Sample records for pitchblende

  1. Contribution to the study of french pitchblendes; Contribution a l'etude des pechblendes francaises

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    Geffroy, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. de Mineralogie, Centre de Chatillon (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Sarcia, J.A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Div. de la Crouzille, Haute Vienne (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The authors first review the characteristics of uraninite-pitchblende, as deduced of present literature. They set apart from typical pitchblende a black oxide aspect, which probably corresponds to neo-formations, and a 'para-pitchblende' aspect, which they relate to deep sur-oxidation of normal pitchblende. They insist on the easy replacement of pitchblende by silica. and give indications as to changes in vein stones (fluorite, quartz, etc...). A detailed study of paragenesis and successions in french uranium districts follows (including discussion of uranium of uranium-bearing coals). The authors attempt to classify french pitchblende veins. They are chiefly epithermal and poor in satellite ores. Three types of deposits are identified: massive - pitchblende type, silica type, fluorite type. These deposits, as those of Portugal, are included in granite, Central-European peri-batholitic types where uranium associates which Ni, Co, Bi and Ag, are in France both rare and poor. Finally, the authors attempt to bring out in the european Hercynian area a particular distribution of paragenetic types. (authors) [French] Les auteurs recapitulent d'abord les caracteres et les occurences de l'uraninite - pechblende, tels qu'ils peuvent etre degages de l'actuelle bibliographie. Ils exposent ensuite les faits qui du point de vue mineralogique seulement ressortent de l'etude mineralogique et chalcographique des pechblendes francaises et de leurs satellites. Ils distinguent de la pechblende-type un facies oxyde noir; correspondant probablement a une neoformation, et un facies parapechblende, qui est rapporte a une sur oxydation hypogene de la pechblende proprement dite. Ils insistent sur le facile remaniement de la pechblende par la slice; et donnent quelques precisions sur les modifications des gangues (fluorine, quartz, etc...). Suit l'etude detaillee des parageneses et des successions dans les districts uraniferes francais: Divisions du

  2. Electro-oxidative leaching of pitchblende for uranium determination by arsenazo III spectrophotometry using fluid injection analysis system; Lixiviacao eletro-oxidativa de pechblenda para determinacao de uranio por espectrofotometria com arsenazo III empregando um sistema de analises por injecao em fluxo

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    Sousa, Alvaro Serafim Ferreira de


    In this work two different electro dissolution cells were projected and tested in order to solubilize pitchblende minerals aiming to posterior on line association to a flow injection system for the spectrophotometric determination of uranium leachate. The influence of current density, time, temperature, the electrolyte concentration nature, and the particle suspension density, were studied. Hydrodynamic and chemical parameters effects were evaluated to establish the best efficiency of the flow injection analysis system and to receive samples pretreated by electro oxidative leaching for the uranium determination. Arsenazo III was used as a colorimetric reagent and parameters such as acidity and reagents concentration, carrier and reagent flow rates, injection volume, reactor and reduction column size were studied and optimized. The calibration curves have showed a linear behavior (R{sup 2} = 0.9996) between the concentration range of 0.05 and 2.0 mgL{sup -1}. A relative deviation standard of 5.5 % (at 0.1 mgL{sup -1}) and a detection limit of 0.02 mgL{sup -1} were obtained, as well an analytical throughput of 60 sample determinations per hour. In the association of the flow injected analysis system with the electro-dissolution cells, values up to 98 % were obtained for the uranium extraction. The developed methodology for the electrooxidative extraction and on line spectrophotometric uranium determination in pitchblende samples, showed agreement with the reference method (ICP-MS), with a deviation between the results of less than 3.5 %. The proposal system showed advantages in relation to the conventional technique, like: automation of all analytical process, less quantities and more swiftness in the sample dissolution, less volume and acid concentration and reduction of the matrix effect. (author)

  3. Oxidative lixiviation of pitchblende and precipitation of uranium with hydrogen; Lixiviation oxydante des pechblendes et precipitation de l'uranium par l'hydrogene

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    Mouret, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Balaceanu, J.C.; Coussemant, F. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)


    Earlier work on the preparation of uranium by F.A. Forward and his colleagues has shown the possibilities presented by oxidative lixiviation of ores in a carbonate medium, and the catalytic reduction of uranyl carbonate solutions by hydrogen. The carbonate attack is of considerable interest because of the selectivity of the uranium dissolution, which means it can be applied particularly to the treatment of low grade ores with a reduced consumption of cheap reagents. The subsequent reduction with hydrogen is of the same nature, and not only enables relatively dilute uranyl carbonate solutions to be treated, but also avoids any significant alteration of the attacking solution which can therefore be used again in the lixiviation stage. The experimental work, undertaken at the request of the Commissariat a I'Energie Atomique, was aimed at determining the quantitative characteristics of each of the two stages in order to ascertain their possibilities for industrial application to the principal low grade ores found in France. (author) [French] Les travaux anterieurs de F.A. FORWARD et de ses collaborateurs ont mis en evidence les possibilites que presentent, dans la preparation de l'uranium, la lixiviation oxydante des minerais en milieu carbonate, et la reduction catalytique des solutions d'uranyl carbonate par l'hydrogene. L'attaque carbonatee presente, en effet, un interet considerable du fait de la selectivite de la dissolution de l'uranium qui permet de l'appliquer en particulier au traitement des minerais pauvres avec une consommation reduite de reactifs peu couteux. La reduction subsequente par l'hydrogene presente les memes caracteres et permet non seulement de traiter des solutions relativement diluees d'uranyl carbonate, mais encore evite toute modification significative de la solution d'attaque qui peut donc etre reemployee dans l'etape de lixiviation. L'experimentation, entreprise a la demande du Commissariat a l'Energie atomique, avait pour but de determiner les caracteristiques quantitatives de chacune des deux etapes afin d'en preciser les possibilites d'application industrielle aux principaux minerais pauvres fran is. (auteur)

  4. Study on Leaching Performance of the Pitchblende Stones%某沥青铀矿石堆浸性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    简要介绍了铀矿床的类型和铀矿石的分选方法,重点介绍了某火山岩型铀矿床硬岩类原生沥青铀矿石的实验室溶浸试验。试验结果表明,该沥青铀矿石在用天然铁锰矿石为氧化剂的条件下,经过123d实验室溶浸试验,铀浸出率可达78.92%。%this paper briefly introduces the uranium deposits in the type of uranium ore and the sor- ting method at the same time, the paper focuses on a volcanic type uranium deposits hard rocks of the original asphalt of uranium ore laboratory dissolve the results of the tests of leaching. With natural manganese ore in hard stone as the oxidant conditions, after 123 days, uranium extraction rate can reach 78.92% successful experience.

  5. The pitchblende of Fe mine (Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca) as natural analogue of spent fuel behaviour (matrix I project); La pechblenda de la mina Fe (Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca), como analogo natural del comportamiento del combustible gastado (Proyecto Matrix I)

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    Perez del Villar, L.; Campos, R.; Gomez, P.; Cozar, J.S.; Pardillo, J.; Garralon, A.; Turrero, M.J.; Buil, B.; Pelayo, M.; Ruiz, B.; Rivas, P. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)


    Uranium ore deposits have been extensively studied as natural analogues to the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. These investigations constitute an essential element of both national and international research programmes applied to the assessment of geological repositories in crystalline, clayey and even in schistose rocks. The uranium ore deposit of Fe mine (Ciudad Rodrigo, Salmanca) is placed in highly fractured schistose rocks, a geological setting that has not been envisaged in ENRESA options. However, the similarities with some of the repository features and the analogies with the processes involved in the degradation of the ore deposits made advisable its study as natural analogue. The most important features are. (Author)

  6. Uranium deposits in the Eureka Gulch area, Central City district, Gilpin County, Colorado (United States)

    Sims, P.K.; Osterwald, F.W.; Tooker, E.W.


    The Eureka Gulch area of the Central City district, Gilpin County, Colo., was mined for ores of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc; but there has been little mining activity in the area since World War I. Between 1951 and 1953 nine radioactive mine dumps were discovered in the area by the U.S. Geological Survey and by prospectors. the importance of the discoveries has not been determined as all but one of the mines are inaccessible, but the distribution, quantity, and grade of the radioactive materials found on the mine dumps indicate that the area is worth of additional exploration as a possible source of uranium ore. The uranium ans other metals are in and near steeply dipping mesothermal veins of Laramide age intrusive rocks. Pitchblende is present in at least four veins, and metatorbernite, associated at places with kosolite, is found along two veins for a linear distance of about 700 feet. The pitchblends and metatorbernite appear to be mutually exclusive and seem to occur in different veins. Colloform grains of pitchblende were deposited in the vein essentially contemporaneously with pyrite. The pitchblende is earlier in the sequence of deposition than galena and sphalerite. The metatorbernite replaces altered biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneiss and altered amphibolite, and to a lesser extent forms coatings on fractures in these rocks adjacent to the veins; the kasolite fills vugs in highly altered material and in altered wall rocks. Much of the pitchblende found on the dumps has been partly leached subsequent to mining and is out of equilibrium. Selected samples of metatorbernite-bearing rock from one mine dump contain as much as 6.11 percent uranium. The pitchblende is a primary vein mineral deposited from uranium-bearing hydrothermal solutions. The metatorbernite probably formed by oxidation, solution, and transportation of uranium from primary pitchblende, but it may be a primary mineral deposited directly from fluids of different composition from these

  7. Mineralogical Study of Workable Material Coming from Mina Fe Ciudad Rodrigo; Estudio mineralogico del material beneficiable procedente de la Mina Fe. Ciudad Rodrigo (Salamanca)

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    Mingarro Martin, E.


    A mineralogical analysis is made to ascertain the effects of acid bleaching on normalized conditions. Uranium is mainly found under uranotile, pitchblende and autunite form with an average assay of 0.4 p. ct. The loss of uranium in tailings under current conditions of attach, mainly is due to pitchblende resistance, being practically no leachable, and to uranium absorption by hydrated iron oxides and colloidal ores. This last problem will be discussed in a next paper. (Author) 5 refs.

  8. The uranium ore deposits in Ciudad Rodrigo Phyllites. about the possibility of new deposits; Los yacimientos uraniferos en las pizarras paleozoicas de Ciudad Rodrigo. sobre la posible existencia de nuevas mineralizaciones

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    Mingarro Martin, E.; Marin Benavente, C.


    The main features of the genesis of uranium deposits of the Fe mine type, are discussed in this paper. Pitchblende ore is related with phyllites bearing organic material and with geomorphological level, fossilized by eocene sediments. As a result, new uranium ore deposits are possible under Ciudad Rodrigo tertiary basin, tertiary cover depth being little more than three hundred feet. (Author)

  9. Natural analogues to the spent fuel behaviour of radioactive wastes (MATRIX, FASES I y II projects); Analogos naturales de la liberacion y migracion del UO2 y elementos metalicos asociados (Proyecto MATRIX, FASES I y II)

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    Perez del Villa, L.; Campos, R.; Garralon, A.; Crespo, M. T.; Quejido, J. A.; Cozar, J. S.; Arcos, D.; Bruno, J.; Grive, M.; Domenech, C.; Duro, L.; Ruiz Sanchez-Prro, J.; Marin, F.; Izquierdo, A.; Cattetero, G.; Ortuno, F.; Floria, E.


