  ±30°) improves the low spatial frequency (below 5 mm(-1)) performance of the CMOS APS detector. In addition, to maintain a high spatial resolution for DBT, a focal spot size of smaller than 0.3 mm should be used. Theoretical analysis suggests that a pixelated scintillator in combination with the 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS detector could further improve the 3D image resolution. Finally, the 3D imaging performance of the CMOS APS and an indirect amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistor (TFT) passive pixel sensor (PPS) detector was simulated and compared.

  20. Three-dimensional cascaded system analysis of a 50 µm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C.; Vassiljev, N.; Konstantinidis, A. C.; Speller, R. D.; Kanicki, J.

    2017-03-01

    High-resolution, low-noise x-ray detectors based on the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been developed and proposed for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this study, we evaluated the three-dimensional (3D) imaging performance of a 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). The two-dimensional (2D) angle-dependent modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were experimentally characterized and modeled using the cascaded system analysis at oblique incident angles up to 30°. The cascaded system model was extended to the 3D spatial frequency space in combination with the filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction method to calculate the 3D and in-plane MTF, NNPS and DQE parameters. The results demonstrate that the beam obliquity blurs the 2D MTF and DQE in the high spatial frequency range. However, this effect can be eliminated after FBP image reconstruction. In addition, impacts of the image acquisition geometry and detector parameters were evaluated using the 3D cascaded system analysis for DBT. The result shows that a wider projection angle range (e.g.  ±30°) improves the low spatial frequency (below 5 mm-1) performance of the CMOS APS detector. In addition, to maintain a high spatial resolution for DBT, a focal spot size of smaller than 0.3 mm should be used. Theoretical analysis suggests that a pixelated scintillator in combination with the 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS detector could further improve the 3D image resolution. Finally, the 3D imaging performance of the CMOS APS and an indirect amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistor (TFT) passive pixel sensor (PPS) detector was simulated and compared.

  1. Pixel front-end with synchronous discriminator and fast charge measurement for the upgrades of HL-LHC experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteil, E.; Demaria, N.; Pacher, L.; Rivetti, A.; Da Rocha Rolo, M.; Rotondo, F.; Leng, C.

    2016-03-01

    The upgrade of the silicon pixel sensors for the HL-LHC experiments requires the development of new readout integrated circuits due to unprecedented radiation levels, very high hit rates and increased pixel granularity. The design of a very compact, low power, low threshold analog very front-end in CMOS 65 nm technology is described. It contains a synchronous comparator which uses an offset compensation technique based on storing the offset in output. The latch can be turned into a local oscillator using an asynchronous logic feedback loop to implement a fast time-over-threshold counting. This design has been submitted and the measurement results are presented.

  2. Physics performance of the ATLAS pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuno, S.

    2017-01-01

    In preparation for LHC Run-2 the ATLAS detector introduced a new pixel detector, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). This detector is located between the beampipe and what was the innermost pixel layer. The tracking and vertex reconstruction are significantly improved and good performance is expected in high level objects such a b-quark jet tagging. This in turn, leads to better physics results. This note summarizes the impact of the IBL detector on physics results, especially focusing on the analyses using b-quark jets throughout 2016 summer physics program.

  3. Physics performance of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuno, Soshi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One noticeable upgrade from Run-1 to Run-2 with ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at LHC is the introduction of the new pixel detector, IBL, located on the beam pipe as the extra innermost pixel layer. The tracking and vertex reconstruction are significantly improved and good performance is expected in high level object such a $b$-quark jet tagging, in turn, it leads the better physics results. This note summarizes what is the impact on the IBL detector to the physics results especially focusing on the analyses using the $b$-quark jets throughout 2016 summer physics program.

  4. Response of a hybrid pixel detector (MEDIPIX3) to different radiation sources for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumacero, E. Miguel; De Celis Alonso, B.; Martínez Hernández, M. I.; Vargas, G.; Moreno Barbosa, E., E-mail: emoreno.emb@gmail.com [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Av. San Claudio y Rio Verde, Puebla (Mexico); Moreno Barbosa, F. [Hospital General del Sur Hospital de la Mujer, Puebla (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    The development in semiconductor CMOS technology has enabled the creation of sensitive detectors for a wide range of ionizing radiation. These devices are suitable for photon counting and can be used in imaging and tomography X-ray diagnostics. The Medipix[1] radiation detection system is a hybrid silicon pixel chip developed for particle tracking applications in High Energy Physics. Its exceptional features (high spatial and energy resolution, embedded ultra fast readout, different operation modes, etc.) make the Medipix an attractive device for applications in medical imaging. In this work the energy characterization of a third-generation Medipix chip (Medipix3) coupled to a silicon sensor is presented. We used different radiation sources (strontium 90, iron 55 and americium 241) to obtain the response curve of the hybrid detector as a function of energy. We also studied the contrast of the Medipix as a measure of pixel noise. Finally we studied the response to fluorescence X rays from different target materials (In, Pd and Cd) for the two data acquisition modes of the chip; single pixel mode and charge summing mode.

  5. Low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity LHC upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonella, Laura

    2013-10-15

    Reducing material in silicon trackers is of major importance for a good overall detector performance, and poses severe challenges to the design of the tracking system. To match the low mass constraints for trackers in High Energy Physics experiments at high luminosity, dedicated technological developments are required. This dissertation presents three technologies to design low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity upgrades of the LHC. The work targets specifically the reduction of the material from the detector services and modules, with novel powering schemes, flip chip and interconnection technologies. A serial powering scheme is prototyped, featuring a new regulator concept, a control and protection element, and AC-coupled data transmission. A modified flip chip technology is developed for thin, large area Front-End chips, and a via last Through Silicon Via process is demonstrated on existing pixel modules. These technologies, their developments, and the achievable material reduction are discussed using the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel detector as a case study.

  6. CMS silicon tracker milestone 200

    CERN Document Server

    Dierlamm, A

    2002-01-01

    The tracker of CMS will fully consist of silicon micro-strip and pixel sensors. Building a detector with 210 m/sup 2/ sensor surface in about 3 years requires a tightly controlled construction schedule. All different aspects of the production are exercised within a pre- production of 200 modules (Milestone 200) to identify and eliminate possible bottlenecks and to test the complete electronic chain. The quality, process stability and radiation hardness of the silicon sensors will be permanently monitored. Automatic assembly procedure and industrial bonding machines will guarantee a fast and reliable construction. All modules will be tested for signal, noise and pedestals at room temperature and operation temperature of -10 degrees C. Quality assurance of the Milestone 200 sensors and modules including irradiation and stability tests are presented. (6 refs).

  7. Silicon-based thin-film transistors with a high stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stannowski, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Thin-Film Transistors (TFTs) are widely applied as pixel-addressing devices in large-area electronics, such as active-matrix liquid-crystal displays (AMLCDs) or sensor arrays. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) are generally used as the semiconductor and the insul

  8. Silicon-based thin-film transistors with a high stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stannowski, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Thin-Film Transistors (TFTs) are widely applied as pixel-addressing devices in large-area electronics, such as active-matrix liquid-crystal displays (AMLCDs) or sensor arrays. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) are generally used as the semiconductor and the

  9. Pixels simultaneous detection probabilities and spatial resolution determination of pixelized detectors by means of correlation measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Grabskii, V

    2007-01-01

    A novel method to estimate the pixels simultaneous detection probability and the spatial resolution of pixelized detectors is proposed, which is based on the determination of the statistical correlations between detector neighbor pixels. The correlations are determined by means of noise variance measurement for a isolated pixels and the difference between neighbor pixels. The method is validated using images from the two different GE Senographe 2000D mammographic units. The pixelized detector has been irradiated using x-rays along its entire surface. It is shown that the pixel simultaneous detection probabilities can be estimated within accuracy 0.001 - 0.003, where the systematic error is estimated to be smaller than 0.005. The presampled two-dimensional point-spread function (PSF0) is determined using a single Gaussian and a sum of two Gaussian approximations. The obtained results for the presampled PSF0 show that the single Gaussian approximation is not appropriate, and the sum of two Gaussian approximatio...

  10. From Hybrid to CMOS Pixels ... a possibility for LHC's pixel future?

    CERN Document Server

    Wermes, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors have been invented for the LHC to make tracking and vertexing possible at all in LHC's radiation intense environment. The LHC pixel detectors have meanwhile very successfully fulfilled their promises and R\\&D for the planned HL-LHC upgrade is in full swing, targeting even higher ionising doses and non-ionising fluences. In terms of rate and radiation tolerance hybrid pixels are unrivaled. But they have disadvantages as well, most notably material thickness, production complexity, and cost. Meanwhile also active pixel sensors (DEPFET, MAPS) have become real pixel detectors but they would by far not stand the rates and radiation faced from HL-LHC. New MAPS developments, so-called DMAPS (depleted MAPS) which are full CMOS-pixel structures with charge collection in a depleted region have come in the R\\&D focus for pixels at high rate/radiation levels. This goal can perhaps be realised exploiting HV technologies, high ohmic substrates and/or SOI based technologies. The paper covers t...

