WorldWideScience

Sample records for piracy

  1. Online Piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel A. Howard

    2017-01-01

    Piracy, whether made online or in any other way is an illegal act, which should be avoided and stopped. In this era of rapid globalization and booming technology, online piracy can be seen in many forms. However, the main area of concern are the consequences that the online piracy has for the many people who are directly or indirectly involved in it. These consequences provide implications for ethical considerations. In my opinion, online piracy is an unethical act and should be avoided, howe...

  2. Internet piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Fiala, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to describe the Internet piracy phenomenon and to define responsibility of individuals for copyright violations on the Internet from the view of valid Czech legislation. In order to prevent Internet piracy, countries are pushed to swiftly react on continuous development of new technologies used by pirates - these efforts of individual countries are described in several chapters of this thesis that are exploring the most significant court rulings. These rul...

  3. Development and software piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco; Romeu, Andrés

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the authors analyze the differences in piracy rates from one country to another. Like previous papers on the topic, they find that more developed countries have lower incentives for pirating. Unlike previous papers, they find that the piracy rate is positively correlated with the tax burden rate but negatively correlated with the domestic market size and exports over GDP. The authors also separate the impacts of education and R&D on piracy, and find two effects with opposite si...

  4. Digital piracy : theory

    OpenAIRE

    BELLEFLAMME, Paul; PEITZ, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews recent theoretical contributions on digital piracy. It starts by elaborating on the reasons for intellectual property protection, by reporting a few facts about copyright protection, and by examining reasons to become a digital pirate. Next, it provides an exploration of the consequences of digital piracy, using a base model and several extensions (with consumer sampling, network effects, and indirect appropriation). A closer look at market-structure implications of end-u...

  5. Technological development and software piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco; Romeu, Andrés

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the authors analyze the differences in piracy rates from one country to another. Like previous papers on the topic, they find that more developed countries have lower incentives for pirating. Unlike previous papers, they find that the piracy rate is positively correlated with the tax burden rate but negatively correlated with the domestic market size and exports over GDP. The authors also separate the impacts of education and R&D on piracy, and find two effects with opposite si...

  6. Modern Piracy: The Impact on Maritime Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    attacked Source: International Chamber of Commerce , Commercial Crime Bureau. http://www.eurocrime.it/sitelPiracy%20and%20Terrorism.pdf Piracy, simply put...agency of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), provide regular statistical data and reports of acts ofpiracy and armed robbery against ShipS.14...3: Key Maritime Choke-points / Piracy Hot Spots Source: International Chamber of Commerce , Commercial Crime Bureau. http://www.eurocrime.it/site

  7. Internet piracy and consequences for victims

    OpenAIRE

    Savić Miljan; Petrović Nikola M.

    2016-01-01

    After the evolution of technology made it possible to perform actions via the Internet that constitute copyright violations, the analysis of the effects of internet piracy on social welfare became the subject of academic polemics. The main and the biggest victims of Internet piracy are the holders of copyright and related rights, however, the damage that piracy causes them comes from multiple sources, is difficult to quantify and is only a part of the total...

  8. Deindividuation and Internet software piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinduja, Sameer

    2008-08-01

    Computer crime has increased exponentially in recent years as hardware, software, and network resources become more affordable and available to individuals from all walks of life. Software piracy is one prevalent type of cybercrime and has detrimentally affected the economic health of the software industry. Moreover, piracy arguably represents a rend in the moral fabric associated with the respect of intellectual property and reduces the financial incentive of product creation and innovation. Deindividuation theory, originating from the field of social psychology, argues that individuals are extricated from responsibility for their actions simply because they no longer have an acute awareness of the identity of self and of others. That is, external and internal constraints that would typically regulate questionable behavior are rendered less effective via certain anonymizing and disinhibiting conditions of the social and environmental context. This exploratory piece seeks to establish the role of deindividuation in liberating individuals to commit software piracy by testing the hypothesis that persons who prefer the anonymity and pseudonymity associated with interaction on the Internet are more likely to pirate software. Through this research, it is hoped that the empirical identification of such a social psychological determinant will help further illuminate the phenomenon.

  9. Fighting Software Piracy: Some Global Conditional Policy Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu, Simplice A; Singh, Pritam; Le Roux, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the efficiency of tools for fighting software piracy in the conditional distributions of software piracy. Our paper examines software piracy in 99 countries for the period 1994-2010, using contemporary and non-contemporary quantile regressions. The intuition for modelling distributions contingent on existing levels of software piracy is that the effectiveness of tools against piracy may consistently decrease or increase simultaneously with increasing levels of software pir...

  10. Internet piracy and consequences for victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Miljan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the evolution of technology made it possible to perform actions via the Internet that constitute copyright violations, the analysis of the effects of internet piracy on social welfare became the subject of academic polemics. The main and the biggest victims of Internet piracy are the holders of copyright and related rights, however, the damage that piracy causes them comes from multiple sources, is difficult to quantify and is only a part of the total social cost of piracy. However, there are other categories of victims, such as those whose honor was besmirched as a result of piracy, and who suffer the consequences in the form of negative emotional reactions, loss of job as well as those who subsequently commit suicide. The object of this paper is to describe the effects of internet piracy on the victims of this phenomenon, and the goal is the analysis of the various direct and indirect effects of piracy on victims and their motivation for future creation, as well as analysis of prevention measures, with special emphasis on the Republic of Serbia.

  11. The New Barbary Wars: Forecasting Maritime Piracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daxecker, U.E.; Prins, B.C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends systematic analyses of maritime piracy by verifying the robustness of empirical results and examining the forecasting ability of empirical models. Recent research by Ward, Greenhill and Bakke (2010) finds that statistically significant relationships frequently offer poor guidance

  12. Countering Piracy off the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    rate high and local communities focusing on survival. With agriculture limited more or less to self-sustainment, and the waters overfished by...the last two decades. The reason behind this is the failure of the international community to focus on the hub of the region’s piracy: The failed state...decades. The reason behind this is the failure of the international community to focus on the hub of the region‟s piracy: The failed state of Somalia

  13. Piracy, Music, and Movies: A Natural Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Adermon, Adrian; Liang, Che-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of illegal file sharing (piracy) on music and movie sales. The Swedish implementation of the European Union directive IPRED on April 1, 2009 suddenly increased the risk of being caught and prosecuted for file sharing. We investigate the subsequent drop in piracy as approximated by the drop in Swedish Internet traffic and the effects on music and movie sales in Sweden. We find that the reform decreased Internet traffic by 18 percent during the subs...

  14. Digital Piracy: An Assessment of Consumer Piracy Risk and Optimal Supply Chain Coordination Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Bong-Keun

    2010-01-01

    Digital piracy and the emergence of new distribution channels have changed the dynamics of supply chain coordination and created many interesting problems. There has been increased attention to understanding the phenomenon of consumer piracy behavior and its impact on supply chain profitability. The purpose of this dissertation is to better…

  15. Fighting software piracy: Which governance tools matter in Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio R. Andrés; Simplice A. Asongu

    2012-01-01

    This article integrates previously missing components of government quality into the governance-piracy nexus in exploring governance mechanisms by which global obligations for the treatment of IPRs are effectively transmitted from international to the national level in the battle against piracy. It assesses the best governance tools in the fight against piracy and upholding of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs). The instrumentality of IPR laws (treaties) in tackling piracy through good gover...

  16. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless the...

  17. The prospects for ending piracy at sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila L. Goedhals-Gerber

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Leila L. Goedhals-Gerber, Heinrich W. Freiboth DOI: 10.22495/rgcv4i3art2 Abstract Since the earliest days of maritime trade, piracy has been a great cause of concern for the maritime community. During recent years it has evolved into a highly lucrative “profession”, which serves as a financial outcome to people in some of the poorest regions of the world, including Somalia, while disrupting important international supply chains at a great cost to trade. This paper investigates the geography of modern maritime piracy and the common socio-economic circumstances that underlie the causes of Somali piracy. Key findings include the fact that maritime piracy in the Gulf of Aden has recently declined as a result of coordinated international efforts, but remains a serious threat with cost implications for the maritime transport industry and world trade. The paper concludes by identifying the need in Somalia to change the incentive structure that promotes piracy as an alternative to legal pursuits. This can be achieved by restoring a central authority in the country, creating a stable and safe social environment, and re-establishing formal economic and financial systems

  18. Software Piracy Detection Model Using Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astiqah Omar, Nor; Zakuan, Zeti Zuryani Mohd; Saian, Rizauddin

    2017-06-01

    Internet enables information to be accessible anytime and anywhere. This scenario creates an environment whereby information can be easily copied. Easy access to the internet is one of the factors which contribute towards piracy in Malaysia as well as the rest of the world. According to a survey conducted by Compliance Gap BSA Global Software Survey in 2013 on software piracy, found out that 43 percent of the software installed on PCs around the world was not properly licensed, the commercial value of the unlicensed installations worldwide was reported to be 62.7 billion. Piracy can happen anywhere including universities. Malaysia as well as other countries in the world is faced with issues of piracy committed by the students in universities. Piracy in universities concern about acts of stealing intellectual property. It can be in the form of software piracy, music piracy, movies piracy and piracy of intellectual materials such as books, articles and journals. This scenario affected the owner of intellectual property as their property is in jeopardy. This study has developed a classification model for detecting software piracy. The model was developed using a swarm intelligence algorithm called the Ant Colony Optimization algorithm. The data for training was collected by a study conducted in Universiti Teknologi MARA (Perlis). Experimental results show that the model detection accuracy rate is better as compared to J48 algorithm.

  19. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Attitudes Towards Internet Piracy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In all a total of two hundred and fifty participants were drawn through accidental sampling technique for this study. Their age ranged between 19-48 ... In the same view, consumers ethnic group was not found to significantly influence attitude towards Internet piracy (F(3,246) = .404, P> .05). Reasons were given why the ...

  20. Software piracy: Physical and legal protection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlandi, E

    1991-02-01

    Advantages and disadvantages, in terms of reliability and cost, are assessed for different physical and legal methods of protection of computer software, e.g., encryption and key management. The paper notes, however, that no protection system is 100% safe; the best approach is to implement a sufficient amount of protection such as to make piracy uneconomical relative to the risks involved.

  1. Software Piracy in Research: A Moral Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillanes, Gary; Felder, Ryan Marshall

    2015-08-01

    Researchers in virtually every discipline rely on sophisticated proprietary software for their work. However, some researchers are unable to afford the licenses and instead procure the software illegally. We discuss the prohibition of software piracy by intellectual property laws, and argue that the moral basis for the copyright law offers the possibility of cases where software piracy may be morally justified. The ethics codes that scientific institutions abide by are informed by a rule-consequentialist logic: by preserving personal rights to authored works, people able to do so will be incentivized to create. By showing that the law has this rule-consequentialist grounding, we suggest that scientists who blindly adopt their institutional ethics codes will commit themselves to accepting that software piracy could be morally justified, in some cases. We hope that this conclusion will spark debate over important tensions between ethics codes, copyright law, and the underlying moral basis for these regulations. We conclude by offering practical solutions (other than piracy) for researchers.

  2. maritime terrorism and piracy: similarities and differences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stoop

    2002-11-05

    Nov 5, 2002 ... financial or material gain in the case of piracy, and political gain in the case of .... Against coastal facilities or settlements, including tourist resorts.8 .... Ecuador, Colombia and Brazil, with the Rio de Janeiro and Santos ports ...