    Uranium ore deposits have been extensively studied as natural analogues to the spent fuel behaviour of radioactive wastes. These investigations constitute an essential element of both national and international research programmes applied to the assessment of HLNW repositories and their interaction with the environment. The U ore deposit of Mina Fe (Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca) is hosted in highly fractured schistose rocks, a geological setting that has not been envisaged in the ENRESA option for nuclear waste disposal. However, the processes occurring at Mina Fe maintain some analogies with those occurring in a HLNW repository: The existence of large U concentrations as pitchblende (UO{sub 2}+x), which is chemically analogous to the main component of spent nuclear fuel, which has an oxidation degree of 2.25 < x < 2.66 as a result of radiolytic oxidation. The solubility behaviour of pitchblende as a result of interaction with groundwaters of varying chemical composition can be used to validate predictive models for spent fuel stability under severe alteration conditions. Some of the weathering products of pitchblende are similar to those that have been identified during the experimental oxidative dissolution of UO{sub 2}, Sim fuel, as well as natural uraninite and pitchblende. This is a subject that has been previously investigated in other research projects. Fe(III)-oxy hydroxides in the oxidised zone of the deposit could be similar to the spent fuel container corrosion products that could be formed under redox transition conditions. These corrosion products may act as radionuclide and trace metal scavengers. (Author)

  10. Uranium deposits in France and in French overseas territories; Les gisements d'uranium de la France metropolitaine et des territoires francais d'Outre-Mer

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    Roubault, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The discover of radium element by Pierre and Marie Curie in 1898 activated the uranium ores prospecting in France and its overseas territories. Before 1945, rare and poor deposits were found with only one being operated in Madagascar and the production of nobiantalates from washing of pegmatitic eluvium. Since the setting up of the Research and Mines Department in the C.E.A. and the training of specialized exploration teams as well as the use of Geiger counters, the uranium ores prospecting has been largely developed in France. The mineralogical data resulting from studies during the pre-war period led to the discover of four main uranium ores content areas: La Crouzille deposit in Limousin characterized by large presence of pitchblende, the Bauzot deposit with massive presence of pitchblende as well, discover of mineralization traces in the Bois Noirs area where a rich uranium ore lodes were discovered afterwards and finally the madagascar deposit. Few other areas have been prospected and have got good evidences of uranium ores presence. The majority of French uranium deposits have got an 'hydrothermal' vein type with localized pitchblende or a secondary mineralization type. It described the different deposits by region and in chronological order of discover. The structural aspect and petrographic studies are discussed. The metallogenic study shows the presence of large mineralization in the French Hercynian massif. After ten years of uranium ores prospecting and mines work, it shows that France possesses numerous uranium deposits which can be qualified as large deposits and the minerals ores prospecting revealed that many deposits sites would be payable in the near future. (M.P.)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Thermodynamic oxygen isotope factors for uranium oxides have been calculated by means of the modified increment method.The sequence of 18O-enrichment in the uranium oxides with respect to the common rock-forming minerals is predicted as follows:spinelpitchblende

  12. Experimental study on reduction of U (Ⅵ) by an anaerobic bacterium, Shewanella putrefaciens: Application to sandstone-hosted interlayer oxidation-zone type uranium deposits, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Maozhong; XU Huifang; L. L. Barton; PENG Xinjian; YIN Lin; WANG Rucheng


    An experimental study on reduction of U (Ⅵ) by anaerobic bacteria, Shewane//a putrefaciens, is first reported here in China. The experimental conditions were: 35℃ and pH =7.0-7.4, corresponding to a physicochemical environments in which the sandstone-hosted interlayer oxidation-zone type uranium deposit formed in Northwest China's Xinjiang. Bacteria adopted in the present experiment, Shewanella putrefaciens, occur extensively in natural environment. Our study shows that nano-crystal precipitates of uraninite quickly occurred on the surface of the cells within one week. It was found that the pitchblende was characterized by a random arrangement of uraninite nanocrystals (2-4 nm) in it, significantly different from natural pitchblende in which uraninite nanocrystals are arranged in order. Finally, a possible mechanism of uranium biomineralization by microorganisms in the deposits is discussed. Our investigation may supply a technical train of thoughts for bioremediation of nuclear-contaminated water environments and for underground dissolving extraction of the sandstone-hosted uranium ores.

  13. Alteration and vein mineralization, Ladwig uranium mine, Jefferson County, Colorado (United States)

    Wallace, Alan R.


    Uranium ore at the Ladwig mine, Jefferson County, Colo., occurs in steeply dipping, northwest-striking faults and related fractures with a carbonate-adularia assemblage that forms in altered wallrocks and fills veins. The faults occur between large intrusive pegmatites and garnetiferous gneisses of Precambrian age, and were reactivated as the result of the early Paleocene uplift of the Front Range foothills. Mineralization in the deposit includes both wallrock alteration and vein filling. Alteration was intense but local, and chiefly involved the carbonatization of mafic minerals in the wallrocks. Felsic minerals in the wallrocks are relatively unaltered. The veins are filled with an adularia-pitchblende-carbonate assemblage with minor related sulfides and coffinite. Many of the iron-bearing carbonates in both the alteration and vein assemblages have been altered to hematite. The mineralization and alteration are believed to have formed in response to initially high amounts of CO2 and the subsequent release of dissolved CO2 by boiling or effervescence. Uranium, carried in a dicarbonate complex, was precipitated directly as pitchblende when the CO2 was released. The expulsion of H+ during boiling created a net oxidizing environment which oxidized the iron-bearing carbonates. Late stage calcite and sulfides were deposited in existing voids in the veins.

  14. Decomposition of diverse solid inorganic matrices with molten ammonium bifluoride salt for constituent elemental analysis

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    O' Hara, Matthew J.; Kellogg, Cyndi M.; Parker, Cyrena M.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Corbey, Jordan F.; Grate, Jay W.


    Ammonium bifluoride (ABF, NH4F·HF) is a well-known reagent for converting metal oxides to fluorides and for its applications in breaking down minerals and ores in order to extract useful components. It has been more recently applied to the decomposition of inorganic matrices prior to elemental analysis. Herein, a sample decomposition method that employs molten ABF sample treatment in the initial step is systematically evaluated across a range of inorganic sample types: glass, quartz, zircon, soil, and pitchblende ore. Method performance is evaluated across the two variables: duration of molten ABF treatment and ABF reagent mass to sample mass ratio. The degree of solubilization of these sample classes are compared to the fluoride stoichiometry that is theoretically necessary to enact complete fluorination of the sample types. Finally, the sample decomposition method is performed on several soil and pitchblende ore standard reference materials, after which elemental constituent analysis is performed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Elemental recoveries are compared to the certified values; results indicate good to excellent recoveries across a range of alkaline earth, rare earth, transition metal, and actinide elements.

  15. Genesis and formation conditions of deposits in the unique Strel'tsovka Molybdenum-Uranium ore field: New mineralogical, geochemical, and physicochemical evidence (United States)

    Aleshin, A. P.; Velichkin, V. I.; Krylova, T. L.


    The ambiguity of genetic interpretations of uranium ore formation at Mo-U deposits of the Strel’tsovka ore field led us to perform additional geochemical, mineralogical, and thermobarogeochemical studies. As a result, it has been established that closely related U and F were progressively gained in the Late Mesozoic volcanic rocks from the older basic volcanics (170 Ma) to the younger silicic igneous rocks (140 Ma). The Early Cretaceous postmagmatic hydrothermal epoch (140-125 Ma) is subdivided into preore, uranium ore, and first and second postore stages. The primary brannerite-pitchblende ore was formed in association with fluorite. At the first postore stage, this assemblage was replaced by a U-Si metagel, which was previously identified as coffinite. The metagel shows a wide compositional variation; its fine structure has been studied. The preore metasomatic alteration and related veined mineralization were formed under the effect of sodium (bicarbonate)-chloride solution at a temperature of 250-200°C. The uranium ore formation began with albitization and hematitization of rocks affected by supercritical fluid at 530-500°C; brannerite and pitchblende precipitated at 350-300°C. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns of pitchblende hosted in trachybasalt, trachydacite, and granite demonstrate a pronounced Sm-Nd discontinuity and a statistically significant tetrad effect of W type. These attributes were not established in REE patterns of rhyolites derived from the upper crustal magma chamber. This circumstance and a chronological gap of 5 Ma between silicic volcanism and ore formation do not allow us to suggest that uranium was derived from this magma chamber. According to the proposed model, the evolved silicic Li-F magma was a source of uranium. U4+, together with REE, was fractionated into the fluid phase as complex fluoride compounds. The uranium mineralization was deposited at a temperature barrier. It is suggested that hydromica alteration and the

  16. Site investigation SFR. Fracture mineralogy including identification of uranium phases and hydrochemical characterisation of groundwater in borehole KFR106

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    Sandstroem, Bjoern [WSP Sverige AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, Kersti [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)


    This report presents the fracture mineralogy and hydrochemistry of borehole KFR106. The most abundant fracture minerals in the examined drill core samples are clay minerals, calcite, quartz and adularia; chlorite is also common but is mostly altered and found interlayered with corrensite. The most common clay mineral is a mixed layer clay consisting of illite-smectite. Pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite, barite (-celestine) and hematite are also commonly found in the fractures, but usually in trace amounts. Other minerals identified in the examined fractures are U-phosphate, pitchblende, U(Ca)-silicate, asphaltite, biotite, monazite, fluorite, titanite, sericite, xenotime, rutile and (Ca, REEs)-carbonate. Uranium has been introduced, mobilised and reprecipitated during at least four different episodes: 1) Originally, during emplacement of U-rich pegmatites, probably as uraninite. 2) At a second event, uranium was mobilised under brittle conditions during formation of breccia/cataclasite. Uraninite was altered to pitchblende and partly coffinitised. Mobilised uranium precipitated as pitchblende closely associated with hematite and chlorite in cataclasite and fracture sealings prior to 1,000 Ma. 3) During the Palaeozoic U was remobilised and precipitated as U-phosphate on open fracture surfaces. 4) An amorphous U-silicate has also been found in open fractures; the age of this precipitation is not known but it is inferred to be Palaeozoic or younger. Groundwater was sampled in two sections in borehole KFR106 with pumping sequences of about 6 days for each section. The samples from sections KFR106:1 and KFR106:2 (260-300 m and 143-259 m borehole length, i.e. -261 and -187 m.a.s.l. mid elevation of the section, respectively) were taken in November 2009 and yielded groundwater chemistry data in accordance with SKB chemistry class 3 and 5. In section KFR106:1 and KFR106:2, the chloride contents were 850 and 1,150 mg/L and the drilling water content 6 and 4%, respectively

  17. Geology of the Ralston Buttes district, Jefferson County, Colorado: a preliminary report (United States)

    Sheridan, Douglas M.; Maxwell, Charles H.; Albee, Arden L.; Van Horn, Richard


    The Ralston Buttes district in Jefferson County is one of the most significant new uranium districts located east of the Continental Divide in Colorado. The district is east of the Colorado Front Range mineral belt, along the east front of the range. From November 1953 through October 1956, about 10,000 tons of uranium ore, much of which was high-grade pitchblende-bearing vein material, was shipped from the district. The ore occurs in deposits that range in size from bodies containing less than 50 tons to ore shoots containing over 1,000 tons. The only other mining activity in the area has been a sporadic production of beryl, feldspar, and scrap mica from Precambrian pegmatites, and quarrying of dimension stone, limestone, and clay from sedimentary rocks. Most of the Ralston Buttes district consists of complexly folded Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks - gneiss, schist, quartzite, amphibolite, and granodiorite. Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks crop out in the northeastern part of the district. These rocks are cut by northwesterly-trending fault systems of Laramide age and by small bodies of intrusive rocks that are Tertiary in age. The typical uranium deposits in the district are hydrothermal veins occupying openings in Laramide fault breccias or related fractures that cut the Precambrian rocks. Pitchblende and lesser amounts of secondary uranium minerals are associated with sparse base-mental sulfides in a gangue of carbonate minerals, potash feldspar, and, more rarely, quartz. Less common types of deposits consist of pitchblende and secondary uranium minerals that occupy fractures cutting pegmatites and quartz veins. The uranium deposits are concentrated in two areas, the Ralston Creek area and the Golden Gate Canyon area. The deposits in the Ralston Creek area are located along the Rogers fault system, and the deposits in the Golden Gate Canyon area are along the Hurricane Hill fault system. Two geologic factors were important to the localization

  18. Metallogenic model of the Las Termas uranium deposit at Fiambala, Province of Catamarca, Argentina; Modelo metalogenetico del yacimiento de uranio Las Termas, Fiambala, Catamarca, Argentina

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    Morello, O.; Rubinstein, N.; Hongn, F.; Ferreira, L.; Anesa, J.; Arias, A.