  11. What's A Pixel Particle Sensor Chip?

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS particle physics experiment aided with collaboration ON Semiconductor was recently honored by the European Council for Nuclear Research (CERN), with an Industrial Award recognizing the company's contribution in supplying complex "Pixel Particle Sensor" chips for use in CERN's ATLAS particle physics experiment.

  12. Dense Iterative Contextual Pixel Classification using Kriging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Loog, Marco; Brandt, Sami

    2009-01-01

    have been proposed to this end, e.g., iterative contextual pixel classification, iterated conditional modes, and other approaches related to Markov random fields. A problem of these methods, however, is their computational complexity, especially when dealing with high-resolution images in which...

  13. CMS has a heart of pixels

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    At the core of CMS, particles will come into contact with tiny detector components, known as pixels, which are almost invisible to the naked eye. With these elementary cells measuring a mere 150 microns (or about 1/10 of a millimetre) along each side, a real technological leap has been made.

  14. ATLAS Pixel Group - Photo Gallery from Irradiation

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Photos 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 - Photos taken before irradiation of Pixel Test Analog Chip and Pmbars (April 2000) Photos 8,9,10,11 - Irradiation of VDC chips (May 2000) Photos 12, 13 - Irradiation of Passive Components (June 2000) Photos 14,15, 16 - Irradiation of Marebo Chip (November 1999)

  15. Performance of active edge pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Bomben, Marco; Bagolini, Alvise; Boscardin, Maurizio; Bosisio, Luciano; Calderini, Giovanni; D'Eramo, Louis; Giacomini, Gabriele; Marchiori, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola; Rummler, Andre; Weingarten, Jens

    2017-01-01

    this paper the performance of these modules are reported. In particular the lateral extension of the detection volume, beyond the pixel region, is investigated and the results show high hit efficiency also at the detector edge, even in presence of guard rings.

  16. Dynamic holography using pixelated light modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Susanne; Haist, Tobias; Warber, Michael; Osten, Wolfgang

    2010-09-01

    Dynamic holography using spatial light modulators is a very flexible technique that offers various new applications compared to static holography. We give an overview on the technical background of dynamic holography focusing on pixelated spatial light modulators and their technical restrictions, and we present a selection of the numerous applications of dynamic holography.

  17. Test-beam activities and results for the ATLAS ITk pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bisanz, Tobias; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Phase-II upgrade of the LHC will result in an increase of the instantaneous luminosity up to about $5\\times10^{34}~\\text{cm}^{-2}\\text{s}^{-1}$. To cope with the resulting challenges the current Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) system. The Pixel Detector will have to deal with occupancies of about 300~hits/FE/s as well as a fluence of $2\\times10^{16}~\\text{n}_\\text{eq}\\text{cm}^{-2}$. Various sensor layouts are under development, aiming at providing a high performance, cost effective pixel instrumentation to cover an active area of about $10~\\text{m}^2$. These range from thin planar silicon, over 3D silicon, to active CMOS sensors.\\par After extensive characterization of the sensors in the lab, their charge collection properties and hit efficiency are measured in common testbeam campaigns, which provide valuable feedback for improvements of the layout. Testbeam measurements of the final prototypes will be used for the decision of which sensor types will be installed in...

  18. Preliminary test of an imaging probe for nuclear medicine using hybrid pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolucci, Ennio; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C; Russo, P

    2002-01-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of an intraoperative imaging probe for lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-99m tracer, for sentinel node radioguided surgery, using the Medipix series of hybrid detectors coupled to a collimator. These detectors are pixelated semiconductor detectors bump-bonded to the Medipix1 photon counting read-out chip (64x64 pixel, 170 mu m pitch) or to the Medipix2 chip (256x256 pixel, 55 mu m pitch), developed by the European Medipix collaboration. The pixel detector we plan to use in the final version of the probe is a semi-insulating GaAs detector or a 1-2 mm thick CdZnTe detector. For the preliminary tests presented here, we used 300-mu m thick silicon detectors, hybridized via bump-bonding to the Medipix1 chip. We used a tungsten parallel-hole collimator (7 mm thick, matrix array of 64x64 100 mu m circular holes with 170 mu m pitch), and a 22, 60 and 122 keV point-like (1 mm diameter) radioactive sources, placed at various distances from the detector. These tests were conducted in order ...

  19. 320 x 240 uncooled IRFPA with pixel wise thin film vacuum packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, J.-J.; Dumont, G.; Rabaud, W.; Becker, S.; Carle, L.; Goudon, V.; Vialle, C.; Hamelin, A.; Arnaud, A.

    2012-10-01

    Silicon based vacuum packaging is a key enabling technology for achieving affordable uncooled Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (IRFPA) as required by the promising mass market for very low cost IR applications, such as automotive driving assistance, energy loss monitoring in buildings, motion sensors… Among the various approaches studied worldwide, the CEA, LETI is developing a unique technology where each bolometer pixel is sealed under vacuum at the wafer level, using an IR transparent thin film deposition. This technology referred to as PLP (Pixel Level Packaging), leads to an array of hermetic micro-caps each containing a single microbolometer. Since the successful demonstration that the PLP technology, when applied on a single microbolometer pixel, can provide the required vacuum < 10-3 mbar, the authors have pushed forward the development of the technology on fully operational QVGA readout circuits CMOS base wafers (320 x 240 pixels). In this outlook, the article reports on the electro optical performance obtained from this preliminary PLP based QVGA demonstrator. Apart from the response, noise and NETD distributions, the paper also puts emphasis on additional key features such as thermal time constant, image quality, and ageing properties.

  20. Effets de rayonnement sur les detecteurs au silicium a pixels du detecteur ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Lebel, Celine

    2007-01-01

    Two detection systems are using pixel silicon detectors in the ATLAS detector: the Pixel, which is the subdetector closest to the interaction point, and the MPX network. The activation of the materials present in the Pixel produced by radiation has been measured in two experiments which we performed at CERF (CERN) and NPI-ASCR (Czech Republic). These experimental studies of activation are com- pared with GEANT4 simulations. The results of these comparisons show that the simulation can predict the activities with a precision of an order of magnitude. They also show that GEANT4 fails to produce certain radioisotopes seen in the experimental activation studies. The contribution to background and the resid- ual doses due to the desintegration of the radioisotopes produced by fast neutrons (category in which falls the expected average neutron energy of 1 MeV in ATLAS) are extrapolated to ATLAS conditions. It is found that this background in the AT- LAS Pixel subdetector will be negligible and that the doses are we...

  1. Performance verification of the CMS Phase 1 Upgrade pixel detector with collision data

    CERN Document Server

    Veszpremi, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    The CMS tracker consists of two tracking systems utilizing semiconductor technology: the inner pixel and the outer strip detectors. The tracker detectors occupy the volume around the beam interaction region between 3\\,cm and 110\\,cm in radius and up to 280\\,cm along the beam axis. The pixel detector consists of 124 million pixels, corresponding to about 2\\,m$^2$ total area. It plays a vital role in the seeding of the track reconstruction algorithms and in the reconstruction of primary interactions and secondary decay vertices. It is surrounded by the strip tracker with 10 million read-out channels, corresponding to 200\\,m$^2$ total area. The tracker is operated in a high-occupancy and high-radiation environment established by particle collisions in the LHC. The performance of the silicon strip detector continues to be of high quality. The pixel detector that has been used in Run 1 and in the first half of Run 2 was, however, replaced with the so-called Phase-1 Upgrade detector. The new system is better suite...

  2. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for the Run-2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Guescini, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radial distance of 3.3 cm from the beam axis. The realization of the IBL required the development of several new technologies and solutions in order to overcome the challenges introduced by the extreme environment and working conditions, such as the high radiation levels, the high pixel occupancy and the need of an exceptionally low material budget. Two silicon sensor technologies have been adopted for the IBL modules: planar n-in-n and 3D. Both of these are connected via bump bonding to the new generation 130 nm IBM CMOS FE-I4 ...

  3. Data concentrator with FPGA-based track reconstruction for the Belle II DEPFET pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnell, Michael; Dingfelder, Jochen; Marinas, Carlos [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The innermost two layers of the Belle II vertex detector at the KEK facility in Tsukuba, Japan, will be covered by high-granularity DEPFET pixel sensors. The large number of pixels leads to a high data rate of around 60 Gbps, which has to be significantly reduced by the Data Acquisition System. For the data reduction the hit information of the surrounding Silicon strip Vertex Detector (SVD) is utilized to define so-called Regions of Interest (ROI). Only hit information of the pixels located inside these ROIs are saved. The ROIs for the Pixel Detector (PXD) are computed by reconstructing track segments from SVD data and back extrapolation to the PXD. A data reduction of up to a factor of 10 is intended to be achieved by this design. All the necessary processing stages, the receiving and multiplexing of the data from the SVD on 48 optical fibers, the track reconstruction and the definition of the ROIs, will be performed by the Data Concentrator. The planned hardware design is based on a distributed set of Advanced Mezzanine Cards (AMC) each equipped with a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip and 4 optical transceivers. In this talk, the hardware and the FPGA-based tracking algorithm is introduced with some preliminary simulation results. In addition, the acquisition and pre-processing of the SVD data are discussed. The presentation concludes with an outlook on a distributed tracking design.