  3. CORE COMPETENCES OF PIRACY AND MARITIME TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Gawliczek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of the attacks, the level of violence, the scale of destruction in the maritime areas forces creation of certain security conditions. Recognizing the enemy - piracy and maritime terrorism - by identifying their resources, skills and competences is necessary action in building the safety of vessels and maritime infrastructure. Building competence of terrorist organization and maritime piracy requires the involvement of many interrelated resources and their proper coordination. It seems that, as in a business model, in these criminal organizations there are similar resources, skills and competences that determine the advantage and strategic value of the organization. However, the weight of each factor is different. The same assumption can be related to piracy and the activities of the terrorist organization at sea. The results of the study suggest that the main sources of success of analyzed criminal organizations generate harm for national security. In the case of piracy, they result from the following spheres: human capital, attributable to the skills capital; structural capital, belonging to innovation capital; relational capital, depending on customers' capital. As for terrorist activities, they stem from the spheres of: human capital, belonging to social capital; structural capital, attributable to the process capital; relational capital and determined by capital of standing out. In summary, this article is intended to show a terrorist organization and maritime piracy through the prism of resources theory, skills and competences of strategic management. As one of the first, it places many questions, formulate some theses in the area of competences of organizations. Answering the questions, verification of posed theses, requires also in-depth research that will be published in subsequent works.

  4. Software piracy: A study of causes, effects and preventive measures

    OpenAIRE

    Khadka, Ishwor

    2015-01-01

    Software piracy is a serious issue that has been affecting software companies for decades. According to Business Software Alliance (BSA), the global software piracy rate in 2013 was 43 percent and the commercial value of unlicensed software installations was $62.7 billion, which resulted in millions of revenues and jobs lost in software companies. The goal of this study was to better understand the software piracy behaviours, how it happens, how it affects to individuals and software compani...

  5. Digital Product Acquisition In The Context Of Piracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veitch, Rob; Constantiou, Ioanna

    2011-01-01

    Ten years after the fall of Napster, digital piracy remains an issue for e-commerce firms. While scholars treat digital piracy as a behaviour that needs to be prevented or punished, the user’s decision about how to acquire a digital product involves more than the piracy option, yet the decision b...... is conducted for film and music using data collected students in at two Danish universities. The paper concludes with an outline for future research....

  6. "Robin Hook": The Developmental Effects of Somali Piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Shortland, Anja

    2011-01-01

    Copyright @ 2011 Brunel University Naval counter-piracy measures off Somalia have failed to change the incentives for pirates, raising calls for land-based approaches that may involve replacing piracy as a source of income. This paper evaluates the effects of piracy on the Somali economy to establish which (domestic) groups benefit from ransom monies. Given the paucity of economic data on Somalia, we evaluate province-level market data, nightlight emissions and high resolution satellite im...

  7. Piracy and Maritime Crime: Historical and Modern Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Vietnamese Boat People 97 by Bruce A. Elleman CHAPTER SEVEN Piracy and Armed Robbery in the Malacca Strait: A Problem Solved? 109 by Catherine Zara Raymond...thereby dramatically increasing overall cases of piracy within the region.” Catherine Zara Raymond analyzes piracy and armed robbery in the Malacca...Asia-Pacific, ed. Joshua Ho and Catherine Zara Raymond (Singapore: World Scientific, 2005), p. 259. 3. International Maritime Bureau [hereafter IMB

  8. Negative Peer Relationships on Piracy Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study of the Associations between Cyberbullying Involvement and Digital Piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Yubero; Elisa Larrañaga; Beatriz Villora; Raúl Navarro

    2017-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between different roles in cyberbullying behaviors (cyberbullies, cybervictims, cyberbullies-victims, and uninvolved) and self-reported digital piracy. In a region of central Spain, 643 (49.3% females, 50.7% males) students (grades 7–10) completed a number of self-reported measures, including cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, self-reported digital piracy, ethical considerations of digital piracy, time spent on the Internet, and leisure a...

  9. The EU Comprehensive Approach on Somali Piracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Caramerli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Aden represents a strategic issue for the international community, as its geographical position is fundamental as the major trade maritime route. About 50 percent of the world container ships pass through the Gulf of Aden each year, 80 percent of those cargos coming from Europe. For this reason, the piracy issue affecting Somalia is a problem affecting EU member states’ security and economy. This paper is focused on the comprehensive approach acted by the European Union, with a special attention on proposing the implementation of programs against illegal fishing and waste dumping in order to fight Somali piracy. The evaluation of the military mission offers an overview on a solution for the near future, while the training missions and the development funds sustain the build-up of national tools and focus on the solving of the roots of the issue.

  10. Digital piracy management in creative content industry

    OpenAIRE

    Akulavičius, Marius

    2015-01-01

    The present habits of digital content consumption and a rather easy access to illegal creative content reduce the opportunities to limit digital piracy by banning or invoking legislation. such a context of the creative content industry results in the need to search for new business models that would encourage users to voluntarily switch from illegal to legal products of the creative content industry, rather than simply banning them from using the illegal ones. iIn order to determine which bus...

  11. Follow The Money: Piracy and Online Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Batikas, Michail; Claussen, Jörg; Peukert, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Online copyright enforcement, in the form of either direct action against the supply- side (via website shutdowns) or the demand-side (via individual lawsuits against users), has not been very effective in reducing piracy. Regulators have therefore put forward the so called “follow the money" approach. Because the main source of revenue for infringing websites often comes from online advertising, the idea is that cutting access to advertisers could lower the financial incentives for website o...

  12. On the dynamics of stream piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, L.; Willett, S. D.

    2012-04-01

    Drainage network reorganization by stream piracy is invoked repeatedly to explain the morphology of unique drainage patterns and as a possible mechanism inducing abrupt variations of sediment accumulation rates. However, direct evidence of stream piracy is usually rare, and is highly interpretation dependent. As a first step in assessing how probable capture events are and establishing the conditions that favor stream piracy versus the those that favor stable landscapes, we formulate analytically the physics of divide migration and capture events and study this formulation from a dynamical system point of view. The formulation is based on a one-dimensional topographic cross section between two channels that share a water divide. Two hillslope profiles diverge from the divide and drain into two fluvial bedrock tributaries, whose erosion rate is controlled by a stream power law. The rate of erosion at the bounding channels is thus a function of the upstream drainage area and local slope. A tectonically induced downward perturbation of the elevation of one of the bounding channels lowers the channel slope but at the same time increases the drainage area due to outward migration of the water divide. The changes in slope and area have opposing effect on the erosion rate at the bounding channels, so that the perturbation may either grow or be damped. We define the geomorphic and tectonic parameters that control the behavior of the system and find the regimes that lead to stable landscapes and to capture events.

  13. Curbing International Piracy of Intellectual Property. Policy Options for a Major Exporting Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Gary M.; Marcou, George T.

    This report of the International Piracy Project addresses three major topics: (1) The Costs and Complications of Piracy; (2) Rights Enforcement Today; and (3) Policy Options for Curbing Piracy. The first section discusses piracy of copyrights, patents, and other intellectual property, including economic losses and damage to the finances and…

  14. College Students; Justification for Digital Piracy: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Szde

    2012-01-01

    A mixed methods project was devoted to understanding college students' justification for digital piracy. The project consisted of two studies, a qualitative one and a quantitative one. Qualitative interviews were conducted to identify main themes in students' justification for digital piracy, and then the findings were tested in a quantitative…

  15. Combating piracy off the coast of Somalia: current legal challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, M.D.; Galvin, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The ongoing maritime operations against piracy off the coast of Somalia have not only put naval enforcement against piracy at sea in the spotlight, but also the legal aftermath of what to do with pirates after their capture. While warships at sea within the current legal framework of UNCLOS and the

  16. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility, or...

  17. How Piracy is Affecting Economic Development in Puntland, Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Beloff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The international community has united in its mission to halt the hijacking of merchant ships in the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea with a massive naval presence that monitors the vast, strategic seas in which Somali pirates operate. This naval presence consequently has had some success in reducing pirate attacks in 2012, but why are the Somalis turning to piracy in the first place? The economic history of piracy has been well documented with other former “pirate hotspots” worldwide; however, there is little data available on the microeconomic affects of piracy. This article explores the underlying reasons of why Somalis have turned to piracy as a “profession,” and offers recommendations for the international community to eliminate piracy effectively through non-military means.

  18. Maritime insurance as a way to struggle piracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina S. Anyanova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to research the features of maritime insurance from the viewpoint of fighting piracy at international level and to define the ways to improve the legal norms in this sphere. Methods dialectic method of cognition and private scientific research methods formallegal systemicstructural sociallegal comparativelegal statistical. Results basing on the analysis of normative legal acts regulating the relations in the sphere of maritime insurance as one of the ways to struggle against piracy the insufficiency of unified insurance norms at internationallegal level is revealed features of modern piracy are identified as well as the dependence of the insurance cost on the piratesrsquo activity the state of legal protection of the shipownerrsquos interests in case of piratesrsquo attacks at international routes a conclusion is made that the difficulties with the ldquopiracyrdquo notion do not hinder its fullfledged research in international law the drawbacks of the piracy concept in international law are reflected the insurance legal norms are studied as well as the drawbacks in insufficient unification and stronger protection of shipowners in case of ransom payments especially in RF. Scientific novelty for the first time in the article the internationallegal features of maritime piracy are viewed as one of the measures of struggle against piracy. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in practical scientific and educational activity when dealing with the issues of maritime insurance of piracy risks.

  19. Negative Peer Relationships on Piracy Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study of the Associations between Cyberbullying Involvement and Digital Piracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Yubero

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the relationship between different roles in cyberbullying behaviors (cyberbullies, cybervictims, cyberbullies-victims, and uninvolved and self-reported digital piracy. In a region of central Spain, 643 (49.3% females, 50.7% males students (grades 7–10 completed a number of self-reported measures, including cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, self-reported digital piracy, ethical considerations of digital piracy, time spent on the Internet, and leisure activities related with digital content. The results of a series of hierarchical multiple regression models for the whole sample indicate that cyberbullies and cyberbullies-victims are associated with more reports of digital piracy. Subsequent hierarchical multiple regression analyses, done separately for males and females, indicate that the relationship between cyberbullying and self-reported digital piracy is sustained only for males. The ANCOVA analysis show that, after controlling for gender, self-reported digital piracy and time spent on the Internet, cyberbullies and cyberbullies-victims believe that digital piracy is a more ethically and morally acceptable behavior than victims and uninvolved adolescents believe. The results provide insight into the association between two deviant behaviors.

  20. Negative Peer Relationships on Piracy Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study of the Associations between Cyberbullying Involvement and Digital Piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yubero, Santiago; Larrañaga, Elisa; Villora, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between different roles in cyberbullying behaviors (cyberbullies, cybervictims, cyberbullies-victims, and uninvolved) and self-reported digital piracy. In a region of central Spain, 643 (49.3% females, 50.7% males) students (grades 7–10) completed a number of self-reported measures, including cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, self-reported digital piracy, ethical considerations of digital piracy, time spent on the Internet, and leisure activities related with digital content. The results of a series of hierarchical multiple regression models for the whole sample indicate that cyberbullies and cyberbullies-victims are associated with more reports of digital piracy. Subsequent hierarchical multiple regression analyses, done separately for males and females, indicate that the relationship between cyberbullying and self-reported digital piracy is sustained only for males. The ANCOVA analysis show that, after controlling for gender, self-reported digital piracy and time spent on the Internet, cyberbullies and cyberbullies-victims believe that digital piracy is a more ethically and morally acceptable behavior than victims and uninvolved adolescents believe. The results provide insight into the association between two deviant behaviors. PMID:28981466

  1. Negative Peer Relationships on Piracy Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study of the Associations between Cyberbullying Involvement and Digital Piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yubero, Santiago; Larrañaga, Elisa; Villora, Beatriz; Navarro, Raúl

    2017-10-05

    The present study examines the relationship between different roles in cyberbullying behaviors (cyberbullies, cybervictims, cyberbullies-victims, and uninvolved) and self-reported digital piracy. In a region of central Spain, 643 (49.3% females, 50.7% males) students (grades 7-10) completed a number of self-reported measures, including cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, self-reported digital piracy, ethical considerations of digital piracy, time spent on the Internet, and leisure activities related with digital content. The results of a series of hierarchical multiple regression models for the whole sample indicate that cyberbullies and cyberbullies-victims are associated with more reports of digital piracy. Subsequent hierarchical multiple regression analyses, done separately for males and females, indicate that the relationship between cyberbullying and self-reported digital piracy is sustained only for males. The ANCOVA analysis show that, after controlling for gender, self-reported digital piracy and time spent on the Internet, cyberbullies and cyberbullies-victims believe that digital piracy is a more ethically and morally acceptable behavior than victims and uninvolved adolescents believe. The results provide insight into the association between two deviant behaviors.