    The Las Termas uranium-ore deposit, located in the geological province of Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina, is contained within the Precambrian metamorphic basement close to the contact with the Los Ratones Carboniferous granite. This deposit was originally linked to greisenization associated with Carboniferous magmatic activity. Nevertheless, recent data concerning pitchblende-type uraninite (113.6 Ma and 51.4 Ma) and the spatial relationship between the mineralization and Cretaceous rifting volcanism lead us to suggest a new genetic model, developed in two stages. During the first stage Carboniferous greisenization included the leaching of uranium from granite, whilst during the second stage Cretaceous rift-magmatism led to a hydrothermal system, which would have been responsible for uranium mineralization. (Author)

  19. 试论地下热水的铀成矿作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴杰敏; 梁兴中


    The studies uranium deposit occurs in a geothermally abnormal area. It has the following four features: 1. Uranium mineralization is observed in a certain temperature zone. 2. The uranium deposit occurs in an area characterized by relatively low but highly varying radioactivity in a regionally high radioactive field. 3. Uranium closely coexists with cubic pyrite of hot water origin. 4. Pitchblende is characteristic of hot water origin. This paper focuses on the relationship between ground hot waters and uranium mineralization. Uranium in the deposit is considered to have come from the host rocks, The possible explanation of the formation of this uranium deposit is that uranium was first leached out of the host rocks by ground hot waters and then transported to where uranium enrichment and deposition were favoured, forming uranium deposit under certain conditions. Based on this explanation, this uranium deposit is believed to be the product of hot water activity in the regionally geothermal abnormal zone.


    Thunaes, A.; Rabbits, F.T.; Hester, K.D.; Smith, H.W.


    A process is described for extracting uranlum from uranium containing material, such as a low grade pitchblende ore, or mill taillngs, where at least part of the uraniunn is in the +4 oxidation state. After comminuting and magnetically removing any entrained lron particles the general material is made up as an aqueous slurry containing added ferric and manganese salts and treated with sulfur dioxide and aeration to an extent sufficient to form a proportion of oxysulfur acids to give a pH of about 1 to 2 but insufficient to cause excessive removal of the sulfur dioxide gas. After separating from the solids, the leach solution is adjusted to a pH of about 1.25, then treated with metallic iron in the presence of a precipitant such as a soluble phosphate, arsonate, or fluoride.

  1. [Maria Skłodowska-Curie and Piotr Curie an epoch-makingin year 1898]. (United States)

    Wielogórski, Zbigniew


    For many reasons the year 1898 was unusual for Maria Skłodowska-Curie and her husband. After defining the subject of the doctoral thesis and choosing Henri Becqerel as thesis supervisor, Maria started intensive experimental work. In the allotted room called storeroom, in conditions that were far too inadequate, they managed to put up a unique measuring equipment composed of instruments whose originator was Pierre Curie. In the ionization chamber and in the piezoelectric quartz charges formed, whose mutual neutralization was shown by the quadrant electrometer. Ionization current, which was measured quantitatively, was proportional to the radiation of the sample. Studying many elements, their compounds and minerals enabled Maria to state that uranium is not the only element endowed with the power of radiation; the second one turned out to be thorium. Anomaly detected in the radiation of uranium minerals made it possible for Maria to draw an extremely important conclusion: radioactive uranium and thorium are not the only elements endowed with such an attribute. Pitchblende, which was studied by the Curie couple, had to contain also other radioactive substances. Gustave Bémont also participated in the chemical analysis of the uranium ore and it is worth reminding that he was involved in the discovery of polonium and uranium. The phenomenon of radioactivity couldn't have been explained if it was not for the sources of strong radioactivity. Those sources undoubtedly could have been the discovered elements but their scanty content in the uranium ore made their isolation very difficult and laborious. Access to industrial remains after procession of pitchblende from Jachymov (Sankt Joachimstahl), obtained owing to the mediation of Eduard Suess, provided the source of this raw material. From it, in a shack also called le hangar, the Curie couple isolated the first samples of the radium salt. This element, later extracted by discoverers on a grand scale and handed over in a

  2. Structural setting and UPb dating of Uranium mineralizations from the Northeastern part of Nigeria (Upper Benue Region) (United States)

    Maurin, J. C.; Lancelot, J. R.

    In the Northeastern part of Nigeria (Upper Benue region) uranium mineralizations occur widespread along major fracture zones within the Precambrian crystalline basement bounding the Cretaceous deposits of the Benue trough. In two mineralized areas (Mika and Ghumchi) structural analysis and UPb dating of these mineralizations have been performed. Isotopic data indicate an age of 148 ± 12 M.a. for the crystallization of Mika primary pitchblende, followed by a simple UPb evolution (without leakage of intermediate decay products) and a strong recent mobilization of the uranium (autunite and coffinite formation). The pitchblende crystallized in "en echelon" array megatension gashes due to regional dextral wrench mechanism along a N140E trend. On a regional scale, this fracturing episode and the uranium concentration phase are contemporaneous with the emplacement of a bimodal volcanism dated at 147 ± 7 M.a. which is related to the early stages of opening of the Benue trough (Popoff et al., 1982). Isotopic data of Ghumchi mineralization provide an age of 14 ± 3 m.y. for the crystallization of cryptocrystalline coffinite and like in Mika, actual- and strong mobilization of uranium affect the mineralizations (autunite formation). The mineralizations crystallized along passive preexisting structures (mylonites, faults and lamprophyric dykes) which acted as favorable traps for uranium concentration. Pb/Pb data on galena microcubes, associated with the coffinite, provide an isotopic composition comparable to those of recent alkali basalt series which intrude the African plate (e.g. Mandara-Cameroon, Kenya, Ahaggar, Canary Islands). Then, such a noticeable Pb isotopic composition together with the post-tectonic character and the Neogene age of the Ghumchi mineralization suggest that their crystallization is linked with the emplacement of Neogene alkali basalt lava flows and trachytic plugs which occur in the vicinity of Ghumchi area.

  3. Chemically fractionated fission-xenon in meteorites and on the earth (United States)

    Shukolyukov, Yuri A.; Jessberger, Elmar K.; Meshik, Alexander P.; Vu Minh, Dang; Jordan, Jimmy L.


    This is a report on the nature of isotopically anomalous xenon, which has been detected in two Ca-Al-rich inclusions of the Allende carbonaceous chondrite. It is extremely enriched in 132Xe, 129Xe, and to a lesser extent in 131Xe. Similar large excesses of 132Xe as well as of 131Xe, 134Xe, and 129Xe have previously been found in material processed in a natural nuclear reactor (Oklo phenomenon). Excess of these isotopes had also been encountered in MORB-glasses, in an ancient Greenland anorthosite. Thus, this Xe-type, which had previously been termed "alien" ( JORDON et al., 1980a) does not seem to be unique. To determine the origin of "alien" Xe, we analysed Xe (a) in neutron irradiated pitchblende and in the irradiation capsule, (b) in non-irradiated extremely fine-grained pitchblende (so-called Colorado-type deposit), and (c) in sandstone taken from the epicentre of an atomic explosion. In addition, the isotopic composition of xenon released by stepwise degassing and after selective dissolving of rocks from the Oklo natural reactor was determined. The results of these dedicated experiments demonstrate that the formation of alien Xe is due to the migration of the radioactive precursors of the stable isotopes 134Xe, 132Xe, 131Xe, and 129Xe. Due to this reason we now call it CFF-Xe - Chemically Fractionated Fission Xenon. Prerequisites for its formation are the simultaneous prevalence of two conditions: (1) fission (of 238U, 235U, and/ or 244Pu) and (2) a physicochemical environment (temperature, pressure, fluidity) at which the precursors of xenon (mainly Te and I) are mobile. Taking into account the occurrence of xenon in meteorites and terrestrial rocks, not all excesses of 129Xe in mantle rocks and natural gases are necessarily connected with the decay of primordial 129I.

  4. Radiological surveys of properties in the Middlesex, New Jersey area. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R W; Haywood, F.F. Cottrell, W.D.


    Results of the radiological surveys conducted at three properties in the Middlesex, New Jersey area as well as one additional location downstream from the Middlesex Sampling Plant (Willow Lake), are presented. The survey revealed that the yard around the church rectory on Harris Avenue is contaminated with a /sup 226/Ra-bearing material, probably pitchblende ore from the former Middlesex Sampling Plant. The elevated /sup 226/Ra concentrations around and, to a lesser extent, underneath the rectory are leading to elevated /sup 222/Rn concentrations in air in the rectory and elevated alpha contamination levels (from radon daughters) on surfaces inside the rectory. External gamma radiation levels in the rectory yard are well above background levels, and beta-gamma dose rates at many points in the yard are above federal guidelines for the release of property for unrestricted use. The radiological survey of a parking lot at the Union Carbide plant in Bound Brook, New Jersey revealed that a nearly circular region of 50-ft diam in the lot showed above-background external gamma radiation levels. Two isolated spots within this region showed concentrations of uranium in soil above the licensable level stated in 10 CFR 40. Soil samples taken in the area of elevated gamma radiation levels generally showed nearly equal activities of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 238/U. The survey at the residences on William Street in Piscataway, revealed that the front yeard is generally contaminated from near the surface to a depth of 1.5 to 2.5 ft with /sup 226/Ra-bearing material, possibly pitchblende ore. The remainder of the yard shows scattered contaminaion. External gamma radiation levels inside the house are above the background level near some outside walls.

  5. Mineral deposit characteristics and distribution in the James Bay region of Quebec; Styles et repartition des gites metalliferes du territoire de la Baie-James (Quebec)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, M. [Montreal Univ., Quebec, Dept. des Sciences de la Terre et de son Atmosphere, PQ (Canada)


    The James Bay region differs even more from the Abitibi Sub-province by the fact that Archean proto-continents proto-continents (older than 2.8 Ga) occur in this region, a situation similar to the Western Superior Province. Moreover, remnants of Meso-Archean arenitic platform sequences found on these proto-cratons contain uraniferous pyritic quartz-pebbles conglomerate that bear many similarities with the Witwater strand deposits of South Africa. As in the Western Superior Province, chromite deposits and PGE-nickel deposits are common in these cratonic terranes. The Kenoran Orogeny affected all the territory. Rare-element pegmatites and orogenic gold deposits are associated with the regional metamorphism and tectonic corridors. A uraniferous pegmatite field in northern James Bay strongly suggests the possibility of metamorphic remobilization of Meso-Archean uraniferous pyritic paleo-placers. Proterozoic continental and platform sequences also overlie the Archean rocks, preserved in a system of grabens that transect the James Bay region. Silver-rich five-element veins (Bi-Co-Ni-Ag-U) occur in horsts surrounding these Proterozoic grabens. Unconformity-related pitchblende vein fields also surround the grabens. Large, medium-grade, strata-bound uranium deposits are found in a basal euxinic lacustrine sequence that locally occurs at the base of Proterozoic red-bed formations. The regional distribution of the Meso-Archean uraniferous pyritic conglomerates, Neo-Archean uraniferous pegmatites and Proterozoic pitchblende veins in the Archean basement, and also of Proterozoic strata-bound U-Cu deposits, suggests a classical example of metallic heritage through time. (author)

  6. Geochemical modelling of the weathering zone of the 'Mina Fe' U deposit (Spain): A natural analogue for nuclear spent fuel alteration and stability processes in radwaste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcos, D. [AMPHOS XXI Consulting S.L., Passeig de Rubi, 29-31, 08197 Valldoreix, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail:; Perez del Villar, L. [CIEMAT, Medio Ambiente, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bruno, J.; Domenech, C. [AMPHOS XXI Consulting S.L., Passeig de Rubi, 29-31, 08197 Valldoreix, Barcelona (Spain)


    The 'Mina Fe' U deposit (Salamanca, Spain) has been studied in the context of Enresa's programme for U-mine sites restoration and also as a natural analogue for processes in high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) geological disposal. The investigations encompassed an array of geoscience disciplines, such as structural geology, mineralogy, hydrogeology and elemental and isotopic geochemistry and hydrogeochemistry of the site. Based on the obtained results, a conceptual mineralogical and geochemical model was performed integrating the main geochemical processes occurring at the site: the interaction between oxidised and slightly acidic water with pyrite, pitchblende, calcite and dolomite, as essential minerals of the U fracture-filling mineralisation, and hydroxyapatite from the host rock, as the main source of P. This conceptual model has been tested in a systematic numerical model, which includes the main kinetic (pyrite and pitchblende dissolution) and equilibrium processes (carbonate mineral dissolution, and goethite, schoepite and autunite secondary precipitation). The results obtained from the reactive-transport model satisfactorily agree with the conceptual model previously established. The assumption of the precipitation of coffinite as a secondary mineral in the system cannot be correctly evaluated due to the lack of hydrochemical data from the reducing zone of the site and valid thermodynamic and kinetic data for this hydrated U(IV)-silicate. This precipitation can also be hampered by the probable existence of dissolved U(IV)-organic matter and/or uranyl carbonate complexes, which are thermodynamically stable under the alkaline and reducing conditions that prevail in the reducing zone of the system. Finally, the intense downwards oxic and acidic alteration in the upper part of the system is of no relevance for the performance assessment of a HLNW disposal. However, the acidic and oxidised conditions are quickly buffered to neutral-alkaline and

  7. Preliminary Report on the White Canyon Area, San Juan County, Utah (United States)

    Benson, William Edward Barnes; Trites, A.F.; Beroni, E.P.; Feeger, J.A.


