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Sample records for pit-tag detection studies

  1. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XVI; Alternative Designs for Future Adult PIT-Tag Detection Studies, 2000 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Comas, Jose A.; Skalski, John R. (University of Washington, School of Fisheries, Seattle, WA)

    2000-09-25

    In the advent of the installation of a PIT-tag interrogation system in the Cascades Island fish ladder at Bonneville Dam (BON), and other CRB dams, this overview describes in general terms what can and cannot be estimated under seven different scenarios of adult PIT-tag detection capabilities in the CRB. Moreover, this overview attempted to identify minimal adult PIT-tag detection configurations required by the ten threatened Columbia River Basin (CRB) chinook and steelhead ESUs. A minimal adult PIT-tag detection configuration will require the installation of adult PIT-tag detection facilities at Bonneville Dam and another dam above BON. Thus, the Snake River spring/summer and fall chinook salmon, and the Snake River steelhead will require a minimum of three dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities to guarantee estimates of ''ocean survival'' and at least of one independent, in-river returning adult survival (e.g., adult PIT-tag detection facilities at BON and LGR dams and at any other intermediary dam such as IHR). The Upper Columbia River spring chinook salmon and steelhead will also require a minimum of three dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities: BON and two other dams on the BON-WEL reach. The current CRB dam system configuration and BPA's and COE's commitment to install adult PIT-tag detectors only in major CRB projects will not allow the estimation of an ''ocean survival'' and of any in-river adult survival for the Lower Columbia River chinook salmon and steelhead. The Middle Columbia River steelhead ESU will require a minimum of two dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities: BON and another upstream dam on the BON-McN reach. Finally, in spite of their importance in terms of releases, PIT-tag survival studies for the Upper Willamette chinook and Upper Willamette steelhead ESUs cannot be perform with the current CRB dam system configuration and PIT-tag detection capabilities.

  2. Use of portable antennas to estimate abundance of PIT-tagged fish in small streams: Factors affecting detection probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Horton, Gregg E.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2010-01-01

    Portable passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag antenna systems can be valuable in providing reliable estimates of the abundance of tagged Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in small streams under a wide range of conditions. We developed and employed PIT tag antenna wand techniques in two controlled experiments and an additional case study to examine the factors that influenced our ability to estimate population size. We used Pollock's robust-design capture–mark–recapture model to obtain estimates of the probability of first detection (p), the probability of redetection (c), and abundance (N) in the two controlled experiments. First, we conducted an experiment in which tags were hidden in fixed locations. Although p and c varied among the three observers and among the three passes that each observer conducted, the estimates of N were identical to the true values and did not vary among observers. In the second experiment using free-swimming tagged fish, p and c varied among passes and time of day. Additionally, estimates of N varied between day and night and among age-classes but were within 10% of the true population size. In the case study, we used the Cormack–Jolly–Seber model to examine the variation in p, and we compared counts of tagged fish found with the antenna wand with counts collected via electrofishing. In that study, we found that although p varied for age-classes, sample dates, and time of day, antenna and electrofishing estimates of N were similar, indicating that population size can be reliably estimated via PIT tag antenna wands. However, factors such as the observer, time of day, age of fish, and stream discharge can influence the initial and subsequent detection probabilities.

  3. Raft and floating radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna systems for detecting and estimating abundance of PIT-tagged fish in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetherman, Eric R.; Avila, Brian W.; Winkelman, Dana L.

    2016-01-01

    Portable radio frequency identification (RFID) PIT tag antenna systems are increasingly being used in studies examining aquatic animal movement, survival, and habitat use, and their design flexibility permits application in a wide variety of settings. We describe the construction, use, and performance of two portable floating RFID PIT tag antenna systems designed to detect fish that were unavailable for recapture using stationary antennas or electrofishing. A raft antenna system was designed to detect and locate PIT-tagged fish in relatively long (i.e., ≥10 km) river reaches, and consisted of two antennas: (1) a horizontal antenna (4 × 1.2 m) installed on the bottom of the raft and used to detect fish in shallower river reaches (<1 m), and (2) a vertical antenna (2.7 × 1.2 m) for detecting fish in deeper pools (≥1 m). Detection distances of the horizontal antenna were between 0.7 and 1.0 m, and detection probability was 0.32 ± 0.02 (mean ± SE) in a field test using rocks marked with 32-mm PIT tags. Detection probability of PIT-tagged fish in the Cache la Poudre River, Colorado, using the raft antenna system, which covered 21% of the wetted area, was 0.14 ± 0.14. A shore-deployed floating antenna (14.6 × 0.6 m), which covered 100% of the wetted area, was designed for use by two operators for detecting and locating PIT-tagged fish in shorter (i.e., <2 km) river reaches. Detection distances of the shore-deployed floating antenna were between 0.7 and 0.8 m, and detection probabilities during field deployment in the St. Vrain River exceeded 0.52. The shore-deployed floating antenna was also used to estimate abundance of PIT-tagged fish. Results suggest that the shore-deployed floating antenna could be used as an alternative to estimating abundance using traditional sampling methods such as electrofishing.

  4. Juvenile Salmonid Pit-Tag Studies at Prosser Dam and the Chandler Canal Fish Collection Facility, Yakima River, 1991 and 1992 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehle, Thomas E.; Sandford, Benjamin P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991 and 1992, the National Marine Fisheries Service completed the second and third years of a 3-year study to estimate juvenile salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) timing and survival characteristics related to passage through the Prosser Dam complex, including the Chandler Canal and the Chandler fish collection facility, on the Yakima River. Yearling chinook (O. tshawyacha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) were collected at the Chandler facility, PIT tagged, and released at various locations in the Yakima River, Chandler Canal, and the Chandler facility. Individual fish were subsequently detected at PIT-tag detection monitors at the Chandler facility and/or McNary Dam on the Columbia River. Survival through various reaches, PIT-tag detection efficiency, and Chandler Canal fish entrainment proportion parameters were estimated using maximum likelihood techniques. The research objectives in 1991 and 1992 were to: (1) assess the effects of passage through the Chandler Canal and the Chandler facility on the survival of juvenile salmonids, (2) determine the entrainment rate of juvenile salmonids into the Chandler Canal as a function of river flow, and (3) determine the efficiency and reliability of the PIT-tag monitoring system at the Chandler facility. The initial 1990 research plan was expanded in 1991 and 1992 to include several more release locations and many more release days.

  5. Comparative Survival Study (CSS) of PIT-Tagged Spring/Summer Chinook and Summer Steelhead : 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comparative Survival Study Oversight Committee and Fish Passage Center

    2008-12-02

    comments of the most recent regional technical review conducted by the Independent Scientific Advisory Board and Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISAB and ISRP 2007). This report completes the 3-salt returns from migration years 2004 for wild and hatchery Chinook and steelhead (all returns are to Lower Granite Dam). For wild and hatchery Chinook, this report also provides 3-salt returns from migration year 2005 and 2-salt returns from migration year 2006 through a cutoff date of August 13, 2008. For wild and hatchery steelhead, it provides completed 2-salt returns for wild and hatchery steelhead that outmigrated in 2005 (any 3-salt returns of PIT-tagged steelhead are few, but will occur after July 1, 2008). All of the Chinook salmon evaluated in the CSS study exhibit a stream-type life history. All study fish used in this report were uniquely identifiable based on a PIT-tag implanted in the body cavity during (or before) the smolt life stage and retained through their return as adults. These tagged fish can then be detected as juveniles and adults at several locations of the Snake and Columbia rivers. Reductions in the number of individuals detected as the tagged fish grow older provide estimates of survival. This allows comparisons of survival over different life stages between fish with different experiences in the hydrosystem (e.g. transportation vs. in-river migrants and migration through various numbers of dams) as illustrated in Figure 1.1. The CSS is a long term study within the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPCC FWP) and is funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Study design and analyses are conducted through a CSS Oversight Committee with representation from Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC), Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW

  6. Comparative Survival Study (CSS) of PIT-Tagged Spring/Summer Chinook and Summer Steelhead : 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comparative Survival Study Oversight Committee and Fish Passage Center

    2008-12-02

    comments of the most recent regional technical review conducted by the Independent Scientific Advisory Board and Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISAB and ISRP 2007). This report completes the 3-salt returns from migration years 2004 for wild and hatchery Chinook and steelhead (all returns are to Lower Granite Dam). For wild and hatchery Chinook, this report also provides 3-salt returns from migration year 2005 and 2-salt returns from migration year 2006 through a cutoff date of August 13, 2008. For wild and hatchery steelhead, it provides completed 2-salt returns for wild and hatchery steelhead that outmigrated in 2005 (any 3-salt returns of PIT-tagged steelhead are few, but will occur after July 1, 2008). All of the Chinook salmon evaluated in the CSS study exhibit a stream-type life history. All study fish used in this report were uniquely identifiable based on a PIT-tag implanted in the body cavity during (or before) the smolt life stage and retained through their return as adults. These tagged fish can then be detected as juveniles and adults at several locations of the Snake and Columbia rivers. Reductions in the number of individuals detected as the tagged fish grow older provide estimates of survival. This allows comparisons of survival over different life stages between fish with different experiences in the hydrosystem (e.g. transportation vs. in-river migrants and migration through various numbers of dams) as illustrated in Figure 1.1. The CSS is a long term study within the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPCC FWP) and is funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Study design and analyses are conducted through a CSS Oversight Committee with representation from Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC), Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW

  7. Detection of PIT-tagged subyearling Chinook salmon at a Snake River dam: Implications for summer flow augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, W.P.; Burge, H.L.; Bennett, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    Rearing subyearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (≥60 mm in fork length) were captured in the Snake River and tagged with passive integrated transponders to provide an index of their survival to Lower Granite Dam, the first of eight dams encountered by seaward migrants. Water was released from reservoirs upstream of Lower Granite Dam to augment summer flows and thereby increase subyearling chinook salmon survival. Mean summer flow and maximum summer water temperature in Lower Granite Reservoir were highly correlated (N = 4; r = −0.999). Acknowledging this correlation, we conducted two separate least-squares regressions using detection rate as the dependent variable. Detection rate at Lower Granite Dam was positively related to mean summer flow (N = 4; r 2 = 0.993; P = 0.003) and negatively related to maximum summer water temperature (N = 4; r 2 = 0.984; P = 0.008). Summer flow augmentation increased flow and decreased water temperature in Lower Granite Reservoir especially in low-flow years. Our results support summer flow augmentation as a beneficial interim recovery measure for enhancing survival of subyearling chinook salmon in the Snake River. Additional research should include replicate within-year releases of PIT-tagged subyearlings as well as studies of fish guidance efficiency.

  8. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XV; Appraisal of the Relationship between Tag Detection Efficiency at Bonneville Dam and the Precision of In-River Survival Estimates of Returning PIT-Tagged Chinook Salmon, 2000 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Comas, Joes A.; Skalski, John R. (University of Washington, School of Fisheries, Seattle, WA)

    2000-07-01

    In the advent of the installation of a PIT-tag interrogation system in the Cascades Island fish ladder at Bonneville Dam, this report provides guidance on the anticipated precision of in-river survival estimates for returning adult salmonids, between Bonneville and Lower Granite dams, for various levels of system-wide adult detection probability at Bonneville Dam. Precision was characterized by the standard error of the survival estimates and the coefficient of variation of the survival estimates. The anticipated precision of in-river survival estimates for returning adult salmonids was directly proportional to the number of PIT-tagged smolts released and to the system-wide adult detection efficiency at Bonneville Dam, as well as to the in-river juvenile survival above Lower Granite Dam. Moreover, for a given release size and system-wide adult detection efficiency at Bonneville Dam, higher estuarine and marine survival rates also produced more precise survival estimates. With a system-wide detection probability of P{sub BA} = 1 at Bonneville Dam, the anticipated CVs for in-river survival estimate ranged between 9.4 and 20% with release sizes of 10,000 smolts. Moreover, if the system-wide adult detection efficiency at Bonneville Dam is less than maximum (i.e., P{sub BA} < 1), precision of CV {le} 20% could still be attained. For example, for releases of 10,000 PIT-tagged fish a CV of 20% in the estimates of in-river survival for returning adult salmon could be reach with system-wide detection probabilities of 0.2 {le} P{sub BA} {le} 0.6, depending on the tagging scenario.

  9. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XIV; Appraisal of the Relationship between Tag Detection Efficiency at Bonneville Dam and the Precision in Estuarine and Marine Survival Estimates on Returning PIT Tagged Chinook Salmon, 2000 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Comas, Jose A.; Skalski, John R. (University of Washington, School of Fisheries, Seattle, WA)

    2000-07-01

    In the advent of the installation of a PIT-tag interrogation system in the Cascades Island fish ladder at Bonneville Dam, this report provides guidance on the anticipated precision of salmonid estuarine and marine survival estimates, for various levels of system-wide adult detection probability at Bonneville Dam. Precision was characterized by the standard error of the survival estimates and the coefficient of variation of the survival estimates. The anticipated precision of salmonid estuarine and marine survival estimates was directly proportional to the number of PIT-tagged smolts released and to the system-wide adult detection efficiency at Bonneville Dam, as well as to the in-river juvenile survival above Lower Granite Dam. Moreover, for a given release size and system-wide adult detection efficiency, higher estuarine and marine survivals did also produce more precise survival estimates. With a system-wide detection probability of P{sub BA} = 1 at Bonneville Dam, the anticipated CVs for the estuarine and marine survival ranged between 41 and 88% with release sizes of 10,000 smolts. Only with the 55,000 smolts being released from sites close to Lower Granite Dam and under high estuarine and marine survival, could CVs of 20% be attained with system detection efficiencies of less than perfect detection (i.e., P{sub BA} < 1).

  10. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume V; Analysis of In-River Growth for PIT-Tagged Spring Chinook Smolt, 1999 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Comas, Jose A.; Skalski, John R. (University of Washington, School Fisheries, Seattle, WA)

    1999-07-01

    The length of tagged fish is often measured at the release site and at least one downstream detection site for many PIT-tagged releases, enabling the study of growth of a particular salmonid species, run, year-class and rearing type, during their downstream migration. The purpose of this report is to suggest an approach to analyze the in-river growth of PIT-tagged salmonid yearlings. Since the age of the tagged fish is unknown, its growth must be assessed by means of the relationships between the release and recovery sizes of tagged fish, and between those and the time elapsed between release and recovery. Analyses of this type require adequate samples. A simple three-step protocol for selecting adequate data for unbiased samples is provided. Three methods: Walford's lines, Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests and one-tail paired t-tests, are suggested as analytical tools and applied to detect in-river growth from selected samples of PIT-tagged spring chinook yearlings. Finally, the between-sample comparison of growth rates by means of a simple linear model is discussed.

  11. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume V; Analysis of In-River Growth for PIT-Tagged Spring Chinook Smolt, 1999 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Comas, Jose A.; Skalski, John R. (University of Washington, School Fisheries, Seattle, WA)

    1999-07-01

    The length of tagged fish is often measured at the release site and at least one downstream detection site for many PIT-tagged releases, enabling the study of growth of a particular salmonid species, run, year-class and rearing type, during their downstream migration. The purpose of this report is to suggest an approach to analyze the in-river growth of PIT-tagged salmonid yearlings. Since the age of the tagged fish is unknown, its growth must be assessed by means of the relationships between the release and recovery sizes of tagged fish, and between those and the time elapsed between release and recovery. Analyses of this type require adequate samples. A simple three-step protocol for selecting adequate data for unbiased samples is provided. Three methods: Walford's lines, Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests and one-tail paired t-tests, are suggested as analytical tools and applied to detect in-river growth from selected samples of PIT-tagged spring chinook yearlings. Finally, the between-sample comparison of growth rates by means of a simple linear model is discussed.

  12. Adult Pacific Lamprey Migration in the Lower Columbia River: 2011 Half-Duplex Pit Tag Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Kasey Welch, Miro Zyndol, Robert Cordie , Brad Eby, and Mark Plummer. iv Table of Contents Executive Summary...reaches upstream from Bonneville Dam included one reservoir and one dam. Median migration rates ranged from 5-18 km●d-1 in reservoir- plus -dam reaches...River radiotelemetry studies, tributary 26 detection has occurred primarily at the Deschutes, Klickitat, and John Day rivers plus Fifteenmile

  13. Sex identification and PIT-tagging: tools and prospects for studying intersexual differences in freshwater fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulthén, K.; Chapman, B.B.; Nilsson, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    . The observed sex ratio of recaptured fish did not differ from the expected values of equal recapture rates between males and females. Hence, there is no observable evidence for an adverse effect of tagging close to the reproductive period and therefore this method is suitable for studying intersexual......This study evaluated a technique to allow the long-term monitoring of individual fishes of known sex in the wild using sex confirmation in close proximity to the reproductive period combined with individual tagging. Hundreds of partially migratory roach Rutilus rutilus were tagged with passive...... integrated transponders (PIT) following sex determination in spring and various performance measures were compared with fish tagged outside the reproductive period in autumn. Short-term survival was >95% for R. rutilus sexed and tagged under natural field conditions. Total length (LT) did not affect...

  14. Sex identification and PIT-tagging: tools and prospects for studying intersexual differences in freshwater fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulthén, K; Chapman, B B; Nilsson, P A; Hansson, L-A; Skov, C; Baktoft, H; Brodersen, J; Brönmark, C

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated a technique to allow the long-term monitoring of individual fishes of known sex in the wild using sex confirmation in close proximity to the reproductive period combined with individual tagging. Hundreds of partially migratory roach Rutilus rutilus were tagged with passive integrated transponders (PIT) following sex determination in spring and various performance measures were compared with fish tagged outside the reproductive period in autumn. Short-term survival was >95% for R. rutilus sexed and tagged under natural field conditions. Total length (LT ) did not affect the probability of survival within the size range tagged (119-280 mm), nor were there differences in timing of migration the following season between individuals sexed and tagged in spring and individuals tagged in autumn (i.e. outside the reproductive period). Also, a similar per cent of R. rutilus sexed and tagged in spring and tagged in autumn migrated the following season (34·5 and 34·7%). Moreover, long-term recapture data revealed no significant differences in body condition between R. rutilus individuals sexed and tagged in spring, individuals tagged in autumn and unmanipulated individuals. The observed sex ratio of recaptured fish did not differ from the expected values of equal recapture rates between males and females. Hence, there is no observable evidence for an adverse effect of tagging close to the reproductive period and therefore this method is suitable for studying intersexual differences and other phenotypic traits temporarily expressed during reproduction at the individual level in fishes.

  15. Comparative Survival [Rate] Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Chinook; Migration Years 1996-1998 Mark/Recapture Activities, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren, Thomas J.; Basham, Larry R. (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Fish Passage Center, Portland, OR)

    2000-10-01

    The Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) is a multi-year program of the fishery agencies and tribes to measure the smolt-to-adult survival rates of hatchery spring and summer chinook at major production hatcheries in the Snake River basin and at selected hatcheries in the lower Columbia River. The CSS also compares the smolt-to-adult survival rates for Snake River basin chinook that were transported versus those that migrated in-river to below Bonneville Dam. Estimates of smolt-to-adult survival rates will be made both from Lower Granite Dam back to Lower Granite Dam (upriver stocks) and from the hatchery back to the hatchery (upriver and downriver stocks). This status report covers the first three migration years, 1996 to 1998, of the study. Study fish were implanted with a PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tag which allows unique identification of individual fish. Beginning in 1997, a predetermined proportion of the PIT tagged study fish in the collection/bypass channel at the transportation sites, such as Lower Granite and Little Goose dams, was purposely routed to the raceways for transportation and the rest was routed back to the river. Two categories of in-river migrating fish are used in this study. The in-river group most representative of the non-tagged fish are fish that migrate past Lower Granite, Little Goose, and Lower Monumental dams undetected in the bypass systems. This is because all non-tagged fish collected at these three dams are currently being transported. The other in-river group contains those fish remaining in-river below Lower Monumental Dam that had previously been detected at one or more dams. The number of fish starting at Lower Granite dam that are destined to one of these two in-river groups must be estimated. The Jolly-Seber capture-recapture methodology was used for that purpose. Adult (including jacks) study fish returning to the hatcheries in the Snake River basin were sampled at the Lower Granite Dam adult trap. There the PIT

  16. Big Creek Pit Tags

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The BCPITTAGS database is used to store data from an Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) population dynamics study in Big Creek, a coastal stream along the...

  17. Comparative Survival Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Spring/Summer Chinook; Migration Years 1997-2000 Mark/Recapture Activities and Bootstrap Analysis, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren Thomas J.; Franzoni, Henry; Basham, Larry R. (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Fish Passage Center, Portland, OR)

    2005-04-01

    The Comparative Survival Study (CSS) was initiated in 1996 as a multi-year program of the fishery agencies and tribes to estimate survival rates over different life stages for spring and summer chinook (hereafter, chinook) produced in major hatcheries in the Snake River basin and from selected hatcheries in the lower Columbia River. Much of the information evaluated in the CSS is derived from fish tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags. A comparison of survival rates of chinook marked in two different regions (which differ in the number of dams chinook have to migrate through) provides insight into the effects of the Snake/Columbia hydroelectric system (hydrosystem). The CSS also compares the smolt-to-adult survival rates (SARs) for Snake River chinook that were transported versus those that migrated in-river to below Bonneville Dam. Additional comparisons can be made within in-river experiences as well comparison between the different collector projects from which smolts are transported. CSS also compares these survival rates for wild Snake River spring and summer chinook. These comparisons generate information regarding the relative effects of the current management actions used to recover this listed species. Scientists and managers have recently emphasized the importance of delayed hydrosystem mortality to long-term management decisions. Delayed hydrosystem mortality may be related to the smolts experience in the Federal Columbia River Power System, and could occur for both smolts that migrate in-river and smolts that are transported. The CSS PIT tag information on in-river survival rates and smolt-to-adult survival rates (SARs) of transported and in-river fish are relevant to estimation of ''D'', which partially describes delayed hydrosystem mortality. The parameter D is the differential survival rate of transported fish relative to fish that migrate in-river, as measured from below Bonneville Dam to adults returning to Lower

  18. Comparative Survival Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Spring/Summer Chinook; Migration Years 1997-2000 Mark/Recapture Activities and Bootstrap Analysis, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren Thomas J.; Franzoni, Henry; Basham, Larry R. (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Fish Passage Center, Portland, OR)

    2005-04-01

    The Comparative Survival Study (CSS) was initiated in 1996 as a multi-year program of the fishery agencies and tribes to estimate survival rates over different life stages for spring and summer chinook (hereafter, chinook) produced in major hatcheries in the Snake River basin and from selected hatcheries in the lower Columbia River. Much of the information evaluated in the CSS is derived from fish tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags. A comparison of survival rates of chinook marked in two different regions (which differ in the number of dams chinook have to migrate through) provides insight into the effects of the Snake/Columbia hydroelectric system (hydrosystem). The CSS also compares the smolt-to-adult survival rates (SARs) for Snake River chinook that were transported versus those that migrated in-river to below Bonneville Dam. Additional comparisons can be made within in-river experiences as well comparison between the different collector projects from which smolts are transported. CSS also compares these survival rates for wild Snake River spring and summer chinook. These comparisons generate information regarding the relative effects of the current management actions used to recover this listed species. Scientists and managers have recently emphasized the importance of delayed hydrosystem mortality to long-term management decisions. Delayed hydrosystem mortality may be related to the smolts experience in the Federal Columbia River Power System, and could occur for both smolts that migrate in-river and smolts that are transported. The CSS PIT tag information on in-river survival rates and smolt-to-adult survival rates (SARs) of transported and in-river fish are relevant to estimation of ''D'', which partially describes delayed hydrosystem mortality. The parameter D is the differential survival rate of transported fish relative to fish that migrate in-river, as measured from below Bonneville Dam to adults returning to Lower

  19. Evaluation of Fish Movements, Migration Patterns and Populations Abundance with Streamwidth PIT Tag Interrogation Systems, Final Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Casey, Sean

    2003-02-01

    Two remote Streamwidth PIT tag Interrogation systems (SPIs) were operated continuously for over one year to test the feasibility of these systems for generating movement, migration, survival and smolt production estimates for salmonids. A total of 1,588 juvenile (< 100 mm FL) naturally produced salmonids (7 coho salmon, 482 cutthroat trout, and 1,099 steelhead) were PIT tagged above the upstream-most SPI (9 sites approximately 1 linear km each) in Fall 2001. Age at tagging for wild caught cutthroat and steelhead was 1 year. SPIs were operating before any PIT tagged fish were released in the creek. Over 390,000 detections were recorded from October 2001 to 31 July 2002. Efficiencies were site dependent, but overall detection efficiency for the creek was 97% with 95% confidence intervals of 91-100%. PIT tag detection efficiency ranged from 55-100% depending on the SPI and varied throughout the year with average efficiencies of 73% and 89%. SPI efficiency of PIT tag detection was not completely dependent on electronics noise levels or environmental conditions. Fish from all tagging locations were detected at the SPIs. Steelhead and cutthroat trout were primarily detected moving in the Spring (April-June) coincident with the anticipated smolt migration. Steelhead were also detected moving past SPIs at lower numbers in the Fall and Winter. Travel time between SPIs (downstream movement) was highly dependent on time of year. Travel time in the Spring was significantly faster (34.4 {+-} 7.0 hours) for all species than during any other time of year (763.1 {+-} 267.0 hours). Steelhead and cutthroat migrating in the Spring were the same age as those that did not migrate in the Spring. Peak of steelhead migration recorded at the two SPIs was 5/11 and 5/12 and the peak in the screw trap was recorded on 5/17. Steelhead smolt production estimates using SPIs (3,802 with 95% confidence intervals of 3,440-4,245) was similar to those using more standard screw trap methods

  20. Evaluation of Fish Movements, Migration Patterns, and Population Abundance with Streamwidth PIT Tag Interrogation Systems, Final Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zydlewski, Gayle; Winter, Christiane; McClanahan, Dee

    2003-02-01

    Two remote Streamwidth PIT tag Interrogation systems (SPIs) were operated continuously for over one year to test the feasibility of these systems for generating movement, migration, survival and smolt production estimates for salmonids. A total of 1,588 juvenile (< 100 mm FL) naturally produced salmonids (7 coho salmon, 482 cutthroat trout, and 1,099 steelhead) were PIT tagged above the upstream-most SPI (9 sites approximately 1 linear km each) in Fall 2001. Age at tagging for wild caught cutthroat and steelhead was 1 year. SPIs were operating before any PIT tagged fish were released in the creek. Over 390,000 detections were recorded from October 2001 to 31 July 2002. Efficiencies were site dependent, but overall detection efficiency for the creek was 97% with 95% confidence intervals of 91-100%. PIT tag detection efficiency ranged from 55-100% depending on the SPI and varied throughout the year with average efficiencies of 73% and 89%. SPI efficiency of PIT tag detection was not completely dependent on electronics noise levels or environmental conditions. Fish from all tagging locations were detected at the SPIs. Steelhead and cutthroat trout were primarily detected moving in the Spring (April-June) coincident with the anticipated smolt migration. Steelhead were also detected moving past SPIs at lower numbers in the Fall and Winter. Travel time between SPIs (downstream movement) was highly dependent on time of year. Travel time in the Spring was significantly faster (34.4 {+-} 7.0 hours) for all species than during any other time of year (763.1 {+-} 267.0 hours). Steelhead and cutthroat migrating in the Spring were the same age as those that did not migrate in the Spring. Peak of steelhead migration recorded at the two SPIs was 5/11 and 5/12 and the peak in the screw trap was recorded on 5/17. Steelhead smolt production estimates using SPIs (3,802 with 95% confidence intervals of 3,440 - 4,245) was similar to those using more standard screw trap methods

  1. Sediment tracing from small torrential channels to gravel-bed rivers using pit tags method. A case study from the upper Guil catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Kévin; Viel, Vincent; Carlier, Benoit; Lissak, Candide; Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Fort, Monique; Madelin, Malika

    2016-04-01

    In mountainous areas, especially in large catchments with torrential tributaries, the production and sediment transport significantly increase flood impacts in the valley bottoms. The quantification and characterisation of sedimentary transfers are therefore major challenges to provide better flood risk management. As a part of SAMCO (ANR 12 SENV-0004 SAMCO) project, for mountain hazard assessment in a context of global changes, we tried to improve the knowledge of these hydromorphological systems at both spatial and temporal scales, by identifying sediment supply and sediment dynamics from torrential tributaries to the main channel. A sediment budget was used as a tool for quantifying erosion, transport and deposition processes. This research is focused on the upper Guil catchment (Queyras, Southern French Alps - 317 km2) entrenched in "schistes lustrés" and ophiolitic bedrock. This catchment is prone to catastrophic summer floods [June 1957 (>R.I. 100 yr), June 2000 (R.I. 30 yr)] characterised by huge sediment transport from tributaries to downvalley, very much facilitated by strong hillslope-channel connectivity (about 12,000 m3 volume of sediment aggraded in the Peyronnelle fan during the June 2000 RI-30 year flood event). We intend to highlight sediment dynamics on small torrential channels and its connection with gravel-bed streams. Four study sites characterised by avalanche and debris flow-dominated channels located in the upper Guil catchment were investigated. In order to better assess sediment movement, we used the pit-tags technique. In total, 560 pit-tags (pt) have been implemented in four catchments: Peyronnelle (320pt), Combe Morel (40pt), Bouchouse (120pt), and Maloqueste (80pt). Distances and trajectories of gravels sediments have been monitored since two years during summer periods. We specifically describe results obtained along the Peyronnelle channel affected by a large debris-flow during august 2015. Data are used to discuss lag time

  2. Comparative Survival Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Spring/Summer Chinook; Migration Years 1997-2000 Mark/Recapture Activities, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouwes, Nick (EcoLogical Research, Providence, UT); Petrosky, Charlie (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise ID); Schaller, Howard (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Columbia River Fisheries Program Office, Vancouver, WA)

    2002-02-01

    The Comparative Survival Study (CSS) was initiated in 1996 as a multi-year program of the fishery agencies and tribes to estimate survival rates over different life stages for spring and summer chinook (hereafter, chinook) produced in major hatcheries in the Snake River basin and from selected hatcheries in the lower Columbia River. Much of the information evaluated in the CSS is derived from fish tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags. A comparison of survival rates of chinook marked in two different regions (which differ in the number of dams chinook have to migrate through) provides insight into the effects of the Snake/Columbia hydroelectric system (hydrosystem). The CSS also compares the smolt-to-adult survival rates (SARs) for Snake River chinook that were transported versus those that migrated in-river to below Bonneville Dam. Additional comparisons can be made within in-river experiences as well comparison between the different collector projects from which smolts are transported. CSS also compares these survival rates for wild Snake River spring and summer chinook. These comparisons generate information regarding the relative effects of the current management actions used to recover this listed species.Scientists and managers have recently emphasized the importance of delayed hydrosystem mortality to long-term management decisions. Delayed hydrosystem mortality may be related to the smolts. experience in the Federal Columbia River Power System, and could occur for both smolts that migrate in-river and smolts that are transported. The CSS PIT tag information on in-river survival rates and smolt-to-adult survival rates (SARs) of transported and in-river fish are relevant to estimation of ''D'', which partially describes delayed hydrosystem mortality. ''D'', or differential delayed mortality, is the differential survival rate of transported fish relative to fish that migrate in-river, as measured from

  3. Comparative Performance of Acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged Juvenile Salmonids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hockersmith, Eric E.; Brown, Richard S.; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2008-02-01

    Numerous research tools and technologies are currently being used to evaluate fish passage and survival to determine the impacts of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) on endangered and threatened juvenile salmonids, including PIT tags, balloon tags, hydroacoustic evaluations, radio telemetry, and acoustic telemetry. Each has advantages and disadvantages, but options are restricted in some situations because of limited capabilities of a specific technology, lack of detection capability downstream, or availability of adequate numbers of fish. However, there remains concern about the comparative effects of the tag or the tagging procedure on fish performance. The recently developed Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic transmitter is the smallest active acoustic tag currently available. The goal of this study was to determine whether fish tagged with the JSATS acoustic-telemetry tag can provide unbiased estimates of passage behavior and survival within the performance life of the tag. We conducted both field and laboratory studies to assess tag effects. For the field evaluation we released a total of 996 acoustic-tagged fish in conjunction with 21,026 PIT-tagged fish into the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam on 6 and 13 May. Travel times between release and downstream dams were not significantly different for the majority of the reaches between acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged fish. In addition to the field evaluation, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine if growth and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon surgically implanted with acoustic transmitters is different than untagged or PIT tagged juvenile Chinook salmon. Only yearling fish with integrated and non-integrated transmitters experienced mortalities, and these were low (<4.5%). Mortality among sub-yearling control and PIT-tag treatments ranged up to 7.7% while integrated and non-integrated treatments had slightly higher rates (up to 8.3% and 7

  4. Cormorant predation on PIT-tagged lake fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Jepsen, Niels; Baktoft, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    The present study use data from recovered PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tags to explore species-and size-specific annual predation rates by cormorants on three common lacustrine fishes (size range 120-367 mm) in a European lake; roach (Rutilus rutilus), common bream (Abramis brama) and perch...... (Perca fluviatilis). In addition, we quantify the level of age/size truncation that cormorant predation could introduce in a population of perch, an important fish for recreational angling as well as for trophic interactions and ecosystem function in European lakes. Based on three years of PIT tagging...... of fish in Lake Viborg and subsequent recoveries of PIT tags from nearby cormorant roosting and breeding sites, we show that cormorants are major predators of roach, bream and perch within the size groups we investigated and for all species larger individuals had higher predation rates. Perch appear...

  5. A model for estimating passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag antenna efficiencies for interval-specific emigration rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, G.E.; Dubreuil, T.L.; Letcher, B.H.

    2007-01-01

    Our goal was to understand movement and its interaction with survival for populations of stream salmonids at long-term study sites in the northeastern United States by employing passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and associated technology. Although our PIT tag antenna arrays spanned the stream channel (at most flows) and were continuously operated, we are aware that aspects of fish behavior, environmental characteristics, and electronic limitations influenced our ability to detect 100% of the emigration from our stream site. Therefore, we required antenna efficiency estimates to adjust observed emigration rates. We obtained such estimates by testing a full-scale physical model of our PIT tag antenna array in a laboratory setting. From the physical model, we developed a statistical model that we used to predict efficiency in the field. The factors most important for predicting efficiency were external radio frequency signal and tag type. For most sampling intervals, there was concordance between the predicted and observed efficiencies, which allowed us to estimate the true emigration rate for our field populations of tagged salmonids. One caveat is that the model's utility may depend on its ability to characterize external radio frequency signals accurately. Another important consideration is the trade-off between the volume of data necessary to model efficiency accurately and the difficulty of storing and manipulating large amounts of data.

  6. Cormorant predation on PIT-tagged lake fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Skov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study use data from recovered PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder tags to explore species- and size-specific annual predation rates by cormorants on three common lacustrine fishes (size range 120-367 mm in a European lake; roach (Rutilus rutilus, common bream (Abramis brama and perch (Perca fluviatilis. In addition, we quantify the level of age/size truncation that cormorant predation could introduce in a population of perch, an important fish for recreational angling as well as for trophic interactions and ecosystem function in European lakes. Based on three years of PIT tagging of fish in lake Viborg and subsequent recoveries of PIT tags from nearby cormorant roosting and breeding sites, we show that cormorants are major predators of roach, bream and perch within the size groups we investigated and for all species larger individuals had higher predation rates. Perch appear to be the most vulnerable of the three species and based on a comparison with mortality estimates from lakes without significant avian predation, this study suggest that predation from cormorants can induce age/size truncation in lake Viborg, leaving very few larger perch in the lake. This truncation reduces the likelihood of anglers catching a large perch and may also influence lower trophic levels in the lake and thus turbidity as large piscivorous perch often play an important structuring role in lake ecosystem functioning.

  7. Tracing the contribution of debris flow-dominated channels to gravel-bed torrential river channel: implementing pit-tags in the upper Guil River (French Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Lissak, Candide; Fort, Monique; Bétard, François; Carlier, Benoit; Cossart, Etienne; Madelin, Malika; Viel, Vincent; Charnay, Bérengère; Bletterie, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    In the upper, wider reaches of Alpine valleys, shaping of active channels is usually subject to rapid change. It mostly depends upon hydro-climatic variability, runoff concentration and sediment supply, and may result in alternating sequences of fluvial and debris-flow pulses, as recorded in alluvial fans and terraces. Our study, carried in the frame of SAMCO (ANR) project, focuses on the upper Guil River Valley (Queyras, Southern French Alps) cut into the slaty shale "schistes lustrés". Steep, lower order drains carry a contrasted solid discharge, including predominantly sandy-loam particles mixed with gravels and boulders (sandstone schists, ophiolites). Abundant sediment supply by frost shattering, snow avalanche and landslides is then reworked during snowmelt or summer storm runoff events, and may result in catastrophic, very destructive floods along the main channel, as shown by historical records. Following the RI-30 year 2000 flood, our investigations included sediment budgets, i.e. balance of erosion and deposition, and the mapping of the source, transport and storage of various sediments (talus, colluvium, torrential fans, terraces). To better assess sediment fluxes and sediment delivery into the main channel network, we implemented tracers (pit-tags) in selected sub-catchments, significantly contributing to the sediment yield of the valley bottoms during the floods and/or avalanches: Maloqueste, Combe Morel, Bouchouse and Peyronnelle catchments. The first three are direct tributaries of the Guil River whereas the Peyronnelle is a left bank tributary of the Peynin River, which joins the Guil River via an alluvial cone with high human and material stakes. The Maloqueste and the Combe Morel are two tributaries facing each other in the Guil valley, representing a double lateral constraint for the road during flood events of the Guil River. After pit-tag initialisation in laboratory, we set them up along the four tributaries: Maloqueste (20 pit-tags), Combe

  8. Assessment of PIT tag retention and post-tagging survival in metamorphosing juvenile Sea Lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Lee G; Sotola, V Alex; Marsden, J Ellen; Miehls, Scott M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags have been used to document and monitor the movement or behavior of numerous species of fishes. Data on short-term and long-term survival and tag retention are needed before initiating studies using PIT tags on a new species or life stage. We evaluated the survival and tag retention of 153 metamorphosing juvenile Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus tagged with 12 mm PIT tags on three occasions using a simple surgical procedure. Results: Tag retention was 100% and 98.6% at 24 h and 28-105 d post-tagging. Of the lamprey that retained their tags, 87.3% had incisions sufficiently healed to prevent further loss. Survival was 100% and 92.7% at 24 h and 41-118 d post-tagging with no significant difference in survival between tagged and untagged control lamprey. Of the 11 lamprey that died, four had symptoms that indicated their death was directly related to tagging. Survival was positively correlated with Sea Lamprey length. Conclusions: Given the overall high level of survival and tag retention in this study, future studies can utilize 12 mm PIT tags to monitor metamorphosing juvenile Sea Lamprey movement and migration patterns.

  9. Pre-1994 Season Projection of Run-Timing Capabilities Using PIT-TAG Databases.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J.R.; Tartakovsky, G.; Smith, S.G.; Westhagen, P.

    1994-04-01

    Regulating the timing and volume of water released from storage reservoirs (often referred to as flow augmentation) has become a central mitigation strategy for improving downstream migration conditions for juvenile salmonids in the Snake River. The success of the flow augmentation, in turn, depends on releasing reservoir waters when and where wild smolt will benefit the most. This requires the ability to predict in real time the status and trend in the outmigration of listed threatened and endangered stocks. This study evaluated the feasibility and the performance of two alternative statistical algorithms to predict outmigration status of Snake River wild spring chinook. Using historical trends in PIT-tag detections of wild chinook smolt at Lower Granite Dam, pattern recognition techniques were developed to predict the percent of the run-to-date and days to a specific percent of the run. The statistical methods are based on algorithms that smooth historical trends in PIT-tag arrivals and a generalized least squares decision criterion. The methods were evaluated for 16 different river runs of chinook, as well as composites over various river basins. A bootstrapping approach across historical years provided the means to measure the accuracy and precision of predictions and construct approximate interval estimates. The recommended predictors have an average error rate across stocks of fish and seasons, of {plus_minus}9.6% about the true percent of the run-to-date. The best performance was for Catherine Creek with an average error of {plus_minus}4.2%. The worst performance occurred at Big Creek with an average error of {plus_minus}19.0%. An interactive graphical analysis program written in C-language for an X-Windows{reg_sign} environment has been developed to analyze outmigration data for select stocks of Snake River spring chinook.

  10. PTAGIS - Development of Large PIT-Tag Antennas to Estimate Migration Timing and Survival for Adult Salmonids near Pile Dikes in the Columbia River Estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We continued research and development of a passive PIT-tag detection system along a pile dike in the estuary (rkm 70). Target fish for this system are returning...

  11. Comparative Survival Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Spring/Summer Chinook; Migration Years 1997-2002 Mark/Recapture Activities and Bootstrap Analysis, 2003-2004 Biennial Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren, Thomas J.; Franzoni, Henry; Basham, Larry R. (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Fish Passage Center, Portland, OR)

    2003-11-01

    The Comparative Survival Study (CSS) was initiated in 1996 as a multi-year program of the fishery agencies and tribes to estimate survival rates over different life stages for spring and summer Chinook (hereafter, Chinook) produced in major hatcheries in the Snake River basin and from selected hatcheries in the lower Columbia River. Much of the information evaluated in the CSS is derived from fish tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags. A comparison of survival rates of Chinook marked in two different regions (which differ in the number of dams Chinook have to migrate through) provides insight into the effects of the Snake/Columbia hydroelectric system (hydrosystem). The CSS also compares the smolt-to-adult survival rates (SARs) for Snake River Chinook that were transported versus those that migrated in-river to below Bonneville Dam. Additional comparisons can be made within in-river experiences as well as comparison between the different collector projects from which smolts are transported. CSS also compares survival rates for wild Snake River spring and summer Chinook. These comparisons generate information regarding the relative effects of the current management actions used to recover this listed species. Scientists and managers have recently emphasized the importance of delayed hydrosystem mortality to long-term management decisions. Delayed hydrosystem mortality may be related to the smolts experience in the Federal Columbia River Power System, and could occur for both smolts that migrate in-river and smolts that are transported. The CSS PIT tag information on in-river survival rates and smolt-to-adult survival rates (SARs) of transported and in-river fish are relevant to estimation of ''D'', which partially describes delayed hydrosystem mortality. The parameter D is the differential survival rate of transported fish relative to fish that migrate in-river, as measured from below Bonneville Dam to adults returning to Lower

  12. Scanning for PIT-tagged flatfish in a coastal area using a sledge equipped with an RFID antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrevohn, C R; Aarestrup, K; Stenberg, C; Righton, D

    2014-08-01

    A radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna system, build into a sledge that can be towed behind a vessel like a trawl and thereby has the potential to detect the position of a passive inductor technology (PIT)-tagged fish in a wide variety of habitats, is presented. By scanning for hatchery-reared PIT-tagged turbot Psetta maxima released into a natural habitat, the performance of the system was compared to a standard juvenile trawl and results suggested that the efficiency of the sledge was five times that of the trawl, which in absolute values corresponds to 75% of P. maxima lying in the pathway of the sledge.

  13. Scanning for PIT-tagged flatfish in a coastal area using a sledge equipped with an RFID antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Aarestrup, Kim; Stenberg, Claus

    2014-01-01

    A radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna system, build into a sledge that can be towed behind a vessel like a trawl and thereby has the potential to detect the position of a passive inductor technology (PIT)-tagged fish in a wide variety of habitats, is presented. By scanning for hatchery...

  14. Effect of PIT tags on the survival and recruitment of Great Tits Parus major

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolaus, Marion; Bouwman, Karen M.; Dingemanse, Niels J.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the use of subcutaneous passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags in nestling and adult Great Tits Parus major. We investigated whether subcutaneous PIT tags affected fledging success, winter condition, survival and/or recruitment. We found no negative effects of PIT tags on any of these

  15. Methow and Columbia Rivers studies: summary of data collection, comparison of database structure and habitat protocols, and impact of additional PIT tag interrogation systems to survival estimates, 2008-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Kyle D.; Tibbits, Wesley T.; Watson, Grace A.; Newsom, Michael A.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    designed to show some initial analysis and to disseminate summary information that could potentially be used in ongoing modeling efforts by USGS, Reclamation, and University of Idaho. The second chapter documents the database of fish and habitat data collected by USGS from 2004 through 2012 and compares USGS habitat protocols to the Columbia Habitat Monitoring Program (CHaMP) protocol. The third chapter is a survival analysis of fish moving through Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag interrogation systems in the Methow and Columbia Rivers. It examines the effects of adding PIT tags and/or PIT tag interrogation systems on survival estimates of juvenile steelhead and Chinook salmon.

  16. Posthandling survival and PIT tag retention by alewives—a comparison of gastric and surgical implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Santos, Theodore; Voni, Volney

    2013-01-01

    We compared survival and tag retention of Alewives Alosa pseudoharengus tagged with PIT tags, using intraperitoneal (IP) surgical implants, gastric implants (GI), and untagged controls held for 38 d. Retention was 100% for IP-tagged Alewives and 98% for GI-tagged implants. No significant difference in survival was observed among any of these groups. These results lend support to the use of PIT telemetry for studying fish passage and migration of anadromous herring. Both methods hold promise for improving estimates of freshwater survival of adult anadromous clupeids; further research should make it also possible to refine estimates of adult marine survival.

  17. PIT Tag data - Monitoring the migrations of wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon juveniles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an ongoing Bonneville Power Administration funded project to annually collect, PIT tag, and release wild Chinook salmon parr in up to 17 streams of the...

  18. Mixed sand and gravel beaches: accurate measurement of active layer depth and sediment transport volumes using PIT tagged tracer pebbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, A.; Moses, C.; Sear, D. A.; Cope, S.

    2016-12-01

    As sediments containing significant gravel portions are increasingly used for beach replenishment projects globally, the total number of beaches classified as `mixed sand and gravel' (MSG) increases. Calculations for required replenishment sediment volumes usually assume a uniform layer of sediment transport across and along the beach, but research into active layer (AL) depth has shown variations both across shore and according to sediment size distribution. This study addresses the need for more accurate calculations of sediment transport volumes on MSG beaches by using more precise measurements of AL depth and width, and virtual velocity of tracer pebbles. Variations in AL depth were measured along three main profile lines (from MHWS to MLWN) at Eastoke, Hayling Island (Hampshire, UK). Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tagged pebbles were deployed in columns, and their new locations repeatedly surveyed with RFID technology. These data were combined with daily dGPS beach profiles and sediment sampling for detailed analysis of the influence of beach morphodynamics on sediment transport volumes. Data were collected over two consecutive winter seasons: 2014-15 (relatively calm, average wave height sandy lower foreshore reduced the AL to 10% of wave height in this area. The disparity in AL depth across the beach profile indicates that traditional models are not accurately representing bulk sediment transport on MSG beaches. It is anticipated that by improving model inputs, beach managers will be better able to predict necessary volumes and sediment grain size proportions of replenishment material for effective management of MSG beaches.

  19. PIT-Tag effects on hatchery salmonids: Carson National Fish Hatchery spring Chinook Salmon: Annual report 2011 and work plan 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Coded-wire-tags (CWT) and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags are usedextensively throughout the Columbia River Basin to address a wide variety of management...

  20. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gass, Carrie; Olson, Jim M. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2004-11-01

    In 2001 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, brood stock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate project data points and augment past data. Due to low adult spring Chinook returns to Kooskia National Fish Hatchery (KNFH) in brood year 1999 there was no smolt supplementation treatment release into Clear Creek in 2001. A 17,014 spring Chinook parr supplementation treatment (containing 1000 PIT tags) was released into Pete King Creek on July 24, 2001. On Clear Creek, there were 412 naturally produced spring Chinook parr PIT tagged and released. Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 320 naturally produced spring Chinook pre-smolts on Clear Creek, and 16 natural pre-smolts on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. There were no PIT tag detections of brood year 1999 smolts from Clear or Pete King creeks. A total of 2261 adult spring Chinook were collected at KNFH. Forty-three females were used for supplementation brood stock, and 45 supplementation (ventral fin-clip), and 45 natural (unmarked) adults were released upstream of KNFH to spawn naturally. Spatial and temporal distribution of 37 adults released above the KNFH weir was determined through the use of radio telemetry. On Clear Creek, a total of 166 redds (8.2 redds/km) were observed and data was collected from 195 carcasses. Seventeen completed redds (2.1 redds/km) were found, and data was collected data from six carcasses on Pete King Creek.

  1. Adult Pacific Lamprey Migration in the Lower Columbia River: 2007 Radiotelemetry and Half-duplex Pit Tag Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Walla Walla Districts 2009 iii Acknowledgements Many people assisted with the field work and data compilation for this...simultaneously. Aerial antennas were used to monitor dam tailraces and several tributary confluence areas (Deschutes, Umatilla, Walla Walla , and...Unit to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland and Walla Walla Districts. Goodman, D. H., S. B. Reid, M. F. Docker, G. R. Haas, and A. P. Kinziger

  2. A comparison of implantation methods for large PIT tags or injectable acoustic transmitters in juvenile Chinook salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Katrina V.; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Klett, Ryan S.; Li, Huidong; Seaburg, Adam; Eppard, M. B.

    2014-04-15

    The miniaturization of acoustic transmitters may allow greater flexibility in terms of the size and species of fish available to tag. New downsized injectable acoustic tags similar in shape to passive integrated transponder tags can be rapidly injected rather than surgically implanted through a sutured incision, as is current practice. Before wide-scale field use of these injectable transmitters, standard protocols to ensure the most effective and least damaging methods of implantation must be developed. Three implantation methods were tested in various sizes of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha. Methods included a needle bevel-down injection, a needle bevel-up injection with a 90-degree rotation, and tag implantation through an unsutured incision. Tagged fish were compared to untagged control groups. Weight and wound area were measured at tagging and every week for 3 weeks; holding tanks were checked daily for mortalities and tag losses. No differences among treatments were found in growth, tag loss, or survival, but wound area was significantly reduced among incision-treated fish. The bevel-up injection had the worst results in terms of tag loss and wound area and also had high mortality. Implantation through an incision resulted in the lowest tag loss but the highest mortality. Fish from the bevel-down treatment group had the least mortality; wound areas also were smaller than the bevel-up treatment group. Cumulatively, the data suggest that the unsutured incision and bevel-down injection methods were the most effective; the drawbacks of both methods are described in detail. However, we further recommend larger and longer studies to find more robust thresholds for tagging size that include more sensitive measures.

  3. Fall transport - A study to compare smolt-to-adult return rates (SARs) of Snake River fall Chinook salmon under alternative transport and dam operational strategies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)-funded study that began in 2005 compares the SARs of PIT tagged juvenile hatchery Snake River fall Chinook that are split...

  4. Efficiency of Portable Antennas for Detecting Passive Integrated Transponder Tags in Stream-Dwelling Salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banish, Nolan P; Burdick, Summer M; Moyer, Katherine R

    2016-01-01

    Portable antennas have become an increasingly common technique for tracking fish marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We used logistic regression to evaluate how species, fish length, and physical habitat characteristics influence portable antenna detection efficiency in stream-dwelling brown trout (Salmo trutta), bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii) marked with 12-mm PIT tags. We redetected 56% (20/36) of brown trout, 34% (68/202) of bull trout, and 33% (20/61) of redband trout after a recovery period of 21 to 46 hours. Models indicate support for length and species and minor support for percent boulder, large woody debris, and percent cobble as parameters important for describing variation in detection efficiency, although 95% confidence intervals for estimates were large. The odds of detecting brown trout (1.5 ± 2.2 [mean ± SE]) are approximately four times as high as bull trout (0.4 ± 1.6) or redband trout (0.3 ± 1.8) and species-specific differences may be related to length. Our reported detection efficiency for brown trout falls within the range of other studies, but is the first reported for bull trout and redband trout. Portable antennas may be a relatively unbiased way of redetecting varying sizes of all three salmonid species.

  5. Efficiency of portable antennas for detecting passive integrated transponder tags in stream-dwelling salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banish, Nolan P.; Burdick, Summer M.; Moyer, Katherine R.

    2016-01-01

    Portable antennas have become an increasingly common technique for tracking fish marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We used logistic regression to evaluate how species, fish length, and physical habitat characteristics influence portable antenna detection efficiency in stream-dwelling brown trout (Salmo trutta), bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii) marked with 12-mm PIT tags. We redetected 56% (20/36) of brown trout, 34% (68/202) of bull trout, and 33% (20/61) of redband trout after a recovery period of 21 to 46 hours. Models indicate support for length and species and minor support for percent boulder, large woody debris, and percent cobble as parameters important for describing variation in detection efficiency, although 95% confidence intervals for estimates were large. The odds of detecting brown trout (1.5 ± 2.2 [mean ± SE]) are approximately four times as high as bull trout (0.4 ± 1.6) or redband trout (0.3 ± 1.8) and species-specific differences may be related to length. Our reported detection efficiency for brown trout falls within the range of other studies, but is the first reported for bull trout and redband trout. Portable antennas may be a relatively unbiased way of redetecting varying sizes of all three salmonid species.

  6. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume VI; Assessment of Season-Wide Survival of Snake River Yearling Chinook Salmon, 1994-1996 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Perez-Comas, Jose A. (University of Washington, School of Fisheries, Fisheries Research Institute, Seattle, WA); Smith, Steven G. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA)

    1998-06-01

    Project 8910700, Epidemiological Survival Methods, was developed to provide statistical guidance on design and analysis of PIT-tag (Passive Integrated Transponder) survival studies to the Northwest fisheries community.

  7. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Idaho Supplementation Studies, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, Chris; Tabor, R.A.; Kinzer, Ryan (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes brood year 1999 juvenile production and emigration data and adult return information for 2000 for streams studied by the Nez Perce Tribe for the cooperative Idaho Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project. In order to provide inclusive juvenile data for brood year 1999, we include data on parr, presmolt, smolt and yearling captures. Therefore, our reporting period includes juvenile data collected from April 2000 through June 2001 for parr, presmolts, and smolts and through June 2002 for brood year 1999 yearling emigrants. Data presented in this report include; fish outplant data for treatment streams, snorkel and screw trap estimates of juvenile fish abundance, juvenile emigration profiles, juvenile survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam (LGJ), redd counts, and carcass data. There were no brood year 1999 treatments in Legendary Bear or Fishing Creek. As in previous years, snorkeling methods provided highly variable population estimates. Alternatively, rotary screw traps operated in Lake Creek and the Secesh River provided more precise estimates of juvenile abundance by life history type. Juvenile fish emigration in Lake Creek and the Secesh River peaked during July and August. Juveniles produced in this watershed emigrated primarily at age zero, and apparently reared in downstream habitats before detection as age one or older fish at the Snake and Columbia River dams. Over the course of the ISS study, PIT tag data suggest that smolts typically exhibit the highest relative survival to Lower Granite Dam (LGJ) compared to presmolts and parr, although we observed the opposite trend for brood year 1999 juvenile emigrants from the Secesh River. SURPH2 survival estimates for brood year 1999 Lake Creek parr, presmolt, and smolt PIT tag groups to (LGJ) were 27%, 39%, and 49% respectively, and 14%, 12%, and 5% for the Secesh River. In 2000, we counted 41 redds in Legendary Bear Creek, 4 in Fishing Creek, 5 in Slate Creek, 153 in the

  8. A Study to Determine the Biological Feasability of a New Fish Tagging System : Annual Report, 1986-1987.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, Earl F.; Flagg, T.A.

    1987-12-01

    In 1983, a multi-year project to evaluate the technical and biological feasibility of adapting a new identification system to salmonids was established. The system is based upon a miniaturized passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag. This report discusses the work completed and is divided into laboratory studies, field studies, and systems development. All studies were conducted using a glass-encapsulated tag implanted into the body cavity of test fish via a 12-gauge hypodermic needle. Laboratory studies with juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, showed that retention of glass-encapsulated PIT tags was 99-100% in fish weighing 3 g (mean weight) or larger. No adverse tissue response to the tag was noted. The survival of fish 5 g (mean weight) or larger was usually greater than 99%. However, fish ranging in weight from 2 to 4 g, or fish undergoing a physiological change such as smoltification may have a low mortality (usually less than 5.0%) after tagging. The mortality rate in the smaller fish was dependent upon tagging skill whereas mortality in smolting fish seemed dependent upon the level of stress. Growth comparisons between tagged and control fish indicated PIT-tagged fish had a slightly depressed growth rate at some measurement periods. The operational life of glass-encapsulated PIT tags implanted in fish was good, with 100% of the tags operating after 401 days. No tags were rejected from the fish during the observation period.

  9. A Study to Determine the Biological Feasability of a New Fish Tagging System : Annual Report, 1986-1987.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, Earl F.; Flagg, T.A.

    1987-12-01

    In 1983, a multi-year project to evaluate the technical and biological feasibility of adapting a new identification system to salmonids was established. The system is based upon a miniaturized passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag. This report discusses the work completed and is divided into laboratory studies, field studies, and systems development. All studies were conducted using a glass-encapsulated tag implanted into the body cavity of test fish via a 12-gauge hypodermic needle. Laboratory studies with juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, showed that retention of glass-encapsulated PIT tags was 99-100% in fish weighing 3 g (mean weight) or larger. No adverse tissue response to the tag was noted. The survival of fish 5 g (mean weight) or larger was usually greater than 99%. However, fish ranging in weight from 2 to 4 g, or fish undergoing a physiological change such as smoltification may have a low mortality (usually less than 5.0%) after tagging. The mortality rate in the smaller fish was dependent upon tagging skill whereas mortality in smolting fish seemed dependent upon the level of stress. Growth comparisons between tagged and control fish indicated PIT-tagged fish had a slightly depressed growth rate at some measurement periods. The operational life of glass-encapsulated PIT tags implanted in fish was good, with 100% of the tags operating after 401 days. No tags were rejected from the fish during the observation period.

  10. Study to Determine the Biological Feasibility of a New Fish Tagging System : Annual Report 1983.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, Earl F.; Park, D.L.

    1984-05-01

    Pacific salmon are tagged or marked as a critical part of numerous research and management studies. A new tag called the PIT (passive integrated transponder) tag measuring 7.5 mm long by 1.5 mm in diameter has a great potential for marking fish if it proves to be biologically compatible. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of the PIT tag for marking salmonids. The objectives of the first year's research were to determine: (1) the anatomical areas in which the tag could be placed; (2) tissue response to the tag; and (3) tag retention. Juvenile coho, Oncorhynchus kisutch, and chinook O. tshawytscha, salmon and adult chinook salmon held at Manchester or Big Beef Creek, Washington, were used as test animals. Juvenile salmon were injected with sham PIT tags in the body cavity and opercular, dorsal, and caudal masculature. The fish ranged in length from 126 to 212 mm. Observations based on three tests, from 44 to 102 days long, indicated that the dorsal musculature and body cavity were the best locations to inject the tag from biological and social standpoints. Sham PIT tags were injected into the nose; body cavity; and opercular, dorsal, and caudal musculature of jack chinook salmon. The test was conducted for 23 days. Although all five anatomical areas were acceptable from a technical standpoint, the body cavity appeared to be the best area for tag placement. Initial test results with the Sham PIT tag were very encouraging. Apparently the PIT tag can be successfully injected into and carried by salmon, making it a potentially useful tool for fisheries biologists. 5 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River Reservoirs, 1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, John G.; Bjornn (Bjomn), Theodore C.

    1998-05-01

    In 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the Nez Perce Tribe, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service completed the second year of cooperative research to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. In spring and early summer, we captured natural subyearling fall chinook salmon by beach seine, PIT tagged them, and released them in two reaches of the Snake River. Also, subyearling fall chinook salmon reared at Lyons Ferry Hatchery were PIT tagged at the hatchery, transported, and released weekly at Pittsburg Landing on the Snake River and Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River to collect data on survival detection probabilities, and travel time.

  12. MONITORING CULVERT PASSAGE OF JUVENILE SALMONIDS WITH PIT TAGS AND STATIONARY AND PORTABLE PIT-TAG READERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal land management agencies in the PNW face increasing pressure to replace culverts that do not pass all life history stages of anadromous salmon and trout. Prioritization of culverts for replacement is often based on the physical parameters of culverts, and not on how fish...

  13. A Study to Determine the Biological Feasibility of a New Fish Tagging System: Annual Report, 1985-1986.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, Earl F.; Park, D.L.; Flagg, T.A.; McCutcheon, S.

    1986-12-01

    An ongoing cooperative project between the Bonneville Power Administration and the National Marine Fisheries Service was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the technical and biological feasibility of adapting a new identification system to salmonids. The system is based upon the passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag. This report discusses the work completed in 1985 and is divided into laboratory and field studies. All studies were conducted with the tag implanted into the body cavity of the test fish via a 12-gauge hypodermic needle.

  14. Steelhead Supplementation Studies; Steelhead Supplementation in Idaho Rivers, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Alan

    2003-03-01

    The Steelhead Supplementation Study (SSS) has two broad objectives: (1) investigate the feasibility of supplementing depressed wild and natural steelhead populations using hatchery populations, and (2) describe the basic life history and genetic characteristics of wild and natural steelhead populations in the Salmon and Clearwater Basins. Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) personnel stocked adult steelhead from Sawtooth Fish Hatchery into Frenchman and Beaver creeks and estimated the number of age-1 parr produced from the outplants since 1993. On May 2, 2002, both Beaver and Frenchman creeks were stocked with hatchery adult steelhead. A SSS crew snorkeled the creeks in August 2002 to estimate the abundance of age-1 parr from brood year (BY) 2001. I estimated that the yield of age-1 parr per female stocked in 2001 was 7.3 and 6.7 in Beaver and Frenchman creeks, respectively. SSS crews stocked Dworshak hatchery stock fingerlings and smolts from 1993 to 1999 in the Red River drainage to assess which life stage produces more progeny when the adults return to spawn. In 2002, Clearwater Fish Hatchery personnel operated the Red River weir to trap adults that returned from these stockings. Twelve PIT-tagged adults from the smolt releases and one PIT-tagged adult from fingerling releases were detected during their migration up the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers, but none from either group were caught at the weir. The primary focus of the study has been monitoring and collecting life history information from wild steelhead populations. An adult weir has been operated annually since 1992 in Fish Creek, a tributary of the Lochsa River. The weir was damaged by a rain-on-snow event in April 2002 and although the weir remained intact, some adults were able to swim undetected through the weir. Despite damage to the weir, trap tenders captured 167 adult steelhead, the most fish since 1993. The maximum likelihood estimate of adult steelhead escapement was 242. A screw trap

  15. Steelhead Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1993 Annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Alan

    1996-01-01

    The Steelhead Supplementation Study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using artificial production to increase natural steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations and to collect baseline life history, genetic, and disease data from natural steelhead populations. To evaluate supplementation, the authors focused their experimental design on post-release survival, reproductive success, long-term fitness, and ecological interactions. They began field experiments in 1993 by outplanting hatchery adults and fingerlings to assess reproductive fitness and long-term survival. They snorkeled eight streams to estimate juvenile steelhead densities, recorded temperatures in 17 streams, and tagged natural steelhead in six streams with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags.