  4. First prototypes of two-tier avalanche pixel sensors for particle detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancheri, L.; Brogi, P.; Collazuol, G.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Ficorella, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Morsani, F.; Ratti, L.; Savoy-Navarro, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we present the implementation and preliminary evaluation of a new type of silicon sensor for charged particle detection operated in Geiger-mode. The proposed device, formed by two vertically-aligned pixel arrays, exploits the coincidence between two simultaneous avalanche events to discriminate between particle-triggered detections and dark counts. A proof-of-concept two-layer sensor with per-pixel coincidence circuits was designed and fabricated in a 150 nm CMOS process and vertically integrated through bump bonding. The sensor includes a 48×16 pixel array with 50 μ m × 75 μ m pixels. This work describes the sensor architecture and reports a selection of results from the characterization of the avalanche detectors in the two layers. Detectors with an active area of 43 × 45 μ m2 have a median dark count rate of 3 kHz at 3.3 V excess bias and a breakdown voltage non-uniformity lower than 20 mV.

  5. Testbeam results of irradiated ams H18 HV-CMOS pixel sensor prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00211411; Braccini, S.; Casse, G.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Di Bello, F.A.; Ferrere, D.; Golling, T.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Iacobucci, G.; Kiehn, M.; Lanni, F.; Liu, H.; Meng, L.; Merlassino, C.; Miucci, A.; Muenstermann, D.; Nessi, M.; Okawa, H.; Peric, I.; Rimoldi, M.; Ristic, B.; Vicente Barrero Pinto, M.; Vossebeld, J.; Weber, M.; Weston, T.; Wu, W.; Xu, L.; Zaffaroni, E.

    2016-01-01

    HV-CMOS pixel sensors are a promising option for the tracker upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, as well as for other future tracking applications in which large areas are to be instrumented with radiation-tolerant silicon pixel sensors. We present results of testbeam characterisations of the $4^{\\mathrm{th}}$ generation of Capacitively Coupled Pixel Detectors (CCPDv4) produced with the ams H18 HV-CMOS process that have been irradiated with different particles (reactor neutrons and 18 MeV protons) to fluences between $1\\cdot 10^{14}$ and $5\\cdot 10^{15}$ 1-MeV-n$_\\textrm{eq}$/cm$^2$. The sensors were glued to ATLAS FE-I4 pixel readout chips and measured at the CERN SPS H8 beamline using the FE-I4 beam telescope. Results for all fluences are very encouraging with all hit efficiencies being better than 97% for bias voltages of $85\\,$V. The sample irradiated to a fluence of $1\\cdot 10^{15}$ n$_\\textrm{eq}$/cm$^2$ - a relevant value for a large volume of the upgraded tracker - exhibited 99.7% average hit ...

  6. Investigation of thin n-in-p planar pixel modules for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Savic, N

    2016-01-01

    In view of the High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), planned to start around 2023-2025, the ATLAS experiment will undergo a replacement of the Inner Detector. A higher luminosity will imply higher irradiation levels and hence will demand more ra- diation hardness especially in the inner layers of the pixel system. The n-in-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to instrument this region, also thanks to its cost-effectiveness because it only requires a single sided processing in contrast to the n-in-n pixel technology presently employed in the LHC experiments. In addition, thin sensors were found to ensure radiation hardness at high fluences. An overview is given of recent results obtained with not irradiated and irradiated n-in-p planar pixel modules. The focus will be on n-in-p planar pixel sensors with an active thickness of 100 and 150 {\\mu}m recently produced at ADVACAM. To maximize the active area of the sensors, slim and active edges are implemented. The performance of th...

  7. Module production for the Phase 1 upgrade of the CMS forward pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siado Castaneda, Joaquin

    2017-01-01

    For Run 2 the Large Hadron Collider will run at a much higher instantaneous luminosity, which requires an upgrade of the CMS pixel detector. The detector consists of rectangular silicon sensors, segmented into 100 μm by 150 μm pixels, bonded to readout chips, with one sensor and a 8x2 array of readout chips forming a module. Due to its high granularity and good spatial resolution, about 10 μm for a single hit, the pixel detector is used for track reconstruction, pileup mitigation, and b-quark tagging in many physics analyses. Being the innermost sub-detector of CMS it receives the most radiation damage, and therefore needs to be replaced most often. For the phase 1 upgrade an additional disk in the forward region and increased buffer space in the readout chip will improve the pixel performance by increasing efficiency and reducing fake rates. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln is one of the two sites where modules are being assembled. This talk features the steps of the assembly process as well as challenges encountered and overcome during production of over 500 modules. The CMS Collaboration.

  8. Analysis of pixel systematics and space point reconstruction with DEPFET PXD5 matrices using high energy beam test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuen, Lars

    2011-02-15

    To answer the current questions in particle physics vertex-detectors, the innermost sub-detector system of a multipurpose particle detector, with brilliant spatial resolution and at the same time with as little sensor material as possible are mandatory. These requirements are the driving force behind the newest generation of silicon pixel sensors like the DEPFET pixel, which incorporates the first amplification stage in form of a transistor in the fully depleted sensor bulk, allowing for a high spatial resolution even with thinned down sensors. A DEPFET pixel prototype system, build for the future TeV-scale liner collider ILC, was characterized in a high energy beam test at CERN with a spatial resolution and statistics that allowed for the first time in-pixel homogeneity measurements of DEPFET pixels. Yet, in the quest for higher precision the sensor development must be accompanied by progress in position reconstruction algorithms. A study with three novel approaches in position reconstruction was undertaken. The results of the in-pixel beam test and the performance of the new methods with an emphasis on {delta}-electrons will be presented here. (orig.)

  9. Module production of the one-arm AFP 3D pixel tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, S.; Chmeissani, M.; Dorholt, O.; Förster, F.; Lange, J.; Lopez Paz, I.; Manna, M.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rohne, O.; Stugu, B.

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is designed to identify events in which one or two protons emerge intact from the LHC collisions. AFP will consist of a tracking detector, to measure the momentum of the protons, and a time of flight system to reduce the background from multiple proton-proton interactions. Following an extensive qualification period, 3D silicon pixel sensors were selected for the AFP tracker. The sensors were produced at CNM (Barcelona) during 2014. The tracker module assembly and quality control was performed at IFAE during 2015. The assembly of the first AFP arm and the following installation in the LHC tunnel took place in February 2016. This paper reviews the fabrication process of the AFP tracker focusing on the pixel modules.

  10. Module production of the one-arm AFP 3D pixel tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstein, S.; Cavallaro, E.; Chmeissani, M.; Dorholt, O.; Förster, F.; Lange, J.; Lopez Paz, I.; Manna, M.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rohne, O.; Stugu, B.

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is designed to identify events in which one or two protons emerge intact from the LHC collisions. AFP will consist of a tracking detector, to measure the momentum of the protons, and a time of flight system to reduce the background from multiple proton-proton interactions. Following an extensive qualification period, 3D silicon pixel sensors were selected for the AFP tracker. The sensors were produced at CNM (Barcelona) during 2014. The tracker module assembly and quality control was performed at IFAE during 2015. The assembly of the first AFP arm and the following installation in the LHC tunnel took place in February 2016. This paper reviews the fabrication process of the AFP tracker focusing on the pixel modules.

  11. Development of CMOS pixel sensors for tracking and vertexing in high energy physics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070112; Besson, Auguste; Claus, Giles; Cousin, Loic; Dulinski, Wojciech; Goffe, Mathieu; Hippolyte, Boris; Maria, Robert; Molnar, Levente; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Winter, Marc

    2014-01-01

    CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) represent a novel technological approach to building charged particle detectors. CMOS processes allow to integrate a sensing volume and readout electronics in a single silicon die allowing to build sensors with a small pixel pitch ($\\sim 20 \\mu m$) and low material budget ($\\sim 0.2-0.3\\% X_0$) per layer. These characteristics make CPS an attractive option for vertexing and tracking systems of high energy physics experiments. Moreover, thanks to the mass production industrial CMOS processes used for the manufacturing of CPS the fabrication construction cost can be significantly reduced in comparison to more standard semiconductor technologies. However, the attainable performance level of the CPS in terms of radiation hardness and readout speed is mostly determined by the fabrication parameters of the CMOS processes available on the market rather than by the CPS intrinsic potential. The permanent evolution of commercial CMOS processes towards smaller feature sizes and high resistivity ...

  12. Calibration of the CMS Pixel Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Vami, Tamas Almos

    2014-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector is one of two general-purpose detectors that reconstruct the products of high energy particle interactions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system. It determines the trajectories of charged particles originating from the interaction region in three points with high resolution enabling precise momentum and impact parameter measurements in the tracker. The pixel detector is exposed to intense ionizing radiation generated by particle collisions in the LHC. This irradiation could result in temporary or permanent malfunctions of the sensors and could decrease the efficiency of the detector. We have developed procedures in order to correct for these effects. In this paper, we present the types of malfunctions and the offline calibration procedures. We will also show the efficiency and the resolution of the detector in 2012.