    The White Canyon area in San Juan County, Utah, contains known deposits of copper-uranium ore and is currently being mapped and studied by the Geological Survey. To date, approximately 75 square miles, or about 20 percent of the area, has been mapped on a scale 1 inch=1 mile. The White Canyon area is underlain by more than 2,000 feet of sedimentary rocks, Carboniferous to Jurassic(?) in age. The area is on the flank of the Elk Ridge anticline, and the strata have a regional dip of 1 deg to 2 deg SW. The Shinarump conglomerate of Late Triassic age is the principal ore-bearing formation. The Shinarump consists of lenticular beds of sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, clay, and siltstone, and ranges in thickness from a feather edge to as much as 75 feet. Locally the sandstones contain silicified and carbonized wood and fragments of charcoal. These vegetal remains are especially common in channel-fill deposits. Jointing is prominent in the western part of the area, and apparently affects all formations. Adjacent to the joints some of the redbeds in the sequence are bleached. Deposits of copper-uranium minerals have been found in the Moenkopi, Shinarump, and Chinle formations, but the only production of ore has been from the Shinarump conglomerate. The largest concentration of these minerals is in the lower third of the Shinarump, and the deposits seem to be controlled in part by ancient channel fills and in part by fractures. Locally precipitation of the copper and uranium minerals apparently has been aided by charcoal and clays. Visible uranium minerals include both hard and soft pitchblende and secondary hydrosulfates, phosphates, and silicates. In addition, unidentified uranium compounds are present in carbonized wood and charcoal, and in veinlets of hydrocarbons. Base-metal sulfides have been identified in all prospects that extend beyond the oxidized zone. Secondary copper minerals in the oxidized zone include the hydrous sulfates and carbonates, and possibly

  8. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Baxter, S.L.; Holtzman, S.; Morris, S.C.; Pardi, R.; Rowe, M.D.; Sun, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Anspaugh, L.; Layton, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    Two important environmental problems at the USDOE Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) facility in Fernald, Ohio were studied in this human health risk assessment. The problems studied were radon emissions from the K-65 waste silos, and offsite contamination of ground water with uranium. Waste from the processing of pitchblende ore is stored in the K-65 silos at the FEMP. Radium-226 in the waste decays to radon gas which escapes to the outside atmosphere. The concern is for an increase in lung cancer risk for nearby residents associated with radon exposure. Monitoring data and a gaussian plume transport model were used to develop a source term and predict exposure and risk to fenceline residents, residents within 1 and 5 miles of the silos, and residents of Hamilton and Cincinnati, Ohio. Two release scenarios were studied: the routine release of radon from the silos and an accidental loss of one silo dome integrity. Exposure parameters and risk factors were described as distributions. Risks associated with natural background radon concentrations were also estimated.

  9. Potential aquifer vulnerability in regions down-gradient from uranium in situ recovery (ISR) sites. (United States)

    Saunders, James A; Pivetz, Bruce E; Voorhies, Nathan; Wilkin, Richard T


    Sandstone-hosted roll-front uranium ore deposits originate when U(VI) dissolved in groundwater is reduced and precipitated as insoluble U(IV) minerals. Groundwater redox geochemistry, aqueous complexation, and solute migration are important in leaching uranium from source rocks and transporting it in low concentrations to a chemical redox interface where it is deposited in an ore zone typically containing the uranium minerals uraninite, pitchblende, and/or coffinite; various iron sulfides; native selenium; clays; and calcite. In situ recovery (ISR) of uranium ores is a process of contacting the uranium mineral deposit with leaching and oxidizing (lixiviant) fluids via injection of the lixiviant into wells drilled into the subsurface aquifer that hosts uranium ore, while other extraction wells pump the dissolved uranium after dissolution of the uranium minerals. Environmental concerns during and after ISR include water quality degradation from: 1) potential excursions of leaching solutions away from the injection zone into down-gradient, underlying, or overlying aquifers; 2) potential migration of uranium and its decay products (e.g., Ra, Rn, Pb); and, 3) potential mobilization and migration of redox-sensitive trace metals (e.g., Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, V), metalloids (e.g., As), and anions (e.g., sulfate). This review describes the geochemical processes that control roll-front uranium transport and fate in groundwater systems, identifies potential aquifer vulnerabilities to ISR operations, identifies data gaps in mitigating these vulnerabilities, and discusses the hydrogeological characterization involved in developing a monitoring program.

  10. Modification of apparent fission yields by Chemical Fractionation following Fission (CFF) (United States)

    Hohenberg, Charles; Meshik, Alex


    Grain-by-grain studies of the 2 billion year old Oklo natural reactor, using laser micro-extraction^1,2, yield detailed information about Oklo, a water-moderated pulsed reactor, cycle times, total neutron fluence and duration, but it also demonstrates Chemical Fractionation following Fission. In the CFF process, members of an isobaric yield chain with long half-lives are subject to migration before decay can occur. Of particular interest is the 129 isobar where 17 million ^129I can migrate out of the host grain before decay, and iodine compounds are water soluble. This is amply demonstated by the variation of Xe spectra between micron-sized uranium-bearing minerals and adjacent uranium-free minerals. Fission 129 yields for the spontaneous fission of ^238U generally come from measured ^129Xe in pitchblend^2, ores emplaced by aqueous activity, and are incorrect due to the CFF process. ^238U yields for the 131 and 129 chains, reported in Hyde^3, as 0.455 +- .02 and < 0.012, respectively, the latter being anomalously low. ^1A Meshik, C Hohenberg and O Pravdivtesva, PRL 93, 182302 (2004); A Meshik Sci. Am. Nov (2005), 55; ^2E K Hyde, Nucl Prop of Heavy Elements III (1964).

  11. Migration and retention of elements at the Oklo natural reactor (United States)

    Brookins, Douglas G.


    The Oklo natural reactor, Gabon, permits study of fission-produced elemental behavior in a natural geologic environment. The uranium ore that sustained fission reactions formed about 2 billion years before present (BYBP), and the reactor was operative for about 5 × 105 yrs between about 1.95 to 2 BYBP. The many tons of fission products can, for the most part, be studied for their abundance and distribution today. Since reactor shutdown, many fissiogenic elements have not migrated from host pitchblende, and several others have migrated only a few tens of meters from the reactor ore. Only Xe and Kr have apparently been largely removed from the reactor zones. An element by element assessment of the Oklo rocks' ability to retain the fission products, and actinides and radiogenic Pb and Bi as well, leads to the conclusion that no widespread migration of the elements occurred. This suggests that rocks with more favorable geologic characteristics are indeed well suited for consideration for the storage of radioactive waste.

  12. A brief history of the American radium industry and its ties to the scientific community of its early twentieth century (United States)

    Landa, E.R.


    Federally funded remedial action projects are presently underway in New Jersey and Colorado at sites containing 226Ra and other radionuclides from radium-uranium ore extraction plants that operated during the early twentieth century. They are but the latest chapter in the story of an American industry that emerged and perished in the span of three decades. Major extraction plants were established in or near Denver (CO), Pittsburgh (PA), and New York City (NY) to process radium from ore that came largely from the carnotite deposits of western Colorado and eastern Utah. The staffs of these plants included some of the finest chemists and physicists in the nation, and the highly-refined radium products found a variety of uses in medicine and industry. The discovery of high-grade pitchblende ores in the Belgian Congo and the subsequent opening of an extraction plant near Antwerp, Belgium, in 1992, however, created an economic climate that put an end to the American radium industry. The geologic, chemical, and engineering information gathered during this era formed the basis of the uranium industry of the later part of the century, while the tailings and residues came to be viewed as environmental problems during the same period.

  13. [Analytical chemistry in works of Maria Skłodowska-Curie]. (United States)

    Hulanicki, Adam


    Maria Skłodowska-Curie--a Nobel Prize winner in chemistry--the elements of learning of chemistry gained just by a dint of work of more than ten months in Warsaw in the Institute of Industry and Agriculture Museum. The Nobel Prize concerned a contribution to the progress of chemistry through the discovery of radium and polonium, separation of radium and study of properties of this amazing element. It was awarded for an extremely arduous work, during which the chemical reactions being the principles of analytical chemistry were realized. Unlike to a typical analytical procedure, an initial attempt here was the thousands of kilograms of uranium ore: pitchblende. The final effect was small amounts of new elements: polonium and radium. Both the knowledge and the intuition of the researcher let her have a triumph. The difficulties she experienced because the properties of the searched chemical elements could only be evaluated thanks to the knowledge on other chemical elements. A significant achievement was the determination of the samples by means of radioactivity measurement, which gave rise to radiochemical analytical methods. An extreme analytical precision was demanded in multiple processes of fractional crystallization and precipitation which finally led to the calculation of the atomic mass of radium.

  14. Dissolution studies of natural analogues spent fuel and U(VI)-Silicon phases of and oxidative alteration process; Estudios de disolucion de analogos naturales de combustible nuclear irradiado y de fases de U(VI)-Silicio representativas de un proceso de alteracion oxidativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Morales, I.


    In order to understand the long-term behavior of the nuclear spent fuel in geological repository conditions, we have performed dissolution studies with natural analogues to UO{sub 2} as well as with solid phases representatives of the oxidative alteration pathway of uranium dioxide, as observed in both natural environment and laboratory studies. In all cases, we have studied the influence of the bicarbonate concentration in the dissolution process, as a first approximation to the groundwater composition of a granitic environment, where carbonate is one of the most important complexing agents. As a natural analogue to the nuclear spent fuel some uraninite samples from the Oklo are deposit in Gabon, where chain fission reactions took place 2000 millions years ago, as well as a pitchblende sample from the mine Fe ore deposit, in Salamanca (spain) have been studied. The studies have been performed at 25 and 60 degree centigree and 60 degree centigree, and they have focussed on the determination of both the thermodynamic and the kinetic properties of the different samples studied, using batch and continuous experimental methodologies, respectively. (Author)

  15. Potential Aquifer Vulnerability in Regions Down-Gradient from ... (United States)

    Sandstone-hosted roll-front uranium ore deposits originate when U(VI) dissolved in groundwater is reduced and precipitated as insoluble U(IV) minerals. Groundwater redox geochemistry, aqueous complexation, and solute migration are instrumental in leaching uranium from source rocks and transporting it in low concentrations to a chemical redox interface where it is deposited in an ore zone typically containing the uranium minerals uraninite, pitchblende, and/or coffinite; various iron sulfides; native selenium; clays; and calcite. In situ recovery (ISR) of these uranium ores is a process of contacting the uranium mineral deposit with leaching (lixiviant) fluids via injection of the lixiviant into wells drilled into the subsurface aquifer that hosts uranium ore, while other extraction wells pump the dissolved uranium after dissolution of the uranium minerals. Environmental concerns during and after ISR include water quality impacts from: 1) potential excursions of leaching solutions away from the injection zone into down-dip, underlying, or overlying aquifers; 2) potential migration of uranium and its decay products (e.g., Ra, Rn, Pb); and, 3) potential migration of redox-sensitive trace metals (e.g., Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, V), metalloids (e.g., As), and anions (e.g., sulfate). This review describes the geochemical processes that control roll-front uranium transport and fate in groundwater systems, identifies potential aquifer vulnerabilities to ISR operations, identifies

  16. REE geochemical characteristics of the No. 302 uranium deposit in northern Guangdong, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The No. 302 uranium deposit, located in Guangdong Province, is a typical granite-type uranium ore deposit. REE geochemical characteristics of the wall rocks, pitchblende, altered rocks, calcite and fluorite from this deposit have been systematically studied in this paper. The result showed that the alkali-metasomatic granites and other altered rocks have the same REE distribution patterns as Indosinian granites. It is indicated that the hydrothermal ore-forming solution had altered the Indosinian granites, and ore-forming materials may directly originate from the Indosinian granites. Calcite and fluorite of different stages are the products derived from the same source but different stages. The evolution and degassing of the mineralizing solution might induce LREE enrichment to varying degree. Mantle fluid and a large volume of mineralizer may be the crucial factors controlling uranium mineralization, and the hydrothermal solution with mineralizer played an important role in U transport and concentration. Meanwhile, the degassing of CO2 might promote U and REE precipitation.