  16. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, William D.; Smith, Steven G.; Zabel, Richard W. (NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Center, Seattle, WA)

    2003-07-01

    In 2002, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the tenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,891 hatchery steelhead at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''Single-Release Model''). Primary research objectives in 2002 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2002 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  17. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2006-05-01

    In 2005, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the thirteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,439 hatchery steelhead, 5,315 wild steelhead, and 6,964 wild yearling Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''single-release model''). Primary research objectives in 2005 were: (1) Estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss. (2) Evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions. (3) Evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2005 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here.

  18. Statistical Survival Analysis of Fish and Wildlife Tagging Studies; SURPH.1 Manual - Analysis of Release-Recapture Data for Survival Studies, 1994 Technical Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven G.; Skalski, John R.; Schelechte, J. Warren [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Center for Quantitative Science

    1994-12-01

    Program SURPH is the culmination of several years of research to develop a comprehensive computer program to analyze survival studies of fish and wildlife populations. Development of this software was motivated by the advent of the PIT-tag (Passive Integrated Transponder) technology that permits the detection of salmonid smolt as they pass through hydroelectric facilities on the Snake and Columbia Rivers in the Pacific Northwest. Repeated detections of individually tagged smolt and analysis of their capture-histories permits estimates of downriver survival probabilities. Eventual installation of detection facilities at adult fish ladders will also permit estimation of ocean survival and upstream survival of returning salmon using the statistical methods incorporated in SURPH.1. However, the utility of SURPH.1 far exceeds solely the analysis of salmonid tagging studies. Release-recapture and radiotelemetry studies from a wide range of terrestrial and aquatic species have been analyzed using SURPH.1 to estimate discrete time survival probabilities and investigate survival relationships. The interactive computing environment of SURPH.1 was specifically developed to allow researchers to investigate the relationship between survival and capture processes and environmental, experimental and individual-based covariates. Program SURPH.1 represents a significant advancement in the ability of ecologists to investigate the interplay between morphologic, genetic, environmental and anthropogenic factors on the survival of wild species. It is hoped that this better understanding of risk factors affecting survival will lead to greater appreciation of the intricacies of nature and to improvements in the management of wild resources. This technical report is an introduction to SURPH.1 and provides a user guide for both the UNIX and MS-Windows{reg_sign} applications of the SURPH software.

  19. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabel, Richard; Williams, John G.; Smith, Steven G. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2002-06-01

    In 2001, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the ninth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tagged fish. We PIT tagged and released at Lower Granite Dam a total of 17,028 hatchery and 3,550 wild steelhead. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream of the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release Model. Primary research objectives in 2001 were to: (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2001 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures with a minimum of text. More details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited in the text. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  20. Idaho Supplementation Studies : 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitzinger, Eric J.; Plaster, Kurtis; Hassemer, Peter

    1996-12-01

    Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) will help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in Idaho as part of a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. The objectives are to: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; and (3) determine which supplementation strategies provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity. Field work began in 1991 with the collection of baseline data from treatment and some control streams. Full implementation began in 1992 with baseline data collection on treatment and control streams and releases of supplementation fish into several treatment streams. Field methods included snorkeling to estimate chinook salmon parr populations, PIT tagging summer parr to estimate parr-to-smolt survival, multiple redd counts to estimate spawning escapement and collect carcass information. Screw traps were used to trap and PIT tag outmigrating chinook salmon during the spring and fall outmigration. Weirs were used to trap and enumerate returning adult salmon in select drainages.

  1. Tagging age-1 Lost River and shortnose suckers with passive integrated transponders, Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon–Summary of 2009–11 effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.

    2012-01-01

    A passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagging study was initiated in 2009 for age-1 endangered Lost River and shortnose suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, for the purpose of examining causes of mortality, validating estimated age to maturity, and examining movement patterns. This study, which was done opportunistically in 2009 and 2010, received funding in 2011 for a directed tagging effort. Tags were redetected using an existing infrastructure of remote PIT tag readers and tag scanning surveys at American white pelican and double-crested cormorant breeding and loafing areas. Individual fish histories are used to describe the distance, direction, and timing of age-1 sucker movement. Sucker PIT tag detections in the Sprague and Williamson rivers in mid-summer and in autumn indicate age-1 suckers use these tributaries outside of the known spring spawning season. PIT tags detected in bird habitats indicate predation by birds may have been a cause of mortality in 2009. Field conditions prevented scanning bird breeding and loafing areas in Upper Klamath Wildlife National Refuge for tags in 2011, however, limiting our ability to make inferences about bird predation in those years.

  2. Tracking rodent-dispersed large seeds with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suselbeek, L.; Jansen, P.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Steele, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    1.Seed dispersal, a critical phase in the life history of many plants, is poorly understood due to the difficulty of tracking and monitoring dispersing seeds until they reach their ultimate fate. Scatter-hoarding rodents play a substantial part in the seed dispersal process of many plant species,

  3. Tracking rodent-dispersed large seeds with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suselbeek, L.; Jansen, P.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Steele, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    1.Seed dispersal, a critical phase in the life history of many plants, is poorly understood due to the difficulty of tracking and monitoring dispersing seeds until they reach their ultimate fate. Scatter-hoarding rodents play a substantial part in the seed dispersal process of many plant species, ho

  4. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocklage, Stephen J. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Snake River stock) yearling fall chinook salmon that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam along with yearlings released on-station from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in 1998. The three fall chinook acclimation facilities are operated by the Nez Perce Tribe and located at Pittsburg Landing and Captain John Rapids on the Snake River and at Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River. Yearlings at the Big Canyon facility consisted of two size classes that are referred to in this report as 9.5 fish per pound (fpp) and 30 fpp. The Big Canyon 9.5 fpp were comparable to the yearlings at Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids and Lyons Ferry Hatchery. A total of 9,942 yearlings were PIT tagged and released at Pittsburg Landing. PIT tagged yearlings had a mean fork length of 159.9 mm and mean condition factor of 1.19. Of the 9,942 PIT tagged fish released, a total of 6,836 unique tags were detected at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental and McNary). A total of 4,926 9.5 fpp and 2,532 30 fpp yearlings were PIT tagged and released at Big Canyon. PIT tagged 9.5 fpp yearlings had a mean fork length of 156.9 mm and mean condition factor of 1.13. PIT tagged 30 fpp yearlings had a mean fork length of 113.1 mm and mean condition factor of 1.18. Of the 4,926 PIT tagged 9.5 fpp yearlings released, a total of 3,042 unique tags were detected at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams. Of the 2,532 PIT tagged 30 fpp yearlings released, a total of 1,130 unique tags were detected at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams. A total of 1,253 yearlings were PIT tagged and released at Captain John Rapids. PIT tagged yearlings had a mean fork length of 147.5 mm and mean condition factor of 1.09. Of

  5. Correlation methods in fingerprint detection studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santer, B.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.; Jones, P.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States))

    1993-07-01

    This investigation addresses two general issues regarding the role of pattern similarity statistics in greenhouse warming detection studies: normalization, and the relative merits of centered versus uncentered statistics. A pattern correlation statistic is used to search for the greenhouse warming signals predicted by five different models in the observed records of land and ocean surface temperature changes. Two forms of this statistic were computed: R(t), which makes use of non-normalized data, and R(t), which employs point-wise normalized data in order to focus the search on regions where the signal-to-noise ratio is large. While there are no trends in the R(t) time series, the time series of R(t) show large positive trends. However, it is not possible to infer from the R(t) results that the observed pattern of temperature change is, in fact, becoming increasingly similar to the model-predicted signal. It is shown that trends in R(t) must arise almost completely from the observed data, and cannot be an indicator of increasing observed data/signal similarity. The most informative pattern correlation statistic for detection purposes is R(t), the standard product-moment correlation coefficient between the observed and model fields. Our failure to find meaningful trends in R(t) may be due to the fact that the signal is being obscured by the background noise of natural variability, and/or because of incorrect model signals or sensitivities.

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENTEDGE DETECTION TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Beant Kaur,; Anil Garg

    2011-01-01

    Detection of edge is a terminology in image processing and computer vision particularly in the areas of feature detection and extraction to refer to the algorithms which aims at identifying points in a digital image at which the image brightness changes sharply or more formally has discontinuities. The need of edge detection is to find the discontinuities in depth, discontinuities in surface orientation, changes in material properties and variations in scene illumination. Remote sensing image...

  7. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON LIP AND SMILE DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryuanto Sutedjo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a lip and smile detection method based-on the normalized RGB chromaticity diagram. The method employs the popular Viola-Jones detection method to detect the face. To avoid the false positive, the eye detector is introduced in the detection stage. Only the face candidates with the detected eyes are considered as the face. Once the face is detected, the lip region is localized using the simple geometric rule. Further, the the red color thresholding based-on the normalized RGB chromaticity diagram is proposed to extract the lip. The projection technique is employed for detecting the smile state. From the experiment results, the proposed method achieves the lip detection rate of 97% and the smile detection rate of 94%. Paper ini menyajikan medote pendeteksi bibir dan senyum berdasarkan diagram tingkat kromatis RGB ternormalisasi. Metode ini menggunakan metode Viola-Jones yang populer untuk mendeteksi wajah. Untuk menghindari kesalahan positif, detektor mata diperkenalkan pada tahapan deteksi. Hanya kandidat wajah dengan mata yang telah terdeteksi yang dianggap sebagai wajah. Setelah wajah dideteksi, bagian bibir ditempatkan dengan menggunakan aturan geometris sederhana. Selanjutnya, batasan warna merah berdasarkan pada diagram kromatisitas RGB ternormalisasi digunakan untuk mengekstrak bibir. Teknik proyeksi digunakan untuk mendeteksi keadaan tersenyum. Dari hasil percobaan, metode yang diusulkan mencapai 97% untuk tingkat deteksi bibir dan 94% untuk tingkat deteksi senyum.

  8. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulkner, James R.; Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D. [Northwest Fisheries Science Center

    2009-06-23

    In 2008, the National Marine Fisheries Service completed the sixteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,565 hatchery steelhead O. mykiss, 15,991 wild steelhead, and 9,714 wild yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. These included 122,061 yearling Chinook salmon tagged at Lower Granite Dam for evaluation of latent mortality related to passage through Snake River dams. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the single-release model). Primary research objectives in 2008 were to: (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead, (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions, and (3) evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2008 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Survival

  9. Wildlife Contact Rates at Artificial Feeding Sites in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Tyler A.; Long, David B.; Shriner, Susan A.

    2013-06-01

    Given the popularity of feeding white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) in Texas and the increasing amount of corn that is distributed, more information is needed on the impacts of this activity on non-target wildlife. Our objectives were to report visitation, intra- and interspecific contact, and contact rates of wildlife at artificial feeding sites in Texas. Our study was conducted at three sites in Kleberg and Nueces counties, Texas. We trapped animals from February to April and August to September, 2009 and marked animals with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. At each site and season, we placed one feeder system containing a PIT tag reader within 600 m of trap locations. Readers detected PIT tags from a distance of 25 cm. We determined a contact event to occur when two different PIT tags were detected by feeder systems within 5 s. We recorded 62,719 passes by raccoons ( Procyon lotor), 103,512 passes by collared peccaries ( Pecari tajacu), 2,923 passes by feral swine ( Sus scrofa), 1,336 passes by fox squirrels ( Sciurus niger), and no passes by opossums ( Didelphis virginiana) at feeder systems. For site-season combinations in which contact events occurred, we found intraspecific contact rates (contacts per day) for raccoons, collared peccaries, and feral swine to be 0.81-124.77, 0.69-38.08, and 0.0-0.66, respectively. Throughout our study we distributed ~2,625 kg of whole kernel corn, which resulted in 6,351 contact events between marked wildlife (2.4 contacts per kg of corn). If 136 million kg of corn is distributed in Texas annually, we would expect >5.2 billion unnatural contact events between wildlife would result from this activity each year in Texas. Consequently, we do not believe that it is wise for natural resource managers to maintain artificial feeding sites for white-tailed deer or other wildlife due to pathogen transmission risks.

  10. Evidence-based detection of pulmonary arterial hypertension in systemic sclerosis: the DETECT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coghlan, J.G.; Denton, C.P.; Grunig, E.; Bonderman, D.; Distler, O.; Khanna, D.; Muller-Ladner, U.; Pope, J.E.; Vonk, M.C.; Doelberg, M.; Chadha-Boreham, H.; Heinzl, H.; Rosenberg, D.M.; McLaughlin, V.V.; Seibold, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Earlier detection of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a leading cause of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc), facilitates earlier treatment. The objective of this study was to develop the first evidence-based detection algorithm for PAH in SSc. METHODS: In this cross-sectional, intern

  11. Evidence-based detection of pulmonary arterial hypertension in systemic sclerosis: the DETECT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coghlan, J.G.; Denton, C.P.; Grunig, E.; Bonderman, D.; Distler, O.; Khanna, D.; Muller-Ladner, U.; Pope, J.E.; Vonk, M.C.; Doelberg, M.; Chadha-Boreham, H.; Heinzl, H.; Rosenberg, D.M.; McLaughlin, V.V.; Seibold, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Earlier detection of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a leading cause of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc), facilitates earlier treatment. The objective of this study was to develop the first evidence-based detection algorithm for PAH in SSc. METHODS: In this cross-sectional,

  12. Detecting Discrimination in Audit and Correspondence Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David

    2012-01-01

    Audit studies testing for discrimination have been criticized because applicants from different groups may not appear identical to employers. Correspondence studies address this criticism by using fictitious paper applicants whose qualifications can be made identical across groups. However, Heckman and Siegelman (1993) show that group differences…

  13. Detecting Discrimination in Audit and Correspondence Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David

    2012-01-01

    Audit studies testing for discrimination have been criticized because applicants from different groups may not appear identical to employers. Correspondence studies address this criticism by using fictitious paper applicants whose qualifications can be made identical across groups. However, Heckman and Siegelman (1993) show that group differences…

  14. Studying Irony Detection Beyond Ironic Criticism: Let's Include Ironic Praise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruntsch, Richard; Ruch, Willibald

    2017-01-01

    Studies of irony detection have commonly used ironic criticisms (i.e., mock positive evaluation of negative circumstances) as stimulus materials. Another basic type of verbal irony, ironic praise (i.e., mock negative evaluation of positive circumstances) is largely absent from studies on individuals' aptitude to detect verbal irony. However, it can be argued that ironic praise needs to be considered in order to investigate the detection of irony in the variety of its facets. To explore whether the detection ironic praise has a benefit beyond ironic criticism, three studies were conducted. In Study 1, an instrument (Test of Verbal Irony Detection Aptitude; TOVIDA) was constructed and its factorial structure was tested using N = 311 subjects. The TOVIDA contains 26 scenario-based items and contains two scales for the detection of ironic criticism vs. ironic praise. To validate the measurement method, the two scales of the TOVIDA were experimentally evaluated with N = 154 subjects in Study 2. In Study 3, N = 183 subjects were tested to explore personality and ability correlates of the two TOVIDA scales. Results indicate that the co-variance between the ironic TOVIDA items was organized by two inter-correlated but distinct factors: one representing ironic praise detection aptitude and one representing ironic criticism detection aptitude. Experimental validation showed that the TOVIDA items truly contain irony and that item scores reflect irony detection. Trait bad mood and benevolent humor (as a facet of the sense of humor) were found as joint correlates for both ironic criticism and ironic praise detection scores. In contrast, intelligence, trait cheerfulness, and corrective humor were found as unique correlates of ironic praise detection scores, even when statistically controlling for the aptitude to detect ironic criticism. Our results indicate that the aptitude to detect ironic praise can be seen as distinct from the aptitude to detect ironic criticism. Generating

  15. Correlation studies on surface particle detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ronald V.; White, James C.

    1988-01-01

    The accurate determination of dust levels on optical surfaces is necessary to assess sensor system performance. A comparison study was made on several particle measurement methods including those based on direct imaging and light scattering. The effectiveness of removing the particles from the surface prior to determining particle size distributions was also assessed. These studies revealed that some methods, especially those requiring particle removal before analysis, are subject to large systematic errors affecting particle size distributions. Thus, an understanding of the particle measurement methods employed is necessary before any surface cleanliness or obstruction value assignments are accepted as true representations of an optical surface contamination condition.

  16. Special nuclear material detection studies with the SMANDRA mobile system

    OpenAIRE

    Cester, D.; Nebbia, G.; Stevanato, L.; G. Viesti; Neri, F; Petrucci, S; S. Selmi; Tintori, C.; PEERANI, P; Tomanin, Alice

    2012-01-01

    The detection of special nuclear material has been studied with the SMANDRA mobile inspection system used both as a high sensitivity passive neutron/gamma spectroscopic tool and as an active inspection device using tagged neutrons. The detection of plutonium samples is possible with passive interrogation, the passive detection of uranium being much more difficult because of the low neutron yield and of the easiness of shielding the gamma rays. However, we show that active interrogation with t...

  17. Study of Computational Intelligence Algorithms to Detect Behaviour Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Palero Molina, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve the game flow and increase player retention, it is important that games difficulty matches player skills. As a consequence, to evaluate how people play a game is a crucial component, because detecting gamers strategies in video-games, it is possible to fix the game difficulty. The main problem to detect the strategies is whether attributes selected to define the strategies correctly detect the actions of the player. To study the player strategies, we will us...

  18. Comparative Study of Various Techniques on Outlier Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K, Varma Mamta and Rajesh Nigam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Diverse patterns from web data, commonly referred to as web outliers or exceptional cases or noise; exist in many real-world databases. Detection of such outliers is important for numerous applications, such as detecting criminal activities in E-commerce. Outliers are data objects with different characteristics compared to other data objects. Formal definition of outliers is given by D.Hawkins. as “An Outlier is an observation that deviates so much from other observations so that it arouses suspicion that it is generated by a different mechanism”. Detection of such outliers (outlier mining is important for numerous applications, such as detecting criminal activities in E-commerce, video surveillance, weather prediction, intrusion detection and pharmaceutical research. This paper has focus on comparative study of various techniques on Outlier Detection.

  19. The simulation study on optical target laser active detection performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-chun; Hou, Zhao-fei; Fan, Youchen

    2014-12-01

    According to the working principle of laser active detection system, the paper establishes the optical target laser active detection simulation system, carry out the simulation study on the detection process and detection performance of the system. For instance, the performance model such as the laser emitting, the laser propagation in the atmosphere, the reflection of optical target, the receiver detection system, the signal processing and recognition. We focus on the analysis and modeling the relationship between the laser emitting angle and defocus amount and "cat eye" effect echo laser in the reflection of optical target. Further, in the paper some performance index such as operating range, SNR and the probability of the system have been simulated. The parameters including laser emitting parameters, the reflection of the optical target and the laser propagation in the atmosphere which make a great influence on the performance of the optical target laser active detection system. Finally, using the object-oriented software design methods, the laser active detection system with the opening type, complete function and operating platform, realizes the process simulation that the detection system detect and recognize the optical target, complete the performance simulation of each subsystem, and generate the data report and the graph. It can make the laser active detection system performance models more intuitive because of the visible simulation process. The simulation data obtained from the system provide a reference to adjust the structure of the system parameters. And it provides theoretical and technical support for the top level design of the optical target laser active detection system and performance index optimization.

  20. A simulation study comparing aberration detection algorithms for syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Painter Ian

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The usefulness of syndromic surveillance for early outbreak detection depends in part on effective statistical aberration detection. However, few published studies have compared different detection algorithms on identical data. In the largest simulation study conducted to date, we compared the performance of six aberration detection algorithms on simulated outbreaks superimposed on authentic syndromic surveillance data. Methods We compared three control-chart-based statistics, two exponential weighted moving averages, and a generalized linear model. We simulated 310 unique outbreak signals, and added these to actual daily counts of four syndromes monitored by Public Health – Seattle and King County's syndromic surveillance system. We compared the sensitivity of the six algorithms at detecting these simulated outbreaks at a fixed alert rate of 0.01. Results Stratified by baseline or by outbreak distribution, duration, or size, the generalized linear model was more sensitive than the other algorithms and detected 54% (95% CI = 52%–56% of the simulated epidemics when run at an alert rate of 0.01. However, all of the algorithms had poor sensitivity, particularly for outbreaks that did not begin with a surge of cases. Conclusion When tested on county-level data aggregated across age groups, these algorithms often did not perform well in detecting signals other than large, rapid increases in case counts relative to baseline levels.

  1. Special nuclear material detection studies with the SMANDRA mobile system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cester, D.; Nebbia, G.; Stevanato, L.; Viesti, G.; Neri, F.; Petrucci, S.; Selmi, S.; Tintori, C.; Peerani, P.; Tomanin, A.

    2012-02-01

    The detection of special nuclear material has been studied with the SMANDRA mobile inspection system used both as a high sensitivity passive neutron/gamma spectroscopic tool and as an active inspection device using tagged neutrons. The detection of plutonium samples is possible with passive interrogation, the passive detection of uranium being much more difficult because of the low neutron yield and of the easiness of shielding the gamma rays. However, we show that active interrogation with tagged neutrons is able to provide signatures for the discrimination of uranium against other materials.

  2. Study on Dim Target Detection and Discrimination from Sea Clutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-guang; SUN Zuo-wei; LI Chen-ming; WANG Jun

    2013-01-01

    Dim target detection from sea clutter is one of the difficult topics in ocean remote sensing application.By aiming at the shortcoming of false alarms when using track before detect (TBD) based on dynamic programming,a new discrimination method called statistics of direction histogram (SDH) is proposed,which is based on different features of trajectories between the true target and false one.Moreover,a new series of discrimination schemes of SDH and Local Extreme Value method (LEV) are studied and applied to simulate the actually measured radar data.The results show that the given discrimination is effective to reduce false alarms during dim targets detection.

  3. Myocardial defect detection using PET-CT: phantom studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene S Mananga

    Full Text Available It is expected that both noise and activity distribution can have impact on the detectability of a myocardial defect in a cardiac PET study. In this work, we performed phantom studies to investigate the detectability of a defect in the myocardium for different noise levels and activity distributions. We evaluated the performance of three reconstruction schemes: Filtered Back-Projection (FBP, Ordinary Poisson Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OP-OSEM, and Point Spread Function corrected OSEM (PSF-OSEM. We used the Channelized Hotelling Observer (CHO for the task of myocardial defect detection. We found that the detectability of a myocardial defect is almost entirely dependent on the noise level and the contrast between the defect and its surroundings.

  4. Myocardial defect detection using PET-CT: phantom studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mananga, Eugene S; El Fakhri, Georges; Schaefferkoetter, Joshua; Bonab, Ali A; Ouyang, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    It is expected that both noise and activity distribution can have impact on the detectability of a myocardial defect in a cardiac PET study. In this work, we performed phantom studies to investigate the detectability of a defect in the myocardium for different noise levels and activity distributions. We evaluated the performance of three reconstruction schemes: Filtered Back-Projection (FBP), Ordinary Poisson Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OP-OSEM), and Point Spread Function corrected OSEM (PSF-OSEM). We used the Channelized Hotelling Observer (CHO) for the task of myocardial defect detection. We found that the detectability of a myocardial defect is almost entirely dependent on the noise level and the contrast between the defect and its surroundings.

  5. Study and Comparison of Various Techniques of Image Edge Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjeet Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An edge may be defined as a set of connected pixels that forms a boundary between two disjoints regions. Image Edge detection reduces the amount of data and filters out useless information, while preserving the important structural properties in an image. Edge detection plays an important role in digital image processing and practical aspects of our daily life. In this paper we studied various edge detection techniques as Prewitt, Robert, Sobel, LoG and Canny operators. On comparing them we conclude that canny edge detector performs better than all other edge detectors on various aspects such as it is adaptive in nature, performs better for noisy image, gives sharp edges, low probability of detecting false edges.

  6. Nanobarcoding for improved nanoparticle detection in nanomedical biodistribution studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustaquio, Trisha

    Determination of the fate of nanoparticles (NPs) in a biological system, or NP biodistribution, is critical in evaluating a NP formulation for nanomedicine. Unlike small-molecule drugs, NPs impose unique challenges in the design of appropriate biodistribution studies due to their small size and subsequent detection signal. Current methods to determine NP biodistribution are greatly inadequate due to their limited detection thresholds. There is an overwhelming need for a sensitive and efficient imaging-based method that can (1) detect and measure small numbers of NPs of various types, ideally single NPs, (2) associate preferential NP uptake with histological cell type by preserving spatial information in samples, and (3) allow for relatively quick and accurate NP detection in in vitro (and possibly ex vivo) samples for comprehensive NP biodistribution studies. Herein, a novel method for improved NP detection is proposed, coined "nanobarcoding." Nanobarcoding utilizes a non-endogenous oligonucleotide, or "nanobarcode" (NB), conjugated to the NP surface to amplify the detection signal from a single NP via in situ polymerase chain reaction (ISPCR), and this signal amplification will facilitate rapid and precise detection of single NPs inside cells over large areas of sample such that more sophisticated studies can be performed on the NP-positive subpopulation. Moreover, nanobarcoding has the potential to be applied to the detection of more than one NP type to study the effects of physicochemical properties, targeting mechanisms, and route of entry on NP biodistribution. The nanobarcoding method was validated in vitro using NB-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (NB-SPIONs) as the model NP type for improved NP detection inside HeLa human cervical cancer cells, a cell line commonly used for ISPCR-mediated detection of human papilloma virus (HPV). Nanotoxicity effects of NB-SPIONs were also evaluated at the single-cell level using LEAP (Laser-Enabled Analysis

  7. Sensor integration study for a shallow tunnel detection system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Mark L.; Abbott, Robert E.; Bonal, Nedra; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Senglaub, Michael E.

    2010-02-01

    During the past several years, there has been a growing recognition of the threats posed by the use of shallow tunnels against both international border security and the integrity of critical facilities. This has led to the development and testing of a variety of geophysical and surveillance techniques for the detection of these clandestine tunnels. The challenges of detection of these tunnels arising from the complexity of the near surface environment, the subtlety of the tunnel signatures themselves, and the frequent siting of these tunnels in urban environments with a high level of cultural noise, have time and again shown that any single technique is not robust enough to solve the tunnel detection problem in all cases. The question then arises as to how to best combine the multiple techniques currently available to create an integrated system that results in the best chance of detecting these tunnels in a variety of clutter environments and geologies. This study utilizes Taguchi analysis with simulated sensor detection performance to address this question. The analysis results show that ambient noise has the most effect on detection performance over the effects of tunnel characteristics and geological factors.

  8. Experimental Study of Breast Cancer Detection Using UWB Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A. Alshehri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer detection using UWB imaging is presented in this paper. The study is performed experimentally. Homogeneous breast phantom is constructed using pure petroleum jelly. The tumor is modeled using mixture of water and wheat flour. The breast fatty tissue and tumor tissue are put in breast shaped glass which mimics the skin. The dielectric properties values are comparable to previous study. Neural Network (NN was trained and tested using feature vector which is prepared by performing discrete cosine transform (DCT of the received UWB signals. Very encouraging results were obtained. Up to 100 % tumor existence detection was achieved. Tumor size and location detection rate were 91.3% and 95.6% respectively.

  9. Survival of Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Free-flowing Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs in 2003 and from McNary Dam Tailrace to John Day Dam Tailrace in the Columbia River from 1999 to 2002, 1999-2003 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, William D.; Axel, Gordon A.; Smith, Steven G. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2004-12-01

    We report results from an ongoing study of survival and travel time of subyearling fall Chinook salmon in the Snake River during 2003 and in the Columbia River during 1999-2002. Earlier years of the study included serial releases of PIT-tagged hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon upstream from Lower Granite Dam, but these were discontinued in 2003. Instead, we estimated survival from a large number of PIT-tagged fish released upstream from Lower Granite Dam to evaluate transportation from Snake River Dams. During late May and early June 2003, 68,572 hatchery-reared subyearling fall Chinook salmon were PIT tagged at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, trucked upstream, acclimated, and released at Couse Creek and Pittsburg Landing in the free-flowing Snake River. We estimated survival for these fish from release to Lower Granite Dam tailrace. In comparison to wild subyearling fall Chinook salmon PIT tagged and released in the free-flowing Snake River, the hatchery fish we released traveled faster and had higher survival to Lower Granite Dam, likely because of their larger size at release. For fish left in the river to migrate we estimated survival from Lower Granite Dam tailrace to McNary Dam tailrace. Each year, a small proportion of fish released are not detected until the following spring. However, the number of fish released in 2003 that overwintered in the river and were detected as they migrated seaward as yearlings in 2004 was small (<1.0%) and had minimal effect on survival estimates. We evaluated a prototype floating PIT-tag detector deployed upstream from Lower Granite reservoir to collect data for use in partitioning travel time and survival between free-flowing and reservoir habitats. The floating detector performed poorly, detecting only 27 PIT tags in 340 h of operation from a targeted release of 68,572; far too few to partition travel time and survival between habitats. We collected river-run subyearling Chinook salmon (mostly wild fish from the Hanford Reach) at Mc

  10. Rule bending by morally disengaged detectives : an ethnographic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyens, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Rule bending is a well-known practice in policing worldwide, often linked to 'noble cause corruption'. This ethnographic study shows how police detectives sometimes consider to creatively bend rules when rule abidance would lead to other values being jeopardized. This paper illustrates that the theo

  11. Curvilinear shapes and the snake detection hypothesis : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Christiaans, Gerwin; Franken, Ingmar H A; Huijding, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    Consistent with the snake detection hypothesis, previous ERP studies have established a larger early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to pictures depicting snakes than to pictures depicting other creatures. Here, we examined to what extent the curvilinear shape of the snake's body drives the l

  12. Soybean allergen detection methods--a comparison study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M. Højgaard; Holzhauser, T.; Bisson, C.

    2008-01-01

    Soybean containing products are widely consumed, thus reliable methods for detection of soy in foods are needed in order to make appropriate risk assessment studies to adequately protect soy allergic patients. Six methods were compared using eight food products with a declared content of soy...

  13. Curvilinear shapes and the snake detection hypothesis : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Christiaans, Gerwin; Franken, Ingmar H A; Huijding, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    Consistent with the snake detection hypothesis, previous ERP studies have established a larger early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to pictures depicting snakes than to pictures depicting other creatures. Here, we examined to what extent the curvilinear shape of the snake's body drives the l

  14. Detection of small low emission sources - case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, A; Hristova, Y; Kuchment, P; Ragusa, J; Charlton, W; Allmaras, M

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to a further study of the Compton camera method of passive detection of small amounts of special nuclear materials, developed by the authors in their previous work. Various cargo scenarios, detector errors, and other issues are addressed.

  15. THE ACOUSTIC DETECTION OF INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSMS - A CLINICAL-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANBRUGGEN, AC; MOOIJ, JJA; JOURNEE, HL

    1991-01-01

    A new recording method for the acoustical detection of intracranial aneurysms is presented. A study examining the capability of the method to discriminate between patients with an aneurysm and control patients by a simple, objective parameter is reported. Sound signals were recorded over the eyes, a

  16. Fall detection using supervised machine learning algorithms: A comparative study

    KAUST Repository

    Zerrouki, Nabil

    2017-01-05

    Fall incidents are considered as the leading cause of disability and even mortality among older adults. To address this problem, fall detection and prevention fields receive a lot of intention over the past years and attracted many researcher efforts. We present in the current study an overall performance comparison between fall detection systems using the most popular machine learning approaches which are: Naïve Bayes, K nearest neighbor, neural network, and support vector machine. The analysis of the classification power associated to these most widely utilized algorithms is conducted on two fall detection databases namely FDD and URFD. Since the performance of the classification algorithm is inherently dependent on the features, we extracted and used the same features for all classifiers. The classification evaluation is conducted using different state of the art statistical measures such as the overall accuracy, the F-measure coefficient, and the area under ROC curve (AUC) value.

  17. Webcams for bird detection and monitoring: a demonstration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Willem W; Vermeulen, Bart; Stuckens, Jan; Lhermitte, Stefaan; Van der Zande, Dimitry; Van Ranst, Marc; Coppin, Pol

    2010-01-01

    Better insights into bird migration can be a tool for assessing the spread of avian borne infections or ecological/climatologic issues reflected in deviating migration patterns. This paper evaluates whether low budget permanent cameras such as webcams can offer a valuable contribution to the reporting of migratory birds. An experimental design was set up to study the detection capability using objects of different size, color and velocity. The results of the experiment revealed the minimum size, maximum velocity and contrast of the objects required for detection by a standard webcam. Furthermore, a modular processing scheme was proposed to track and follow migratory birds in webcam recordings. Techniques such as motion detection by background subtraction, stereo vision and lens distortion were combined to form the foundation of the bird tracking algorithm. Additional research to integrate webcam networks, however, is needed and future research should enforce the potential of the processing scheme by exploring and testing alternatives of each individual module or processing step.

  18. Initial study of Schroedinger eigenmaps for spectral target detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado-Munoz, Leidy P.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-08-01

    Spectral target detection refers to the process of searching for a specific material with a known spectrum over a large area containing materials with different spectral signatures. Traditional target detection methods in hyperspectral imagery (HSI) require assuming the data fit some statistical or geometric models and based on the model, to estimate parameters for defining a hypothesis test, where one class (i.e., target class) is chosen over the other classes (i.e., background class). Nonlinear manifold learning methods such as Laplacian eigenmaps (LE) have extensively shown their potential use in HSI processing, specifically in classification or segmentation. Recently, Schroedinger eigenmaps (SE), which is built upon LE, has been introduced as a semisupervised classification method. In SE, the former Laplacian operator is replaced by the Schroedinger operator. The Schroedinger operator includes by definition, a potential term V that steers the transformation in certain directions improving the separability between classes. In this regard, we propose a methodology for target detection that is not based on the traditional schemes and that does not need the estimation of statistical or geometric parameters. This method is based on SE, where the potential term V is taken into consideration to include the prior knowledge about the target class and use it to steer the transformation in directions where the target location in the new space is known and the separability between target and background is augmented. An initial study of how SE can be used in a target detection scheme for HSI is shown here. In-scene pixel and spectral signature detection approaches are presented. The HSI data used comprise various target panels for testing simultaneous detection of multiple objects with different complexities.

  19. Methow River Studies, Washington: abundance estimates from Beaver Creek and the Chewuch River screw trap, methodology testing in the Whitefish Island side channel, and survival and detection estimates from hatchery fish releases, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Kyle D.; Fish, Teresa M.; Watson, Grace A.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    , leaving one large pool near the bottom of the side channel and several shallow isolated pools that may or may not go dry. In seasonally connected side channels, juvenile salmonid survival in pools less than 100 cm average depth was lower than in pools greater than 100 cm average depth (Martens and Connolly, 2014). In this report, we document our field work and analysis completed in 2013. During 2013, USGS sampling efforts were focused on resampling of three reaches in Beaver Creek, testing methodology in the Whitefish Island side channel, conducting hatchery survival estimates, and operating a screw trap on the Chewuch River (funded by Yakama Nation; fig. 1). The Beaver Creek sampling effort was a revisit of three index sites sampled continuously from 2004 to 2007 to look at the fish response to barrier removal. Methodology testing in Whitefish Island side channel was done to determine the best method for evaluating fish populations after restoration efforts in side channels (previous sampling methods were determined to be ineffective after pools were deepened). Hatchery survival estimates were completed to monitor fish survival in the Methow and Columbia Rivers, while the screw trap was operated to estimate migrating fish populations in the Chewuch River and track passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tagged fish. In addition, we maintained a network of PIT-tag interrogation systems (PTIS), assisted Reclamation with fish removal events associated with stream restoration (two people for 9 days; 14 percent of summer field season), and conducted a stream metabolism study designed to help parameterize and calibrate the stream productivity model (Bellmore and others, 2014) with model validation.

  20. Single and few photon avalanche photodiode detection process study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Josef; Prochazka, Ivan

    2009-07-01

    We are presenting the results of the study of the Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) pulse response risetime and its dependence on several key parameters. We were investigating the unique properties of K14 type SPAD with its high delay uniformity of 200 μm active area and the correlation between the avalanche buildup time and the photon number involved in the avalanche trigger. The detection chip was operated in a passive quenching circuit with active gating. This setup enabled us to monitor the diode reverse current using an electrometer, a fast digitizing oscilloscope, and using a custom design comparator circuit. The electrometer reading enabled to estimate the photon number per detection event, independently on avalanche process. The avalanche build up was recorded on the oscilloscope and processed by custom designed waveform analysis package. The correlation of avalanche build up to the photon number, bias above break, photon absorption location, optical pulse length and photon energy was investigated in detail. The experimental results are presented. The existing solid state photon counting detectors have been dedicated for picosecond resolution and timing stability of single photon events. However, the high timing stability is maintained for individual single photons detection, only. If more than one photon is absorbed within the detector time resolution, the detection delay will be significantly affected. This fact is restricting the application of the solid state photon counters to cases where single photons may be guaranteed, only. For laser ranging purposes it is highly desirable to have a detector, which detects both single photon and multi photon signals with picoseconds stability. The SPAD based photon counter works in a purely digital mode: a uniform output signal is generated once the photon is detected. If the input signal consists of several photons, the first absorbed one triggers the avalanche. Obviously, for multiple photon signals, the

  1. Early caries detection: comparison of two procedures. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Caries is one of the most common chronic diseases and the main cause of tooth loss. Early detection provides a better evaluation of the disease and improves the chances to succeed of prevention strategies. This pilot study aims to compare the effectiveness of ICDAS-II system (International Caries Detection and Assessment System and the fluorescence terminal (Proof of VistaCam iX intraoral camera, in the early diagnosis and assessment of caries in permanent teeth. Results shows a fair correlation between ICDAS II and VistaCam iX Proof; intraoral camera proved to be a useful support to the ICDAS II visual / tactile monitoring of carious lesions in occlusal surfaces.

  2. A STUDY OF SPAM DETECTION ALGORITHM ON SOCIAL MEDIA NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Jacob Soman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world, the issue of identifying spammers has received increasing attention because of its practical relevance in the field of social network analysis. The growing popularity of social networking sites has made them prime targets for spammers. By allowing users to publicize and share their independently generated content, online social networks become susceptible to different types of malicious and opportunistic user actions. Social network community users are fed with irrelevant information while surfing, due to spammer’s activity. Spam pervades any information system such as e-mail or web, social, blog or reviews platform. Therefore, this study attempts to review various spam detection frameworks which deals about the detection and elimination of spams in various sources.

  3. Studies of acoustic neutrino detection methods with ANTARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, K., E-mail: kay.graf@physik.uni-erlangen.d [ECAP, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-01-21

    The emission of neutrinos within a wide energy range is predicted from very-high-energy phenomena in the Universe. Even the current or next-generation Cherenkov neutrino telescopes might be too small to detect the faint fluxes expected for cosmic neutrinos with energies exceeding the EeV scale. The acoustic detection method is a promising option to enlarge the discovery potential in this highest-energy regime. In a possible future deep-sea detector, the pressure waves produced in a neutrino interaction could be detected by a {>=}100km{sup 3}-sized array of acoustic sensors, even if it is sparsely instrumented with about 100 sensors/km{sup 3}. This article focuses on the AMADEUS set-up of acoustic sensors, which is an integral part of the ANTARES detector. The main aim of the project is a feasibility study towards a future acoustic neutrino detector. However, the experience gained with the ANTARES-AMADEUS hybrid opto-acoustic set-up can also be transferred to future very large volume optical neutrino telescopes, especially for the position calibration of the detector structures using acoustic sensors.

  4. Study on the influence factors of camouflage target polarization detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanhua; Chen, Lei; Li, Xia; Wu, Wenyuan

    2016-10-01

    The degree of linear polarization (DOLP) expressions at any polarizer direction (PD) was deduced based on the Stokes vector and Mueller matrix. The outdoors experiments were carried out to demonstrate the expressions. This paper mainly explored the DOLP-image-Contrast (DOLPC) between the target image and the background image, and the PD and RGB waveband that be considered two important influence factors were studied for camouflage target polarization detection. It was found that the DOLPC of target and background was obviously higher than intensity image. When setting the reference direction that polarizer was perpendicular to the incident face, the DOLP image of interval angle 60 degree between PD and reference direction had relatively high DOLPC, the interval angle 45 degree was the second, and the interval angle 35 degree was the third. The outdoors polarization detection experiment of controlling waveband showed that the DOLPC results was significantly different to use 650nm, 550nm and 450nm waveband, and the polarization detection performance by using 650nm band was an optimization method.

  5. Webcams for Bird Detection and Monitoring: A Demonstration Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem W. Verstraeten

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Better insights into bird migration can be a tool for assessing the spread of avian borne infections or ecological/climatologic issues reflected in deviating migration patterns. This paper evaluates whether low budget permanent cameras such as webcams can offer a valuable contribution to the reporting of migratory birds. An experimental design was set up to study the detection capability using objects of different size, color and velocity. The results of the experiment revealed the minimum size, maximum velocity and contrast of the objects required for detection by a standard webcam. Furthermore, a modular processing scheme was proposed to track and follow migratory birds in webcam recordings. Techniques such as motion detection by background subtraction, stereo vision and lens distortion were combined to form the foundation of the bird tracking algorithm. Additional research to integrate webcam networks, however, is needed and future research should enforce the potential of the processing scheme by exploring and testing alternatives of each individual module or processing step.

  6. Serum Dried Samples to Detect Dengue Antibodies: A Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Maldonado-Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dried blood and serum samples are useful resources for detecting antiviral antibodies. The conditions for elution of the sample need to be optimized for each disease. Dengue is a widespread disease in Mexico which requires continuous surveillance. In this study, we standardized and validated a protocol for the specific detection of dengue antibodies from dried serum spots (DSSs. Methods. Paired serum and DSS samples from 66 suspected cases of dengue were collected in a clinic in Veracruz, Mexico. Samples were sent to our laboratory, where the conditions for optimal elution of DSSs were established. The presence of anti-dengue antibodies was determined in the paired samples. Results. DSS elution conditions were standardized as follows: 1 h at 4°C in 200 µl of DNase-, RNase-, and protease-free PBS (1x. The optimal volume of DSS eluate to be used in the IgG assay was 40 µl. Sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 93.3%, and kappa concordance of 0.87 were obtained when comparing the antidengue reactivity between DSSs and serum samples. Conclusion. DSS samples are useful for detecting anti-dengue IgG antibodies in the field.

  7. An exploration study to detect important barriers for knowledge management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghafourian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to find the important factors influencing implementation of knowledge management in revenue agencies in Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some experts and, using principal component analysis, the study detects important barriers for knowledge management implications. The study selects 170 people from 880 regular employees who work for revenue agency and distributes the questionnaire designed in Likert scale. Cronbach alpha has been determined as 0.70, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. In terms of knowledge management, the study determines six factors including support for creativity and innovation, knowledge sharing, trust, employee promotion plan, mission and training programs and they represent 66.57% of the described factors. In addition, in terms of barriers, job security, cultural issues, individual differences, infrastructure, organizational structure and lack of vision are the most important issues representing 61.98% of the factors.

  8. Study of capabilities of the HAWC observatory to detect GRBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, M A; Salazar, H [FCFM-BUAP, Avenida San Claudio y 18 Sur, Colonia San Manuel, Ciudad Universitaria, Puebla (Mexico); Villasenor, L, E-mail: mcastillomaldonado@yahoo.com [IFM-UMSNH, Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia (Mexico)

    2011-04-01

    We describe the simulation of atmospheric air showers originated by gamma rays with energies in the 0.1-1 TeV range. We study the properties of the secondary particles at a height above level of 4100 m corresponding to the height of the array of water Cherenkov detectors (WCDs) of the HAWC (High Altitude Water Cherenkov) Observatory. In particular we study the pile-up effect of the secondary particles as they arrive at the HAWC Observatory to discern the way in which the PMTs of the WCDs of HAWC can distinguish isolated secondary particles as a function of their signal thresholds. This study is relevant to the application of the single-particle counting technique often used to try to detect gamma ray bursts (GRBs) with ground-based experiments.

  9. Isotopically modified nanoparticles for enhanced detection in bioaccumulation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S.K.; Dybowska, A.; Berhanu, D.; Croteau, M.-N.; Luoma, S.N.; Boccaccini, A.R.; Valsami-Jones, E.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents results on synthesis of isotopically enriched (99% 65Cu) copper oxide nanoparticles and its application in ecotoxicological studies. 65CuO nanoparticles were synthesized as spheres (7 nm) and rods (7 ?? 40 nm). Significant differences were observed between the reactivity and dissolution of spherical and rod shaped nanoparticles. The extreme sensitivity of the stable isotope tracing technique developed in this study allowed determining Cu uptake at exposure concentrations equivalent to background Cu concentrations in freshwater systems (0.2-30 ??g/L). Without a tracer, detection of newly accumulated Cu was impossible, even at exposure concentrations surpassing some of the most contaminated water systems (>1 mg/L). ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Study on NQR Detection of Targets Buried in Various Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN; Yu-qing; TIAN; Hua-yang; HE; Gao-kui; LIU; Hai-feng; JIN; Yu-heng

    2015-01-01

    The explosives detection technology based on nuclear quadrupole resonance(NQR)is by means of detection of specific NQR signal of the14 N nuclei.It detects the explosive itself,rather than the shape,density and other physical characteristics of the explosives,therefore has the

  11. Multivariate Alteration Detection (MAD) and MAF Postprocessing in Multispectral, Bitemporal Image Data: New Approaches to Change Detection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Simpson, James J.

    1998-01-01

    type analyses of simple difference images. Case studies with AHVRR and Landsat MSS data using simple linear stretching and masking of the change images show the usefulness of the new MAD and MAF/MAD change detection schemes. Ground truth observations confirm the detected changes. A simple simulation...

  12. A Comprehensive Study in Data Mining Frameworks for Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Venkatesan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intrusions are the activities that violate the security policy of system. Intrusion Detection is the process used to identify intrusions. Network security is to be considered as a major issue in recent years, since the computer network keeps on expanding every day. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS is a system for detecting intrusions and reporting to the authority or to the network administration. Data mining techniques have been successfully applied in many fields like Network Management, Education, Science, Business, Manufacturing, Process control, and Fraud Detection. Data Mining for IDS is the technique which can be used mainly to identify unknown attacks and to raise alarms when security violations are detected. The purpose of this survey paper is to describe the methods/ techniques which are being used for Intrusion Detection based on Data mining concepts and the designed frame works for the same. We are also going to review the related works for intrusion detection.

  13. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabel, Richard; Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2001-02-01

    In 2000, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the eight year of a study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. A total of 20,313 hatchery steelhead were tagged with passive integrated transpoder (PIT) tags and released at Lower Granite Dam for reach survival estimation. They did not PIT tag any yearlying chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) for reach survival estimates in 2000 because sufficient numbers for these estimates were available from other studies. Primary research objectives in 2000 were (1) to estimate reach and project survival in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations, and (2) to evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. In addition, they estimated survival from point of release to Lower Granite Dam and below for chinook salmon, steelhead, and sockeye salmon (O.nerka) PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin hatcheries and chinook salmon and steelhead PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin hatcheries and chinook salmon and steelhead PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin smolt traps. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2000 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures. Further details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited in the text.

  14. Detection of extracardiac disease during Tl-201 myocardial perfusion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan H.; Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    It is important to observe extracardiac disease processes (ECD) during cardiac perfusion imaging for valuable information can be obtained at no extracost to patients. The aim of the study is to find out the frequency of ECD during Tl-201 stress myocardial perfusion imaging (TSMPI). Retrospective evaluation of 552 TSMPI was done. There were 229 males and 223 females reffered for evaluation of possible ischemic heart disease. Their ages range from 20 to 80 with mean age of 58.8 years. Three mCi (111 MBq) of 201 TlCl is used for adenosine or treadmil exercise testing and myocardial SPECT is performed utilizing low energy high resolution collimators and a triple-head camera ( MultiSPECT, Siemens medical systems, Inc., Hoffman Estate, III., USA). In addition to routine cardiac Tl-201 SPECT acquisition, included in the protocol is 1 min, anterior planar views in 128 128 matrix after stress and rest SPECT studies for evaluation of lung uptake and chamber size. Utilizing these views ECD is assessed. Five patients had focal increased activity suggesting tumor and 3 of 5 cases were confirmed as malignancy. The malignancies were thyroid cancer (Hurthle cell), lung cancer, and breast cancer. Benign lesions were autonomous thyroid nodule and pheochromocytoma. Other ECDs include pericardial effusion, pleural effusion, and paralyzed hemidiapharm.. Extracardiac disease processes such as benign or malignancy are easily detected during Tl-201 myocardial perfusion imaging using our acquisition protocol at no cost to the patients. This information could be life saving in some patients for early detection of clinically unsuspected malignancy.

  15. Modeling and comparative study of various detection techniques for FMCW LIDAR using optisystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghandour, Ahmed H.; Ren, Chen D.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we investigated the different detection techniques especially direct detection, coherent heterodyne detection and coherent homodyne detection on FMCW LIDAR system using Optisystem package. A model for target, propagation channel and various detection techniques were developed using Optisystem package and then a comparative study among various detection techniques for FMCW LIDAR systems is done analytically and simulated using the developed model. Performance of direct detection, heterodyne detection and homodyne detection for FMCW LIDAR system was calculated and simulated using Optisystem package. The output simulated performance was checked using simulated results of MATLAB simulator. The results shows that direct detection is sensitive to the intensity of the received electromagnetic signal and has low complexity system advantage over the others detection architectures at the expense of the thermal noise is the dominant noise source and the sensitivity is relatively poor. In addition to much higher detection sensitivity can be achieved using coherent optical mixing which is performed by heterodyne and homodyne detection.

  16. Detecting rare variants in case-parents association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Fu Cheng

    Full Text Available Despite the success of genome-wide association studies (GWASs in detecting common variants (minor allele frequency ≥0.05 many suggested that rare variants also contribute to the genetic architecture of diseases. Recently, researchers demonstrated that rare variants can show a strong stratification which may not be corrected by using existing methods. In this paper, we focus on a case-parents study and consider methods for testing group-wise association between multiple rare (and common variants in a gene region and a disease. All tests depend on the numbers of transmitted mutant alleles from parents to their diseased children across variants and hence they are robust to the effect of population stratification. We use extensive simulation studies to compare the performance of four competing tests: the largest single-variant transmission disequilibrium test (TDT, multivariable test, combined TDT, and a likelihood ratio test based on a random-effects model. We find that the likelihood ratio test is most powerful in a wide range of settings and there is no negative impact to its power performance when common variants are also included in the analysis. If deleterious and protective variants are simultaneously analyzed, the likelihood ratio test was generally insensitive to the effect directionality, unless the effects are extremely inconsistent in one direction.

  17. Feasibility Study of Radiometry for Airborne Detection of Aviation Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimmestad, Gary G.; Papanicolopoulos, Chris D.; Richards, Mark A.; Sherman, Donald L.; West, Leanne L.; Johnson, James W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Radiometric sensors for aviation hazards have the potential for widespread and inexpensive deployment on aircraft. This report contains discussions of three aviation hazards - icing, turbulence, and volcanic ash - as well as candidate radiometric detection techniques for each hazard. Dual-polarization microwave radiometry is the only viable radiometric technique for detection of icing conditions, but more research will be required to assess its usefulness to the aviation community. Passive infrared techniques are being developed for detection of turbulence and volcanic ash by researchers in this country and also in Australia. Further investigation of the infrared airborne radiometric hazard detection approaches will also be required in order to develop reliable detection/discrimination techniques. This report includes a description of a commercial hyperspectral imager for investigating the infrared detection techniques for turbulence and volcanic ash.

  18. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1999-2000 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andy; Taki, Doug; Teton, Angelo

    2001-11-01

    As part of the Idaho Supplementation Studies, fisheries crews from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes have been snorkeling tributaries of the Salmon River to estimate chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) parr abundance; conducting surveys of spawning adult chinook salmon to determine the number of redds constructed and collect carcass information; operating a rotary screw trap on the East Fork Salmon River and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River to enumerate and PIT-tag emigrating juvenile chinook salmon; and collecting and PIT-tagging juvenile chinook salmon on tributaries of the Salmon River. The Tribes work in the following six tributaries of the Salmon River: Bear Valley Creek, East Fork Salmon River, Herd Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Valley Creek, and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River. Snorkeling was used to obtain parr population estimates for ISS streams from 1992 to 1997. However, using the relatively vigorous methods described in the ISS experimental design to estimate summer chinook parr populations, results on a project-wide basis showed extraordinarily large confidence intervals and coefficients of variation. ISS cooperators modified their sampling design over a few years to reduce the variation around parr population estimates without success. Consequently, in 1998 snorkeling to obtain parr population estimates was discontinued and only General Parr Monitoring (GPM) sites are snorkeled. The number of redds observed in SBT-ISS streams has continued to decline as determined by five year cycles. Relatively weak strongholds continue to occur in the South Fork Salmon River and Bear Valley Creek. A rotary screw trap was operated on the West Fork Yankee Fork during the spring and fall of 1999 and the spring of 2000 to monitor juvenile chinook migration. A screw trap was also operated on the East Fork of the Salmon River during the spring and fall from 1993 to 1997 and 1999 (fall only) to 2000. Significant supplementation treatments have occurred in the South

  19. Mobility Spectrometer Studies on Hydrazine and Ammonia Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, William; Eiceman, Gary; Szumlas, Andrew; Lewis, John

    2011-01-01

    An airborne vapor analyzer for detecting sub- to low- parts-per-million (ppm) hydrazine in the presence of higher concentration levels of ammonia has been under development for the Orion program. The detector is based on ambient pressure ionization and ion mobility characterization. The detector encompasses: 1) a membrane inlet to exclude particulate and aerosols from the analyzer inlet; 2) a method to separate hydrazine from ammonia which would otherwise lead to loss of calibration and quantitative accuracy for the hydrazine determination; and 3) response and quantitative determinations for both hydrazine and ammonia. Laboratory studies were made to explore some of these features including mobility measurements mindful of power, size, and weight issues. The study recommended the use of a mobility spectrometer of traditional design with a reagent gas and equipped with an inlet transfer line of bonded phase fused silica tube. The inlet transfer line provided gas phase separation of neutrals of ammonia from hydrazine at 50 C simplifying significantly the ionization chemistry that underlies response in a mobility spectrometer. Performance of the analyzer was acceptable between ranges of 30 to 80 C for both the pre-fractionation column and the drift tube. An inlet comprised of a combined membrane with valve-less injector allowed high speed quantitative determination of ammonia and hydrazine without cross reactivity from common metabolites such as alcohols, esters, and aldehydes. Preliminary test results and some of the design features are discussed.

  20. A study of the laser power online detecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiue; Zhang, Rong; Li, Yongzheng

    2008-12-01

    This article introduced a fundamental of new intelligent instruments. It can be used in laser power online detecting. Based in this theory, we have made a new intelligent mini-power meter. The device adopt SPCE061A MPU to control and process the all detected data, Its CPU core is used 16-bits MPU, it is a perfect unit in industry field. It can process complicated digital signals. Its detecting parts adopt high-speed responding and high-sensitive photoelectric dynatron 3DU13 to detecting the beam's output. It respond spectrum is from 0.4 to 1.1µm, can detect any other laser source's online detecting. Which locate in this spectrum range, optical design is made up of 45 degrees high reflect device and dark body scattering structure. The detector receive a little scatter light, use on-chip ADC to sampling the detector's output. By subsection, insert value linearity, proportion calculate to beam's output powers. And then real-time to displaying by LCD. It can communicate to PC by RS232. By communicate to upper instrument and others, the users can use detected data to achieve laser power's closed-loop control, to control laser source's real time output correctly and calibrating by itself. This mini-power meter need use standard power meter to calibrate in installing, after this process, the device can detect laser power's output from 1 to 200 watts correctly. It error is less than 5 percent.

  1. The Study of Randomized Visual Saliency Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuantao Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation process for high quality visual saliency map is very dependent on the existing visual saliency metrics. It is mostly only get sketchy effect of saliency map, and roughly based visual saliency map will affect the image segmentation results. The paper had presented the randomized visual saliency detection algorithm. The randomized visual saliency detection method can quickly generate the same size as the original input image and detailed results of the saliency map. The randomized saliency detection method can be applied to real-time requirements for image content-based scaling saliency results map. The randomization method for fast randomized video saliency area detection, the algorithm only requires a small amount of memory space can be detected detailed oriented visual saliency map, the presented results are shown that the method of visual saliency map used in image after the segmentation process can be an ideal segmentation results.

  2. Novel sensors for detection of azide and dopamine: Electrochemical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmia, Avinash

    Electrochemical amperometric sensors have been used sucessfully for monitoring a wide variety of hazardous species. Electrochemical studies of azides have been conducted at carbon, platinum and gold to evaluate their sensing properties. The differences in electrochemical behavior of azides at carbon, platinum and gold are elucidated with rotating disc, ring-disc and DEMS (Differential Electrochemical mass spectroscopy). It has been observed that the electrooxidation of azides at carbon electrode results in formation of only nitrogen, whereas at platinum electrode, the electrooxidation of azides results in formation of both nitrogen and nitrogen oxides. Gold in presence of azide ions undergoes electrooxidation forming soluble gold azide complexes at lower potentials and nitrogen and nitrogen oxides at higher potentials. It was demonstrated that azides are much more electroactive than hydrazoic acid. This work has implication for design of electrochemical sensors to detect and monitor azide ions. Gold electrodes modified with self assembled monolayers offer possibilities of sensors with higher selectivity, stability, fast response time and higher sensitivity. In the second part of this thesis, gold electrodes modified with SAM (self assembled monolayer) with acidic end group for selective detection of catecholamines were evaluated. SAM modified substrates have been characterized using different techniques, i.e., electrochemical desorption, capacitance measurements, angle resolved XPS measurements, potentiometric measurements and cyclic voltammetric measurements. The electrochemical desorption measurements show that the coverage of SAM molecules corresponds to a monolayer. Capacitance measurements demonstrate that the capacitance depends on the length, end group and defects present in monolayers. Angle resolved XPS has been demonstrated as a powerful tool for studying the anisotropic atomic distribution in monolayer film. The cyclic voltammetric measurements show that

  3. Development and evaluation of a boat-mounted RFID antenna for monitoring freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jesse R.; Neebling, Travis E.; Quist, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Development of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags has substantially increased the ability of researchers and managers to monitor populations of aquatic organisms. However, use of transportable RFID antenna systems (i.e., backpack-mounted) is currently limited to wadeable aquatic environments (RFID antenna to detect individually PIT-tagged benthic aquatic organisms (mussels). We evaluated the effects of tag orientation on detection distances in water with a 32-mm half-duplex PIT tag. Detection distances up to 50 cm from the antenna coils were obtained, but detection distance was dependent on tag orientation. We also evaluated detection distance of PIT tags beneath the sediment to simulate detection of burrowing mussels with 23- and 32-mm tags. In sand substrate, the maximum detection distance varied from 3.5 cm and 4.5 cm (vertical tag orientation) to 24.7 cm and 39.4 cm (45° tag orientation) for the 23- and 32-mm PIT tags, respectively. Our results suggest a 1.4-m total detection width for tagged mussels on the substrate surface by the boat-mounted antenna system regardless of tag orientation. However, burrowed mussels may require multiple passes to increase detection that would be influenced by depth, tag orientation, and tag size. Construction of the boat-mounted antenna was relatively low in cost (<500 USD) and had several advantages (less labor and time intensive, increased safety) over traditional mussel sampling techniques (diving, snorkeling) in nonwadeable habitats.

  4. Curvilinear shapes and the snake detection hypothesis: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Christiaans, Gerwin; Franken, Ingmar H A; Huijding, Jorg

    2016-02-01

    Consistent with the snake detection hypothesis, previous ERP studies have established a larger early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to pictures depicting snakes than to pictures depicting other creatures. Here, we examined to what extent the curvilinear shape of the snake's body drives the larger EPN. To this end, we employed pictures of threatening and nonthreatening species with or without typical curvature. Participants watched a random rapid serial visual presentation of snake, worm, spider, and beetle pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity (225-300 ms after picture onset) at occipital and parieto-occipital electrodes. Across electrodes, the EPN was significantly larger for snake pictures than for spider, worm, and beetle pictures, and for spider and worm pictures than for beetle pictures. The results suggest that curvilinear body shapes may partly drive the enhanced EPN. However, the unique cortical response to snakes is not fully explained by this mechanism, and is most probably also determined by other threat-relevant cues. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Detective quantum efficiency (DQE) in PET scanners: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpetas, George E; Michail, Christos M; Fountos, George P; Kalyvas, Nektarios I; Valais, Ioannis G; Kandarakis, Ioannis S; Panayiotakis, George S

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study is to introduce the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) for the image quality assessment of positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. For this purpose, a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plane source was simulated using a previously validated, scanner and source geometry, Monte Carlo (MC) model. The model was developed with the Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) MC package and reconstructed images obtained with the software for tomographic image reconstruction (STIR), with cluster computing. The GE Discovery ST PET scanner was simulated by using a previously validated code. A plane source consisting of a TLC plate, was simulated by a layer of silica gel on aluminum (Al) foil substrate, immersed in 18F-FDG bath solution (1MBq). Image quality was assessed in terms of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and the normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) in order to obtain the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). MTF curves were estimated from transverse reconstructed images of the plane source, whereas the NNPS data were estimated from the corresponding coronal images. Images were reconstructed by the maximum likelihood estimation ordered subsets maximum a posteriori one step late (MLE)-OS-MAP-OSL algorithm, by using various subsets 1-21) and iterations 1-20). MTF values were found to increase up to the 12th iteration whereas remain almost constant thereafter. However, the range of the increase in the MTF is limited as the number of subsets increases. The noise levels were found to increase with the corresponding increase of both the number of iterations and subsets. The maximum NNPS value (0.517mm(2)) was observed for the 420 MLEM-equivalent iterations reconstructed image at 0cycles/mm. Finally DQE values were found to increase for spatial frequencies up to 0.038cycles/mm and to decrease thereafter with the corresponding increase in both number of iterations and subsets. The maximum DQE value (0.48 at 0.038cycles/mm) was

  6. Colonial waterbird predation on Lost River and Shortnose suckers in the Upper Klamath Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Allen F.; Hewitt, David A.; Payton, Quinn; Cramer, Bradley M.; Collis, Ken; Roby, Daniel D.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated predation on Lost River Suckers Deltistes luxatus and Shortnose Suckers Chasmistes brevirostris by American white pelicans Pelecanus erythrorhynchos and double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus nesting at mixed-species colonies in the Upper Klamath Basin of Oregon and California during 2009–2014. Predation was evaluated by recovering (detecting) PIT tags from tagged fish on bird colonies and calculating minimum predation rates, as the percentage of available suckers consumed, adjusted for PIT tag detection probabilities but not deposition probabilities (i.e., probability an egested tag was deposited on- or off-colony). Results indicate that impacts of avian predation varied by sucker species, age-class (adult, juvenile), bird colony location, and year, demonstrating dynamic predator–prey interactions. Tagged suckers ranging in size from 72 to 730 mm were susceptible to cormorant or pelican predation; all but the largest Lost River Suckers were susceptible to bird predation. Minimum predation rate estimates ranged annually from Suckers and from Suckers, and predation rates were consistently higher on suckers in Clear Lake Reservoir, California, than on suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. There was evidence that bird predation on juvenile suckers (species unknown) in Upper Klamath Lake was higher than on adult suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, where minimum predation rates ranged annually from 5.7% to 8.4% of available juveniles. Results suggest that avian predation is a factor limiting the recovery of populations of Lost River and Shortnose suckers, particularly juvenile suckers in Upper Klamath Lake and adult suckers in Clear Lake Reservoir. Additional research is needed to measure predator-specific PIT tag deposition probabilities (which, based on other published studies, could increase predation rates presented herein by a factor of roughly 2.0) and to better understand biotic and abiotic factors that regulate sucker susceptibility to

  7. Study of Associated α Particle Imaging Technique for Explosives Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The explosive detecting technique about neutron mainly include the thermal neutron analysis (TNA), the fast neutron analysis (FNA), the pulse fast and thermal neutron analysis (PFTNA) and the associated α particle imaging technique about fast neutron (API).