  2. Commons, Piracy and the Crisis of Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Arvanitakis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article takes the politicisation of copyright and file sharing as a starting point to discuss the concept of the commons and the construction of property. Empirically, the article draws on a series of interviews with Pirate Party members in Sweden, Australia, Germany, the UK and USA; placed in the theoretical framework of the commons. We argue that piracy, as an act and an ideology, interrogates common understandings of property as something self-evident, natural and uncontestable. Such constructions found liberal market ideology. The article has two broad aims: to outline the different phases of enclosure, from the physical commons, to the institutional and finally the cultural commons; and to discuss the way that piracy highlights the emergent crisis in private property rights, brought to the fore by the global financial crisis and ongoing privatization of public resources. We conclude by questioning what new modes of enclosure are emerging in a digital economy driven by excessive data mining and centralized streaming services.

  3. Piracy versus Netflix : Subscription Video on Demand Dissatisfaction as an Antecedent of Piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Riekkinen, Janne

    2018-01-01

    Drawing from cognitive dissonance and neutralization theories, this study seeks to improve the understanding on consumer decision-making between the current legal and illegal video consumption alternatives. We develop and test a research model featuring Subscription Video on Demand (SVOD) satisfaction and various dimensions of SVOD quality as antecedents of video piracy neutralizations and attitudes. Based on results from an online survey among Finnish SVOD users, SVOD satisfaction is primari...

  4. Countering 21st Century Piracy in the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    2nd ed., s.v. “piracy; pirate.” 2 International Chamber of Commerce Home Page, http://www.icc-ccs.org/ (International Maritime Bureau, accessed...January 2010. 7 International Chamber of Commerce Home Page, “Piracy Figures for 2009.” 8 The United Nations Home Page, Documents – Security Council...Resolution 1846 (accessed January 10, 2010). 9 International Chamber of Commerce Home Page, “Advice to Masters.” 10 United Nations Convention on

  5. Maritime Piracy: Socio-Economic, Political, and Institutional Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Gries; Margarete Redlin

    2014-01-01

    Over the last twenty years piracy has become an increasing threat. Yet there are only very few econometric studies that examine under which conditions this phenomenon arises. As the number of maritime piracy and armed robbery incidents is characterized as count data and exhibits overdispersion, we apply random-effects negative binomial regressions for a panel dataset covering the period 1991-2010. Our results indicate that poor socio-economic, political, and institutional conditions in the ho...

  6. Effects of Piracy on Quality of Information Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Atanu Lahiri; Debabrata Dey

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly believed that piracy of information goods leads to lower profits, which translate to lower incentives to invest in innovation and eventually to lower-quality products. Manufacturers, policy makers, and researchers all claim that inadequate piracy enforcement efforts translate to lower investments in product development. However, we find many practical examples that contradict this claim. Therefore, to examine this claim more carefully, we develop a rigorous economic model of th...

  7. THE THREAT OF THE CURRENT MARITIME PIRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN C. FERNÁNDEZ SANZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to conduct an analysis of the current piracy situation -as defined in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982- and the International Maritime Organization’s armed robbery against ships concept. This analysis is focusing on those places in which it is more common the occurrence of these violations, such as Somalia and Southeast Asia. This study includes a statement of its causal factors, as well as a review of statistical and ‘modus operandi’ of those crimes. It will be also shown the identification of the geographical zones where the attacks at sea are more frequently. Finally it an study of the the answers and the naval operations that the international community has developed against those felonies, will be presented.

  8. Sea Piracy in Southeast Asia: Implications for Countering Maritime Terrorism in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geragotelis, John M

    2006-01-01

    Sea piracy has infested the seven seas throughout history. In modern times, the United States has paid little attention to piracy because the nation's isolated vastness has protected the shipping industry from maritime crime...

  9. Piracy around the Horn of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Ho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Piracy around the Horn of Africa has risen to a level serious enough for the international community to take concerted action to secure an international sea lane. However, the efforts so far have been initiated mainly by the international community while regional efforts are only just beginning. In the short term, more action will have to be taken at the operational level like dispatching more ships and integrating the operations of ships already deployed to the area. In the longer term, the root causes of piracy and the grievances of the Somali people have to be addressed. In particular, there is a need to restore law and order in Somalia by supporting moderate leaders in their attempts to create a representative government.La piraterie au large de la Corne de l’Afrique a augmenté à un degré tel que la communauté internationale a décidé d’agir de concert pour sécuriser cette voie maritime. Néanmoins, si les efforts entrepris sont principalement ceux de la communauté internationale, les démarches régionales ne sont qu’à leur commencement. Dans le court terme, davantage d’initiatives devront être prises au niveau opérationnel, comme l’envoi de bateaux supplémentaires et la coordination des actions menées. Dans le plus long terme, il faudra s’attaquer aux racines de la piraterie et aux difficultés auxquelles doivent faire face les Somaliens. Il s’agit en particulier de restaurer l’état de droit en supportant les chefs de file modérés dans leur tentative de créer un gouvernement représentatif.

  10. MARINE PIRACY IN SOMALIA – PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Gornowicz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The interestingness of marine piracy issue in Somalia is caused by the fact that firstly, piracy problem is often shown and discussed in mass media and secondly because it is still an unsolved trouble. Finally pirates attacks in Somalia have a great influence on late delivery of cargo ships’ goods. Somalia is said to be the easiest and the most attractive region for pirates attacks. In fact, it is the truth because Somalia is an example of state with inner destabilization and without legal authority which would be able to face the problem. In this paper following topics will be touched: analysis of Convention on the High Seas from Geneva adopted on the 29th April 1958 (definition of piracy; genesis and history of piracy in Somalia; scale of danger from pirates side in Somalia; postulates of changes in article 100 of United Nation Convention of the Law of the Sea adopted on the 10th of December 1982; attitude of international community towards piracy in Somalia; International missions in Somalia; Somalia nowadays (statistics; prospects for the future...

  11. Piracy and Product Differentiation in the Market of Digital Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Alvisi Matteo; Argentesi Elena; Carbonara Emanuela

    2003-01-01

    We analyse how piracy affects the choice of quality of a monopolist producing a digital good. A digital good is a special kind of information good, for example a music CD, a DVD or an electronic magazine available online. An important feature of digital goods is that they can be copied without a decline in the copy's quality. We define piracy as both the production and the sale of illegal copies and the practice of file sharing through the Internet. Recently, the introduction of fast Internet...

  12. Psychosocial perspectives on music piracy in Nigeria | Loko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incursion of record piracy into the mainstream of Nigeria's music recording industry in the early 1970s has been a bad omen for the recording industry because of its tremendous negative impact on the industry's growth. Though it has remained an integral part of the recording industry globally, however, in Nigeria it has ...

  13. Piracy around Africa's west and east coasts: a comparative political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of politics, or political science, focuses on both the abstract theories and practical operation of government and politics. The phenomenon of piracy on the east and west coasts of Africa brings an important scholarly issue to the fore, namely the significant roles of non-state actors in national, regional and global ...

  14. Caribbean piracy and youth restiveness in Niger delta: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our aim in this paper is to make a comparative analysis of Caribbean piracy and youth restiveness in Niger Delta of Nigeria. It will not be out of place to carry out such an analysis having seen, heard or read of the ongoing chaos, insecurity in the. Niger Delta Zone in Nigeria. We have to look at the past to find out such similar

  15. Asset Allocation to Cover a Region of Piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    1087-1092. 8. Kirkpatrick, S., Optimization by Simulated Annealing. Science, 1983. 220(4598): p. 671-680. 9. Daskin , M. S., A bibliography for some...... a uniform piracy risk and where some areas are more vulnerable than others. Simulated annealing was used to allocate the patrolling naval assets

  16. Movie Piracy Networks at Alaba International Market, Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tade, Oludayo; Mmahi, Okoro Paul

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the veiled chain of film piracy, a major crime in the Nigeria entertainment industry. Studies on film piracy in Nigeria have focused on its economic implications, both on the copyright owners and on the Nigerian economy. The organization of the activities of the film pirates has, however, been neglected. Narratives were extracted through in-depth interviews with pirates, "marketers," and "producers." Data indicated that pirates were insiders in the film marketing industry and included importers of foreign movies, registered and nonregistered retailers of Nigerian films, as well as marketers appointed by copyright owners to distribute their films. With the connivance of sales girls working with the copyright owners and dubbing companies, original copies of films (white face) are "procured." Pirates distributed pirated copies, also secretly known as "green face," without issuing receipts or putting the logo of the company on it. For security reasons, pirated films are sold only to buyers introduced by a member in the piracy network. Efforts aimed at fighting piracy must take into account this veiled network to effectively combat intellectual theft via aggressive ban on the public sale of such products.

  17. Piracy in cyber space: consumer complicity, pirates and enterprise enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Peggy E.; Chaudhry, Sohail S.; Stumpf, Stephen A.; Sudler, Hasshi

    2011-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the growth of internet piracy in the global marketplace. The ethical perceptions (or lack of) of the younger generation is addressed, in terms of their willingness to consume counterfeit goods on the web. Firms face the task of educating the consumer that downloading music, software, movies and the like, without compensation, is unethical. This awareness is critical for decreasing the demand for counterfeit goods in the virtual marketplace, where a consumer can exhibit a rogue behaviour with a limited fear of prosecution. We address the pyramid of internet piracy, which encompasses sophisticated suppliers/facilitators, such as the Warez group. Recent sting operations, such as Operation Buccaneer, are also depicted to highlight successful tactical manoeuvres of enforcement agencies. An overview of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act and the No Electronic Theft Act is included to debate the controversy surrounding this legislation. A discussion of enterprise enforcement mechanisms and novel anti-piracy technology for cyberspace is provided to reveal some of the tools used to fight the pirates, such as innovations in digital watermarking and NEC's recently announced video content identification technology. Enterprise information systems and its interdependence on the internet are also demanding new technologies that enable internet investigators to rapidly search, verify and potentially remove pirated content using web services. The quality of service of web services designed to efficiently detect pirated content is a growing consideration for new anti-piracy technology.

  18. Piracy Activity vs. Product Features in Digital Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Bauer, Kevin; Veitch, Rob

    Torrent peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing protocol. The sample includes 173 games and a collection period of three months from late 2010 to early 2011. With a total of 12.6 million unique peers identified, it is the largest examination of game piracy via P2P networks to date. Analysis of the data shows...

  19. The Challenges of Piracy in Africa's Maritime Zones | Nyakawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa, like the rest of the world, has many maritime resources which could contribute to its development. Unfortunately, these resources are illegally plundered by others. At the same time, free trade and movement in the African waters have been hampered by phenomena such as piracy and organised crime. Indeed, Africa ...

  20. Toward Détente in Media Piracy | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Negotiations around intellectual property rights (IPR) are increasingly a key factor ... these reports are narrow accounts of media piracy presenting an economy of ... are primarily - and in some cases exclusively - mediated through pirate markets. ... The Ford Foundation is supporting additional country studies in Russia and ...