  13. Calibration of the CMS Pixel Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Vami, Tamas Almos

    2015-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector is one of two general-purpose detectors that reconstruct the products of high energy particle interactions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system. It determines the trajectories of charged particles originating from the interaction region in three points with high resolution enabling precise momentum and impact parameter measurements in the tracker. The pixel detector is exposed to intense ionizing radiation generated by particle collisions in the LHC. This irradiation could result in temporary or permanent malfunctions of the sensors and could decrease the efficiency of the detector. We have developed procedures in order to correct for these effects. In this paper, we present the types of malfunctions and the offline calibration procedures. We will also show the efficiency and the resolution of the detector in 2012.

  14. The phase-II ATLAS pixel tracker upgrade: layout and mechanics.

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Abhishek; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will upgrade its tracking detector during the Phase-II LHC shutdown, to better take advantage of the increased luminosity of the HL-LHC. The upgraded tracker will consist of silicon-strip modules surrounding a pixel detector, and will likely cover an extended eta range, perhaps as far as |eta|<4.0. A number of layout and supporting-structure options are being considered for the pixel detector, with the final choice expected to be made in early 2017. The proposed supporting structures are based on lightweight, highly-thermally-conductive carbon-based materials and are cooled by evaporative carbon dioxide. The various layouts will be described and a description of the supporting structures will be presented, along with results from testing of prototypes.

  15. Pixelated Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photo-Diode Characterization through Dark Current Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Amaudruz, Pierre-André; Gilhully, Colleen; Goertzen, Andrew; James, Lloyd; Kozlowski, Piotr; Retière, Fabrice; Shams, Ehsan; Sossi, Vesna; Stortz, Greg; Thiessen, Jonathan D; Thompson, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    PIXELATED geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes(PPDs), often called silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are emerging as an excellent replacement for traditional photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in a variety of detectors, especially those for subatomic physics experiments, which requires extensive test and operation procedures in order to achieve uniform responses from all the devices. In this paper, we show for two PPD brands, Hamamatsu MPPC and SensL SPM, that the dark noise rate, breakdown voltage and rate of correlated avalanches can be inferred from the sole measure of dark current as a function of operating voltage, hence greatly simplifying the characterization procedure. We introduce a custom electronics system that allows measurement for many devices concurrently, hence allowing rapid testing and monitoring of many devices at low cost. Finally, we show that the dark current of Hamamastu Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) is rather independent of temperature at constant operating voltage, hence the current measure...

  16. 3D-FBK pixel sensors with CMS readout: First test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obertino, M., E-mail: margherita.obertino@cern.ch [Università del Piemonte Orientale, Novara, and INFN, Torino (Italy); Solano, A. [Università di Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Vilela Pereira, A. [INFN, Torino (Italy); Alagoz, E. [Physics Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Andresen, J. [Colorado University, Colorado (United States); Arndt, K.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D. [Physics Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Boscardin, M. [Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Povo di Trento (Italy); Brosius, R. [SUNY, Buffalo (United States); Bubna, M. [Physics Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [INFN Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) and Università di Trento, Povo di Trento (Italy); Jensen, F. [Colorado University, Colorado (United States); Krzywda, A. [Physics Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Kumar, A. [SUNY, Buffalo (United States); Kwan, S. [Università di Milano Bicocca and INFN, Milano (Italy); Lei, C.M. [Colorado University, Colorado (United States); Menasce, D.; Moroni, L. [INFN Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Ngadiuba, J. [Università di Milano Bicocca and INFN, Milano (Italy); and others

    2013-08-01

    Silicon 3D detectors consist of an array of columnar electrodes of both doping types which penetrate entirely in the detector bulk, perpendicularly to the surface. They are emerging as one of the most promising technologies for innermost layers of tracking devices for the foreseen upgrades of the LHC. Until recently, properties of 3D sensors have been investigated mostly with ATLAS readout electronics. 3D pixel sensors compatible with the CMS readout were first fabricated at SINTEF (Oslo, Norway), and more recently at FBK (Trento, Italy) and CNM (Barcelona, Spain). Several sensors with different electrode configurations, bump-bonded with the CMS pixel PSI46 readout chip, were characterized in laboratory and tested at Fermilab with a proton beam of 120 GeV/c. Preliminary results of the data analysis are presented.

  17. Development of an X-ray imaging system with SOI pixel detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Ryutaro; Arai, Yasuo; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Hirano, Keiichi; Kishimoto, Shunji; Hashimoto, Ryo

    2016-09-01

    An X-ray imaging system employing pixel sensors in silicon-on-insulator technology is currently under development. The system consists of an SOI pixel detector (INTPIX4) and a DAQ system based on a multi-purpose readout board (SEABAS2). To correct a bottleneck in the total throughput of the DAQ of the first prototype, parallel processing of the data taking and storing processes and a FIFO buffer were implemented for the new DAQ release. Due to these upgrades, the DAQ throughput was improved from 6 Hz (41 Mbps) to 90 Hz (613 Mbps). The first X-ray imaging system with the new DAQ software release was tested using 33.3 keV and 9.5 keV mono X-rays for three-dimensional computerized tomography. The results of these tests are presented.

  18. An AMOLED AC-Biased Pixel Design Compensating the Threshold Voltage and I-R Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Fan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel pixel design and an AC bias driving method for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AM-OLED displays using low-temperature polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs. The proposed threshold voltage and I-R drop compensation circuit, which comprised three transistors and one capacitor, have been verified to supply uniform output current by simulation work using the Automatic Integrated Circuit Modeling Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (AIM-SPICE simulator. The simulated results demonstrate excellent properties such as low error rate of OLED anode voltage variation (<0.7% and low voltage drop of VDD power line. The proposed pixel circuit effectively enables threshold-voltage-deviation correction of driving TFT and compensates for the voltage drop of VDD power line using AC bias on OLED cathode.

  19. Adaptive bad pixel correction algorithm for IRFPA based on PCNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Hanbing; Zhou, Zuofeng; Cao, Jianzhong; Yi, Bo; Yan, Aqi; Zhang, Jian

    2013-10-01

    Bad pixels and response non-uniformity are the primary obstacles when IRFPA is used in different thermal imaging systems. The bad pixels of IRFPA include fixed bad pixels and random bad pixels. The former is caused by material or manufacture defect and their positions are always fixed, the latter is caused by temperature drift and their positions are always changing. Traditional radiometric calibration-based bad pixel detection and compensation algorithm is only valid to the fixed bad pixels. Scene-based bad pixel correction algorithm is the effective way to eliminate these two kinds of bad pixels. Currently, the most used scene-based bad pixel correction algorithm is based on adaptive median filter (AMF). In this algorithm, bad pixels are regarded as image noise and then be replaced by filtered value. However, missed correction and false correction often happens when AMF is used to handle complex infrared scenes. To solve this problem, a new adaptive bad pixel correction algorithm based on pulse coupled neural networks (PCNN) is proposed. Potential bad pixels are detected by PCNN in the first step, then image sequences are used periodically to confirm the real bad pixels and exclude the false one, finally bad pixels are replaced by the filtered result. With the real infrared images obtained from a camera, the experiment results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Precision scans of the Pixel cell response of double sided 3D Pixel detectors to pion and X-ray beams

    CERN Document Server

    Mac Raighne, A; Crossley, M; Alianelli, L; Lozano, M; Dumps, R; Fleta, C; Collins, P; Rodrigues, E; Sawhney, K J S; Tlustos, L; Pennicard, D; Buytaert, J; Stewart, G; Parkes, C; Eklund, L; Campbell, M; Marchal, J; Akiba, K; Pellegrini, G; Llopart, X; Plackett, R; Maneuski, D; Gligorov, V V; Tartoni, N; Nicol, M; Bates, R; Gallas, A; Gimenez, E N; van Beuzekom, M; John, M

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) silicon sensors offer potential advantages over standard planar sensors for radiation hardness in future high energy physics experiments and reduced charge-sharing for X-ray applications, but may introduce inefficiencies due to the columnar electrodes. These inefficiencies are probed by studying variations in response across a unit pixel cell in a 55 m m pitch double-sided 3D pixel sensor bump bonded to TimePix and Medipix2 readout ASICs. Two complementary characterisation techniques are discussed: the first uses a custom built telescope and a 120GeV pion beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN; the second employs a novel technique to illuminate the sensor with a micro-focused synchrotron X-ray beam at the Diamond Light Source, UK. For a pion beam incident perpendicular to the sensor plane an overall pixel efficiency of 93.0 +/- 0.5\\% is measured. After a 10 degrees rotation of the device the effect of the columnar region becomes negligible and the overall efficiency rises ...

  1. Design Methodology: ASICs with complex in-pixel processing for Pixel Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahim, Farah [Fermilab

    2014-10-31

    The development of Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) for pixel detectors with complex in-pixel processing using Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools that are, themselves, mainly developed for the design of conventional digital circuits requires a specialized approach. Mixed signal pixels often require parasitically aware detailed analog front-ends and extremely compact digital back-ends with more than 1000 transistors in small areas below 100μm x 100μm. These pixels are tiled to create large arrays, which have the same clock distribution and data readout speed constraints as in, for example, micro-processors. The methodology uses a modified mixed-mode on-top digital implementation flow to not only harness the tool efficiency for timing and floor-planning but also to maintain designer control over compact parasitically aware layout.