  8. Biological Detection System Technologies Technology and Industrial Base Study. A Primer on Biological Detection Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    beach . They would like to design a system that is rugged enough to withstand the forces associated with delivery (14,000 gs/300rev/sec), miniaturized...Detection nand Identification with Field Analytical Instrumentation, Volume 3, Issues 4-5, 1999 Spencer, Carmen , Director, CB Defense Directorate...oxidation process and the ruthenium chelate is recycled . The labeled component is captured on the surface of para-magnetic beads which are brought to

  9. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achord, Stephen; McNatt, Regan A.; Hockersmith, Eric E. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2004-04-01

    Prior to 1992, decisions on dam operations and use of stored water relied on recoveries of branded hatchery fish, index counts at traps and dams, and flow patterns at the dams. The advent of PIT-tag technology provided the opportunity to precisely track the smolt migrations of many wild stocks as they pass through the hydroelectric complex and other monitoring sites on their way to the ocean. With the availability of the PIT tag, a more complete approach to these decisions was undertaken starting in 1992 with the addition of PIT-tag detections of several wild spring and summer chinook salmon stocks at Lower Granite Dam. Using data from these detections, we initiated development of a database on wild fish, addressing several goals of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning Council and Conservation Act (NPPC 1980). Section 304(d) of the program states, ''The monitoring program will provide information on the migrational characteristics of the various stocks of salmon and steelhead within the Columbia Basin.'' Further, Section 201(b) urges conservation of genetic diversity, which will be possible only if wild stocks are preserved. Section 5.9A.1 of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program states that field monitoring of smolt movement will be used to determine the best timing for water storage releases and Section 5.8A.8 states that continued research is needed on survival of juvenile wild fish before they reach the first dam with special attention to water quantity, quality, and several other factors. The goals of this ongoing study are as follows (1) Characterize the migration timing and estimate parr-to-smolt survival of different stocks of wild Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam. (2) Determine whether consistent migration patterns are apparent. (3) Determine what environmental factors influence these patterns. (4) Characterize the migrational behavior and

  10. A study of oil spill detection using ASAR images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guiwu; ZHANG Yuanzhi; LIN Hui

    2009-01-01

    The oil spilled worldwide causes ecological disasters that result in enormous damages to the quality of marine environment, and great expenses on clear-up operations are needed. Due to its wide coverage and day-night all-weather observation capability, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an important tool for oil spill monitoring and detection. C-band SAR is well adapted to detect oil pollution because oil slicks dampen the Bragg waves and reduce radar backscattering coefficients. In order to detect the area of oil slicks, the algorithm consists of these steps: Preprocessing, Masking of land areas, Detection of dark spots, Spot feature extraction, Dark spot classification. In this paper, the authors examined two coastal regions around Hong Kong and Yantai, China. The obtained results performed on Envisat ASAR images have demonstrated that it is efficient to detect oil spill around the coastal regions. The methodology still needs to be refined with the collection of more SAR data in the near future.

  11. A Study of Lane Detection Algorithm for Personal Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kajiro; Ohkubo, Tomoyuki; Kurihara, Yosuke

    By the word “Personal vehicle”, we mean a simple and lightweight vehicle expected to emerge as personal ground transportation devices. The motorcycle, electric wheelchair, motor-powered bicycle, etc. are examples of the personal vehicle and have been developed as the useful for transportation for a personal use. Recently, a new types of intelligent personal vehicle called the Segway has been developed which is controlled and stabilized by using on-board intelligent multiple sensors. The demand for needs for such personal vehicles are increasing, 1) to enhance human mobility, 2) to support mobility for elderly person, 3) reduction of environmental burdens. Since rapidly growing personal vehicles' market, a number of accidents caused by human error is also increasing. The accidents are caused by it's drive ability. To enhance or support drive ability as well as to prevent accidents, intelligent assistance is necessary. One of most important elemental functions for personal vehicle is robust lane detection. In this paper, we develop a robust lane detection method for personal vehicle at outdoor environments. The proposed lane detection method employing a 360 degree omni directional camera and unique robust image processing algorithm. In order to detect lanes, combination of template matching technique and Hough transform are employed. The validity of proposed lane detection algorithm is confirmed by actual developed vehicle at various type of sunshined outdoor conditions.

  12. A Study on Detecting and Identifying Enteric Pathogens With PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUN-WEN LI; XIU-QUAN SHI; FU-HUAN CHAO; XIN-WEI WANG; JIN-LAI ZHENG; NONG SONG

    2004-01-01

    Objective To develop a rapid and definite diagnostic test of bacterial enteritis caused by pathogenic enterobacteria, the most frequent etiologic agent of infectious enteritis in the world.Methods A set of conventional PCR assays were applied to detect and identify salmonella, shigella,and E. coli O157:H7 directly from pure culture and fecal samples. The general primers of pathogenic enterobacteria were located on the uidA gene, which were found not only in E. coli nuclear acid, but also in Shigella and salmonella genes. Shigella primer was from ipaH gene whose coded invasive plasmid relative antigen existed both in plasmid and in genome. The primers of salmonella were designed from the 16SrRNA sequence. The primer of E. coli O157:H7 was taken from eaeA gene.Five random primers were selected for RAPD. The detection system included common PCR,semi-nested PCR and RAPD. Results This method was more sensitive, specific and efficient and its processing was rapid and simple. For example, the method could be used to specifically detect and identify salmonella, shigella, and E. coli O157:H7, and its sensitivity ranged from 3 to 50 CFU, and its detection time was 4 hours. Conclusion This PCR method, therefore, can serve as a rourine and practical protocol for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms from clinical samples.

  13. NIR spectrometry for counterfeit drug detection - A feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodionova, O.Y.; Houmøller, Lars P.; Pomerantsev, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    Express-methods for detection of counterfeit drugs are of vital necessity. Visual control, dissociating tests or simple color reaction tests reveal only very rough forgeries. The feasibility of information-rich NIR-measurements as an analytical method together with multivariate calibration...... for mathematical data processing for false drugs detection is demonstrated. Also, multivariate hyperspectral image analysis is applied providing additional diagnostic information. Hyperspectral imaging is becoming a useful diagnostic tool for identifying non-homogeneous spatial regions of drug formulation. Two...... types of drugs are used to demonstrate the applicability of these approaches....

  14. Detection of Ordered Molecules Adsorbed on Graphene: a Theoretical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhang, Xue-Qing; Li, Hui

    2014-11-01

    Graphene has been demonstrated to be able to detect individual gas molecules [Schedin et al. Nat. Mater. 6 (2007) 652], which has attracted a lot of sensor research activities. Here we report for the first time that graphene is capable of detecting the ordering degree of absorbed water molecules. The efficiency of doping varies from the degrees of molecular ordering. The simulated results show that the highly ordered water molecules contribute more to the doping effect, which reduces the conductance of the water/graphene system.

  15. Study on the Automatic Detection Method and System of Multifunctional Hydrocephalus Shunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuan; Wang, Guangzhen; Dong, Quancheng; Li, Yuzhong

    2017-07-01

    Aiming to the difficulty of micro pressure detection and the difficulty of micro flow control in the testing process of hydrocephalus shunt, the principle of the shunt performance detection was analyzed.In this study, the author analyzed the principle of several items of shunt performance detection,and used advanced micro pressure sensor and micro flow peristaltic pump to overcome the micro pressure detection and micro flow control technology.At the same time,This study also puted many common experimental projects integrated, and successfully developed the automatic detection system for a shunt performance detection function, to achieve a test with high precision, high efficiency and automation.

  16. A study on diffuse source detection by HXMT scanning observation

    CERN Document Server

    Guan, Ju; Wu, Mei; Song, Li-Ming; Huo, Zhuo-Xi

    2015-01-01

    The Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) is a collimated scan X-ray satellite mainly devoted to a sensitive all-sky survey and pointed observations in 1-250 keV. We expect various diffuse sources to be detected in its scanning observations due to the large rigidity factor of the telescope. Diffuse source detection performance of HXMT scanning observation depends not only on the instrument but also on its data analysis method since images have to be reconstructed from HXMT observed data. In this paper, we introduce a multiscale maximum entropy (MSME) algorithm for HXMT image restoration and propose an improved method, ensemble multiscale maximum entropy (EMSME) method, to alleviate the problem of mode mixing exiting in MSME. Simulation have been performed on the detection of the diffuse source Cen A by HXMT in the all-sky survey mode. The results show that the MSME method is adapted to the deconvolution task of HXMT for diffuse source detection and the improved method could suppress noise and improve the cor...

  17. Sensor fusion for antipersonnel landmine detection, a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Schutte, K.; Cremer, F.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the multi sensor fusion results obtained within the European research project GEODE (Ground Explosive Ordnance Detection system) are presented. The lay out of the test lane and the individual sensors used are described. The implementation of the SCOOP algorithm improves the ROC curves,

  18. Measurements and Simulation Studies of Piezoceramics for Acoustic Particle Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Salomon, K; Graf, K; Hoessl, J; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Katz, U; Lahmann, R; Naumann, C

    2005-01-01

    Calibration sources are an indispensable tool for all detectors. In acoustic particle detection the goal of a calibration source is to mimic neutrino signatures as expected from hadronic cascades. A simple and promising method for the emulation of neutrino signals are piezo ceramics. We will present results of measruements and simulations on these piezo ceramics.

  19. Feasibility Study On Missile Launch Detection And Trajectory Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    view. As the missile’s propulsion motor emits gases at high temperature to generate the thrust required for its flight, the heat 2 signature of...FAST and Rotated BRIEF) 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 71 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY...1  B.  PREVIOUS WORK ON MOTION TRACKING AND DETECTION .................................................................................... 3  C

  20. Study of cosmic ray nuclei detection by an image calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casolino, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy)]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Ozerov, Yu.V.; Zemskov, V.M.; Zverev, V.G.; Galper, A.M. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Carlson, P. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Fuglesang, C. [ESA-EAC, Cologne (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    It is shown that a cosmic gamma-ray telescope made of a multilayer silicon tracker and a imaging CsI calorimeter, is capable of identifying cosmic ray nuclei. The telescope charge resolution is estimated around 4% independently of charge. Simulation methods are used to determine the telescope properties for nuclei detection.

  1. A Study of Rootkit Stealth Techniques and Associated Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    3.12. Detection Classification 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3.13. Trampoline Function with Modification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46...rooted (source function) is overwritten with a jump to the rootkit code (the detour), next the rootkit code (the trampoline ) is executed. Part of the...that it desires. The rootkit will then return the scrubbed data to the original calling function. Source Function Detour Function Trampoline Function

  2. Detecting Damage Using Electric Field Measurements: A Computational Sensitivity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-06

    on a range or in the Physical Scale Model ( PSM ) environment, the smallest area of damage that is detectable would depend upon measurement...sensitivities or errors along with the ability to physically create small pieces of bare metal on the PSM model. Figure 6-4. Comparison of calculated

  3. Sensor fusion for antipersonnel landmine detection, a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Schutte, K.; Cremer, F.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the multi sensor fusion results obtained within the European research project GEODE (Ground Explosive Ordnance Detection system) are presented. The lay out of the test lane and the individual sensors used are described. The implementation of the SCOOP algorithm improves the ROC curves,

  4. Study of lip-reading detecting and locating technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lirong; Li, Jie; Zhao, Yanyan

    2008-03-01

    With the development of human computer interaction, lip reading technology has become a topic focus in the multimode technologic field. However, detecting and locating lip accurately are very difficult because lip contours of different people, varied illuminant conditions, head movements and other factors. Based on the methods of detecting and locating lip we proposed the methods which are based on the lips color extracted lip contour using the adaptive chromatic filter from the facial images. It is not sensitive to illumination, but appropriate chromatic lip filter is given by analyzing the entire face color and clustering statistics of lip color. It is proposed the combinable method which is preprocessing the face image including rotating the angle of face and improving image contrast in this paper and the lip region is analyzed clustering characteristics for the skin color and lip color, obtained adaptive chromatic filter which can prominent lips from the facial image. This method overcomes the varied illuminate, incline face. The experiments showed that it enhanced detection and location accurately through rough detecting lip region. It lay a good foundation for extraction the lip feature and tracking lip subsequently.

  5. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocklage, Stephen J. Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapawi, ID)

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project (FCAP) sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam in 2004. This was the ninth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 414,452 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities were short of the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 4,983 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 4,984 from Big Canyon and 4,982 from Captain John Rapids. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels could be considered low with 53-94% rating not detected to low. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 154.6 mm (154.0-155.2 mm) at Pittsburg Landing to 163.0 mm (162.6-163.4 mm) at Captain John Rapids. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.06 at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.16 at Big Canyon. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 74.7% (72.9-76.5%) for Big Canyon to 88.1% (85.7-90.6%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release to McNary Dam ranged from 45.3% (39.2-51.5%) for Pittsburg Landing to 52.1% (42.9-61.2%) for Big Canyon. Median migration rates to Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearlings from the FCAP facilities, ranged from 5.5 river kilometers per day (rkm/d) for Captain John Rapids to 12.8 rkm/d for Pittsburg Landing. Median migration

  6. Study on UPF Harmonic Current Detection Method Based on DSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H J [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Pang, Y F [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Qiu, Z M [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Chen, M [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2006-10-15

    Unity power factor (UPF) harmonic current detection method applied to active power filter (APF) is presented in this paper. The intention of this method is to make nonlinear loads and active power filter in parallel to be an equivalent resistance. So after compensation, source current is sinusoidal, and has the same shape of source voltage. Meanwhile, there is no harmonic in source current, and the power factor becomes one. The mathematic model of proposed method and the optimum project for equivalent low pass filter in measurement are presented. Finally, the proposed detection method applied to a shunt active power filter experimental prototype based on DSP TMS320F2812 is developed. Simulation and experiment results indicate the method is simple and easy to implement, and can obtain the real-time calculation of harmonic current exactly.

  7. Feasibility study of simultaneous capacitance detection during STM of silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Dwyer, Kevin; Pomeroy, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    We are examining the feasibility of capacitance detection during STM to image buried metal nanostructures in silicon. As the hydrogen STM lithography for quantum information enables us to fabricate the atomically precise devices such as single atom qubits, the accurate alignment of metal contacts such as electrodes to the buried nanostructures on the surface becomes very challenging. Using SCM with STM gives benefits to locate the buried nanostructures and image the surface morphology simultaneously.

  8. Leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation technology trade study update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTZEL, J.S.

    1998-11-10

    This document is a revision and update to the initial report that describes various leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM) technologies that can be used to support the retrieval of waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. This revision focuses on the improvements in the technical performance of previously identified and useful technologies, and it introduces new technologies that might prove to be useful.

  9. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XV : Evaluation of the 2007 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild and Hatchery-Reared Salmon and Steelhead Smolts to Rock Island, Lower Granite, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams using Program RealTime.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griswold, Jim; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-12-01

    Program RealTime provided monitoring and forecasting of the 2007 inseason outmigrations via the internet for 26 PIT-tagged stocks of wild ESU Chinook salmon and steelhead to Lower Granite and/or McNary dams, one PIT-tagged hatchery-reared ESU of sockeye salmon to Lower Granite Dam, one PIT-tagged wild stock of sockeye salmon to McNary Dam, and 20 passage-indexed runs-at-large, five each to Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville dams. Nineteen stocks are of wild yearling Chinook salmon which were captured, PIT-tagged, and released at sites above Lower Granite Dam in 2007 and have at least one year's historical migration data previous to the 2007 migration. These stocks originate in 19 tributaries of the Salmon, Grande Ronde and Clearwater Rivers, all tributaries to the Snake River, and are subsequently detected through tag identification and monitored at Lower Granite Dam. Seven wild PIT-tagged runs-at-large of Snake or Upper Columbia River ESU salmon and steelhead were monitored at McNary Dam. Three wild PIT-tagged runs-at-large were monitored at Lower Granite Dam, consisting of the yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and the steelhead runs. The hatchery-reared PIT-tagged sockeye salmon stock from Redfish Lake was monitored outmigrating through Lower Granite Dam. Passage-indexed stocks (stocks monitored by FPC passage indices) included combined wild and hatchery runs-at-large of subyearling and yearling Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead forecasted to Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville dams.

  10. Field and laboratory notes on development of a PIT-tag system for spillways - Research and Development of New Marking and Monitoring Technologies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project addresses how to expand the current fish-tracking technologies to enable the fisheries community to successfully carry out the actions, research, and...

  11. Study on Bioagents or Bioaerosols standoff detection by lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scattering, fluorescence and polarization are the important data source for bioagent or bioaerosol time-space observation and identification. This paper stated and discussed the theory and data inversion principles for Mie scattering, laser induced fluorescence and polarization sensing Lidar. The sensing and data inversion results for bioagent/bioaerosol extinction coefficient, horizontal linear depolarization ratio were also demonstrated. The signal and SNR simulation of fluorescence lidar were also demonstrated. The sensing results revealed that the three kinds of detecting technology approaches are reasonable and potential for bioagent/bioaerosol characterization and recognition.

  12. Microbeam recoil detection for hydration of minerals studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Exploration and Mining Div.; Chekhmir, A.; Green, T.H. [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    The glancing angle geometry is chosen to enable application of the elastic recoil detection microanalysis on thick geological samples, for hydrogen content determination. Simultaneous PIXE measurements can be used to eliminate the problem of uncertainties in beam charge collection. The method is applied to determine the hydration characteristics of silicates, produced experimentally at high pressure and temperature simulating the lower crust and upper mantle conditions. Preliminary results show that the technique can be applied readily on a microscopic (<100 {mu}m) scale for determination of H at fraction of atomic percent level. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  13. STUDY ON THE TECHNIQUE TO DETECT TEXTURE FEATURES IN SAR IMAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yusheng; Ding Dongtao; Hou Yinming

    2004-01-01

    This letter studies on the detection of texture features in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. Through analyzing the feature detection method proposed by Lopes, an improved texture detection method is proposed, which can not only detect the edge and lines but also avoid stretching edge and suppressing lines of the former algorithm. Experimental results with both simulated and real SAR images verify the advantage and practicability of the improved method.

  14. Indirect Detection Analysis: Wino Dark Matter Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hryczuk, Andrzej [Munich, Tech. U.; Cholis, Ilias [Fermilab; Iengo, Roberto [SISSA, Trieste; Tavakoli, Maryam [IPM, Tehran; Ullio, Piero [INFN, Trieste

    2014-07-15

    We perform a multichannel analysis of the indirect signals for the Wino Dark Matter, including one-loop electroweak and Sommerfeld enhancement corrections. We derive limits from cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons, from continuum galactic and extragalactic diffuse γ-ray spectra, from the absence of γ-ray line features at the galactic center above 500 GeV in energy, from γ-rays toward nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies and galaxy clusters, and from CMB power-spectra. Additionally, we show the future prospects for neutrino observations toward the inner Galaxy and from antideuteron searches. For each of these indirect detection probes we include and discuss the relevance of the most important astrophysical uncertainties that can impact the strength of the derived limits. We find that the Wino as a dark matter candidate is excluded in the mass range bellow simeq 800 GeV from antiprotons and between 1.8 and 3.5 TeV from the absence of a γ-ray line feature toward the galactic center. Limits from other indirect detection probes confirm the main bulk of the excluded mass ranges.

  15. Cosmic ray detection based measurement systems: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodini, I.; Bonomi, G.; Cambiaghi, D.; Magalini, A.; Zenoni, A.

    2007-11-01

    Cosmic rays, mostly composed of high energy muons, continuously hit the Earth's surface (at sea level the rate is about 10 000 m-2 min-1). Various technologies are adopted for their detection and are widespread in the field of particle and nuclear physics. In this paper, cosmic ray muon detection techniques are assessed for measurement applications in engineering, where these methods could be suitable for several applications, with specific reference to situations where environmental conditions are weakly controlled and/or where the parts to be measured are hardly accessible. Since cosmic ray showering phenomena show statistical nature, the Monte Carlo technique has been adopted to numerically simulate a particular application, where a set of muon detectors are employed for alignment measurements on an industrial press. An analysis has been performed to estimate the expected measurement uncertainty and system resolution, which result to be strongly dependent on the dimensions and geometry of the set-up, on the presence of materials interposed between detectors and, ultimately, on the elapsed time available for the data taking.

  16. Energy Detection and Eigenvalue Based Detection: An Experimental Study Using GNU Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Pedro; Pratas, Nuno; Rodrigues, António

    2011-01-01

    Spectrum sensing plays a key role in enabling the cognitive radios access to vacant spectrum, since it helps avoid interference with the incumbent users. However there are not many studies that show the feasibility of the detectors and analyze their performance under real noise and interference...

  17. Comparative Study of Statistical Skin Detection Algorithms for Sub-Continental Human Images

    CERN Document Server

    Tabassum, Mirza Rehenuma; Kamal, Md Mostafa; Muctadir, Hossain Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Shakir, Asif Khan; Imran, Asif; Islamm, Saiful; Rabbani, Md Golam; Khaled, Shah Mostafa; Islam, Md Saiful; Begum, Zerina; 10.3923/itj.2010.811.817

    2010-01-01

    Object detection has been a focus of research in human-computer interaction. Skin area detection has been a key to different recognitions like face recognition, human motion detection, pornographic and nude image prediction, etc. Most of the research done in the fields of skin detection has been trained and tested on human images of African, Mongolian and Anglo-Saxon ethnic origins. Although there are several intensity invariant approaches to skin detection, the skin color of Indian sub-continentals have not been focused separately. The approach of this research is to make a comparative study between three image segmentation approaches using Indian sub-continental human images, to optimize the detection criteria, and to find some efficient parameters to detect the skin area from these images. The experiments observed that HSV color model based approach to Indian sub-continental skin detection is more suitable with considerable success rate of 91.1% true positives and 88.1% true negatives.

  18. Study on the Effectiveness of Spam Detection Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, spam has become serious issue for computer security, because it becomes a main source for disseminating threats, including viruses, worms and phishing attacks. Currently, a large volume of received emails are spam. Different approaches to combating these unwanted messages, including challenge response model, whitelisting, blacklisting, email signatures and different machine learning methods, are in place to deal with this issue. These solutions are available for end users but due to dynamic nature of Web, there is no 100% secure systems around the world which can handle this problem. In most of the cases spam detectors use machine learning techniques to filter web traffic. This work focuses on systematically analyzing the strength and weakness of current technologies for spam detection and taxonomy of known approaches is introduced.

  19. Study on mode-filtered light sensor for methane detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suo Zhu Wu; Shao Min Shuang; Yan Zhang; Zhong Ping Li; Martin M.E Choi; Cai Hong Zhang; Chuan Dong

    2009-01-01

    A novel mode-filtered light gas sensor has been reported.It was constructed by inserting an optical fiber deposited by a thin silicone cladding of cryptophane A into a fused-silica capillary.When different concentration of methane gas was introduced to the sensor,the phenomenon that mode-filtered light intensity decreased with the increasing concentration of methane was observed,And a linear relationship was obtained within the methane concentration range of 0.0-16.0%(v/v).The detection limit was 0.06% (v/v).The mode-filtered light sensor has been exploited to respond to various concentrations of methane gas at room temperature.

  20. Study of silicon pixel sensor for synchrotron radiation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Jie; Jia, Yun-Cong; Hu, Ling-Fei; Liu, Peng; Yin, Hua-Xiang

    2016-03-01

    The silicon pixel sensor (SPS) is one of the key components of hybrid pixel single-photon-counting detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray detection (SRD). In this paper, the design, fabrication, and characterization of SPSs for single beam X-ray photon detection is reported. The designed pixel sensor is a p+-in-n structure with guard-ring structures operated in full-depletion mode and is fabricated on 4-inch, N type, 320 μm thick, high-resistivity silicon wafers by a general Si planar process. To achieve high energy resolution of X-rays and obtain low dark current and high breakdown voltage as well as appropriate depletion voltage of the SPS, a series of technical optimizations of device structure and fabrication process are explored. With optimized device structure and fabrication process, excellent SPS characteristics with dark current of 2 nA/cm2, full depletion voltage 150 V are achieved. The fabricated SPSs are wire bonded to ASIC circuits and tested for the performance of X-ray response to the 1W2B synchrotron beam line of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The measured S-curves for SRD demonstrate a high discrimination for different energy X-rays. The extracted energy resolution is high (10 keV) and the linear properties between input photo energy and the equivalent generator amplitude are well established. It confirmed that the fabricated SPSs have a good energy linearity and high count rate with the optimized technologies. The technology is expected to have a promising application in the development of a large scale SRD system for the Beijing Advanced Photon Source. Supported by Prefabrication Research of Beijing Advanced Photon Source (R&D for BAPS) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11335010)

  1. Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiacotti, Michele; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio; Marchesani, Giuliana; De Sio, Antonio; Boniglia, Concetta; Bortolin, Emanuela; Onori, Sandro

    2009-07-01

    Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999/2/EC [ European Parliament and Council Directive, 1999/2/EC, on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 66/16 of 13.3.1999] and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed. The aim of the present work was to test the efficacy of the European Standard EN 13751, EN 1788, EN 1787 and EN 13708 in detecting irradiated chestnuts. For this purpose, six sets of "Montella" chestnuts, a typical Italian variety recognized as a PGI (protected geographical indication), non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses in the 0.1-1 kGy range, were analysed by thermoluminescence (TL), photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) (screening and calibrated PSL) and ESR techniques. PSL and TL analysis results revealed the low luminescence sensitivity of the chestnuts. Nevertheless, PSL screening data were in the intermediate band above the negative threshold (at all doses except at the lowest one) and TL analysis led to correct positive classifications even at the lowest dose tested (0.15 Gy). On the contrary, no radio-induced ESR signal could be registered with the irradiated samples of chestnut shell or pulp.

  2. Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangiacotti, Michele [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata, Foggia (Italy)], E-mail: izsfgchimica@infinito.it; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio; Marchesani, Giuliana [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata, Foggia (Italy); De Sio, Antonio [La Dolce Irpinia Srl - Montella (AV) (Italy); Boniglia, Concetta [Department of Public Veterinary Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Bortolin, Emanuela; Onori, Sandro [Department of Technology and Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999/2/EC [/2/EC, on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 66/16 of 13.3.1999] and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed. The aim of the present work was to test the efficacy of the European Standard EN 13751, EN 1788, EN 1787 and EN 13708 in detecting irradiated chestnuts. For this purpose, six sets of 'Montella' chestnuts, a typical Italian variety recognized as a PGI (protected geographical indication), non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses in the 0.1-1 kGy range, were analysed by thermoluminescence (TL), photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) (screening and calibrated PSL) and ESR techniques. PSL and TL analysis results revealed the low luminescence sensitivity of the chestnuts. Nevertheless, PSL screening data were in the intermediate band above the negative threshold (at all doses except at the lowest one) and TL analysis led to correct positive classifications even at the lowest dose tested (0.15 Gy). On the contrary, no radio-induced ESR signal could be registered with the irradiated samples of chestnut shell or pulp.

  3. Clinical Study of Acoustic Densitometry Technique in Detecting Atherosclerotic Plaque

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Quyu Xiaoban Capsule (祛瘀消斑, QYXB) on the regressive treatment of atherosclerosis (AS) with acoustic densitometry (AD) technique. Methods: Eighty patients with AS were randomly divided into two groups, trial group was treated with QYXB and conventional medicine, and control group was treated with conventional medicine alone. Normal arterial wall and different types of atherosclerotic plaques were detected with AD technique before treatment and 10 months later. Resuits: The corrected averages in intimal echo intensity (AIIc%) were elevated in both groups but without significant difference, AIIc% of fatty plaques were increased in both groups and the value after treatment was significantly higher than that of pre-treatment in the trial group (68.12±5.54 vs 61.43±5.37, P<0.05).The increment rate of AIIc% in trial group was significantly higher than that in control group (10.9±5.1% vs2.5±5.5%, P<0.05). Conclusion: QYXB can stabilize the atherosclerotic plaque by increasing its acoustic density. Acoustic densitometry technique can differentiate the different histological plaques and monitor the histological changes of plaques during treatment.

  4. Background studies for acoustic neutrino detection at the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Benzvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brown, A. M.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; de Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Denger, T.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; Deyoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, T.; Kroll, G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lauer, R.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Marotta, A.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez de Los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Porrata, R.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schmidt, T.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stössl, A.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Stür, M.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsk, P.

    2012-01-01

    The detection of acoustic signals from ultra-high energy neutrino interactions is a promising method to measure the flux of cosmogenic neutrinos expected on Earth. The energy threshold for this process depends strongly on the absolute noise level in the target material. The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), deployed in the upper part of four boreholes of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, has monitored the noise in Antarctic ice at the geographic South Pole for more than two years down to 500 m depth. The noise is very stable and Gaussian distributed. Lacking an in situ calibration up to now, laboratory measurements have been used to estimate the absolute noise level in the 10-50 kHz frequency range to be smaller than 20 mPa. Using a threshold trigger, sensors of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup registered acoustic events in the IceCube detector volume and its vicinity. Acoustic signals from refreezing IceCube holes and from anthropogenic sources have been used to test the localization of acoustic events. An upper limit on the neutrino flux at energies Eν > 1011 GeV is derived from acoustic data taken over eight months.

  5. RECENT SUSPECT CASES AND A PILOT DETECTION STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOZUBÍKOVÁ E.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are only very limited reports about the occurrence of the crayfish plague in Czechia. In recent years, mass mortalities of Astacus spp. with symptoms of possible crayfish plague were noticed in three streams in the country – two in Central Bohemia (1998-9 and one in Silesia (2004. Three dead individuals from the last outbreak were examined for the presence of the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci, by observation of the presence of hyphae in their cuticle and by a PCR-based diagnostic method. In all three cases the detection was positive. Although causes of mass mortalities from two other localities lack such a direct confirmation, the indirect evidence supports the same conclusion. The main potential vector of A. astaci in Czechia is the American spiny-cheeck crayfish Orconectes limosus, widespread in large rivers of the western part of the country and in various isolated standing waters. Using the same molecular method, we investigated the presence of A. astaci in living O. limosus individuals from six localities (three running and three standing waters. The analysis indicated the presence of the pathogen in animals from five out of six investigated Orconectes populations. One of them is present in the stream where two European Astacus species had gone extinct in 1998-9. Our results suggest that the crayfish plague is still present in Czechia, and that populations of O. limosus represent a reservoir for the crayfish plague pathogen, which directly endangers populations of the native crayfish.

  6. Background studies for acoustic neutrino detection at the South Pole

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, R; Abu-Zayyad, T; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Bay, R; Alba, J L Bazo; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker, J K; Becker, K -H; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdrmann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brown, A M; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clem, J; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Colnard, C; Cowen, D F; D'Agostino, M V; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; Demirörs, L; Denger, T; Depaepe, O; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Diaz-Vélez, J C; Dierckxsens, M; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Ehrlich, R; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Foerster, M M; Fox, B D; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Geisler, M; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Grant, D; Griesel, T; Groß, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hanson, K; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Herquet, P; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Hubert, D; Huelsnitz, W; Hülß, J -P; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Johansson, H; Joseph, J M; Kampert, K -H; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kenny, P; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klein, S R; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Kowarik, T; Krasberg, M; Krings, T; Kroll, G; Kuehn, K; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lafebre, S; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Majumdar, P; Marotta, A; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Naumann, U; Nießen, P; Nygren, D R; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Ono, M; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Heros, C Pérez de los; Petrovic, J; Piegsa, A; Pieloth, D; Porrata, R; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Prikockis, M; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Rizzo, A; Rodrigues, J P; Roth, P; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Rutledge, D; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Schmidt, T; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schultes, A; Schulz, O; Schunck, M; Seckel, D; Semburg, B; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Silvestri, A; Slipak, A; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stephens, G; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stössl, A; Stoyanov, S; Strahler, E A; Straszheim, T; Stür, M; Sullivan, G W; Swillens, Q; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; Turčan, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, X W; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P

    2011-01-01

    The detection of acoustic signals from ultra-high energy neutrino interactions is a promising method to measure the tiny flux of cosmogenic neutrinos expected on Earth. The energy threshold for this process depends strongly on the absolute noise level in the target material. The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), deployed in the upper part of four boreholes of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, has monitored the noise in Antarctic ice at the geographic South Pole for more than two years down to 500 m depth. The noise is very stable and Gaussian distributed. Lacking an in-situ calibration up to now, laboratory measurements have been used to estimate the absolute noise level in the 10 to 50 kHz frequency range to be smaller than 20 mPa. Using a threshold trigger, sensors of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup registered acoustic pulse-like events in the IceCube detector volume and its vicinity. Acoustic signals from refreezing IceCube holes and from anthropogenic sources have been used to localize acoustic e...

  7. Evaluation of 3M molecular detection assay (MDA) Salmonella for the detection of Salmonella in selected foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Patrick; Fisher, Kiel; Boyle, Megan; Huffman, Travis; Benzinger, M Joseph; Bedinghaus, Paige; Flannery, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Benesh, DeAnn; David, John

    2013-01-01

    The 3M Molecular Detection Assay (MDA) Salmonella is used with the 3M Molecular Detection System for the detection of Salmonella spp. in food, food-related, and environmental samples after enrichment. The assay utilizes loop-mediated isothermal amplification to rapidly amplify Salmonella target DNA with high specificity and sensitivity, combined with bioluminescence to detect the amplification. The 3M MDA Salmonella method was compared using an unpaired study design in a multilaboratory collaborative study to the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food Safety and Inspection Service-Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (USDA/FSIS-MLG 4.05), Isolation and Identification of Salmonella from Meat, Poultry, Pasteurized Egg and Catfish Products for raw ground beef and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA/BAM) Chapter 5 Salmonella reference method for wet dog food following the current AOAC guidelines. A total of 20 laboratories participated. For the 3M MDA Salmonella method, raw ground beef was analyzed using 25 g test portions, and wet dog food was analyzed using 375 g test portions. For the reference methods, 25 g test portions of each matrix were analyzed. Each matrix was artificially contaminated with Salmonella at three inoculation levels: an uninoculated control level (0 CFU/test portion), a low inoculum level (0.2-2 CFU/test portion), and a high inoculum level (2-5 CFU/test portion). In this study, 1512 unpaired replicate samples were analyzed. Statistical analysis was conducted according to the probability of detection (POD). For the low-level raw ground beef test portions, the following dLPOD (difference between the POD of the reference and candidate method) values with 95% confidence intervals were obtained: -0.01 (-0.14, +0.12). For the low-level wet dog food test portions, the following dLPOD with 95% confidence intervals were obtained: -0.04 (-0.16, +0.09). No significant differences were observed in the number of positive

  8. EMAT phased array: A feasibility study of surface crack detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla, J; Cegla, F

    2017-02-14

    Electromagnetic-acoustic transducers (EMATs) consist of a magnet and a coil. They are advantageous in some non-destructive evaluation (NDE) applications because no direct contact with the specimen is needed to send and receive ultrasonic waves. However, EMATs commonly require excitation peak powers greater than 1kW and therefore the driving electronics and the EMAT coils have to be bulky. This has hindered the development of EMAT phased arrays with characteristics similar to those of conventional piezoelectric phased arrays. Phased arrays are widely used in NDE because they offer superior defect characterization in comparison to single-element transducers. In this paper, we report a series of novel techniques and design elements that make it possible to construct an EMAT phased array that performs similarly to conventional piezoelectric arrays used in NDE. One of the key enabling features is the use of coded excitation to reduce the excitation peak power to less than 4.8W (24 Vpp and 200mA) so that racetrack coils with dimensions 3.2×18mm(2) can be employed. Moreover, these racetrack coils are laid out along their shortest dimension so that 1/3 of their area is overlapped. This helps to reduce the crosstalk between the coils, i.e., the array elements, to less than -15dB. We show that an 8-element EMAT phased array operating at a central frequency of 1MHz can be used to detect defects which have a width and a depth of 0.2 and 0.8mm respectively and are located on the surface opposite to the array.

  9. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1996 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven G.

    1998-02-01

    In 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the fourth year of a multi-year study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. Actively migrating smolts were collected near the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and at Lower Granite Dam, tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, and released to continue their downstream migration. Individual smolts were subsequently detected at PIT-tag detection facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day and Bonneville Dams. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release (SR) and Paired-Release (PR) Models. Timing of releases of tagged hatchery steelhead (O. mykiss) from the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and yearling chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) from Lower Granite Dam in 1996 spanned the major portion of their juvenile migrations. Specific research objectives in 1996 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival in the Snake River using the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations, (2) evaluate the performance of the survival-estimation models under prevailing operational and environmental conditions in the Snake River, and (3) synthesize results from the 4 years of the study to investigate relationships between survival probabilities, travel times, and environmental factors such as flow levels and water temperature.

  10. A Study and Comparative Analysis of Conditional Random Fields for Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Guleria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection systems are an important component of defensive measures protecting computer systems and networks from abuse. Intrusion detection plays one of the key roles in computer security techniques and is one of the prime areas of research. Due to complex and dynamic nature of computer networks and hacking techniques, detecting malicious activities remains a challenging task for security experts, that is, currently available defense systems suffer from low detection capability and high number of false alarms. An intrusion detection system must reliably detect malicious activities in a network and must perform efficiently to cope with the large amount of network traffic. In this paper we study the Machine Learning and data mining techniques to solve Intrusion Detection problems within computer networks and compare the various approaches with conditional random fields and address these two issues of Accuracy and Efficiency using Conditional Random Fields and Layered Approach.

  11. EU Collaborative study VI on bacteriological detection of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Mooijman KA; Nagelkerke NJD; van de Giessen AW; Henken AM; MGB; IMA

    2003-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) organiseerde in 2002 een zesde bacteriologisch ringonderzoek. Zeventien Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) namen deel aan deze studie. Referentie materialen in combinatie

  12. Smolt Condition and Timing of Arrival at Lower Granite Reservoir, 1988 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Nelson, William R.

    1989-10-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of smelts during the 1988 spring outmigration at two migrant traps; one each on the Snake and Clear-water rivers. Due to the low runoff year, chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was very low. Steelhead trout catch was higher than normal, probably due to trap modifications and because the trap was moved to the east side of the river. Chinook salmon and steelhead trout catch at the Clearwater River trap was similar to 1987. Total cumulative recovery of PIT tagged fish at the three dams, with PIT tag detection systems was: 55% for chinook salmon, 73% for hatchery steelhead trout, and 75% for wild steelhead trout. Travel time through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT tagged chinook salmon and steelhead trout, marked at the head of the reservoir, was affected by discharge. Statistical analysis showed that as discharge increased from 40 kcfs to 80 kcfs, chinook salmon travel time decreased three fold, and steelhead trout travel time decreased two fold. There was a statistical difference between estimates of travel time through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT tagged and freeze branded steelhead trout, but not for chinook salmon. These differences may be related to the estimation techniques used for PIT tagged and freeze branded groups, rather than real differences in travel time.

  13. Smolt Condition and Timing of Arrival at Lower Granite Reservoir, 1987 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Nelson, V. Lance

    1990-01-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of smolts during the 1988 spring outmigration at two migrant traps; one each on the Snake and Clearwater rivers. Due to the low runoff year, chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was very low. Steelhead trout catch was higher than normal, probably due to trap modifications and because the trap was moved to the east side of the river. Chinook salmon and steelhead trout catch at the Clearwater River trap was similar to 1987. Total cumulative recovery of PIT tagged fish at the three dams, with PIT tag detection systems was: 55% for chinook salmon, 73% for hatchery steelhead trout, and 75% for wild steelhead trout. Travel time through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT tagged chinook salmon and steelhead trout, marked at the head of the reservoir, was affected by discharge. Statistical analysis showed that as discharge increased from 40 kcfs to 80 kcfs, chinook salmon travel time decreased three fold, and steelhead trout travel time decreased two fold. There was a statistical difference between estimates of travel time through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT tagged and freeze branded steelhead trout, but not for chinook salmon. These differences may be related to the estimation techniques used for PIT tagged and freeze branded groups, rather than real differences in travel time. 10 figs, 15 tabs.

  14. A study to detect important factors influencing purchasing product: A case study of home appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ghafurian Shagerdi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Home appliances are among basic requirements of anyone in the world and it is always important to find out about factors influencing this industry. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive model to detect major factors influencing on consumer purchasing intention. For this purpose, the proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 400 customers who have some experiences on purchasing home appliances in city of Tehran, Iran, recently. Cronbach alpha was calculated for all components of the survey and they were all well above the minimum acceptable level. We analyzed the data using structural equation modeling via LISREL and the results of this survey show that brand familiarity, brand trust, and perceived value have significant positive effects on consumers purchase intention.

  15. Detection of visual patterns disturbed by noise: An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geer, J.P. van de; Levelt, W.J.M.

    1963-01-01

    An introductory study of the perception of stochastically specified events is reported. The initial problem was to determine whether the perceiver can split visual input data of this kind into random and determined components. The inability of subjects to do so with the stimulus material used (a fil

  16. Detection of myocardial ischemia and infarction by radionuclide studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-12-31

    Myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction are the common diseases caused by reduced coronary artery blood flow to the myocardium. Although the radionuclide studies cannot identify stenotic lesions on the coronary arteries, they can demonstrate regional myocardial perfusion at rest and during stress as well which is particularly important for the accurate diagnosis of angina pectoris. (J.P.N.)

  17. Technical specifications of low-frequency radio identification bedload tracking from field experiments: Differences in antennas, tags and operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, F.; Piégay, H.; Vaudor, L.; Bultingaire, L.; Fantino, G.

    2015-06-01

    Low-frequency passive integrated transponders (PIT tags) have been increasingly used for tracking bedload transport in gravel-bed rivers. Prior studies have reported high recovery rates in small streams, while recovery rates remained much lower in large systems, in large part because of the limited reading distance of the tags (antenna size, tag orientation, burial, submergence, etc.). Beyond these tests, improving our understanding of PIT tag functioning, using different equipment within different environments, is still needed in order to select the most suitable device for each geomorphic context. We address this knowledge gap with technical specifications for a low-frequency radio identification (RFID) device by working for the first time with real fluvial constraints, i.e., the gravel deposits and the aquatic channel. The three-dimensional detection envelopes of two types of tags and three types of antennas are quantified as well as the effect of practices (interoperator bias, battery power) on the detection. The interoperator variability and the intertag variability can be considered as negligible. The influence of burial in dry and water-saturated sediment and the influence of water immersion are shown to be minor. Finally, we summarize practical implications for RFID bedload tracking through these experiments.

  18. Studies on the detection of leaks from Tapacura dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Marco O.A.; Andrade Lima, Ricardo de; Antonino, Antonio C.D.; Villar, Heldio P.; Oliveira Lira, Carlos A.B. de [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Badeira, Jefferson V. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Viana, Afonso A. [Companhia Pernambucana de Saneamento e Agua, Recife, PE (Brazil); Plata-Bedmar, Antonio [Centro de Estudios y Experimentaciones de Obras Publicas (Spain); Garcia-Agudo, Edmundo [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-01

    One of the many applications of stable isotope analyses is in hydrological studies. as the isotope concentration of elements in water vary as a result of fractionation due to physicochemical processes, each water has its own fingerprints, so that identification of its origin is made possible. This technique has been used in the investigation of the possible leaks through the geologic formation underneath the Tapacura Dam, near Recife, Brazil. Samples were collected from the reservoir and from several collection points downstream. These samples have been analysed for their deuterium, {sup 18} O and {sup 13} C concentrations. The comparison between results from these analyses indicated that water from the reservoir and from the other collection points had distinct origins. These finding were corroborated from standard chemical analyses and tracer studies, thus pointing to the absence of any significant underflow at the Tapacura Dam. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. Gender differences in detecting unanticipated stimuli: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Yan, Ke; Zhang, Yuhe; Jiang, Yijie; Tao, Ran; Zheng, Xifu

    2013-03-22

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the gender differences during an emotional anticipation task. Sixteen females and sixteen males participated in the experiment. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured in a modified cue-target paradigm and were recorded following stimuli that differed in two dimensions: (1) predictable vs. unpredictable pictures and (2) negative vs. neutral pictures. Cue-induced ERP results demonstrated that females had enhanced positive component (P2) compared to males. Moreover, results showed that during the unpredictable condition, females displayed larger P2 amplitudes in negative and neutral anticipation than males. This study demonstrates that females have greater sensitivity to the unanticipated stimuli, which may contribute to evolution.

  20. A Study on Current Status of Detection Technology and Establishment of National Detection Regime against Nuclear/Radiological Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Sung Woo; Jang, Sung Soon; Lee, Joung Hoon; Yoo, Ho Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    Since 1990s, some events - detection of a dirty bomb in a Russian nation park in 1995, 9/11 terrorist attack to WTC in 2001, discovery of Al-Qaeda's experimentation to build a dirty bomb in 2003 etc - have showed that nuclear or radiological terrorism relating to radioactive materials (hereinafter 'radioactive materials' is referred to as 'nuclear material, nuclear spent fuel and radioactive source') is not incredible but serious and credible threat. Thus, to respond to the new threat, the international community has not only strengthened security and physical protection of radioactive materials but also established prevention of and response to illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. In this regard, our government has enacted or revised the national regulatory framework with a view to improving security of radioactive materials and joined the international convention or agreement to meet this international trend. For the purpose of prevention of nuclear/radiological terrorism, this paper reviews physical characteristics of nuclear material and existing detection instruments used for prevention of illicit trafficking. Finally, national detection regime against nuclear/radiological terrorism based on paths of the smuggled radioactive materials to terrorist's target building/area, national topography and road networks, and defence-in-depth concept is suggested in this paper. This study should contribute to protect people's health, safety and environment from nuclear/radiological terrorism.

  1. An exploration study to detect important factors influencing internet marketing: A case study of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadan Vahabzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet marketing plays an important role on profitability of organizations, it can build a bridge between customers and business owners and anyone could purchase products and services through internet. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing internet marketing on Iranian food industry, named Shahrvand. The proposed study selects 280 out of 1040 managers who were involved in this industry during the year of 2012. Structural equation modeling has been performed to detect important factors including internal/external factors, ease of use and electronic marketing. Cronbach alphas have been calculated for these four items were mostly above 0.80, which validated the overall questionnaire of the survey. The results indicate that among internal factors, knowledge management, organizational culture and resources influence on acceptance of internet marketing, while these factors do not show any meaningful impact on ease of use. In addition, external factors including trend on market growth, competition and infrastructure influence on ease of use and acceptance of internet marketing but infrastructure and competition do not impact on ease of internet marketing.

  2. [Clinical study with angiography system using a flat panel detecter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichida, Takao; Okusako, Kenji; Yokoyama, Kouji; Shougaki, Masachika; Ogawa, Takayoshi; Kawahata, Hideki; Nasu, Takehisa; Hosogai, Minoru; Okuyama, Kazuo; Hatagawa, Masakatsu

    2004-08-01

    We have been using an X-ray angiography system that incorporates a flat panel detector (FPD) since December 2001. This system is equipped with the scintillator-type FPD PaxScan 4030A from Varian Medical Systems, and for objective comparison of the image intensifier (I.I.) and FPD, the system is constructed so that these detectors can be used alternatively. Using this system and other X-ray angiography systems, visual studies have been conducted on the digital subtraction angiography (DSA) images acquired by FPD and I.I. We have found from the clinical images that the FPD is superior to the I.I. in depiction of fine blood vessels as well as of physical characteristics. Fluoroscopy images acquired by the FPD were not entirely satisfactory, however the improvement made in its performance now permits equal use of the FPD and I.I. systems.

  3. Probability of Detection Study on Impact Damage to Honeycomb Composite Structure using Thermographic Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Andrew J.; Walker, James L., II

    2008-01-01

    A probability of detection study was performed for the detection of impact damage using flash heating infrared thermography on a full scale honeycomb composite structure. The honeycomb structure was an intertank structure from a previous NASA technology demonstration program. The intertank was fabricated from IM7/8552 carbon fiber/epoxy facesheets and aluminum honeycomb core. The intertank was impacted in multiple locations with a range of impact energies utilizing a spherical indenter. In a single blind study, the intertank was inspected with thermography before and after impact damage was incurred. Following thermographic inspection several impact sites were sectioned from the intertank and cross-sectioned for microscopic comparisons of NDE detection and actual damage incurred. The study concluded that thermographic inspection was a good method of detecting delamination damage incurred by impact. The 90/95 confidence level on the probability of detection was close to the impact energy that delaminations were first observed through cross-sectional analysis.

  4. The Power of Phase I Studies to Detect Clinical Relevant QTc Prolongation: A Resampling Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Ferber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration-effect (CE models applied to early clinical QT data from healthy subjects are described in the latest E14 Q&A document as promising analysis to characterise QTc prolongation. The challenges faced if one attempts to replace a TQT study by thorough ECG assessments in Phase I based on CE models are the assurance to obtain sufficient power and the establishment of a substitute for the positive control to show assay sensitivity providing protection against false negatives. To demonstrate that CE models in small studies can reliably predict the absence of an effect on QTc, we investigated the role of some key design features in the power of the analysis. Specifically, the form of the CE model, inclusion of subjects on placebo, and sparse sampling on the performance and power of this analysis were investigated. In this study, the simulations conducted by subsampling subjects from 3 different TQT studies showed that CE model with a treatment effect can be used to exclude small QTc effects. The number of placebo subjects was also shown to increase the power to detect an inactive drug preventing false positives while an effect can be underestimated if time points around tmax are missed.

  5. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Robert N.; Sandford, Benjamin P.; McIntyre, Kenneth W.

    1994-04-01

    A pilot study was conducted to estimate survival of hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. The goals of the study were to: (1) field test and evaluate the Single-Release, Modified-Single-Release, and Paired-Release Models for the estimation of survival probabilities through sections of a river and hydroelectric projects; (2) identify operational and logistical constraints to the execution of these models; and (3) determine the usefulness of the models in providing estimates of survival probabilities. Field testing indicated that the numbers of hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon needed for accurate survival estimates could be collected at different areas with available gear and methods. For the primary evaluation, seven replicates of 830 to 1,442 hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon were purse-seined from Lower Granite Reservoir, PIT tagged, and released near Nisqually John boat landing (River Kilometer 726). Secondary releases of PIT-tagged smolts were made at Lower Granite Dam to estimate survival of fish passing through turbines and after detection in the bypass system. Similar secondary releases were made at Little Goose Dam, but with additional releases through the spillway. Based on the success of the 1993 pilot study, the authors believe that the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models will provide accurate estimates of juvenile salmonid passage survival for individual river sections, reservoirs, and hydroelectric projects in the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

  6. An Empirical Research Study of the Efficacy of Two Plagiarism-Detection Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jacob D.; Page, Elaine Fetyko

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a study of the two most popular plagiarism-detection software platforms available on today's market--Turnitin (http://www.turnitin.com/static/index.html) and SafeAssign (http://www.safeassign.com/). After a brief discussion of plagiarism's relevance to librarians, the authors examine plagiarism-detection methodology and…

  7. An Empirical Research Study of the Efficacy of Two Plagiarism-Detection Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jacob D.; Page, Elaine Fetyko

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a study of the two most popular plagiarism-detection software platforms available on today's market--Turnitin (http://www.turnitin.com/static/index.html) and SafeAssign (http://www.safeassign.com/). After a brief discussion of plagiarism's relevance to librarians, the authors examine plagiarism-detection methodology and…

  8. Multi-View Algorithm for Face, Eyes and Eye State Detection in Human Image- Study Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latesh Kumari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available For fatigue detection such as in the application of driver‟s fatigue monitoring system, the eye state analysis is one of the important and deciding steps to determine the fatigue of driver‟s eyes. In this study, algorithms for face detection, eye detection and eye state analysis have been studied and presented as well as an efficient algorithm for detection of face, eyes have been proposed. Firstly the efficient algorithm for face detection method has been presented which find the face area in the human images. Then, novel algorithms for detection of eye region and eye state are introduced. In this paper we propose a multi-view based eye state detection to determine the state of the eye. With the help of skin color model, the algorithm detects the face regions in an YCbCr color model. By applying the skin segmentation which normally separates the skin and non-skin pixels of the images, it detects the face regions of the image under various lighting and noise conditions. Then from these face regions, the eye regions are extracted within those extracted face regions. Our proposed algorithms are fast and robust as there is not pattern match.

  9. The Study of Detecting Irregular Edge with Straight-Line Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh-Don Hsiao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study’s main intention is to propose the best-fit line detection, Region of Interest (ROI detection and precision measuring method by using an object with an irregular edge in a high precision optical image. In general, an object with a smooth edge will actually display a very irregular and uneven gray scale distribution after being imaged by a high precision optical instrument, which may lead to a big problem if it is used in precision detection and measurement. Therefore, in this study we will individually propose the best-fit line detection, ROI detection conversion and the precision measuring method for irregular edges. The best-fit line detection is to propose two different best-fit line detection modes without affecting the computing time. The ROI detection method is to detect the region of most interest to the user and then to convert the regional line into a full-field image. For precision measurement, in this study we will propose a method for calculating the distance from the line to the edge and the distance between lines to achieve the measuring purpose.

  10. Analysis of different device-based intrathoracic impedance vectors for detection of heart failure events (from the Detect Fluid Early from Intrathoracic Impedance Monitoring study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heist, E Kevin; Herre, John M; Binkley, Philip F; Van Bakel, Adrian B; Porterfield, James G; Porterfield, Linda M; Qu, Fujian; Turkel, Melanie; Pavri, Behzad B

    2014-10-15

    Detect Fluid Early from Intrathoracic Impedance Monitoring (DEFEAT-PE) is a prospective, multicenter study of multiple intrathoracic impedance vectors to detect pulmonary congestion (PC) events. Changes in intrathoracic impedance between the right ventricular (RV) coil and device can (RVcoil→Can) of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) and cardiac resynchronization therapy ICDs (CRT-Ds) are used clinically for the detection of PC events, but other impedance vectors and algorithms have not been studied prospectively. An initial 75-patient study was used to derive optimal impedance vectors to detect PC events, with 2 vector combinations selected for prospective analysis in DEFEAT-PE (ICD vectors: RVring→Can + RVcoil→Can, detection threshold 13 days; CRT-D vectors: left ventricular ring→Can + RVcoil→Can, detection threshold 14 days). Impedance changes were considered true positive if detected heart failure events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A preliminary study of visual memory and rule detection in fencing. A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVANGELOS VERTOPOULOS, CHARILAOS TSOLAKIS & MARIETTA REMOUNDOU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate possible differences among a group of fencers and a group of swimmers, in the visual memory task and the spatial anticipation task. 15 national level fencers (aged between 16 to 23 years and 15 swimmers of a competitive swimming club (aged between 15 to 22 years, were studied. The Brixton Spatial Anticipation Test (BSAT was used as a measure of executive functioning. The second test was the Visual Patterns Test (VPT, which measured visual short-term memory. The Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS was also included as an estimate of general intelligence. There was a significant difference between fencers & swimmers in the BSAT, (F=5.261, p<0.030, while the analysis of the VPT test scores showed no significant differences among groups (F=0.325 p<=0.573. In conclusion, fencers showed no better performance on visual memory, while they were superior in rule detection, comparing to swimmers. The long training fencing program, may greatly affects the speed of constitute information process as attributes of the decision making speed in national level fencers.

  12. A study of warm rain detection using A-Train satellite data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruiyue Chen; Zhanqing Li; Robert J. Kuligowski; Ralph Ferraro; Fuzhong Weng

    2011-01-01

    .... This study exploits multi-sensor data from the A-Train satellite constellation to investigate the rain contribution from warm clouds and the potential of using cloud microphysical parameters for warm rain detection...

  13. The importance of accounting for larval detectability in mosquito habitat-association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Matthew; Tsegaye, Admasu Tassew; Ignell, Rickard; Hill, Sharon; Elleby, Rasmus; Feltelius, Vilhelm; Hopkins, Richard

    2016-05-04

    Mosquito habitat-association studies are an important basis for disease control programmes and/or vector distribution models. However, studies do not explicitly account for incomplete detection during larval presence and abundance surveys, with potential for significant biases because of environmental influences on larval behaviour and sampling efficiency. Data were used from a dip-sampling study for Anopheles larvae in Ethiopia to evaluate the effect of six factors previously associated with larval sampling (riparian vegetation, direct sunshine, algae, water depth, pH and temperature) on larval presence and detectability. Comparisons were made between: (i) a presence-absence logistic regression where samples were pooled at the site level and detectability ignored, (ii) a success versus trials binomial model, and (iii) a presence-detection mixture model that separately estimated presence and detection, and fitted different explanatory variables to these estimations. Riparian vegetation was consistently highlighted as important, strongly suggesting it explains larval presence (-). However, depending on how larval detectability was estimated, the other factors showed large variations in their statistical importance. The presence-detection mixture model provided strong evidence that larval detectability was influenced by sunshine and water temperature (+), with weaker evidence for algae (+) and water depth (-). For larval presence, there was also some evidence that water depth (-) and pH (+) influenced site occupation. The number of dip-samples needed to determine if larvae were likely present at a site was condition dependent: with sunshine and warm water requiring only two dips, while cooler water and cloud cover required 11. Environmental factors influence true larval presence and larval detectability differentially when sampling in field conditions. Researchers need to be more aware of the limitations and possible biases in different analytical approaches used to

  14. Study of gamma detection capabilities of the REWARD mobile spectroscopic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbuena, J. P.; Baptista, M.; Barros, S.; Dambacher, M.; Disch, C.; Fiederle, M.; Kuehn, S.; Parzefall, U.

    2017-07-01

    REWARD is a novel mobile spectroscopic radiation detector system for Homeland Security applications. The system integrates gamma and neutron detection equipped with wireless communication. A comprehensive simulation study on its gamma detection capabilities in different radioactive scenarios is presented in this work. The gamma detection unit consists of a precise energy resolution system based on two stacked (Cd,Zn)Te sensors working in coincidence sum mode. The volume of each of these CZT sensors is 1 cm3. The investigated energy windows used to determine the detection capabilities of the detector correspond to the gamma emissions from 137Cs and 60Co radioactive sources (662 keV and 1173/1333 keV respectively). Monte Carlo and Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) simulations are combined to determine its sensing capabilities for different radiation sources and estimate the limits of detection of the sensing unit as a function of source activity for several shielding materials.

  15. Experimental study of balanced optical homodyne and heterodyne detection by controlling sideband modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wei; Yu, Xudong; Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally study optical homodyne and heterodyne detections with a same setup, which is flexible to manipulate the signal sideband modulation. When the modulation only generate a single signal sideband, the light field measurement by mixing the single sideband at $\\omega_{0}+\\Omega$ with a strong local oscillator at the carrier frequency $\\omega_{0}$ on a beam splitter become balanced heterodyne detection. When two signal sidebands at $\\omega_{0}\\pm\\Omega$ are generated and the relative phase of the two sidebands is locked, this measurement corresponds to optical balanced homodyne detection. With this setup, we may confirm directly that the signal-to-noise ratio with heterodyne detection is two-fold worse than that with homodyne detection. This work will have important applications in quantum state measurement and quantum information.

  16. Understanding environmental DNA detection probabilities: A case study using a stream-dwelling char Salvelinus fontinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Taylor M; Mckelvey, Kevin S.; Young, Michael K.; Sepulveda, Adam; Shepard, Bradley B.; Jane, Stephen F; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA sampling (eDNA) has emerged as a powerful tool for detecting aquatic animals. Previous research suggests that eDNA methods are substantially more sensitive than traditional sampling. However, the factors influencing eDNA detection and the resulting sampling costs are still not well understood. Here we use multiple experiments to derive independent estimates of eDNA production rates and downstream persistence from brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in streams. We use these estimates to parameterize models comparing the false negative detection rates of eDNA sampling and traditional backpack electrofishing. We find that using the protocols in this study eDNA had reasonable detection probabilities at extremely low animal densities (e.g., probability of detection 0.18 at densities of one fish per stream kilometer) and very high detection probabilities at population-level densities (e.g., probability of detection > 0.99 at densities of ≥ 3 fish per 100 m). This is substantially more sensitive than traditional electrofishing for determining the presence of brook trout and may translate into important cost savings when animals are rare. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of literature showing that eDNA sampling is a powerful tool for the detection of aquatic species, particularly those that are rare and difficult to sample using traditional methods.

  17. The study of micro crack detection in dissimilar metal weld using a variable ultrasound infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Hak; Choi, Man Yong; Kwon, Koo Ahn [Dept. of Research and Development, Korea Research Institute of Smart Material and Structures System Association, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Sang [Center of Safety Measurements, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    As a nondestructive inspection technology currently in use, infrared thermography has gradually expanded its application range to industry. The method detects only defect areas by grafting ultrasound on a technique of detecting infrared energy emitted from all objects with absolute temperature of 0 K and converting this energy into thermography for inspection. Ultrasound infrared thermography has merits including the ability to inspect a wide area in a short time without contacting the target object. This study investigated the applicability of the technique for defect detection using variable ultrasound excitation inspection methods on samples of Terfenol-D, a magnetostrictive material with a tunable natural resonant frequency.

  18. A study on real-time fault monitoring detection method of bearing using the infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Tae [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kongju National University, Kongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho Jong; Hong, Dong Pyo [School of Mechanical System Engineering, Chonbuk Nationa University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Since real-time monitoring system like a fault early detection has been very important, infrared thermography technique as a new diagnosis method was proposed. This study is focused on the damage detection and temperature characteristic analysis of ball bearing using the non-destructive infrared thermography method. In this paper, for the reliability assessment, infrared experimental data were compared with the frequency data of the existing. As results, the temperature characteristics of ball bearing were analyzed under various loading conditions. Finally it was confirmed that the infrared technique was useful for real-time detection of the bearing damages.

  19. Study on optimization method of test conditions for fatigue crack detection using lock-in vibrothermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Qing-xu; Zhu, Jun-zhen; Feng, Fu-zhou; Xu, Chao; Sun, Ji-wei

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the lock-in vibrothermography (LVT) is utilized for defect detection. Specifically, for a metal plate with an artificial fatigue crack, the temperature rise of the defective area is used for analyzing the influence of different test conditions, i.e. engagement force, excitation intensity, and modulated frequency. The multivariate nonlinear and logistic regression models are employed to estimate the POD (probability of detection) and POA (probability of alarm) of fatigue crack, respectively. The resulting optimal selection of test conditions is presented. The study aims to provide an optimized selection method of the test conditions in the vibrothermography system with the enhanced detection ability.