  1. Why the U.S. Navy Should Not Be Fighting Piracy Off Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-04

    International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) established in 1981 to serve as the world’s focal point in matters related to maritime crime, there were 293...International Chamber of Commerce , “IMB Reports a Cluster of Pirate Attacks Off the East Coast of Africa.” 3 U.S. National Security Council, Countering Piracy...Counter-Piracy and Combined Task Force 151.” 17 International Chamber of Commerce – International Maritime Bureau, Piracy and Armed Robbery Against

  2. CONSIDERING ANTI-PIRACY SHIP SECURITY: CITADEL DESIGN AND USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Carral

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As piracy continues to pose a threat to the shipping industry, a number of measures for protecting ships, cargo and crew will need to be implemented. Along with other steps, such as deploying military rescue teams, securing the crew within a ship’s citadel has proved to be a highly effective form of self-protection against hostage-taking by pirates. From a design standpoint, aspects that should be considered include the location and dimensions of the citadel, the maximum time crew can stay within it and the specific requirements for various elements of the ship or citadel equipment. Exploiting data on pirate attacks recently occurring in High Risk Areas, this article analyses the design and use of the citadel as a self-protection measure against piracy. As a conclusion, various requirements for these structures are recommended.

  3. Piracy prevention and the pricing of information goods

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Helmuth; Pestieau, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops a simple model of piracy to analyze its effects on prices and welfare and to study the optimal enforcement policy. A monopolist produces an information good (involving a 'large' development cost and a 'small' reproduction cost) that is sold to two groups of consumers differing in their valuation of the good. We distinguish two settings: one in which the monopoly is regulated and one in which it maximizes profits and is not regulated, except that the public authority may be...

  4. Anti-piracy in a sea of predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruvik Westberg, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    a considerable impact on the decline in piracy. Moreover, naval–coastal engagement and cooperation run deeper than is commonly perceived. While grievances against illegal fishing are widespread, examination of the fishing sector reveals a significant amount of predation committed by local stakeholders....... Competition for fishing sector rents, particularly over distribution of licences, occurs on the local, regional and national levels. Bonds between some pirates, smugglers and officials threaten coastal community development and undermine their security. This study concludes that Somalia's maritime predatory...

  5. Spatial, Temporal and Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Maritime Piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchione, Elio; Johnson, Shane D

    2013-11-01

    To examine patterns in the timing and location of incidents of maritime piracy to see whether, like many urban crimes, attacks cluster in space and time. Data for all incidents of maritime piracy worldwide recorded by the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency are analyzed using time-series models and methods originally developed to detect disease contagion. At the macro level, analyses suggest that incidents of pirate attacks are concentrated in five subregions of the earth's oceans and that the time series for these different subregions differ. At the micro level, analyses suggest that for the last 16 years (or more), pirate attacks appear to cluster in space and time suggesting that patterns are not static but are also not random. Much like other types of crime, pirate attacks cluster in space, and following an attack at one location the risk of others at the same location or nearby is temporarily elevated. The identification of such regularities has implications for the understanding of maritime piracy and for predicting the future locations of attacks.

  6. Combating Piracy in the Gulf of Guinea: Taking a Page from the Gulf of Aden International Anti-Piracy Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    taken to balance the legs of the stool. Thus, in strategy formulation , there is always an inherent prudential risk, which must be accepted and mitigated...Though efforts to develop strategies and formulate policies are in progress, resources continue to challenge the process. ECOWAS has developed a...the anti-piracy strategy remains a major challenge. The states should provide financial support, either quarterly or annually, to fund the

  7. Impact of gender and opportunity recognition on attitude to piracy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of gender and opportunity recognition on attitude to piracy of computer industry products. ... Software piracy has defied punitive measures, posing threats to jobs of millions of employees and the computer industry. The study proposed an ... Practical implications of findings and future research directions are discussed.

  8. User Decisions Among Digital Piracy and Legal Alternatives for Film and Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veitch, Robert; Constantiou, Ioanna

    2012-01-01

    Technologies enabling digital piracy have expanded the variety of modes available to users when deciding how to access film and music. We examine user decisions in context, investigating which factors influence the decision to use traditional or new legal options over piracy. Our study contributes...

  9. International cooperation in combating modern forms of maritime piracy: Legal and policy dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottlieb, Y.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, maritime piracy has reemerged as a serious threat to the international community, notably following the increase in piracy incidents off the coast of Somalia. Piratical activity has threatened the safety of navigation, the lives of seafarers, and the delivery of humanitarian aid.

  10. High Noon on the High Seas: A Proximity-Complexity Model of Maritime Piracy Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    International Maritime Bureau, Annual Report: Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships (Kuala Lumpur: International Chamber of Commerce , 2008). 4...Against Ships (Kuala Lumpur: International Chamber of Commerce , 2007). 7. International Maritime Bureau, Annual Report: Piracy and Armed Robbery...Against Ships (Kuala Lumpur: International Chamber of Commerce , 2008). 8. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 11.0 for Windows Student

  11. Optimizing the Naval Force for the Horn of Africa Anti-Piracy Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-04

    new trend emerged for an increased number of 1 International Chamber of Commerce International...Countering Piracy Off the Horn of Africa: Partnership & Action Plan. Dec 2008, 3. 3 International Chamber of Commerce International Maritime Bureau...Increase off Somali Coast” Release #053- 09. 30 Mar 2009. 26 International Chamber of Commerce Commercial Crime Services. “Live Piracy Report

  12. Music piracy : A case of "the rich get richer and the poor get poorer"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piolatto, A.; Schuett, F.

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that music piracy has differential effects on artists depending on their popularity. We present a model of music piracy with endogenous copying costs: consumers’ costs of illegal downloads increase with the scarcity of a recording and are therefore negatively related to the number

  13. Student Digital Piracy in the Florida State University System: An Exploratory Study on Its Infrastructural Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Digital piracy is a problem that may never disappear from society. Through readily available resources such as those found in a university, students will always have access to illegal goods. While piracy is a global phenomenon, an institution's resources combined with the typical college student's lack of funds makes it more lucrative. Students…

  14. Political Economy of Piracy in Somalia: Basis for a Transformative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Carvalho de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the current wave of piracy off the coast of Somalia in light of political economy framework proposed by Michael Pugh and Neil Cooper. According to these authors, three types of economies flourish in protracted conflicts - combat economy, shadow economy, and coping economy - whose aims are, respectively, to finance combat activities, generate personal profits and provide minimum resources to the subsistence of poor and marginalized people. Based on empirical evidences showing that piracy in Somalia performs these three functions, one argues that the current international intervention against piracy is not sustainable because it does not seek to transform the factors and dynamics that make piracy an economically attractive alternative for local populations. For this reason, one proposes a shift on the Somali piracy agenda by adopting a critical perspective where piracy is no longer treated exclusively as a mere disruption of order at sea. Instead, one suggests a transformative approach where piracy is understood in its political economy dimension taking into account not only the local aspects, but also their regional links.

  15. The Law and Economics of International Cooperation Against Maritime Piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Hallwood; Thomas J. Miceli

    2011-01-01

    Article 100 of the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea requires signatories to “cooperate” against maritime piracy, but “cooperate” is undefined. Enforcement is a public good – creating uncompensated benefits for others, so suffering from free-rider problems. Our analysis readily explains why more pirates captured are released than prosecuted; why the U.N. and International Maritime Organization are seeking to reduce enforcement costs; why some in the shipping industry want to apply the 198...

  16. The Effect of Piracy on Somalia as a Failed State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    the Pan -~ab task force to join the European Union (EU), NATO and CTF. On June 10, 2010, the UN Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia...winning cooperation from local clans and business networks to provide authority and order is Mogusidshu’s best recipe for security. 103 The full U.N...21st Century Seapower. Naval War College Review 61, no. 1, (January 1): 6-19. http://www.proquest.com/ (accessed November 22, 2010). Cooke , Jennifer

  17. Does modern piracy pose a threat to maritime transport?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Makowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to answer the question whether the observed since 2005 “renaissance” of piracy in the Somali region and the Gulf of Aden (in general, we can speak of the eastern part of the Indian Ocean, is in a position to threaten the international chains of supplies in their global dimension. The conducted analysis of lines of maritime transport compared with the number of pirate attacks and their consequences on the individual sea areas helped to establish that, answering the main question raised in the title of the article, we can certainly say that it does not.

  18. Development of Novel Gas Brand Anti-Piracy System based on BP Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Y Y [Chinese-German School of Postgraduate Studies, Tongji University (China); Ding, L [Chinese-German School of Postgraduate Studies, Tongji University (China)

    2006-10-15

    The Wireless-net Close-loop gas brand anti-piracy system introduced in this paper is a new type of brand piracy technical product based on BP neural network. It is composed by gas brand piracy label possessing gas exhalation resource, ARM embedded gas-detector, GPRS wireless module and data base of merchandise information. First, the system obtains the information on the special label through gas sensor array ,then the attained signals are transferred into ARM Embedded board and identified by artificial neural network, and finally turns back the outcome of data collection and identification to the manufactures with the help of GPRS module.

  19. Development of Novel Gas Brand Anti-Piracy System based on BP Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Ding, L.

    2006-10-01

    The Wireless-net Close-loop gas brand anti-piracy system introduced in this paper is a new type of brand piracy technical product based on BP neural network. It is composed by gas brand piracy label possessing gas exhalation resource, ARM embedded gas-detector, GPRS wireless module and data base of merchandise information. First, the system obtains the information on the special label through gas sensor array ,then the attained signals are transferred into ARM Embedded board and identified by artificial neural network, and finally turns back the outcome of data collection and identification to the manufactures with the help of GPRS module.

  20. Development of Novel Gas Brand Anti-Piracy System based on BP Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L; Zhang, Y Y; Ding, L

    2006-01-01

    The Wireless-net Close-loop gas brand anti-piracy system introduced in this paper is a new type of brand piracy technical product based on BP neural network. It is composed by gas brand piracy label possessing gas exhalation resource, ARM embedded gas-detector, GPRS wireless module and data base of merchandise information. First, the system obtains the information on the special label through gas sensor array ,then the attained signals are transferred into ARM Embedded board and identified by artificial neural network, and finally turns back the outcome of data collection and identification to the manufactures with the help of GPRS module

  1. Can U.S.-Led Efforts Reduce Piracy in the Malacca and Singapore Straits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-10

    International Chamber of Commerce and sponsor for the Piracy Reporting Centre (IMB-PRC) in Kuala Lumpur, defines piracy as “the act of boarding any...Report - 2001, IMO Circular MSC.4/Circ.16 (London: 31 March 2002), 17-18. 25 International Chamber of Commerce , “Excerpt from the ICC Piracy...Report, 2001… Trends,” 2002, <http://www.iccwbo.org/home/news_archives /2002/excerpt_ trends.asp>, [01 December 2004]. 26 International Chamber of Commerce , “ICC

  2. Anti-piracy policy and quality differential in markets for information goods

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Martínez-Sánchez; Javier M. López Cuñat

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the strategic decisions of the government, the incumbent and the pirate in a market where the good is piratable. We show that deterred or accommodated piracy can occur in equilibrium, but pure monopoly cannot occur for any anti-piracy policy. We also show that the initial quality differential between the original and the pirated product is essential to explain the effects of an increase in the quality of pirated product on both the level of piracy and the optimal moni...

  3. Piracy in the Horn of Africa: The Role of Somalia’s Fishermen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    37 Catherine Zara Raymond, “Piracy and Armed Robbery in the Malacca Strait: a Problem Solved?” Naval War College review, summer 2009, 62:3, 37. 38...302 Catherine Zara Raymond, “Piracy in Southeast Asia: new trends, Issues and Responses,” Institute of Defense and strategic Studies Singapore...search.aspx?query=pirates%20threaten%20ship%20traffic %20in%20gulf%20of%20aden (accessed October 4, 2010). Raymond, Catherine Zara . “Piracy and

  4. Modern Piracy and Regional Security Cooperation in the Maritime Domain: The Middle East and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Information Sharing Centre (ISC),” 433. 33 Catherine Zara Raymond, “Piracy and Armed Robbery in the Malacca Straits,” Naval War College Review 62:3...2009); Catherine Zara Raymond, “Piracy and Armed Robbery in the Malacca Straits,” Naval War College Review 62:3 (Summer 2009); Carolin Liss, “The...Charlottesville, Virginia: University Press of Virginia, 1988). Raymond, Catherine Zara . “Piracy and Armed Robbery in the Malacca Straits.” Naval War College

  5. Piracy in Southeast Asia: A Growing Threat to the United States' Vital Strategic and Commercial Interests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    ... and Islamic fundamentalists in the southern Philippines and Indonesia. Southeast Asia has been a breeding ground and haven for man time piracy for over a thousand years due to the geography of the area...