  17. Identification of Uranyl Minerals Using Oxygen K-Edge X Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Jesse D.; Bowden, Mark E.; Resch, Charles T.; Smith, Steven C.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Eiden, Gregory C.; Duffin, Andrew M.


    Uranium analysis is consistently needed throughout the fuel cycle, from mining to fuel fabrication to environmental monitoring. Although most of the world’s uranium is immobilized as pitchblende or uraninite, there exists a plethora of secondary uranium minerals, nearly all of which contain the uranyl cation. Analysis of uranyl compounds can provide clues as to a sample’s facility of origin and chemical history. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is one technique that could enhance our ability to identify uranium minerals. Although there is limited chemical information to be gained from the uranium X-ray absorption edges, recent studies have successfully used ligand NEXAFS to study the physical chemistry of various uranium compounds. This study extends the use of ligand NEXAFS to analyze a suite of uranium minerals. We find that major classes of uranyl compounds (carbonate, oxyhydroxide, silicate, and phosphate) exhibit characteristic lineshapes in the oxygen K-edge absorption spectra. As a result, this work establishes a library of reference spectra that can be used to classify unknown uranyl minerals.

  18. Las mineralizaciones de uranio en las rocas volcánicas de Macusani. Puno (Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arribas, A.


    Full Text Available The Macusani U deposits, located 150 km. NNW of the Titicaca lake, in Perú, are characterized by certain petrological, mineralogical and tectonic features which make them a unique type of U mineralization among those normally associated with pyroclastic rocks. These features can be outlined as follows: l. The U minerals occur almost exclusively in the upper levels of the volcanic pile. 2. The host rocks, Plio-Quatemaryi,gnimbrites of rhyolitic to rhyodacitic composition, consist of quartz, sanidine, oligoclase and biotite, and occasionally muscovite and andalusite. These minerals occur within a partially devitrified g1assy matrix that contains numerous xenoliths of pelitic material. 3. Biotite, smoky quartz and andalusite are specially abundant in the U-bearing tuffaceous layers.
    4. The ore minerals consist of massive pitchblende and very scarce Fe sulphides, Due to the intense weathering, gummites and secondary U minerals, mainly phosphates and silicates, predominate in the outcrops and mining works.
    5. The pitchblende fills fractures which range from a few centimeters to several meters in length, and from less than 1 mm. to 10 cm. in width. Some of these fractures are subvertical and due to contraction, and coincide with the columnar jointing of the ignimbrites. Others are subhorizontal and parallel to a conjugated, ductile shear joint system which was developed by the compaction and adjustment of the competent layers which host the U mineralizations.
    According to these features, a preliminary model to explain the origin of this particular type of U deposits is proposed in this paper.

    Los caracteres petrográficos, mineralógicos y tectónicos de los indicios uraníferos de Macusani, situados 150 kilómetros al NNW del lago Titicaca, en Perú, hacen de estas mineralizaciones un caso único entre los yacimientos de U asociados con rocas piroclásticas. Así los estudios llevados a cabo demuestran que:
    1. Los

  19. Paragénesis mineral del depósito tipo five element Purísima-Rumicruz, Jujuy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano López


    pitchblende. Vein are hosted by folded interbeddded black shales and sandstones of Acoite Formation. Veins have breccia texture with multiple stage of re-brecciation. The hipogene alteration is weak or absent, however oxidation and supergene enrichment is strong. Overgrowths, replaces, mirmequitic textures, and crystal corrosion are the more frequent mineral textures. The paragenetic sequence shows several stages, the first stage is sulfide rich with high concentration of Cu and Pb with quartz and carbonates, the second records sulfarsenides and scarce pitchblende, with carbonates; the third is copper iron rich sulfides with carbonates and late stage barite. The fourth stage is characterized by supergene enrichment that produced covellite and, finally, the fifth stage consist of malachite, azurite, iron oxides and calcite in thin veinlets and as open spaces infill. This mineralogical assemblage and the paragenetic sequence allow classifying it as a Five Element Deposit.

  20. Formation of albitite-hosted uranium within IOCG systems: the Southern Breccia, Great Bear magmatic zone, Northwest Territories, Canada (United States)

    Montreuil, Jean-François; Corriveau, Louise; Potter, Eric G.


    Uranium and polymetallic U mineralization hosted within brecciated albitites occurs one kilometer south of the magnetite-rich Au-Co-Bi-Cu NICO deposit in the southern Great Bear magmatic zone (GBMZ), Canada. Concentrations up to 1 wt% U are distributed throughout a 3 by 0.5 km albitization corridor defined as the Southern Breccia zone. Two distinct U mineralization events are observed. Primary uraninite precipitated with or without pyrite-chalcopyrite ± molybdenite within magnetite-ilmenite-biotite-K-feldspar-altered breccias during high-temperature potassic-iron alteration. Subsequently, pitchblende precipitated in earthy hematite-specular hematite-chlorite veins associated with a low-temperature iron-magnesium alteration. The uraninite-bearing mineralization postdates sodic (albite) and more localized high-temperature potassic-iron (biotite-magnetite ± K-feldspar) alteration yet predates potassic (K-feldspar), boron (tourmaline) and potassic-iron-magnesium (hematite ± K-feldspar ± chlorite) alteration. The Southern Breccia zone shares attributes of the Valhalla (Australia) and Lagoa Real (Brazil) albitite-hosted U deposits but contains greater iron oxide contents and lower contents of riebeckite and carbonates. Potassium, Ni, and Th are also enriched whereas Zr and Sr are depleted with respect to the aforementioned albitite-hosted U deposits. Field relationships, geochemical signatures and available U-Pb dates on pre-, syn- and post-mineralization intrusions place the development of the Southern Breccia and the NICO deposit as part of a single iron oxide alkali-altered (IOAA) system. In addition, this case example illustrates that albitite-hosted U deposits can form in albitization zones that predate base and precious metal ore zones in a single IOAA system and become traps for U and multiple metals once the tectonic regime favors fluid mixing and oxidation-reduction reactions.

  1. Remediation and Recycling of Linde FUSRAP Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, P. W.; Franz, J. P.; Rehmann, M. R.


    During World War II, the Manhattan Engineering District (MED) utilized facilities in the Buffalo, New York area to extract natural uranium from uranium-bearing ores. The Linde property is one of several properties within the Tonawanda, New York Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) site, which includes Linde, Ashland 1, Ashland 2, and Seaway. Union Carbide Corporation's Linde Division was placed under contract with the Manhattan Engineering District (MED) from 1942 to 1946 to extract uranium from seven different ore sources: four African pitchblende ores and three domestic ores. Over the years, erosion and weathering have spread contamination from the residuals handled and disposed of at Linde to adjacent soils. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) negotiated a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) governing remediation of the Linde property. In Fiscal Year (FY) 1998, Congress transferred cleanup management responsibility for the sites in the FUSRAP program, including the Linde Site, from the DOE to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), with the charge to commence cleanup promptly. All actions by the USACE at the Linde Site are being conducted subject to the administrative, procedural, and regulatory provisions of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the existing FFA. USACE issued a Proposed Plan for the Linde Property in 1999 and a Final Record of Decision (ROD) in 2000. USACE worked with the local community near the Tonawanda site, and after considering public comment, selected the remedy calling for removing soils that exceed the site-specific cleanup standard, and transporting the contaminated material to off-site locations. The selected remedy is protective of human health and the environment, complies with Federal and State requirements, and meets commitments to the community.

  2. 华南某花岗岩型铀矿床成矿机理的铀铅同位素体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李耀菘; 李喜斌


    The uranium deposit studied in this paper occurs in a Precambrian (Xuefengian)granite batholith. The emplacement age of the granite is 760 m.y. The average content of uranium in the granite is 7 ppm, but the yield of leachsd U is higher With an average of about 33.8%. The granitic rocks, contain; Some uraninite. Uranium mineralization mainly takes the form of siliceous veins With an age of 47 m.y. K-feldspar. present in the granite and pyrite associated with pitchblende were massspectrometrically analyzed for Pb isotopic compositious, characterized by anomalous lead. A reasonably linear array can be seen on the 207Pb/206Pb--205Pb/204Pb plot, implying a genetic connection between the rock and the ore, and a derivation of rock-forming materials from. a uranium-rich source. According to the continuous-growth model for anomalous lead, evolution, two isochrons give the. ages-of about 764 m.y. and 708 m.y.for ore-forming materials, close to the emplacement age of .the granite batholith. This indicates that the ore-forming materials came from the granite batholith. Eight granite samples collected from the mining .area were analyzed, but no uranium-lead ages could be worked out because of the pregressive destruction of the closed U-Pb isotopic system since granite emplacement, which resulted in the loss of uranium(78%). It can be imagined that in the period of continental weathering the surface water would infiltrate downwards, leaching out large amounts of uranium from the granitic rocks to form infiltration solution. The solution was heated at great depth and then found its way upwards, on which it dissolved constantly U from the rocks to form the uranium deposit.

  3. Body and risk: cultural ambivalence towards radioactivity through the history of two protagonists. (United States)

    Laporta, T; Zompatori, M; Guerci, L


    Two women with profoundly different backgrounds were brought together in a destiny that saw their paths cross and join in the discovery of radioactivity: Marie Curie and Blanche Wittman. The former was one of the greatest women scientists of all time, the only woman to have won the Nobel Prize for science. Noted for her extraordinary humanitarian spirit, and despite scandal over an affair that saw her hounded by journalists, she dedicated most of her life to scientific research. The latter passed into history as the "Queen of Hysterics" during her hospitalisation in the famous Parisian asylum Pitié Salpêtrière. After her recovery, she became a close assistant of Marie Curie in the extraction of radium from pitchblende, until her death sixteen years of toil later. The discovery of radioactivity was the common denominator underlying the vicissitudes of their lives, the same radioactivity that was so acclaimed and of such incredible diagnostic and therapeutic potential while at the same time so underrated in the everyday life of the time that disregarded, almost disparagingly, the deleterious biologic effects it was capable of provoking. At the beginning of the twentieth century, those effects were in fact often underestimated or scarcely considered, and it was only after World War II that there came an awareness of the ambiguous properties of ionising radiation. After numerous studies on radiation exposure, much of the current debate concerns the possible effects of exposure to small doses, such as those delivered in most radiological examinations. The theories proposed include the unorthodox theory of hormesis, which requires careful reevaluation. Much light has been shed on radiology since the time of Blanche and Marie, but there still remain many shadows to dispel, and this can only be done by serious and constant scientific commitment.