  20. Study on probability of detection for fatigue cracks in sonic infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun-zhen; Zhang, Chao-sheng; Feng, Fu-zhou; Min, Qing-xu; Xu, Chao

    2016-07-01

    Detection reliability of sonic infrared imaging is one of the increasingly important aspects for out of lab applications. And for the detection reliability evaluation, probability of detection (POD) for different defects under given test conditions has been successfully used as an accepted quantitative measurement. In this study, we test a set of C45 ferritic steel plates with artificial fatigue cracks. Experimental results show that the crack heating response increases with the increasing crack length, and the relationship between the logarithmic form of heat response signal and the crack length appears to be linear. Based on the above statistic characteristics, the linear regression analysis and the Wald method are adopted to estimate the POD function and its confidence interval. The study aims to provide a quantitative evaluation method for detection reliability in sonic infrared imaging.

  1. Detection of Microbial Life in Glacial Samples - Laboratories Studies and Development for Field use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, M. J.; Cullen, D. C.; Telling, J.; Wadham, J. L.; Holt, J.; Sims, M.

    2007-12-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is frequently used as a proxy for bulk microbial biomass in environmental sciences and, in the food and health industries. Despite successful ATP detection in a variety of ecosystems, very little data are available on ATP levels in the glacial system. In this study, protocols for ATP detection on glacial ice and sediment samples are investigated, in order to aid in the development of a single-use device for in-field life detection, and also to increase the available data on biomass estimates in the cryosphere. ATP detection in two glacial samples reveals concentrations indistinguishable from internal blanks. Therefore, the samples were centrifuged and their particulate loads were subjected to four different extraction processes. Applying these extraction methods resulted in higher ATP concentration than samples with no extraction process; the different techniques increase the ATP detected between 5 and 15 times (also relative to an internal standard). Concurrent with the laboratory based development of extraction protocols is the development of a single-use device for the detection of ATP at the sampling site, in icy environments. The device is microfluidic-based, using commercially available reagents for the detection of ATP by bioluminescence. In order to produce a robust measure of biomass, both laboratory and field based analyses need to be carried out. This work shows the potential of ATP detection in glacial samples and the early development of a device for in situ life detection. The quantification of ATP in microfluidic format is being developed as the preliminary target for an integrated life detection and characterisation device.

  2. Detection of low-contrast lesions in computed body tomography: an experimental study of simulated lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, T F; Raudkivi, U; McIntyre, W J; Gallagher, J H; Haaga, J R; Havrilla, T R; Reich, N E

    1980-01-01

    Observer accuracy in the identification of low-contrast objects in computed tomography (CT) was studied. Thresholds were established for detection of lesions of various sizes and attenuation differences in CT images produced at different radiation doses. Noise reduction was important in identifying certain types of lesions. Detection was not accurate when the standard deviation of the mean of an organ exceeded the difference in the means of the lesion and the surround region.

  3. The use of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) as an alternative biomarker detection technique: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Shahzad, Aamir; Knapp, Martin; Lang, Irene; Köhler, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Biomarkers are essential part of daily medical practice. Currently, biomarkers are being used both for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. There are many approaches e.g. ELISA by which biomarker levels are detected from patient samples. However, all these approaches are laborious, time consuming and expensive. There is therefore a general need for exploring new technique which can overcome these drawbacks. Here, we present a preliminary study for detection of serum biomarkers by fluo...

  4. Preliminary study on MR colonography with air enema in detection of colorectal neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ming-yue; LIU Li; YAN Fu-hua; SHEN Ji-zhang; YAO Li-qing; ZHOU Kang-rong

    2010-01-01

    Background The few studies on MR colonography with air enema involved feasibility of bowel distention and imaging quality and lacked detection sensitivity of colorectal neoplasms. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the detection sensitivity of colorectal neoplasms with the three-dimensional Fourier transform fast spoiled gradient-recalled MR colonography with air enema.Methods A total of 30 patients scheduled for optical colonoscopy due to rectal bleeding, positive fecal occult blood test results or altered bowel habits were recruited and successfully underwent entire colorectal examinations with three-dimensional Fourier transform fast spoiled gradient-recalled MR colonography and subsequent optical colonoscopy on the same day. Detection sensitivity of colorectal neoplasms with MR colonography was statistically analyzed on a per-neoplasm size basis by using findings from optical colonoscopy and histopathological examinations as the reference standards.Results Seventy-six neoplasms were detected with optical colonoscopy, consisting of 1 mm-5 mm (n=11), 6 mm-9 mm (n=29) and >10 mm (n=36) in diameter. Detection sensitivities of 1 mm-5 mm, 6 mm-9 mm, ≥10 mm and >6 mm colorectal neoplasms with MR colonography were 9.1%, 75.9%, 100% and 89.2%, respectively; overall detection sensitivity for all sizes colorectal neoplasms was 77.6%.Conclusions Detection sensitivity of three-dimensional Fourier transform fast spoiled gradient-recalled MR colonography with air enema is low for 1 mm-5 mm colorectal neoplasms, but the detection sensitivity is 89.2% for ≥6 mm neoplasms, and all ≥10 mm neoplasms could be detected.

  5. A molecular epidemiological study of respiratory viruses detected in Japanese children with acute wheezing illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noda Masahiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies strongly suggest that some respiratory viruses are associated with the induction of acute wheezing and/or exacerbation of bronchial asthma. However, molecular epidemiology of these viruses is not exactly known. Methods Using PCR technology, we attempted to detect various respiratory viruses from 115 Japanese children. Furthermore, the detected viruses were subjected to homology, pairwise distance, and phylogenetic analysis. Results Viruses were detected from 99 (86.1% patients. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV alone and human rhinovirus (HRV alone were detected in 47 (40.9% and 36 (31.3% patients, respectively. Both RSV and HRV were detected in 14 (12.2% patients. Human metapneumovirus (HMPV alone and human parainfluenza virus (HPIV alone were detected in 1 (0.9% patient each, respectively. Homology and phylogenetic analyses showed that the RSV and HRV strains were classified into genetically diverse species or subgroups. In addition, RSV was the dominant virus detected in patients with no history of wheezing, whereas HRV was dominant in patients with a history of wheezing. Conclusions The results suggested that these genetically diverse respiratory viruses, especially RSV and HRV, might be associated with wheezing in Japanese children.

  6. Outbreak detection algorithms for seasonal disease data: a case study using ross river virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatton Michelle L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of outbreaks is an important part of disease surveillance. Although many algorithms have been designed for detecting outbreaks, few have been specifically assessed against diseases that have distinct seasonal incidence patterns, such as those caused by vector-borne pathogens. Methods We applied five previously reported outbreak detection algorithms to Ross River virus (RRV disease data (1991-2007 for the four local government areas (LGAs of Brisbane, Emerald, Redland and Townsville in Queensland, Australia. The methods used were the Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS C1, C2 and C3 methods, negative binomial cusum (NBC, historical limits method (HLM, Poisson outbreak detection (POD method and the purely temporal SaTScan analysis. Seasonally-adjusted variants of the NBC and SaTScan methods were developed. Some of the algorithms were applied using a range of parameter values, resulting in 17 variants of the five algorithms. Results The 9,188 RRV disease notifications that occurred in the four selected regions over the study period showed marked seasonality, which adversely affected the performance of some of the outbreak detection algorithms. Most of the methods examined were able to detect the same major events. The exception was the seasonally-adjusted NBC methods that detected an excess of short signals. The NBC, POD and temporal SaTScan algorithms were the only methods that consistently had high true positive rates and low false positive and false negative rates across the four study areas. The timeliness of outbreak signals generated by each method was also compared but there was no consistency across outbreaks and LGAs. Conclusions This study has highlighted several issues associated with applying outbreak detection algorithms to seasonal disease data. In lieu of a true gold standard, a quantitative comparison is difficult and caution should be taken when interpreting the true positives, false positives

  7. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin, Volume XIV; Evaluation of 2006 Prediction of the Run-Timing of Wild and Hatchery-Reared Salmon and Steelhead at Rock Island, Lower Granite, McNary, John Day and Bonneville Dams using Program Real Time, Technical Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griswold, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Program RealTime provided monitoring and forecasting of the 2006 inseason outmigrations via the internet for 32 PIT-tagged stocks of wild ESU chinook salmon and steelhead to Lower Granite and/or McNary dams, one PIT-tagged hatchery-reared ESU of sockeye salmon to Lower Granite Dam, and 20 passage-indexed runs-at-large, five each to Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams. Twenty-four stocks are of wild yearling chinook salmon which were captured, PIT-tagged, and released at sites above Lower Granite Dam in 2006, and have at least one year's historical migration data previous to the 2006 migration. These stocks originate in drainages of the Salmon, Grande Ronde and Clearwater Rivers, all tributaries to the Snake River, and are subsequently detected through the tag identification and monitored at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, seven wild PIT-tagged runs-at-large of Snake or Upper Columbia River ESU salmon and steelhead were monitored at McNary Dam. Three wild PIT-tagged runs-at-large were monitored at Lower Granite Dam, consisting of the yearling and subyearling chinook salmon and the steelhead trout runs. The hatchery-reared PIT-tagged sockeye salmon stock from Redfish Lake was monitored outmigrating through Lower Granite Dam. Passage-indexed stocks (stocks monitored by FPC passage indices) included combined wild and hatchery runs-at-large of subyearling and yearling chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead trout forecasted to Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams.

  8. Media literacy education for elementary school substance use prevention: study of media detective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupersmidt, Janis B; Scull, Tracy M; Austin, Erica Weintraub

    2010-09-01

    Media Detective is a 10-lesson elementary school substance use prevention program developed on the basis of the message interpretation processing model designed to increase children's critical thinking skills about media messages and reduce intent to use tobacco and alcohol products. The purpose of this study was to conduct a short-term, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Media Detective for achieving these goals. Elementary schools were randomly assigned to conditions to either receive the Media Detective program (n=344) or serve in a waiting list control group (n=335). Boys in the Media Detective group reported significantly less interest in alcohol-branded merchandise than boys in the control group. Also, students who were in the Media Detective group and had used alcohol or tobacco in the past reported significantly less intention to use and more self-efficacy to refuse substances than students who were in the control group and had previously used alcohol or tobacco. This evaluation provides evidence that Media Detective can be effective for substance use prevention in elementary school-aged children. Notably, media-related cognitions about alcohol and tobacco products are malleable and relevant to the development and maintenance of substance use behaviors during late childhood. The findings from this study suggest that media literacy-based interventions may serve as both a universal and a targeted prevention program that has potential for assisting elementary school children in making healthier, more informed decisions about use of alcohol and tobacco products.

  9. Study on the Micro Crack Detection in Joints by Using Ultrasound Infrared Thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Sang; Choi, Man Yong; Park, Jeong Hak; Lee, Seung Seok; Huh, Yong Hak [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bo Young; Jae Seong [Korea Aerospace University, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    This study detected SCC defects of dissimilar metal welded(STS304 and SA106 Gr. b) pipes using the ultrasonic infrared thermography method and the lock-in image treatment method among infrared thermography method. The infrared excitement equipment has 250 Watt of output and 20 kHz of frequency. By using the ultrasound infrared thermography method, the internal defects of dissimilar metal weld joints of pipes used at nuclear power plants could get detected. By an actual PT test, it was observed that the cracks inside the pipe existed not as a single crack but rather as a multiple cracks within a certain area and generated a hot spot image of a broad area on the thermography image. In addition, UT technology could not easily defects detected by the width of 10 {mu}m fine hair cracks. but, ultrasound infrared thermography technique was defect detected.

  10. A New Study of Two Divergence Metrics for Change Detection in Data Streams

    KAUST Repository

    Qahtan, Abdulhakim Ali Ali

    2014-08-01

    Streaming data are dynamic in nature with frequent changes. To detect such changes, most methods measure the difference between the data distributions in a current time window and a reference window. Divergence metrics and density estimation are required to measure the difference between the data distributions. Our study shows that the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence, the most popular metric for comparing distributions, fails to detect certain changes due to its asymmetric property and its dependence on the variance of the data. We thus consider two metrics for detecting changes in univariate data streams: a symmetric KL-divergence and a divergence metric measuring the intersection area of two distributions. The experimental results show that these two metrics lead to more accurate results in change detection than baseline methods such as Change Finder and using conventional KL-divergence.

  11. A Comprehensive Study on Classification of Passive Intrusion and Extrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Kalaivani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyber criminals compromise Integrity, Availability and Confidentiality of network resources in cyber space and cause remote class intrusions such as U2R, R2L, DoS and probe/scan system attacks .To handle these intrusions, Cyber Security uses three audit and monitoring systems namely Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS, Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS. Intrusion Detection System (IDS monitors only inbound traffic which is insufficient to prevent botnet systems. A system to monitor outbound traffic is named as Extrusion Detection System (EDS. Therefore a hybrid system should be designed to handle both inbound and outbound traffic. Due to the increased false alarms preventive systems do not suite to an organizational network. The goal of this paper is to devise a taxonomy for cyber security and study the existing methods of Intrusion and Extrusion Detection systems based on three primary characteristics. The metrics used to evaluate IDS and EDS are also presented.

  12. Study on the Detection of Telomerase Activity by Combining DNA Sequence Analysis with TRAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) is now aconventional assay for detecting telomerase activity. However, this method presents problems owing to tedious quantitation, radioisotopic handling. In order to alleviate these inconveniences, a novel telomerase DNA sequencing assay together with TRAP to detect human telomerase activity was developed. It was used to detect telomerase activity in Hela, HLF, MCF, K562, SMMC-7721 cells, Leukocytes and RNase-pretreated or heat-treated cells as control. Telomerase activity assayed by this method was positive when the number of K562 cells examined was 102,103, and 104. The telomerase activity depended on the number of K562 cells used in the assay. Telomerase activity of Rnase-pretreated cells or heat-treated cells, and human normal peripheral blood leukocyte(Leu) were negative. The result of this method was available within a few hours and was handled without radioisotope. Further studies should be taken to detect telomerase activity in quantitation.

  13. Study of radiation detection properties of GaN pn diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Mutsuhito; Kushimoto, Maki; Mitsunari, Tadashi; Yamashita, Kohei; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi; Inoue, Yoku; Mimura, Hidenori; Aoki, Toru; Nakano, Takayuki

    2016-05-01

    Recently, GaN, which has remarkable properties as a material for optical devices and high-power electron devices, has also attracted attention as a material for radiation detectors. We previously suggested the use of BGaN as a neutron detector material. However, the radiation detection characteristics of GaN itself are not yet adequately understood. For realizing a BGaN neutron detector, the understanding of the radiation detection characteristics of GaN, which is a base material of the neutron detector, is important. In this study, we evaluated the radiation detection characteristics of GaN. We performed I-V and energy spectrum measurements under alpha ray, gamma ray, and thermal neutron irradiations to characterize the radiation detection characteristics of a GaN diode. The obtained results indicate that GaN is an effective material for our proposed new BGaN-based neutron detector.

  14. A detection system for charged-particle decay studies with a continuous-implantation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, L.J. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Xu, X.X., E-mail: xuxinxing@ciae.ac.cn [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Lin, C.J., E-mail: cjlin@ciae.ac.cn [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Wang, J.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Fang, D.Q. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li, Z.H. [School of Physic and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, Y.T. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li, J. [School of Physic and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yang, L.; Ma, N.R. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Wang, K. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zang, H.L. [School of Physic and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, H.W.; Li, C.; Shi, C.Z.; Nie, M.W.; Li, X.F.; Li, H. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Ma, J.B.; Ma, P. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); and others

    2015-12-21

    A new detection system with high detection efficiency and low detection threshold has been developed for charged-particle decay studies, including β-delayed proton, α decay or direct proton emission from proton-rich nuclei. The performance was evaluated by using the β-delayed proton emitter {sup 24}Si produced by projectile fragmentation at the First Radioactive Ion Beam Line in Lanzhou. Under a continuous-beam mode, the isotopes of interest were implanted into two double-sided silicon strip detectors, where the subsequent decays were measured and correlated to the preceding implantations by using position and time information. The system allows us to measure protons with energies down to about 200 keV without obvious β background in the proton spectrum. Further application of the detection system can be extended to the measurements of β-delayed proton decay and the direct proton emission of more exotic proton-rich nuclei.

  15. A Study of Electronic Detection and Pedagogical Approaches for Reducing Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chia-An; Wilhelm, William J.; Neureuther, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism is an increasing problem in high schools and universities. To address the issue of how to teach students not to plagiarize, this study examined several pedagogical approaches for reducing plagiarism and the use of Turnitin, an online plagiarism detection software. The study found a significant difference between the control group and…

  16. A Study of Electronic Detection and Pedagogical Approaches for Reducing Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chia-An; Wilhelm, William J.; Neureuther, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism is an increasing problem in high schools and universities. To address the issue of how to teach students not to plagiarize, this study examined several pedagogical approaches for reducing plagiarism and the use of Turnitin, an online plagiarism detection software. The study found a significant difference between the control group and…

  17. The ability of animal studies to detect serious post marketing adverse events is limited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, P.J.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34153790X; Kooijman, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322905788; Gispen-de Wied, C.C.; Moors, E.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/20241664X; Schellekens, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068406762

    2012-01-01

    The value of animalstudies to the assessment of drug safety is unclear because many such studies are biased and have methodological shortcomings. We studied whether post-marketing seriousadverse reactions to small molecule drugs could have been detected on the basis of animalstudy data included in

  18. Developing optimal search strategies for detecting clinically sound treatment studies in EMBASE*

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Sharon S.-L.; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The ability to accurately identify articles about therapy in large bibliographic databases such as EMBASE is important for researchers and clinicians. Our study aimed to develop optimal search strategies for detecting sound treatment studies in EMBASE in the year 2000.

  19. A comparative study on change vector analysis based change detection techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sartajvir Singh; Rajneesh Talwar

    2014-12-01

    Detection of Earth surface changes are essential to monitor regional climatic, snow avalanche hazard analysis and energy balance studies that occur due to air temperature irregularities. Geographic Information System (GIS) enables such research activities to be carried out through change detection analysis. From this viewpoint, different change detection algorithms have been developed for land-use land-cover (LULC) region. Among the different change detection algorithms, change vector analysis (CVA) has level headed capability of extracting maximuminformation in terms of overall magnitude of change and the direction of change between multispectral bands from multi-temporal satellite data sets. Since past two–three decades, many effective CVA based change detection techniques e.g., improved change vector analysis (ICVA), modified change vector analysis (MCVA) and change vector analysis posterior-probability space (CVAPS), have been developed to overcome the difficulty that exists in traditional change vector analysis (CVA). Moreover, many integrated techniques such as cross correlogram spectral matching (CCSM) based CVA. CVA uses enhanced principal component analysis (PCA) and inverse triangular (IT) function, hyper-spherical direction cosine (HSDC), and median CVA (m-CVA), as an effective LULC change detection tools. This paper comprises a comparative analysis on CVA based change detection techniques such as CVA, MCVA, ICVA and CVAPS. This paper also summarizes the necessary integrated CVA techniques along with their characteristics, features and shortcomings. Based on experiment outcomes, it has been evaluated that CVAPS technique has greater potential than other CVA techniques to evaluate the overall transformed information over three differentMODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data sets of different regions. Results of this study are expected to be potentially useful for more accurate analysis of LULC changes which will, in turn

  20. Cap-assisted colonoscopy and detection of Adenomatous Polyps (CAP) study: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Heiko; Bensen, Steve P; Toor, Arifa; Gordon, Stuart R; Levy, L Campbell; Berk, Brian; Anderson, Peter B; Anderson, Joseph C; Rothstein, Richard I; MacKenzie, Todd A; Robertson, Douglas J

    2015-10-01

    Cap-assisted colonoscopy has improved adenoma detection in some but not other studies. Most previous studies have been limited by small sample sizes and few participating endoscopists. The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether cap-assisted colonoscopy improves adenoma detection in a two-center, multi-endoscopist, randomized trial. Consecutive patients who presented for an elective colonoscopy were randomized to cap-assisted colonoscopy (4-mm cap) or standard colonoscopy performed by one of 10 experienced endoscopists. Primary outcome measures were mean number of adenomas per patient and adenoma detection rate (ADR). Secondary outcomes included procedural measures and endoscopist variation; a logistic regression model was employed to examine predictors of increased detection with cap use. A total of 1113 patients (64 % male, mean age 62 years) were randomized to cap-assisted (n = 561) or standard (n = 552) colonoscopy. The mean number of adenomas detected per patient in the cap-assisted and standard groups was similar (0.89 vs. 0.82; P = 0.432), as was the ADR (42 % vs. 40 %; P = 0.452). Cap-assisted colonoscopy achieved a faster cecal intubation time (4.9 vs. 5.8 minutes; P Cap-assisted colonoscopy resulted in a 20 % increase in ADR for some endoscopists and in a 15 % decrease for others. Individual preference for the cap was an independent predictor of increased adenoma detection in adjusted analysis (P cap-assisted colonoscopy, adenoma detection was not. Cap-assisted colonoscopy may be beneficial for selected endoscopists. clinicalTrials.gov (NCT01935180). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. A Study on Damage Detection Using Ouput-Only Modal Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharrazi, M. K. H.; Ventura, Carlos E.; Brincker, Rune;

    2002-01-01

    This paper will describe the results of vibration studies conducted during the second phase of the activities of the ASCE Structural Health Monitoring Task Group. These activities focus on the application of damage detection techniques to experimental data. Also, this paper will focus on damage...... detection using output-only data from the vibration study. A one-third scale model of a four story steel frame at the University of British Columbia was used as the test specimen. A series of forced and ambient vibration tests on this frame for various levels of damage were conducted. Damage was simulated...

  2. Detection of pulmonary fat embolism with dual-energy CT: an experimental study in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chun Xiang; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Zhao, Yan E.; Han, Zong Hong; Qi, Li; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Mangold, Stefanie; Ball, B.D. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2017-04-15

    To evaluate the use of dual-energy CT imaging of the lung perfused blood volume (PBV) for the detection of pulmonary fat embolism (PFE). Dual-energy CT was performed in 24 rabbits before and 1 hour, 1 day, 4 days and 7 days after artificial induction of PFE via the right ear vein. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and lung PBV images were evaluated by two radiologists, who recorded the presence, number, and location of PFE on a per-lobe basis. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CTPA and lung PBV for detecting PFE were calculated using histopathological evaluation as the reference standard. A total of 144 lung lobes in 24 rabbits were evaluated and 70 fat emboli were detected on histopathological analysis. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 25.4 %, 98.6 %, and 62.5 % for CTPA, and 82.6 %, 76.0 %, and 79.2 % for lung PBV. Higher sensitivity (p < 0.001) and accuracy (p < 0.01), but lower specificity (p < 0.001), were found for lung PBV compared with CTPA. Dual-energy CT can detect PFE earlier than CTPA (all p < 0.01). Dual-energy CT provided higher sensitivity and accuracy in the detection of PFE as well as earlier detection compared with conventional CTPA in this animal model study. (orig.)

  3. Detection of pulmonary fat embolism with dual-energy CT: an experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chun Xiang; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Zhao, Yan E; Schoepf, U Joseph; Mangold, Stefanie; Ball, B Devon; Han, Zong Hong; Qi, Li; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the use of dual-energy CT imaging of the lung perfused blood volume (PBV) for the detection of pulmonary fat embolism (PFE). Dual-energy CT was performed in 24 rabbits before and 1 hour, 1 day, 4 days and 7 days after artificial induction of PFE via the right ear vein. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and lung PBV images were evaluated by two radiologists, who recorded the presence, number, and location of PFE on a per-lobe basis. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CTPA and lung PBV for detecting PFE were calculated using histopathological evaluation as the reference standard. A total of 144 lung lobes in 24 rabbits were evaluated and 70 fat emboli were detected on histopathological analysis. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 25.4 %, 98.6 %, and 62.5 % for CTPA, and 82.6 %, 76.0 %, and 79.2 % for lung PBV. Higher sensitivity (p PFE earlier than CTPA (all p PFE as well as earlier detection compared with conventional CTPA in this animal model study. • Fat embolism occurs commonly in patients with traumatic bone injury. • Dual-energy CT improves diagnostic performance for pulmonary fat embolism detection. • Dual-energy CT can detect pulmonary fat embolism earlier than CTPA.

  4. Direct 13C-detection for carbonyl relaxation studies of protein dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasat, Gabriela; Zintsmaster, John S.; Peng, Jeffrey W.

    2008-08-01

    We describe a method that uses direct 13C-detection for measuring rotating-frame carbonyl ( 13CO) relaxation rates to describe protein functional dynamics. Key advantages of method include the following: (i) unique access to 13CO groups that lack a scalar-coupled 15N- 1H group; (ii) insensitivity to 15N/ 1H exchange-broadening that can derail 1H-detected 15N and HNCO methods; (iii) avoidance of artifacts caused by incomplete water suppression. We demonstrate the approach for both backbone and side-chain 13CO groups. Accuracy of the 13C-detected results is supported by their agreement with those obtained from established HNCO-based approaches. Critically, we show that the 13C-detection approach provides access to the 13CO groups of functionally important residues that are invisible via 1H-detected HNCO methods because of exchange-broadening. Hence, the 13C-based method fills gaps inherent in canonical 1H-detected relaxation experiments, and thus provides a novel complementary tool for NMR studies of biomolecular flexibility.

  5. Photon undulatory non-linear conversion diagnostic method for caries detection: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, G; Masychev, V; Sokolovsky, A; Alexandrov, M; Kesler, A; Koren, R

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new optical method - photon undulatory non-linear conversion (PNC)--for use in different stages of caries detection. Caries should be considered an infectious disease managed by risk assessment, early detection, and preventive therapies, rather than simply "drilling and filling." Fluorescence emission spectroscopy was performed in vitro on 90 extracted teeth, with intact occlusal surfaces. This system differs from the basic Diagnodent unit in its ability to distinguish between different tissue components with respect to their spectrums. Histological analysis served as the gold standard for verification. The teeth sections correspond to the specific point with the highest reading of the detector. The system was compared to visual inspection, probing, and x-ray methods. The system tested (helium-neon [He-Ne], lambda = 633 nm) has a fiber optic device that delivers radiation to the tooth and a spectrophotometer device that detects bacterial porphyrins fluorescence, allowing detection of caries, fillings, and calculus by simultaneous measurement of backscattering and fluorescence intensity. The system tested provides quantitatively reproducible measurements and detection even through sound enamel of more than 1 mm in thickness. The PNC method detects different stages of caries lesions in real time, and it exceeds x-rays in sensitivity, without any ionizing radiation. Preliminary results showed a high potential of using the PNC method in clinical practice (98% accuracy) in comparison to the other methods.

  6. Idaho Steelhead Monitoring and Evaluation Studies : Annual Progress Report 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Timothy; Putnam, Scott

    2008-12-01

    The goal of Idaho Steelhead Monitoring and Evaluation Studies is to collect monitoring data to evaluate wild and natural steelhead populations in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages. During 2007, intensive population data were collected in Fish Creek (Lochsa River tributary) and Rapid River (Little Salmon River tributary); extensive data were collected in other selected spawning tributaries. Weirs were operated in Fish Creek and Rapid River to estimate adult escapement and to collect samples for age determination and genetic analysis. Snorkel surveys were conducted in Fish Creek, Rapid River, and Boulder Creek (Little Salmon River tributary) to estimate parr density. Screw traps were operated in Fish Creek, Rapid River, Secesh River, and Big Creek to estimate juvenile emigrant abundance, to tag fish for survival estimation, and to collect samples for age determination and genetic analysis. The estimated wild adult steelhead escapement in Fish Creek was 81 fish and in Rapid River was 32 fish. We estimate that juvenile emigration was 24,127 fish from Fish Creek; 5,632 fish from Rapid River; and 43,674 fish from Big Creek. The Secesh trap was pulled for an extended period due to wildfires, so we did not estimate emigrant abundance for that location. In cooperation with Idaho Supplementation Studies, trap tenders PIT tagged 25,618 steelhead juveniles at 18 screw trap sites in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages. To estimate age composition, 143 adult steelhead and 5,082 juvenile steelhead scale samples were collected. At the time of this report, 114 adult and 1,642 juvenile samples have been aged. Project personnel collected genetic samples from 122 adults and 839 juveniles. We sent 678 genetic samples to the IDFG Eagle Fish Genetics Laboratory for analysis. Water temperature was recorded at 37 locations in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages.

  7. Detection of methylated CDO1 in plasma of colorectal cancer; a PCR study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keishi Yamashita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cysteine biology is important for the chemosensitivity of cancer cells. Our research has focused on the epigenetic silencing of cysteine dioxygenase type 1 (CDO1 in colorectal cancer (CRC. In this study, we describe detection of CDO1 methylation in the plasma of CRC patients using methylation specific PCR (Q-MSP and extensive analysis of the PCR reaction. METHODS: DNA was extracted from plasma, and analysed for methylation of the CDO1 gene using Q-MSP. The detection rate of CDO1 gene methylation was calculated and compared with that of diluted DNA extracted from "positive control" DLD1 cells. CDO1 gene methylation in the plasma of 40 CRC patients that were clinicopathologically analysed was then determined. RESULTS: (1 The cloned sequence analysis detected 93.3% methylation of the promoter CpG islands of the CDO1 gene of positive control DLD1 cells and 4.7% methylation of the negative control HepG2 CDO1 gene. (2 DLD1 CDO1 DNA could not be detected in this assay if the extracted DNA was diluted ∼1000 fold. The more DNA that was used for the PCR reaction, the more effectively it was amplified in Q-MSP. (3 By increasing the amount of DNA used, methylated CDO1 could be clearly detected in the plasma of 8 (20% of the CRC patients. However, the percentage of CRC patients detected by methylated CDO1 in plasma was lower than that detected by CEA (35.9% or CA19-9 (23.1% in preoperative serum. Combination of CEA/CA19-9 plus plasma methylated CDO1 could increase the rate of detection of curable CRC patients (39.3% as compared to CEA/CA19-9 (25%. CONCLUSION: We have described detection of CDO1 methylation in the plasma of CRC patients. Although CDO1 methylation was not detected as frequently as conventional tumor markers, analysis of plasma CDO1 methylation in combination with CEA/CA19-9 levels increases the detection rate of curable CRC patients.

  8. Study of photon detection efficiency and position resolution of BESIII electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Vindhyawasini; Ji, Xiaobin; Li, Weidong; Liu, Huaimin; Lou, Xinchou

    2016-01-01

    We study the photon detection efficiency and position resolution of the electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) of the BESIII experiment. The control sample of the initial-state-radiation (ISR) process of $e^+e^-\\rightarrow \\gamma \\mu^+\\mu^-$ is used at $J/\\psi$ and $\\psi(3770)$ resonances for the EMC calibration and photon detection efficiency study. Photon detection efficiency is defined as the predicted photon, obtained by performing a kinematic fit with two muon tracks, matched with real photons in the EMC. The spatial resolution of the EMC is defined as the separation in polar ($\\theta$) and azimuthal ($\\phi$) angles between charged track and associated cluster centroid on the front face of the EMC crystals.

  9. Association Between Screen-Detected Gallstone Disease and Cancer in a Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims: Knowledge of temporal associations between screen-detected gallstone disease and specific cancers is limited. The objective of this study was to determine if screen-detected gallstones or cholecystectomy are associated with occurrence of gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal...... cancers. Methods: We performed a cohort study of 3 randomly selected groups from the general population of Copenhagen. Participants (N = 5928) were examined from 1982 through 1992 and underwent abdominal ultrasound examination to detect gallstone disease, but were not informed of their gallstone status....... Participants were followed for the occurrence of cancers through national registers until December 2014. We performed multivariable Cox regression analyses to identify factors associated with development of cancer. Results: Gallstone disease was identified in 10% of participants (591 of 5928); of these, 6...

  10. a Feasibility Study on Use of Generic Mobile Laser Scanning System for Detecting Asphalt Pavement Cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinqu; Li, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to automatically detect pavement cracks on urban roads by employing the 3D point clouds acquired by a mobile laser scanning (MLS) system. Our method consists of four steps: ground point filtering, high-pass convolution, matched filtering, and noise removal. First, a voxel-based upward growing method is applied to construct Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the road surface. Then, a high-pass filter convolutes the DTM to detect local elevation changes that may embed cracking information. Next, a two-step matched filter is applied to extract crack features. Lastly, a noise removal process is conducted to refine the results. Instead of using MLS intensity, this study takes advantages of the MLS elevation information to perform automated crack detection from large-volume, mixed-density, unstructured MLS point clouds. Four types of cracks including longitudinal, transvers, random, and alligator cracks are detected. Our results demonstrated that the proposed method works well with the RIEGL VMX-450 point clouds and can detect cracks in moderate-to-severe severity (13 - 25 mm) within a 200 m by 30 m urban road segment located in Kingston, Ontario, at one time. Due to the resolution capability, small cracks with slight severity remain unclear in the MLS point cloud.

  11. Detection performance study for cone-beam differential phase contrast CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Bevins, Nicholas; Zambelli, Joseph; Qi, Zhihua; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2012-03-01

    X-ray phase sensitive imaging methods have seen tremendous growth and increased interest in recent years. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages, but all have shown the ability to improve the detection of various objects because of the additional phase measurements. Of the various methods, grating-based differential phase contrast computed tomography (DPC-CT) imaging has shown greater quantitative and diagnostic capabilities than traditional absorption CT. Although it has been shown that DPC-CT provides superior contrast of certain materials, one question has not been fully addressed to date is whether DPC-CT can provide improved accuracy in detecting low contrast masses using the same radiation dose as that given in absorption CT. The detectability is not only related to contrast to noise ratio, but also to the noise texture. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the peculiar noise texture found in cone-beam DPC-CT affects low contrast objects' detectability through human observer ROC analysis. Studies for both axial and sagittal planes were carried out, as both could potentially be used in clinical practice for a 3D image. The results demonstrate that noise texture found in conebeam DPC-CT strongly affects human visual perception, and that object detectabilities in axial and sagittal images of DPC-CT are different.

  12. A FEASIBILITY STUDY ON USE OF GENERIC MOBILE LASER SCANNING SYSTEM FOR DETECTING ASPHALT PAVEMENT CRACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to automatically detect pavement cracks on urban roads by employing the 3D point clouds acquired by a mobile laser scanning (MLS system. Our method consists of four steps: ground point filtering, high-pass convolution, matched filtering, and noise removal. First, a voxel-based upward growing method is applied to construct Digital Terrain Model (DTM of the road surface. Then, a high-pass filter convolutes the DTM to detect local elevation changes that may embed cracking information. Next, a two-step matched filter is applied to extract crack features. Lastly, a noise removal process is conducted to refine the results. Instead of using MLS intensity, this study takes advantages of the MLS elevation information to perform automated crack detection from large-volume, mixed-density, unstructured MLS point clouds. Four types of cracks including longitudinal, transvers, random, and alligator cracks are detected. Our results demonstrated that the proposed method works well with the RIEGL VMX-450 point clouds and can detect cracks in moderate-to-severe severity (13 - 25 mm within a 200 m by 30 m urban road segment located in Kingston, Ontario, at one time. Due to the resolution capability, small cracks with slight severity remain unclear in the MLS point cloud.

  13. Do trend extraction approaches affect causality detection in climate change studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu; Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansi; Mukherjee, Zinnia; Gupta, Rangan

    2017-03-01

    Various scientific studies have investigated the causal link between solar activity (SS) and the earth's temperature (GT). Results from literature indicate that both the detected structural breaks and existing trend have significant effects on the causality detection outcomes. In this paper, we make a contribution to this literature by evaluating and comparing seven trend extraction methods covering various aspects of trend extraction studies to date. In addition, we extend previous work by using Convergent Cross Mapping (CCM) - an advanced non-parametric causality detection technique to provide evidence on the effect of existing trend in global temperature on the causality detection outcome. This paper illustrates the use of a method to find the most reliable trend extraction approach for data preprocessing, as well as provides detailed analyses of the causality detection of each component by this approach to achieve a better understanding of the causal link between SS and GT. Furthermore, the corresponding CCM results indicate increasing significance of causal effect from SS to GT since 1880 to recent years, which provide solid evidences that may contribute on explaining the escalating global tendency of warming up recent decades.

  14. A subtraction pipeline for automatic detection of new appearing multiple sclerosis lesions in longitudinal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganiler, Onur; Oliver, Arnau; Diez, Yago; Freixenet, Jordi; Llado, Xavier [University of Girona, VICOROB Computer Vision and Robotics Group, Girona (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Magnetic Resonance Center, Girona (Spain); Beltran, Brigitte [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Girona (Spain); Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology Unit, Girona (Spain); Rovira, Alex [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-05-15

    Time-series analysis of magnetic resonance images (MRI) is of great value for multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis and follow-up. In this paper, we present an unsupervised subtraction approach which incorporates multisequence information to deal with the detection of new MS lesions in longitudinal studies. The proposed pipeline for detecting new lesions consists of the following steps: skull stripping, bias field correction, histogram matching, registration, white matter masking, image subtraction, automated thresholding, and postprocessing. We also combine the results of PD-w and T2-w images to reduce false positive detections. Experimental tests are performed in 20 MS patients with two temporal studies separated 12 (12M) or 48 (48M) months in time. The pipeline achieves very good performance obtaining an overall sensitivity of 0.83 and 0.77 with a false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.14 and 0.18 for the 12M and 48M datasets, respectively. The most difficult situation for the pipeline is the detection of very small lesions where the obtained sensitivity is lower and the FDR higher. Our fully automated approach is robust and accurate, allowing detection of new appearing MS lesions. We believe that the pipeline can be applied to large collections of images and also be easily adapted to monitor other brain pathologies. (orig.)

  15. Rotterdam AMBlyopia screening effectiveness study: Detection and causes of amblyopia in a large birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Groenewoud (Hanny); A.M. Tjiam (Angela); V.K. Lantau (Kathleen); W.C. Hoogeveen; J.T.H.N. de Faber; R.E. Juttmann (Rikard); H.J. de Koning (Harry); H.J. Simonsz (Huib)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. The Dutch population-based child health monitoring program includes regular preverbal (age range, 1-24 months) and preschool (age range, 36-72 months) vision screening. This study is on the contribution of an organized vision screening program to the detection of amblyopia.

  16. Quantification of growth patterns of screen-detected lung cancers : The NELSON study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; de Koning, Harry J.; Groen, Harry J M; van Putten, Michel J A M; Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh; Weenink, Carla; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; de Jong, Pim A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    Objectives Although exponential growth is assumed for lung cancer, this has never been quantified in vivo. Aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify growth patterns of lung cancers detected in the Dutch-Belgian low-dose computed tomography (CT) lung cancer screening trial (NELSON), in order to

  17. Quantification of growth patterns of screen-detected lung cancers : The NELSON study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; de Koning, Harry J.; Groen, Harry J M; van Putten, Michel J A M; Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh; Weenink, Carla; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; de Jong, Pim A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/287955672; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Although exponential growth is assumed for lung cancer, this has never been quantified in vivo. Aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify growth patterns of lung cancers detected in the Dutch-Belgian low-dose computed tomography (CT) lung cancer screening trial (NELSON), in order to

  18. Behavioral Anomaly Detection: A Socio-Technical Study of Trustworthiness in Virtual Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shuyuan Mary

    2009-01-01

    This study examines perceptions of human "trustworthiness" as a key component in countering insider threats. The term "insider threat" refers to situations where a critical member of an organization behaves against the interests of the organization, in an illegal and/or unethical manner. Identifying and detecting how an individual's behavior…

  19. EU Interlaboratory comparison study IX on bacteriological detection of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk PA; Veenman C; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    In 2005 the ninth interlaboratory comparison study on bacteriological detection of Salmonella spp. was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, the Netherlands). National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) of the EU Member State

  20. EU Interlaboratory comparison study VIII on bacteriological detection of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Heisterkamp SH; Veenman C; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    In 2004 the eighth interlaboratory comparison study on bacteriological detection of Salmonella spp. was organized by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, the Netherlands). National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) of the EU Member Stat

  1. Study of detection performance of passive bistatic radars based on FM broadcast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Tao; Tao Ran; Wang Yue; Zhou Siyong

    2007-01-01

    The passive bistatic radar based on the FM broadcast has inherent superiority with respect to its survivability. In this article, the ambiguity function (AF) and the cross ambiguity function (CAF) of the FM radio signal are analyzed and illustrated.The Kolmogorov Smirnov (K-S) test verifies that the amplitude probability density function of the CAF side lobes is exponential; the distribution of the target is also deduced. Finally, the detection performance of the passive radar is studied, and the result shows that this new type bistatic radar has favorable detection capability.

  2. Study of Host-Based Cyber Attack Precursor Symptom Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Gu; Kim, Jong Hyun; Seo, Dongil; Soh, Wooyoung; Kim, Seoksoo

    Botnet-based cyber attacks cause large-scale damage with increasingly intelligent tools, which has called for varied research on bot detection. In this study, we developed a method of monitoring behaviors of host-based processes from the point that a bot header attempts to make zombie PCs, detecting cyber attack precursor symptoms. We designed an algorithm that figures out characteristics of botnet which attempts to launch malicious behaviors by means of signature registration, which is for process/reputation/network traffic/packet/source analysis and a white list, as a measure to respond to bots from the end point.

  3. Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in clinical laboratories in Europe--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manser, M; Granlund, M; Edwards, H; Saez, A; Petersen, E; Evengard, B; Chiodini, P

    2014-01-01

    To determine the routine diagnostic methods used and compare the performance in detection of oocysts of Cryptosporidium species and cysts of Giardia intestinalis in faecal samples by European specialist parasitology laboratories and European clinical laboratories. Two sets of seven formalin-preserved faecal samples, one containing cysts of Giardia intestinalis and the other, containing oocysts of Cryptosporidium, were sent to 18 laboratories. Participants were asked to examine the specimens using their routine protocol for detecting these parasites and state the method(s) used. Eighteen laboratories answered the questionnaire. For detection of Giardia, 16 of them used sedimentation/concentration followed by light microscopy. Using this technique the lower limit of detection of Giardia was 17.2 cysts/mL of faeces in the best performing laboratories. Only three of 16 laboratories used fluorescent-conjugated antibody-based microscopy. For detection of Cryptosporidium acid-fast staining was used by 14 of the 17 laboratories that examined the samples. With this technique the lower limit of detection was 976 oocysts/mL of faeces. Fluorescent-conjugated antibody-based microscopy was used by only five of the 17 laboratories. There was variation in the lower limit of detection of cysts of Giardia and oocysts of Cryptosporidium between laboratories using the same basic microscopic methods. Fluorescent-conjugated antibody-based microscopy was not superior to light microscopy under the conditions of this study. There is a need for a larger-scale multi-site comparison of the methods used for the diagnosis of these parasites and the development of a Europe-wide laboratory protocol based upon its findings.

  4. Study on Fault Detection and PCB Picture-Location Method of Logic Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingping Xia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main content of logic circuit fault detection includes describing circuit to be diagnosed, determining fault and circuit initial information, generating circuit location test set. In this study, LASAR is used to carry out the logic circuit simulation so as to create such documents as fault dictionary, node truth value table, etc. for the preparation of fault detection. Due to the limitation of circuit observability and testing vectors, the diagnosis program can not accurately locate the fault just once in the process of diagnosis because the circuit is complex and users are not quite familiarity with the circuit. Therefore, the new circuit-fault-detection technology incorporates techniques of PCB picture-location so that the users can locate the fault quickly and accurately.

  5. Comparative study of ultrasound and computed tomography for incidentally detecting diffuse thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Jung, Soo Jin; Ha, Tae Kwun; Park, Ha Kyoung; Kang, Taewoo

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic values of thyroid ultrasound (US) and neck computed tomography (CT) in incidentally detecting diffuse thyroid disease (DTD). A single radiologist made US and CT diagnoses of incidentally detected DTD in 130 consecutive patients before thyroidectomy for various malignancies. Histopathologic examinations confirmed normal thyroid (n = 80), Hashimoto thyroiditis (n = 20), non-Hashimoto lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 28) and diffuse hyperplasia (n = 2). Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that the best diagnostic indices of both imaging methods were achieved on the basis of two or more abnormal imaging findings. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of US and CT in incidentally detecting DTD by this classification were 72% and 72%, 87.5% and 91.3% and 81.5% and 83.8%, respectively. Thyroid US and neck CT have similar diagnostic values for differentiating incidental DTD from normal thyroid.

  6. Study on the defects detection in composites by using optical position and infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwn, Koo Ahn; Choi, Man Yong; Park, Jeong Hak; Choi, Won Jae [Safety Measurement Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Sang [Dept. of Research and Development, Korea Research Institute of Smart Material and Structures System Association, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Non-destructive testing methods for composite materials (e.g., carbon fiber-reinforced and glass fiber-reinforced plastic) have been widely used to detect damage in the overall industry. This study detects defects using optical infrared thermography. The transient heat transport in a solid body is characterized by two dynamic quantities, namely, thermal diffusivity and thermal effusivity. The first quantity describes the speed with thermal energy diffuses through a material, whereas the second one represents a type of thermal inertia. The defect detection rate is increased by utilizing a lock-in method and performing a comparison of the defect detection rates. The comparison is conducted by dividing the irradiation method into reflection and transmission methods and the irradiation time into 50 mHz and 100 mHz. The experimental results show that detecting defects at 50 mHz is easy using the transmission method. This result implies that low-frequency thermal waves penetrate a material deeper than the high-frequency waves.

  7. Synthesis of Juvenile Salmonid Passage Studies at The Dalles Dam, Volume II, 2001-05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Beeman, John W.; Duran, Ian; Puls, Andrew

    2007-08-15

    The overall goal of juvenile salmonid research at The Dalles Dam is to provide data to inform decisions on strategies to improve smolt survival rates at the project. Survival improvement strategies address the three primary passage routes at The Dalles Dam -- spillway, sluiceway, and turbines – with the general intent to increase spill and sluice passage and decrease turbine passage. Since the review by Ploskey et al. (2001a) of research during 1982-2000 at The Dalles Dam, the Corps funded over $20M of research in at least 39 studies during 2001-2006. The purpose of the current review is to synthesize juvenile salmonid passage data at The Dalles Dam (TDA) collected from 2001 through 2006. The data we synthesize comes from numerous research techniques employed to address particular study objectives at The Dalles Dam. The suite of techniques includes acoustic and radio telemetry, acoustic cameras, acoustic Doppler current profilers, balloon tags, computational fluid dynamics models, drogues, fixed and mobile hydroacoustics, fyke nets, physical scale models, PIT-tags, sensor fish, sonar trackers, and underwater video. Hydraulic data involves flow patterns and water velocities. Biological data involve forebay approach paths and residence times, horizontal and diel distributions, passage efficiencies and effectiveness, fish behaviors, tailrace egress and predation rates, and route-specific and total project survival rates. Data for 2001-2006 are synthesized in this report to provide, in conjunction with Ploskey et al. (2001a), resources for engineers, biologists, and dam operators to use when making decisions about fish protection measures for juvenile salmonids at The Dalles Dam. This review covers the major fish passage research efforts during 2001-2006 and includes sections on the Environmental Setting, Forebay and Project Passage Studies, Spill Studies, Sluiceway Studies, Turbine Studies, Smolt Survival Studies, and a Discussion.

  8. A comparison study on algorithms of detecting long forms for short forms in biomedical text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Cathy H

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation With more and more research dedicated to literature mining in the biomedical domain, more and more systems are available for people to choose from when building literature mining applications. In this study, we focus on one specific kind of literature mining task, i.e., detecting definitions of acronyms, abbreviations, and symbols in biomedical text. We denote acronyms, abbreviations, and symbols as short forms (SFs and their corresponding definitions as long forms (LFs. The study was designed to answer the following questions; i how well a system performs in detecting LFs from novel text, ii what the coverage is for various terminological knowledge bases in including SFs as synonyms of their LFs, and iii how to combine results from various SF knowledge bases. Method We evaluated the following three publicly available detection systems in detecting LFs for SFs: i a handcrafted pattern/rule based system by Ao and Takagi, ALICE, ii a machine learning system by Chang et al., and iii a simple alignment-based program by Schwartz and Hearst. In addition, we investigated the conceptual coverage of two terminological knowledge bases: i the UMLS (the Unified Medical Language System, and ii the BioThesaurus (a thesaurus of names for all UniProt protein records. We also implemented a web interface that provides a virtual integration of various SF knowledge bases. Results We found that detection systems agree with each other on most cases, and the existing terminological knowledge bases have a good coverage of synonymous relationship for frequently defined LFs. The web interface allows people to detect SF definitions from text and to search several SF knowledge bases. Availability The web site is http://gauss.dbb.georgetown.edu/liblab/SFThesaurus.

  9. An adaptively weighted statistic for detecting differential gene expression when combining multiple transcriptomic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jia; Tseng, George C

    2011-01-01

    Global expression analyses using microarray technologies are becoming more common in genomic research, therefore, new statistical challenges associated with combining information from multiple studies must be addressed. In this paper we will describe our proposal for an adaptively weighted (AW) statistic to combine multiple genomic studies for detecting differentially expressed genes. We will also present our results from comparisons of our proposed AW statistic to Fisher...

  10. THE ANALYSIS OF DETECTIVE GENRE IN MEDIA STUDIES IN THE STUDENT AUDIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of skills for the critical analysis of media texts - an important task of media education. However, media literacy practice shows that students have the problems with the discussion / analysis of entertainment genres in the early stages of media studies, for example, the difficulties in the process of understanding and interpreting the author's conception, plot and genre features. This article substantiates the methodological approaches to the analysis skills of detective/thriller genre in media studies in the student audience.

  11. Ping-pong effects study in PIC turbo joint detection for TDD CDMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Changjian; Zhong Zifa; Zhang Shuo

    2009-01-01

    A kind of turbo joint detection scheme based on parallel interference cancellation (PIC) is studied; then, the eigenvalues of iteration matrix is deeply analyzed for studying the ping-pong effects in PIC JD and the corresponding compensation approach is introduced. Finally, the proposed algorithm is validated through computer simulation in TDD CDMA uplink transmission. The result shows that the ping-pong effects are almost avoided completely in the presence of the compensation scheme, and system performance is greatly improved.

  12. Study of the propagation and detection of the orbital angular momentum of light for astrophysical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sponselli, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the propagation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light for astrophysical applications and a method for OAM detection with optical telescopes. The thesis deals with the study of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) as a new observable for astronomers, which could give additional information with respect to those already inferred from the analysis of the intensity, frequency and polarization of light. Indeed, the main purpose of this work is to highlight th...

  13. The ability of animal studies to detect serious post marketing adverse events is limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meer, Peter J K; Kooijman, Marlous; Gispen-de Wied, Christine C; Moors, Ellen H M; Schellekens, Huub

    2012-12-01

    The value of animal studies to assess drug safety is unclear because many such studies are biased and have methodological shortcomings. We studied whether post-marketing serious adverse reactions to small molecule drugs could have been detected on the basis of animal study data included in drug registration files. Of 93 serious adverse reactions related to 43 small molecule drugs, only 19% were identified in animal studies as a true positive outcome, which suggests that data from animal studies are of limited value to pharmacovigilance activities. Our study shows that drug registration files can be used to study the predictive value of animal studies and that the value of animal studies in all stages of the drug development should be investigated in a collaborative endeavour between regulatory authorities, industry, and academia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A comparison of four different methods for outlier detection in bioequivalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Timothy; Elkum, Naser

    2005-01-01

    Bioequivalence studies, required by law whenever a new formulation of an existing drug product is introduced to the market, are designed to test whether the bioavailability, defined as the rate and extent to which a substance reaches systemic circulation, is equivalent for each of two or more formulations. Detection and treatment of outlying data in bioequivalence studies are practically important, because inclusion or deletion of potential outlying data may lead to a different conclusion concerning bioequivalence. A review of the literature reveals that four different methods have been proposed for detecting outliers in bioavailability/bioequivalence studies. We present the results of an extensive computer simulation testing the small sample performance of these four testing methods, the results of which indicate that one of these, the estimates distance test, is substantially more powerful than the alternatives.

  15. Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance and Thermal Activation Spectroscopy Study of Organic Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang-Hwan Kim

    2003-12-12

    Organic electronic materials are a new class of emerging materials. Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are the most promising candidates for future flat panel display technologies. The photophysical characterization is the basic research step one must follow to understand this new class of materials and devices. The light emission properties are closely related to the transport properties of these materials. The objective of this dissertation is to probe the relation between transport and photophysical properties of organic semiconductors. The transport characteristics were evaluated by using thermally stimulated current and thermally stimulated luminescence techniques. The photoluminescence detected magnetic resonance and photoluminescence quantum yield studies provide valuable photophysical information on this class of materials. OLEDs are already in the market. However, detailed studies on the degradation mechanisms are still lacking. Since both optically detected magnetic resonance and thermal activation spectroscopy probe long-lived defect-related states in organic semiconductors, the combined study generates new insight on the OLED operation and degradation mechanisms.

  16. Application of hotspot detection using spatial scan statistic: Study of criminality in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runadi, Taruga; Widyaningsih, Yekti

    2017-03-01

    According to the police registered data, the number of criminal cases tends to fluctuate during 2011 to 2013. It means there is no significant reduction cases number of criminal acts during that period. Local government needs to observe whether their area was a high risk of criminal case. The objectives of this study are to detect hotspot area of certain criminal cases using spatial scan statistic. This study analyzed the data of 22 criminal types cases based on province in Indonesia that occurred during 2013. The data was obtained from Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) that was released in 2014. Hotspot detection was performed according to the likelihood ratio of the Poisson model using SaTScanTM software and then mapped using R. The spatial scan statistic method successfully detected provinces that was categorized as hotspot for 22 crime types cases being analyzed with p-value less than 0.05. The local governments of province that were detected as hotspot area of certain crime cases should provide more attention to improve security quality.

  17. Study of Arcobacter spp. contamination in fresh lettuces detected by different cultural and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ana; Ferrús, Maria Antonia

    2011-01-31

    Arcobacters are considered potential emerging food and waterborne pathogens. However, there is no data on the presence of Arcobacter spp. in fresh vegetables. Therefore the objective of this research was to study the presence of Arcobacter spp. in fresh lettuces. Fifty fresh lettuces purchased from different local shops in Valencia (Spain) were analyzed. The assay was performed simultaneously by cultural and molecular methods. Isolates were identified by real-time, multiplex PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified DNA fragment (PCR-RFLP). Finally, all the isolates were genotyped using the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) method. Arcobacter sp. was detected in 10 of the 50 samples (20%) by real-time PCR, being A. butzleri the unique detected species by mPCR. The detection levels obtained by conventional PCR (7 samples/50, 14%) were slightly lower. These seven samples were found to be positive also by culture isolation. All 19 obtained isolates were identified as A. butzleri by multiplex PCR and PCR-RFLP. Great genetic heterogeneity among the isolates was observed by RAPD-PCR profiling. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which Arcobacter spp. is detected in fresh vegetables such as lettuces. Although these foods are generally considered safe, given the large quantities consumed and the fact that further cooking is absent, lettuce could be a source of Arcobacters of public health concern.

  18. Accuracy of the detection of infratentorial stroke lesions using perfusion CT: an experimenter-blinded study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Hyouk; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Young Ju; Lee, Myeong Sub [Yonsei University, Department of Radiology, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); You, Joshua H. [Center for Health, Wellness, Fitness, Prevention, and Healing Across the Life Span, Department of Physical Therapy, Graduate School of Rehabilitation Science, Yonsei University, Center for Movement Impairment Solutions, Wonju City (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji Yong [Yonsei University, Department of Neurology, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Whang, Kum [Yonsei University, Department of Neurosurgery, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Although perfusion CT (PCT) for the detection of supratentorial stroke is well established, there is a dearth of evidence of its effectiveness in the detection of infratentorial stroke. Hence, this study compared sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of PCT maps between infratentorial and supratentorial stroke lesions. One hundred patients with acute stroke who had successfully undergone near whole-brain PCT with the toggling table technique and follow-up MRI were included. Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test was performed at P < 0.01. There was no significant statistical difference in the accuracy (91.79% vs. 93.23% in regional cerebral blood volume; 92.26% vs. 95.31% in regional cerebral blood flow; 89.17% vs. 92.71% in mean transit time; 89.76% vs. 92.19% in time to peak; P > 0.01 in all PCT maps) between supratentorial and infratentorial stroke. Also, there was no remarkable difference in both sensitivity and specificity of PCT maps. This was the first study to investigate the accuracy of PCT with the toggling table technique in detection of infratentorial stroke lesions. Clinically, PCT is highly reliable and accurate in detecting infratentorial stroke lesions. (orig.)

  19. Magnetic resonance (MR) colonography in the detection of colorectal lesions: a systematic review of prospective studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zijta, Frank M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bipat, Shandra; Stoker, Jaap [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of MR-colonography for the detection of colorectal lesions. A comprehensive literature search was performed for comparative MR-colonography studies, published between May 1997 and February 2009, using the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. We included studies if MR-colonography findings were prospectively compared with conventional colonoscopy in (a)symptomatic patients. Two reviewers independently extracted study design characteristics and data for summarising sensitivity and specificity. Heterogeneity in findings between studies was tested using I{sup 2} test statistics. Sensitivity and specificity estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated on per patient basis and summary sensitivity on per polyp basis, using bivariate and univariate statistical models. Thirty-seven studies were found to be potentially relevant and 13 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The study population comprised 1,285 patients with a mean disease prevalence of 44% (range 22-63%). Sensitivity for the detection of CRC was 100%. Significant heterogeneity was found for overall per patient sensitivity and specificity. For polyps with a size of 10 mm or larger, per patient sensitivity and specificity estimates were 88% (95% CI 63-97%; I{sup 2} = 37%) and 99% (95% CI 95-100%; I {sup 2} = 60%). On a per polyp basis, polyps of 10 mm or larger were detected with a sensitivity of 84% (95% CI 66-94%; I {sup 2} = 51%). The data were too heterogeneous for polyps smaller than 6 mm and 6-9 mm. MR-colonography can accurately detect colorectal polyps more than 10 mm in size. (orig.)

  20. Experimental study on structural defect detection by monitoring distributed dynamic strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R. M.; Babanajad, S. K.; Taylor, T.; Ansari, F.

    2015-11-01

    A defect detection method of civil structures is studied. In order to complete the task, the proposed detection method is based on the analysis of distributed dynamic strains using Brillouin scattering based fiber optic sensors along large span structures. The current challenges in the detection of localized damage fundamentally include monitoring the dynamic strain as well as eliminating the system noise and the distortion of the changing distributed strain. Due to the capability of Brillouin scattering based methods in distributed monitoring of large structures, Brillouin optical time-domain analysis approach is implemented for assessing damage. In order to highlight the singularity at the damage location, Fourier as well as dual tree complex wavelet transform approaches were conducted. During the processing, the dynamic distributed strain in the time domain was transformed into the frequency domain for extraction of natural and forced frequencies. Then, the data was decomposed, filtered for extraction of crack features and reconstructed. The feasibility of the proposed method is evaluated through an experimental program involving the use of pulse-pre-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis for the distributed measurement of dynamic strain with 13 Hz sampling speed and detection of simulated cracks in a 15 m long steel beam. The beam mimics a bridge girder with two artificial cracks along its length subjected to free and forced vibrations. The results indicate that the method based on the discontinuities in the strain distribution is applicable in the detection of very small damage as small as 40 micro strains. A crack gauge independently monitored the crack opening displacements during the experiments, and the limit of detected crack openings based on the first appearance of strain singularities was 30 μm.

  1. Detecting deforestation with a spectral change detection approach using multitemporal Landsat data: a case study of Kinabalu Park, Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Mui-How; Tsuyuki, Satoshi; Furuya, Naoyuki; Lee, Jung Soo

    2008-09-01

    Tropical deforestation is occurring at an alarming rate, threatening the ecological integrity of protected areas. This makes it vital to regularly assess protected areas to confirm the efficacy of measures that protect that area from clearing. Satellite remote sensing offers a systematic and objective means for detecting and monitoring deforestation. This paper examines a spectral change approach to detect deforestation using pattern decomposition (PD) coefficients from multitemporal Landsat data. Our results show that the PD coefficients for soil and vegetation can be used to detect deforestation using change vector analysis (CVA). CVA analysis demonstrates that deforestation in the Kinabalu area, Sabah, Malaysia has significantly slowed from 1.2% in period 1 (1973 and 1991) to 0.1% in period 2 (1991 and 1996). A comparison of deforestation both inside and outside Kinabalu Park has highlighted the effectiveness of the park in protecting the tropical forest against clearing. However, the park is still facing pressure from the area immediately surrounding the park (the 1 km buffer zone) where the deforestation rate has remained unchanged.

  2. Comparative study of PP0275C hybrid photodetector and XP2020Q photomultiplier in scintillation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moszynski, Marek [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400 Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Klamra, Wlodzimierz [Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Wolski, Dariusz [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400 Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Czarnacki, Wieslaw [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400 Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Kapusta, Maciej [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400 Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Balcerzyk, Marcin [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400 Swierk-Otwock (Poland)

    2006-05-15

    The properties of a hybrid photodetector (HPD), type PP0275C, produced by Delft Electronic Products B.V., for scintillation detection and spectrometry were studied and compared to a standard XP2020Q photomultiplier. The study was performed for several scintillators, such as NaI(Tl), CsI(Tl) and LSO(Ce) of different dimensions. The excellent capability of the HPD to resolve single photoelectron events was fully confirmed. However, the study of the HPD with the scintillators showed a dramatically reduced number of photoelectrons and a further deterioration of energy resolution, depending on the size (diameter or length) of the crystals. For a 10 mm diameter NaI(Tl) a number of 5000{+-}250 photoelectrons/MeV was measured, which corresponds to about 56% of that observed with the XP2020Q with comparable quantum efficiency. An energy resolution of 9.2% for 662 keV {gamma}-rays from a {sup 137}Cs source as measured with the HPD light readout indicated on a serious degradation, larger than that arising from the statistics of photoelectrons. In conclusion, the study showed that this HPD is optimized for single photon detection but its application to scintillation detection is very limited.

  3. The pioneer study of fog detection and horizontal precipitation measurement at subtropical highland of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, P. H.; Lai, K. L.