  2. Recent results of the ATLAS upgrade Planar Pixel Sensors R&D project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshaw, Dean

    2013-12-01

    To extend the physics reach of the LHC, upgrades to the accelerator are planned which will increase the integrated annual luminosity by a factor of 5-10. This will increase the occupancy and the radiation damage of the inner trackers. To cope with the elevated occupancy, the ATLAS experiment plans to introduce an all silicon inner tracker for High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) operation. With silicon, the occupancy can be adjusted by using the appropriate pitch for the pixels/micro-strips. Constraints due to high radiation damage mean that only sensors with electrode configuration designed to read out the electron signal (n-in-p and n-in-n) are considered. To investigate the suitability of planar pixel sensors (PPS) for the ATLAS tracker upgrade, a dedicated R&D project was established, with 17 institutes and more than 80 scientists. The main focuses of research are the performance of planar pixel sensors after the high fluences expected during HL-LHC operation, the optimisation of the detector and module production technologies for cost reduction to enable the instrumentation of large volumes and the reduction of the inactive areas needed for electrical insulation of the sensitive region from the cut edge of the sensors. An overview of recent accomplishments of the PPS (Planar Pixel Sensors) R&D project is given. The performance in terms of charge collection and tracking efficiency, evaluated with radioactive sources in the laboratory and from beam tests, is presented. Sensors with different thicknesses (ranging from 75 to 300 μm) were irradiated to several fluences up to 2 ×1016neqcm-2 to study the effect of varying thickness on the radiation hardness. The significant progresses made towards the reduction of the edge distance are reported.

  3. Multi-Step Deep Reactive Ion Etching Fabrication Process for Silicon-Based Terahertz Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung-Kubiak, Cecile (Inventor); Reck, Theodore (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Perez, Jose Vicente Siles (Inventor); Lin, Robert H. (Inventor); Mehdi, Imran (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor); Cooper, Ken B. (Inventor); Peralta, Alejandro (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A multi-step silicon etching process has been developed to fabricate silicon-based terahertz (THz) waveguide components. This technique provides precise dimensional control across multiple etch depths with batch processing capabilities. Nonlinear and passive components such as mixers and multipliers waveguides, hybrids, OMTs and twists have been fabricated and integrated into a small silicon package. This fabrication technique enables a wafer-stacking architecture to provide ultra-compact multi-pixel receiver front-ends in the THz range.

  4. Design methodology: edgeless 3D ASICs with complex in-pixel processing for pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahim Farah, Fahim Farah [Northwestern U. (main); Deptuch, Grzegorz W. [Fermilab; Hoff, James R. [Fermilab; Mohseni, Hooman [Northwestern U. (main)

    2015-08-28

    The design methodology for the development of 3D integrated edgeless pixel detectors with in-pixel processing using Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools is presented. A large area 3 tier 3D detector with one sensor layer and two ASIC layers containing one analog and one digital tier, is built for x-ray photon time of arrival measurement and imaging. A full custom analog pixel is 65μm x 65μm. It is connected to a sensor pixel of the same size on one side, and on the other side it has approximately 40 connections to the digital pixel. A 32 x 32 edgeless array without any peripheral functional blocks constitutes a sub-chip. The sub-chip is an indivisible unit, which is further arranged in a 6 x 6 array to create the entire 1.248cm x 1.248cm ASIC. Each chip has 720 bump-bond I/O connections, on the back of the digital tier to the ceramic PCB. All the analog tier power and biasing is conveyed through the digital tier from the PCB. The assembly has no peripheral functional blocks, and hence the active area extends to the edge of the detector. This was achieved by using a few flavors of almost identical analog pixels (minimal variation in layout) to allow for peripheral biasing blocks to be placed within pixels. The 1024 pixels within a digital sub-chip array have a variety of full custom, semi-custom and automated timing driven functional blocks placed together. The methodology uses a modified mixed-mode on-top digital implementation flow to not only harness the tool efficiency for timing and floor-planning but also to maintain designer control over compact parasitically aware layout. The methodology uses the Cadence design platform, however it is not limited to this tool.

  5. PixelSNE: Visualizing Fast with Just Enough Precision via Pixel-Aligned Stochastic Neighbor Embedding

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Minjeong; Choi, Minsuk; Lee, Sunwoong; Tang, Jian; Park, Haesun; Choo, Jaegul

    2016-01-01

    Embedding and visualizing large-scale high-dimensional data in a two-dimensional space is an important problem since such visualization can reveal deep insights out of complex data. Most of the existing embedding approaches, however, run on an excessively high precision, ignoring the fact that at the end, embedding outputs are converted into coarse-grained discrete pixel coordinates in a screen space. Motivated by such an observation and directly considering pixel coordinates in an embedding ...

  6. ACS/WFC Pixel Stability - Bringing the Pixels Back to the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borncamp, David; Grogin, Norman A.; Bourque, Matthew; Ogaz, Sara

    2016-06-01

    Electrical current that has been trapped within the lattice structure of a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) can be present through multiple exposures, which will have an adverse effect on its science performance. The traditional way to correct for this extra charge is to take an image with the camera shutter closed periodically throughout the lifetime of the instrument. These images, generally referred to as dark images, allow for the characterization of the extra charge that is trapped within the CCD at the time of observation. This extra current can then be subtracted out of science images to correct for the extra charge that was there at this time. Pixels that have a charge above a certain threshold of current are marked as “hot” and flagged in the data quality array. However, these pixels may not be "bad" in the traditional sense that they cannot be reliably dark-subtracted. If these pixels are shown to be stable over an anneal period, the charge can be properly subtracted and the extra noise from this dark current can be taken into account. We present the results of a pixel history study that analyzes every pixel of ACS/WFC individually and allows pixels that were marked as bad to be brought back into the science image.

  7. Beam Test Studies of 3D Pixel Sensors Irradiated Non-Uniformly for the ATLAS Forward Physics Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, S; Boscardin, M; Christophersen, M; Da Via, C; Betta, G -F Dalla; Darbo, G; Fadeyev, V; Fleta, C; Gemme, C; Grenier, P; Jimenez, A; Lopez, I; Micelli, A; Nelist, C; Parker, S; Pellegrini, G; Phlips, B; Pohl, D L; Sadrozinski, H F -W; Sicho, P; Tsiskaridze, S

    2013-01-01

    Pixel detectors with cylindrical electrodes that penetrate the silicon substrate (so called 3D detectors) offer advantages over standard planar sensors in terms of radiation hardness, since the electrode distance is decoupled from the bulk thickness. In recent years significant progress has been made in the development of 3D sensors, which culminated in the sensor production for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade carried out at CNM (Barcelona, Spain) and FBK (Trento, Italy). Based on this success, the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) experiment has selected the 3D pixel sensor technology for the tracking detector. The AFP project presents a new challenge due to the need for a reduced dead area with respect to IBL, and the in-homogeneous nature of the radiation dose distribution in the sensor. Electrical characterization of the first AFP prototypes and beam test studies of 3D pixel devices irradiated non-uniformly are presented in this paper.

  8. Beam test studies of 3D pixel sensors irradiated non-uniformly for the ATLAS forward physics detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinstein, S., E-mail: sgrinstein@ifae.es [ICREA and Institut de Física d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Barcelona (Spain); Baselga, M. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Trento (Italy); Christophersen, M. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington (United States); Da Via, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Universita degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Trento (Italy); Darbo, G. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Fadeyev, V. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz (United States); Fleta, C. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Gemme, C. [Universita degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Trento (Italy); Grenier, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park (United States); Jimenez, A.; Lopez, I.; Micelli, A. [ICREA and Institut de Física d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Barcelona (Spain); Nelist, C. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Parker, S. [University of Hawaii, c/o Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley (United States); Pellegrini, G. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Phlips, B. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington (United States); Pohl, D.-L. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Sadrozinski, H.F.-W. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz (United States); and others

    2013-12-01

    Pixel detectors with cylindrical electrodes that penetrate the silicon substrate (so called 3D detectors) offer advantages over standard planar sensors in terms of radiation hardness, since the electrode distance is decoupled from the bulk thickness. In recent years significant progress has been made in the development of 3D sensors, which culminated in the sensor production for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade carried out at CNM (Barcelona, Spain) and FBK (Trento, Italy). Based on this success, the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) experiment has selected the 3D pixel sensor technology for the tracking detector. The AFP project presents a new challenge due to the need for a reduced dead area with respect to IBL, and the in-homogeneous nature of the radiation dose distribution in the sensor. Electrical characterization of the first AFP prototypes and beam test studies of 3D pixel devices irradiated non-uniformly are presented in this paper.