  6. Streaming era digital media piracy : an integration of three theoretical perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Riekkinen, Janne

    2018-01-01

    Consumer digital piracy in media contexts is one of the most publicized adverse developments brought on by the Internet and digitization of data. Since the turn of the millennium, it has irrevocably changed the business environment for the creative industries. The sharp decrease of recorded music sales, especially in the physical album format, is perhaps the best example of the negative effects digital piracy. However, the growth of legal services in digital music and ...

  7. Youth behaviour about digital piracy: Research with public high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Grohmann, Márcia Zampieri; Rosa, Ana Claudia da; Nunes, Jankel Dal’osto; Piveta, Maíra Nunes

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the profile of younger who download more software pirates; understand young people's behavior in relation to digital piracy; verify if this profile impact in young justice perception and attitude toward digital piracy . The research is characterized by quantitative and descriptive, using Suki, Suki and Ramayah (2011) model in a 397 student sample. The results showed that: the using of software pirates is more high among men and who made less use of software pirates...

  8. Piracy off the Horn of Africa: What is the Most Effective Method of Repression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-04

    off the Horn of Africa is growing in frequency, range, aggression, and severity at an alarming rate.” 15 According to the International Chamber of Commerce ‟s...of Africa: Partnership & Action Plan (December 1, 2008), 6. 2 International Chamber of Commerce International Maritime Bureau, Piracy and Armed...Robbery Against Ships. (London, United Kingdom: International Chamber of Commerce International Maritime Bureau, October 2008), 25. 3 Piracy and

  9. USAFRICOM’s Role in Counter-Piracy Operations Within the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-04

    Maritime Bureau (IMB), a division of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), established the IMB Piracy Reporting Centre (PRC) in 1992. This...2009). 20 International Chamber of Commerce , International Maritime Bureau, ICC-IMB official website, “International Maritime Bureau”, http...www.icc-ccs.org/, (accessed 15 March 2009). International Chamber of Commerce – International Maritime Bureau, ICC-IMB, Piracy And Armed

  10. Building the Right Framework for Effective Multinational Anti-Piracy Operations in the Gulf of Aden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-04

    Chamber of Commerce – Commercial Crime Services and 6 The International Maritime Bureau Maritime Organization of West and Central Africa 7... Chamber of Commerce - Commercial Crime Services, April 21, 2009, http://www.icc- ccs.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=350:piracy... Chamber of Commerce – Commercial Crime Services (ICC-CCS) and the International Maritime Bureau (IMB) Similar in operation to ReCAAP, the IMB’s Piracy

  11. Problems of the investigation and prosecution in case of piracy at sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiš Amarila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea piracy became a current topic around 2008 when the number of attacks increased in the Gulf of Aden. However it is more or less repressed by now, piracy has a unique shifting nature: it decreases in one region, but it increases in another, therefore it is always present to some extent. Besides, Somali piracy was the first that made international community take steps and these strategies and programmes serve as an important lesson that can be partly adaptable in other cases as well. It reveals important questions around enforcement jurisdiction and the most exciting problem: prosecutions. This paper attempts to briefly take a glance at those difficulties that can set back the success of a piracy prosecution and if there is a progress. First, it presents the root-cause: jurisdiction. National laws regulate piracy in a very different way or they don't criminalize them at all and this can lead to serious consequences. In the following chapter the process of investigation is presented. Collecting evidence is incredibly difficult in case of piracy and if it fails, prosecutions fail too. In the end the paper attempts to focus on the trial and what follows: costs of prosecutions, asylum-seekers, human rights considerations and prison facilities.

  12. The Formation of Digital Piracy Management Business Models in the Music Records Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edverdas Vaclovas Bartkus

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades due to the rapid expansion of the Internet and content products (music, movies, books and software digital distribution, the number of users copying and distributing these products without the legal consent of their authors is increasing - a phenomenon known as digital piracy. This poses new challenges to the creative content industry seeking to protect itself against the loss of income and copyright infringement.  This problem is particularly relevant to the recorded music industry, as it has the large scale of digital piracy related to very convenient reproduction and distribution of illegal music records.  The widespread practice of record use in the digital space is not favorable to traditional business models based on the distribution of music in physical format. An increasing variety of digital piracy forms and decreasing technical limitations at the same time create new opportunities to manage digital piracy through the use of new technical, legal or economic decisions. This creates need to discuss the relevance and theoretical aspects of digital piracy management in the recorded music industry, and to analyze and compare most widespread digital piracy management business models of in the recorded music industry.

  13. A novel flexible model for piracy and robbery assessment of merchant ship operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pristrom, Sascha; Yang, Zaili; Wang, Jin; Yan, Xinping

    2016-01-01

    Maritime piracy and robbery can not only cause logistics chain disruption leading to economic consequences but also result in loss of lives, and short- and long-term health problems of seafarers and passengers. There is a justified need for further investigation in this area of paramount importance. This study analyses maritime piracy and robbery related incidents in terms of the major influencing factors such as ship characteristics and geographical locations. An analytical model incorporating Bayesian reasoning is proposed to estimate the likelihood of a ship being hijacked in the Western Indian or Eastern African region. The proposed model takes into account the characteristics of the ship, environment conditions and the maritime security measures in place in an integrated manner. Available data collected from the Global Integrated Shipping Information System (GISIS) together with expert judgement is used to develop and demonstrate the proposed model. This model can be used by maritime stakeholders to make cost-effective anti-piracy decisions in their operations under uncertainties. Discussions are given on industrial response to maritime piracy in order to minimize the risk to ships exposed to attacks from pirates. Further recommendations on how maritime security and piracy may be best addressed in terms of maritime security measures are outlined. - Highlights: • Analysis of maritime piracy and robbery related incidents in terms of the major influencing factors such as ship characteristics. • Development of an analytical model for estimating the likelihood of a ship being hijacked in the Western Indian or Eastern African region. • Demonstration of the proposed model using data collected from the Global Integrated Shipping Information System (GISIS) together with expert judgement. • Development of an analytical model for maritime piracy and robbery assessment.

  14. Multinational Counter-Piracy Operations: How Strategically Significant is the Gulf of Guinea to the Major Maritime Powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    153. 40 Catherine Zara Raymond, “Piracy and Armed Robbery in the Malacca Strait: A Problem Solved?,” Naval War College Review 62, no. 3 (Summer 2009...Analysis.” Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review 48, issue 1 (January 2012): 258–265. Raymond, Catherine Zara . “Piracy and

  15. Film piracy in the era of digital technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vukašin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction of films in the era of analog technology has been connected with a number of difficulties, involving, inter alia, technically complex process of reproduction, as well as high cash expenditures. In that sense, the very analog technology presented a barrier to reproduction of films by unauthorized persons. By switching to digital technology, the reproduction of mentioned copyright works became much easier, in terms of enabling individuals to, with easily available and relatively cheap technical means, in a fast and high quality way, make a large number of film copies. Since the digital era reflects progress of technology in the field of reproduction and distribution of films, as well as copyright works in general, the introduction of new exclusive rights in copyright law is very significant, as well as narrowing the existing limitations of copyright law rights and extension of duration of the protection. Effective enforcement of copyright protection in the new conditions opened a range of numerous issues, out of which the question of piracy in the field of film production is one of the most important, which presented the motivation for the author to cover this issue.

  16. THE IMAGE OF PIRACY AND MARITIME TERRORISM. THE MEDIA AS A TOOL FOR ITS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Gawliczek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article was the issue of shaping the image of piracy and maritime terrorism. Emphasis was put on the media, including those using information and communication technologies. The answers to problem questions were sought: (1 Who and why forms that image (2 what tools are used for its construction. The article presents the trends and development tendencies of the analyzed phenomena, based on the report of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD. Furthermore, the results of surveys, conducted among students of military academies, on perception of piracy and maritime terrorism, are cited.

  17. Online distribution of digital cultural products : are legal distributors strong enough against piracy?

    OpenAIRE

    Saumard, Mélodie

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the music industry is showing positive growth for the first time in fifteen years. The same year, Game of Thrones is declared the most pirated TV series with an average of 4.28 million illegal downloads for each episode. Ever since the creation of Napster in 1998, online piracy became a common practice which is weakly reprehended socially-speaking. The starting point for our work was Gabe Newell's idea that piracy is not a matter of price but a problem of service rende...

  18. Private or Public Law Enforcement? The Case of Digital Piracy Policies with Non-monitored Illegal Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Éric Darmon; Thomas Le Texier

    2014-01-01

    In the case of digital piracy should rights be publicly or privately enforced? The emergence of large-scale anti-piracy laws and the existence of non-monitored illegal channels raise important issues for the design of digital anti-piracy policies. In this paper, we study the impact of these two enforcement settings (public vs. private) in the presence of an illegal non-monitored outside option for users. Taking account of market outcomes, we show that in both cases, the optimal strategies of ...

  19. Private Political Activists and the International Law Definition of Piracy: Acting for ‘Private Ends’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honniball, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Piracy under international law grants states the right to exercise universal jurisdiction, provided that all conditions of its definition are cumulatively met. Yet academic debate continues as to whether the requirement that piratical acts be committed ‘for private ends’ excludes politically

  20. Why do software manufacturers tolerate piracy in transition and less developed countries? A theoretical model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kúnin, Michael

    -, č. 231 (2004), s. 1-16 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : intellectual property rights * software * piracy Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp231.pdf

  1. News Piracy: Unfair Competition and the Misappropriation Doctrine. Journalism Monographs No. 56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Paul W.

    Unfair competition is a complex problem affecting all areas of American business, including the communications media. Piracy of material, an alarmingly widespread example of unfair competition, involves legal as well as ethical questions. This monograph uses the historical approach to trace the development of common-law precedent and trends and…

  2. Only the good... get pirated: game piracy activity vs. metacritic score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Bauer, Kevin; Veitch, Robert W. D.

    2011-01-01

    the substantial interest in game piracy, there is very little objective information available about its magnitude or its distribution across game titles and game genres. This paper presents a large-scale analysis of the illegal distribution of digital game titles, which was conducted by monitoring the BitTorrent...

  3. The pirates of Nevskii Prospekt: intellectual property, piracy and institutional diffusion in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sezneva, O.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the circulation of unauthorized copies of music and movies in Russia—what is otherwise known as media piracy. On the basis of qualitative data, it argues that the media market in Russia is best perceived as a hybrid, where the boundaries between legal and illegal are porous and

  4. MARITIME SECURITY GOVERNANCE IN THE FIGHT AGAINST PIRACY OFF THE COAST OF SOMALIA: A FOCUS ON THE EU RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru VOICU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although currently on a declining trend, large scale piracy off the coast of Somalia cannot be safely dismissed as a thing of the past: since the mid-2000s, piracy in the Western Indian Ocean has put in peril the international and regional security. Maritime threats are interdependent, asymmetric, persistent, shifting and generated by manifold and mutually-reinforcing root causes, hence their high probability of recurrence or relocation in the absence of a generally improved and self-sustaining security environment. Confronted with these complex challenges, numerous state and non-state actors have taken steps to prevent, mitigate or suppress piracy off the Somali coast. Within the security governance framework, the present paper outlines the major actors activating in the counter-piracy field in the region and their specific responses, focusing on the comprehensive measures undertaken by the EU in this realm.