  4. Variation in the terrestrial isotopic composition and atomic weight of argon (United States)

    Böhlke, John Karl


    The isotopic composition and atomic weight of argon (Ar) are variable in terrestrial materials. Those variations are a source of uncertainty in the assignment of standard properties for Ar, but they provide useful information in many areas of science. Variations in the stable isotopic composition and atomic weight of Ar are caused by several different processes, including (1) isotope production from other elements by radioactive decay (radiogenic isotopes) or other nuclear transformations (e.g., nucleogenic isotopes), and (2) isotopic fractionation by physical-chemical processes such as diffusion or phase equilibria. Physical-chemical processes cause correlated mass-dependent variations in the Ar isotope-amount ratios (40Ar/36Ar, 38Ar/36Ar), whereas nuclear transformation processes cause non-mass-dependent variations. While atmospheric Ar can serve as an abundant and homogeneous isotopic reference, deviations from the atmospheric isotopic ratios in other Ar occurrences limit the precision with which a standard atomic weight can be given for Ar. Published data indicate variation of Ar atomic weights in normal terrestrial materials between about 39.7931 and 39.9624. The upper bound of this interval is given by the atomic mass of 40Ar, as some samples contain almost pure radiogenic 40Ar. The lower bound is derived from analyses of pitchblende (uranium mineral) containing large amounts of nucleogenic 36Ar and 38Ar. Within this interval, measurements of different isotope ratios (40Ar/36Ar or 38Ar/36Ar) at various levels of precision are widely used for studies in geochronology, water–rock interaction, atmospheric evolution, and other fields.

  5. 新疆雪米斯坦火山岩带白杨河铍铀矿床地质特征%Geological characteristics of Baiyanghe Beryllium- Uranium deposits in Xuemisitan volcanic belt, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王谋; 李晓峰; 王果; 李彦龙; 师志龙; 鲁克改


    Baiyanghe beryllium-uranium deposits is in the western of Xuemisitan volcanic,the main orebody exists in the contact zone of granite porphyry and volcanic lava or pyroclastic ( sedimentary) rocks which is in the upper devonian and the lower carboniferous. The granite porphyry has high acidity and high alkalinity. Beryllium - uranium ore bodies present themselves in bedded, and the I orebody is largest. Main beryllium mineral is bertrandite and main uranium mineral is pitchblende. The beryllium-uranium bodies are associated with hematitization and fluoritization. By analyzing and contrasting Spor Mountain beryllium -uranium deposits, This paper suggest that beryllium - uranium bodies is affected by contact zone structural, the essential factors of forming rich and big beryllium -uranium bodies are multi hydrothermal activity and multiphase superposition mineralization.%白杨河铍铀矿床位于雪米斯坦火山岩带西段,主矿体赋存于花岗斑岩与上泥盆统、下石炭统火山熔岩、火山碎屑(沉积)岩的接触带部位,花岗斑岩属酸度高、碱度大的富硅富碱斑岩体.铍铀矿体呈层状,其中以Ⅰ矿体规模最大,矿区内含铍矿物主要为羟硅铍石,铀矿物主要为沥青铀矿,铍铀矿体与赤铁矿化、萤石化关系密切.通过分析及对比斯波山铍铀矿床,认为接触带构造控制了主铍铀矿体的产出,多期热液活动和矿化叠加是产生富大矿体的必要因素.

  6. C, O, Sr and Nd isotope systematics of carbonates of Papaghni sub-basin, Andhra Pradesh, India: Implications for genesis of carbonate-hosted stratiform uranium mineralisation and geodynamic evolution of the Cuddapah basin (United States)

    Absar, Nurul; Nizamudheen, B. M.; Augustine, Sminto; Managave, Shreyas; Balakrishnan, S.


    The Cuddapah basin (CB) is one of a series of Proterozoic basins that overlie the Archaean cratons of India, and contains a unique stratiform carbonate-hosted uranium mineralisation. In the present work, we discuss stable (C, O) and radiogenic (Nd, Sr) isotope systematics of carbonates of the Papaghni sub-basin in order to understand uranium ore forming processes and geodynamic evolution of the CB. Uranium mineralised dolomites (UMDs) of the basal Vempalle Formation show a significantly lighter (~ 1.5‰) C-isotope signature compared to that of open-marine stromatolitic sub-tidal facies, suggesting input of isotopically lighter carbon through in situ remineralisation of organic matter (OM). This implies deposition in a hydrologically-restricted, redox-stratified lagoonal basin wherein exchange with open oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was limited. Persistent bottom water anoxia was created and maintained through consumption of dissolved oxygen (DO) by decaying OM produced in oxidised surface water zone. Significantly more radiogenic εNd(t) of UMD (- 6.31 ± 0.54) compared to that of Dharwar upper crust (- 8.64 ± 3.11) indicates that dissolved constituents did not originate from the Dharwar craton, rather were derived from more juvenile exotic sources - possibly from a continental arc. Dissolved uranyl ions (U+ 6) were introduced to the basin through fluvial run-off and were reduced to immobile uranous ions (U+ 4) at the redox interface resulting in precipitation of pitchblende and coffinite. Carbonate horizons of upper Vempalle Formation and Tadpatri Formation show progressively more radiogenic Nd isotope compositions signifying increased juvenile arc contribution to the Papaghni sub-basin through time, which is also corroborated by the presence of younger zircons (1923 ± 22 Ma) in Pulivendla quartzites. We propose that the Papaghni sub-basin opened as a back-arc extensional basin at ~ 2 Ga as a result of westerly-directed subduction of oceanic crust

  7. The origin of the Avram Iancu U-Ni-Co-Bi-As mineralization, Băiţa (Bihor) metallogenic district, Bihor Mts., Romania (United States)

    Zajzon, Norbert; Szentpéteri, Krisztián; Szakáll, Sándor; Kristály, Ferenc


    The Băiţa metallogenic district in the Bihor Mountains is a historically important mining area in Romania. Uranium mining took place between 1952 and 1998 from various deposits, but very little is known about the geology and mineralogy of these deposits. In this paper, we describe geology and mineralogy of uranium mineralization of the Avram Iancu uranium mine from waste dump samples collected before complete remediation of the site. Texturally and mineralogically complex assemblages of nickeline, cobaltite-gersdorffite solid solution, native Bi, Bi-sulfosalts, molybdenite, and pyrite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite occur with uraninite, "pitchblende," and brannerite in most of the ore samples. The association of nickel, cobalt, and arsenic with uranium is reminiscent of five-element association of vein type U-Ni-Co-Bi-As deposits; however, the Avram Iancu ores appear to be more replacement-type stratiform/stratabound. Avram Iancu ore samples contain multistage complex, skarn, uranium sulfide, arsenide assemblages that can be interpreted to have been formed in the retrograde cooling stages of the skarn hydrothermal system. This mineralizing system may have built-up along Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene "Banatite" intrusions of diorite-to-granite composition. The intrusions crosscut the underlying uraniferous Permian formations in the stacked NW-verging Biharia Nappe System. The mineralization forms stacked, multilayer replacement horizons, along carbonate-rich lithologies within the metavolcanic (tuffaceous) Muncel Series. Mineral paragenesis and some mineral chemistry suggest moderate-to-high uranium sulfide stage along stratigraphically controlled replacement zones and minor veins. Uranium minerals formed abundantly in this early stage and include botryoidal, sooty and euhedral uraninite, brannerite, and coffinite. Later and/or lower-temperature mineral assemblages include heterogeneous, complexly zoned arsenide-sulfarsenide solid solutions associated with minute but

  8. Alteration and vein mineralization, Schwartzwalder uranium deposit, Front Range, Colorado (United States)

    Wallace, Alan R.


    and a consequent increase in pH. Uranium was released with destruction of the uranyl complexes; it was subsequently reduced by aqueous sulfur species, thereby leading to the precipitation of pitchblende.

  9. 238U, and its decay products, in grasses from an abandoned uranium mine (United States)

    Childs, Edgar; Maskall, John; Millward, Geoffrey


    Bioaccumulation of radioactive contaminants by plants is of concern particularly where the sward is an essential part of the diet of ruminants. The abandoned South Terras uranium mine, south west England, had primary deposits of uraninite (UO2) and pitchblende (U3O8), which contained up to 30% uranium. When the mine was active uranium and radium were extracted but following closure it was abandoned without remediation. Waste rock and gangue, consisting of inefficiently processed minerals, were spread around the site, including a field where ruminants are grazed. Here we report the activity concentrations of 238U, 235U 214,210Pb, and the concentrations of selected metals in the soils, roots and leaves of grasses taken from the contaminated field. Soil samples were collected at the surface, and at 30 cm depth, using an auger along a 10-point transect in the field from the foot of a waste heap. Whole, individual grass plants were removed with a spade, ensuring that their roots were intact. The soils and roots and grass leaves were freeze-dried. Activity concentrations of the radionuclides were determined by gamma spectroscopy, following 30 days incubation for development of secular equilibrium. Dried soils, roots and grasses were also digested in aqua regia and the concentrations of elements determined by ICP techniques. Maximum activity concentrations of 238U, 235U, 214Pb and 210Pb surface soils were 63,300, 4,510, 23,300 and 49,400 Bq kg-1, respectively. The mean 238U:235U ratio was 11.8 ± 1.8, an order of magnitude lower than the natural value of 138, indicating disequilibrium within the decay chain due to mineral processing. Radionuclides in the roots had 5 times lower concentration and only grass leaves in the vicinity of the waste heap had measureable values. The mean soil to root transfer factor for 238U was 36%, the mean root to leaf was 3% and overall only 0.7% of 238U was transferred from the soil to the leaves. The roots contained 0.8% iron, possibly as

  10. Solubility properties of synthetic and natural meta-torbernite (United States)

    Cretaz, Fanny; Szenknect, Stéphanie; Clavier, Nicolas; Vitorge, Pierre; Mesbah, Adel; Descostes, Michael; Poinssot, Christophe; Dacheux, Nicolas


    Meta-torbernite, Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2ṡ8H2O, is one of the most common secondary minerals resulting from the alteration of pitchblende. The determination of the thermodynamic data associated to this phase appears to be a crucial step toward the understanding the origin of uranium deposits or to forecast the fate and transport of uranium in natural media. A parallel approach based on the study of both synthetic and natural samples of meta-torbernite (H3O)0.4Cu0.8(UO2)2(PO4)2ṡ7.6H2O was set up to evaluate its solubility constant. The two solids were first thoroughly characterized and compared by means of XRD, SEM, X-EDS analyses, Raman spectroscopy and BET measurements. The solubility constant was then determined in both under- and supersaturated conditions: the obtained value appeared close to logKs,0°(298 K) = -52.9 ± 0.1 whatever the type of experiment and the sample considered. The joint determination of Gibbs free energy (ΔRG°(298 K) = 300 ± 2 kJ mol-1) then allowed the calculation of ΔRH°(298 K) = 40 ± 3 kJ mol-1 and ΔRS°(298 K) = -879 ± 7 J mol-1 K-1. From these values, the thermodynamic data associated with the formation of meta-torbernite (H3O)0.4Cu0.8(UO2)2(PO4)2ṡ7.6H2O were also evaluated and found to be consistent with those previously obtained by calorimetry, showing the reliability of the method developed in this work. Finally, the obtained data were implemented in a calculation code to determine the conditions of meta-torbernite formation in environmental conditions typical of a former mining site. SI=log({Q}/{Ks}) with Q=∏i( where νi is the stoichiometric coefficient (algebraic value) of species i and ai the nonequilibrium activity of i.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J.