  9. A pixel read-out architecture implementing a two-stage token ring, zero suppression and compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuvelmans, S; Boerrigter, M, E-mail: sander.heuvelmans@bruco.nl [Bruco integrated circuits BV, Oostermaat 2, 7623 CS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Increasing luminosity in high energy physics experiments leads to new challenges in the design of data acquisition systems for pixel detectors. With the upgrade of the LHCb experiment, the data processing will be changed; hit data from every collision will be transported off the pixel chip, without any trigger selection. A read-out architecture is proposed which is able to obtain low hit data loss on limited silicon area by using the logic beneath the pixels as a data buffer. Zero suppression and redundancy reduction ensure that the data rate off chip is minimized. A C++ model has been created for simulation of functionality and data loss, and for system development. A VHDL implementation has been derived from this model.

  10. A prototype of a new generation readout ASIC in 65nm CMOS for pixel detectors at HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteil, E.; Pacher, L.; Paternò, A.; Loddo, F.; Demaria, N.; Gaioni, L.; De Canio, F.; Traversi, G.; Re, V.; Ratti, L.; Rivetti, A.; Da Rocha Rolo, M.; Dellacasa, G.; Mazza, G.; Marzocca, C.; Licciulli, F.; Ciciriello, F.; Marconi, S.; Placidi, P.; Magazzù, G.; Stabile, A.; Mattiazzo, S.; Veri, C.

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes a readout ASIC prototype designed by CHIPIX65 project, part of RD53, for a pixel detector at HL-LHC . A 64 × 64 matrix of 50 × 50 μ m2 pixels is realised. A digital architecture has been developed, with particle efficiency above 99.9% at 3 GHz/cm2 pixel rate, 1 MHz trigger rate with 12.5 μ s latency. Two analog front end designs, one synchronous and one asynchronous, are implemented. Charge is measured with 5-bit precision and the analog dead-time is below 1%. IP-blocks (DAC, ADC, BandGap, SER, sLVS-TX/RX) and very front ends are silicon proven, irradiated to 600-800Mrad.

  11. ATLAS pixel IBL modules construction experience and developments for future upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudiello, A.

    2015-10-01

    The first upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector is the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), installed in May 2014 in the core of ATLAS. Two different silicon sensor technologies, planar n-in-n and 3D, are used. Sensors are connected with the new generation 130 nm IBM CMOS FE-I4 read-out chip via solder bump-bonds. Production quality control tests were set up to verify and rate the performance of the modules before integration into staves. An overview of module design and construction, the quality control results and production yield will be discussed, as well as future developments foreseen for future detector upgrades.

  12. Operational Experience of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker and Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Dave; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The tracking performance of the ATLAS detector relies critically on the silicon and gaseous tracking subsystems that form the ATLAS Inner Detector. Those subsystems have undergone significant hardware and software upgrades to meet the challenges imposed by the higher collision energy, pileup and luminosity that are being delivered by the LHC during Run2. The key status and performance metrics of the Pixel Detector and the Semi Conductor Tracker are summarised, and the operational experience and requirements to ensure optimum data quality and data taking efficiency are described.

  13. Towards third generation pixel readout chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sciveres, M., E-mail: mgarcia-sciveres@lbl.gov; Mekkaoui, A.; Ganani, D.

    2013-12-11

    We present concepts and prototyping results towards a third generation pixel readout chip. We consider the 130 nm feature size FE-I4 chip, in production for the ATLAS IBL upgrade, to be a second generation chip. A third generation chip would have to go significantly further. A possible direction is to make the IC design generic so that different experiments can configure it to meet significantly different requirements, without the need for everybody to develop their own ASIC from the ground up. In terms of target technology, a demonstrator 500-pixel matrix containing analog front ends only (no complex functionality), was designed and fabricated in 65 nm CMOS and irradiated with protons in December 2011 and May 2012.

  14. Noise in a CMOS digital pixel sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chi; Yao Suying; Xu Jiangtao

    2011-01-01

    Based on the study of noise performance in CMOS digital pixel sensor (DPS),a mathematical model of noise is established with the pulse-width-modulation (PWM) principle.Compared with traditional CMOS image sensors,the integration time is different and A/D conversion is implemented in each PWM DPS pixel.Then,the quantitative calculating formula of system noise is derived.It is found that dark current shot noise is the dominant noise source in low light region while photodiode shot noise becomes significantly important in the bright region.In this model,photodiode shot noise does not vary with luminance,but dark current shot noise does.According to increasing photodiode capacitance and the comparator's reference voltage or optimizing the mismatch in the comparator,the total noise can be reduced.These results serve as a guideline for the design of PWM DPS.

  15. ATLAS Pixel IBL: Stave Quality Assurance

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    For Run 2 of the LHC a fourth innermost Pixel Detector layer on a smaller radius beam pipe has been installed in the ATLAS Detector to add redundancy against radiation damage of the current Pixel Detector and to ensure a high quality tracking and b-tagging performance of the Inner Detector over the coming years until the High Luminosity Upgrade. State of the art components have been produced and assembled onto support structures known as staves over the last two years. In total, 20 staves have been built and qualified in a designated Quality Assurance setup at CERN of which 14 have been integrated onto the beam pipe. Results from the testing are presented.

  16. Pixel Dynamics Analysis of Photospheric Spectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-13

    corresponding Doppler blueshift (redshift) integrated over the pixel. Variations in the line width δλm may indicate variations in temperature or changes in...skewness of their absorption line redshift/ blueshift and asymmetry PFDs, as well as by the spatial average for each region. These three time-varying... blueshift PFD variance and skewness plots). These oscillations, associated with the AR regions exhibiting solar eruptions, occur with a period of ∼ 10

  17. Efficient segmentation by sparse pixel classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Erik B; Loog, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Segmentation methods based on pixel classification are powerful but often slow. We introduce two general algorithms, based on sparse classification, for optimizing the computation while still obtaining accurate segmentations. The computational costs of the algorithms are derived......, and they are demonstrated on real 3-D magnetic resonance imaging and 2-D radiograph data. We show that each algorithm is optimal for specific tasks, and that both algorithms allow a speedup of one or more orders of magnitude on typical segmentation tasks....

  18. Production chain of CMS pixel modules

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    The pictures show the production chain of pixel modules for the CMS detector. Fig.1: overview of the assembly procedure. Fig.2: bump bonding with ReadOut Chip (ROC) connected to the sensor. Fig.3: glueing a raw module onto the baseplate strips. Fig.4: glueing of the High Density Interconnect (HDI) onto a raw module. Fig.5: pull test after heat reflow. Fig.6: wafer sensor processing, Indium evaporation.

  19. Evaluation of a photon-counting hybrid pixel detector array with a synchrotron X-ray source

    CERN Document Server

    Ponchut, C; Fornaini, A; Graafsma, H; Maiorino, M; Mettivier, G; Calvet, D

    2002-01-01

    A photon-counting hybrid pixel detector (Medipix-1) has been characterized using a synchrotron X-ray source. The detector consists of a readout ASIC with 64x64 independent photon-counting cells of 170x170 mu m sup 2 pitch, bump-bonded to a 300 mu m thick silicon sensor, read out by a PCIbus-based electronics, and a graphical user interface (GUI) software. The intensity and the energy tunability of the X-ray source allow characterization of the detector in the time, space, and energy domains. The system can be read out on external trigger at a frame rate of 100 Hz with 3 ms exposure time per frame. The detector response is tested up to more than 7x10 sup 5 detected events/pixel/s. The point-spread response shows <2% crosstalk between neighboring pixels. Fine scanning of the detector surface with a 10 mu m beam reveals no loss in sensitivity between adjacent pixels as could result from charge sharing in the silicon sensor. Photons down to 6 keV can be detected after equalization of the thresholds of individu...

  20. Étude des détecteurs planaires pixels durcis aux radiations pour la mise à jour du détecteur de vertex d'ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Benoit, Mathieu

    In this work, is presented a study, using TCAD simulation, of the possible methods of designing of a planar pixel sensors by reducing their inactive area and improving their radiation hardness for use in the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) project and for SLHC upgrade phase for the ATLAS experiment. Different physical models available have been studied to develop a coherent model of radiation damage in silicon that can be used to predict silicon pixel sensor behavior after exposure to radiation. The Multi-Guard Ring Structure,a protection structure used in pixel sensor design was studied to obtain guidelines for the reduction of inactive edges detrimental to detector operation while keeping a good sensor behavior through its lifetime in the ATLAS detector. A campaign of measurement of the sensor's process parameters and electrical behavior to validate and calibrate the TCAD simulation models and results are also presented. A model for diode charge collection in highly irradiated environment was developed to explain ...

  1. Baryon Acoustic Oscillations reconstruction with pixels

    CERN Document Server

    Obuljen, Andrej; Castorina, Emanuele; Viel, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational non-linear evolution induces a shift in the position of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) peak together with a damping and broadening of its shape that bias and degrades the accuracy with which the position of the peak can be determined. BAO reconstruction is a technique developed to undo part of the effect of non-linearities. We present a new reconstruction method that consists in displacing pixels instead of galaxies and whose implementation is easier than the standard reconstruction method. We show that our method is equivalent to the standard reconstruction technique in the limit where the number of pixels becomes very large. This method is particularly useful in surveys where individual galaxies are not resolved, as in 21cm intensity mapping observations. We validate our method by reconstructing mock pixelated maps, that we build from the distribution of matter and halos in real- and redshift-space, from a large set of numerical simulations. We find that our method is able to decrease ...