  5. The Impact of Food Consumption, Government Type and Effectiveness, on the Rate of Somali Maritime Piracy, 2000-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Rohrer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of maritime piracy off the Horn of Africa is still a developing area of academic research. The work that has been conducted to date has remained largely qualitative.   Two recurring assumptions made but not empirically tested in this area of research are 1 the perceived link between government stability and the rate of maritime piracy, and 2 drought conditions implying food shortages in Somalia, and their impact on the rate of maritime piracy off the Horn of Africa.  The findings of this project show a strong increase in maritime piracy following the transition from assorted Islamic Courts to the Transitional Federal Government (TFG.  However, variations in the consumption of staple foodstuffs, and an index of the World Bank Governance Indicators do not have a significant impact on the frequency of maritime piracy in the region.  If maritime piracy off the Somali coast is to be eliminated, rather than policed, efforts should be made to encourage the development of governmental institutions that utilize culturally-respected institutions supported by the local populace.

  6. Trading Nets for Guns: The Impact of Illegal Fishing on Piracy in Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    and World Order, Draft, Royal Irish Academy, National University of Ireland , Galway (Galway: Centr for Ocean Policy Studies, 2009), 26–27...Kismayo.75 Thus, piracy was transformed by warlord entrepreneurship , in its organization, targets, tactics, and potential profitability beginning in...World Order, Draft, Royal Irish Academy, National University of Ireland , Galway (Galway: Centr for Ocean Policy Studies, 2009), 26–27. Percy, Sara

  7. Dissonance and Neutralization of Subscription Streaming Era Digital Music Piracy : An Initial Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Riekkinen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    Both legal and illegal forms of digital music consumption continue to evolve with wider adoption of subscription streaming services. With this paper, we aim to extend theory on digital music piracy by showing that the rising controversy and diminishing acceptance of illegal forms of consumption call for new theoretical components and interactions. We introduce a model that integrates insights from neutralization and cognitive dissonance theories. As an initial empirical test of th...

  8. A model of music piracy with popularity-dependent copying costs

    OpenAIRE

    Piolatto, Amedeo; Schuett, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence and recent empirical work suggest that music piracy has differential effects on artists depending on their popularity. Existing theoretical literature cannot explain such differential effects since it is exclusively concerned with single-firm models. We present a model with two types of artists who differ in their popularity. We assume that the costs of illegal downloads increase with the scarcity of a recording, and that scarcity is negatively related to the artist’s popul...

  9. Optimal software pricing in the presence of piracy and word-of-mouth effect

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yipeng; Cheng, Hsing Kenneth; Tang, Qian Candy; Eryarsoy, Enes

    2011-01-01

    We develop an analytical model that embeds empirical findings on software diffusion to examine optimal pricing strategies for a spreadsheet software product under coalescing effects of piracy and word-of-mouth through its entire life cycle. We find that the demand of the innovators has the most significant impact on the firm’s pricing decision. Our research recommends market skimming pricing strategy if innovators’ demand is high and the market penetration pricing strategy is preferred otherw...

  10. Fighting software piracy in Africa: how do legal origins and IPRs protection channels matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu Simplice

    2012-01-01

    In the current efforts towards harmonizing IPRs regimes in the African continent, this paper provides answers to four key questions relevant in the policy decision making processes. After empirically examining the questions, the following findings are established. (1) In comparison to common law countries, civil law countries inherently have a significant autonomous rate of software piracy; consistent with the 'law and property rights' theory. (2) But for IPRs laws, the other IP protection ch...

  11. The Long War Against Piracy: Historical Trends (Occasional Paper, Number 32)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    develop bases closer to their targets.8 Tortuga , located off the northwest coast of Hispaniola, was the first great pirate sanctuary. It maintained...the boucaniers fled to Tortuga , a small island off the northwest coast of Hispaniola, and turned to piracy. The French boucaniers, whose name was...buccaneers commanded large sailing vessels and operated with impunity throughout the Caribbean. Although the Spanish raided Tortuga from time to time

  12. Somali Piracy: An Age-Old Solution to a Modern Day Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    under international law over acts ofpiracy. 12 The,International Maritime Bureau (IMB), the maritime branch of the International Chamber of Commerce , defines...International Chamber of Commerce Commercial Crime Services. January 14,2010. http://www.icc-ccs.org (accessed January 18,2010). 20 that pirates are...from the International Maritime Bureau Piracy Reporting Center, a division International Chamber of Commerce . 61 U.S. Africa Command, "United States

  13. The ambivalent relation between state and illegal actors: piracy retail in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, José Carlos G.

    2011-01-01

    In the rise of democratic governments across Latin America, the neoliberal law-and-order perspective has been the most influential model of security in the region. This approach is based on the opposition between state and illegal agents, as if they were two different sets of actors. Influenced by this model, Mexican president Vicente Fox launched an extensive anti-piracy programme to eradicate retail of counterfeit. Based on ethnographic material gathered in the San Juan de Dios market in Gu...

  14. River piracy and drainage basin reorganization led by climate-driven glacier retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugar, Daniel H.; Clague, John J.; Best, James L.; Schoof, Christian; Willis, Michael J.; Copland, Luke; Roe, Gerard H.

    2017-04-01

    River piracy--the diversion of the headwaters of one stream into another one--can dramatically change the routing of water and sediment, with a profound effect on landscape evolution. Stream piracy has been investigated in glacial environments, but so far it has mainly been studied over Quaternary or longer timescales. Here we document how retreat of Kaskawulsh Glacier--one of Canada's largest glaciers--abruptly and radically altered the regional drainage pattern in spring 2016. We use a combination of hydrological measurements and drone-generated digital elevation models to show that in late May 2016, meltwater from the glacier was re-routed from discharge in a northward direction into the Bering Sea, to southward into the Pacific Ocean. Based on satellite image analysis and a signal-to-noise ratio as a metric of glacier retreat, we conclude that this instance of river piracy was due to post-industrial climate change. Rapid regional drainage reorganizations of this type can have profound downstream impacts on ecosystems, sediment and carbon budgets, and downstream communities that rely on a stable and sustained discharge. We suggest that the planforms of Slims and Kaskawulsh rivers will adjust in response to altered flows, and the future Kaskawulsh watershed will extend into the now-abandoned headwaters of Slims River and eventually capture the Kluane Lake drainage.

  15. Sharing without laws: an exploration of social practices and ad hoc labeling standards in online movie piracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Tietzmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses self-labelling standards as sharing mediators in pirated versions of movies available online. Piracy has existed since the beginning of the film industry, challenging established rules and regulations. The dynamics of digital movie piracy often try to meet viewers' expectations while ignoring any regional and premiere date restrictions. Movie piracy organises its abundant offer by generating a self-regulatory repertoire of labeling standards. In this paper we propose an exploration of social practices related to the ad hoc labeling standards as regulators of a presumed user experience in unofficial versions of the movie Captain America: The Winter Soldier. Lessons for sharing economy regulation, especially in contexts where chaotic social relationships are involved, are identified and discussed.

  16. Somali Piracy and Anti-Shipping Activity Messages: Lessons for a Successful Counterpiracy Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    with the inclusion of ASAM reporting numbers alongside the IMO and IMB statistics from 1998 to 2002 as an additional comparison. 16 Table 1...pirate attack. The IMB’s definition of piracy is more inclusive . The second problem is underreporting. Reporting minor pirate attacks usually raises...piratas somalíes en el océano índico (2005-2013): Evolución y modus operandi. Revista del Instituto Español de Estudios Estratégicos, 1(1). Haig

  17. ‘War on piracy’: the conflation of Somali piracy with terrorism in discourse, tactic and law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Singh (Currun); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper argues that since 2005, the global security discourse has confused maritime piracy off the Horn of Africa with terrorism. American and European policymakers and financiers have tapped a vulnerable public imaginary to exaggerate Somali pirates as ‘maritime terrorists’ linked to

  18. Pirateria della strada: un’analisi criminologica /Road piracy: a criminological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piselli Andrea

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo innanzi tutto evidenzia, dal punto di vista criminologico, la differenza tra crimine di strada e criminalità della strada (o stradale passando poi all’esame di una casistica relativa alla criminalità stradale a partire dall’esperienza operativa. Successivamente, l’autore analizza le circostanze in cui scaturisce la fattispecie della pirateria stradale dedicando particolare attenzione alle vittime. Infine, nell’articolo vengono evidenziati gli elementi di successo ottenuti nella repressione al fenomeno della pirateria stradale. Cet article met en évidence la différence entre les crimes de la rue (street crimes et les crimes routiers d’un point de vue criminologique. Après quoi, il examine quelques cas d’accidents de la route du point de vue de l’expérience sur le terrain. Par la suite, l’auteur analyse certaines circonstances qui conduisent aux crimes routiers en accordant une attention particulière aux victimes. Enfin, il expose différents exemples de réussite de la répression du phénomène des crimes routiers. This article highlights the difference between street crime and road crime from a criminological point of view. Afterwards it examines a series of road accidents based on an operational experience. Subsequently, the author analyses some circumstances which lead to road piracy crimes, paying particular attention to victims. Finally, it emphasizes examples of successful elements in fighting road piracy.

  19. Growth of desferrioxamine-deficient Streptomyces mutants through xenosiderophore piracy of airborne fungal contaminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Anthony Argüelles; Lambert, Stéphany; Martinet, Loïc; Adam, Delphine; Tenconi, Elodie; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; Ongena, Marc; Rigali, Sébastien

    2015-07-01

    Due to the necessity of iron for housekeeping functions, nutrition, morphogenesis and secondary metabolite production, siderophore piracy could be a key strategy in soil and substrate colonization by microorganisms. Here we report that mutants of bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor unable to produce desferrioxamine siderophores could recover growth when the plates were contaminated by indoor air spores of a Penicillium species and Engyodontium album. UPLC-ESI-MS analysis revealed that the HPLC fractions with the extracellular 'resuscitation' factors of the Penicillium isolate were only those that contained siderophores, i.e. Fe-dimerum acid, ferrichrome, fusarinine C and coprogen. The restored growth of the Streptomyces mutants devoid of desferrioxamine is most likely mediated through xenosiderophore uptake as the cultivability depends on the gene encoding the ABC-transporter-associated DesE siderophore-binding protein. That a filamentous fungus allows the growth of desferrioxamine non-producing Streptomyces in cocultures confirms that xenosiderophore piracy plays a vital role in nutritional interactions between these taxonomically unrelated filamentous microorganisms. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The study of perceived adverse effects of digital piracy and involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kos Koklic, M.; Vida, I.; Bajde, Domen

    2014-01-01

    intentions, and explore the rarely examined moderating effect of issue involvement on the relationship between the attitude and intention to pirate. The dominant attitude-behaviour theory is extended with an ethical decision-making theoretical perspective. The hypotheses are tested via mail survey data from......In this study, we focus on two sets of expected negative consequences of engaging in digital piracy among the seldom studied adult computer users rather than student population. We delve into the role of perceived risk and moral intensity as drivers of consumers' attitudes and behavioural...... a random sample of adult consumers using structural equations modelling. The results of this cross-sectional study show unfailing support for the relationships proposed in our model. Our findings suggest that, in addition to perceived risk, moral intensity (i.e. the expected consequences for others), has...

  1. Piracy in a Contested Periphery: Incorporation and the Emergence of the Modern World-System in the Colonial Atlantic Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nick Kardulias

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article uses world-systems analysis to examine the role that pirates and privateers played in the competition between European core states in the Atlantic and Caribbean frontier during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Piracy was an integral part of core-periphery interaction, as a force that nations could use against one another in the form of privateers, and as a reaction against increasing constraints on freedom of action by those same states, thus forming a semiperiphery. Although modern portrayals of pirates and privateers paint a distinct line between the two groups, historical records indicate that their actual status was rather fluid, with particular people moving back and forth between the two. As a result, the individuals were on a margin between legality and treason, often crossing from one to the other. In this study we discuss how pirates and privateers fit into the margins of society in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, also known as the Golden Age of Piracy, specifically using the example of Edward Teach, aka Blackbeard. The present analysis can contribute to our understanding not only of piracy, but also of the structure of peripheries and semiperipheries that in some ways reflect resistance to incorporation.

  2. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There was this highly venerated river Saraswati flowing through. Haryana, Marwar and Bahawalpur in Uttarapath and emptying itself in the Gulf ofKachchh, which has been described in glowing terms by the Rigveda. "Breaking through the mountain barrier", this "swift-flowing tempestuous river surpasses in majesty and.