    The ore pitchblende was discovered in the 1750's near Joachimstal in what is now the Czech Republic. Used as a colorant in glazes, uranium was identified in 1789 as the active ingredient by chemist Martin Klaproth. In 1896, French physicist Henri Becquerel studied uranium minerals as part of his investigations into the phenomenon of fluorescence. He discovered a strange energy emanating from the material which he dubbed 'rayons uranique.' Unable to explain the origins of this energy, he set the problem aside. About two years later, a young Polish graduate student was looking for a project for her dissertation. Marie Sklodowska Curie, working with her husband Pierre, picked up on Becquerel's work and, in the course of seeking out more information on uranium, discovered two new elements (polonium and radium) which exhibited the same phenomenon, but were even more powerful. The Curies recognized the energy, which they now called 'radioactivity,' as something very new, requiring a new interpretation, new science. This discovery led to what some view as the 'golden age of nuclear science' (1895-1945) when countries throughout Europe devoted large resources to understand the properties and potential of this material. By World War II, the potential to harness this energy for a destructive device had been recognized and by 1939, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman showed that fission not only released a lot of energy but that it also released additional neutrons which could cause fission in other uranium nuclei leading to a self-sustaining chain reaction and an enormous release of energy. This suggestion was soon confirmed experimentally by other scientists and the race to develop an atomic bomb was on. The rest of the development history which lead to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 is well chronicled. After World War II, development of more powerful weapons systems by the United States and the Soviet Union continued to

  12. Radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela (United States)

    Wyant, Donald G.; Sharp, William N.; Rodriguez, Carlos Ponte


    high-grade hydrothermal pitchblende deposits; and highly possible for small, medium- to high-grade despots of carnotite-or copper-uranium bearing sandstone. Recommendations for the Venezuelan uranium program include 1) the systematic collection of a mass general radiometric data by examining sample collections, expanding the gamma-ray program, encouraging the use of Geiger counter by field geologists, and by enlisting the aid of the general public; 2) , the examination of specific areas or localities, chosen on the basis of geologic favorability from the results of the amassing of data, or obtained by hints and rumors; 3), the organization of a unit within the Direccion Tecnica de Geologica to direct, collection, and collate metric data. It is emphasized that to be most fruitful the program requires the application of sounds and imaginative geologic theory.

  13. Researches on the Quantitative Calculation of Uranium Origin and the Lead Isotope Compositions of Precambrian Terrains in the Anshan-Benxi Area%鞍本地区早前寒武纪地质体铅同位素组成及铀源条件定量计算方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩军; 李林强; 李月湘; 夏毓亮


    This paper studied and compared lead isotope compositions among the different terrains, such as granites,metal deposits, and metamorphic rocks in the Anshan-Benxi area. Figure prospective plumbotectonics model, two stage common lead H-H model, and three stage model were applied to estimate the correspondent isotopic ages.The results indicated that the correspondent isotopic ages are from 2000Ma to 1600Ma. These isotope ages are similar to that of pitchblende. The lead isotope compositions correspond to the different geological settings. The abnormally high compositions of radioactive lead in the Lianshanguan granites implicited that they rich of uranium. The paleoproterozoic granite source and the metal deposit regions, with normal ore lead isotope compositions originated mainly from the metamorphic rocks of the Liaohe group, and both of them underwent the synchronized tectonic and granites remelting events in the early paleoproterozoic. The primitive uranium lost by the granitic rocks results in the uranium metallogenetic zone of the Lianshanguan area.%本文对比了鞍本地区前寒武纪铅一锌一银矿区和铀矿区的硫化物矿石和花岗岩长石Pb同位素组成,分别用矿石铅二阶段普通铅法、铅构造模式图解和全岩铅同位素组成三阶段拟合法计算了年龄和全岩原始铀含量.结果表明,矿石铅和长石铅模式年龄约为2000 Ma,在铅构造模式图上投影于2000~1600 Ma间,花岗岩和辽河群全岩拟合年龄为2000~1800 Ma;铅同位素组成显示铅-锌-银来自早元古代辽河群地层,连山关地区明显为放射性成因Pb同位素组成,源于富铀花岗岩.连山关矿石铅年龄和全岩三阶段年龄与该区铀矿床沥青铀矿的年龄基本一致;花岗岩原始铀的得失计算表明,该地区不同地质体均经历了约2000~1800 Ma花岗岩重熔改造,花岗质岩石发生了铀的丢失,是连山关地区铀矿的主要来源.

  14. Uranium Occurrences and Its Mineral Combination Characteristics in Uranium Deposit No.302%302铀矿床矿石中铀的存在形式及矿物组合特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵奇峰; 夏菲; 潘家永; 陈黎明; 林坤


    Electronic probe analysis indicated that uranium in uranium deposit No.302 mainly existed as independent uranium minerals and minors occurred as isomorphism of thorium in zircon and rutile and other accessory minerals.The independent uranium ore minearal mainly as pitchblende,some as coffinG ite,uranothorite, brannerite and the second uranium minerals of uranophane, autunite, chalcolite. The ore consist of five kind mineral combination,the diversity of uranium ore mineral combination reG flects the long term and complex activity of hydrothermal fluid in the deposit,which also indicate the multiphases and variety of fluid composition and forming environment in hydrothermal activity. Alteration related with uranium mineralization are siliconization,hematization,purple black fluoritizaG tion,pyritization,calcitization,sericitization and chloritization,etc.%电子探针分析显示,302铀矿床矿石中铀的存在形式以独立铀矿物为主,少量呈类质同像赋存于钍石、锆石及金红石等副矿物之中。独立铀矿物以沥青铀矿为主,其次有铀石、铀钍石、钛铀矿等原生铀矿物和硅钙铀矿、钙铀云母、铜铀云母等次生铀矿物。铀矿石具有5种不同的矿物组合,这种矿物组合的多样性,反映了该矿床热液流体活动的长期性和复杂性,即成矿热液流体作用具有多阶段性,以及热液流体组成和成矿环境的多变性。与铀矿化相关的蚀变有硅化、赤铁矿化、紫黑色萤石化、黄铁矿化、方解石化、绢云母化及绿泥石化等。

  15. 江西相山铀矿田居隆庵矿床钍元素地球化学特征研究%Research on Geochemical Characteristics of Thorium for Julong,an Deposit, Xiangshan Ore Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟艳宁; 范洪海


      居隆庵矿床是江西相山铀矿田西部的一个大型铀-钍混合矿床,通过对一系列蚀变(围岩)及矿化样品的元素地球化学分析,详细讨论了与钍矿化有关的主量及微量元素的特征.钍元素富集的样品中,主量元素的总体特点是富钙、富磷,且Na2O>K2O.在早期碱交代阶段,往往只形成单铀型矿化,而钍矿化主要形成于铀-萤石、水云母化阶段.蚀变和矿化样品的稀土元素分配形式不同,钍矿化与稀土元素特别是重稀土元素高度相关,微量元素Re,Y,Se,Pb与钍矿化高度相关,揭示钍矿化形成与金属硫化物及磷钇矿等磷酸盐密切相关.%Julong,an is a large-sized mixed uranium and thorium deposit in the western Xiangshan ore field, Jiangxi Province. On the basis of systematic geochemical analysis, this paper discusses distribution characteristics of both trace and major elements associated with thorium mineralization in detail. The major elements of Th-rich samples are rich in calcium and phosphorus, and characterized by Na2O>K2O. The mono-uranium mineralization is always developed in the early stage of alkali alteration, and the thorium mineralization is mainly concentrated in the later stage of pitchblende-fluorite-hydromica alteration halo. The distribution patterns of rare earth elements in wall rocks and mineralized samples are different. The thorium mineralization is highly associated with rare earth elements, especially with the heavy ones. Trace elements such as Re, Y, Se, Lu are highly correlated with thorium mineralization due to formation of associated sulfides and phosphates, such as xenotime.

  16. El proyecto de El Berrocal: síntesis preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardillo, J.


    Full Text Available El Berrocal is an international research project on the natural radionuclide migration in a fissured granitic environment. This project is being carried out in the El Berrocal zone, north of the village of Nombela (Toledo. The gelogical formation studied is a granitic pluton with an epithermal vein-type mineralization comprising quartz, sphalerite, pyrite and chalcopyrite; and pitchblende, pyrite, carbonates and barite. The activities of the project are focused on the structural, lithological, geochemical, hydrochemical and hydrogeological aspects of the granite-U mineralization system, in order to establish a migration model of the natural radionuclides of the environment. The concurrence of the tectonic, hydrothermal and supergenic processes has originated several U remobilizations during the deuteric, hydrothermal and supergenic alteration phases, which affected the system. These phases are responsible of the mineralogical species and present distribution of this element within the system. The Th remobilization is much more limited, due to its different geochemical behavior. The present water-rock interaction processes account for the different types of water existing in the system, which are sulphatic, in the shallowest zones, and calcium bicarbonated in the deepest. The U contents in these waters vary from 1 to 100 ppb. The hydrogeology of the zone is controlled, at a local scale, by the topography and the fracture network, and the mineralized quartz dyke plays a major role on the groundwater flow. The isotopic analyses of the U and Th series in the infill materials seem to indicate recent sorption-desorption U processes and coprecipitation with carbonates.«El Berrocal», es un proyecto internacional de investigación sobre la migración de radionucleidos naturales en un medio granítico fisurado. Este proyecto se está desarrollando en la zona de El Berrocal, situada al norte de Nombela (Toledo, en un plutón granítico con una

  17. A new genetic interpretation for the Caotaobei uranium deposit associated with the shoshonitic volcanic rocks in the Hecaokeng ore field, southern Jiangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Sheng Yang


    Full Text Available Combined with in-situ laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS zircon UPb geochronology, published and unpublished literature on the Caotaobei uranium deposit in southern Jiangxi province, China, is re-examined to provide an improved understanding of the origin of the main ore (103 Ma. The Caotaobei deposit lies in the Hecaokeng ore field and is currently one of China's largest, volcanic-related uranium producers. Unlike commonly known volcanogenic uranium deposits throughout the world, it is spatially associated with intermediate lavas with a shoshonitic composition. Uranium mineralization (pitchblende occurs predominantly as veinlets, disseminations, and massive ores, hosted by the cryptoexplosive breccias rimming the Caotaobei crater. Zircons from one latite define four distinct 206Pb/238U age groups at 220–235 Ma (Triassic, 188 Ma (Early Jurassic, 131–137 Ma (Early Cretaceous, and 97–103 Ma (Early-Late Cretaceous transition, hereafter termed mid-Cretaceous. The integrated age (134 ± 2 Ma of Early Cretaceous zircons (group III is interpreted as representing the time of lava emplacement. The age data, together with the re-examination of literature, does not definitively support a volcanogenic origin for the generation of the deposit, which was proposed by the previous workers based mainly on the close spatial relationship and the age similarity between the main ore and volcanic lavas. Drill core and grade-control data reveal that rich concentrations of primary uranium ore are common around the granite porphyry dikes cutting the lavas, and that the cryptoexplosive breccias away from the dikes are barren or unmineralized. These observations indicate that the emplacement of the granite porphyries exerts a fundamental control on ore distribution and thus a genetic link exists between main-stage uranium mineralization and the intrusions of the dikes. Zircon overgrowths of mid-Cretaceous age (99.6

  18. Review and interpretation of previous work and new data on the hydrogeology of the Schwartzwalder Uranium Mine and vicinity, Jefferson County, Colorado (United States)

    Caine, Jonathan Saul; Johnson, Raymond H.; Wild, Emily C.