    2010-07-01

    Heavy rainfall in highland caused by the interaction of tropical storms and sharp terrain is one of the major natural disasters in Taiwan. But there is no quantitative measurement on the fog and its horizontal precipitation (HP) to estimate the storage of water by plants in the highland region of Taiwan. In this pioneer study, we studied the fog detection and its horizontal precipitation amount, existence length and monthly variation at Kuan-Wu recreation area in Shei-Pa National Park of Taiwan. The 20-year (1988~2007) record length of meteorological data at Kuan-Wu was analyzed first to build up the background information of the local weather. The FDID (fog detection and interception device) including two fog detectors, two fog collectors and auto-shooting digital camera was delivered in this field program. The parallel experiment indoor with a fog tunnel also confirms the performance of polypropylene net used in FDID. FDID has collected data in the field over one year, and the preliminary results show that some components of FDID present the capability of fog event detection and give quantitative data of fog interception. The digital images in 5-min interval via fog collector data detected over 90% happening of fog event in the data available days. Through the RGB diagnosis in different pixel domains (different distances to the camera) on the digital images, the fog events are distinguished into light, medium and heavy fog events. The characteristics of daily and monthly variations of fog events could be explained through the terrain and local climate effects well. We also found the horizontal precipitation from fog provides ~11% extra water amount in the no-rain days. The happened possibility of fog & stratus cloud with The MTSAT geostationary IR channels by Central Weather Bureau is also validated by the FDID in-situ measurement. It shows that the remote sensing product of fog detection in nighttime has good correlation with FDID ground measurement.

  4. Feasibility studies for the detection of O{sub 2} in an Earth-like exoplanet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodler, Florian; López-Morales, Mercedes [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    We present the results of simulations on the detectability of O{sub 2} in the atmosphere of Earth twins around nearby low mass stars using high resolution transmission spectroscopy. We explore such detectability with each of the three upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs), i.e., GMT, TMT, and E-ELT, and high resolution spectrographs, assuming such instruments will be available in all ELTs. With these simulations we extend previous studies by taking into account atmospheric refraction in the transmission spectrum of the exo-Earth and observational white and red noise contributions. Our studies reveal that the number of transits necessary to detect O{sub 2} in the atmosphere of an Earth twin around an M dwarf is by far higher than the number of transits estimated by Snellen et al. In addition, our simulations show that, when accounting for typical noise levels associated with observations in the optical and near-infrared, the O{sub 2} A band at 760 nm is more favorable for detecting the exoplanetary signal than the O{sub 2} band at 1268 nm for all the spectral types, except M9V. We conclude that, unless unpredicted instrumental limitations arise, the implementation of pre-slit optics such as image slicers appears to be key to significantly improving the yield of this particular science case. However, even in the most optimistic cases, we conclude that the detection of O{sub 2} in the atmosphere of an Earth twin will only be feasible with the ELTs if the planet is orbiting a bright close by (d ≤ 8 pc) M dwarf with a spectral type later than M3.

  5. Evaluation of Respiratory Motion Effect on Defect Detection in Myocardial Perfusion SPECT: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Wen; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; He, Xin; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Tsui, Benjamin M W

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of respiratory motion (RM) on defect detection in Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) using a phantom population that includes patient variability. Three RM patterns are included, namely breath-hold, slightly enhanced normal breathing, and deep breathing. For each RM pattern, six 4-D NCAT phantoms were generated, each with anatomical variations. Anterior, lateral and inferior myocardial defects with different sizes and contrasts were inserted. Noise-free SPECT projections were simulated using an analytical projector. Poisson noise was then added to generate noisy realizations. The projection data were reconstructed using the OS-EM algorithm with 1 and 4 subsets/iteration and at 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 10 iterations. Short-axis images centered at the centroid of the myocardial defect were extracted, and the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) was applied for the detection of the defect. The CHO results show that the value of the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC) is affected by the RM amplitude. For all the defect sizes and contrasts studied, the highest or optimal AUC values indicate maximum detectability decrease with the increase of the RM amplitude. With no respiration, the ranking of the optimal AUC value in decreasing order is anterior then lateral, and finally inferior defects. The AUC value of the lateral defect drops more severely as the RM amplitude increases compared to other defect locations. Furthermore, as the RM amplitude increases, the AUC values of the smaller defects drop more quickly than the larger ones. We demonstrated that RM affects defect detectability of MPS imaging. The results indicate that developments of optimal data acquisition methods and RM correction methods are needed to improve the defect detectability in MPS.

  6. Quench Detection and Magnet Protection Study for MFTF. LLL final review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The results of a Quench Detection and Magnet Protection Study for MFTF are summarized. The study was directed toward establishing requirements and guidelines for the electronic package used to protect the MFTF superconducting magnets. Two quench detection schemes were analyzed in detail, both of which require a programmable quench detector. Hardware and software recommendations for the quench detector were presented as well as criteria for dumping the magnet energy in the event of a quench. Overall magnet protection requirements were outlined in a detailed Failure Mode Effects and Criticality analysis, (FMECA). Hardware and software packages compatible with the FMECA were recommended, with the hardware consisting of flexible, dedicated intelligent modules specifically designed for magnet protection.

  7. Ion generation and CPC detection efficiency studies in sub 3-nm size range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangasluoma, J.; Junninen, H.; Sipilae, M.; Kulmala, M.; Petaejae, T. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, 00014, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Lehtipalo, K. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, 00014, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Airmodus Ltd., Finland, Gustaf Haellstroemin katu 2 A, 00560 Helsinki (Finland); Mikkilae, J.; Vanhanen, J. [Airmodus Ltd., Finland, Gustaf Haellstroemin katu 2 A, 00560 Helsinki (Finland); Attoui, M. [University Paris Est Creteil, University Paris-Diderot, LISA, UMR CNRS 7583 (France); Worsnop, D. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, 00014, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland) and Aerodyne Research Inc., Billerica, MA (United States)

    2013-05-24

    We studied the chemical composition of commonly used condensation particle counter calibration ions with a mass spectrometer and found that in our calibration setup the negatively charged ammonium sulphate, sodium chloride and tungsten oxide are the least contaminated whereas silver on both positive and negative and the three mentioned earlier in positive mode are contaminated with organics. We report cut-off diameters for Airmodus Particle Size Magnifier (PSM) 1.1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.6 and 1.6-1.8 nm for negative sodium chloride, ammonium sulphate, tungsten oxide, silver and positive organics, respectively. To study the effect of sample relative humidity on detection efficiency of the PSM we used different humidities in the differential mobility analyzer sheath flow and found that with increasing relative humidity also the detection efficiency of the PSM increases.

  8. A Pilot Study of Pedestrians with Visual Impairments Detecting Traffic Gaps and Surges Containing Hybrid Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Hapeman, Julie; Wiener, William

    2011-03-01

    The increasing number of hybrid and quiet internal combustion engine vehicles may impact the travel abilities of pedestrians who are blind. Pedestrians who rely on auditory cues for structuring their travel may face challenges in making crossing decisions in the presence of quiet vehicles. This article describes results of initial studies looking at the crossing decisions of pedestrians who are blind at an uncontrolled crossing (no traffic control) and a light controlled intersection. The presence of hybrid vehicles was a factor in each situation. At the uncontrolled crossing, Toyota hybrids were most difficult to detect but crossing decisions were made more often in small gaps ended by a Honda hybrid. These effects were seen only at speed under 20 mph. At the light controlled intersection, parallel surges of traffic were most difficult to detect when made up only of a Ford Escape hybrid. Results suggest that more controlled studies of vehicle characteristics impacting crossing decisions of pedestrians who are blind are warranted.

  9. Caenorhabditis elegans Egg-Laying Detection and Behavior Study Using Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palm Megan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Egg laying is an important phase of the life cycle of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans. Previous studies examined egg-laying events manually. This paper presents a method for automatic detection of egg-laying onset using deformable template matching and other morphological image analysis techniques. Some behavioral changes surrounding egg-laying events are also studied. The results demonstrate that the computer vision tools and the algorithm developed here can be effectively used to study C. elegans egg-laying behaviors. The algorithm developed is an essential part of a machine-vision system for C. elegans tracking and behavioral analysis.

  10. Simulation study of melanoma detection in human skin tissues by laser-generated surface acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Fu, Xing; Dorantes-Gonzalez, Dante J.; Lu, Zimo; Li, Tingting; Li, Yanning; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaotang

    2014-07-01

    Air pollution has been correlated to an increasing number of cases of human skin diseases in recent years. However, the investigation of human skin tissues has received only limited attention, to the point that there are not yet satisfactory modern detection technologies to accurately, noninvasively, and rapidly diagnose human skin at epidermis and dermis levels. In order to detect and analyze severe skin diseases such as melanoma, a finite element method (FEM) simulation study of the application of the laser-generated surface acoustic wave (LSAW) technique is developed. A three-layer human skin model is built, where LSAW's are generated and propagated, and their effects in the skin medium with melanoma are analyzed. Frequency domain analysis is used as a main tool to investigate such issues as minimum detectable size of melanoma, filtering spectra from noise and from computational irregularities, as well as on how the FEM model meshing size and computational capabilities influence the accuracy of the results. Based on the aforementioned aspects, the analysis of the signals under the scrutiny of the phase velocity dispersion curve is verified to be a reliable, a sensitive, and a promising approach for detecting and characterizing melanoma in human skin.

  11. A comparative study of the detectability of TMJ radiographic techniques for artificial mandibular condylar lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hee Jeong; Jung, Yeon Hwa; Cho, Bong Hae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan(Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the detectability of various radiographic techniques for mandibular condylar lesions. Erosive lesion, osteophyte and flattening were formed on the artificial mandibular condyle, and panoramic, transcranial, transorbital radiography, lateral and frontal tomography were taken. The results were as follows; 1. The detectability for erosive lesions was superior in the order of frontal tomography (96%), lateral tomography (78%), transorbital (59%), transcranial (56%) and panoramic (48%) radiography. 2. The location of erosive lesion that showed the highest detectability was the medial third in panoramic, the lateral third in transcranial, the central portion of anteroposterior direction in transorbital, the central portion of mediolateral direction and the posterior third in lateral tomography. Frontal tomography disclosed all erosive lesions except one anterolateral lesion. 3. The detectability of osteophyte was 100% in lateral tomography, 78% in transcranial and 56% in panoramic radiography. 4. For flattening, lateral tomography showed the flattened condyle, but both panoramic and transcranial views showed only decreased bone density without the change of condylar shape.

  12. Neural Bases of Unconscious Error Detection in a Chinese Anagram Solution Task: Evidence from ERP Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Zhan Yin

    Full Text Available In everyday life, error monitoring and processing are important for improving ongoing performance in response to a changing environment. However, detecting an error is not always a conscious process. The temporal activation patterns of brain areas related to cognitive control in the absence of conscious awareness of an error remain unknown. In the present study, event-related potentials (ERPs in the brain were used to explore the neural bases of unconscious error detection when subjects solved a Chinese anagram task. Our ERP data showed that the unconscious error detection (UED response elicited a more negative ERP component (N2 than did no error (NE and detect error (DE responses in the 300-400-ms time window, and the DE elicited a greater late positive component (LPC than did the UED and NE in the 900-1200-ms time window after the onset of the anagram stimuli. Taken together with the results of dipole source analysis, the N2 (anterior cingulate cortex might reflect unconscious/automatic conflict monitoring, and the LPC (superior/medial frontal gyrus might reflect conscious error recognition.

  13. A Systematic Chandra study of Sgr A$^{\\star}$: I. X-ray flare detection

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Daily X-ray flaring represents an enigmatic phenomenon of Sgr A$^{\\star}$ --- the supermassive black hole at the center of our Galaxy. We report initial results from a systematic X-ray study of this phenomenon, based on extensive {\\it Chandra} observations obtained from 1999 to 2012, totaling about 4.5 Ms. We detect flares, using a combination of the maximum likelihood and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, which allow for a direct accounting for the pile-up effect in the modeling of the flare lightcurves and an optimal use of the data, as well as the measurements of flare parameters, including their uncertainties. A total of 82 flares are detected. About one third of them are relatively faint, which were not detected previously. The observation-to-observation variation of the quiescent emission has an average root-mean-square of $6\\%-14\\%$, including the Poisson statistical fluctuation of faint flares below our detection limits. We find no significant long-term variation in the quiescent emission and the flar...

  14. Synthesis, spectroscopic and electrochemical studies of phosphoryl and carbomethoxyphenyl substituted corroles, and their anion detection properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pinky; Sankar, Muniappan

    2014-10-21

    The synthesis, electrochemical studies and anion detection properties of triphosphoryl () and triester corroles () are reported and compared with triphenylcorrole (). These corroles exhibited typical acid-base binding behaviour in CH3CN and were converted to monoprotonated and dianionic species, respectively. has shown a ∼30 fold lower Keq value for monoprotonation than that of in a TFA-CH3CN medium. The detection ability of these corroles was also tested in acetonitrile towards various anions. The observed spectral changes in free-base corroles () are due to anion-induced deprotonation rather than the hydrogen bonding interaction between the imino protons of the corrole moiety with anions. and have shown higher equilibrium constants with F(-) ions (4.7 × 10(3) fold higher for and 9.7 × 10(3) fold higher for ) as compared to and are able to detect 0.06 μM of F(-) ions. The Cu(iii) and Ag(iii) complexes of and exhibited an anodic shift of ∼250 mV in first ring oxidation and ∼100-150 mV in metal centred reduction as compared to the Cu(iii) and Ag(iii) complexes of . The anodic shift in the redox potentials, lower protonation constants and lower detection limit of anions have been explained in terms of the electron-withdrawing nature of the diethylphosphite and carbomethoxy substituents at the meso-phenyl positions of the corrole ring.

  15. An observer study methodology for evaluating detection of motion abnormalities in gated myocardial perfusion SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalush, David S; Jatko, Megan K; Segars, W Paul

    2005-03-01

    To address the task of detecting nonischemic motion abnormalities from animated displays of gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography data, we performed an observer study to evaluate the difference in detection performance between gating to 8 and 16 frames. Images were created from the NCAT mathematical phantom with a realistic heart simulating hypokinetic motion in the left lateral wall. Realistic noise-free projection data were simulated for both normal and defective hearts to obtain 16 frames for the cardiac cycle. Poisson noise was then simulated for each frame to create 50 realizations of each heart, All datasets were processed in two ways: reconstructed as a 16-frame set, and collapsed to 8 frames and reconstructed. Ten observers viewed the cardiac images animated with a realistic real-time frame rate. Observers trained on 100 images and tested on 100 images, rating their confidence on the presence of a motion defect on a continuous scale. None of the observers showed a significant difference in performance between the two gating methods. The 95% confidence interval on the difference in areas under the ROC curve (Az8 - Az16) was -0.029-0.085. Our test did not find a significant difference in detection performance between 8-frame gating and 16-frame gating. We conclude that, for the task of detecting abnormal motion, increasing the number of gated frames from 8 to 16 offers no apparent advantage.

  16. Detection of Impaired Cerebral Autoregulation Using Selected Correlation Analysis: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawanski, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Multimodal brain monitoring has been utilized to optimize treatment of patients with critical neurological diseases. However, the amount of data requires an integrative tool set to unmask pathological events in a timely fashion. Recently we have introduced a mathematical model allowing the simulation of pathophysiological conditions such as reduced intracranial compliance and impaired autoregulation. Utilizing a mathematical tool set called selected correlation analysis (sca), correlation patterns, which indicate impaired autoregulation, can be detected in patient data sets (scp). In this study we compared the results of the sca with the pressure reactivity index (PRx), an established marker for impaired autoregulation. Mean PRx values were significantly higher in time segments identified as scp compared to segments showing no selected correlations (nsc). The sca based approach predicted cerebral autoregulation failure with a sensitivity of 78.8% and a specificity of 62.6%. Autoregulation failure, as detected by the results of both analysis methods, was significantly correlated with poor outcome. Sca of brain monitoring data detects impaired autoregulation with high sensitivity and sufficient specificity. Since the sca approach allows the simultaneous detection of both major pathological conditions, disturbed autoregulation and reduced compliance, it may become a useful analysis tool for brain multimodal monitoring data. PMID:28255331

  17. Detection of Impaired Cerebral Autoregulation Using Selected Correlation Analysis: A Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Proescholdt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal brain monitoring has been utilized to optimize treatment of patients with critical neurological diseases. However, the amount of data requires an integrative tool set to unmask pathological events in a timely fashion. Recently we have introduced a mathematical model allowing the simulation of pathophysiological conditions such as reduced intracranial compliance and impaired autoregulation. Utilizing a mathematical tool set called selected correlation analysis (sca, correlation patterns, which indicate impaired autoregulation, can be detected in patient data sets (scp. In this study we compared the results of the sca with the pressure reactivity index (PRx, an established marker for impaired autoregulation. Mean PRx values were significantly higher in time segments identified as scp compared to segments showing no selected correlations (nsc. The sca based approach predicted cerebral autoregulation failure with a sensitivity of 78.8% and a specificity of 62.6%. Autoregulation failure, as detected by the results of both analysis methods, was significantly correlated with poor outcome. Sca of brain monitoring data detects impaired autoregulation with high sensitivity and sufficient specificity. Since the sca approach allows the simultaneous detection of both major pathological conditions, disturbed autoregulation and reduced compliance, it may become a useful analysis tool for brain multimodal monitoring data.

  18. Dental Hygiene Faculty Calibration Using Two Accepted Standards for Calculus Detection: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Lisa J; Freudenthal, Jacqueline J; Peterson, Teri; Bowen, Denise M

    2016-08-01

    Faculty calibration studies for calculus detection use two different standards for examiner evaluation, yet the only therapeutic modality that can be used for nonsurgical periodontal treatment is scaling/root debridement or planing. In this study, a pretest-posttest design was used to assess the feasibility of faculty calibration for calculus detection using two accepted standards: that established by the Central Regional Dental Testing Service, Inc. (CRDTS; readily detectible calculus) and the gold standard for scaling/root debridement (root roughness). Four clinical dental hygiene faculty members out of five possible participants at Halifax Community College agreed to participate. The participants explored calculus on the 16 assigned teeth (64 surfaces) of four patients. Calculus detection scores were calculated before and after training. Kappa averages using CRDTS criteria were 0.561 at pretest and 0.631 at posttest. Kappa scores using the scaling/root debridement or planing standard were 0.152 at pretest and 0.271 at posttest. The scores indicated improvement from moderate (Kappa=0.41-0.60) to substantial agreement (Kappa=0.61-0.80) following training using the CRDTS standard. Although this result differed qualitatively and Kappas were significantly different from 0, the differences for pre- to post-Kappas for patient-rater dyads using CRDTS were not statistically significant (p=0.778). There was no difference (p=0.913) in Kappa scores pre- to post-training using the scaling/root debridement standard. Despite the small number of participants in this study, the results indicated that training to improve interrater reliability to substantial agreement was feasible using the CRDTS standard but not using the gold standard. The difference may have been due to greater difficulty in attaining agreement regarding root roughness. Future studies should include multiple training sessions with patients using the same standard for scaling/root debridement used for

  19. Modeling and Simulation Optimization and Feasibility Studies for the Neutron Detection without Helium-3 Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ely, James H.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.

    2013-01-01

    This report details the results of the modeling and simulation work accomplished for the ‘Neutron Detection without Helium-3’ project during the 2011 and 2012 fiscal years. The primary focus of the project is to investigate commercially available technologies that might be used in safeguards applications in the relatively near term. Other technologies that are being developed may be more applicable in the future, but are outside the scope of this study.

  20. Tissue mimicking materials for the detection of prostate cancer using shear wave elastography: A validation study

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Rui; Huang, Zhihong; Varghese, Tomy; Nabi, Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of stiffness changes may provide important diagnostic information and aid in the early detection of cancers. Shear wave elastography is an imaging technique that assesses tissue stiffness using acoustic radiation force as an alternate to manual palpation reported previously with quasistatic elastography. In this study, the elastic properties of tissue mimicking materials, including agar, polyacrylamide (PAA), and silicone, are evaluated with an objective to determine m...

  1. Shear Wave Elastography for Detection of Prostate Cancer: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Sungmin; Kim, Sang Youn; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the diagnostic value of shear wave elastography (SWE) for prostate cancer detection. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, 87 patients with the suspicion of prostate cancer (prostate-specific antigen > 4 ng/mL and abnormal digital rectal examination) underwent a protocol-based systematic 12-core biopsy followed by targeted biopsy at hypoechoic areas on grey-scale ultrasound. Prior to biopsy, SWE was performed by placing two circular 5 mm-sized regions of inter...

  2. An exploration study to detect important factors influencing on compulsive buy: A case study of Shahrvand chain stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alikhani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behavior plays an important role on purchasing goods and services from food chain stores. In this paper, we present a study to detect important factors impacting consumer behavior on Iranian food industry, named Shahrvand. The proposed study selects 384 customers who made some purchases during the year of 2012. Structural equation modeling has been performed to detect important factors influencing compulsive buying including emotional instability, attractive appearance, social recognition, financial success. Cronbach alphas have been calculated for these four mentioned items were well above 0.80, which validated the overall questionnaire of the survey. The results of our survey have confirmed that all four independent variable influenced positively on compulsive buy, significantly.

  3. International external quality assessment study for molecular detection of Lassa virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergejs Nikisins

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lassa virus (LASV is a causative agent of hemorrhagic fever in West Africa. In recent years, it has been imported several times to Europe and North America. The method of choice for early detection of LASV in blood is RT-PCR. Therefore, the European Network for Diagnostics of 'Imported' Viral Diseases (ENIVD performed an external quality assessment (EQA study for molecular detection of LASV. A proficiency panel of 13 samples containing various concentrations of inactivated LASV strains Josiah, Lib-1580/121, CSF, or AV was prepared. Samples containing the LASV-related lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV and negative sera were included as specificity controls. Twenty-four laboratories from 17 countries (13 European, one African, one Asian, two American countries participated in the study. Thirteen laboratories (54% reported correct results, 4 (17% laboratories reported 1 to 2 false-negative results, and 7 (29% laboratories reported 3 to 5 false-negative results. This EQA study indicates that most participating laboratories have a good or acceptable performance in molecular detection of LASV. However, several laboratories need to review and improve their diagnostic procedures.

  4. International external quality assessment study for molecular detection of Lassa virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikisins, Sergejs; Rieger, Toni; Patel, Pranav; Müller, Rolf; Günther, Stephan; Niedrig, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is a causative agent of hemorrhagic fever in West Africa. In recent years, it has been imported several times to Europe and North America. The method of choice for early detection of LASV in blood is RT-PCR. Therefore, the European Network for Diagnostics of 'Imported' Viral Diseases (ENIVD) performed an external quality assessment (EQA) study for molecular detection of LASV. A proficiency panel of 13 samples containing various concentrations of inactivated LASV strains Josiah, Lib-1580/121, CSF, or AV was prepared. Samples containing the LASV-related lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and negative sera were included as specificity controls. Twenty-four laboratories from 17 countries (13 European, one African, one Asian, two American countries) participated in the study. Thirteen laboratories (54%) reported correct results, 4 (17%) laboratories reported 1 to 2 false-negative results, and 7 (29%) laboratories reported 3 to 5 false-negative results. This EQA study indicates that most participating laboratories have a good or acceptable performance in molecular detection of LASV. However, several laboratories need to review and improve their diagnostic procedures.

  5. Study of two different enzyme immunoassays for the detection of Mayaro virus antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, L T; Nogueira, R M; Cavalcanti, S M; Schatzmayr, H; da Rosa, A T

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay in which Mayaro virus-infected cultured cells are used as antigen (EIA-ICC) and an IgM antibody capture ELISA (MAC-ELISA) for Mayaro serologic diagnosis using 114 human sera obtained during a Mayaro outbreak occurred in Bolivia, in 1987. Results were compared with those obtained by haemagglutination-inhibition test (HAI). MAC-ELISA was the most sensitive technique for anti-Mayaro IgM detection. MAC-ELISA was twice as sensitive as IgM EIA-ICC. The data shows that MAC-ELISA is a practical and valid technique for diagnosis of recent Mayaro infection. IgG EIA-ICC showed high sensitivity and high specificity compared to HAI. The combination of anti-Mayaro IgG and IgM EIA-ICC results presented the highest sensitivity of the study. Anti-Mayaro IgG and IgM simultaneous detection by EIA-ICC can be used for recent infection diagnosis (in spite of a less sensitive IgM detection than by MAC-ELISA), for surveillance and sero-epidemiologic studies, and for studies of IgG and IgM responses to Mayaro infection.

  6. Estimating movement and survival rates of a small saltwater fish using autonomous antenna receiver arrays and passive integrated transponder tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudershausen, Paul J.; Buckel, Jeffery A.; Dubreuil, Todd; O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Poland, Steven J.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of small (12.5 mm long) passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and custom detection antennas for obtaining fine-scale movement and demographic data of mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus in a salt marsh creek. Apparent survival and detection probability were estimated using a Cormack Jolly Seber (CJS) model fitted to detection data collected by an array of 3 vertical antennas from November 2010 to March 2011 and by a single horizontal antenna from April to August 2011. Movement of mummichogs was monitored during the period when the array of vertical antennas was used. Antenna performance was examined in situ using tags placed in wooden dowels (drones) and in live mummichogs. Of the 44 tagged fish, 42 were resighted over the 9 mo monitoring period. The in situ detection probabilities of the drone and live mummichogs were high (~80-100%) when the ambient water depth was less than ~0.8 m. Upstream and downstream movement of mummichogs was related to hourly water depth and direction of tidal current in a way that maximized time periods over which mummichogs utilized the intertidal vegetated marsh. Apparent survival was lower during periods of colder water temperatures in December 2010 and early January 2011 (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.979) than during other periods of the study (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.992). During late fall and winter, temperature had a positive effect on the CJS detection probability of a tagged mummichog, likely due to greater fish activity over warmer periods. During the spring and summer, this pattern reversed possibly due to mummichogs having reduced activity during the hottest periods. This study demonstrates the utility of PIT tags and continuously operating autonomous detection systems for tracking fish at fine temporal scales, and improving estimates of demographic parameters in salt marsh creeks that are difficult or impractical to sample with active fishing gear.

  7. Lie detection based on nonverbal expressions - study of the Czech Republic Police employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedvika Boukalová

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lie detection based on nonverbal behavior is not a standard method, it is an intuitive process, applied by lay persons, but also professionals. Some of the major sources (e.g. widespread Interrogation Manual by F. Inbau et al., 2004 offer clear recommendations about the nonverbal behavior of liars to investigators of serious crime. These findings are not supported by the research, moreover they can lead to lowering the ability to detect lie (Blair, Kooi 2004. Another topic is mapping the skills of professionals (police officers, members of the secret services and non-specialists to detect lies by nonverbal signs. Across the studies (with few exceptions a low performance in the task of detecting lies by nonverbal expressions (Ekman P., 1996; Vrij, 2004 and others is found. The levels of success are usually around the level of chance. The potential reasons for such results are analyzed (e.g. Blair, Kooi, 2004. However a group of psychologists led by P. Ekman and M. O'Sullivan (O'Sullivan, 2007 managed to find in their years lasting research a group of people whose ability to detect lies is well above the population average. This group is diverse in terms of age, interests and professions, all of them come from the USA. There were certain common features found in this group and also a focus on similar phenomena in the detection of lying. The main goal and research question is to find out: what is the success rate of differentiation between lies and truths in this specific professional group of Czech population, is it the same or different from the results reported in the context of available resources. The research will focus on the ability of respondents to determine the truth or deceit on the basis of non-verbal and paraverbal expressions of observed subjects, with focus on specific professional groups - mainly police workers. We assume, that the police officers are frequently in the contact with people, who are not willing to reveal critical

  8. How to improve early case detection in low endemic areas with pockets of leprosy: a study of newly detected leprosy patients in Guizhou Province, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinlan; Yang, Lili; Wang, Ying; Liu, Hang; Liu, Jie; Cross, Hugh

    2016-03-01

    Although leprosy in China is controlled at a low endemic level, the number of new cases in Guizhou province has shown no significant decrease over the past 20 years. Guizhou remains the province with the second highest prevalence in China. The authors conducted a study in which the characteristics of newly detected leprosy cases, found between 2008 and 2012 in Guizhou, were analysed. These cases represented people from pocket areas of leprosy in a generally low endemic environment. The purpose of the study was to understand characters of newly detected cases, strong points and weakness of routine detection approaches for improving the effectiveness of early case detection in the future. The analysis considered data that was collected from a 'Leprosy Management Information' report system and also from annual statistical reports of leprosy that reflect the situation throughout the province. 1274 new patients were detected in Guizhou from 2008 to 2012. That number included 58 (4.6%) children (0-14 years old). The average age of patients at diagnosis was 42.6 ± 16.5 years. The proportion of people with WHO Grade 2 disability (WHO DG2) among new patients was 35.7% and the proportion of people with Grade 1 disability (DG1) constituted 10.1%. The average delay before diagnosis after the onset of symptoms of leprosy was 41.7 ± 49.8 months. Suspect survey was a major method by which most cases were detected. Trough this method 790 (62.0%) new patients were detected. It was also in this group that the highest proportion of people with WHO DG2 359 of 790 (45.4%) was reported. Self- reporting, diagnosis at a general skin clinic, household contact examination, and spot surveys accounted for 13.0%, 11.8%, 11.5% and 1.7% of other cases detected respectively. It was generally found that cases detected through household contact examinations were earlier cases (delay to diagnosis leprosy early in low endemic situations where pockets persist was difficult to achieve. The authors

  9. Study of cartridge rupture detection installations; Contribution a l'etude des installations de detection de ruptures de gaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graftieaux, J.; Douet, P.; Roguin, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Very numerous physical or technological parameters are involved in the preparation of projects for can rupture detection installations. These parameters are connected essentially with the design of the reactor, the detector used, the disposition of the pneumatic circuits, the type of fuel and the safety required. The present report analyses the main problems arising and their mutual compatibilities; it defines a certain number of ideas which had up till now been accepted implicitly in the design. (authors) [French] De tres nombreux parametres physiques ou technologiques interviennent dans l'etablissement du projet d'une installation de detection de ruptures de gaines. Ces parametres decoulent essentiellement de la conception de la pile, du detecteur utilise, de l'organisation des circuits pneumatiques, du type du combustible et de la securite souhaitee. Le present document analyse les principaux problemes qui se posent ainsi que leurs compatibilites reciproques et precise un certain nombre de notions jusqu'alors admises implicitement lors de l'etablissement des projets. (auteurs)

  10. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Analysis For Disease Detection: Proof Of Principle For Field Studies Detecting Paratuberculosis And Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Henri; Köhler, Heike; Nicola, Commander; Reinhold, Petra; Turner, Claire; Chambers, Mark

    2009-05-01

    A proof of concept investigation was performed to demonstrate that two independent infectious diseases of cattle result in different patterns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the headspace of serum samples detectable using an electronic nose (e-nose). A total of 117 sera from cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (paraTB, n = 43) or Brucella sp. (n = 26) and sera from corresponding control animals (n = 48) were randomly and analysed blind to infection status using a ST214 e-nose (Scensive Ltd, Leeds, UK). Samples were collected under non-standardised conditions on different farms from the UK (brucellosis) and Germany (paraTB). The e-nose could differentiate the sera from brucellosis infected, paraTB infected and healthy animals at the population level, but the technology used was not suitable for determination of the disease status of individual animals. Nevertheless, the data indicate that there are differences in the sensor responses depending on the disease status, and therefore, it shows the potential of VOC analysis from serum headspace samples for disease detection.

  11. Visual acuity measures do not reliably detect childhood refractive error--an epidemiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa O'Donoghue

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the utility of uncorrected visual acuity measures in screening for refractive error in white school children aged 6-7-years and 12-13-years. METHODS: The Northern Ireland Childhood Errors of Refraction (NICER study used a stratified random cluster design to recruit children from schools in Northern Ireland. Detailed eye examinations included assessment of logMAR visual acuity and cycloplegic autorefraction. Spherical equivalent refractive data from the right eye were used to classify significant refractive error as myopia of at least 1DS, hyperopia as greater than +3.50DS and astigmatism as greater than 1.50DC, whether it occurred in isolation or in association with myopia or hyperopia. RESULTS: Results are presented from 661 white 12-13-year-old and 392 white 6-7-year-old school-children. Using a cut-off of uncorrected visual acuity poorer than 0.20 logMAR to detect significant refractive error gave a sensitivity of 50% and specificity of 92% in 6-7-year-olds and 73% and 93% respectively in 12-13-year-olds. In 12-13-year-old children a cut-off of poorer than 0.20 logMAR had a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 91% in detecting myopia and a sensitivity of 41% and a specificity of 84% in detecting hyperopia. CONCLUSIONS: Vision screening using logMAR acuity can reliably detect myopia, but not hyperopia or astigmatism in school-age children. Providers of vision screening programs should be cognisant that where detection of uncorrected hyperopic and/or astigmatic refractive error is an aspiration, current UK protocols will not effectively deliver.

  12. The relationship study between image features and detection probability based on psychology experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Chen, Yu-hua; Wang, Ji-yuan; Gao, Hong-sheng; Wang, Ji-jun; Su, Rong-hua; Mao, Wei

    2011-04-01

    Detection probability is an important index to represent and estimate target viability, which provides basis for target recognition and decision-making. But it will expend a mass of time and manpower to obtain detection probability in reality. At the same time, due to the different interpretation of personnel practice knowledge and experience, a great difference will often exist in the datum obtained. By means of studying the relationship between image features and perception quantity based on psychology experiments, the probability model has been established, in which the process is as following.Firstly, four image features have been extracted and quantified, which affect directly detection. Four feature similarity degrees between target and background were defined. Secondly, the relationship between single image feature similarity degree and perception quantity was set up based on psychological principle, and psychological experiments of target interpretation were designed which includes about five hundred people for interpretation and two hundred images. In order to reduce image features correlativity, a lot of artificial synthesis images have been made which include images with single brightness feature difference, images with single chromaticity feature difference, images with single texture feature difference and images with single shape feature difference. By analyzing and fitting a mass of experiments datum, the model quantitys have been determined. Finally, by applying statistical decision theory and experimental results, the relationship between perception quantity with target detection probability has been found. With the verification of a great deal of target interpretation in practice, the target detection probability can be obtained by the model quickly and objectively.

  13. Barriers for Early Detection of Cancer Amongst Urban Indian Women: A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Yugantara R.; Quraishi, Sanjay R.; Dhoble, Randheer V.; Sawant, Minaxi R.; Gore, Alka D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a leading cause of death globally. Every year, millions of cancer patients could be saved from premature death and and suffering if they had timely access to early detection and treatment. There are two main components of early detection: early diagnosis and screening. In India, cancers of cervix, breast, mouth/oropharynx are the most frequent cancers in women. These cancers are amenable to early detection. More than two third of the cancer patients are already in an advanced and incurable stage at the time of diagnosis. Objectives: This study was designed with the aim to know the reasons for non availment of cancer screening procedures and early diagnostic facilities. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was planned in Sangli, Miraj and Kupwad Corporation area during October 2013 - March 2014 by a pretested questionnaire. Women of 25 years and above were study subjects selected randomly from a cluster sample of ward with estimated sample size of 559 women. Statistical analysis was done with the help of IBM SPSS 22. Results: Nearly 74% of women said that cancer is curable. For awareness about signs and symptoms, risk factors and screening test 82.3% women scored less than 50% of total score. Only 17.7% women had awareness score more than 50%. But their attitude score was > 50% in 85.2% of women. For practice score, 24.4% women scored > 50%. Significant association was found between awareness, attitude and practice scores and education, occupation and history of cancer in family, friends and neighborhood of respondents. Conclusions: Low awareness is the main barrier for undergoing cancer screening and early detection. There is a need of effective health education programme. PMID:27366310

  14. Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter (PreView PHP) for detecting choroidal neovascularization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alster, Yair; Bressler, Neil M; Bressler, Susan B; Brimacombe, Judith A; Crompton, R Michael; Duh, Yi-Jing; Gabel, Veit-Peter; Heier, Jeffrey S; Ip, Michael S; Loewenstein, Anat; Packo, Kirk H; Stur, Michael; Toaff, Techiya

    2005-10-01

    To assess the ability of the Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter (PreView PHP; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) to detect recent-onset choroidal neovascularization (CNV) resulting from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to differentiate it from an intermediate stage of AMD. Prospective, comparative, concurrent, nonrandomized, multicenter study. Eligible participants' study eyes had a corrected visual acuity of 20/160 or better and either untreated CNV from AMD diagnosed within the last 60 days or an intermediate stage of AMD. After obtaining consent, visual acuity with habitual correction, masked PHP testing, stereoscopic color fundus photography, and fluorescein angiography were performed. Photographs and angiograms were evaluated by graders masked to diagnosis and PHP results. The reading center's diagnosis determined if the patient was categorized as having intermediate AMD or neovascular AMD. A successful study outcome was defined a priori as a sensitivity of at least 80% and a specificity of at least 80%. Of 185 patients who gave consent to be enrolled, 11 (6%) had PHP results judged to be unreliable. An additional 52 were not included because they did not meet all eligibility criteria. Of the remaining 122 patients, 57 had an intermediate stage of AMD and 65 had neovascular AMD. The sensitivity to detect newly diagnosed CNV using PHP testing was 82% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70%-90%). The specificity to differentiate newly diagnosed CNV from the intermediate stage of AMD using PHP testing was 88% (95% CI, 76%-95%). Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter testing can detect recent-onset CNV resulting from AMD and can differentiate it from an intermediate stage of AMD with high sensitivity and specificity. These data suggest that monitoring with PHP should detect most cases of CNV of recent onset with few false-positive results at a stage when treatment usually would be beneficial. Thus, this monitoring should be considered in the management of the

  15. Fiber optic fluorescence detection of low-level porphyrin concentrations in preclinical and clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Thomas S.; McGinnis, Carolyn; Khan, S.

    1990-07-01

    A significant clinical problem in the local treatment of cutaneous metastases of breast cancer (by any modality--surgery, radiation therapy or photodynainic therapy) is the fact that the disease almost always extends beyond the boundary of visible lesions in the form of microscopic deposits. These deposits may be distant from the site of visible disease but are often in close proximity to it and are manifested sooner or later by the development of recurrent lesions at the border of the treated area, thus the "marginal miss" in radiation therapy, the "rim recurrence" in photodynamic therapy, and the "incisional recurrence" following surgical excision. More intelligent use of these treatment modalities demands the ability to detect microscopic deposits of tumor cells using non-invasive methodology. In vivo fluorescence measurements have been made possible by the development of an extremely sensitive fiber optic in vivo fluorescence photometer. The instrument has been used to verify that fluorescence correlated with injected porphyrin levels in various tissues. The delivery of light to excite and detect background fluorescence as well as photosensitizer fluorescence in tissues has been accomplished using two HeNe lasers emitting at 632.8 nm and 612 nm delivered through a single quartz fiber optic. Chopping at different frequencies, contributions of fluorescence may be separated. Fluorescence is picked up via a 400 micron quartz fiber optic positioned appropriately near the target tissue. Validation of these levels was made by extraction of the drug from the tissues with resultant quantitation. Recently, an extensive study was undertaken to determine if fluorescence could be used for the detection of occult, clinically non-palpable metastases in the lymph node of rats. This unique model allowed for the detection of micrometastases in lymph nodes using very low injected doses of the photosensitizer Photofrin II. Data obtained revealed the ability to detect on the order

  16. Human Emotion Detection via Brain Waves Study by Using Electroencephalogram (EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.O. A.S. Wan Ismail

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human emotion is very difficult to determine just by looking at the face and also the behavior of a person. This research was conducted to detect or identify human emotion via the study of brain waves. In addition, the research aims to develop computer software that can detect human emotions quickly and easily. This study aims at EEG signals of relationship and human emotions. The main objective of this recognition is to develop "mind-implementation of Robots". While the research methodology is divided into four; (i both visibility and EEG data were used to extract the date at the same time from the respondent, (ii the process of complete data record includes the capture of images using the camera and EEG, (iii pre-processing, classification and feature extraction is done at the same time, (iv the features extracted is classified using artificial intelligence techniques to emotional faces. Researchers expect the following results; (i studies brain waves for the purpose of emotions, (ii the study of human emotion with facial emotions and to relate the brain waves, (iii. In conclusion, this study is very useful for doctors in hospitals and police departments for criminal investigation. As a result of this study, it also helps to develop a software package.

  17. Parametric Study of Defect Detection in Pipes with Bend Using Guided Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Tan Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The propagation behaviour of guided ultrasonic waves in a steel pipe with welded bend is studied by finite element simulation. The effectiveness of the longitudinal L(0,2 and torsional T(0,1 guided waves in detecting circumferential cut near the weld is investigated. In order to identify the presence of the defect, the reflection strength due to the cut is studied. The geometry of the weld is constructed based on common V-bevel butt joints and the anisotropy of the 316L stainless steel weld is included to correctly predict the scattering of ultrasonic waves. The finite element model is built to allow high accuracy. Detection of small circumferential cut (up to 60° circumferential extent can be achieved with longitudinal L(0,2 mode. Detection of moderate to large circumferential cut can be achieved by torsional T(0,1 or longitudinal L(0,2 modes, with T(0,1 mode preferred due to its less mode conversion to higher order modes.

  18. [Study on experiment of absorption spectroscopy detection of pesticide residues of carbendazim in orange juice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ren-Dong; Chen, Meng-Lan; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Zhu, Xing-Yue; Wang, Le-Xin; Liu, Quan-Jin

    2014-03-01

    Absorption spectra were studied for the carbendazim, in the mixed solution of orange juice and carbendazim using spectrophotometer. The most intensive characteristic peak (285 nm) was found in the spectrum of carbendazim standard solution. Compared with the carbendazim drug solution, the peak position of absorption spectrum has the blue shift (285-280 nm) when carbendazim (0.28 mg x mL(-1))was added in the orange juice. So that we can conclude that interaction happened between the orange juice and carbendazim. Through the method of least squares fitting, the prediction models between the absorbance of orange juice and carbendazim content was obtained with a good linear relationship. The linear function model was: I = 2.41 + 9.26x, the correlation coefficient was 0.996, and the recovery was: 81%-102%. According to the regression model, we can obtain the amount of carbendazim pesticide residues in orange juice. It was verified that the method of using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra was feasible to detect the carbendazim residues in orange juice. The result proved that it is possible to detect pesticide residues of carbendazim in orange juice, and it can meet the needs of rapid analysis. This study provides a new way for the detection of pesticide residues.

  19. Did I say dog or cat? A study of semantic error detection and correction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J Richard; Cortis, Cathleen; Budd, Mary-Jane; Nozari, Nazbanou

    2016-02-01

    Although naturalistic studies of spontaneous speech suggest that young children can monitor their speech, the mechanisms for detection and correction of speech errors in children are not well understood. In particular, there is little research on monitoring semantic errors in this population. This study provides a systematic investigation of detection and correction of semantic errors in children between the ages of 5 and 8years as they produced sentences to describe simple visual events involving nine highly familiar animals (the moving animals task). Results showed that older children made fewer errors and corrected a larger proportion of the errors that they made than younger children. We then tested the prediction of a production-based account of error monitoring that the strength of the language production system, and specifically its semantic-lexical component, should be correlated with the ability to detect and repair semantic errors. Strength of semantic-lexical mapping, as well as lexical-phonological mapping, was estimated individually for children by fitting their error patterns, obtained from an independent picture-naming task, to a computational model of language production. Children's picture-naming performance was predictive of their ability to monitor their semantic errors above and beyond age. This relationship was specific to the strength of the semantic-lexical part of the system, as predicted by the production-based monitor.

  20. Organic Compounds Detected in Deciduous Teeth: A Replication Study from Children with Autism in Two Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond F. Palmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological samples are an important part of investigating toxic exposures and disease outcomes. However, blood, urine, saliva, or hair can only reflect relatively recent exposures. Alternatively, deciduous teeth have served as a biomarker of early developmental exposure to heavy metals, but little has been done to assess organic toxic exposures such as pesticides, plastics, or medications. The purpose of our study was to determine if organic chemicals previously detected in a sample of typically developing children could be detected in teeth from a sample of children with autism. Eighty-three deciduous teeth from children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD were chosen from our tooth repository. Organic compounds were assessed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography methods. Consistent with a prior report from Camann et al., (2013, we have demonstrated that specific semivolatile organic chemicals relevant to autism etiology can be detected in deciduous teeth. This report provides evidence that teeth can be useful biomarkers of early life exposure for use in epidemiologic case-control studies seeking to identify differential unbiased exposures during development between those with and without specific disorders such as autism.

  1. An information-gain approach to detecting three-way epistatic interactions in genetic association studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Ting; Chen, Yuanzhu; Kiralis, Jeff W;

    2013-01-01

    Background Epistasis has been historically used to describe the phenomenon that the effect of a given gene on a phenotype can be dependent on one or more other genes, and is an essential element for understanding the association between genetic and phenotypic variations. Quantifying epistasis....... In the tuberculosis data, we found a statistically significant pure three-way epistatic interaction effect that was stronger than any lower-order associations. Conclusion Our study provides a methodological basis for detecting and characterizing high-order gene-gene interactions in genetic association studies....

  2. Detection of vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A comparative study of three different phenotypic screening methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhateja P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate screening methodologies, to detect Staphylococcus aureus strains with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin. Three methods were used to screen 160 Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates along with ATCC quality control strains. Subsequently, MIC of all these 160 strains were determined by NCCLS methodology. The MIC of all the 160 clinical isolates was < 4µg/mL and were classified as vancomycin susceptible by NCCLS criteria but 23 strains were positive by Hiramatshu method, two grew on MHA (5µg/mL vancomycin while CDC method correctly identified no vancomycin intermediate S.aureus (VISA or vancomycin resistant S.aureus (VRSA strains with reference to there MIC. CDC method was found to be the most appropriate screening methodology for detection of VISA or VRSA for diagnostic laboratories.

  3. Study on temperature coefficient of CdTe detector used for X-rays detection

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Si-Ming; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xu-Fang; Liu, Cong-Zhan; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Cheng-Ze; Huo, Bin-Bin; Liao, Zhen-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The temperature of the working environment is a key factor in determining the properties of semiconductor detectors, and it affects the absolute accuracy and stability of the standard detector. In order to determine the temperature coefficient of CdTe detector used for X-rays detection, a precise temperature control system was designed. In this experiment, detectors and radiographic source were set inside the thermostat with temperature of 0-40 Celsius degree, so that the temperature can be regulated for the test of the temperature coefficient of CdTe detector. Studies had shown that, with the increase of the temperature, the energy resolution and detection efficiency of the CdTe detector would deteriorate, and under 10 Celsius degree the detectors have better performance with the 8 keV X-rays.

  4. Comparative study of performance of neutral axis tracking based damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, R.; Malinowski, P.; Ostachowicz, W.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of a novel SHM technique for damage isolation. The performance of the Neutral Axis (NA) tracking based damage detection strategy is compared to other popularly used vibration based damage detection methods viz. ECOMAC, Mode Shape Curvature Method and Strain Flexibility Index Method. The sensitivity of the novel method is compared under changing ambient temperature conditions and in the presence of measurement noise. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the DTU 10 MW Wind Turbine was conducted to compare the local damage identification capability of each method and the results are presented. Under the conditions examined, the proposed method was found to be robust to ambient condition changes and measurement noise. The damage identification in some is either at par with the methods mentioned in the literature or better under the investigated damage scenarios.

  5. A Rapid Method for Viral Particle Detection in Viral-Induced Gastroenteritis: A TEM Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, M. John; Barrish, James P.; Hayes, Elizabeth S.; Leer, Laurie C.; Estes, Mary K.; Cubitt, W. D.

    1995-10-01

    Infectious gastroenteritis is a common cause of hospitalization in the pediatric population. The most frequent cause of gastroenteritis is viral in origin. The purpose of this study was to compare a rapid modified negative-staining TEM method with the conventional pseudoreplica technique in detection of viral particles in fecal samples from children with viral gastroenteritis. The modified negative-staining method resulted in a significantly higher (2.5 ± 0.5, p = 0.02) viral rating score than that for the conventional pseudoreplica technique (1.7 ± 0.4). In addition, the preparation time for the negative-staining method was approximately one fifth that for the conventional pseudoreplica technique. Rapid diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis may be made by ultrastructural detection of viral particles in fecal samples using the negative staining technique.

  6. Capillary electrophoresis with electrochemiluminescence detection for the analysis of quinolone drugs and pharmacokinetics study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Ming Liu; Jun Tao Cao; Hui Wang

    2008-01-01

    A novel method for the determination of two quinolone drugs norfloxacin (NOR) and levofloxacin (LVX) was described by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemiluminescence detection. The good relationship (r ≥ 0.9991) between peak area and concentration of analytes was established over two orders of magnitude. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) in standard solution are 4.8 × 10-7 mol/L for NOR and 6.4 × 10-7 mol/L for LVX, respectively. The limits of quantitation (LOQ, S/N = 10) in real human urine samples are 1.2 × 10-6 mol/L for NOR and 1.4 × 10-6 mol/L for LVX, respectively. The present method was successfully applied to the determination of NOR and LVX in human urine and the study of pharmacokinetics of NOR.

  7. Acoustic emission partial discharge detection technique applied to fault diagnosis: Case studies of generator transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanker Tangella Bhavani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In power transformers, locating the partial discharge (PD source is as important as identifying it. Acoustic Emission (AE sensing offers a good solution for both PD detection and PD source location identification. In this paper the principle of the AE technique, along with in-situ findings of the online acoustic emission signals captured from partial discharges on a number of Generator Transformers (GT, is discussed. Of the two cases discussed, the first deals with Acoustic Emission Partial Discharge (AEPD tests on two identical transformers, and the second deals with the AEPD measurement of a transformer carried out on different occasions (years. These transformers are from a hydropower station and a thermal power station in India. Tests conducted in identical transformers give the provision for comparing AE signal amplitudes from the two transformers. These case studies also help in comprehending the efficacy of integrating Dissolved Gas is (DGA data with AEPD test results in detecting and locating the PD source.

  8. Study of surface functionalization on IDE by using 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) for cervical cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raqeema, S.; Hashim, U.; Azizah, N.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presented the study of surface functionalization on IDE by using 3-Aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES). The DNA nanochip based interdigitated (IDE) has been proposed to optimized the sensitivity of the device due to the cervical cancer detection. The DNA nanochip will be more efficient using surface modification of TiO2 nanoparticles with 3-Aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES). Furthermore, APTES gain the better functionalization of the adsorption mechanism on IDE. The combination of the DNA probe and the HPV target will produce more sensitivity and speed of the DNA nanochip due to their properties. The IDE has been characterized using current-voltage (IV) measurement. This functionalization of the surface would be applicable, sensitive, selective and low cost for cervical cancer detection.

  9. Comparative study of instantaneous frequency based methods for leak detection in pipeline networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, M. F.; Beck, S. B. M.; Shucksmith, J. D.; Boxall, J. B.; Staszewski, W. J.

    2012-05-01

    Methods of pressure transient analysis can be seen as a promising, accurate and low-cost tool for leak and feature detection in pipelines. Various systems have been developed by several groups of researchers in recent years. Such techniques have been successfully demonstrated under laboratory conditions but are not yet established for use with real field test data. The current paper presents a comparative study of instantaneous frequency analysis techniques based on pressure transients recorded within a live distribution network. The instantaneous frequency of the signals are analysed using the Hilbert transform (HT), the Normalised Hilbert transform (NHT), Direct Quadrature (DQ), Teager Energy Operator (TEO) and Cepstrum. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of the instantaneous frequency analysis in detecting a leaks and other features within the network. NHT and DQ allowed for the identification of the approximate location of leaks. The performance TEO is moderate, with Cepstrum being the worst performing method.

  10. Detection Rate of Prostate Cancer on the Basis of the Vienna Nomogram: A Singapore Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Beow Kiong; Ng, Foo Cheong; Fong, Yan Kit

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of the Vienna nomogram prostate biopsy model in the detection of prostate cancer in our local population. We also assessed the incidence of complications from using such a template. Materials and Methods From January 2006 to June 2007, 120 men with either elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) scores (>4 ng/mL) and/or abnormal digital rectal examination were enrolled prospectively to undergo extraction of 6 to 18 cores for transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy, as indicated by the Vienna nomogram. Results The mean age was 62.6±8.3 years (range, 40-86 years). The mean PSA score was 13.42 ng/mL. The mean number of cores obtained was 9.68±3.1. According to the Vienna nomogram, 27 out of a total of 120 patients had prostate cancer, for a detection rate of 22.5%. In the group of patients with PSA scores 10 ng/mL had a detection rate of 50% (13 of 26). The complication rate in our study was 7.5%. Conclusions With the use of the Vienna nomogram, our prostate cancer detection rate is comparable to previously published data for Asian patients. This nomogram offers an easy tool with which to select the optimal number of prostate biopsy cores to be taken on the basis of patient age and total prostate volume. With this biopsy strategy, we also have found that the complication rate from prostate biopsy is low. PMID:24741412

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy in bone metastasis detection: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić Silvija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bone scintigraphy is well-known method for the detection of neoplastic lesions with a high sensitivity and, at the same time, a lower specificity. On the other hand magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is previously established noninvasive imaging method regarding its diagnostic specificity. The aim of this study was to determine the possibilities and to correlate two different diagnostic methods - bone scintigraphy and MRI in the detection of bone metastasis in the spine and pelvic bones. Methods. A total of 123 patients who underwent both bone scintigraphy and spine and pelvic MRI on 1.5 T MR imager were enrolled in this study. Scans were subsequently analyzed in total and divided in regions of interest (cervical, upper, middle and lower thoracic, upper and lower lumbar and pelvic region, which includes sacral spinal segment; afterwards the total number of 585 matching regions were compared and statistically analyzed. Results. The statistical analysis demonstrated significant correlation between the findings of both methods in total. Divided by regions of interest, significant degrees of correlation were demonstrated in all of them, except in the cervical spine region where the r-value was in the range of low correlation. Conclusion. Having a high mutual correlation, bone scintigraphy and MRI are to be considered as the complementary diagnostic methods in the detection of bone metastases. Still, increased diagnostic potential of MRI may highlights negative bone scintigraphy findings in the patients with solitary metastatic lesions or diffuse vertebral infiltration. Advances in the bone scintigraphy (single photon emission tomography - SPECT, SPECTcomputed tomography - SPECT-CT and MRI (whole body MRI, diffusion MRI, make it possible the diagnostic potential of both methods will result in a further improvement in bone metastasis detection.

  12. Evaluation of 3M™ Molecular Detection Assay (MDA) Listeria for the Detection of Listeria species in Selected Foods and Environmental Surfaces: Collaborative Study, First Action 2014.06.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Patrick; Flannery, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Monteroso, Lisa; Benesh, DeAnn

    2015-01-01

    The 3M™ Molecular Detection Assay (MDA) Listeria is used with the 3M Molecular Detection System for the detection of Listeria species in food, food-related, and environmental samples after enrichment. The assay utilizes loop-mediated isothermal amplification to rapidly amplify Listeria target DNA with high specificity and sensitivity, combined with bioluminescence to detect the amplification. The 3M MDA Listeria method was evaluated using an unpaired study design in a multilaboratory collaborative study and compared to the AOAC Official Method of AnalysisSM (OMA) 993.12 Listeria monocytogenes in Milk and Dairy Products reference method for the detection of Listeria species in full-fat (4% milk fat) cottage cheese (25 g test portions). A total of 15 laboratories located in the continental United States and Canada participated. Each matrix had three inoculation levels: an uninoculated control level (0 CFU/test portion), and two levels artificially contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes, a low inoculum level (0.2-2 CFU/test portion) and a high inoculum level (2-5 CFU/test portion) using nonheat-stressed cells. In total, 792 unpaired replicate portions were analyzed. Statistical analysis was conducted according to the probability of detection (POD) model. Results obtained for the low inoculum level test portions produced a difference in cross-laboratory POD value of -0.07 with a 95% confidence interval of (-0.19, 0.06). No statistically significant differences were observed in the number of positive samples detected by the 3M MDA Listeria method versus the AOAC OMA method.

  13. Association Between Screen-Detected Gallstone Disease and Cancer in a Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge of temporal associations between screen-detected gallstone disease and specific cancers is limited. The objective of this study was to determine if screen-detected gallstones or cholecystectomy are associated with occurrence of gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal cancers. We performed a cohort study of 3 randomly selected groups from the general population of Copenhagen. Participants (N = 5928) were examined from 1982 through 1992 and underwent abdominal ultrasound examination to detect gallstone disease, but were not informed of their gallstone status. Participants were followed for the occurrence of cancers through national registers until December 2014. We performed multivariable Cox regression analyses to identify factors associated with development of cancer. Gallstone disease was identified in 10% of participants (591 of 5928); of these, 6.8% had gallstones and 3.2% had cholecystectomy at baseline. The population was followed for a median of 24.7 years (interquartile range, 18.9-32.4 years) with 1% lost. Pooled gastrointestinal cancers were associated with gallstone disease (11.2% of patients with gallstone disease vs 6.64% without; hazard ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.01). Right-side colon cancer was also associated with gallstone disease (2.57% of patients with gallstone disease vs 0.96% without; hazard ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.78). Pancreatic, esophageal, gastric, pooled colorectal, left-side colon, sigmoid colon, and rectal cancers were not associated with gallstone disease. Breast cancer had a weak association with gallstone disease depending on other factors (10.6% of patients with gallstone disease vs 7.41% without; hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-2.11). Pooled nongastrointestinal and prostate cancers were not associated with gallstone disease. Screen-detected gallstone disease in the general population is associated with pooled gastrointestinal and right-side colon cancers. These

  14. A Comprehensive Simulation Study of a Liquid-Xe Detector for Contraband Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Israelashvili, I; Vartsky, D; Arazi, L; Bar, D; Caspi, E N; Breskin, A

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new detector concept, for combined imaging and spectroscopy of fast-neutrons and gamma was presented. It encompasses a liquid-xenon (LXe) converter-scintillator coupled to a UV-sensitive gaseous Thick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM)-based imaging photomultiplier (GPM). In this work we present and discuss the results of a systematic computer-simulation study aiming at optimizing the type and performance of LXe converter. We have evaluated the detector spectral response, detection efficiency and spatial resolution for gamma-rays and neutrons in the energy range of 2-15 MeV for 50 mm thick converters consisting of plain LXe volume and LXe-filled capillaries, of Teflon, Polyethylene or hydrogen-containing Teflon (Tefzel). Neutron detection efficiencies for plain LXe, Teflon-capillaries and Tefzel-capillaries converters were about 20% over the entire energy range. In polyethylene capillaries converters the neutron detection efficiency was about 10% at 2 MeV and increased up to about 20% at 14 MeV. Dete...

  15. A comparative study of four significance measures for periodicity detection in astronomical surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Süveges, Maria; Eyer, Laurent; Cuypers, Jan; Holl, Berry; Lecoeur-Taïbi, Isabelle; Mowlavi, Nami; Nienartowicz, Krzysztof; Blanco, Diego Ordóñez; Rimoldini, Lorenzo; Ruiz, Idoia

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of periodicity detection in massive data sets of photometric or radial velocity time series, as presented by ESA's Gaia mission. Periodicity detection hinges on the estimation of the false alarm probability (FAP) of the extremum of the periodogram of the time series. We consider the problem of its estimation with two main issues in mind. First, for a given number of observations and signal-to-noise ratio, the rate of correct periodicity detections should be constant for all realized cadences of observations regardless of the observational time patterns, in order to avoid sky biases that are difficult to assess. Second, the computational loads should be kept feasible even for millions of time series. Using the Gaia case, we compare the $F^M$ method (Paltani 2004, Schwarzenberg-Czerny 2012), the Baluev method (Baluev 2008) and the GEV method (S\\"uveges 2014), as well as a method for the direct estimation of a threshold. Three methods involve some unknown parameters, which are obtained by fi...

  16. Role of computer aided detection (CAD) integration: case study with meniscal and articular cartilage CAD applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Nabile; Ramakrishna, Bharath; Saiprasad, Ganesh; Siddiqui, Khan; Siegel, Eliot

    2008-03-01

    Knee-related injuries involving the meniscal or articular cartilage are common and require accurate diagnosis and surgical intervention when appropriate. With proper techniques and experience, confidence in detection of meniscal tears and articular cartilage abnormalities can be quite high. However, for radiologists without musculoskeletal training, diagnosis of such abnormalities can be challenging. In this paper, the potential of improving diagnosis through integration of computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithms for automatic detection of meniscal tears and articular cartilage injuries of the knees is studied. An integrated approach in which the results of algorithms evaluating either meniscal tears or articular cartilage injuries provide feedback to each other is believed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of the individual CAD algorithms due to the known association between abnormalities in these distinct anatomic structures. The correlation between meniscal tears and articular cartilage injuries is exploited to improve the final diagnostic results of the individual algorithms. Preliminary results from the integrated application are encouraging and more comprehensive tests are being planned.

  17. Secondary caries detection by DIAGNOdent and radiography: a comparative in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamzahim, Mohammad; Shi, Xie-Qi; Angmar-Månsson, Birgit

    2004-02-01

    DIAGNOdent is now well documented for detection of primary occlusal caries, but not as yet for secondary caries. The aim of this study was to investigate the application of DIAGNOdent for in vitro detection of secondary caries. The material comprised 66 extracted teeth: 48 with amalgam restorations and 18 with tooth-colored restorations. Digital images of occlusal surfaces were captured for each specimen. The teeth were mounted in groups of 3 or 4 in plaster blocks simulating their anatomical positions. Bitewing radiographs of each block were assessed for secondary caries by 5 observers. The margins of each restoration were carefully scanned with DIAGNOdent; the site of the highest reading was localized in digital images; and the corresponding values were registered. Marginal integrity and staining were also documented. The restorations were then removed and the teeth were hemi-sectioned. For verification, two observers working together examined all the cavities under a stereomicroscope at 16 x magnification followed by probing. Sensitivity and specificity for DIAGNOdent and conventional radiography were 0.77/0.81 and 0.65/0.81, respectively. Regarding ROC analyses, the Az values were 0.89 and 0.72 for DIAGNOdent and radiography. For DIAGNOdent, the false-positive fraction included only stained teeth. Cohen's kappa statistics disclosed moderate agreement between the 2 methods, with an agreement of 56%. DIAGNOdent tended to give more positive diagnoses than bitewing radiography. The results indicate that DIAGNOdent may be a helpful tool for detecting secondary caries.

  18. [Study on wavelength locking technology in trace gases detection system based on laser techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-ming; Zhang, Yu-jun; He, Ying; You, Kun; Liu, Jian-guo; Liu, Wen-qing

    2012-04-01

    In the trace gases detection system with tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology, the measurement of trace gases concentration was influenced by the laser wavelength drift resulting from the change in ambient temperature and noise of laser control electronics. With open-path TDLAS ammonia concentration detection system as an example, in the present paper the scanning law of laser center wavelength with current was analyzed, and the adaptive locking method of scanning laser center wavelength was presented based on controlling laser current. The aligning algorithm of measurement spectroscopy with calibration reference spectroscopy was studied. The open-path ammonia concentration was achieved in real time. Experiment results show that the precision and the stability of retrieving the concentration of trace gases were improved satisfactorily by wavelength locking. The variation of ammonia concentration has an obvious diurnal periodicity, which increased in rush hour time and got to the maximum at noon, then decreased at night. The system detection limit is about 3.8 mg x m(-3) x m.