  2. Readout Architecture for Hybrid Pixel Readout Chips

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)694170; Westerlund, Tomi; Wyllie, Ken

    The original contribution of this thesis to knowledge are novel digital readout architectures for hybrid pixel readout chips. The thesis presents asynchronous bus-based architecture, a data-node based column architecture and a network-based pixel matrix architecture for data transportation. It is shown that the data-node architecture achieves readout efficiency 99 % with half the output rate as a bus-based system. The network-based solution avoids ``broken'' columns due to some manufacturing errors, and it distributes internal data traffic more evenly across the pixel matrix than column-based architectures. An improvement of $>$ 10 % to the efficiency is achieved with uniform and non-uniform hit occupancies. Architectural design has been done using transaction level modeling ($TLM$) and sequential high-level design techniques for reducing the design and simulation time. It has been possible to simulate tens of column and full chip architectures using the high-level techniques. A decrease of $>$ 10 in run-time...

  3. Characterization of the CMS Pixel Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Weihua

    2002-01-01

    In 2005 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will start the pp collisions at a high luminosity and at a center of mass energy of 14 TeV. The primary goal of the experimental programme is the search of the Higgs boson(s) and the supersymmetric particles. The programme is also proposed to detect a range of diverse signatures in order to provide guidance for future physics. The pixel detector system makes up the innermost part of the CMS experiment, which is one of the two general purpose detectors at the LHC. The main tasks of the system are vertex detection and flavor tagging. The high luminosity and the high particle multiplicity as well as the small bunch spacing at the LHC impose great challenges on the pixel detectors: radiation hardness of sensors and electronics, fast signal processing and a high granularity are the essential requirements. This thesis concentrates on the study of the suitability of two test stands, which are implemented to characterize the CMS pixel detectors: one is con-cerned with test puls...

  4. Algorithms for minimization of charge sharing effects in a hybrid pixel detector taking into account hardware limitations in deep submicron technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, P.; Baumbaugh, A.; Deptuch, G.; Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.

    2012-12-01

    Charge sharing is the main limitation of pixel detectors used in spectroscopic applications, noting that this applies to both time and amplitude/energy spectroscopy. Even though, charge sharing was the subject of many studies, there is still no ultimate solution which could be implemented in the hardware to suppress the negative effects of charge sharing. This is mainly because of strong demand on low power dissipation and small silicon area of a single pixel. The first solution of this problem was proposed by CERN and consequently it was implemented in the Medipix III chip. However, due to pixel-to-pixel threshold dispersions and some imperfections of the simplified algorithm, the hit allocation was not functioning properly. We are presenting novel algorithms which allow proper hit allocation even at the presence of charge sharing. They can be implemented in an integrated circuit using a deep submicron technology. In performed simulations, we assumed not only diffusive charge spread occurring in the course of charge drifting towards the electrodes but also limitations in the readout electronics, i.e. signal fluctuations due to noise and mismatch (gain and offsets). The simulations show that using, for example, a silicon pixel detector in the low X-ray energy range, we have been able to perform proper hit position identification and use the information from summing inter-pixel nodes for spectroscopy measurements.

  5. Advances in Multi-Pixel Photon Counter technology: First characterization results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, G., E-mail: gbonanno@oact.inaf.it [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Marano, D.; Romeo, G.; Garozzo, S.; Grillo, A.; Timpanaro, M.C. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Catalano, O.; Giarrusso, S.; Impiombato, D.; La Rosa, G.; Sottile, G. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, Via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo Italy (Italy)

    2016-01-11

    Due to the recent advances in silicon photomultiplier technology, new types of Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM), also named Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) detectors have become recently available, demonstrating superior performance in terms of their most important electrical and optical parameters. This paper presents the latest characterization results of the novel Low Cross-Talk (LCT) MPPC families from Hamamatsu, where a noticeable fill-factor enhancement and cross-talk reduction is achieved. In addition, the newly adopted resin coating has been proven to yield improved photon detection capabilities in the 280–320 nm spectral range, making the new LCT MPPCs particularly suitable for emerging applications like Cherenkov Telescope Array, and Astroparticle Physics.

  6. Radiation hardness and timing studies of a monolithic TowerJazz pixel design for the new ATLAS Inner Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, C.; Backhaus, M.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; Kugathasan, T.; Musa, L.; Pernegger, H.; Riedler, P.; Schaefer, D.; Snoeys, W.; Wagner, W.

    2017-01-01

    A part of the upcoming HL-LHC upgrade of the ATLAS Detector is the construction of a new Inner Tracker. This upgrade opens new possibilities, but also presents challenges in terms of occupancy and radiation tolerance. For the pixel detector inside the inner tracker, hybrid modules containing passive silicon sensors and connected readout chips are presently used, but require expensive assembly techniques like fine-pitch bump bonding. Silicon devices fabricated in standard commercial CMOS technologies, which include part or all of the readout chain, are also investigated offering a reduced cost as they are cheaper per unit area than traditional silicon detectors. If they contain the full readout chain, as for a fully monolithic approach, there is no need for the expensive flip-chip assembly, resulting in a further cost reduction and material savings. In the outer pixel layers of the ATLAS Inner Tracker, the pixel sensors must withstand non-ionising energy losses of up to 1015 n/cm2 and offer a timing resolution of 25 ns or less. This paper presents test results obtained on a monolithic test chip, the TowerJazz 180nm Investigator, towards these specifications. The presented program of radiation hardness and timing studies has been launched to investigate this technology's potential for the new ATLAS Inner Tracker.

  7. Recent Progress on 3D Silicon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    3D silicon detectors, in which the electrodes penetrate the sensor bulk perpendicular to the surface, have recently undergone a rapid development from R\\&D over industrialisation to their first installation in a real high-energy-physics experiment. Since June 2015, the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer is taking first collision data with 3D pixel detectors. At the same time, preparations are advancing to install 3D pixel detectors in forward trackers such as the ATLAS Forward Proton detector or the CMS-TOTEM Proton Precision Spectrometer. For those experiments, the main requirements are a slim edge and the ability to cope with non-uniform irradiation. Both have been shown to be fulfilled by 3D pixel detectors. For the High-Luminosity LHC pixel upgrades of the major experiments, 3D detectors are promising candidates for the innermost pixel layers to cope with harsh radiation environments up to fluences of $2\\times10^{16}$\\,n$_{eq}$/cm$^2$ thanks to their excellent radiation hardness at low operational voltages and ...

  8. Sky pixelization for the analysis of extended emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhodanov, O. V.; Doroshkevich, A. G.

    2013-08-01

    Spherical pixelization schemes are reviewed that allow analyzing extended emission and, in particular, the cosmic microwave background. Problems with implementing different schemes are considered. The nonhierarchical Gauss-Legendre sky pixelization (GLESP) approach is discussed in detail.

  9. Integrated Arrays on Silicon at Terahertz Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhayay, Goutam; Lee, Choonsup; Jung, Cecil; Lin, Robert; Peralta, Alessandro; Mehdi, Imran; Llombert, Nuria; Thomas, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore various receiver font-end and antenna architecture for use in integrated arrays at terahertz frequencies. Development of wafer-level integrated terahertz receiver front-end by using advanced semiconductor fabrication technologies and use of novel integrated antennas with silicon micromachining are reported. We report novel stacking of micromachined silicon wafers which allows for the 3-dimensional integration of various terahertz receiver components in extremely small packages which easily leads to the development of 2- dimensioanl multi-pixel receiver front-ends in the terahertz frequency range. We also report an integrated micro-lens antenna that goes with the silicon micro-machined front-end. The micro-lens antenna is fed by a waveguide that excites a silicon lens antenna through a leaky-wave or electromagnetic band gap (EBG) resonant cavity. We utilized advanced semiconductor nanofabrication techniques to design, fabricate, and demonstrate a super-compact, low-mass submillimeter-wave heterodyne frontend. When the micro-lens antenna is integrated with the receiver front-end we will be able to assemble integrated heterodyne array receivers for various applications such as multi-pixel high resolution spectrometer and imaging radar at terahertz frequencies.

  10. A PFM based digital pixel with off-pixel residue measurement for 15μm pitch MWIR FPAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Shahbaz; Shafique, Atia; Galioglu, Arman; Ceylan, Omer; Yazici, Melik; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2016-05-01

    Digital pixels based on pulse frequency modulation (PFM) employ counting techniques to achieve very high charge handling capability compared to their analog counterparts. Moreover, extended counting methods making use of leftover charge (residue) on the integration capacitor help improve the noise performance of these pixels. However, medium wave infrared (MWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) having smaller pixel pitch are constrained in terms of pixel area which makes it difficult to add extended counting circuitry to the pixel. Thus, this paper investigates the performance of digital pixels employing off-pixel residue measurement. A circuit prototype of such a pixel has been designed for 15μm pixel pitch and fabricated in 90nm CMOS. The prototype is composed of a pixel front-end based on a PFM loop. The frontend is a modified version of conventional design providing a means for buffering the signal that needs to be converted to a digital value by an off-pixel ADC. The pixel has an integration phase and a residue measurement phase. Measured integration performance of the pixel has been reported in this paper for various detector currents and integration times.