    The Schwartzwalder deposit is the largest known vein type uranium deposit in the United States. Located about eight miles northwest of Golden, Colorado it occurs in Proterozoic metamorphic rocks and was formed by hydrothermal fluid flow, mineralization, and deformation during the Laramide Orogeny. A complex brittle fault zone hosts the deposit comprising locally brecciated carbonate, oxide, and sulfide minerals. Mining of pitchblende, the primary ore mineral, began in 1953 and an extensive network of underground workings was developed. Mine dewatering, treatment of the effluent and its discharge into the adjacent Ralston Creek was done under State permit from about 1990 through about 2008. Mining and dewatering ceased in 2000 and natural groundwater rebound has filled the mine workings to a current elevation that is above Ralston Creek but that is still below the lowest ground level adit. Water in the 'mine pool' has concentrations of dissolved uranium in excess of 1,000 times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard of 30 milligrams per liter. Other dissolved constituents such as molybdenum, radium, and sulfate are also present in anomalously high concentrations. Ralston Creek flows in a narrow valley containing Quaternary alluvium predominantly derived from weathering of crystalline bedrock including local mineralized rock. Just upstream of the mine site, two capped and unsaturated waste rock piles with high radioactivity sit on an alluvial terrace. As Ralston Creek flows past the mine site, a host of dissolved metal concentrations increase. Ralston Creek eventually discharges into Ralston Reservoir about 2.5 miles downstream. Because of highly elevated uranium concentrations, the State of Colorado issued an enforcement action against the mine permit holder requiring renewed collection and treatment of alluvial groundwater. As part of planned mine reclamation, abundant data were collected and compiled into a report by Wyman and Effner

  19. Solubility properties of synthetic and natural meta-torbernite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cretaz, Fanny [ICSM UMR 5257 CNRS/CEA/UM2/ENCSM, Site de Marcoule – Bât 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Cèze (France); Szenknect, Stéphanie, E-mail: [ICSM UMR 5257 CNRS/CEA/UM2/ENCSM, Site de Marcoule – Bât 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Cèze (France); Clavier, Nicolas [ICSM UMR 5257 CNRS/CEA/UM2/ENCSM, Site de Marcoule – Bât 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Cèze (France); Vitorge, Pierre [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, DPC/SECR, Site de Saclay, Bât 391, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mesbah, Adel [ICSM UMR 5257 CNRS/CEA/UM2/ENCSM, Site de Marcoule – Bât 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Cèze (France); Descostes, Michael [AREVA Mines/DEXP/DR and D-projet Envir-Mines, La Défense, 92084 Paris (France); Poinssot, Christophe [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, DRCP/DIR, CEA Marcoule – Bât 400, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Cèze (France); Dacheux, Nicolas [ICSM UMR 5257 CNRS/CEA/UM2/ENCSM, Site de Marcoule – Bât 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Cèze (France)


    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Solubility of synthesized meta-torbernite (H{sub 3}O){sub 0.4}Cu{sub 0.8}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}⋅7.6H{sub 2}O. •Solubility constant and thermodynamic data of formation were determined. •Comparison with a natural sample: same steady state reached for both samples. •Simulations performed under environmentally relevant conditions using the thermodynamic data obtained. -- Abstract: Meta-torbernite, Cu(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}⋅8H{sub 2}O, is one of the most common secondary minerals resulting from the alteration of pitchblende. The determination of the thermodynamic data associated to this phase appears to be a crucial step toward the understanding the origin of uranium deposits or to forecast the fate and transport of uranium in natural media. A parallel approach based on the study of both synthetic and natural samples of meta-torbernite (H{sub 3}O){sub 0.4}Cu{sub 0.8}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}⋅7.6H{sub 2}O was set up to evaluate its solubility constant. The two solids were first thoroughly characterized and compared by means of XRD, SEM, X-EDS analyses, Raman spectroscopy and BET measurements. The solubility constant was then determined in both under- and supersaturated conditions: the obtained value appeared close to logK{sub s,0}{sup °}(298 K) = −52.9 ± 0.1 whatever the type of experiment and the sample considered. The joint determination of Gibbs free energy (Δ{sub R}G°(298 K) = 300 ± 2 kJ mol{sup −1}) then allowed the calculation of Δ{sub R}H°(298 K) = 40 ± 3 kJ mol{sup −1} and Δ{sub R}S°(298 K) = −879 ± 7 J mol{sup −1} K{sup −1}. From these values, the thermodynamic data associated with the formation of meta-torbernite (H{sub 3}O){sub 0.4}Cu{sub 0.8}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}⋅7.6H{sub 2}O were also evaluated and found to be consistent with those previously obtained by calorimetry, showing the reliability of the method developed in

  20. Origen, transporte y deposición del uranio en los yacimientos en pizarras de la provincia de Salamanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arribas, A.


    Full Text Available The numerous U deposits occurring in the schist-graywacke complex (CEG of the Iberian Peninsula, characterized by the mineral association carbonates, pitchblende (coffinite, adularia and Fe sulphides, have both a considerable economic importance and a high metallogenic interest as their origin has not been convincingly explained yet. In fact, since 1959,these mineralizations have been successively attributed lo the concentration of U in fractured and brecciated zones of the schists due to one of these processes : magmatic, by transportation of U in hydrotermal fluids related to the evolution and emplacement of the Hercynian granites; supergenic , by the release of U from the Hercynian granites during the weathering and erosion processes which gave place to the Pliocene peneplain; segregation, by leachin, g of U from plutonic rocks under the effects of late- and /or post-Hercynian tectonic movements; and diffusion, by concentration of U from fertile metasediments by thermal diffusion or hydrothermal flow.
    In this paper, taking into account field and laboratory studies carried out recently in the FE mine, so far the most important Spanish U deposit of this kind, the above mentioned hypothesis are discussed and the main metallogenic features of the orebody are given, Among these, the most significant are: the high geochemica1 U content, 30 to 200 ppm, of the CEG carbonaceous slates prevalent in the area; the nature and alteration processes, chloritization and hematitization, of the host rocks; the radiometrie age of the pitchblende 37 to 57 m. y.; the low temperature mineral association; the peculiar gravitational textures of the ore minerals; the temperature and salinity of the fluid inc1usions of the carbonates, ranging from 230º to less than 70º C, and from 0 to 25% NaCl equiv , respectively; and the shallow tectonic activity giving place to the hydraulic fracturing and fault breccias controlling the ore deposition. Finally, he FE

  1. Cenozoic Tectonic Evolution and its Influence on Uranium Ore-forming Processes in the Xiazhuang Ore Field, Northern Guangdong Province%粤北下庄矿田新生代构造演化及其对铀成矿的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 赖中信; 张辉仁; 汤世凯; 杨坤光


    also provides a brief summary for the applications of the HPT to address various important geological and geophysical problems such as rheology and fracture mechanics of polyphase rocks, formation and extraction of partial melt, brittle-ductile transition, dynamic recrystallization and development of lattice preferred orientation, and seismic properties of deformed rocks. The recent installation of a HPT in the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, introduces to China a new high technology in the Earth Sciences, and promises to have a large positive impact on the experimental studies of structural geology, tectonics and geodynamics. 20. Oma) intermittent faulting and uplifting, Ⅲ(20.0 -2. 2Ma) frequent small scale hydrothermal activities. ESR ages of hydrothermal quartz and U-Pb ages of pitchblender from 331, 335, 336 uranium deposits demonstrate that the U mineralization took place no later than 60 Ma ± , which is consistent with the first stage deformation. The second and third stage deformation resulted in uplifting and frequent faulting. The NNE, NEE and the EW-trending structures exhibit chess-board pattern in horizontal and graben-like pattern vertically. The structures aggravated weathering, leaching and denudation processes, and finally destroyed the pre-exist metallogenic environment. Thus, study of the Cenozoic tectonic evolution may contribute to the understanding of the tectonic controls on the uranium ore forming processes.%粤北南岭地区是我国重要的花岗岩型铀矿产地,通过野外地质调查与构造变形研究,结合34件石英脉体电子自旋共振(ESR)测年研究,论述了粤北地区下庄矿田的新生代构造演化期次.构造变形研究与ESR年龄测定显示:新生代主要发生了三幕构造变形,第Ⅰ幕(65.5~55.0Ma)为地块的差异升降运动,断裂活动规模大;第Ⅱ幕(40.3~20.0Ma)为间歇性的升降运动,总体为上升趋势;第Ⅲ幕(20.0~2.2Ma)表现为断裂

  2. Alteration of uraniferous and native copper concretions in the Permian mudrocks of south Devon, United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milodowski, A.E.; Styles, M.T.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Kemp, S.J. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom)


    very variable, both from one sample to another and from one point on a sample to another. This study largely confirms the observations reported in the pilot study. The alteration of the copper is dominated by copper oxides. This the earliest alteration product observed and comprises principally cuprite (Cu{sub 2}O), with probable minor tenorite (CuO). The cuprite typically forms colloform layers on the copper surface, and localised lobate embayments or corrosion pits that 'eat' more deeply into the copper metal. Microchemical observations reveal evidence for the enrichment of copper in the mudstone matrix immediately adjacent to the altered copper sheets. The copper concentration drops from around 100% in the cuprite rims of the sheets down to around 1 wt % over a distance of about 20 gm from the altered sheets. With increasing distances away from the sheets there is a more gradual decrease in copper concentration over distances of 100-200 {mu}m to the local background level of the host rock - which may be as high as 2-3 wt % in some places but is generally of the order of 0. 1 wt % Cu{sub 2}0. The high copper concentration could be due to redistribution of copper from the corroded sheets. Alternatively, it could represent a diffusive 'halo' of copper enhancement around the original mineralised structure (bedding laminae or fracture) that formed at the same time as the copper sheets. In both cases, the observations indicate that diffusion occurred over distances of only a few hundreds of micro metres in the mudstone or siltstone matrix. The uraniferous 'fish-eye' concretions contain high concentration of uranium within their cores. Most of the uranium is concentrated in the outer edges of the dark vanadium-rich core of the concretion and subsequent concentric bands of vanadium enriched diffusion bands, and associated fin-like structures. Here, it is present largely as uranium silicate and subordinate uraninite (pitchblende), closely

  3. New nickel-uranium-arsenic mineral species from the oxidation zone of the Belorechenskoye deposit, Northern Caucasus, Russia. Pt. II. Dymkovite, Ni(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(As{sup 3+}O{sub 3}){sub 2}.7H{sub 2}O, a seelite-related arsenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekov, Igor V.; Bryzgalov, Igor A. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Faculty of Geology; Levitskiy, Viktor V. [Russian Minerals Co., Moscow (Russian Federation); Krivovichev, Sergey V.; Zolotarev, Andrey A. [St Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). Faculty of Geology; Chukanov, Nikita V. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zadov, Aleksandr E. [NPP ' ' Teplokhim' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)


    A new arsenite mineral species dymkovite, ideally Ni(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(As{sup 3+}O{sub 3}){sub 2}.7H{sub 2}O (IMA no. 2010-087), was found at the Belorechenskoye deposit, Adygea Republic, Northern Caucasus, Russia. It is a supergene mineral associated with rauchite, annabergite, and goethite in cavities of a dolomite vein with primary uraninite (pitchblende), nickeline, and gersdorffite. Dymkovite forms longprismatic, lath-shaped to acicular crystals (≤0.5 mm long, ≤0.05 mm thick), which are elongated along [010]. They are combined in sprays or open-work, chaotic groups up to 1.5 mm across; crusts up to 2 x 2 mm{sup 2} and up to 0.05-mm-thick also occur. Dymkovite crystals are transparent and bright yellow, whereas crusts are translucent and light yellow to light greenish-yellow. The luster is vitreous. The mineral is brittle, the Mohs' hardness is ca. 3. Cleavage was not observed. D{sub calc} is 3.806 g cm{sup -3}. Dymkovite is optically biaxial (-), α = 1.625(2), β = 1.735(5), γ = 1.745(3), 2V{sub meas} = 20(10) , 2V{sub calc.} = 32 . Dispersion is strong, r > v. Pleochroism is strong: X = very pale yellowish-green, Y ∼ Z = light greenish yellow. In the IR spectrum, bands of As{sup 3+}O{sub 3} anions are strong, whereas bands of As{sup 5+}O{sub 4} anions are very weak. The average chemical composition (electron microprobe) is (in wt%): MgO = 1.11, FeO = 0.24, NiO = 5.40, ZnO = 0.23, As{sub 2}O{sub 3} = 19.57, P{sub 2}O{sub 5} = 0.58, UO{sub 3} = 59.43, H{sub 2}O{sub calc} = 13.44, total = 100.00. The empirical formula, calculated on the basis of 17 O apfu, is: (Ni{sub 0.69}Mg{sub 0.26}Fe{sub 0.03}Zn{sub 0.03}){sub Σ1.01} U{sub 1.97}(As{sup 3+}{sub 1.88}P{sub 0.08}){sub Σ1.96}O{sub 9.94}.7.06H{sub 2}O. Dymkovite is monoclinic, space group C2/m, a = 17.99(3), b = 7.033(7), c = 6.633(9) Aa, β = 99.62(11) , V = 827(3) Aa{sup 3}, Z = 2. The crystal structure was refined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (R{sub 1} = 0.063). The structure is