  19. Preliminary study for the detection of neutrons in heavy-ion collisions with charged particle detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auditore L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS the CHIMERA 4π multidetector has been designed and setup to detect charged particles emitted in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. Properties and performances of CHIMERA have been widely demonstrated by published results obtained in the performed experiments. Moreover, in recent years, a new charged particle detector (ChPD for correlation studies (FARCOS has been designed, and recently a first prototype has been coupled to CHIMERA, in order to test performances in view of correlation measurements in coincidence with 4π detectors. Simultaneous neutrons and charged particles detection in heavy ion collisions represents an important experimental progress for future experiments to be performed with both stable and exotic nuclei. In order to investigate about this possibility, simple Monte Carlo simulations have been performed. Preliminary simulations have been carried out by means of MCNPX transport code to evaluate the perturbation effects, including cross-talk and time response, induced in CHIMERA and/or FARCOS Si-CsI(Tl telescopes on (typical 20MeV neutron signals coming froma typical reaction in heavy ion collisions at the Fermi energy. Moreover, first data analysis results of the INKIISSY experiment indicates sizable probability to detect neutrons by properly shadowing CHIMERA Si-CsI(Tl telescopes. Analysis is still in progress.

  20. LAMP for human African trypanosomiasis: a comparative study of detection formats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally L Wastling

    Full Text Available Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP is at the forefront of the search for innovative diagnostics for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT. Several simple endpoint detection methods have been developed for LAMP and here we compare four of these: (i visualization of turbidity; (ii addition of hydroxynaphthol blue before incubation; (iii addition of calcein with MnCl₂ before incubation and (iv addition of Quant-iT PicoGreen after incubation. These four methods were applied to four LAMP assays for the detection of human African trypanosomiasis, including two Trypanozoon specific and two Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense specific reactions using DNA extracted from cryo-preserved procyclic form T. b. rhodesiense. A multi-observer study was performed to assess inter-observer reliability of two of these methods: hydroxynapthol blue and calcein with MnCl₂, using DNA prepared from blood samples stored on Whatman FTA cards. Results showed that hydroxynaphthol blue was the best of the compared methods for easy, inexpensive, accurate and reliable interpretation of LAMP assays for HAT. Hydroxynapthol blue generates a violet to sky blue colour change that was easy to see and was consistently interpreted by independent observers. Visible turbidity detection is not possible for all currently available HAT LAMP reactions; Quant-iT PicoGreen is expensive and addition of calcein with MnCl₂ adversely affects reaction sensitivity and was unpopular with several observers.

  1. Detection of helicobacter pylori in benign laryngeal lesions by polymerase chain reaction: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izadi Farzad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Helicobacter Pylori (HP was detected in some cases of chronic laryngitis, the results were not confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. By this time, it has not been found in laryngeal lesions by in house PCR, the most sensitive method for detecting the genome tracks. Regarding the previous results and also few numbers of studies about the presence of HP in benign laryngeal lesions, specifically by PCR, we aimed to investigate the presence of HP in benign laryngeal lesions by in-house PCR. Methods The samples were taken from 55 patients with benign laryngeal lesions and frozen in −20°C. One milliliter (ml of lysis buffer was added to 100 mg (mg of each sample and the tube was placed in 56°C overnight. Then DNA extraction was carried out. Results To find HP DNA, in-house PCR was performed that revealed 5 positive results among 55 patients with benign laryngeal lesions. Of them, 3 were polyp, 1 was nodule and 1 was papilloma. Conclusion Although the number of positive results was not a lot in this study, it was in contrast with previous studies which could not find any HP tracks in benign laryngeal lesions by other methods. More studies about the prevalence of HP in benign laryngeal lesions improve judging about the effect of this infection on benign laryngeal lesions.

  2. Studies of ground-state dynamics in isolated species by ionization-detected stimulated Raman techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)

    1993-12-01

    First, the author aims to develop methods of nonlinear Raman spectroscopy for application in studies of sparse samples. Second, the author wishes to apply such methods to structural and dynamical studies of species (molecules, complexes, and clusters) in supersonic molecular beams. In the past year, the author has made progress in several areas. The first pertains to the application of mass-selective ionization-detected stimulated Raman spectroscopies (IDSRS) to the size-specific vibrational spectroscopy of solute-solvent{sub n} clusters. The second involves the application of IDSRS methods to studies of jet-cooled benzene clusters. The third pertains to the use of IDSRS methods in the study of intermolecular vibrational transitions in van der Waals complexes.

  3. Comparative study of whole-body MRI and bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balliu, E., E-mail: eballiu@gmail.co [Department of Magnetic Resonance, IDI Girona, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain); Boada, M.; Pelaez, I. [Department of Magnetic Resonance, IDI Girona, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain); Vilanova, J.C. [Department of Magnetic Resonance, Clinica Girona - Hospital Sta Caterina, Girona (Spain); Barcelo-Vidal, C. [Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, University of Girona (Spain); Rubio, A.; Galofre, P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, IDI Girona, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain); Castro, A. [Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain); Pedraza, S. [Department of Magnetic Resonance, IDI Girona, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    Aim: To assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scintigraphy in the detection of metastases to bone. Material and methods: Forty randomly selected patients with known malignant tumours were prospectively studied using bone scintigraphy and whole-body MRI. Two patients were excluded. Symptoms of bone metastasis were present in 29 (76%) patients and absent in nine (24%). Findings were classified into four categories according to the probability of bone metastasis: (1) negative, (2) probably negative, (3) probably positive, and (4) positive. Diagnostic accuracy was determined according to the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The definitive diagnosis was reached using other imaging techniques, biopsy, or 12 months clinical follow-up. Results: Metastases were present in 18 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 94, 90, and 92%, respectively, for whole-body MRI and 72, 75, and 74%, respectively, for bone scintigraphy. Diagnostic accuracy measured by the area under the ROC curve was significantly higher for whole-body MRI (96%) than for bone scintigraphy (77%; p<0.05). Interobserver agreement measured by the kappa index was significantly higher for whole-body MRI (0.895) than for bone scintigraphy (0.524; p<0.05). Whole-body MRI detected lesions in tissues other than bone in 17 (45%) patients. Conclusions: Whole-body MRI is more accurate and more objective than bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases. Whole-body MRI can also detect lesions in tissues other than bone.

  4. Study on the detection of red-tide outbreaks using big satellite database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Young Baek; Eun, Yoon Joo; Park, Kyongseok; Lee, Sanghwan; Lee, Ryong; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Yoo, Sinjae

    2014-11-01

    Satellite remote sensing has been successfully employed to monitor and detect the increasing incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) under various water conditions. In this study, to establish a comprehensive monitoring system of HAB outbreaks (particularly Cochlodinium polykrikoides blooms) in the southern coast of Korea (SCK), we tested the several proposed red-tide detection methods using SeaWiFS and MODIS ocean color data. Temporal and spatial information of red tide events from 2002 to 2013 were obtained from the National Fisheries Research and Development of Korea (NFRDI), which were matched with synchronously obtained satellite-derived ocean color data. The spectral characteristics of C. polykrikoides red tides were that increased phytoplankton absorption at 443 nm and pigment backscattering 555 nm resulted in a steeper slope between 488 and 555 nm with a hinge point at 488 (or 490) nm. On the other hand, non-red tide water, typically were presented by broader radiance spectra between the blue and green bands were associated with reduced pigment absorption and backscattering. The analysis of ocean color imageries that captured C. polykrikoides red tide blooms showed discolored waters with enhanced pigment concentrations, high chlorophyll, fluorescence, absorption at 443 nm. However, most red tide detection algorithms found a large number of false positive but only a small number of true positive areas. These proposed algorithms are not useful to distinguish true red tide water from complex non-red tide water. Our proposed method substantially reduces the false signal rate (false positive) from strong absorption at short wavelengths and provide a more reliable and robust detection of C. polykrikoides blooms in the SCK from the space.

  5. Change Detection Accuracy and Image Properties: A Study Using Simulated Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Almutairi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Simulated data were used to investigate the relationships between image properties and change detection accuracy in a systematic manner. The image properties examined were class separability, radiometric normalization and image spectral band-to-band correlation. The change detection methods evaluated were post-classification comparison, direct classification of multidate imagery, image differencing, principal component analysis, and change vector analysis. The simulated data experiments showed that the relative accuracy of the change detection methods varied with changes in image properties, thus confirming the hypothesis that caution should be used in generalizing from studies that use only a single image pair. In most cases, direct classification and post-classification comparison were the least sensitive to changes in the image properties of class separability, radiometric normalization error and band correlation. Furthermore, these methods generally produced the highest accuracy, or were amongst those with a high accuracy. PCA accuracy was highly variable; the use of four principal components consistently resulted in substantial decreased classification accuracy relative to using six components, or classification using the original six bands. The accuracy of image differencing also varied greatly in the experiments. Of the three methods that require radiometric normalization, image differencing was the method most affected by radiometric error, relative to change vector and classification methods, for classes that have moderate and low separability. For classes that are highly separable, image differencing was relatively unaffected by radiometric normalization error. CVA was found to be the most accurate method for classes with low separability and all but the largest radiometric errors. CVA accuracy tended to be the least affected by changes in the degree of band correlation in situations where the class means were moderately dispersed, or

  6. Landslide detectability with coarse resolution imagery: a Sentinel-2 emulation study to access spectral landslide discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Bernardo; Mondini, Alessandro; Malamud, Bruce D.; Mihir, Monika; Drake, Nick

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we explore landslide detectability using a simulation of course resolution (10 m) remote sensing imagery. During the last decade the increasing availability of Very High Resolution (VHR) imagery has significantly improved accuracies obtained by change detection classification algorithms. Still, one of the disadvantages is a spatial-temporal compromise, in that the VHR imagery is generally not taken frequently over the same region. The planed optical sensor aboard the two Sentinel-2 satellites will potentially overcome this limitation, as the sensor will be able to supply coarse resolution images (10 m) with a revisiting period of 5 days at the equator. This will potentially allow for quick assessments after groups of landslides are triggered (e.g., by an earthquake or heavy rainfall) anywhere in the world, soon after the landslides occurs. The scope of this study is to analyse the potential limitations supplied by this imagery for landslide detection. For the study, pre and post Sentinel-2 images were emulated by downgrading two Quickbird satellite images, taken on 2 September 2006 and on 8 October 2009, over the Messina province in Sicily, Italy, where on 1 October 2009 a rainfall storm triggered landslides, soil erosion and inundation. Spectral information, based on change detection indexes (NDVI difference, principal component analysis and spectral angle), were extracted for the stable and unstable areas according to an independent landslide inventory. The inventory was derived by aerial photo interpretation prepared at 1:10,000 scale covering three catchments with a total area of 15 km2 and characterized by soil slips and debris flows affecting 7.9% of the area. Stable and unstable spectral discrimination was determined by analysing their separability, and imposing different areal thresholds between stable and unstable areas, for both mass source and debris flow landslide types. Preliminary results show good agreement between the original and

  7. Early detection of breast cancer using total biochemical analysis of peripheral blood components: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelig, Udi; Barlev, Eyal; Bar, Omri; Gross, Itai; Flomen, Felix; Mordechai, Shaul; Kapelushnik, Joseph; Nathan, Ilana; Kashtan, Hanoch; Wasserberg, Nir; Madhala-Givon, Osnat

    2015-05-15

    Most of the blood tests aiming for breast cancer screening rely on quantification of a single or few biomarkers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of detecting breast cancer by analyzing the total biochemical composition of plasma as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using infrared spectroscopy. Blood was collected from 29 patients with confirmed breast cancer and 30 controls with benign or no breast tumors, undergoing screening for breast cancer. PBMCs and plasma were isolated and dried on a zinc selenide slide and measured under a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscope to obtain their infrared absorption spectra. Differences in the spectra of PBMCs and plasma between the groups were analyzed as well as the specific influence of the relevant pathological characteristics of the cancer patients. Several bands in the FTIR spectra of both blood components significantly distinguished patients with and without cancer. Employing feature extraction with quadratic discriminant analysis, a sensitivity of ~90 % and a specificity of ~80 % for breast cancer detection was achieved. These results were confirmed by Monte Carlo cross-validation. Further analysis of the cancer group revealed an influence of several clinical parameters, such as the involvement of lymph nodes, on the infrared spectra, with each blood component affected by different parameters. The present preliminary study suggests that FTIR spectroscopy of PBMCs and plasma is a potentially feasible and efficient tool for the early detection of breast neoplasms. An important application of our study is the distinction between benign lesions (considered as part of the non-cancer group) and malignant tumors thus reducing false positive results at screening. Furthermore, the correlation of specific spectral changes with clinical parameters of cancer patients indicates for possible contribution to diagnosis and prognosis.

  8. Numerical Study of Plasmonic Efficiency of Gold Nanostripes for Molecule Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Grosges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In plasmonics, the accurate computation of the electromagnetic field enhancement is necessary in determining the amplitude and the spatial extension of the field around nanostructures. Here, the problem of the interaction between an electromagnetic excitation and gold nanostripes is solved. An optimization scheme, including an adaptive remeshing process with error estimator, is used to solve the problem through a finite element method. The variations of the electromagnetic field amplitude and the plasmonic active zones around nanostructures for molecule detection are studied in this paper taking into account the physical and geometrical parameters of the nanostripes. The evolution between the sizes and number of nanostripes is shown.

  9. A high-rate detection system to study parity violation with polarized epithermal neutrons at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudson, J.N.; Bowman, J.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Crawford, B.E. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    We describe an apparatus for studies of parity violation in neutron-nucleus scattering. This experiment requires longitudinally polarized neutrons from the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center over the energy-range from 1 to 1000 eV, the ability to reverse the neutron spin without otherwise affecting the apparatus, the ability to detect neutrons at rates up to 500 MHz, and an appropriate data acquisition system. We will discuss the neutron polarizer, fast neutron spin reverser, detector for transmitted neutrons, and high rate data acquisition system.

  10. Detection of Fraud in Financial Statements: French Companies as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ines Amara; Anis Ben Amar; Anis Jarboui

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to test the impact of the "Fraud Triangle" elements on the detection of fraud in the financial statements. The data used in our empirical research are related to a sample of 80 French companies in the SBF 250 over the period 2001 to 2009. Using the method of logistic regression, this study shows that the performance issue exerted on the manager is a factor of pressure leading to commit fraud in the financial statements. However, factors related to financial d...

  11. Stream computing for biomedical signal processing: A QRS complex detection case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B M; O'Driscoll, C; Boylan, G B; Lightbody, G; Marnane, W P

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in "Big Data" have brought significant gains in the ability to process large amounts of data on commodity server hardware. Stream computing is a relatively new paradigm in this area, addressing the need to process data in real time with very low latency. While this approach has been developed for dealing with large scale data from the world of business, security and finance, there is a natural overlap with clinical needs for physiological signal processing. In this work we present a case study of streams processing applied to a typical physiological signal processing problem: QRS detection from ECG data.

  12. Quantitative determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish using prechromatography oxidation and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection: interlaboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawrence, J.F.; Niedzwiadek, B.; Menard, C.; Wezenbeek, P.

    2004-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was conducted for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in shellfish. The method used liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after prechromatographic oxidation of the toxins with hydrogen peroxide and periodate. The PSP toxins studied

  13. Enhanced detection and study of murine norovirus-1 using a more efficient microglial cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yuanan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Noroviruses are the predominant cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. To facilitate prevention and control, a norovirus isolated from mice can provide a model to understand human noroviruses. To establish optimal viral infectivity conditions for murine noroviruses, several cell lines of hematopoietic lineage, including murine BV-2, RAW 264.7, and TIB, as well as human CHME-5, were tested comparatively for their sensitivity to murine norovirus-1. Results Except for CHME-5, all three murine-derived cell lines were susceptible to MNV infection. Viral infection of these cells was confirmed by RT-PCR. Using both viral plaque and replication assays, BV-2 and RAW 264.7 cells were determined to have comparable sensitivities to MNV-1 infection. Comparisons of cell growth characteristics, general laboratory handling and potential in-field applications suggest the use of BV-2 to be more advantageous. Conclusion Results obtained from these studies demonstrate that an immortalized microglial cell line can support MNV-1 replication and provides a more efficient method to detect and study murine noroviruses, facilitating future investigations using MNV-1 as a model to study, detect, and control Human Norovirus.

  14. Study of time-reversal-based signal processing applied to polarimetric GPR detection of elongated targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Vinicius Rafael N.; Teixeira, Fernando L.

    2017-04-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a useful sensing modality for mapping and identification of underground infrastructure networks, such as metal and concrete pipes (gas, water or sewer), phone conduits or cables, and other buried objects. Due to the polarization-dependent response of typical targets, it is of interest to investigate the optimum antenna arrangement and/or combination of arrangements that maximize the detection and classification capabilities of polarimetric GPR imaging systems. Here, we provide a preliminary study of time-reversal-based techniques applied to target detection by GPR utilizing different relative orientations of linear-polarized antenna elements (with respect to each other, as well as to the targets). We modeled three different pipe materials (metallic, plastic and concrete) and GPR systems operating at center frequencies of 100 MHz and 200 MHz. Full-wave numerical simulations are adopted to account for mutual coupling between targets. This type of assessment study may contribute to the improvement of GPR data interpretation of infrastructure networks in urban area surveys and in other engineering studies.

  15. Study on the performance of data fusion system for sonar signal detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Ming; WANG Zhao; LI Hong; ZHAO Junwei; GONG Xianyi

    2000-01-01

    The mathematical model and fusion algorithm for multisensor data fusion are presented, and applied to integrate the decisions obtained by multiple sonars in a distributed detection system. Assuming that all the sonars and the fusion system operate at the same false alarm probability, the expression for the detection probability of the fusion system is obtained.Computer simulations reveals that the detection probability and detection range of the fusion system are significantly improved compared to the original distributed detection system.

  16. Study for Reactor Monitoring using Anti-neutrino Detection in the Neos experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bo Young; Sun, Gwang Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Eun Ju [ISB, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-05-15

    In this study we describe a feasibility study of reactor monitoring using antineutrino detection in the Neutrino Experiment for Oscillation at Short baseline (NEOS) at Hanbit power plant. Recently, in the perspective of nonproliferation issues and misuse of nuclear energy as a fast-growing nuclear energy industry, the application of anti-neutrino measurement has been proposed and the feasibility studies has been carried out as a novel technology for monitoring the burning process of nuclear power reactor. The NEOS detector with 1000 L Gd-doped liquid scintillator was installed in tendon gallery at Hanbit power station unit 5 and has been collecting close to 2000 IBD events per day with the signal to noise ratio of ∼ 20. As a preliminary result, we demonstrate the possibility of monitoring nuclear power reactor with the IBD counting rate during reactor power ON, ramping up, and OFF.

  17. Comparative Study on the Different Testing Techniques in Tree Classification for Detecting the Learning Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliane, C.; Arman, A. A.; Sastramihardja, H. S.; Supriana, I.

    2017-03-01

    Having motivation to learn is a successful requirement in a learning process, and needs to be maintained properly. This study aims to measure learning motivation, especially in the process of electronic learning (e-learning). Here, data mining approach was chosen as a research method. For the testing process, the accuracy comparative study on the different testing techniques was conducted, involving Cross Validation and Percentage Split. The best accuracy was generated by J48 algorithm with a percentage split technique reaching at 92.19 %. This study provided an overview on how to detect the presence of learning motivation in the context of e-learning. It is expected to be good contribution for education, and to warn the teachers for whom they have to provide motivation.

  18. When performance management works: a study of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroff, Amy; Royalty, Janet E; Howe, Will; Buckman, Dennis W; Gardner, James; Poister, Theodore; Hayes, Nikki

    2014-08-15

    Little empirical evidence exists about the effectiveness of performance management systems in government. This study assessed the effectiveness of the performance management system of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) and explored why it works. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess change in program performance after the implementation of a performance management system. In addition, qualitative case study data including observations, interviews, and document review were analyzed using inductive methods. Five of the 7 indicators tested had statistically significant increases in performance postimplementation. Case study results suggest that the system is characterized by high-quality data, measures viewed by grantees as meaningful and fair, and institutionalized data use. Several factors help to explain the system's effectiveness including characteristics of the NBCCEDP program (eg, service delivery program), qualities of the indicators (eg, process level), financial investment in the system, and a culture of data use. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  19. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensik, Fred; Rapp, Shawn; Ross, Doug

    2004-08-01

    The 2003 fish collection season at Lower Granite Dam Juvenile Fish Facility (LGR) was characterized by water temperatures, total flows and spill that were below the five year average, low levels of debris, and increased smolt collection numbers compared to 2002 with the exception of unclipped sockeye/kokanee. There were 6,183,825 juvenile salmonids collected. Of these, 6,054,167 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 5,957,885 by barge and 96,282 by truck. An additional 102,340 fish were bypassed back to the river, primarily due to research projects with another 62,122 bypassed through the PIT-tag bypass system. According to the PTAGIS database, 152,268 PIT-tagged fish were detected at Lower Granite Dam. Of these, Smolt Monitoring Staff recorded 345 PIT-tagged raceway and sample mortalities. Of the 6,183,825 total fish collected, 113,290 were PIT-tagged or radio tagged and 380 were sacrificed by researchers. The collection included 836,885 fish that had hatchery marks other than clipped fins (elastomer, freeze brands or Coded Wire Tags). An estimated 54,857 incidental fish were collected with an additional 8,730 adult salmonids removed from the separator.

  20. Effectiveness of reactive case detection for malaria elimination in three archetypical transmission settings: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardin, Jaline; Bever, Caitlin A; Bridenbecker, Daniel; Hamainza, Busiku; Silumbe, Kafula; Miller, John M; Eisele, Thomas P; Eckhoff, Philip A; Wenger, Edward A

    2017-06-12

    Reactive case detection could be a powerful tool in malaria elimination, as it selectively targets transmission pockets. However, field operations have yet to demonstrate under which conditions, if any, reactive case detection is best poised to push a region to elimination. This study uses mathematical modelling to assess how baseline transmission intensity and local interconnectedness affect the impact of reactive activities in the context of other possible intervention packages. Communities in Southern Province, Zambia, where elimination operations are currently underway, were used as representatives of three archetypes of malaria transmission: low-transmission, high household density; high-transmission, low household density; and high-transmission, high household density. Transmission at the spatially-connected household level was simulated with a dynamical model of malaria transmission, and local variation in vectorial capacity and intervention coverage were parameterized according to data collected from the area. Various potential intervention packages were imposed on each of the archetypical settings and the resulting likelihoods of elimination by the end of 2020 were compared. Simulations predict that success of elimination campaigns in both low- and high-transmission areas is strongly dependent on stemming the flow of imported infections, underscoring the need for regional-scale strategies capable of reducing transmission concurrently across many connected areas. In historically low-transmission areas, treatment of clinical malaria should form the cornerstone of elimination operations, as most malaria infections in these areas are symptomatic and onward transmission would be mitigated through health system strengthening; reactive case detection has minimal impact in these settings. In historically high-transmission areas, vector control and case management are crucial for limiting outbreak size, and the asymptomatic reservoir must be addressed through

  1. Novel portable platform for molecular detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in faeces: a diagnostic accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, J J; Matero, P; Siebert, C; Kauppila, J; Vuento, R; Tuokko, H; Boisset, S

    2017-05-01

    A novel portable platform for nucleic acid amplification enables rapid detection of diarrhoea causing toxigenic Clostridium difficile directly from faeces, even in resource-limited settings. We evaluated the accuracy and precision of the new commercial molecular test system. One thousand one hundred and sixty faecal samples from patients suspected of having Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) were analysed using the Orion GenRead C. difficile test system (Orion Diagnostica Oy, Espoo, Finland) and comparative methods in three teaching hospital laboratories in Finland and France. The precision of the Orion GenRead C. difficile test system was evaluated in a reproducibility study with a set of blind-coded samples. The test system is based on a new isothermal amplification technology (Strand Invasion Based Amplification, SIBA®) and detection of the tcdB gene of C. difficile. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and the overall agreement according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. The overall agreement of the Orion GenRead C. difficile test when compared to the comparative methods in routine use in the participating laboratories was between 96.7% and 98.8%. In the reproducibility study; the total percent agreement between three laboratories was 99.8%. The identification of toxigenic C. difficile from faeces with the light-weight portable Orion GenRead test system was highly sensitive and specific, and the results were reproducible in the participating laboratories. This platform could enable fast and accurate molecular pathogen detection even in resource-limited or point-of-care settings.

  2. A comparative study of cultural methods for the detection of Salmonella in feed and feed ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haggblom Per

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal feed as a source of infection to food producing animals is much debated. In order to increase our present knowledge about possible feed transmission it is important to know that the present isolation methods for Salmonella are reliable also for feed materials. In a comparative study the ability of the standard method used for isolation of Salmonella in feed in the Nordic countries, the NMKL71 method (Nordic Committee on Food Analysis was compared to the Modified Semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis method (MSRV and the international standard method (EN ISO 6579:2002. Five different feed materials were investigated, namely wheat grain, soybean meal, rape seed meal, palm kernel meal, pellets of pig feed and also scrapings from a feed mill elevator. Four different levels of the Salmonella serotypes S. Typhimurium, S. Cubana and S. Yoruba were added to each feed material, respectively. For all methods pre-enrichment in Buffered Peptone Water (BPW were carried out followed by enrichments in the different selective media and finally plating on selective agar media. Results The results obtained with all three methods showed no differences in detection levels, with an accuracy and sensitivity of 65% and 56%, respectively. However, Müller-Kauffmann tetrathionate-novobiocin broth (MKTTn, performed less well due to many false-negative results on Brilliant Green agar (BGA plates. Compared to other feed materials palm kernel meal showed a higher detection level with all serotypes and methods tested. Conclusion The results of this study showed that the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the investigated cultural methods were equivalent. However, the detection levels for different feed and feed ingredients varied considerably.

  3. Detection of Dental Pathologies in Routine Paranasal CT Scans: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbul, Erdogan; Yanik, Bahar; Demirpolat, Gulen

    2017-07-01

    Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) is a widespread method for evaluating paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity in daily practice. The maxillary teeth are in field of view in a paranasal sinus CT scan and it is possible to detect dental pathologies with CT. To determine the incidence of maxillary teeth pathologies in routine paranasal sinus CT scans. A retrospective study was conducted. Consecutive 395 paranasal sinus CT scans were evaluated. All CT images were obtained with a 64 detector-CT. Patients with previous facial trauma, operation, invasive tumors and repeated exams were excluded. Detected findings were classified as "tooth loss, dental restorations or procedures and dental pathologies (carious lesions, dental developmental anomalies, periapical lesions and periodontal diseases). The proportion of findings was reported as simple percentiles. Three hundred and eighty-four CT scans were included in the study. Dental restorations or procedures were determined in 129 (33.5%) patients. A total of 34 (8.8%) patients had normal teeth count and morphology. A total of 264 (64.3%) patients had at least one tooth loss. A total of 195 (51%) patients had at least one or more dental pathology. Number of dental carious lesions, dental developmental anomalies, periapical lesions and periodontal disease were 104 (27.0%), 78 (14.3%), 46 (11.9%), 44 (11.4%), respectively. Dental pathologies were encountered in more than half of the patients. Detecting dental pathologies may prevent tooth loss and improve oral health. The radiologist should keep in mind dental pathologies while evaluating paranasal sinus CT in daily practice.

  4. Data Mining in Intrusion Detection: A Comparative Study of Methods, Types and Data Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar Azad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the era of information and communication technology, Security is an important issue. A lot of effort and finance are being invested in this sector. Intrusion detection is one of the most prominent fields in this area. Data mining in network intrusion detection can automate the network intrusion detection field with a greater efficiency. This paper presents a literature survey on intrusion detection system. The research papers taken in this literature survey are published from 2000 to 2012. We can see that almost 67 % of the research papers are focused on anomaly detection, 23 % on both anomaly and misuse detection and 10 % on misuse detection. In this literature survey statistics shows that 42 % KDD cup dataset, 20 % DARPA dataset and 38 % other datasets are used by the different researchers for testing the effectiveness of their proposed method for misuse detection, anomaly detection or both.

  5. DETECTION OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES BY AN ANTHROPOMETRIC SURROGATE MEASURE: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Birth weight is an indicator of both neonatal morbidity and mortality, maternal health, nutrition and quality of antenatal services. OBJECTIVE: To find out important anthropometric parameter(s in the newborn as related to birth weight so that newborns with low birth weight can be identified. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective cross sectional, analytical, hospital based study was conducted at Amritsar on 200 term low birth weight newborn babies(<2.5 kg born during a period of 10 months and their various anthropometric measurements (HC, CC, MAC, TC, CFC were taken according to standard techniques. RESULTS: The study showed a strong correlation (p <0.001 between mid-arm circumference (r=0.834 and birth weight, followed by head circumference (r=0.816 and birth weight. Other parameters were also strongly correlated (p < 0.001. A value of <9.2 cm and <7.6 cm for mid-arm circumference showed highest validity for picking up newborns weighing <2500 gm and <2000 gm respectively. CONCLUSION: Measurement of arm circumference is easier, convenient and statistically superior to other anthropometrical parameters in detection of low birth weight newborn babies. The researchers recommend designing of a simple 'Tri-colored tape' for early detection of 'At Risk' LBW newborns in rural communities for their timely management.

  6. Comparative Study of Contour Detection Evaluation Criteria Based on Dissimilarity Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Emile

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We present in this article a comparative study of well-known supervised evaluation criteria that enable the quantification of the quality of contour detection algorithms. The tested criteria are often used or combined in the literature to create new ones. Though these criteria are classical ones, none comparison has been made, on a large amount of data, to understand their relative behaviors. The objective of this article is to overcome this lack using large test databases both in a synthetic and a real context allowing a comparison in various situations and application fields and consequently to start a general comparison which could be extended by any person interested in this topic. After a review of the most common criteria used for the quantification of the quality of contour detection algorithms, their respective performances are presented using synthetic segmentation results in order to show their performance relevance face to undersegmentation, oversegmentation, or situations combining these two perturbations. These criteria are then tested on natural images in order to process the diversity of the possible encountered situations. The used databases and the following study can constitute the ground works for any researcher who wants to confront a new criterion face to well-known ones.

  7. Detection of cognitive impairment and dementia using the animal fluency test: the DECIDE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaldt, Rolf; Dalziel, William; Massoud, Fadi; Tanguay, André; Ward, Rick; Thabane, Lehana; Melnyk, Peter; Landry, Pierre-Alexandre; Lescrauwaet, Benedicte

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the performance of a one-minute screening test measured against a validated 10-minute screening test for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in detecting CI in patients aged > or = 65 years with two or more vascular risk factors (VRF). Patients (n=1523) aged 65 years or older without documented CI symptoms or dementia with two or more VRF participated in this study set in Canadian primary care practice. Baseline data was collected, followed by the 1-minute animal fluency (AF) test and the 10-minute Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Physicians (n=122) completed case reports during patient interviews and reported their diagnostic impression. AF test sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in predicting a positive MoCA was assessed. Study sample mean age was 79.7 years, 55% were female, 97.6% were Caucasian and 75% had accuracy in predicting a positive MoCA of 67 percent each. Physicians diagnostic impression of MCI was reported for 37% of patients, and of dementia for 6%. In an elderly population with at least two VRF, using AF can be useful in detecting previously unknown symptoms of CI or dementia. Screening for CI in this high risk population is warranted to assist physician recognition of early CI. The short AF administration time favours its incorporation into clinical practice.

  8. Analytical study of the performance of a geomembrane leak detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugli, Francesco; Mahler, Claudio Fernando

    2016-05-01

    The electrical detection of leaks in geomembranes is a method that allows identifying leakage of contaminants in lined facilities (e.g. sanitary landfills, pollutant ponds, etc.). The procedure in the field involves placing electrodes above and below the geomembrane, to generate an electrical current, which in turn engenders an electric potential distribution in the protective layer (generally a clayey soil). The electric potential will be greater in areas with higher current density, i.e. near leaks. In this study, we combined models from the literature to carry out a parametric analysis to identify the variables that most influence the amplitude of the electrical signals produced by leaks. The basic hypothesis is that the electrical conduction phenomena in a liner system could be depicted by a direct current circuit. After determining the value of the current at the leak, we calculated the electric potential distribution according to the model of Darilek and Laine. This enabled analysing the sensitivity of the parameters, which can be useful in the design of landfills and facilitate the location of leaks. This study showed that geomembranes with low electrical resistance (owing to low thickness, low resistivity, or extensive area) can hinder the leak detection process. In contrast, low thickness and high resistivity of the protection layer magnify the leak signal.

  9. A Feasibility Study on Detection of Insider Threats based on Human Bio-signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Young A; Yim, Man-Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The insider threat means that trusted workers in an organization might carry out harmful acts from the negligent use of classified data to potentially sabotage the workplace. Surveys and studies conducted over the last decade have consistently shown the critical nature of the insider threats problem, in both government and private sectors. The shortcomings of existing systems, such as mental self-assessment and peer review, are very subjective, biased-assessments and employed infrequently. To overcome these limitations, this study investigates the feasibility of detecting and predicting an insider threat by using human biodata, from smart wearable devices. This paper showed the feasibility of predicting and detecting insider threats using EEG, GSR and ECG signals. In the section 2.1, two research hypotheses were established to identify the significant difference on EEG, GSR and ECG signals when the subject decided bad action and is the placed in deceit situation. These hypotheses were tested using two kinds of pilot experiments in the form of input (stimulus) and output (checking response of physiological signals and reaction time)

  10. Real time deforestation detection using ann and satellite images the Amazon rainforest study case

    CERN Document Server

    Nunes Kehl, Thiago; Roberto Veronez, Maurício; Cesar Cazella, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    The foremost aim of the present study was the development of a tool to detect daily deforestation in the Amazon rainforest, using satellite images from the MODIS/TERRA sensor and Artificial Neural Networks. The developed tool provides parameterization of the configuration for the neural network training to enable us to select the best neural architecture to address the problem. The tool makes use of confusion matrices to determine the degree of success of the network. A spectrum-temporal analysis of the study area was done on 57 images from May 20 to July 15, 2003 using the trained neural network. The analysis enabled verification of quality of the implemented neural network classification and also aided in understanding the dynamics of deforestation in the Amazon rainforest, thereby highlighting the vast potential of neural networks for image classification. However, the complex task of detection of predatory actions at the beginning, i.e., generation of consistent alarms, instead of false alarms has not bee...

  11. Automatic detection of trustworthiness of the face: a visual mismatch negativity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács-Bálint, Z; Stefanics, G; Trunk, A; Hernádi, I

    2014-03-01

    Recognizing intentions of strangers from facial cues is crucial in everyday social interactions. Recent studies demonstrated enhanced event-related potential (ERP) responses to untrustworthy compared to trustworthy faces. The aim of the present study was to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of automatic processing of trustworthiness cues in a visual oddball paradigm in two consecutive experimental blocks. In one block, frequent trustworthy (p = 0.9) and rare untrustworthy face stimuli (p = 0.1) were briefly presented on a computer screen with each stimulus consisting of four peripherally positioned faces. In the other block stimuli were presented with reversed probabilities enabling the comparison of ERPs evoked by physically identical deviant and standard stimuli. To avoid attentional effects participants engaged in a central detection task. Analyses of deviant minus standard difference waveforms revealed that deviant untrustworthy but not trustworthy faces elicited the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) component. The present results indicate that adaptation occurred to repeated unattended trustworthy (but not untrustworthy) faces, i.e., an automatic expectation was elicited towards trustworthiness signals, which was violated by deviant untrustworthy faces. As an evolutionary adaptive mechanism, the observed fast detection of trustworthiness-related social facial cues may serve as the basis of conscious recognition of reliable partners.

  12. Study on the spectrophotometric detection of free fatty acids in palm oil utilizing enzymatic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeman, Nur Hidayah; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Jaafar; Yunus, Robiah; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar; Hajian, Reza

    2015-07-07

    In this paper, a comprehensive study has been made on the detection of free fatty acids (FFAs) in palm oil via an optical technique based on enzymatic aminolysis reactions. FFAs in crude palm oil (CPO) were converted into fatty hydroxamic acids (FHAs) in a biphasic lipid/aqueous medium in the presence of immobilized lipase. The colored compound formed after complexation between FHA and vanadium (V) ion solution was proportional to the FFA content in the CPO samples and was analyzed using a spectrophotometric method. In order to develop a rapid detection system, the parameters involved in the aminolysis process were studied. The utilization of immobilized lipase as catalyst during the aminolysis process offers simplicity in the product isolation and the possibility of conducting the process under extreme reaction conditions. A good agreement was found between the developed method using immobilized Thermomyces lanuginose lipase as catalyst for the aminolysis process and the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) standard titration method (R2 = 0.9453).

  13. Outlier detection by robust Mahalanobis distance in geological data obtained by INAA to provenance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose O. dos, E-mail: osmansantos@ig.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sergipe (IFS), Lagarto, SE (Brazil); Munita, Casimiro S., E-mail: camunita@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Soares, Emilio A.A., E-mail: easoares@ufan.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias

    2013-07-01

    The detection of outlier in geochemical studies is one of the main difficulties in the interpretation of dataset because they can disturb the statistical method. The search for outliers in geochemical studies is usually based in the Mahalanobis distance (MD), since points in multivariate space that are a distance larger the some predetermined values from center of the data are considered outliers. However, the MD is very sensitive to the presence of discrepant samples. Many robust estimators for location and covariance have been introduced in the literature, such as Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD) estimator. When MCD estimators are used to calculate the MD leads to the so-called Robust Mahalanobis Distance (RD). In this context, in this work RD was used to detect outliers in geological study of samples collected from confluence of Negro and Solimoes rivers. The purpose of this study was to study the contributions of the sediments deposited by the Solimoes and Negro rivers in the filling of the tectonic depressions at Parana do Ariau. For that 113 samples were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in which were determined the concentration of As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, U, Yb, Ta, Tb, Th and Zn. In the dataset was possible to construct the ellipse corresponding to robust Mahalanobis distance for each group of samples. The samples found outside of the tolerance ellipse were considered an outlier. The results showed that Robust Mahalanobis Distance was more appropriate for the identification of the outliers, once it is a more restrictive method. (author)

  14. Study on detection of coastal water environment of China by ocean color remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    authorized by NASA, USA to free receive SeaWiFS data from 16 September 1997.In the recent years, the local algorithms of atmospheric correction and inversion of ocean color have been developed for FY - 1C and SeaWiFS, to improve the accuracy of the measurement from satellites efficiently. The satellite data are being applied to monitor coastal water environment, such as the spatial distribution of chlorophyll, suspended material and yellow substance, red tide detection and coastal current study. The results sbow that the ocean color remote sensing has latent capacity in the detection of coastal water environment. In consideration of the update technique progress of ocean color remote sensing and its more important role in the detection of coastal water in the 2000s, some suggestions are set forth, which would be beneficial to the design of a cheaper but practical coastal water detection system for marine environment preservation.

  15. Detecting outlying studies in meta-regression models using a forward search algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, Dimitris; Moustaki, Irini; Wall, Melanie; Salanti, Georgia

    2017-06-01

    When considering data from many trials, it is likely that some of them present a markedly different intervention effect or exert an undue influence on the summary results. We develop a forward search algorithm for identifying outlying and influential studies in meta-analysis models. The forward search algorithm starts by fitting the hypothesized model to a small subset of likely outlier-free studies and proceeds by adding studies into the set one-by-one that are determined to be closest to the fitted model of the existing set. As each study is added to the set, plots of estimated parameters and measures of fit are monitored to identify outliers by sharp changes in the forward plots. We apply the proposed outlier detection method to two real data sets; a meta-analysis of 26 studies that examines the effect of writing-to-learn interventions on academic achievement adjusting for three possible effect modifiers, and a meta-analysis of 70 studies that compares a fluoride toothpaste treatment to placebo for preventing dental caries in children. A simple simulated example is used to illustrate the steps of the proposed methodology, and a small-scale simulation study is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Collaborative study of a qualitative TLC-method for detection of antioxidants (BHA, BHT, gallates and NDGA) in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldborg, Merethe

    1981-01-01

    -proposed method, and an official French method. After extraction, the compounds are detected by TLC. Being a qualitative method the probability of obtaining correct results is a measure of the goodness of the method, and the study examines the influence on the probability of the following 3 factors: type......A method for the qualitative detection of antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), the gallates and nordihydroguajaretic acid (NDGA) in bakery products and fat has been tested in a collaborative study. The method is similar to a IUPAC-method, an EEC...... of antioxidant, type of food, and concentration of antioxidant. From the study is was concluded that the method worked quite well for BHA, with a detection limit about 15 mg/kg, whereas it worked badly for BHT, the detection limit being higher than 30 mg/kg. For the gallates and NDGA the detection limit was 30...

  17. Applications of a single-molecule detection in early disease diagnosis and enzymatic reaction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiangwei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Various single-molecule techniques were utilized for ultra-sensitive early diagnosis of viral DNA and antigen and basic mechanism study of enzymatic reactions. DNA of human papilloma virus (HPV) served as the screening target in a flow system. Alexa Fluor 532 (AF532) labeled single-stranded DNA probes were hybridized to the target HPV-16 DNA in solution. The individual hybridized molecules were imaged with an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) in two ways. In the single-color mode, target molecules were detected via fluorescence from hybridized probes only. This system could detect HPV-16 DNA in the presence of human genomic DNA down to 0.7 copy/cell and had a linear dynamic range of over 6 orders of magnitude. In the dual-color mode, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was employed to achieve zero false-positive count. We also showed that DNA extracts from Pap test specimens did not interfere with the system. A surface-based method was used to improve the throughput of the flow system. HPV-16 DNA was hybridized to probes on a glass surface and detected with a total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscope. In the single-probe mode, the whole genome and target DNA were fluorescently labeled before hybridization, and the detection limit is similar to the flow system. In the dual-probe mode, a second probe was introduced. The linear dynamic range covers 1.44-7000 copies/cell, which is typical of early infection to near-cancer stages. The dual-probe method was tested with a crudely prepared sample. Even with reduced hybridization efficiency caused by the interference of cellular materials, we were still able to differentiate infected cells from healthy cells. Detection and quantification of viral antigen with a novel single-molecule immunosorbent assay (SMISA) was achieved. Antigen from human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1) was chosen to be the target in this study. The target was sandwiched between a monoclonal capture antibody and a

  18. A Study of Storage Ring Requirements for an Explosive Detection System Using NRA Method

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tai-Sen

    2005-01-01

    The technical feasibility of an explosives detection system based on the nuclear resonance absorption (NRA) of gamma rays in nitrogen-rich materials was demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1993 by using an RFQ proton accelerator and a tomographic imaging prototype.* The study is being continued recently to examine deployment of such an active interrogation system in realistic scenarios. The approach is to use a cyclotron and electron-cooling-equipped storage rings(s) to provide the high quality and high current proton beam needed in a practical application. In this work, we investigate the storage ring requirements for a variant of the airport luggage inspection system considered in the earlier LANL experiments. Estimations are carried out based on the required inspection throughput, the gamma ray yield, the proton beam emittance growth due to scattering with the photon-production target, beam current limit in the storage ring, and the electron cooling rate. Studies using scaling and reas...

  19. Theoretical study and calculation of the response of a fast neutron dosemeter based on track detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decossas, J.L.; Vareille, J.C.; Moliton, J.P.; Teyssier, J.L. (Limoges Univ., 87 (France). Lab. d' Electronique des Polymeres sous Faisceaux Ioniques)

    1983-01-01

    A fast neutron dosemeter is generally composed of a radiator in which n-p elastic scattering occurs and a detector which registers protons. A theoretical study, and the calculation (FORTRAN program) of the response of such a dosemeter is presented involving two steps: 1) The proton flux emerging from a thick radiator on which monoenergetic neutrons are normally incident is studied. This is characterised by its energy spectrum depending on the neutron energy and on the radiator thickness. 2) Proton detection being achieved with a solid state nuclear track detector whose performance is known, the number of registered tracks are calculated. The dosemeter sensitivity (tracks cm/sup -2/. Sv/sup -1/) is deduced. Then, the calculations show that it is possible to optimise the radiator thickness to obtain the smallest variation in sensitivity with neutron energy. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental ones found in the literature.

  20. Can Remote Sensing Detect Aquifer Characteristics?: A Case Study in the Guarani Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, A. S.; Thomas, B.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Global water supply resiliency depends on groundwater, especially regions threatened by population growth and climate change. Aquifer characteristics, even as basic as confined versus unconfined, are necessary to prescribe regulations to sustainably manage groundwater supplies. A significant barrier to sustainable groundwater management exists in the difficulties associated with mapping groundwater resources and characteristics at a large spatial scale. This study addresses this challenge by investigating if remote sensing, including with NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), can detect and quantify key aquifer parameters and characteristics. We explore this through a case study in the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) of South America, validating our remote sensing-based findings against the best available regional estimates. The use of remote sensing to advance the understanding of large aquifers is beneficial to sustainable groundwater management, especially in a trans-boundary system, where consistent information exchange can occur within hydrologic boundaries instead of political boundaries.

  1. Comparative Study of Parametric and Non-parametric Approaches in Fault Detection and Isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katebi, S.D.; Blanke, M.; Katebi, M.R.

    This report describes a comparative study between two approaches to fault detection and isolation in dynamic systems. The first approach uses a parametric model of the system. The main components of such techniques are residual and signature generation for processing and analyzing. The second...... approach is non-parametric in the sense that the signature analysis is only dependent on the frequency or time domain information extracted directly from the input-output signals. Based on these approaches, two different fault monitoring schemes are developed where the feature extraction and fault decision...... algorithms employed are adopted from the template matching in pattern recognition. Extensive simulation studies are performed to demonstrate satisfactory performance of the proposed techniques. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach are discussed and analyzed....

  2. Validation of three rapid screening methods for detection of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in foods : interlaboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capps, K.L.; McLaughlin, E.M.; Murray, A.W.A.; Aldus, C.F.; Wyatt, G.M.; Peck, M.W.; Amerongen, van A.; Ariens, R.M.C.; Wichers, J.H.; Bayliss, C.L.; Wareing, D.R.A.; Bolton, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was conducted for the validation of 3 methods for the detection of all verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in foods. The methods were a multi-analyte 1-step lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for detection of E. coli O157 and verotoxin (VT); an enzyme-linked immunosorbe

  3. Validation of three rapid screening methods for detection of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in foods : interlaboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capps, K.L.; McLaughlin, E.M.; Murray, A.W.A.; Aldus, C.F.; Wyatt, G.M.; Peck, M.W.; Amerongen, van A.; Ariens, R.M.C.; Wichers, J.H.; Bayliss, C.L.; Wareing, D.R.A.; Bolton, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was conducted for the validation of 3 methods for the detection of all verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in foods. The methods were a multi-analyte 1-step lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for detection of E. coli O157 and verotoxin (VT); an enzyme-linked

  4. Validation of three rapid screening methods for detection of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in foods : interlaboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capps, K.L.; McLaughlin, E.M.; Murray, A.W.A.; Aldus, C.F.; Wyatt, G.M.; Peck, M.W.; Amerongen, van A.; Ariens, R.M.C.; Wichers, J.H.; Bayliss, C.L.; Wareing, D.R.A.; Bolton, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was conducted for the validation of 3 methods for the detection of all verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in foods. The methods were a multi-analyte 1-step lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for detection of E. coli O157 and verotoxin (VT); an enzyme-linked immunosorbe

  5. Imaging strategies for detection of urgent conditions in patients with acute abdominal pain: diagnostic accuracy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laméris, Wytze; van Randen, Adrienne; van Es, H Wouter; van Heesewijk, Johannes P M; van Ramshorst, Bert; Bouma, Wim H; ten Hove, Wim; van Leeuwen, Maarten S; van Keulen, Esteban M; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Boermeester, Marja A

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify an optimal imaging strategy for the accurate detection of urgent conditions in patients with acute abdominal pain. Design Fully paired multicentre diagnostic accuracy study with prospective data collection. Setting Emergency departments of two university hospitals and four large teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants 1021 patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain of >2 hours’ and <5 days’ duration. Exclusion criteria were discharge from the emergency department with no imaging considered warranted by the treating physician, pregnancy, and haemorrhagic shock. Intervention All patients had plain radiographs (upright chest and supine abdominal), ultrasonography, and computed tomography (CT) after clinical and laboratory examination. A panel of experienced physicians assigned a final diagnosis after six months and classified the condition as urgent or non-urgent. Main outcome measures Sensitivity and specificity for urgent conditions, percentage of missed cases and false positives, and exposure to radiation for single imaging strategies, conditional imaging strategies (CT after initial ultrasonography), and strategies driven by body mass index and age or by location of pain. Results 661 (65%) patients had a final diagnosis classified as urgent. The initial clinical diagnosis resulted in many false positive urgent diagnoses, which were significantly reduced after ultrasonography or CT. CT detected more urgent diagnoses than did ultrasonography: sensitivity was 89% (95% confidence interval 87% to 92%) for CT and 70% (67% to 74%) for ultrasonography (P<0.001). A conditional strategy with CT only after negative or inconclusive ultrasonography yielded the highest sensitivity, missing only 6% of urgent cases. With this strategy, only 49% (46% to 52%) of patients would have CT. Alternative strategies guided by body mass index, age, or location of the pain would all result in a loss of sensitivity. Conclusion Although CT is the most

  6. Study on synchronous detection method of methane and ethane with laser absorption spectroscopy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Zhang, Yu-jun; You, Kun; Gao, Yan-wei; Chen, Chen; Liu, Jian-guo; Liu, Wen-qing

    2016-10-01

    The main ingredient of mash gas is alkenes, and methane is the most parts of mash gas and ethane is a small portion of it. Fast, accurate, real-time measurement of methane and ethane concentration is an important task for preventing coal mining disaster. In this research, a monitoring system with tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology has been set up for simultaneous measurement of methane and ethane, and a DFB laser at wavelength of 1.653μm was used as the laser source. The absorption spectroscopy information of methane and ethane, especially the characteristic of the spectrum peak positions and relative intensity were determined by available spectral structures from previous study and available database. Then, the concentration inversion algorithm method based on the spectral resolution and feature extraction was designed for methane and ethane synchronous detection. At last, the continuously experimental results obtained by different concentration of methane and ethane sample gases with the multiple reflection cell and the standard distribution system. In this experiment, the standard distribution system made with the standard gas and two high precision mass flow meters of D07 Sevenstar series whose flow velocity is 1l/min and 5l/min respectively. When the multiple reflection cell work stably, the biggest detection error of methane concentration inversion was 3.7%, and the biggest detection error of ethane was 4.8%. So it is verified that this concentration inversion algorithm works stably and reliably. Thus, this technology could realize the real-time, fast and continuous measurement requirement of mash gas and it will provide the effective technical support to coal mining production in safety for our country.

  7. Validation studies of the latex agglutination test for the detection of Trichinella larvae in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayda, Jennifer; Reckinger, Sabine; Thaben, Nora; Nöckler, Karsten; Mayer-Scholl, Anne

    2016-11-15

    Human trichinellosis is a foodborne disease caused by ingestion of meat infected with Trichinella muscle larvae. To control Trichinella spp. infection in the European Union, all slaughtered pigs from holdings that are not officially recognized as applying controlled housing conditions and other animals susceptible to Trichinella infection and intended for human consumption should be examined by one of the approved digestion methods described in Regulation (EU) No. 2015/1375. In the past, Trichinella outbreaks due to the consumption of cured wild boar or pork products have been described in several European countries, making the identification of the larvae from these products relevant for Trichinella control. Therefore, this study aimed to validate the newly approved latex agglutination test (Trichin-L) for routine testing of cured meat products. The test was validated based on the OIE Guidelines using pork products spiked with Trichinella larvae. The sensitivity of the method varied greatly depending on the investigated meat product and was usually lower than for the gold standard, the magnetic stirrer method. The detection rate reached 80% for three larvae and 60% for one larva in cured pork sausages. A detection rate of 100% for three larvae and 50% for one larva was found in bacon. For frozen samples (-20°C) the Trichin-L kit is similarly sensitive as for cured samples. Further, to determine the performance of the test under field conditions, pork products from regions with known high Trichinella prevalences confiscated by customs authorities at two German international airports were analyzed. Problems associated with the Trichin-L test were incomplete digestion due to fatty ingredients, spices and very dry meat products, resulting in data which could not be evaluated. Therefore, the test is currently not suitable for the detection of Trichinella larvae in cured meat products and needs further adaptation steps to increase both usability and sensitivity

  8. Cardiac motion compensation and resolution modeling in simultaneous PET-MR: a cardiac lesion detection study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petibon, Y.; Ouyang, J.; Zhu, X.; Huang, C.; Reese, T. G.; Chun, S. Y.; Li, Q.; El Fakhri, G.

    2013-04-01

    Cardiac motion and partial volume effects (PVE) are two of the main causes of image degradation in cardiac PET. Motion generates artifacts and blurring while PVE lead to erroneous myocardial activity measurements. Newly available simultaneous PET-MR scanners offer new possibilities in cardiac imaging as MRI can assess wall contractility while collecting PET perfusion data. In this perspective, we develop a list-mode iterative reconstruction framework incorporating both tagged-MR derived non-rigid myocardial wall motion and position dependent detector point spread function (PSF) directly into the PET system matrix. In this manner, our algorithm performs both motion ‘deblurring’ and PSF deconvolution while reconstructing images with all available PET counts. The proposed methods are evaluated in a beating non-rigid cardiac phantom whose hot myocardial compartment contains small transmural and non-transmural cold defects. In order to accelerate imaging time, we investigate collecting full and half k-space tagged MR data to obtain tagged volumes that are registered using non-rigid B-spline registration to yield wall motion information. Our experimental results show that tagged-MR based motion correction yielded an improvement in defect/myocardium contrast recovery of 34-206% as compared to motion uncorrected studies. Likewise, lesion detectability improved by respectively 115-136% and 62-235% with MR-based motion compensation as compared to gating and no motion correction and made it possible to distinguish non-transmural from transmural defects, which has clinical significance given the inherent limitations of current single modality imaging in identifying the amount of residual ischemia. The incorporation of PSF modeling within the framework of MR-based motion compensation significantly improved defect/myocardium contrast recovery (5.1-8.5%, p defect detectability (39-56%, p < 0.01). No statistical difference was found in PET contrast and lesion detectability

  9. A novel Schiff base: Synthesis, structural characterisation and comparative sensor studies for metal ion detections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Muhammet; Purtas, Savas; Güngör, Seyit Ali; Ceyhan, Gökhan; Akgün, Eyup; McKee, Vickie

    2015-02-05

    A novel Schiff base ligand was synthesized by the condensation reaction of 2,6-diformylpyridine and 4-aminoantipyrine in MeOH and characterised by its melting point, elemental analysis, FT-IR, (1)H, (13)C NMR and mass spectroscopic studies. Molecular structure of the ligand was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The electrochemical properties of the Schiff base ligand were studied in different solvents at various scan rates. Sensor ability of the Schiff base ligand was investigated by colorimetric and fluorometric methods. Visual colour change of the ligand was investigated in MeOH solvent in presence of various metal ions Na(+), Mg(2+), Al(3+), K(+), Cr(3+), Mn(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+). Upon addition of Al(3+) ion into a MeOH solution of the ligand, an orange colour developed which is detectable by naked eye. Fluorescence emission studies showed that the ligand showed single emission band at 630-665nm upon excitation at 560nm. Addition of metal ions Na(+), Mg(2+), K(+), Cr(3+), Mn(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) (1:1M ratio) cause fluorescence quenching, however addition of Al(+3) resulted in an increase in fluorescence intensity. No significant variation was observed in the fluorescence intensity caused by Al(3+) in presence of other metal ions. Therefore, the Schiff base ligand can be used for selective detection of Al(3+) ions in the presence of the other metal ions studied.

  10. The effects of changes in the metabolic syndrome detection status on arterial stiffening: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Hirayama, Yoji; Hashimoto, Hideki; Yambe, Minoru; Yamada, Jiko; Koji, Yutaka; Motobe, Kohki; Shiina, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Yamashinai, Akira

    2006-09-01

    We conducted a prospective study to examine the effects of alterations of the metabolic syndrome detection status on the rate of progression of arterial stiffness, which is recognized as a marker of arterial damage and an indicator of cardiovascular risk. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity as an index of arterial stiffening was recorded twice over a 3-year period in 2080 Japanese men (age, 42 +/- 9 years). At the start of the prospective study, pulse wave velocity was higher in the subjects with metabolic syndrome (n=125) than in those without metabolic syndrome (n=1,955) even after adjusting for mean blood pressure. The annual rate of increase of the pulse wave velocity was higher in the group with persistent metabolic syndrome (27 +/- 51 cm/s/year, n=71) than in the group with regression of metabolic syndrome (6 +/- 39 cm/s/year, n=54) or the group in which metabolic syndrome was absent (13 +/- 37 cm/s/year, n=1843; p changes in blood pressure. In conclusion, the changes in the metabolic syndrome detection status of the subjects during the study period affected the annual rate of progression of arterial stiffening, and persistent metabolic syndrome during the study period was associated with acceleration of arterial stiffening in middle-aged Japanese men. On the other hand, resolution of metabolic syndrome may be associated with attenuation of the progression of arterial damage. Therefore, the increased cardiovascular risk associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome may be at least partly mediated by acceleration of the progression of arterial stiffening.

  11. Assessment of biodistribution using mesenchymal stromal cells: Algorithm for study design and challenges in detection methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Blanca; Coca, Maria Isabel; Codinach, Margarita; López-Lucas, María Dolores; Del Mazo-Barbara, Anna; Caminal, Marta; Oliver-Vila, Irene; Cabañas, Valentín; Lope-Piedrafita, Silvia; García-López, Joan; Moraleda, José M; Fontecha, Cesar G; Vives, Joaquim

    2017-09-01

    Biodistribution of candidate cell-based therapeutics is a critical safety concern that must be addressed in the preclinical development program. We aimed to design a decision tree based on a series of studies included in actual dossiers approved by competent regulatory authorities, noting that the design, execution and interpretation of pharmacokinetics studies using this type of therapy is not straightforward and presents a challenge for both developers and regulators. Eight studies were evaluated for the definition of a decision tree, in which mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were administered to mouse, rat and sheep models using diverse routes (local or systemic), cell labeling (chemical or genetic) and detection methodologies (polymerase chain reaction [PCR], immunohistochemistry [IHC], fluorescence bioimaging, and magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]). Moreover, labeling and detection methodologies were compared in terms of cost, throughput, speed, sensitivity and specificity. A decision tree was defined based on the model chosen: (i) small immunodeficient animals receiving heterologous MSC products for assessing biodistribution and other safety aspects and (ii) large animals receiving homologous labeled products; this contributed to gathering data not only on biodistribution but also on pharmacodynamics. PCR emerged as the most convenient technique despite the loss of spatial information on cell distribution that can be further assessed by IHC. This work contributes to the standardization in the design of biodistribution studies by improving methods for accurate assessment of safety. The evaluation of different animal models and screening of target organs through a combination of techniques is a cost-effective and timely strategy. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Metagenomics in methane seep detection and studies of the microbial methane sediment filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn Rike, Anne; Håvelsrud, Othilde Elise; Haverkamp, Thomas; Kristensen, Tom; Jakobsen, Kjetill

    2013-04-01

    Metanotrophic prokaryotes with their capacity to oxidize methane to biomass and CO2 contribute considerably in reduction of the global methane emission from oceans. Metagenomic studies of seabed sediments represent a new approach to detect marine methane seeps and to study whether the inhabiting microbial consortium represent a microbial methane filter. We have used next generation high throughput DNA sequencing technology to study microbial consortia and their potential metabolic processes in marine sediment samples from the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (HMMV) in the Barents Sea, the Tonya Seep in the Coal Oil Point area in California and from the pockmarked area at the Troll oil and gas field in the North Sea. Annotation of archaeal reads from the HMMV metagenome resulted in hits to all enzymes supposed to be involved in the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) carried out by anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME). The presence of several ANME taxa at HMMV has previously been well described (1). The stratification analysis of the Tonya seep sediment showed that both aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophs were present at both layers investigated, although total archaea, ANME-1, ANME-2 and ANME-3 were overabundant in the deepest layer. Several sulphate reducing taxa (possibly syntrophic ANME partners) were detected. The Tonya Seep sediment represent a robust methane filter where presently dominating methanotrophic taxa could be replaced by less abundant methanotrophs should the environmental conditions change (2). In the Troll pockmarked sediments several methanotrophic taxa including ANME-1, ANME-2 and candidate division NC10 were detected although there was an overabundance of autotrophic nitrifiers (e.g. Nitrosopumilis, Nitrococcus, Nitrospira) using CO2 as the carbon source. Methane migrating upwards through the sediments is probably oxidized to CO2 in AOM resulting in an upward CO2 flux. The CO2 entering the seafloor may contribute to maintain the pockmark structure

  13. An In-depth Study of Sparse Codes on Abnormality Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2016-01-01

    are carried out from various angles to better understand the applicability of sparse codes, including computation time, reconstruction error, sparsity, detection accuracy, and their performance combining various detection methods. The experiment results show that combining OMP codes with maximum coordinate...

  14. Structure-property study of the Raman spectroscopy detection of fusaric acid and analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food security can benefit from the development of selective methods to detect toxins. Fusaric acid is a mycotoxin produced by certain fungi occasionally found in agricultural commodities. Raman spectroscopy allows selective detection of analytes associated with certain spectral characteristics relat...

  15. Early detection of breast cancer through population-based mammographic screening in Asian women: a comparison study between screen-detected and symptomatic breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuwa, Esther W L; Yeo, Allen W Y; Koong, Heng Nung; Wong, Chow Yin; Yong, Wei Sean; Tan, Puay Hoon; Ho, Juliana T S; Wong, Jill S L; Ho, Gay Hui

    2009-01-01

    The first nation-wide mammographic screening program in Asia, BreastScreen Singapore (BSS), was launched in Singapore in January 2002. This study compared the presentation and results of screen-detected breast cancers with symptomatic breast cancers in two affiliated high-volume institutions, one of which was an assessment centre for BSS. The medical records of patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer at the Department of General Surgery, Singapore General Hospital and the Department of Surgical Oncology, National Cancer Centre, Singapore, during the period January 2002 to December 2003 were reviewed. Clinical and pathological comparisons were made between screen-detected lesions and symptomatic lesions. Of a total of 767 cases, 640 (83.4%) were invasive carcinomas and 127 (16.6%) were ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS) lesions. Only 13.4% of them were screen-detected. Compared to symptomatic cancers, screen-detected lesions were of smaller size (median size 18 versus 23 mm), a lower stage (stages 0-2, 95 versus 83.2%) and histologic grade (grade 1-2, 71 versus 60%), with a higher incidence of DCIS (31.0 versus 14.3%) and had higher rates of breast conservation (45.6 versus 28.2%) (all p-values 20 mm, nodal involvement, cerbB2 overexpression, and advanced disease stage were independent poor prognostic factors for disease-free survival, whereas nodal involvement, advanced disease, and recurrence predicted poor cancer-specific survival. However, there was no statistically significant difference in disease-free survival or cancer-specific survival between the two groups at a median follow-up of 38 months. Screening mammography has allowed the detection of smaller and hence oncologically more favorable lesions in Asian women. Although no significant survival benefit was demonstrated in our study, a longer period of follow-up is essential before the benefit of mortality reduction, as a result of mammography screening becomes evident in our population.