  3. Sea piracy sequelae: assessment according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziello, Antonio Rosario; Fasanaro, Angiola Maria; Petrelli, Cristina; Ricci, Giovanna; Sirignano, Ascanio; Amenta, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies have investigated the psychological consequences of kidnapping in a group of Italian seafarers assaulted by sea pirates and held in captivity and in their family members by the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-4. These studies have shown that both the victims and the family members showed significant psychological disturbances, corresponding to a chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), in the victims, and a pattern of anxiety and depression in their family members. After publication of these studies, an updated edition of the DSM became available, namely, the DSM-5. The DSM-5 redefines some diagnostic criteria, including those related to the PTSD. This work was focused on the re-evaluation of the results of our previous studies in the light of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. Sixteen Italians including 4 kidnapped seafarers and 12 family members were examined by a semi-structured interview followed by Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS-DX) and the Cognitive Behaviour al Assessment (CBA 2.0) for victims and by State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) X-1 and X-2 of CBA 2.0 and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) for family members. Data already obtained were reviewed and re-analysed according to the DSM-5 criteria and the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5). The use of the CAPS-5 did not modify the diagnosis for the victims' group: 3 of 4 had a PTSD diagnosis performed through the CAPS-5. Seven of 12 family members had PTSD diagnosis performed through the CAPS-5, with negative cognitions and mood symptoms being those obtaining the highest score. Using DSM-5 criteria, the diagnosis of PTSD in the direct victims of piracy was confirmed. The same diagnosis could apply to a group of their family members. Besides anxiety and fear, in fact, we found in 7 out 12 subjects the presence of symptoms included by the DSM-5 in the PTSD spectrum. These symptoms were: avoidance, negative

  4. Interspecies modulation of bacterial development through iron competition and siderophore piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, Matthew F; Seyedsayamdost, Mohammad R; Clardy, Jon; Kolter, Roberto

    2012-11-01

    While soil-dwelling actinomycetes are renowned for secreting natural products, little is known about the roles of these molecules in mediating actinomycete interactions. In a previous co-culture screen, we found that one actinomycete, Amycolatopsis sp. AA4, inhibited aerial hyphae formation in adjacent colonies of Streptomyces coelicolor. A siderophore, amychelin, mediated this developmental arrest. Here we present genetic evidence that confirms the role of the amc locus in the production of amychelin and in the inhibition of S. coelicolor development. We further characterize the Amycolatopsis sp. AA4 - S. coelicolor interaction by examining expression of developmental and iron acquisition genes over time in co-culture. Manipulation of iron availability and/or growth near Amycolatopsis sp. AA4 led to alterations in expression of the critical developmental gene bldN, and other key downstream genes in the S. coelicolor transcriptional cascade. In Amycolatopsis sp. AA4, siderophore genes were downregulated when grown near S. coelicolor, leading us to find that deferrioxamine E, produced by S. coelicolor, could be readily utilized by Amycolatopsis sp. AA4. Collectively these results suggest that competition for iron via siderophore piracy and species-specific siderophores can alter patterns of gene expression and morphological differentiation during actinomycete interactions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Wireless Sensor Networks and Real-Time Locating Systems to Fight against Maritime Piracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide range of military and civil applications where Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs and Multi-Agent Systems (MASs can be used for providing context-awareness for troops and special corps. On the one hand, WSNs comprise an ideal technology to develop Real-Time Locating Systems (RTLSs aimed at indoor environments, where existing global navigation satellite systems do not work properly. On the other hand, agent-based architectures allow building autonomous and robust systems that are capable of working on highly dynamic scenarios. This paper presents two piracy scenarios where the n-Core platform can be applied. n-Core is a hardware and software platform intended for developing and deploying easily and quickly a wide variety of WSNs applications based on the ZigBee standard. In the first scenario a RTLS is deployed to support boarding and rescue operations. In the second scenario a multi-agent system is proposed to detect the unloading of illegal traffic of merchandise at ports.

  6. Late Quaternary stream piracy and strath terrace formation along the Belle Fourche and lower Cheyenne Rivers, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, John F.; Hendricks, Robert R.; Sawyer, J. Foster; Mahan, Shannon A.; Zaprowski, Brent J.; Geibel, Nicholas M.; Azzolini, David C.

    2013-09-01

    Stream piracy substantially affected the geomorphic evolution of the Missouri River watershed and drainages within, including the Little Missouri, Cheyenne, Belle Fourche, Bad, and White Rivers. The ancestral Cheyenne River eroded headward in an annular pattern around the eastern and southern Black Hills and pirated the headwaters of the ancestral Bad and White Rivers after ~ 660 ka. The headwaters of the ancestral Little Missouri River were pirated by the ancestral Belle Fourche River, a tributary to the Cheyenne River that currently drains much of the northern Black Hills. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques were used to estimate the timing of this piracy event at ~ 22-21 ka. The geomorphic evolution of the Cheyenne and Belle Fourche Rivers is also expressed by regionally recognized strath terraces that include (from oldest to youngest) the Sturgis, Bear Butte, and Farmingdale terraces. Radiocarbon and OSL dates from fluvial deposits on these terraces indicate incision to the level of the Bear Butte terrace by ~ 63 ka, incision to the level of the Farmingdale terrace at ~ 40 ka, and incision to the level of the modern channel after ~ 12-9 ka. Similar dates of terrace incision have been reported for the Laramie and Wind River Ranges. Hypothesized causes of incision are the onset of colder climate during the middle Wisconsinan and the transition to the full-glacial climate of the late-Wisconsinan/Pinedale glaciation. Incision during the Holocene of the lower Cheyenne River is as much as ~ 80 m and is 3 to 4 times the magnitude of incision at ~ 63 ka and ~ 40 ka. The magnitude of incision during the Holocene might be due to a combined effect of three geomorphic processes acting in concert: glacial isostatic rebound in lower reaches (~ 40 m), a change from glacial to interglacial climate, and adjustments to increased watershed area resulting from piracy of the ancestral headwaters of the Little Missouri River.

  7. Forensic age estimation in anti-piracy trials in Seychelles: Experiences and challenges faced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, S A; Liyanage, U A; Weeratna, J B; Mendis, N D N A; Perera, H J M; Jayasekara, R W; Fernando, R

    2017-01-01

    Forensic age estimation (FAE) was conducted using a multifactorial method on thirteen Somali detainees claiming juvenile status during the anti-piracy trials of the Seychelles Supreme Court in 2014/2015. A multidisciplinary team, comprising of four of the authors covering specialties in forensic medicine, forensic odontology and radiology, conducted the FAE using a five-stage protocol. Each detainee was interviewed with an interpreter and examined for disorders affecting dental/skeletal development and for assessment of genital development through Tanner staging. Dental maturity was assessed clinically and radiologically. Eruption stage was assessed using Olze et al. and mandibular third-molar maturity was assessed using Demirjian's classification. Skeletal maturity was assessed from hand-wrist X-rays according to Greulich & Pyle and from CT-clavicle according to Kellinghaus et al. and Schultz et al. Interpretation of findings was done using reference population data from similar ethnic and social backgrounds wherever possible. Final age-ranges were calculated by combining dental and clavicle maturity stages using the regression formula developed by Bassed et al. followed by a 10% correction factor. The team later testified on their findings under cross-examination. The protocol adopted by the authors increased the scientific validity of the findings and was useful in addressing cross-examination queries on exclusion of developmental disorders, ethnic/socioeconomic variability and maintaining chain of custody. Unforeseen jurisdictional and practical limitations were experienced but did not affect the outcome. Combining dental and clavicle developmental data provided the court with a much clearer picture on the likelihood of the detainees' juvenile status which emphasizes the importance of conducting more population studies using combinations of different developmental sites. The authors note that available reference data is mostly from affluent populations whereas

  8. Phycodnavirus potassium ion channel proteins question the virus molecular piracy hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Hamacher

    Full Text Available Phycodnaviruses are large dsDNA, algal-infecting viruses that encode many genes with homologs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Among the viral gene products are the smallest proteins known to form functional K(+ channels. To determine if these viral K(+ channels are the product of molecular piracy from their hosts, we compared the sequences of the K(+ channel pore modules from seven phycodnaviruses to the K(+ channels from Chlorella variabilis and Ectocarpus siliculosus, whose genomes have recently been sequenced. C. variabilis is the host for two of the viruses PBCV-1 and NY-2A and E. siliculosus is the host for the virus EsV-1. Systematic phylogenetic analyses consistently indicate that the viral K(+ channels are not related to any lineage of the host channel homologs and that they are more closely related to each other than to their host homologs. A consensus sequence of the viral channels resembles a protein of unknown function from a proteobacterium. However, the bacterial protein lacks the consensus motif of all K(+ channels and it does not form a functional channel in yeast, suggesting that the viral channels did not come from a proteobacterium. Collectively, our results indicate that the viruses did not acquire their K(+ channel-encoding genes from their current algal hosts by gene transfer; thus alternative explanations are required. One possibility is that the viral genes arose from ancient organisms, which served as their hosts before the viruses developed their current host specificity. Alternatively the viral proteins could be the origin of K(+ channels in algae and perhaps even all cellular organisms.

  9. Effect of slope failures on river-network pattern: A river piracy case study from the flysch belt of the Outer Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroň, Ivo; Bíl, Michal; Bábek, Ondřej; Smolková, Veronika; Pánek, Tomáš; Macur, Lukáš

    2014-06-01

    Landslides are important geomorphic agents in various mountainous settings. We document here a case of river piracy from the upper part of the Malá Brodská Valley in the Vsetínské Mts., Czech Republic (Rača Unit of the flysch Magura Group of Nappes, flysch belt of the Outer Western Carpathians) controlled by mass movement processes. Based on the field geological, geomorphological and geophysical data, we found out that the landslide accumulations pushed the more active river of out of two subparallel river channels with different erosion activity westwards and forced intensive lateral erosion towards the recently abandoned valley. Apart from the landslide processes, the presence of the N-striking fault, accentuated by higher flow rates of the eastern channel as a result of its larger catchment area, were the most critical factors of the river piracy. As a consequence of the river piracy, intensive retrograde erosion in the elbow of capture and also within the upper portion of the western catchment occurred. Deposits of two landslide dams document recent minimum erosion rates to be 18.8 mm.ky- 1 in the western (captured) catchment, and 3.6 mm.ky- 1 in the eastern catchment respectively. The maximum age of the river piracy is estimated to be of the late Glacial and/or the early Holocene.

  10. Evaluation of a landscape evolution model to simulate stream piracies: Insights from multivariable numerical tests using the example of the Meuse basin, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaïchouche, Abed; Stab, Olivier; Tessier, Bruno; Cojan, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    In landscapes dominated by fluvial erosion, the landscape morphology is closely related to the hydrographic network system. In this paper, we investigate the hydrographic network reorganization caused by a headward piracy mechanism between two drainage basins in France, the Meuse and the Moselle. Several piracies occurred in the Meuse basin during the past one million years, and the basin's current characteristics are favorable to new piracies by the Moselle river network. This study evaluates the consequences over the next several million years of a relative lowering of the Moselle River (and thus of its basin) with respect to the Meuse River. The problem is addressed with a numerical modeling approach (landscape evolution model, hereafter LEM) that requires empirical determinations of parameters and threshold values. Classically, fitting of the parameters is based on analysis of the relationship between the slope and the drainage area and is conducted under the hypothesis of equilibrium. Application of this conventional approach to the capture issue yields incomplete results that have been consolidated by a parametric sensitivity analysis. The LEM equations give a six-dimensional parameter space that was explored with over 15,000 simulations using the landscape evolution model GOLEM. The results demonstrate that stream piracies occur in only four locations in the studied reach near the city of Toul. The locations are mainly controlled by the local topography and are model-independent. Nevertheless, the chronology of the captures depends on two parameters: the river concavity (given by the fluvial advection equation) and the hillslope erosion factor. Thus, the simulations lead to three different scenarios that are explained by a phenomenon of exclusion or a string of events.