  11. PIXELS: Using field-based learning to investigate students' concepts of pixels and sense of scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, A.; Tinigin, L.; Petcovic, H. L.; Ormand, C. J.; LaDue, N.

    2015-12-01

    Empirical work over the past decade supports the notion that a high level of spatial thinking skill is critical to success in the geosciences. Spatial thinking incorporates a host of sub-skills such as mentally rotating an object, imagining the inside of a 3D object based on outside patterns, unfolding a landscape, and disembedding critical patterns from background noise. In this study, we focus on sense of scale, which refers to how an individual quantified space, and is thought to develop through kinesthetic experiences. Remote sensing data are increasingly being used for wide-reaching and high impact research. A sense of scale is critical to many areas of the geosciences, including understanding and interpreting remotely sensed imagery. In this exploratory study, students (N=17) attending the Juneau Icefield Research Program participated in a 3-hour exercise designed to study how a field-based activity might impact their sense of scale and their conceptions of pixels in remotely sensed imagery. Prior to the activity, students had an introductory remote sensing lecture and completed the Sense of Scale inventory. Students walked and/or skied the perimeter of several pixel types, including a 1 m square (representing a WorldView sensor's pixel), a 30 m square (a Landsat pixel) and a 500 m square (a MODIS pixel). The group took reflectance measurements using a field radiometer as they physically traced out the pixel. The exercise was repeated in two different areas, one with homogenous reflectance, and another with heterogeneous reflectance. After the exercise, students again completed the Sense of Scale instrument and a demographic survey. This presentation will share the effects and efficacy of the field-based intervention to teach remote sensing concepts and to investigate potential relationships between students' concepts of pixels and sense of scale.

  12. 4T CMOS Active Pixel Sensors under Ionizing Radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, J.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the ionizing radiation effects on 4T pixels and the elementary in-pixel test devices with regard to the electrical performance and the optical performance. In addition to an analysis of the macroscopic pixel parameter degradation, the radiation-induced degradation mechanisms

  13. Silicon Spintronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.

    2008-01-01

    Integration of magnetism and mainstream semiconductor electronics could impact information technology in ways beyond imagination. A pivotal step is implementation of spin-based electronic functionality in silicon devices. Remarkable progress made during the last two years gives confidence that this

  14. ACS/WFC Pixel History, Bringing the Pixels Back to Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borncamp, David; Grogin, Norman; Bourque, Matthew; Ogaz, Sara

    2017-06-01

    Excess thermal energy within a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) results in excess electrical current that is trapped within the lattice structure of the electronics. This excess signal from the CCD itself can be present through multiple exposures, which will have an adverse effect on its science performance unless it is corrected for. The traditional way to correct for this extra charge is to take occasional long-exposure images with the camera shutter closed. These images, generally referred to as ``dark'' images, allow for the measurement of thermal-electron contamination at each pixel of the CCD. This so-called ``dark current'' can then be subtracted from the science images by re-scaling to the science exposure times. Pixels that have signal above a certain value are traditionally marked as ``hot'' and flagged in the data quality array. Many users will discard these pixels as being bad. However, these pixels may not be bad in the sense that they cannot be reliably dark-subtracted; if these pixels are shown to be stable over a given anneal period, the charge can be properly subtracted and the extra Poisson noise from this dark current can be taken into account and put into the error arrays.

  15. Development of pixel detectors for the IBL and HL-LHC ATLAS experiment upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Baselga Bacardit, Marta

    2016-03-18

    This thesis presents the development of advanced silicon technology detectors fabricated at CNM-Barcelona for High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. The pixel size of the tracking silicon detectors for the upgrade of the HL-LHC will have to decrease in size in order to enhance the resolution in position for the measurements and they need to have lower occupancy for the electronics. The future experiments at CERN will cope with fuences up to 2 x 10^^16 neq/cm2, and the smaller 3D silicon detectors will have less trapping of the electron-holes generated in the bulk leading to a better performance under high radiation environment. This thesis studies silicon detectors fabricated at CNM-Barcelona applied to HEP experiments with two different kinds of novel technologies: 3D and Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGAD). The 3D detectors make it possible to reduce the size of the depleted region inside the detector and to work at lower voltages, whereas the LGAD detectors have an intrinsic gain which increases the collec...

  16. Experience on 3D Silicon Sensors for ATLAS IBL

    CERN Document Server

    Darbo, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    3D silicon sensors, where plasma micro-machining is used to etch deep narrow apertures in the silicon substrate to form electrodes of PIN junctions, represent possible solutions for inner pixel layers of the tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments. This type of sensors has been developed for the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), an additional pixel layer that has been installed in ATLAS during the present shutdown of the LHC collider at CERN. It is presented here the experience in designing, testing and qualifying sensors and detector modules that have been used to equip part of the IBL. Based on the gained experience with 3D silicon sensors for the ATLAS IBL, we discuss possible new developments for the upgrade of ATLAS and CMS at the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC).

  17. Lithographically patterned silicon nanostructures on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megouda, Nacera [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Universite Lille1, Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley-BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq and Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, CNRS-8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare-B.P. 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Unite de Developpement de la Technologie du Silicium (UDTS), 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140 Alger-7 merveilles, Alger (Algeria); Piret, Gaeelle; Galopin, Elisabeth; Coffinier, Yannick [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Universite Lille1, Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley-BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq and Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, CNRS-8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare-B.P. 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Hadjersi, Toufik, E-mail: hadjersi@yahoo.com [Unite de Developpement de la Technologie du Silicium (UDTS), 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140 Alger-7 merveilles, Alger (Algeria); Elkechai, Omar [Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); and others

    2012-06-01

    The paper reports on controlled formation of silicon nanostructures patterns by the combination of optical lithography and metal-assisted chemical dissolution of crystalline silicon. First, a 20 nm-thick gold film was deposited onto hydrogen-terminated silicon substrate by thermal evaporation. Gold patterns (50 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 50 {mu}m spaced by 20 {mu}m) were transferred onto the silicon wafer by means of photolithography. The etching process of crystalline silicon in HF/AgNO{sub 3} aqueous solution was studied as a function of the silicon resistivity, etching time and temperature. Controlled formation of silicon nanowire arrays in the unprotected areas was demonstrated for highly resistive silicon substrate, while silicon etching was observed on both gold protected and unprotected areas for moderately doped silicon. The resulting layers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  18. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run-II at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00407702

    2016-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of the LHC. Taking advantage of the detector development period 2013 – 2014, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface to equip it with new service panels and to repair modules furthermore this helped with the installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), fourth layer of pixel, installed in between the existing Pixel Detector and a new beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and increased pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been used. A new readout chip has been designed with CMOS 130nm technology with larger area, smaller pixel size and faster readout capability. Dedicated design features in combination with a new composite material were considered and used in order to reduce the material budget of the support structure while keeping the optimal thermo-mechanical perfor...

  19. Development of CdTe pixel detectors combined with an aluminum Schottky diode sensor and photon-counting ASICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, H.; Saji, C.; Kawase, M.; Wu, S.; Furukawa, Y.; Kajiwara, K.; Sato, M.; Hirono, T.; Shiro, A.; Shobu, T.; Suenaga, A.; Ikeda, H.

    2017-01-01

    We have been developing CdTe pixel detectors combined with a Schottky diode sensor and photon-counting ASICs. The hybrid pixel detector was designed with a pixel size of 200 μ m by 200 μm and an area of 19 mm by 20 mm or 38.2 mm by 40.2 mm. The photon-counting ASIC, SP8-04F10K, has a preamplifier, a shaper, 3-level window-type discriminators and a 24-bits counter in each pixel. The single-chip detector with 100 by 95 pixels successfully operated with a photon-counting mode selecting X-ray energy with the window comparator and stable operation was realized at 20 degrees C. We have performed a feasibility study for a white X-ray microbeam experiment. Laue diffraction patterns were measured during the scan of the irradiated position in a silicon steel sample. The grain boundaries were identified by using the differentials between adjacent images at each position.

  20. Fabrication and Test of Pixelated CZT Detectors with Different Pixel Pitches and Thicknesses

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Q; Dowkontt, P; Martín, J; Beilicke, M; Jung, I; Groza, M; Bürger, A; De Geronimo, G; Krawczynski, H

    2008-01-01

    The main methods grown Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) crystals with high yield and excellent homogeneity are Modified Horizontal Bridgman (MHB) and High Pressure Bridgman (HPB) processes, respectively. In this contribution, the readout system based on two 32-channel NCI-ASICs for pixellated CZT detector arrays has been developed and tested. The CZT detectors supplied by Orbotech (MHB) and eV products (HPB) are tested by NCI-ASIC readout system. The CZT detectors have an array of 8x8 or 11x11 pixel anodes fabricated on the anode surface with the area up to 2 cm x2 cm and the thickness of CZT detectors ranges from 0.5 cm to 1 cm. Energy spectra resolution and electron mobility-lifetime products of 8x8 pixels CZT detector with different thicknesses have been investigated.