  16. Study of multi-rate multi-user detection based on supervision decision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涛; 谢剑英

    2004-01-01

    Multi-user detection (MUD) based on multirate transmission in code division multiple access (CDMA) system is discussed. Under the requirement of signal interference ratio (SIR) detection at base station and framework with parallel interference cancellation, a supervision decision algorithm based on pre-decision of probabilistic data association (PDA) and hard decision is proposed. The detection performance is analyzed and simulation is implemented to show that the supervision decision algorithm improves the detection performance effectively.

  17. Baseline Face Detection, Head Pose Estimation, and Coarse Direction Detection for Facial Data in the SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paone, Jeffrey R [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Ferrell, Regina Kay [ORNL; Aykac, Deniz [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Keeping a driver focused on the road is one of the most critical steps in insuring the safe operation of a vehicle. The Strategic Highway Research Program 2 (SHRP2) has over 3,100 recorded videos of volunteer drivers during a period of 2 years. This extensive naturalistic driving study (NDS) contains over one million hours of video and associated data that could aid safety researchers in understanding where the driver s attention is focused. Manual analysis of this data is infeasible, therefore efforts are underway to develop automated feature extraction algorithms to process and characterize the data. The real-world nature, volume, and acquisition conditions are unmatched in the transportation community, but there are also challenges because the data has relatively low resolution, high compression rates, and differing illumination conditions. A smaller dataset, the head pose validation study, is available which used the same recording equipment as SHRP2 but is more easily accessible with less privacy constraints. In this work we report initial head pose accuracy using commercial and open source face pose estimation algorithms on the head pose validation data set.

  18. Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance Studies on π-conjugated semiconductor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR) techniques were used to investigate the dynamics of excitons and charge carriers in π-conjugated organic semiconductors. Degradation behavior of the negative spin-1/2 electroluminescence-detected magnetic resonance (ELDMR) was observed in Alq3 devices. The increase in the resonance amplitude implies an increasing bipolaron formation during degradation, which might be the result of growth of charge traps in the device. The same behavior of the negative spin-1/2 ELDMR was observed in 2wt% Rubrene doped Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminium (Alq3) devices. However, with increasing injection current, a positive spin-1/2 ELDMR, together with positive spin 1 triplet powder patterns at ΔmS=±1 and ΔmS=±2, emerges. Due to the similarities in the frequency dependences of single and double modulated ELDMR and the photoluminescence-detected magnetic resonance (PLDMR) results in poly[2-methoxy-5-(2 -ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenyl ene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) films, the mechanism for this positive spin-1/2 ELDMR was assigned to enhanced triplet-polaron quenching under resonance conditions. The ELDMR in rubrene doped Alq3 devices provides a path to investigate charge distribution in the device under operational conditions. Combining the results of several devices with different carrier blocking properties and the results from transient EL, it was concluded trions not only exist near buffer layer but also exist in the electron transport layer. This TPQ model can also be used to explain the positive spin-1/2 PLDMR in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films at low temperature and in MEH-PPV films at various temperatures up to room temperature. Through quantitative analysis, TE-polaron quenching (TPQ) model is shown having the ability to explain most behaviors of the positive spin-1/2 resonance. Photocurrent detected magnetic resonance (PCDMR) studies on MEH-PPV devices revealed a novel transient resonance signal. The signal

  19. A novel microwave absorption and dielectric spectrum detection technology in photoelectron dynamic study for solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaowei; SUN Shuxu; LAI Weidong; ZHANG Rongxiang; DAI Xiuhong; JIANG Xiaoli

    2006-01-01

    The photoelectron property is directly related to the light-energy conversion efficiency of solar cells. In this paper, the photoelectron dynamic of semiconductor was analyzed. The diffusion of electrons has influence on the dielectric function of the solar cell material. And the amplitude variance of the imaginary andreal part of the dielectric function is in direct proportion to the dynamic process of free and shallow-trapped electrons. Based on the untouched detection technique, the method is present to detect the amplitude change of the microwave signal which is passing through the material whose dielectric function changes after exposure. A35GHz oscillator was used as a microwave source. The absorptionand dispersion microwave signals, which contain the dynamic information of free and shallow-trapped electron signal, are split respectively with phase-sensitive instrument. The photoelectron character of n-type Si(100) thin film was investigated by the novel equipment, and the lifetime of different kinds of electronswith the resolution of 1 ns was obtained. The equipment can be directly used inthe study of the optoelectronic conversion mechanism of solar cells.

  20. Biomarker Detection in Association Studies: Modeling SNPs Simultaneously via Logistic ANOVA

    KAUST Repository

    Jung, Yoonsuh

    2014-10-02

    In genome-wide association studies, the primary task is to detect biomarkers in the form of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) that have nontrivial associations with a disease phenotype and some other important clinical/environmental factors. However, the extremely large number of SNPs comparing to the sample size inhibits application of classical methods such as the multiple logistic regression. Currently the most commonly used approach is still to analyze one SNP at a time. In this paper, we propose to consider the genotypes of the SNPs simultaneously via a logistic analysis of variance (ANOVA) model, which expresses the logit transformed mean of SNP genotypes as the summation of the SNP effects, effects of the disease phenotype and/or other clinical variables, and the interaction effects. We use a reduced-rank representation of the interaction-effect matrix for dimensionality reduction, and employ the L 1-penalty in a penalized likelihood framework to filter out the SNPs that have no associations. We develop a Majorization-Minimization algorithm for computational implementation. In addition, we propose a modified BIC criterion to select the penalty parameters and determine the rank number. The proposed method is applied to a Multiple Sclerosis data set and simulated data sets and shows promise in biomarker detection.

  1. Rapid detection of bacteria in drinking water and water contamination case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deininger, Rolf A.; Lee, Jiyoung; Clark, Robert M.

    2011-12-01

    Water systems are inherently vulnerable to physical, chemical and biologic threats that might compromise a systems' ability to reliably deliver safe water. The ability of a water supply to provide water to its customers can be compromised by destroying or disrupting key physical elements of the water system. However, contamination is generally viewed as the most serious potential terrorist threat to water systems. Chemical or biologic agents could spread throughout a distribution system and result in sickness or death among the consumers and for some agents the presence of the contaminant might not be known until emergency rooms report an increase in patients with a particular set of symptoms. Even without serious health impacts, just the knowledge that a water system had been breached could seriously undermine consumer confidence in public water supplies. Therefore, the ability to rapidly detect contamination, especially microbiological contamination, is highly desirable. The authors summarize water contamination case studies and discuss a technique for identifying microbiological contamination based on ATP bioluminescence. This assay allows an estimation of bacterial populations within minutes and can be applied using a local platform. Previous ATP-based methods requires one hour, one liter of water, and has a sensitivity of 100000 cells for detection. The improved method discussed here is 100 times more sensitive, requires one-hundredth of the sample volume, and is over 10 times faster than standard method. This technique has a great deal of potential for application in situations in which a water system has been compromised.

  2. Improving Fault Detection in Modified Code——A Study from the Telecommunication Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Piotr Tomaszewski; Lars Lundberg; H(a)kan Grahn

    2007-01-01

    Many software systems are developed in a number of consecutive releases. In each release not only new codeis added but also existing code is often modified. In this study we show that the modified code can be an important sourceof faults. Faults are widely recognized as one of the major cost drivers in software projects. Therefore, we look for methodsthat improve the fault detection in the modified code. We propose and evaluate a number of prediction models that increasethe efficiency of fault detection. To build and evaluate our models we use data collected from two large telecommunicationsystems produced by Ericsson. We evaluate the performance of our models by applying them both to a different release ofthe system than the one they are built on and to a different system. The performance of our models is compared to theperformance of the theoretical best model, a simple model based on size, as well as to analyzing the code in a random order(not using any model). We find that the use of our models provides a significant improvement over not using any model atall and over using a simple model based on the class size. The gain offered by our models corresponds to 38~57% of thetheoretical maximum gain.

  3. Near surface temperature changes over India - a detection and attribution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Dileepkumar; AchutaRao, Krishna

    2016-04-01

    The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report concluded, "More than half of the observed increase in global mean surface temperature (GMST) from 1951 to 2010 is very likely due to the observed anthropogenic increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations." Detecting and attributing the changes over regional scales can provide more relevant information to policymakers at the national level but the low signal-to-noise ratios at smaller spatial scales make this a harder problem. In this study, we analyze annual and seasonal mean changes in minimum (Tmin), maximum (Tmax), and mean (Tmean) temperatures over 7 homogeneous temperature zones of India using models from the CMIP5 database and multiple observational datasets (CRU-3.22, and IITM). We perform Detection and Attribution (D&A) analysis using fingerprint methods by defining a signal that concisely express both spatial and temporal changes found in the model runs with the CMIP5 individual forcing runs; greenhouse (historicalGHG), natural (historicalNat), anthropogenic (historicalAnthro), and anthropogenic aerosols (historicalAA). We use three different combinations of individual forcing patterns (2-pattern, 3-pattern and 5-pattern cases) in our analysis to quantify the contributions resulting from individual forcings. Results indicate warming attributable in most regions to anthropogenic forcings and Greenhouse gases with a negligible contribution from natural forcings using the 2- and 3-pattern analyses for the 1901-2005 and 1956-2005 time periods. The results are sensitive to observational data set used, as these tend to differ at the regional level.

  4. Expert opinion on detecting and treating depression in palliative care: A Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotopf Matthew

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of data regarding the optimal method of detecting and treating depression in palliative care. This study applied the Delphi method to evaluate expert opinion on choice of screening tool, choice of antidepressant and choice of psychological therapy. The aim was to inform the development of best practice recommendations for the European Palliative Care Research Collaborative clinical practice guideline on managing depression in palliative care. Methods 18 members of an international, multi-professional expert group completed a structured questionnaire in two rounds, rating their agreement with proposed items on a scale from 0-10 and annotating with additional comments. The median and range were calculated to give a statistical average of the experts' ratings. Results There was contention regarding the benefits of screening, with 'routine informal asking' (median 8.5 (0-10 rated more highly than formal screening tools such as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (median 7.0 (1-10. Mirtazapine (median 9 (7-10 and citalopram (median 9 (5-10 were the considered the best choice of antidepressant and cognitive behavioural therapy (median 9.0 (3-10 the best choice of psychological therapy. Conclusions The range of expert ratings was broad, indicating discordance in the views of experts. Direct comparative data from randomised controlled trials are needed to strengthen the evidence-base and achieve clarity on how best to detect and treat depression in this setting.

  5. Numerical and experimental studies of delamination detection in short fiber reinforced composites using Lamb waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudela, Pawel; Radzienski, Maciej; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to present aspects of Lamb wave propagation in randomly oriented short fiber reinforce composites with delamination. Prediction of elastic constants is based on mechanics of composites, rule of mixture and total mass balance tailored to the spectral element mesh composed of 3D brick elements. Piezoelectric excitation as well as glue layer are taken into account. Complex full wave field includes multiple reflections at short fibers. This wave pattern is also obtained by the use of laser vibrometry confirming good quality of the model. Further studies are related to symmetrical and non-symmetrical delamination in respect to the thickness of the composite plate. Square delamination of the side length 10 mm is investigated. It has been found that reflections from delamination are mostly superimposed with reflections coming from short fibers. Hence, delamination detection by direct analysis of wave propagation pattern on the surface of the plate is ineffective. However, adaptive wavenumber filtering method overcome these difficulties and enables not only to detect the delamination but also is helpful for delamination size estimation. Moreover, the method is more effective if the full wavefield measurements are acquired on the surface of the plate which is closer to the delamination.

  6. Irish study of high-density Schizophrenia families: Field methods and power to detect linkage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendler, K.S.; Straub, R.E.; MacLean, C.J. [Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-09

    Large samples of multiplex pedigrees will probably be needed to detect susceptibility loci for schizophrenia by linkage analysis. Standardized ascertainment of such pedigrees from culturally and ethnically homogeneous populations may improve the probability of detection and replication of linkage. The Irish Study of High-Density Schizophrenia Families (ISHDSF) was formed from standardized ascertainment of multiplex schizophrenia families in 39 psychiatric facilities covering over 90% of the population in Ireland and Northern Ireland. We here describe a phenotypic sample and a subset thereof, the linkage sample. Individuals were included in the phenotypic sample if adequate diagnostic information, based on personal interview and/or hospital record, was available. Only individuals with available DNA were included in the linkage sample. Inclusion of a pedigree into the phenotypic sample required at least two first, second, or third degree relatives with non-affective psychosis (NAP), one of whom had schizophrenia (S) or poor-outcome schizoaffective disorder (PO-SAD). Entry into the linkage sample required DNA samples on at least two individuals with NAP, of whom at least one had S or PO-SAD. Affection was defined by narrow, intermediate, and broad criteria. 75 refs., 6 tabs.

  7. Guidelines for the Direct Detection of Anaplasma spp. in Diagnosis and Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaghi, Cornelia; Santos, Ana Sofia; Gomes, Jacinto; Christova, Iva; Matei, Ioana Adriana; Walder, Gernot; Domingos, Ana; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Sprong, Hein; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Oteo, José A; de la Fuente, José; Dumler, J Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) comprises obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria that are mainly transmitted by ticks, and currently includes six species: Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma centrale, Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, and Anaplasma ovis. These have long been known as etiological agents of veterinary diseases that affect domestic and wild animals worldwide. A zoonotic role has been recognized for A. phagocytophilum, but other species can also be pathogenic for humans. Anaplasma infections are usually challenging to diagnose, clinically presenting with nonspecific symptoms that vary greatly depending on the agent involved, the affected host, and other factors such as immune status and coinfections. The substantial economic impact associated with livestock infection and the growing number of human cases along with the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections, determines the need for accurate laboratory tests. Because hosts are usually seronegative in the initial phase of infection and serological cross-reactions with several Anaplasma species are observed after seroconversion, direct tests are the best approach for both case definition and epidemiological studies. Blood samples are routinely used for Anaplasma spp. screening, but in persistently infected animals with intermittent or low-level bacteremia, other tissues might be useful. These guidelines have been developed as a direct outcome of the COST action TD1303 EURNEGVEC ("European Network of Neglected Vectors and Vector-Borne Diseases"). They review the direct laboratory tests (microscopy, nucleic acid-based detection and in vitro isolation) currently used for Anaplasma detection in ticks and vertebrates and their application.

  8. In vitro study of caries detection through sound dentin using a laser fluorescence device, DIAGNOdent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Yukiteru; Shimizu, Ayako; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Hayashi, Mikako; Takeshige, Fumio; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of proximal surface caries detection using a laser fluorescence device, DIAGNOdent, through the sound dentin surrounding the cavity wall after removal of occlusal caries. Extracted sound human molars were ground to prepare horizontal and vertical dentin plates 1.4 mm thick. Extracted carious human molars were reduced in thickness horizontally from the occlusal surfaces until exposure of the dentin caries. The dentin plate was placed on the carious tooth. Before and after gradual thinning of the dentin plate from approximately 1.4 mm to 0.2 mm thick, the dentin caries was measured 10 times through the plate by the laser fluorescence device with a cone-shaped tip or a broad tip. When the dentin plate was reduced to less than 0.3 mm thick (using a combination of a horizontal plate and cone-shaped tip) or 0.2 mm thick (using the other combinations), the values measured with the laser fluorescence device were significantly larger than the values before reducing the thickness of the dentin. Based on these results, the device offers potential use as one of the screening tests for proximal surface caries detection through sound dentin when the sound dentin between tip and caries is thin.

  9. Epistatic module detection for case-control studies: a Bayesian model with a Gibbs sampling strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwan Tang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The detection of epistatic interactive effects of multiple genetic variants on the susceptibility of human complex diseases is a great challenge in genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Although methods have been proposed to identify such interactions, the lack of an explicit definition of epistatic effects, together with computational difficulties, makes the development of new methods indispensable. In this paper, we introduce epistatic modules to describe epistatic interactive effects of multiple loci on diseases. On the basis of this notion, we put forward a Bayesian marker partition model to explain observed case-control data, and we develop a Gibbs sampling strategy to facilitate the detection of epistatic modules. Comparisons of the proposed approach with three existing methods on seven simulated disease models demonstrate the superior performance of our approach. When applied to a genome-wide case-control data set for Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD, the proposed approach successfully identifies two known susceptible loci and suggests that a combination of two other loci -- one in the gene SGCD and the other in SCAPER -- is associated with the disease. Further functional analysis supports the speculation that the interaction of these two genetic variants may be responsible for the susceptibility of AMD. When applied to a genome-wide case-control data set for Parkinson's disease, the proposed method identifies seven suspicious loci that may contribute independently to the disease.

  10. Validation study of a rapid ELISA for detection of aflatoxin in corn. Performance Tested Method 050901.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Anthony; Roebuck, Chris; Dutcher, Monica; Kennedy, Justina; Abouzied, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Neogen Corp. developed the Veratox aflatoxin test kit for the detection of total aflatoxin. The purpose of this study was to validate the method under the requirements of the AOAC Research Institute Performance Tested Methods (PTM) program. There are several AOAC Official Methods for total aflatoxin detection in corn (994.08, 990.33, 979.18, 993.17, 990.32, 993.16, 991.31, and 990.74), varying between rapid and analytical-based methods and one rapid method that has been performance tested by the AOAC Research Institute (PTM 030701). However, the widely used reference method is AOAC Official Method 994.08, which is an HPLC method and is referred to as the reference method in this paper. Although considered the reference method, the HPLC procedure is complicated and requires the investment of both expensive equipment and a highly skilled technician. A rapid (e.g., ELISA) test kit to be validated by the AOAC Research Institute is needed.

  11. Interlaboratory Study of ELISA Kits for the Detection of Egg and Milk Protein in Processed Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shigeki; Yagi, Takahiro; Kato, Ayako; Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Akimoto, Masanobu; Arihara, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    The labeling of seven specific allergenic ingredients (egg, milk, wheat, buckwheat, peanut, shrimp, and crab) is mandatory in Japan. To ensure proper labeling, two kinds of ELISA kits using polyclonal antibodies have been developed. However, we developed two novel ELISA kits using monoclonal antibodies with improved specificity, the Allergeneye ELISA Egg (AE-Egg) and Allergeneye ELISA Milk (AE-Milk) Kits, to detect egg and milk proteins in processed foods, respectively. Five types of processed food containing 10 mg/kg of egg or milk soluble protein were prepared for an interlaboratory study of the performance of these kits. The kits showed a relatively high reproducibility level of interlaboratory precision (AE-Egg RSDR, 3.7-5.7%; AE-Milk RSDR, 6.8-10.5%) and satisfied the recovery rate stipulated by Japanese guidelines (AE-Egg, 61.6-89.3%; AE-Milk, 52.1-67%) for all processed foods. Our results suggest that the AE-Egg and AE-Milk Kits are precise and reliable tools for detecting egg or milk proteins in processed foods.

  12. Performance of an artificial neural network for vertical root fracture detection: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kositbowornchai, Suwadee; Plermkamon, Supattra; Tangkosol, Tawan

    2013-04-01

    To develop an artificial neural network for vertical root fracture detection. A probabilistic neural network design was used to clarify whether a tooth root was sound or had a vertical root fracture. Two hundred images (50 sound and 150 vertical root fractures) derived from digital radiography--used to train and test the artificial neural network--were divided into three groups according to the number of training and test data sets: 80/120,105/95 and 130/70, respectively. Either training or tested data were evaluated using grey-scale data per line passing through the root. These data were normalized to reduce the grey-scale variance and fed as input data of the neural network. The variance of function in recognition data was calculated between 0 and 1 to select the best performance of neural network. The performance of the neural network was evaluated using a diagnostic test. After testing data under several variances of function, we found the highest sensitivity (98%), specificity (90.5%) and accuracy (95.7%) occurred in Group three, for which the variance of function in recognition data was between 0.025 and 0.005. The neural network designed in this study has sufficient sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to be a model for vertical root fracture detection. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Identification of occult breast lesions detected by magnetic resonance imaging with targeted ultrasound: A prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aracava, Márcia M., E-mail: marcia.aracava@gmail.com; Chojniak, Rubens, E-mail: chojniak@uol.com.br; Souza, Juliana A., E-mail: julianaalves79@hotmail.com; Bitencourt, Almir G.V., E-mail: almirgvb@yahoo.com.br; Marques, Elvira F., E-mail: elvira.marques@ig.com.br

    2014-03-15

    Objective: To verify the capacity of targeted ultrasound (US) to identify additional lesions detected on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but occult to initial mammography, US and clinical examinations. Methods: This prospective study included 68 additional relevant breast lesions identified on MRI of 49 patients. As an inclusion criterion, breast US and mammography were required and performed up to six months before MRI. These lesions were then subjected to targeted “second-look” US up to 2 weeks after MRI, performed by one or two radiologists with expertise on breast imaging. Lesions were evaluated according to the established Breast Imaging Report and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon. Results: Targeted US identified 46/68 (67.6%) lesions revealed by MRI. No significant associations were observed between US identification and the type of lesion, dimensions, morphological characteristics and enhancement pattern according to MRI findings. Targeted US identified 100% of BI-RADS category 5 lesions, 90% of category 4 lesions, and just over 50% of category 3 lesions (p < 0.05). There was significant agreement (p < 0.001) between MRI and US BI-RADS classification for all three categories. Conclusion: Targeted US can identify a large proportion of the lesions detected by breast MRI, especially those at high risk of malignancy, when performed by a professional with experience in both breast US and MRI.

  14. Detection of HPV-induced cervical (pre) neoplastic lesions: a tissue microarray (TMA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Mohammad; Boniver, Jacques; Delvenne, Philippe

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a panel of biomarkers in the characterization of human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cervical lesions. Management of these lesions depends on their histologic confirmation. Misinterpretation especially for benign mimics results in a significant diagnostic disagreement. For these reasons, a continuous effort is still needed to discover surrogate markers, which could support the final diagnosis. Archival biopsies of normal ectocervical and endocervical tissues, squamous metaplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma in situ, and adenocarcinoma were retrieved to perform a tissue microarray (TMA). A panel of markers was tested on the TMA obtained slides by in situ hybridization (HPV DNA) and immunohistochemistry (p16, involucrin, Ki-67, and HPV L1 proteins). The sensitivity to detect high-risk HPV DNA increased with lesion's severity. In situ hybridization signals suggesting integrated viral physical status predominated in CIN II/III, squamous cell carcinoma, and glandular (pre) neoplastic lesions. The p16 and Ki-67 protein expression increased from CIN I to CIN III and to infiltrative lesions. Involucrin positivity was better appreciated in well-differentiated diagnostic entities (ectocervix, mature metaplasia, and CIN I). HPV L1 antibody detected the viral capsid protein in a low proportion of CIN I and II. In conclusion, using a panel of cervical biomarkers improves the final reporting of various HPV-induced epithelial lesions. Carefully constructed TMA with single spots of 1-mm diameter are powerful tools, which have a high reliability in representing full tissue sections.

  15. Optimization of Visual Tasks for Detecting Visual Cortex Activity in fMRI Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "A. Mirzajani

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: functional magnetic resonance imaging is a useful non-invasive technique for the evaluation and mapping of human brain, especially the visual cortex. One of the most important subjects in this background is optimizing visual stimuli in various forms of visual tasks for acquiring significant and ro-bust signals. Materials and methods: The effects of physical pa-rameters of visual stimuli on 14 healthy volunteers for detecting visual cortical activity were evaluated by functional magnetic resonance imaging. These pa-rameters were temporal frequency (TF, different pat-terns of activation including, square wave and sine wave grating, and two different states of rest includ-ing black and white screens. Results: The results showed that BOLD signal will be maximally in the TF of 8 Hz, and use the black screen in the rest state. However there was not significant difference between square-¬wave and sine-wave grat-ings in producing visual activation in the cortex. Conclusion: Physical parameters of visual tasks are effective in detecting visual cortical activity, and it is necessary to pay attention to them in order to get sig-nificant and robust signal. Visual tasks with TF of 8 Hz and one pattern of square-wave or sine-wave in activation state, and black screen in rest state are op-timally suitable for fMRI studies.

  16. A simulation study of fast neutron interrogation for standoff detection of improvised explosive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, S. A.; Dunn, W. L.

    2015-11-01

    The signature-based radiation-scanning technique utilizes radiation detector responses, called "signatures," and compares these to "templates" in order to differentiate targets that contain certain materials, such as explosives or drugs, from those that do not. Our investigations are aimed at the detection of nitrogen-rich explosives contained in improvised explosive devices. We use the term "clutter" to refer to any non-explosive materials with which the interrogating radiation may interact between source and detector. To deal with the many target types and clutter configurations that may be encountered in the field, the use of "artificial templates" is proposed. The MCNP code was used to simulate 14.1 MeV neutron source beams incident on one type of target containing various clutter and sample materials. Signatures due to inelastic-scatter and prompt-capture gamma rays from hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen and two scattered neutron signatures were considered. Targets containing explosive materials in the presence of clutter were able to be identified from targets that contained only non-explosive ("inert") materials. This study demonstrates that a finite number of artificial templates is sufficient for IED detection with fairly good sensitivity and specificity.

  17. Detection of residual packets in cocaine body packers: low accuracy of abdominal radiography - a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousset, Pascal; Vadrot, Dominique; Revel, Marie-Pierre [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Hotel Dieu, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Descartes, Paris (France); Chaillot, Pierre-Fleury [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Hotel Dieu, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Audureau, Etienne [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Hotel Dieu, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Descartes, Paris (France); Rey-Salmon, Caroline; Becour, Bertrand [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Hotel Dieu, Department of Forensic, Paris (France); Fitton, Isabelle [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2013-08-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of abdominal radiography (AXR) for the detection of residual cocaine packets by comparison with computed tomography (CT). Over a 1-year period unenhanced CT was systematically performed in addition to AXR for pre-discharge evaluation of cocaine body packers. AXR and CT were interpreted independently by two radiologists blinded to clinical outcome. Patient and packet characteristics were compared between the groups with residual portage and complete decontamination. Among 138 body packers studied, 14 (10 %) had one residual packet identified on pre-discharge CT. On AXR, at least one reader failed to detect the residual packet in 10 (70 %) of these 14 body packers. The sensitivity and specificity of AXR were 28.6 % (95 % CI: 8.4-58.1) and 100.0 % (95 % CI: 97.0-100.0) for reader 1 and 35.7 % (95 % CI: 12.8-64.9) and 97.6 % (95 % CI: 93.1-99.5) for reader 2. There were no significant patient or packet characteristics predictive of residual portage or AXR false negativity. All positive CT results were confirmed by delayed expulsion or surgical findings, while negative results were confirmed by further surveillance. Given the poor performance of AXR, CT should be systematically performed to ensure safe hospital discharge of cocaine body packers. (orig.)

  18. Optimal search strategies for detecting cost and economic studies in EMBASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes R Brian

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic evaluations in the medical literature compare competing diagnosis or treatment methods for their use of resources and their expected outcomes. The best evidence currently available from research regarding both cost and economic comparisons will continue to expand as this type of information becomes more important in today's clinical practice. Researchers and clinicians need quick, reliable ways to access this information. A key source of this type of information is large bibliographic databases such as EMBASE. The objective of this study was to develop search strategies that optimize the retrieval of health costs and economics studies from EMBASE. Methods We conducted an analytic survey, comparing hand searches of journals with retrievals from EMBASE for candidate search terms and combinations. 6 research assistants read all issues of 55 journals indexed by EMBASE for the publishing year 2000. We rated all articles using purpose and quality indicators and categorized them into clinically relevant original studies, review articles, general papers, or case reports. The original and review articles were then categorized for purpose (i.e., cost and economics and other clinical topics and depending on the purpose as 'pass' or 'fail' for methodologic rigor. Candidate search strategies were developed for economic and cost studies, then run in the 55 EMBASE journals, the retrievals being compared with the hand search data. The sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy of the search strategies were calculated. Results Combinations of search terms for detecting both cost and economic studies attained levels of 100% sensitivity with specificity levels of 92.9% and 92.3% respectively. When maximizing for both sensitivity and specificity, the combination of terms for detecting cost studies (sensitivity increased 2.2% over the single term but at a slight decrease in specificity of 0.9%. The maximized combination of terms

  19. Simulation study of an X-ray diffraction system for breast tumor detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marticke, F.; Montémont, G.; Paulus, C.; Michel, O.; Mars, J. I.; Verger, L.

    2017-09-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a powerful technique used to determine the molecular structure of biological tissues. In breast tissues for example, the scattering signatures of dense fibroglandular tissue and carcinoma have been shown to be significantly different. In this study, XRD was used as a second control level when conventional mammography results were unclear, for instance because of overly high breast density. A system optimized for this issue, called multifocal XRD, was developed combining energy dispersive spectral information at different scattering angles. This system allows depth-imaging in one go but needs an x,y-direction scan to image the region conventional mammography identified as suspect. The scan-time for about 10 cm3 with an incident flux of about 4.8·107 photons per second would be around 2 s. For this study, breast phantoms with and without cancerous nodule were simulated to assess the separation power of the method and to determine the radiation dose required to obtain nearly ideal separation. For tumors situated in the center of the breast, the required dose was only about 0.3 mGy, even for breasts with high density. The tumor position was shown to have a low impact on detectability provided it remained in a zone where the system was sufficiently sensitive. The influence of incident spectrum maximum energy was also studied. The required dose remained very low with any of the incident spectra tested. Finally, an image slice was reconstructed in the x-direction and showed that the system can detect the presence of a small tumor (4 mm). Hence, XRD is a very promising tool to reduce the number of unnecessary invasive breast biopsies.

  20. STUDY OF URINARY ISOLATES WITH REFERENCE TO EXTENDE D SPECTRUM BETA LACTAMASES DETECTION AND ANTIBIOGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Extended spectrum beta lactamases continue to be ma jor problem in clinical setups world over, conferring resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins and are associated with significant morbidity and morta lity. Urinary tract infections (UTIs are one of the most common infectious diseases encountered in the clinical practice. Extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs production in gram negative bacteria, have emerged as a major problem in hospitalized as well as community based pat ients. ESBLs producing bacteria may not be detected by routine disc diffusion susceptibility test, leading to inappropriate use of antibiotics and treatment failure. The objective of this study was to determine the resistance patterns of the micro-organisms isolated from cases of UTI and to detect ESBLs production in gram negative bacteria. METHODS: Urinary isolates from symptomatic UTI cases (both i n patients and out patients attending the, Kesarsal Me dical College and Hospital Ahmadabad were identified by conventional methods. Antimicrob ial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method gram negative i solates resistant to third generation cephalosporins were tested for ESBL production by two methods. RESULTS: Number of urinary isolates from patients with symptomatic UTI was 350 o ver a study period of one year. E.coli was the predominant isolate (57.7% both in IPD and OPD patients. A total of 171 gram negative isolates resistant to third generation cephalosporins were tested for ESBL production by two methods- Modified Double Disc Synergy Test (CLSI P henotypic Confirmatory Test (PCT. ESBL production was seen in 36 (21.05% isolates. Maximum ESBL production was seen in K. pneumoniae (22.41% isolates followed by E.coli (13.26%. CONCLUSION: This study showed E.coli to be the predominant urinary pathogen isolate d from UTI cases. Overall incidence of ESBL producing microorganisms was 21.05%.

  1. Real time hybridization studies by resonant waveguide gratings using nanopattern imaging for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bougot-Robin, Kristelle

    2013-12-20

    2D imaging of biochips is particularly interesting for multiplex biosensing. Resonant properties allow label-free detection using the change of refractive index at the chip surface. We demonstrate a new principle of Scanning Of Resonance on Chip by Imaging (SORCI) based on spatial profiles of nanopatterns of resonant waveguide gratings (RWGs) and its embodiment in a fluidic chip for real-time biological studies. This scheme allows multiplexing of the resonance itself by providing nanopattern sensing areas in a bioarray format. Through several chip designs we discuss resonance spatial profiles, dispersion and electric field distribution for optimal light-matter interaction with biological species of different sizes. Fluidic integration is carried out with a black anodized aluminum chamber, advantageous in term of mechanical stability, multiple uses of the chip, temperature control and low optical background. Real-time hybridization experiments are illustrated by SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) detection in gyrase A of E. coli K12, observed in evolution studies of resistance to the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. We choose a 100 base pairs (bp) DNA target (∼30 kDa) including the codon of interest and demonstrate the high specificity of our technique for probes and targets with close affinity constants. This work validates the safe applicability of our unique combination of RWGs and simple instrumentation for real-time biosensing with sensitivity in buffer solution of ∼10 pg/mm2. Paralleling the success of RWGs sensing for cells sensing, our work opens new avenues for a large number of biological studies. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media.

  2. Triage strategies in cervical cancer detection in Mexico: methods of the FRIDA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Ibarra, Leticia; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Franco, Eduardo L; Cuzick, Jack; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Lorincz, Attila; Rivera, Berenice; Ramírez, Paula; Mendiola-Pastrana, Indira; Rudolph, Samantha E; León-Maldonado, Leith; Hernández, Rubí; Barrios, Elizabeth; Gravitt, Patti; Moscicki, Anna Barbara; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Flores, Yvonne N; Méndez-Hernández, Pablo; Salmerón, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the study design and baseline characteristics of the study population, including the first 30 829 women who enrolled in the Forwarding Research for Improved Detection and Access for Cervical Cancer Screening and Triage (FRIDA Study). This is a large population based study that is evaluating the performance and cost-effectiveness of different triage strategies for high-risk HPV (hrHPV) positive women in Mexico. The target population is more than 100 000 women aged 30 to 64 years who attend the Cervical Cancer Screening Program in 100 health centers in the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico. Since August 2013, all women in the region have been invited to enroll in the study. The study participants are evaluated to determine hrHPV infection using the Cobas 4800 HPV test. The HPV-16/18 genotyping and cytology triage strategies are performed as reflex tests in all hrHPV-positive participants. Women with a positive HPV-16/18 test and/or abnormal cytology (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse, ASCUS+) are referred for colposcopy evaluation, where a minimum of four biopsies and an endocervical sample are systematically collected. Histologic confirmation is performed by a standardized panel of pathologists. Among the 30 829 women who have been screened, the overall prevalence of hrHPV is 11.0%. The overall prevalence of HPV16 and HPV18 are 1.5% and 0.7%, respectively. Cytological abnormalities (ASCUS+) were detected in 11.8% of the hrHPV-positive women. A total of 27.0% (920/3,401) of the hrHPV-positive women were referred to colposcopy because of a positive HPV16/18 test and/or abnormal reflex cytology, (31.6% had only ASCUS+, 53.6% were HPV16/18 positive with a normal cytology result, and 9.5% were positive to both triage tests). The results of this study will help policy makers and health service providers establish the best practices for triage in cervical cancer screening in Mexico and other countries.

  3. A Study to Determine the Biological Feasibility of a New Fish Tagging System : Annual Report 1990-1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, Earl F.; Maynard, D.J.; Downing, S.L. (and others)

    1994-01-01

    In 1983, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) began a multiyear cooperative research program with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to evaluate a new miniaturized identification system that could be used with salmonids. The system is referred to as the passive-integrated-transponder (PIT) tagging and interrogation system. The program has focused on determining the effects of PIT tags on juvenile and adult salmonids, as well as the development and evaluation of tagging and interrogation methods. Earlier results of the program have been reported in annual reports and journal articles cited in this report. This report covers the work per formed from 1990 through 1993. For convenience, the report is divided into three sections: (1) Interrogation and separation systems at Columbia River Basin dams; (2) Systems development and evaluation; and (3) Information and technology transfer.

  4. Experimental Study on Detection of Deterioration in Concrete Using Infrared Thermography Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungwon Huh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is certainly prone to internal deteriorations or defects during the construction and operating periods. Compared with other nondestructive techniques, infrared thermography can easily detect the subsurface delamination in a very short period of time, but accurately identifying its size and depth in concrete is a very challenging task. In this study, experimental testing was carried out on a concrete specimen having internal delaminations of various sizes and at varying depths. Delaminations at 1 and 2 cm deep showed a good temperature contrast after only 5-minute heating, but delaminations at 3 cm practically identified the value of the temperature contrast from heating of 15 minutes. In addition, the size of the delamination at 3 cm deep could be estimated with a difference of 10% to 28% for 20 minutes of heating. The depth of the delamination was linearly correlated with the increase in its size.

  5. Study of formation boundary and dip attribute extraction based on edge detection technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yanbo; SUN Jianguoand SONG Chao

    2016-01-01

    In the seismic profile interpretation process,as the seismic data are big and the small geological fea-tures are difficult to identify,improvement of the efficiency is needed.In this study,structure tensor method in computer image edge detection processing is applied into the 2D seismic profile.Coherent attribute is used to extract formation edge.At the same time,extracting the eigenvalues and eigenvectors to calculate the seismic geometric properties which include dip and apparent dip,automatic identification is achieved.Testing the Gaussian kernel function with synthetic models and comparing the coherent attribute and dip attribute extraction results before and after,the conclusion that Gaussian filter can remove the random noise is obtained.

  6. Detecting and characterizing high-frequency oscillations in epilepsy: a case study of big data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Ni, Xuan; Ditto, William L; Spano, Mark; Carney, Paul R; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    We develop a framework to uncover and analyse dynamical anomalies from massive, nonlinear and non-stationary time series data. The framework consists of three steps: preprocessing of massive datasets to eliminate erroneous data segments, application of the empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert transform paradigm to obtain the fundamental components embedded in the time series at distinct time scales, and statistical/scaling analysis of the components. As a case study, we apply our framework to detecting and characterizing high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) from a big database of rat electroencephalogram recordings. We find a striking phenomenon: HFOs exhibit on-off intermittency that can be quantified by algebraic scaling laws. Our framework can be generalized to big data-related problems in other fields such as large-scale sensor data and seismic data analysis.

  7. Detecting and characterizing high-frequency oscillations in epilepsy: a case study of big data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Ni, Xuan; Ditto, William L.; Spano, Mark; Carney, Paul R.; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    We develop a framework to uncover and analyse dynamical anomalies from massive, nonlinear and non-stationary time series data. The framework consists of three steps: preprocessing of massive datasets to eliminate erroneous data segments, application of the empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert transform paradigm to obtain the fundamental components embedded in the time series at distinct time scales, and statistical/scaling analysis of the components. As a case study, we apply our framework to detecting and characterizing high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) from a big database of rat electroencephalogram recordings. We find a striking phenomenon: HFOs exhibit on-off intermittency that can be quantified by algebraic scaling laws. Our framework can be generalized to big data-related problems in other fields such as large-scale sensor data and seismic data analysis.

  8. Validation study of HPV DNA detection from stained FNA smears by polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Channir, Hani Ibrahim; Grønhøj Larsen, Christian; Ahlborn, Lise Barlebo;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) often presents with cystic cervical metastasis and a small primary tumor localized in the palatine tonsils or base of the tongue, which is diagnostically challenging. Testing for HPV DNA in fine......-needle aspiration (FNA) smears from metastases may facilitate a targeted diagnostic workup for identifying the primary tumor. This study was designed to assess the ability to detect HPV DNA in FNA smears with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS: May-Grünvald-Giemsa (MGG)-stained FNA smears from metastases...... and corresponding surgical specimens were collected from 71 patients with known HPV-positive OPSCC, 12 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), 20 patients with branchial cleft cysts, and 20 patients with Warthin tumors. Thirty-eight patients with OPSCC and 7 patients with OSCC had FNA smears available...

  9. Benzophenone based fluorophore for selective detection of Sn2 + ion: Experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Amol G.; Shinde, Suvidha S.; Lanke, Sandip K.; Sekar, Nagaiyan

    2017-03-01

    Synthesis of novel benzophenone-based chemosensor is presented for the selective sensing of Sn2 + ion. Screening of competitive metal ions was performed by competitive experiments. The specific cation recognition ability of chemosensor towards Sn2 + was investigated by experimental (UV-visible, fluorescence spectroscopy, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FTIR and HRMS) methods and further supported by Density Functional Theory study. The stoichiometric binding ratio and binding constant (Ka) for complex is found to be 1:1 and 1.50 × 104, respectively. The detection limit of Sn2 + towards chemosensor was found to be 0.3898 ppb. Specific selectivity and superiority of chemosensor over another recently reported chemosensor is presented.

  10. Detection specificity studies of bacteriophage adhesin-coated long-period grating-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koba, Marcin; Śmietana, Mateusz; Brzozowska, Ewa; Górska, Sabina; Mikulic, Predrag; Cusano, Andrea; Bock, Wojtek J.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we present a label-free detection specificity study of an optical fiber long-period grating (LPG) biosensor working near the dispersion turning point of higher order cladding modes. The LPG sensor functionalized with bacteriophage adhesin is tested with specific and non-specific bacteria dry weight. We show that such biosensor is able to selectively bind, thus recognize different bacteria. We use bacteria dry weights of E. coli B as positive test and E. coli K12 and Salmonella enterica as negative tests. The resonance wavelength shift induced by E. coli B reaches over 90 nm, while for E. coli K12 and Salmonella enterica approximately 40 and 20 nm, respectively.

  11. Detection of renal ischemia by in situ microdialysis - an experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Anna Krarup

    Purpose: Acute vascular thrombosis of the renal artery or vein is a feared and devastating complication after renal operations, especially transplantation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate microdialysis as a possible new tool for fast and reliable detection of renal ischemia...... was placed outside, on the renal capsule. The contra lateral kidney was removed. After two hours of baseline measurements, ischemia was introduced by clamping the renal artery or vein in the first two groups. Microdialysis samples were taken every thirty minutes during baseline and the following five hours...... in a porcine model. Material and methods: Twenty healthy anesthetized pigs were randomized to experiments on left or right kidney and into three groups: arterial ischemia (n=8); venous ischemia (n=8) and controls (n=4). One microdialysis catheter was inserted superficially in the renal cortex and one...

  12. A study to detect factors influencing the formation of loyal customers’ mental image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfan Sobhaninia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding customers’ behavior normally helps planning better marketing strategies, which could lead to an increase in market share and profitability. Loyal customers are always considered as the most important assets for any firm. This paper presents a survey to detect factors influencing the formation of loyal customers’ mental image. The proposed study uses factor analysis to determine these factors by designing a questionnaire and distributing among some loyal customers who do banking business in Bank Melli Iran located in city of Tehran, Iran. The results indicate that there were eight important factors influencing customer loyalty including social status, business identity, brand strength, the contract role, organizational benefit, consumer rights, organizational image and supporting power.

  13. Experimental study on detection of electrostatic discharges generated by polymer granules inside a metal silo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwangseok; Mogami, Tomofumi; Suzuki, Teruo

    2014-04-01

    To detect electrostatic discharges generated by polymer granules within a metal silo, we developed a novel and simple electrostatic discharge detector that utilizes a photosensor. The novel detector consists of a photosensor module in a metal cylinder, an optical band-pass filter, a quartz glass, a power supply, an amplifier for the photosensor module, and a digital oscilloscope. In this study, we conducted experiments at a real pneumatic powder transport facility that includes a metal silo to evaluate the novel detector using polypropylene granules. To determine the performance of the novel detector, we observed the electrostatic discharge within the metal silo using a conventional image intensifier system. The results obtained from the experiments show that the novel detector worked well in this study. The signals obtained with the novel detector were identical to the electrostatic discharges obtained with the conventional image intensifier system. The greatest advantage of this novel detector is that it is effective even when placed under external lights. In addition, the influence of various optical band-pass filters on the performance of the novel detector was discussed. Our study confirmed that an optical band-pass filter with a center wavelength of λ 330 nm (λ1/2: 315-345 nm) was the best performer among the optical band-pass filters used in this study.

  14. Study on the Molecular Variation and PCR Detection of Strawberry mottle virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong-yi; LI Li-li; DAI Hong-yan; ZHANG Zhi-hong

    2009-01-01

    Strawberry mottle virus (SMoV) is an important viral pathogen infecting strawberry (Fragaria spp.). The study was conducted to analyze the characterization of the molecular variation of SMoV and develop the methods for detection of SMoV by nested PCR and transcriptional enhancement techniques. The 3' non-coding region (NCR) and large coat protein (LCP) gene of SMoV genome were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The specific segments were cloned and sequenced. The characterization of the molecular variation for some isolates of SMoV and phylogenetic analysis were studied. Based on the primers located in the conserved region of genome of SMoV, SMoV could be steadily detected using semi-nested PCR and transcriptional enhancement techniques. Both semi-nested PCR and transcriptional enhancement techniques were considerably more sensitive than the standard RT-PCR. The nucleotide sequences of NCR and partial LCP gene of Chinese isolates were obtained, and sequence analysis of the partial LCP gene of various SMoV isolates showed nucleotide identities ranging from 76.8 to 99.7%. There was a slight tendency for isolates to group according to their geographical origin. All 3 Polish isolates, 4 isolates of 7 Dutch isolates, and 3 isolates of 4 Chinese isolates formed a small separate branch, respectively. Two Germanic isolates had a far relationship with other isolates, and formed a separate clade. A high level of sequence variability was found among SMoV isolates, and the Germanic isolates were likely to a special strain group.

  15. Studies of Ink Trapping III Direct Detection of Small Air Bubbles in Ink Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuo Naito

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Ink trappings were studied by using polyethylene terephthalate (PET film with black inks for offset proofing and synthetic paper. By observing printed matter from reverse side through the PET film, we detected many air bubbles in the ink layer and between the ink layer and the PET film. They are classified roughly to two groups, small number of large ones (φ = 2 - 5 μm and many small ones (φ = 0.5 - 1.0 μm. The former ones were fixed air bubbles during the trapping. The latter ones decreased according to increase the amount of ink trapped (y. Because number of the air bubbles (Nair bubble increased with increasing the ink distribution time, they seemed to be yielded by suspension of air into the ink layer during ink distribution. By observing printed surface, we also detected many ink peaks (immediately after the trapping and pinholes (at 24 h. The numbers of the ink peaks and pinholes (Nink peak and Npinhole, respectively decreased also with increasing the y value and increased with increasing the ink distribution time. We studied effects of nip width on these values (distribution time = 2 min.; nip width = 2, 3 and 4 mm. The Nair bubble value decreased with increasing nip width contrary to increase the Nink peak and Npinhole values. The effects can be represented by differences in the values of 2 and 4 mm nip widths. At y = 2 gm-2, the difference in the Nair bubble value is about one third (synthetic paper ink or a half (offset proofing ink of the difference in the Nink peak values.

  16. Versatile single-molecule multi-color excitation and detection fluorescence setup for studying biomolecular dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Sobhy, M. A.

    2011-11-07

    Single-molecule fluorescence imaging is at the forefront of tools applied to study biomolecular dynamics both in vitro and in vivo. The ability of the single-molecule fluorescence microscope to conduct simultaneous multi-color excitation and detection is a key experimental feature that is under continuous development. In this paper, we describe in detail the design and the construction of a sophisticated and versatile multi-color excitation and emission fluorescence instrument for studying biomolecular dynamics at the single-molecule level. The setup is novel, economical and compact, where two inverted microscopes share a laser combiner module with six individual laser sources that extend from 400 to 640 nm. Nonetheless, each microscope can independently and in a flexible manner select the combinations, sequences, and intensities of the excitation wavelengths. This high flexibility is achieved by the replacement of conventional mechanical shutters with acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). The use of AOTF provides major advancement by controlling the intensities, duration, and selection of up to eight different wavelengths with microsecond alternation time in a transparent and easy manner for the end user. To our knowledge this is the first time AOTF is applied to wide-field total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy even though it has been commonly used in multi-wavelength confocal microscopy. The laser outputs from the combiner module are coupled to the microscopes by two sets of four single-mode optic fibers in order to allow for the optimization of the TIRF angle for each wavelength independently. The emission is split into two or four spectral channels to allow for the simultaneous detection of up to four different fluorophores of wide selection and using many possible excitation and photoactivation schemes. We demonstrate the performance of this new setup by conducting two-color alternating excitation single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy

  17. A qualitative study describing nursing home nurses sensemaking to detect medication order discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsmeier, Amy; Anderson, Ruth A; Anbari, Allison; Ganong, Lawrence; Farag, Amany; Niemeyer, MaryAnn

    2017-08-04

    Medication reconciliation is a safety practice to identify medication order discrepancies when patients' transitions between settings. In nursing homes, registered nurses (RNs) and licensed practical nurses (LPNs), each group with different education preparation and scope of practice responsibilities, perform medication reconciliation. However, little is known about how they differ in practice when making sense of medication orders to detect discrepancies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe differences in RN and LPN sensemaking when detecting discrepancies. We used a qualitative methodology in a study of 13 RNs and 13 LPNs working in 12 Midwestern United States nursing homes. We used both conventional content analysis and directed content analysis methods to analyze semi-structured interviews. Four resident transfer vignettes embedded with medication order discrepancies guided the interviews. Participants were asked to describe their roles with medication reconciliation and their rationale for identifying medication order discrepancies within the vignettes as well as to share their experiences of performing medication reconciliation. The analysis approach was guided by Weick's Sensemaking theory. RNs provided explicit stories of identifying medication order discrepancies as well as examples of clinical reasoning to assure medication order appropriateness whereas LPNs described comparing medication lists. RNs and LPNs both acknowledged competing demands, but when performing medication reconciliation, RNs were more concerned about accuracy and safety, whereas LPNs were more concerned about time. Nursing home nurses, particularly RNs, are in an important position to identify discrepancies that could cause resident harm. Both RNs and LPNs are valuable assets to nursing home care and keeping residents safe, yet RNs offer a unique contribution to complex processes such as medication reconciliation. Nursing home leaders must acknowledge the differences

  18. SOPROCARE - 450 nm wavelength detection tool for microbial plaque and gingival inflammation: a clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, P.; Liou, Shasan W.; Rechmann, Beate M.; Featherstone, John D.

    2014-02-01

    Gingivitis due to microbial plaque and calculus can lead over time if left untreated to advanced periodontal disease with non-physiological pocket formation. Removal of microbial plaque in the gingivitis stage typically achieves gingival health. The SOPROCARE camera system emits blue light at 450 nm wavelength using three blue diodes. The 450 nm wavelength is located in the non-ionizing, visible spectral wavelength region and thus is not dangerous. It is assumed that using the SOPROCARE camera in perio-mode inflamed gingiva can easily be observed and inflammation can be scored due to fluorescence from porphyrins in blood. The assumption is also that illumination of microbial plaque with blue light induces fluorescence due to the bacteria and porphyrin content of the plaque and thus can help to make microbial plaque and calculus visible. Aim of the study with 55 subjects was to evaluate the ability of the SOPROCARE fluorescence camera system to detect, visualize and allow scoring of microbial plaque in comparison to the Turesky modification of the Quigley and Hein plaque index. A second goal was to detect and score gingival inflammation and correlated the findings to the Silness and Löe gingival inflammation index. The study showed that scoring of microbial plaque as well as gingival inflammation levels similar to the established Turesky modified Quigley Hein index and the Silness and Löe gingival inflammation index can easily be done using the SOPROCARE fluorescence system in periomode. Linear regression fits between the different clinical indices and SOPROCARE scores in fluorescence perio-mode revealed the system's capacity for effective discrimination between scores.

  19. Detection of microsleep events in a car driving simulation study using electrocardiographic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenis Gustavo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microsleep events (MSE are short intrusions of sleep under the demand of sustained attention. They can impose a major threat to safety while driving a car and are considered one of the most significant causes of traffic accidents. Driver’s fatigue and MSE account for up to 20% of all car crashes in Europe and at least 100,000 accidents in the US every year. Unfortunately, there is not a standardized test developed to quantify the degree of vigilance of a driver. To account for this problem, different approaches based on biosignal analysis have been studied in the past. In this paper, we investigate an electrocardiographic-based detection of MSE using morphological and rhythmical features. 14 records from a car driving simulation study with a high incidence of MSE were analyzed and the behavior of the ECG features before and after an MSE in relation to reference baseline values (without drowsiness were investigated. The results show that MSE cannot be detected (or predicted using only the ECG. However, in the presence of MSE, the rhythmical and morphological features were observed to be significantly different than the ones calculated for the reference signal without sleepiness. In particular, when MSE were present, the heart rate diminished while the heart rate variability increased. Time distances between P wave and R peak, and R peak and T wave and their dispersion increased also. This demonstrates a noticeable change of the autonomous regulation of the heart. In future, the ECG parameter could be used as a surrogate measure of fatigue.

  20. Fat Content Modulates Rapid Detection of Food: A Visual Search Study Using Fast Food and Japanese Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiko Sawada

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid detection of food is crucial for the survival of organisms. However, previous visual search studies have reported discrepant results regarding the detection speeds for food vs. non-food items; some experiments showed faster detection of food than non-food, whereas others reported null findings concerning any speed advantage for the detection of food vs. non-food. Moreover, although some previous studies showed that fat content can affect visual attention for food, the effect of fat content on the detection of food remains unclear. To investigate these issues, we measured reaction times (RTs during a visual search task in which participants with normal weight detected high-fat food (i.e., fast food, low-fat food (i.e., Japanese diet, and non-food (i.e., kitchen utensils targets within crowds of non-food distractors (i.e., cars. Results showed that RTs for food targets were shorter than those for non-food targets. Moreover, the RTs for high-fat food were shorter than those for low-fat food. These results suggest that food is more rapidly detected than non-food within the environment and that a higher fat content in food facilitates rapid detection.

  1. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation with on-line detection for drug transfer studies: a feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinna, A.; Steiniger, F.; Hupfeld, S.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge about drug retention within colloidal carriers is of uppermost importance particularly if drug targeting is anticipated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) with on-line UV/VIS drug quantification for its suitability to determine...... both release and transfer of drug from liposomal carriers to a model acceptor phase consisting of large liposomes. The hydrophobic porphyrin 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-hydroxyphenyl)21H,23H-porphine (p-THPP), a fluorescent dye with an absorbance maximum in the visible range and structural similarity...... channel geometries. Drug quantification by on-line absorbance measurements was established by comprehensive evaluation of the size-dependent turbidity contribution in on-line UV/VIS detection and by comparison with off-line results obtained for the respective dye-loaded donor formulations (dissolved...

  2. A comparative study of the diagnostic accuracy on Waters view with CT scan in detecting midface fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Panjnoush M.; Shirani Gh.; Jozghanbari P.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Aim: In recent years, CT scan has become available as an alternative to conventional radiography. To date, the utility of Waters view in detecting midface fractures has been rarely evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy and reliability of Waters radiography with CT scan in detecting midface fractures. Materials and Methods: In this tests evaluation study, waters view and CT scan were performed for 42 patients with midface fracture admitted to ma...

  3. Comparison of magnetic resonance urography with ultrasound studies in detection of fetal urogenital anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Payabvash, Seyedmehdi; Sadeghi, Zhina; Elmi, Azadeh; Jamal, Ashraf; Hantoshzadeh, Zohreh; Eslami, Laleh; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad

    2008-02-01

    Prenatal ultrasonography detects the vast majority of urogenital anomalies, but in some cases the diagnosis remains in doubt. We assessed the potential of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) in the evaluation of different urogenital anomalies in fetuses when ultrasound study was equivocal. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 46 fetuses in whom the presence of urogenital anomalies was suspected at ultrasound studies, but remained inconclusive. Fetal MRU was performed within the same week as ultrasound studies. All patients underwent MRU, comprising overview, fast, thick-slab, heavily T2-weighted sequences, followed by focused, high-resolution T2-weighted sequences obtained in sagittal, axial and coronal planes. T1-weighted sequences were obtained in selected cases for assessment of the gastrointestinal tract. All MRU results were compared with ultrasound findings. Sensitivity of each imaging modality was estimated based on definite diagnoses made after birth or abortion. The mean (range) gestational age was 27 (18-36)weeks. The final diagnosis was ureteropelvic junction obstruction in 12, ureteral dilation (due to vesicoureteral junction obstruction) in five, ureterocele in five, posterior urethral valve in 16, multicystic dysplastic kidney in six, mesenteric cyst in one and abdominoscrotal hydrocele in one. Overall diagnostic sensitivity of fetal MRU was 96% compared to sonography with 58% sensitivity (pMRU studies provided additional information to sonography in 17 (37%) cases, and were especially more sensitive in evaluation of ureteral anatomy. Fetal MRU can accurately diagnose a wide variety of urinary tract disorders and must be regarded as a valuable complementary tool to ultrasound in the assessment of the urinary system, particularly in cases of inconclusive ultrasound findings. The present study had a selection bias, as only fetuses with possible anomalies proposed by sonography were referred for MRU; however, this is the population that

  4. Real-time porphyrin detection in plaque and caries: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshchuk, Mari-Alina I.; Ridge, Jeremy S.; Rugg, Amanda L.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Kim, Amy S.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-02-01

    An ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope, originally developed for cancer diagnosis, was used in a case study to locate plaque and caries. The imaging system incorporated software mitigation of background auto-fluorescence (AF). In conventional fluorescence imaging, varying AF across a tooth surface can mask low-level porphyrin signals. Laser-induced auto-fluorescence signals of dental tissue excited using a 405-nm laser typically produce fluorescence over a wavelength range extending from 440-nm to 750-nm. Anaerobic bacterial metabolism produces various porphyrin species (eg. protoporphyrin IX) that are located in carious enamel, dentin, gingivitis sites, and plaque. In our case study, these porphyrin deposits remained as long as one day after prophylaxis. Imaging the tooth surface using 405-nm excitation and subtracting the natural AF enhances the image contrast of low-level porphyrin deposits, which would otherwise be masked by the high background AF. In a case study, healthy tissues as well as sites of early and advanced caries formations were scanned for visual and quantitative signs of red fluorescence associated with porphyrin species using a background mitigation algorithm. Initial findings show increasing amplitudes of red fluorescence as caries severity increases from early to late stages. Sites of plaque accumulation also displayed red fluorescence similar to that found in carious dental tissue. The use of real-time background mitigation of natural dental AF can enhance the detection of low porphyrin concentrations that are indicators of early stage caries formation.

  5. Feasibility study of a mini fuel cell to detect interference from a cellular phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M. O.; Gan, Y. K.

    Fuel cells produce electricity without involving combustion processes. They generate no noise, vibration or air pollution and are therefore suitable for use in many vibration-free power-generating applications. In this study, a mini alkaline fuel cell signal detector system has been designed, constructed and tested. The initial results have shown the applicability of such system for used as an indicator of signal disturbance from cellular phones. A small disturbance even at 4 mV cm -1, corresponding to an amplitude of 12-18 mG in terms of electromagnetic field, can be well detected by such a device. Subsequently, a thermodynamics model has been developed to provide a parametric study by simulation to show the likely performance of the fuel cell alone in other environments. As such the model can provide many useful generic design data for alkaline fuel cells. Two general conclusions can be drawn from the present theoretical study: (i) fuel cell performance increases with temperature, pressure and correction factor, C f; (ii) the temperature factor (E/ T) increases with increasing temperature and with increasing pressure factor.

  6. Detection of putative periodontopathic bacteria in type 1 diabetic and healthy children: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnudurai Arangannal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to compare and assess the risk of periodontitis due to the presence of four putative periodontopathic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in type 1 diabetic and healthy children. Materials and Methods: Fifty type 1 diabetic and 50 healthy children in the age group of 7-14 years were recruited for the study. Subgingival plaque samples collected from permanent first molars were subjected to polymerase chain reaction assay to detect 16S rRNA gene of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola and A. actinomycetemcomitans. The data were analyzed using Fisher exact test. The P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of subgingival periodontal pathogens in diabetic and healthy children was 2% and 4% for P. gingivalis, 34% and 34% for T. denticola, 20% and 18% for A. actinomycetemcomitans and for T. forsythia, 4% and 34%, respectively. Significant statistical difference was not observed with regard to the prevalence of P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and A. actinomycetemcomitans among type 1 diabetic and healthy children (P = 1.00. Conversely, T. forsythia was less prevalent in diabetic children compared to healthy children. Conclusion: Statistical significance was not observed for the prevalence of periodontopathic bacteria in type 1 diabetic subjects. The results of the present study thus reveal the absence of risk of periodontitis by these bacterial species in type 1 diabetic subjects.

  7. Study to Determine the Biological Feasibility of a New Fish Tagging System, 1998-2000 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Sandra L.

    2001-05-01

    Since 1984, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has conducted an ongoing research and development project to expand and improve technology for Passive-Integrated-Transponder tags (PIT tags) throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB). Work conducted as part of this project during 1999-2000 was divided into six individual projects, which are covered separately in this report.

  8. Detection of fast radio transients with multiple stations: a case study using the Very Long Baseline Array

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, David R; Brisken, Walter; Deller, Adam T; Majid, Walid A; Tingay, Steven J; Wayth, Randall B

    2011-01-01

    Recent investigations reveal an important new class of transient radio phenomena that occur on sub-millisecond timescales. Often transient surveys' data volumes are too large to archive exhaustively. Instead, an on-line automatic system must excise impulsive interference and detect candidate events in real-time. This work presents a case study using data from multiple geographically distributed stations to perform simultaneous interference excision and transient detection. We present several algorithms that incorporate dedispersed data from multiple sites, and report experiments with a commensal real-time transient detection system on the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). We test the system using observations of pulsar B0329+54. The multiple-station algorithms enhanced sensitivity for detection of individual pulses. These strategies could improve detection performance for a future generation of geographically distributed arrays such as the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder and the Square Kilometre A...

  9. Estimation of seismically detectable portion of a gas plume: CO2CRC Otway project case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevzner, Roman; Caspari, Eva; Bona, Andrej; Galvin, Robert; Gurevich, Boris

    2013-04-01

    CO2CRC Otway project comprises of several experiments involving CO2/CH4 or pure CO2 gas injection into different geological formations at the Otway test site (Victoria, Australia). During the first stage of the project, which was finished in 2010, more than 64,000 t of gas were injected into the depleted gas reservoir at ~2 km depth. At the moment, preparations for the next stage of the project aiming to examine capabilities of seismic monitoring of small scale injection (up to 15,000 t) into saline formation are ongoing. Time-lapse seismic is one of the most typical methods for CO2 geosequestration monitoring. Significant experience was gained during the first stage of the project through acquisition and analysis of the 4D surface seismic and numerous time-lapse VSP surveys. In order to justify the second stage of the project and optimise parameters of the experiment, several modelling studies were conducted. In order to predict seismic signal we populate realistic geological model with elastic properties, model their changes using fluid substitution technique applied to the fluid flow simulation results and compute synthetic seismic baseline and monitor volumes. To assess detectability of the time-lapse signal caused by the injection, we assume that the time-lapse noise level will be equivalent to the level of difference between the last two Otway 3D surveys acquired in 2009 and 2010 using conventional surface technique (15,000 lbs vibroseis sources and single geophones as the receivers). In order to quantify the uncertainties in plume imaging/visualisation due to the time-lapse noise realisation we propose to use multiple noise realisations with the same F-Kx-Ky amplitude spectra as the field noise for each synthetic signal volume. Having signal detection criterion defined in the terms of signal/time- lapse noise level on a single trace we estimate visible portion of the plume as a function of this criterion. This approach also gives an opportunity to attempt to

  10. Study on the Early Detection and Clinico—pathologic Staging of Colorectal Cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGShu; CAIShanrong; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective To confim an effective and practicable screening model for early detection of colorectal cancer(CRC),and to modify an ac-ceptable and reasonable staging of CRC for predicting prognosis and to define the therapeutic strategy. Methods Data from 3 case-control studies have been used for selecting the high risk factors of CRC to optimize Sequencing Screening Model (SSM).The fieldwork recalls have been utilized to compare the sensitivity,specificity and Youden Index between the SSMand the optimized one.The 1722 individuals have been used to evaluate the Optimized Sequencing Screening Model(OPSM).From 1980 to 1995, 1334 cases of CRC pathologically confimed have been analyzed for 3-,5-and 10-year survival rates.All tests were performed at the 0.05 level of significances.Statistical analysis was conducted by using the SPSS 10.0 statistic software. Results A simple questionnaire and RPHA-FOB test as the screening model for early detecting CRC had been proved as an optimized screening model.The sensitivity,specificity and Youden Index of the optimized model were higher than those of SSM.From the 1722 indi-viduals 4Dukes' Aand 5 Dukes' B CRC were screened out.Analysis of the 3-,5- and 10-year survival rated revealed that there were statistically significant differences between serosa and extraserosa.The 3-,5- and 10-year survival rates were 0.91±0.06,0.84±0.07,0.81±0.07 respectively in cancer involved to the serosa group,but in extraserosa group the survival rates were 0.82±0.03,0.74±0.03,0.63±0.04 respectively.The survival rate of serosa level involved was higher than that of extraserosa and/or rectrm wall fat .There-fore ,these two levels should be separated in the clinico-pathologic staging of CRC. Conclusion The optimized screening model is suitable to early detection of the CRC. Due to different survival rates of different layers in-volved ,the Dukes B (or stage Ⅱ) should be divided into Dukes B1 or stage Ⅱa (serosa )and Dukes B2 or stage

  11. Study of Prevalence of Neonatal Septicaemia and Detection of Antibiotic Resistance in Besat Hospital in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bahmani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Septicemia is one of the most important neonatal diseases which occurrs as a result of bacterial infection. The major criterion for its diagnosis is based on body fluid cultures specially blood culture. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of septicemia and also detection of isolated bacterial sensitivity to selected antibiotics in neonatal ward of Besat Hospital. Methods: This study is descriptive. Blood cultures were ordered for all hospitalized neonates. A questionnaire including clinical manifestations of septicemia such as fever, hyporeflexia, hypothermia, cyanosis, abdominal distention, loss of appetite and jaundice was filled out for every neonate clinically suspected of having septicemia. At last the collected data were analyzed by means of SPSS software and descriptive statistics. Results: This study included 700 specimen of blood cultures, 17.6% of the cases were suspected of having septicemia but %30 of them had positive blood cultures. The most common species isolated was coagulase negative staphylococci. As to sign and symptoms hyporeflexia, juandice, and anorexia were detected most frequently. Sensitivity of gram negative bacteria to ciprofloxacin was 100% & to cefotaxime 66.7%. Sensitivity of gram positive bacteria to cephalotin was 43%, while gram negative bacteria had highest resistance rate to ampicilin & cephalotine in 100% and gram positive bacteria to oxacilin in 68.6% & cotrimoxasol in 62.9% of the cases. In this study prevalence of septicemia in those having positive blood cultures was 30% with a mortality rate of 4.9%. Conclusion: This research shows that clinical manifestation is not enough for the diagnosis of septicemia and blood cultures should be considered necessary in suspected cases. Considering high resistance rate of isolated bacteria to ampicilin & cephalotin, culture and antibiogram can be of great value to select suitable antibiotic. Ciprofloxacin can be regarded as the drug of

  12. Detecting and Diagnosing Atrial Fibrillation (D2AF): study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Uittenbogaart, Steven B.; Verbiest-van Gurp, Nicole; Erkens, Petra M. G.; Lucassen, Wim A M; Knottnerus, J. André; Winkens, Bjorn; van Weert, Henk C P M; Stoffers, Henri E. J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation is a common cause of stroke and other morbidity. Adequate treatment with anticoagulants reduces the risk of stroke by 60 %. Early detection and treatment of atrial fibrillation could prevent strokes. Atrial fibrillation is often asymptomatic and/or paroxysmal. Case-finding with pulse palpation is an effective screening method, but new methods for detecting atrial fibrillation have been developed. To detect paroxysmal atrial fibrillation ambulatory rhythm recordi...

  13. Detection of OXA-48-like and NDM carbapenemases producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Jordan: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqel, Amin A; Giakkoupi, Panagiota; Alzoubi, Hamed; Masalha, Ibrahim; Ellington, Matthew J; Vatopoulos, Alkiviadis

    Little is known of carbapenemase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CPK) in Jordan. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of CPK in a major hospital in Amman, Jordan in 2012-2013 and to characterize the isolates and detect the types of carbapenemase(s) they produced. For the 296 isolates investigated, species identification and antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined (Vitek II, bioMérieux). Isolates with decreased ertapenem susceptibility were tested for carbapenemase production using the Modified Hodge Test. Isolates with a carbapenemase-positive phenotype were characterized further via multiplex PCRs for extended-spectrum β-lactamase and carbapenemase genes and by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Seven of 296 K. pneumoniae isolated in 2012-2013 (2.4%) were carbapenemase producers, five produced class D carbapenemases (OXA-48-like) and two produced a NDM metallo-beta-lactamase. All seven isolates also encoded CTX-M enzymes; CTX-M-1-like enzymes were detected in five isolates (two co-producing NDM enzymes and three co-producing OXA-48-like enzymes), CTX-M-9 was found in the two remaining OXA-48-like producers. PFGE revealed five genetically distinct types amongst the seven carbapenemase producing K. pneumoniae, with two pairs of identical isolates associated with patients treated on the same wards. The emergence of OXA-48-like and NDM carbapenemases associated with multi-drug resistant (MDR) isolates in Jordan is concerning. The strict implementation of infection control practices will help to disrupt the spread of MDR carbapenemase producers in Jordanian hospitals.

  14. Rapid detection of bacteria in drinking water and water contamination case studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rolf A. Deininger; Jiyoung Lee; Robert M. Clark

    2011-01-01

    Water systems are inherently vulnerable to physical,chemical and biologic threats that might compromise a systems' ability to reliably deliver safe water.The ability of a water supply to provide water to its customers can be compromised by destroying or disrupting key physical elements of the water system.However,contamination is generally viewed as the most serious potential terrorist threat to water systems.Chemical or biologic agents could spread throughout a distribution system and result in sickness or death among the consumers and for some agents the presence of the contaminant might not be known until.emergency rooms report an increase in patients with a particular set of symptoms.Even without serious health impacts,just the knowledge that a water system had been breached could seriously undermine consumer confidence in public water supplies.Therefore,the ability to rapidly detect contamination,especially microbiological contamination,is highly desirable.The authors summarize water contamination case studies and discuss a technique for identifying microbiological contamination based on ATP bioluminescence.This assay allows an estimation of bacterial populations within minutes and can be applied using a local platform.Previous ATP-based methods requires one hour,one liter of water,and has a sensitivity of 100000 cells for detection.The improved method discussed here is 100 times more sensitive,requires one-hundredth of the sample volume,and is over 10 times faster than standard method.This technique has a great deal of potential for application in situations in which a water system has been compromised.

  15. Detection of antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis melanin in in vitro and in vivo studies during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urán, Martha E; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J; Gómez, Beatriz L; Cano, Luz E

    2011-10-01

    Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We identified five immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) κ-chain and four IgM melanin-binding MAbs. The five IgG1 κ-chain isotypes are the first melanin-binding IgG MAbs ever reported. The nine MAbs labeled P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast cells both in vitro and in pulmonary tissues. The MAbs cross-reacted with melanin-like purified particles from other fungi and also with commercial melanins, such as synthetic and Sepia officinalis melanin. Melanization during paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) was also further supported by the detection of IgG antibodies reactive to melanin from P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from P. brasiliensis-infected mice, as well as in sera from human patients with PCM. Serum specimens from patients with other mycoses were also tested for melanin-binding antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cross-reactivities were detected for melanin particles from different fungal sources. These results suggest that melanin from P. brasiliensis is an immunologically active fungal structure that activates a strong IgG humoral response in humans and mice.

  16. Selection, Characterization and Interaction Studies of a DNA Aptamer for the Detection of Bifidobacterium bifidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujun Hu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A whole-bacterium-based SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment procedure was adopted in this study for the selection of an ssDNA aptamer that binds to Bifidobacterium bifidum. After 12 rounds of selection targeted against B. bifidum, 30 sequences were obtained and divided into seven families according to primary sequence homology and similarity of secondary structure. Four FAM (fluorescein amidite labeled aptamer sequences from different families were selected for further characterization by flow cytometric analysis. The results reveal that the aptamer sequence CCFM641-5 demonstrated high-affinity and specificity for B. bifidum compared with the other sequences tested, and the estimated Kd value was 10.69 ± 0.89 nM. Additionally, sequence truncation experiments of the aptamer CCFM641-5 led to the conclusion that the 5′-primer and 3′-primer binding sites were essential for aptamer-target binding. In addition, the possible component of the target B. bifidum, bound by the aptamer CCFM641-5, was identified as a membrane protein by treatment with proteinase. Furthermore, to prove the potential application of the aptamer CCFM641-5, a colorimetric bioassay of the sandwich-type structure was used to detect B. bifidum. The assay had a linear range of 104 to 107 cfu/mL (R2 = 0.9834. Therefore, the colorimetric bioassay appears to be a promising method for the detection of B. bifidum based on the aptamer CCFM641-5.

  17. Early error detection predicted by reduced pre-response control process: an ERP topographic mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourtois, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Advanced ERP topographic mapping techniques were used to study error monitoring functions in human adult participants, and test whether proactive attentional effects during the pre-response time period could later influence early error detection mechanisms (as measured by the ERN component) or not. Participants performed a speeded go/nogo task, and made a substantial number of false alarms that did not differ from correct hits as a function of behavioral speed or actual motor response. While errors clearly elicited an ERN component generated within the dACC following the onset of these incorrect responses, I also found that correct hits were associated with a different sequence of topographic events during the pre-response baseline time-period, relative to errors. A main topographic transition from occipital to posterior parietal regions (including primarily the precuneus) was evidenced for correct hits ~170-150 ms before the response, whereas this topographic change was markedly reduced for errors. The same topographic transition was found for correct hits that were eventually performed slower than either errors or fast (correct) hits, confirming the involvement of this distinctive posterior parietal activity in top-down attentional control rather than motor preparation. Control analyses further ensured that this pre-response topographic effect was not related to differences in stimulus processing. Furthermore, I found a reliable association between the magnitude of the ERN following errors and the duration of this differential precuneus activity during the pre-response baseline, suggesting a functional link between an anticipatory attentional control component subserved by the precuneus and early error detection mechanisms within the dACC. These results suggest reciprocal links between proactive attention control and decision making processes during error monitoring.

  18. Shear wave elastography for detection of prostate cancer: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sung Min; Kim, Sang Youn; Cho, Jeong Yeon; KIm, Seung Hyup [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    To assess the diagnostic value of shear wave elastography (SWE) for prostate cancer detection. In this retrospective study, 87 patients with the suspicion of prostate cancer (prostate-specific antigen > 4 ng/mL and abnormal digital rectal examination) underwent a protocol-based systematic 12-core biopsy followed by targeted biopsy at hypoechoic areas on grey-scale ultrasound. Prior to biopsy, SWE was performed by placing two circular 5 mm-sized regions of interest (ROIs) along the estimated biopsy tract in each sector and one ROI for hypoechoic lesions. SWE parameters, S (mean stiffness) and R (mean stiffness ratio), were calculated and compared regarding different histopathologic tissues and their accuracy for diagnosing prostate cancer was analyzed. SWE parameters were correlated with Gleason score and were compared between indolent (< 8) and aggressive (≥ 8) tissues in prostate cancer patients. Prostate cancer was detected in 7.5% of 1058 cores in 29.9% of 87 patients. Seven (43.8%) of 16 hypoechoic lesions were confirmed as prostate cancer. SWE parameters were significantly different among the histopathologic entities (p < 0.001). Prostate cancer was stiffer than benign tissues (p ≤ 0.003). Sensitivity, specificity and receiver operating characteristic curve area for diagnosing cancer were 43%, 80.8%, and 0.599, respectively, for a cutoff of S > 43.9 kPa and 60.8%, 66.4%, and 0.653, respectively, for R > 3. Both, S and R showed a significant correlation with Gleason score (r ≥ 0.296, p ≤ 0.008) and were significantly different between indolent and aggressive prostate cancer (p ≤ 0.006). Shear wave elastographic parameters are significantly different between prostate cancer and benign prostate tissue and correlate with Gleason score.

  19. Shear wave elastography for detection of prostate cancer: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sungmin; Kim, Sang Youn; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2014-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of shear wave elastography (SWE) for prostate cancer detection. In this retrospective study, 87 patients with the suspicion of prostate cancer (prostate-specific antigen > 4 ng/mL and abnormal digital rectal examination) underwent a protocol-based systematic 12-core biopsy followed by targeted biopsy at hypoechoic areas on grey-scale ultrasound. Prior to biopsy, SWE was performed by placing two circular 5 mm-sized regions of interest (ROIs) along the estimated biopsy tract in each sector and one ROI for hypoechoic lesions. SWE parameters, S (mean stiffness) and R (mean stiffness ratio), were calculated and compared regarding different histopathologic tissues and their accuracy for diagnosing prostate cancer was analyzed. SWE parameters were correlated with Gleason score and were compared between indolent (prostate cancer patients. Prostate cancer was detected in 7.5% of 1058 cores in 29.9% of 87 patients. Seven (43.8%) of 16 hypoechoic lesions were confirmed as prostate cancer. SWE parameters were significantly different among the histopathologic entities (p Prostate cancer was stiffer than benign tissues (p ≤ 0.003). Sensitivity, specificity and receiver operating characteristic curve area for diagnosing cancer were 43%, 80.8%, and 0.599, respectively, for a cutoff of S > 43.9 kPa and 60.8%, 66.4%, and 0.653, respectively, for R > 3. Both, S and R showed a significant correlation with Gleason score (r ≥ 0.296, p ≤ 0.008) and were significantly different between indolent and aggressive prostate cancer (p ≤ 0.006). Shear wave elastographic parameters are significantly different between prostate cancer and benign prostate tissue and correlate with Gleason score.

  20. Early Detection of Plant Equipment Failures: A Case Study in Just-in-Time Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Kim, Kyusung; Bharadwaj, Raj M.

    2001-06-17

    The development and testing of a model-based fault detection system for electric motors is briefly presented. The fault detection system was developed using only motor nameplate information. The fault detection results presented utilize only motor voltage and current sensor information, minimizing the need for expensive or intrusive sensors. Dynamic recurrent neural networks are used to predict the input-output response of a three-phase induction motor while using an estimate of the motor speed signal. Multiresolution (or wavelet) signal-processing techniques are used in combination with more traditional methods to estimate fault features for use in winding insulation and motor mechanical and electromechanical failure detection.

  1. Detection and Quantification of Free Radicals in Peroxisomal Disorders: A Comparative Study with Oxidative Stress Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elmaksoud, Sohair Abd-El Mawgood; El-Bassyouni, Hala; Afifi, Hanan; Thomas, Manal Micheal; Shalaby, Aliaa; Hamid, Tamer Ahmed Abdel; Hamid, Nehal Abdel; El-Ghobary, Hany

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Free radicals have been thought to participate in pathogenesis of peroxisomal disorders. Objective The aim of the work is to detect free oxide radicals in blood of patients with peroxisomal disorders and to study their relation with various oxidative stress parameters. Materials and Methods Twenty patients with peroxisomal disorders and 14 age and sex matched healthy subjects were included in the study. Patients with peroxisomal disorders were subdivided according to diagnosis into peroxisomal biogenesis disorders and single enzyme deficiency. Oxidative stress was evaluated in both patients and control subjects by assessment of free radicals, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide metabolites and superoxide dismutase. Results There was increase in free radicals, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide metabolites in patients compared with control subjects. However, there was decrease in superoxide dismutase levels in patients compared with control subjects. Conclusion We concluded that there is excess free radicals production accompanied with decrease in antioxidant defenses in patients with peroxisomal disorders. These results strongly support a role of free radicals in the pathophysiology of peroxisomal disorders and strengthen the importance of oxidative stress phenomenon in peroxisomal disorders pathogenesis. PMID:26674249

  2. Snake scales, partial exposure, and the Snake Detection Theory: A human event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Isbell, Lynne A

    2017-04-07

    Studies of event-related potentials in humans have established larger early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to pictures depicting snakes than to pictures depicting other creatures. Ethological research has recently shown that macaques and wild vervet monkeys respond strongly to partially exposed snake models and scale patterns on the snake skin. Here, we examined whether snake skin patterns and partially exposed snakes elicit a larger EPN in humans. In Task 1, we employed pictures with close-ups of snake skins, lizard skins, and bird plumage. In task 2, we employed pictures of partially exposed snakes, lizards, and birds. Participants watched a random rapid serial visual presentation of these pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity (225-300 ms after picture onset) at occipital and parieto-occipital electrodes. Consistent with previous studies, and with the Snake Detection Theory, the EPN was significantly larger for snake skin pictures than for lizard skin and bird plumage pictures, and for lizard skin pictures than for bird plumage pictures. Likewise, the EPN was larger for partially exposed snakes than for partially exposed lizards and birds. The results suggest that the EPN snake effect is partly driven by snake skin scale patterns which are otherwise rare in nature.

  3. Detecting Genetic Isolation in Human Populations: A Study of European Language Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capocasa, Marco; Battaggia, Cinzia; Anagnostou, Paolo; Montinaro, Francesco; Boschi, Ilaria; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Coia, Valentina; Crivellaro, Federica; Bisol, Giovanni Destro

    2013-01-01

    The identification of isolation signatures is fundamental to better understand the genetic structure of human populations and to test the relations between cultural factors and genetic variation. However, with current approaches, it is not possible to distinguish between the consequences of long-term isolation and the effects of reduced sample size, selection and differential gene flow. To overcome these limitations, we have integrated the analysis of classical genetic diversity measures with a Bayesian method to estimate gene flow and have carried out simulations based on the coalescent. Combining these approaches, we first tested whether the relatively short history of cultural and geographical isolation of four “linguistic islands” of the Eastern Alps (Lessinia, Sauris, Sappada and Timau) had left detectable signatures in their genetic structure. We then compared our findings to previous studies of European population isolates. Finally, we explored the importance of demographic and cultural factors in shaping genetic diversity among the groups under study. A combination of small initial effective size and continued genetic isolation from surrounding populations seems to provide a coherent explanation for the diversity observed among Sauris, Sappada and Timau, which was found to be substantially greater than in other groups of European isolated populations. Simulations of micro-evolutionary scenarios indicate that ethnicity might have been important in increasing genetic diversity among these culturally related and spatially close populations. PMID:23418562

  4. Microwave Radiometers for Fire Detection in Trains: Theory and Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimenti, Federico; Roselli, Luca; Bonafoni, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the theory of fire detection in moving vehicles by microwave radiometers. The system analysis is discussed and a feasibility study is illustrated on the basis of two implementation hypotheses. The basic idea is to have a fixed radiometer and to look inside the glass windows of the wagon when it passes in front of the instrument antenna. The proposed sensor uses a three-pixel multi-beam configuration that allows an image to be formed by the movement of the train itself. Each pixel is constituted by a direct amplification microwave receiver operating at 31.4 GHz. At this frequency, the antenna can be a 34 cm offset parabolic dish, whereas a 1 K brightness temperature resolution is achievable with an overall system noise figure of 6 dB, an observation bandwidth of 2 GHz and an integration time of 1 ms. The effect of the detector noise is also investigated and several implementation hypotheses are discussed. The presented study is important since it could be applied to the automatic fire alarm in trains and moving vehicles with dielectric wall/windows. PMID:27322280

  5. Reccomendations for the detection, study and referral of inflammatory low-back pain in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juanola Roura, Xavier; Collantes Estévez, Eduardo; León Vázquez, Fernando; Torres Villamor, Antonio; García Yébenes, María Jesús; Queiro Silva, Rubén; Gratacós Masmitja, Jordi; García Criado, Emilio; Giménez, Sergio; Carmona, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    To design a strategy for the early detection and referral of patients with possible spondyloarthritis based on recommendations developed, agreed upon, and directed to primary care physicians. We used a modified RAND/UCLA methodology plus a systematic literature review. The information was presented to a discussion group formed by rheumatologists and primary care physicians. The group studied the process map and proposed recommendations and algorithms that were subsequently submitted in two Delphi rounds to a larger group of rheumatologists and primary care physicians. The final set of recommendations was derived from the analysis of the second Delphi round. We present the recommendations, along with their mean level of agreement, on the early referral of patients with possible spondyloarthritis. The panel recommends that the study of chronic low back pain in patients under 45 years be performed in four phases 1) clinical: key questions, 2) clinical: extra questions, 3) physical examination, and 4) additional tests. The level of agreement with these simple recommendations is high. It is necessary to design strategies for the education and sensitization from rheumatology services to maintain an optimal collaboration with primary care and to facilitate referral to rheumatology departments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. A microcosting study of diagnostic tests for the detection of coronary artery disease in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, S.S. [Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: s.s.tan@erasmusmc.nl; Oppe, M. [Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.oppe@erasmusmc.nl; Zoet-Nugteren, S.K. [Ikazia Hospital Rotterdam, Department of Cardiology, P.O. Box 5009, 3008 AA Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: sk.zoet@ikazia.nl; Niezen, R.A. [Medical Center Rijnmond-Zuid, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 9100, 3007 AC Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: niezenr@mcrz.nl; Kofflard, M.J.M. [Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Department of Cardiology, P.O. Box 444, 3300 AK Dordrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.j.m.kofflard@asz.nl; Ten Cate, F.J. [Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: f.j.tencate@erasmusmc.nl; Roijen, L. Hakkaart-van [Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: l.hakkaart-vanroijen@erasmusmc.nl

    2009-10-15

    Objective: The primary aim of the present study was to calculate the actual costs of four diagnostic tests for the detection of coronary artery disease in the Netherlands using a microcosting methodology. As a secondary objective, the cost effectiveness of eight diagnostic strategies was examined, using microcosting and reimbursement fees subsequently as the cost estimate. Design: A multicenter, retrospective cost analysis from a hospital perspective. Setting: The study was conducted in three general hospitals in the Netherlands for 2006. Interventions: Exercise electrocardiography (exECG), stress echocardiography (sECHO), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and coronary angiography (CA). Results: The actual costs of exECG, sECHO, SPECT and CA were Euro 33, 216, 614 and 1300 respectively. For all diagnostic tests, labour and indirect cost components (overheads and capital) together accounted for over 75% of the total costs. Consumables played a relatively important role in SPECT (14%). Hotel and nutrition were only applicable to SPECT and CA. Diagnostic services were solely performed for CA, but their costs were negligible (2%). Using microcosting estimates, exECG-sECHO-SPECT-CA was the most and CA the least cost effective strategy ( Euro 397 and 1302 per accurately diagnosed patient). Using reimbursement fees, exECG-sECHO-CA was most and SPECT-CA least cost effective ( Euro 147 and 567 per accurately diagnosed patient). Conclusions: The use of microcosting estimates instead of reimbursement fees led to different conclusions regarding the relative cost effectiveness of alternative strategies.

  7. Microwave Radiometers for Fire Detection in Trains: Theory and Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Alimenti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the theory of fire detection in moving vehicles by microwave radiometers. The system analysis is discussed and a feasibility study is illustrated on the basis of two implementation hypotheses. The basic idea is to have a fixed radiometer and to look inside the glass windows of the wagon when it passes in front of the instrument antenna. The proposed sensor uses a three-pixel multi-beam configuration that allows an image to be formed by the movement of the train itself. Each pixel is constituted by a direct amplification microwave receiver operating at 31.4 GHz. At this frequency, the antenna can be a 34 cm offset parabolic dish, whereas a 1 K brightness temperature resolution is achievable with an overall system noise figure of 6 dB, an observation bandwidth of 2 GHz and an integration time of 1 ms. The effect of the detector noise is also investigated and several implementation hypotheses are discussed. The presented study is important since it could be applied to the automatic fire alarm in trains and moving vehicles with dielectric wall/windows.

  8. Hydrogen uptake in Zircaloy-2 reactor fuel claddings studied with elastic recoil detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekhara, S.; Doyle, B. L.; Enos, D. G.; Clark, B. G.

    2013-04-01

    The recent trend towards a high burn-up discharge spent nuclear fuel necessitates a thorough understanding of hydrogen uptake in Zr-based cladding materials that encapsulate spent nuclear fuel. Although it is challenging to experimentally replicate exact conditions in a nuclear reactor that lead to hydrogen uptake in claddings, in this study we have attempted to understand the kinetics of hydrogen uptake by first electrolytically charging Zircaloy-2 (Zr-2) cladding material for various durations (100 to 2,600 s), and subsequently examining hydrogen ingress with elastic recoil detection (ERD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To understand the influence of irradiation damage defects on hydrogen uptake, an analogous study was performed on ion - irradiated (0.1, 1 and 25 dpa) Zr-2. Analysis of ERD data from the un-irradiated Zr-2 suggests that the growth of the hydride layer is diffusion controlled, and preliminary TEM results support this assertion. In un-irradiated Zr-2, the diffusivity of hydrogen in the hydride phase was found to be approximately 1.1 × 10-11 cm2/s, while the diffusivity in the hydride phase for lightly irradiated (0.1 and 1 dpa) Zr-2 is an order of magnitude lower. Irradiation to 25 dpa results in a hydrogen diffusivity that is comparable to the un-irradiated Zr-2. These results are compared with existing literature on hydrogen transport in Zr - based materials.

  9. A comparative investigation of methods for longitudinal data with limits of detection through a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, P; Hughes, J; Zeng, G; Hanook, S; Orem, J; Mwanda, O W; Remick, S C

    2016-02-01

    The statistical analysis of continuous longitudinal data may be complicated since quantitative levels of bioassay cannot always be determined. Values beyond the limits of detection (LOD) in the assays may not be observed and thus censored, rendering complexity to the analysis of such data. This article examines how both left-censoring and right censoring of HIV-1 plasma RNA measurements, collected for the study on AIDS-related Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AR-NHL) in East Africa, affects the quantification of viral load and explores the natural history of viral load measurements over time in AR-NHL patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy. Data analyses using Monte Carlo EM algorithm (MCEM) are compared to analyses where the LOD or LOD/2 (left censoring) value is substituted for the censored observations, and also to other methods such as multiple imputation, and maximum likelihood estimation for censored data (generalized Tobit regression). Simulations are used to explore the sensitivity of the results to changes in the model parameters. In conclusion, the antiretroviral treatment was associated with a significant decrease in viral load after controlling the effects of other covariates. A simulation study with finite sample size shows MCEM is the least biased method and the estimates are least sensitive to the censoring mechanism.

  10. In Situ Biological Contamination Studies of the Moon: Implications for Planetary Protection and Life Detection Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Lupisella, Mark; Williams, David R.; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA and ESA have outlined visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic precursor missions to prepare for, and support a human return to the Moan, and future human exploration of Mars and other destinations, including possibly asteroids. One of the guiding principles for exploration is to pursue compelling scientific questions about the origin and evolution of life. The search for life on objects such as Mars will require careful operations, and that all systems be sufficiently cleaned and sterilized prior to launch to ensure that the scientific integrity of extraterrestrial samples is not jeopardized by terrestrial organic contamination. Under the Committee on Space Research's (COSPAR's) current planetary protection policy for the Moon, no sterilization procedures are required for outbound lunar spacecraft, nor is there a different planetary protection category for human missions, although preliminary C SPAR policy guidelines for human missions to Mars have been developed. Future in situ investigations of a variety of locations on the Moon by highly sensitive instruments designed to search for biologically derived organic compounds would help assess the contamination of the Moon by lunar spacecraft. These studies could also provide valuable "ground truth" data for Mars sample return missions and help define planetary protection requirements for future Mars bound spacecraft carrying life detection experiments. In addition, studies of the impact of terrestrial contamination of the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts could provide valuable data to help refine future: Mars surface exploration plans for a human mission to Mars.

  11. Experimental Studies on Damage Detection in Frame Structures Using Vibration Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Fraraccio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of frequency and time domain identification algorithms and discusses their effectiveness in structural health monitoring of frame structures using acceleration input and response data. Three algorithms were considered: 1 a frequency domain decomposition algorithm (FDD, 2 a time domain Observer Kalman IDentification algorithm (OKID, and 3 a subsequent physical parameter identification algorithm (MLK. Through experimental testing of a four-story steel frame model on a uniaxial shake table, the inherent complications of physical instrumentation and testing are explored. Primarily, this study aims to provide a dependable first-order and second-order identification of said test structure in a fully instrumented state. Once the characteristics (i.e. the stiffness matrix for a benchmark structure have been determined, structural damage can be detected by a change in the identified structural stiffness matrix. This work also analyzes the stability of the identified structural stiffness matrix with respect to fluctuations of input excitation magnitude and frequency content in an experimental setting.

  12. Application of liquid chromatography method with electrochemical detection for bioequivalence study of trimetazidine in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Tomasz; Swierczewska, Anna; Borucka, Beata; Sawicka, Renata; Sasinowska-Motyl, Małgorzata; Gumułka, Stanisław Witold

    2012-01-01

    A method to estimate trimetazidine (CAS: 13171-25-0) levels in human plasma by means of HPLC with electrochemical detection was developed. Trimethoprim (CAS: 26807-65-8) was used as an internal standard. This method of analysis was fully validated according to the guidelines of the United States Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and Good Laboratory Practice rules. The accuracy and precision of the developed method were found to be satisfactory and stability studies showed acceptable variation (below 15%) of trimetazidine concentrations when samples were stored frozen at -75 degrees C for 54 days. The developed method was successfully used for a comparative 2 x 2 period, crossover bioequivalence study of two extended-release preparations of trimetazidine performed on 24 healthy volunteers at the steady state after multiple dosing of 35 mg twice daily for 4 days and a single 35 mg dose on the 5th day and after a single dose of 35 mg under fasting or postprandial conditions.

  13. Early bacterial genome detection in body fluids from patients with severe sepsis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugard, Anthony; Chainier, Delphine; Barraud, Olivier; Garnier, Fabien; Ploy, Marie-Cécile; Vignon, Philippe; François, Bruno

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and interest of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing for bacterial genomes in body fluids other than blood in patients with acute severe sepsis. Twenty-six consecutive patients admitted for severe sepsis or septic shock were prospectively studied. Body fluids were sampled as clinically indicated and tested using standard microbiological methods and modified RT-PCR methods (universal PCR and specific PCRs). Results of standard microbiological tests were compared with those of PCR tests. Direct RT-PCR testing was successfully performed on all nonblood body fluids. Of 29 body fluids collected, 23 were positive for at least 1 microorganism with conventional tests. Of 18 microbiological tests positive for a single microorganism, 15 fully agreed with RT-PCR assays, and the remaining 3 samples were infected with bacteria not screened by PCR testing. Among the 5 polymicrobial results obtained with conventional tests, RT-PCR agreed in 4 patients. The RT-PCR tests allowed additional clinically relevant bacterial identification in 3 of 6 samples with negative microbiological culture. Our results indicate that direct PCR testing may improve the detection of bacteria in body fluids other than blood in patients with acute severe sepsis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychotic Experiences and Working Memory: A Population-Based Study Using Signal-Detection Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Rossi

    Full Text Available Psychotic Experiences (PEs during adolescence index increased risk for psychotic disorders and schizophrenia in adult life. Working memory (WM deficits are a core feature of these disorders. Our objective was to examine the relationship between PEs and WM in a general population sample of young people in a case control study. 4744 individuals of age 17-18 from Bristol and surrounding areas (UK were analyzed in a cross-sectional study nested within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC birth cohort study. The dependent variable was PEs, assessed using the semi-structured Psychosis-Like Symptom Interview (PLIKSi. The independent variable was performance on a computerized numerical n-back working memory task. Signal-Detection Theory indices, including standardized hits rate, false alarms rate, discriminability index (d' and response bias (c from 2-Back and 3-Back tasks were calculated. 3576 and 3527 individuals had complete data for 2-Back and 3-Back respectively. Suspected/definite PEs prevalence was 7.9% (N = 374. Strongest evidence of association was seen between PEs and false alarms on the 2-Back, (odds ratio (OR = 1.17 [95% confidence intervals (CI 1.01, 1.35] and 3-back (OR = 1.35 [1.18, 1.54] and with c (OR = 1.59 [1.09, 2.34], and lower d' (OR = 0.76 [0.65, 0.89], on the 3-Back. Adjustment for several potential confounders, including general IQ, drug exposure and different psycho-social factors, and subsequent multiple imputation of missing data did not materially alter the results. WM is impaired in young people with PEs in the general population. False alarms, rather than poor accuracy, are more closely related to PEs. Such impairment is consistent with different neuropsychological models of psychosis focusing on signal-to-noise discrimination, probabilistic reasoning and impaired reality monitoring as a basis of psychotic symptoms.

  15. On the Evaluation of Outlier Detection: Measures, Datasets, and an Empirical Study Continued

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, G. O.; Zimek, A.; Sander, J.;

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of unsupervised outlier detection algorithms is a constant challenge in data mining research. Little is known regarding the strengths and weaknesses of different standard outlier detection models, and the impact of parameter choices for these algorithms. The scarcity of appropriate...

  16. Long-term follow-up of the TIPS early detection in psychosis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelstad, Wenche Ten Velden; Larsen, Tor K; Auestad, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Early detection in first-episode psychosis confers advantages for negative, cognitive, and depressive symptoms after 1, 2, and 5 years, but longitudinal effects are unknown. The authors investigated the differences in symptoms and recovery after 10 years between regional health care sectors...... with and without a comprehensive program for the early detection of psychosis....

  17. Natural history of breast cancers detected in the Swedish mammography screening programme: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Mæhlen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The natural history of screen-detected breast cancers is not well understood. A previous analysis of the incidence change during the introduction of the Norwegian screening programme in the late 1990s suggested that the natural history of many screen-detected invasive breast cancers is to regress...

  18. On resilience studies of system detection and recovery techniques against stealthy insider attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Sixiao; Zhang, Hanlin; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Yu, Wei; Pham, Khanh D.; Blasch, Erik P.; Cruz, Jose B.

    2016-05-01

    With the explosive growth of network technologies, insider attacks have become a major concern to business operations that largely rely on computer networks. To better detect insider attacks that marginally manipulate network traffic over time, and to recover the system from attacks, in this paper we implement a temporal-based detection scheme using the sequential hypothesis testing technique. Two hypothetical states are considered: the null hypothesis that the collected information is from benign historical traffic and the alternative hypothesis that the network is under attack. The objective of such a detection scheme is to recognize the change within the shortest time by comparing the two defined hypotheses. In addition, once the attack is detected, a server migration-based system recovery scheme can be triggered to recover the system to the state prior to the attack. To understand mitigation of insider attacks, a multi-functional web display of the detection analysis was developed for real-time analytic. Experiments using real-world traffic traces evaluate the effectiveness of Detection System and Recovery (DeSyAR) scheme. The evaluation data validates the detection scheme based on sequential hypothesis testing and the server migration-based system recovery scheme can perform well in effectively detecting insider attacks and recovering the system under attack.

  19. Oxidative stress and pathogenic attack in plants, studied by laser based photoacoustic trace gas detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santosa, Ignatius Edi

    2002-01-01

    Photoacoustic detection has proven to be a sensitive method, which is suitable for trace gas measurement. In this thesis, we improved the photoacoustic detection system to measure new biologically interesting gases, ethane (C2H6) and nitric oxide (NO). A new design of grating holder is incorporated

  20. Computer-aided detection of small pulmonary nodules in chest radiographs: an observer study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boo, D.W. De; Uffmann, M.; Weber, M.; Bipat, S.; Boorsma, E.F.; Scheerder, M.J.; Freling, N.J.; Schaefer-Prokop, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of computer-aided detection (CAD, IQQA-Chest; EDDA Technology, Princeton Junction, NJ) used as second reader on the detection of small pulmonary nodules in chest radiography (CXR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 113 patients (mean age 62 years) wit

  1. N-Reactor co-product target element rupture detection study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allred, D.O.

    1964-04-27

    At present there seem to be some uncertainties concerning the needs of rupture detection for the co-producer programs Also in question is the method by which ruptures of the target elements should be detected and located. The purpose of this report is to discuss the waste and hazard control of tritium (H{sup 3}) (the product of the co-producer program), which will determine rupture detection needs, and to discuss methods by which rupture detection and location may be accomplished. The scope of the report considers first, adaptation of the present rupture monitoring system, and second, monitoring systems using H{sup 3} analyzers, together with the costs and time required to develop and use each method of rupture detection.

  2. Experimental study on the compressive strength of grouted concrete block masonry based on nondestructive detection methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong-bin; LI Long-fei

    2009-01-01

    Existing nondestructive detection methods were adopted to test the compressive strength of grouted concrete block masonry, i.e. the rebound method, pulling-out method and core drilling method were employed to test the strength of block, mortar and grouted concrete, respectively. The suitability of these methods for the testing of strength of grouted concrete block masonry was discussed, and the comprehensive strength of block masonry was appraised by combining existing nondestructive or micro-destructive detection methods. The nondestructive detection test on 25 grouted concrete block masonry specimens was carried out. Experimental results show that these methods mentioned above are applicable for the strength detection of grouted concrete block masonry. Moreover, the formulas of compressive strength, detection methods and proposals are given as well.

  3. Study of orthotopic transplantation model of human gastrointestinal cancerand detection of micrometastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Hui Cui; Uwe Krueger; Doris Henne-Bruns; Bernd Kremer; Holger Kalthoff

    2000-01-01

    AIM To establish a relevant animal model of human gastrointestinal cancer, which can be used forrepetitive investigations and may improve our understanding of carcinogenesis and cancer metastasis.METHODS Intact tissue of human colorectal and pancreatic cancers was transplanted in nude mice. Thebiological characteristics of the original and corresponding transplanted tumors were investigated by HEstaining, PAS staining and immunostaining. The metastases in livers and lungs of the nude mice wereinvestigated by immunostaining with biotinylated mab KL-1 and by RT-PCR using CK20 specific primers.RESULTS Nine of 16 surgical specimens grew in the nude mice subcutaneously and/or orthotopically (4 of6 colorectal and 5 of 10 pancreatic cancer). Tumor cell content of the specimens and freezing of tissuespecimens are important factors influencing the growth of transplanted tumor. In the group of fresh tumortissues with greater than 50% tumor cell content, transplantation rate was 100% (3 cases of pancreatic cancerand 3 cases of colorectal cancer). The orthotopically transplanted tumors resembled the original tumormorphologically and biologically, including TAA expression such as CEA by immunohistochemistry, andCEA level in the serum of mice. Ki-67 labeling index and the expression of TAA especially K-ras, 17-1A and RA-96, were associated with the potential of tumor growth in nude mice. Micrometastases in the lungs andlivers of tumor bearing mice could be detected by immunostaining with biotinylated mab KL-1 and CK20-sepcific RT-PCR.CONCLUSION An orthotopic transplantation model for human colon and pancreatic cancer in nude micehas been established. The sensitive detection methods with CK-immunohistochemistry and CK20-RT-PCRwere also established to study xenotransplanted human cancer and its metastatic cancer cells in the liver andlung of nude mice. This study may be helpful in understanding the mechanism of cancer metastasis and indeveloping new diagnostic methods and

  4. Spin-dependent transport and recombination in solar cells studied by pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrends, Jan

    2009-11-11

    This thesis deals with spin-dependent transport and recombination of charge carriers in solar cells. A systematic study on the influence of localized paramagnetic states which act as trapping and recombination centres for photogenerated charge carriers, is presented for three different types of solar cells. The central technique used in this thesis is electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR). The capabilities of pulsed (p) EDMR were extended with regard to the detection sensitivity. These improvements allowed pEDMR measurements on fully processed devices from cryogenic to room temperature. The instrumental upgrades also set the stage for pEDMR measurements at different resonance frequencies. In high-efficiency solar cells based on the heterojunction between hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and crystalline silicon (c-Si), recombination via performancelimiting interface states could directly be measured electrically for the first time. The identification of these defects could be achieved by exploiting their orientation with regard to the surface. In thin-film solar cells based on hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon ({mu}-Si:H) the situation is more complex due to the heterogeneous and disordered structure of the material itself. In addition, these cells are multilayer-systems comprising three different silicon layers with different doping levels and microstructures. By combining a systematic alteration of the sample structure with the information extracted from deconvoluting spectrally overlapping signals in the time domain, it was possible to assign the spin-dependent signals to defects in the individual layers of the solar cells. Benefiting from the instrumental improvements, recombination via dangling bond states in silicon-based solar cells could be investigated by pEDMR at room temperature for the first time. In organic bulk heterojunction solar cells based on MEH-PPV and PCBM two different spin-dependent mechanisms coexist. Both processes

  5. Evaluation of Modification of the 3M™ Molecular Detection Assay (MDA) Salmonella Method (2013.09) for the Detection of Salmonella in Selected Foods: Collaborative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Patrick; Fisher, Kiel; Boyle, Megan; Huffman, Travis; Benzinger, M Joseph; Bedinghaus, Paige; Flannery, Jonathon; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Benesh, DeAnn; David, John

    2014-01-01

    The 3M(™) Molecular Detection Assay (MDA) Salmonella utilizes isothermal amplification of nucleic acid sequences with high specificity, efficiency, rapidity and bioluminescence to detect amplification of Salmonella spp. in food, food-related, and environmental samples after enrichment. A method modification and matrix extension study of the previously approved AOAC Official Method(SM) 2013.09 was conducted, and approval of the modification was received on March 20, 2014. Using an unpaired study design in a multilaboratory collaborative study, the 3M MDA Salmonella method was compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA/FSIS) Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) 4.05 (2011), Isolation and Identification of Salmonella from Meat, Poultry, Pasteurized Egg, and Catfish Products for raw ground beef and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)/Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Chapter 5, Salmonella reference method for wet dog food following the current AOAC guidelines. A total of 20 laboratories participated. For the 3M MDA Salmonella method, raw ground beef was analyzed using 25 g test portions, and wet dog food was analyzed using 375 g test portions. For the reference methods, 25 g test portions of each matrix were analyzed. Each matrix was artificially contaminated with Salmonella at three inoculation levels: an uninoculated control level (0 CFU/test portion), a low inoculum level (0.2-2 CFU/test portion), and a high inoculum level (2-5 CFU/test portion). In this study, 1512 unpaired replicate samples were analyzed. Statistical analysis was conducted according to the probability of detection (POD). For the low-level raw ground beef test portions, the following dLPOD (difference between the LPODs of the reference and candidate method) values with 95% confidence intervals were obtained: -0.01 (-0.14, +0.12). For the low-level wet dog food test portions, the following dLPOD with 95% confidence intervals were

  6. Study on Detection of Negative Corona Discharge Generated in Rod-Plane Air Gap by Using External Electrode Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.ICHIKAWA

    2007-01-01

    A detective method of a negative corona discharge by means of an external electrode is presented.The relationship between an area of the external electrode and a detected voltage waveform is examined experimentally.This experimental study is carried out with the use of a rod-plane air gap.The results obtained will be applicable to problems associated with silos,ducts,and high-voltage equipment.

  7. The long-term effect of current and new interventions on the new case detection of leprosy: a modeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egil A J Fischer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the number of newly detected leprosy cases has decreased globally, a quarter of a million new cases are detected annually and eradication remains far away. Current options for leprosy prevention are contact tracing and BCG vaccination of infants. Future options may include chemoprophylaxis and early diagnosis of subclinical infections. This study compared the predicted trends in leprosy case detection of future intervention strategies. METHODS: Seven leprosy intervention scenarios were investigated with a microsimulation model (SIMCOLEP to predict future leprosy trends. The baseline scenario consisted of passive case detection, multidrug therapy, contact tracing, and BCG vaccination of infants. The other six scenarios were modifications of the baseline, as follows: no contact tracing; with chemoprophylaxis; with early diagnosis of subclinical infections; replacement of the BCG vaccine with a new tuberculosis vaccine ineffective against Mycobacterium leprae ("no BCG"; no BCG with chemoprophylaxis; and no BCG with early diagnosis. FINDINGS: Without contact tracing, the model predicted an initial drop in the new case detection rate due to a delay in detecting clinical cases among contacts. Eventually, this scenario would lead to new case detection rates higher than the baseline program. Both chemoprophylaxis and early diagnosis would prevent new cases due to a reduction of the infectious period of subclinical cases by detection and cure of these cases. Also, replacing BCG would increase the new case detection rate of leprosy, but this effect could be offset with either chemoprophylaxis or early diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the leprosy incidence would be reduced substantially by good BCG vaccine coverage and the combined strategies of contact tracing, early diagnosis, and treatment of infection and/or chemoprophylaxis among household contacts. To effectively interrupt the transmission of M. leprae, it is

  8. Comparison between ultrasonography and computed tomography for detecting the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland: A prospective multicenter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, So Lyoung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Na [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ji Hwa [Dept. of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, busan (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Jin Yong [Dept. of Radiology, Thyroid Center, Daerim St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    To compare the detection rates of the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland (TPL) using ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) in a prospective multi-center study. We enrolled 582 patients who underwent neck CT at six institutions. Each radiologist prospectively evaluated the presence and features of TPLs on thyroid US. Radiologists were divided into two groups according to their previous experience in detecting TPL on US or CT. The same radiologist also retrospectively assessed CT findings, blinded to the corresponding US findings. The pyramidal lobe of the thyroid glands were detected in 230 cases (39.5%) on US and in 276 cases (47.6%) on CT. The TPL detection rate at the six institutions ranged from 22.0% to 59% for US and from 34.1% to 59% using CT. There were significant differences between US and CT in the detection rate, length, anteroposterior diameter, volume, and superior extent of TPL (p < or = 0.027). The TPL detection rates on both US and CT (p < 0.001) differed significantly according to the experience level of the radiologists. When the CT result was used as a reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, as well as the accuracy of US for TPL detection were 72.6%, 91.5%, 89.3%, 77.3%, and 82.1%, respectively. Our prospective multicenter study revealed that US could detect TPL with relatively high diagnostic accuracy compared to CT. Because the detection rate of TPL varied significantly according to the radiologists' level of experience, careful inspection is necessary to avoid imaging pitfalls and ensure appropriate evaluation of TPL on both US and CT.

  9. An empirical study to detect effective factors to increase number of moviegoers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Giyahi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an empirical study to detect important factors, which could increase the number of moviegoers. The study distributes a questionnaire among different people at four age groups including 35.2% (men, and 64.8% (women, most of them are single (between 21 to 30 years living at 3- to 4-member families, holding BA degree with 4 to 7 million Rials monthly salary. Inferential statistics tests, including Kolmogorov–Smirnov, binominal or ratio, Chi Square and Friedman, show that type of story, genre and artists, casts are considered as the most important factors in selection of film while quality of sound, seat comfort, ventilation of cinema hall are regarded as the most important factors in selection of cinema. In addition, cinema is not predominant pastime or hobby of individuals during holidays and existence of more attractive pastimes than cinema is the most important factor, which hinders individuals from going to cinema. Individuals go to cinema fewer than three times a year, primarily during the afternoon of holidays at the weekend. TV teasers and word of mouth advertisements are the most significant publicity tools for those individuals who intend to go to cinema halls. These two factors, i.e. TV teasers and word of mouth advertisements, are the most significant sources of studying individuals for the selection of film. Individuals almost select their favorite movies before going to cinema and if ticket is finished at the box office of cinema, they suspend watching film in another time and finally, they re-plan watching film. It should be noted that satisfaction of individuals from cinema is much more effective than their satisfaction from film.

  10. A study of earthquake-induced building detection by object oriented classification approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuncu, Asli; Damla Uca Avci, Zehra; Sunar, Filiz

    2017-04-01

    Among the natural hazards, earthquakes are the most destructive disasters and cause huge loss of lives, heavily infrastructure damages and great financial losses every year all around the world. According to the statistics about the earthquakes, more than a million earthquakes occur which is equal to two earthquakes per minute in the world. Natural disasters have brought more than 780.000 deaths approximately % 60 of all mortality is due to the earthquakes after 2001. A great earthquake took place at 38.75 N 43.36 E in the eastern part of Turkey in Van Province on On October 23th, 2011. 604 people died and about 4000 buildings seriously damaged and collapsed after this earthquake. In recent years, the use of object oriented classification approach based on different object features, such as spectral, textural, shape and spatial information, has gained importance and became widespread for the classification of high-resolution satellite images and orthophotos. The motivation of this study is to detect the collapsed buildings and debris areas after the earthquake by using very high-resolution satellite images and orthophotos with the object oriented classification and also see how well remote sensing technology was carried out in determining the collapsed buildings. In this study, two different land surfaces were selected as homogenous and heterogeneous case study areas. In the first step of application, multi-resolution segmentation was applied and optimum parameters were selected to obtain the objects in each area after testing different color/shape and compactness/smoothness values. In the next step, two different classification approaches, namely "supervised" and "unsupervised" approaches were applied and their classification performances were compared. Object-based Image Analysis (OBIA) was performed using e-Cognition software.

  11. Initial study with Tc99m antigranulocyte antibody (MAK-47) in detection sources of infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cwikla, J.B.; Buscombe, J.R.; Hilson, A.J. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Medical Physics, Royal Free Hospital and School of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Janoki, G.A. [FJC National Research Inst. for Radiology and Radiohygene, Dept. of Applied Radioisotopes, Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-12-31

    Antigranulocytes antibodies (AGAB) are antibodies directed against glycoprotein on the surface of granulocytes and as such provides in vivo cell labelling. They are easily labelled with Tc99m and comes a one step labelling technique. 20 patients have been studied 1 h and 4-6 hours after administration of 200 MBq of Tc99m AGAB (MAK-47). Less then 0.5 mg of antibody was given to each patients. Sites of uptake and outside of the reticular-endothelial system were reported as showing positive accumulation. Clinical results were confirmed by microbiological, pathological examinations, clinical follow-up and autopsy. There were 8 patients who had sites of infection confirmed by additional examination. All patients were visualized by Tc99m AGAB (MAK-47). There were 4 cases of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis and 4 cases of focal intra-abdominal infection. Two patients had uptake in non-infected/inflammatory arthritis, both in the knee. The remaining patients had true negative studies. The diagnostic accuracy of this study was as follows: sensitivity 100%, specificity 83%, positive predictive value (PPV) was 80% and negative predictive value (NPV) was 100%. Antigranulocyte antibody (MAK-47) seems to by promising tool in detecting focal infection in bone and soft tissue, except physiological accumulation in some parts of the body. It should be considered that antibodies can have non-specific uptake in non-infected, inflammation sites. It is easy to use and no had allergic reaction and HAMA antibody (human antimouse antibody). (author) 18 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Occult hernias detected by laparoscopic totally extra-peritoneal inguinal hernia repair: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulucq, J-L; Wintringer, P; Mahajna, A

    2011-08-01

    One distinct advantage of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair is the opportunity for clear visualization of the direct, indirect, femoral, obturator and other groin spaces. The aim of this study was to examine/assess the potential of the laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernia repair method in detecting unexpected additional hernias. Patients who underwent an elective inguinal hernia repair, in the department of abdominal surgery at the institute of laparoscopic surgery (ILS, Bordeaux, France) between September 2003 and July 2005 were enrolled prospectively in the study. The patients' demographic data, operative, postoperative course and outpatient follow-up were studied. A total of 337 laparoscopic inguinal hernia repairs were performed in 263 patients. Of these, 189 patients had unilateral hernia (109 right and 80 left) and 74 patients had bilateral hernias. Indirect hernias were the most common, followed by direct and then femoral hernias. There were 218 male patients and 45 female patients with a mean age of 60 ± 15 years. There were 44 unexpected hernias: 6 spegilian hernias, 19 obturator hernias and another 19 femoral hernias. Two patients were converted to transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) due to surgical difficulties. There were no major intraoperative complications in all patients except for three cases of bleeding arising from the inferior epigastric artery. Only one patient had postoperative bleeding and was re-operated on several hours after the hernia repair. No recurrence occurred in the present series. The laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair approach allows viewing of the entire myopectineal orifice, facilitating repair of any unexpected hernias and thereby reducing the chance of recurrence.

  13. Circumcision and sexual behavior: factors independently associated with human papillomavirus detection among men in the HIM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Anna R; Lazcano, Eduardo; Villa, Luisa Lina; Flores, Roberto; Salmeron, Jorge; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Papenfuss, Mary; Abrahamsen, Martha; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Silva, Roberto; Quiterio, Manuel

    2009-03-15

    There is growing interest in understanding human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related disease among men. To date there have been numerous studies reporting HPV DNA prevalence among men from several different countries, however, few have incorporated multivariable analyses to determine factors independently associated with male HPV detection. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors independently associated with HPV detection in men ages 18-70 years residing in Brazil (n = 343), Mexico (n = 312), and the United States (US) (n = 333). In samples combined from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum, we evaluated factors associated with any, oncogenic, and nononcogenic HPV infections. In multivariable analyses, detection of any HPV infection was significantly associated with reported race of Asian/Pacific Islander, lifetime and recent number of sexual partners, and having sex in the past 3 months. Oncogenic HPV detection was independently associated with lifetime and recent number of sexual partners, and having sex in the past 3 months. NonOncogenic HPV infection was independently associated with lifetime number of sexual partners. Circumcision, assessed by clinical examination, was associated with reduced risk of HPV detection across all categories of HPV evaluated. HPV detection in men in the current study was strongly related to sexual behavior and circumcision status. Interventions such as circumcision may provide a low-cost method to reduce HPV infection.

  14. Learning to Detect Vandalism in Social Content Systems: A Study on Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanmardi, Sara; McDonald, David W.; Caruana, Rich; Forouzan, Sholeh; Lopes, Cristina V.

    A challenge facing user generated content systems is vandalism, i.e. edits that damage content quality. The high visibility and easy access to social networks makes them popular targets for vandals. Detecting and removing vandalism is critical for these user generated content systems. Because vandalism can take many forms, there are many different kinds of features that are potentially useful for detecting it. The complex nature of vandalism, and the large number of potential features, make vandalism detection difficult and time consuming for human editors. Machine learning techniques hold promise for developing accurate, tunable, and maintainable models that can be incorporated into vandalism detection tools. We describe a method for training classifiers for vandalism detection that yields classifiers that are more accurate on the PAN 2010 corpus than others previously developed. Because of the high turnaround in social network systems, it is important for vandalism detection tools to run in real-time. To this aim, we use feature selection to find the minimal set of features consistent with high accuracy. In addition, because some features are more costly to compute than others, we use cost-sensitive feature selection to reduce the total computational cost of executing our models. In addition to the features previously used for spam detection, we introduce new features based on user action histories. The user history features contribute significantly to classifier performance. The approach we use is general and can easily be applied to other user generated content systems.

  15. Analysis of Microhabitat Use for Two Trout Species Using a Combination of Remote Sensing and Passive Integrated transponder Tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokteff, R.; Wheaton, J. M.; Roper, B.; DeMeurichy, K.; Randall, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Logan River and its tributaries in northern Utah sustain a significant population of the imperiled Bonneville cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki Utah) as well as invasive brown trout (Salmo trutta). In general, the upper reaches of the system are populated by cutthroat trout and the lower reaches by brown trout. Spawn Creek is a unique tributary in that it supports both of these species throughout the year. The purpose of this study is to identify differences in fine-scale microhabitat that explain utilization patterns of each species of fish. Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags have been placed in trout over the last 3 years throughout Spawn Creek. Repeat GPS observations of these fish in their habitat during both spawning and non-spawning periods have been acquired over the last 4 years. Non-spawning activity has been captured using mobile PIT tag antennae. GPS observations of cutthroat trout spawning locations have also been recorded. From these observations both spawning and non-spawning "hotspots" have emerged, which appear to be highly correlated with specific microhabitat characteristics. The entire 2.5 km study reach on lower Spawn Creek has been scanned using ground-based light detection and ranging (LiDAR) which covers all observed "hotspots." LiDAR data provides sub-centimeter resolution point clouds from which detailed geometric measurements and topographic analyses can be used to reveal specific aspects of trout habitat. Where bathymetric data is needed, total station bathymetric surveys have been completed at sub-meter resolution. The combination of these data types at known "hotspot" locations provides an opportunity to quantify aspects of the physical environment at a uniquely fine scale relevant to individual fish. New metrics, as well as old metrics resolved at finer scales, will be presented to explain species and life-stage specific habitat "hotspots" in mountain streams.

  16. Survival of Hatchery Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Free-Flowing Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1998-2001 Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, WA)

    2002-09-01

    We report results from four years (1998-2001) of an ongoing study of survival and travel time of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. We report analyses of associations among river conditions and survival and travel time estimates, which include data from 1995 through 1997. At weekly intervals from early June to early July each year (mid-May to late June in 2001), hatchery-reared subyearling fall chinook salmon were PIT tagged at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, trucked upstream, acclimated, and released above Lower Granite Dam at Pittsburgh Landing and Billy Creek on the Snake River and at Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River. Each year, a small proportion of fish released were not detected until the following spring. However, the number that overwintered in the river and migrated seaward as yearlings the following spring was small and had minimal effect on survival estimates. Concurrent with our studies, a number of subyearling fall chinook salmon that reared naturally in the Snake River were caught by beach seine, PIT tagged, and released. We compared a number of characteristics of hatchery and wild fish. Hatchery and wild fish were similar in 2001, and from 1995 through 1997. Results for 1998 through 2000 showed some relatively large differences between hatchery and wild fish. However, recent information suggests that a considerable proportion of wild subyearling chinook salmon migrating in a given year may actually be stream-type (spring/summer), rather than ocean-type (fall) fish, which may account for some of the differences we have observed.

  17. Detection of (Inactivity Periods in Human Body Motion Using Inertial Sensors: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Damas

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Determination of (inactivity periods when monitoring human body motion is a mandatory preprocessing step in all human inertial navigation and position analysis applications. Distinction of (inactivity needs to be established in order to allow the system to recompute the calibration parameters of the inertial sensors as well as the Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPT of inertial navigation. The periodical recomputation of these parameters allows the application to maintain a constant degree of precision. This work presents a comparative study among different well known inertial magnitude-based detectors and proposes a new approach by applying spectrum-based detectors and memory-based detectors. A robust statistical comparison is carried out by the use of an accelerometer and angular rate signal synthesizer that mimics the output of accelerometers and gyroscopes when subjects are performing basic activities of daily life. Theoretical results are verified by testing the algorithms over signals gathered using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU. Detection accuracy rates of up to 97% are achieved.

  18. A Comparative Study of Anomaly Detection Techniques for Smart City Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Font, Victor; Garrigues, Carles; Rifà-Pous, Helena

    2016-06-13

    In many countries around the world, smart cities are becoming a reality. These cities contribute to improving citizens' quality of life by providing services that are normally based on data extracted from wireless sensor networks (WSN) and other elements of the Internet of Things. Additionally, public administration uses these smart city data to increase its efficiency, to reduce costs and to provide additional services. However, the information received at smart city data centers is not always accurate, because WSNs are sometimes prone to error and are exposed to physical and computer attacks. In this article, we use real data from the smart city of Barcelona to simulate WSNs and implement typical attacks. Then, we compare frequently used anomaly detection techniques to disclose these attacks. We evaluate the algorithms under different requirements on the available network status information. As a result of this study, we conclude that one-class Support Vector Machines is the most appropriate technique. We achieve a true positive rate at least 56% higher than the rates achieved with the other compared techniques in a scenario with a maximum false positive rate of 5% and a 26% higher in a scenario with a false positive rate of 15%.

  19. Application of close-range aerial infrared thermography to detect landfill gas emissions: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanda, G.; Migliazzi, M.; Chiarabini, V.; Cinquetti, P.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring waste disposal sites is important to check that the produced biogas, potentially explosive, is properly collected by the biogas extraction system of the landfill site and to evaluate the residual biogas flow escaping from upper surface of the landfill. As the biogas migrates to the surface, the soil through which it flows is expected to reach a higher temperature than the surrounding environment; thus, measuring the thermal footprint of the landfill soil surface could allow the detection of biogas leakages and spots suitable for the gas extraction. Close-range aerial infrared thermography is an innovative approach able to identify thermal anomalies with a good resolution over a large region of the landfill surface. A simple procedure to deduce the biogas flow rate emerging from the soil into the atmosphere, based on infrared thermography measurements, is presented. The approach has been applied to a case study concerning a large landfill located in Genoa (Italy). Aerial infrared photographs taken during different days and seasons showed the presence of thermal anomalies over regions along the peripheral boundary of the landfill still not interested in biogas extraction.

  20. Optimal environmental conditions to detect moisture in ancient buildings: case studies in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosina, Elisabetta; Ludwig, Nicola; Rosi, Lorenzo

    1998-03-01

    IR thermography allows to identify the thermal anomalies due to moisture in ancient walls. Wet zones can appear warmer or colder in IR images, according to the atmospheric conditions during the scanning; furthermore, thermal monitoring, even in qualitative thermography, allows to obtain a more effective diagnosis of the defects because it records thermal behaviors of the material in different environmental conditions. Thermographic system allows an accurate analysis of transpiration effects on buildings and precise measurements of water content starting from environmental temperature, relative balance and wind speed. These variables play a major role in the causes of damages in buildings. Particularly, the evaluation of transpiration is essential to determine the evaporative rate of water content within the wall. The research has been carried out on two ancient buildings during a period of several months. The main experimental tests were on the church of 'Guardia di Sotto', Corsico, a seventeenth century building on the bank of Pavese Canal. Five thermal scanning have been disposed in different seasons from March 14, 1996 to June 16, 1997. The causes of the wet zones were identified at the basis of the walls were rising damp and rain spread in the ground. The repeated thermographies and thermo-hygrometric test allowed to distinguish the size and the location of the areas damaged by the different causes. In other cases studied - Addolorate Church, Gessate the thermal scanning and the other supporting tests confirmed the list of optimal environmental condition required to detect humidity in walls by thermography.

  1. A compact array calibrator to study the feasibility of acoustic neutrino detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardid M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater acoustic detection of ultra-high-energy neutrinos was proposed already in 1950s: when a neutrino interacts with a nucleus in water, the resulting particle cascade produces a pressure pulse that has a bipolar temporal structure and propagates within a flat disk-like volume. A telescope that consists of thousands of acoustic sensors deployed in the deep sea can monitor hundreds of cubic kilometres of water looking for these signals and discriminating them from acoustic noise. To study the feasibility of the technique it is critical to have a calibrator able to mimic the neutrino “signature” that can be operated from a vessel. Due to the axial-symmetry of the signal, their very directive short bipolar shape and the constraints of operating at sea, the development of such a calibrator is very challenging. Once the possibility of using the acoustic parametric technique for this aim was validated with the first compact array calibrator prototype, in this paper we describe the new design for such a calibrator composed of an array of piezo cer