  11. Nuclear deterrence in the 21. century. Lessons from the cold war for a new era of strategic piracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Deterrence remains a primary doctrine for dealing with the threat of nuclear weapons in the 21. century. In this book, the author calls for a renewed intellectual effort to address the relevance of the traditional concepts of first strike, escalation, extended deterrence, and other Cold War-era strategies in today's complex world of additional superpowers (e.g., China), smaller nuclear powers (e.g., Pakistan and North Korea), and non-state actors (e.g., terrorists), as well as the extension of defense and security analysis to new domains, such as outer space and cyber-space. The author draws upon the lessons of the bipolar Cold War era to illustrate new concepts of deterrence that properly account for the variety of nuclear actors, the proliferation of missiles and thermonuclear weapons, and the radical ideologies that all are part of the nuclear scene today. Contents: 1- Introduction, 2 - Why Is This Subject Important?, 3 - Concepts, 4 - Lessons from Crises, 5 - The Age of Small Powers, 6 - Ahead of Us: The Big Piracy Game?, 7 - Space and Cyber-deterrence

  12. Non-Traditional Security Threats in the Border Areas: Terrorism, Piracy, Environmental Degradation in Southeast Asian Maritime Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabova, E. L.

    2013-11-01

    with other subsystems like South East Asia may have different approaches to global governance, international constitutional order, or particular cases such as the measure of infringement of human rights when targeting individuals suspected of terrorist links. Yet international law remains the key part of the Asian and global security regime. The hypothesis of this study is that the "void of governance" regime in territorial and international waters provides lucrative environment for developing terrorism, piracy, environmental degradation, and other criminal activities that pose untraditional threats to the regional security. This "void of governance" regime can be caused by either, or both, de jure or de facto insufficient control over particular marine territories.

  13. Counter-piracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldtmann, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    In May 2010, various media reported that a Russian naval vessel had seized a group of Somali pirates after they allegedly had tried to attack a Russian-owned vessel. According to the reports, the pirates were, due to a ‘lack of legal basis’, ‘released’ from custody in a small boat without means...

  14. INTERNET AND PIRACY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Internet has penetrated into all the aspects of our life and work.We can study and work by it;we can find a job by it;we can communicate by it;we can entertain by it;we can buy and sell by it.We can do almost everything on the Internet,and almost anywhere anytime. However,at the same time Internet provides services for us,it is inevitably invading our privacy to some degree.The services on most websites require our registering. If we want to enjoy these services,we have to provide much private informa-

  15. Piracy and Movie Revenues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peukert, Christian; Claussen, Jörg; Kretschmer, Tobias

    difference-in-differences approach. We compare box office revenues before and after the shutdown to a matched control group of movies unaffected by the shutdown. We find that the shutdown had a negative, yet insignificant effect on box office revenues.This counterintuitive result may suggest support...... for the theoretical perspective of (social) network effects where file-sharing acts as a mechanism to spread information about a good from consumers with zero or low willingness to pay to users with high willingness to pay....

  16. ['Piracy of kowledge'--the role of a buccaneer-scientist in the knowledge circulation around diseases and drugs in the tropics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelders, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge circulation in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was not only stimulated by the mutual interaction of trade and science. In the context of territorial expansion, war, and the activities of privateers and pirates, knowledge of diseases and drugs in the tropics was increased as well. An important part in this process was performed by so-called 'buccaneer-scientists': adventurers with medical and scientific backgrounds and/or interest who operated on the cultural borders in different parts of the hemisphere. The characteristics of this type of contributor to Early Modern knowledge circulation are explored and analyzed in the example of Scottish surgeon and pirate Lionel Wafer (c. 1660 - c. 1705). The buccaneer scientist had to share the passions of other scientists, resulting in accurate and detailed empirical observation; be able to judge the relevance of observations and 'facts'; be part of a context that stimulates these observations; be capable of describing of these observations; and be part of a network of dissemination of observations. His activities should have an important practical and pragmatic component stimulating trade, expansion and even piracy. And he should possess personal characteristics such as perseverance, a healthy constitution, and ruthlessness, to work and survive in a violent and traumatic environment. Wafer is typical for other 'buccaneer-scientists' of this period--not only pirates and privateers, but also physicians and natural explorers operating in other and more 'respectable' areas of the European overseas expansion.

  17. Somalia Piracy: Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    agricultural goods are the most threatened. Agricultural goods like mangoes, avocadoes and canned beans are exported by sea. 9 The value of these...imported and exported goods. 1 It is of international strategic importance because of the importance of the sea lanes off the Somalia coast (roughly...vessels re-route to avoid the HOA, and increased delays in delivery of goods.31 Kenya’s major exported items, including tea, coffee, and other

  18. The ambivalent relation between state and illegal actors: piracy retail in Mexico A relação ambígua entre o Estado e os atores ilegais: o mercado da pirataria no México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos G. Aguiar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the rise of democratic governments across Latin America, the neoliberal law-and-order perspective has been the most influential model of security in the region. This approach is based on the opposition between state and illegal agents, as if they were two different sets of actors. Influenced by this model, Mexican president Vicente Fox launched an extensive anti-piracy programme to eradicate retail of counterfeit. Based on ethnographic material gathered in the San Juan de Dios market in Guadalajara, I discuss on the exchanges between piracy sellers and police officers. My argument is that law enforcement programmes have not affected the political economy of corruption, they overlook the net of ambiguous loyalties where state and illegal actors are entrenched. The anthropology of the state provides the rationale for a critique on neoliberal security policies.Quando surgiram os governos democráticos na América Latina, a perspetiva neoliberal da lei e da ordem constituiu-se como o modelo de segurança dominante na região. Esta abordagem baseia-se na oposição entre o Estado e os agentes da ilegalidade, como se fossem dois conjuntos de atores distintos. Influenciado por este modelo, o presidente mexicano Vicente Fox lançou um programa alargado contra a pirataria, pretendendo erradicar a venda da contrafação. A partir de material etnográfico recolhido no mercado de San Juan de Dios, em Guadalajara, examino as interações entre vendedores de mercadoria pirata e agentes da polícia. Argumento que os programas para a aplicação da lei não afetaram a economia política da corrupção e que ignoram a rede de lealdades ambíguas que envolvem o Estado e os atores ilegais. A antropologia do Estado oferece os princípios para uma crítica sobre as políticas de segurança neoliberais.

  19. Cyber piracy in cyberspace "The growing threat to state security القرصنة الالكترونية في الفضاء السيبراني "التهديد المتصاعد لأمن الدول"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura Shalouch نورة شلوش

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of this research paper on electronic piracy in cyberspace is the growing threat to the security of countries, from the importance of virtual cyberspace and the various cyber attacks received by cyberspace , which today is the first threatened entity of any country with destruction and collapse and the creation of international conflicts among them, for the purpose of the strategies and mechanisms that can be activeated by international systems for the embodiment of cybersecurity international and to know the relationship of electronic piracy to make changes in the security environment, and the identification of the impact of cyber attachs,including electronic piracy in the emergence of new patterns of international conflict the most prominent of these attacks in addition to the nature of these cyber attacks and to the identification of most of the new electronic weapons this paper aims to identify the electronic race that the world is witnessing today by international regimes in the extent to which cybercrime can be reduce in cyberspace.

  20. 著作權法「防盜拷措施」條款例外規定要點之檢討 The Review of Regulations Concerning the Exceptions of Anti-piracy Measures Clauses in Taiwan Copyright Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    章忠信 Chung-Hsin Chang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available 「科技保護措施」是著作權人在數位網路環境下,以技術保護其權利的重要手段,國際著作權法制對於這些「科技保護措施」,再以法律保護,使其不被任意破解或規避。然而,這些規定對於廣大的公眾利益究竟有何負面影響,非無疑義。我國著作權法在2004 年9 月1 日增訂「防盜拷措施」條款後,主管機關終於在2006 年3 月23 日發布「防盜拷措施」排除適用範圍之認定要點,即「著作權法第80 條之2 第3 項各款內容認定要點」,本文針對此一要點的訂定背景與內容作簡要介紹與分析,期望引起各界的關注,也可以為本要點下一次的檢討修正作準備。 Technological Protection Measures (TPMs is an important method for copyright owners to employ technology to protect his right under digital internet environment. International copyright treaty establishes legal regime to prevent those TPMs from crack or circumvention. However, what negative side effects those regulations may cause to the public interest needs to be evaluated. Taiwan amended its Copyright Law and introduced so-call Anti-piracy Measures clauses on Sep. 1, 2004. In addition, the Competent Authority released the regulations concerning the details of exceptions and limitations set forth in Paragraph 3 of Article 80ter on Mar. 23, 2006. This Article summarizes the background and analysis the details of the regulations. The purpose of this Article is to raise the public concern to this issue. It may also make a preparation to amend the Regulation.

  1. Film Piracy, Organized Crime, and Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    VCDs for sale all over 87 Monika Mehta, “Globalizing Bombay Cinema ,” Cultural Dynamics, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2005, pp. 135–154. 88 Sarkar and Tiwari, 2002...50 years, sending down deep roots of corruption across Japanese political, law enforcement, and civil institutions. It was the yakuza’s symbiotic...corporations.87 In response, the Japanese Diet unanimously passed the boryoku- dan countermeasures, which came into effect in 1992.88 The legislation

  2. DOWNSTREAM ECOCIDE FROM UPSTREAM WATER PIRACY

    OpenAIRE

    Miah Muhammad Adel

    2012-01-01

    Upstream India and downstream Bangladesh share more than 50 international rivers. India has set up water diversion constructions in more than 50% of these rivers, the largest one being on the Bangladeshâs northwest upon the Ganges River, puts Bangladeshâs Gangetic ecosystem at stake. In some border rivers, India has set up groins on her side of river banks. Also, Indian side pumps Bangladesh river water stealthily from border-rivers. Further, India is constructing another dam and reservoir up...

  3. Piracy and Box Office Movie Revenues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peukert, Christian; Claussen, Jörg; Kretschmer, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the heterogeneous effects of online copyright enforcement. We ask whether the unexpected shutdown of the popular file hosting platform Megaupload had a differential effect on box office revenues of wide-release vs. niche movies. Identification comes from a comparison...

  4. the first outbreak of somali piracy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plt

    New data are provided from contemporary reports, shedding light on the socioeconomic and ... traffic of one of the busiest shipping lanes on the planet, coastal northeast villages such as Xabo .... coastline.44 These networks are still in existence. The Ali ..... A very big decline that is hard to imagine and which is very obvious ...

  5. Piracy: The Best Business Model Available

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    occurring in West Africa.74 Oil workers on off-shore rigs have been periodically targeted for kid - napping. While the West African pirates have...118 Reports also link other human costs. Of those taken hostage, at least 60 percent were either used as human shields or physically abused by their...interpretation of verbal commands. Given that the crew may come from different countries, this can be a significant issue. Also, the multinational

  6. PIRACY AROUND AFRICA'S WESTERN AND EASTERN COASTS:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    1998-10-21

    Oct 21, 1998 ... South Africa with Special Reference to Post-conflict. Reconstruction ..... from heavy ground mobile forces to light air and sea mobile forces. The ... needs and politico-developmental ambitions of China, Japan and India. Russia ...

  7. Piracy and Music Sales : The Effects of An Anti-Piracy Law

    OpenAIRE

    Adermon, Adrian; Liang, Che-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of a copyright protection reform in Sweden in April 2009 suddenly increased the risk of being caught and punished for illegal file sharing. This paper investigates the impact of the reform on illegal file sharing and music sales using a difference-in-differences approach with Norway and Finland as control groups. We find that the reform decreased Internet traffic by 16% and increased music sales by 36% during the first six months. Pirated music therefore seems to be a stron...

  8. The Strategic Management and the Illegality: a case study on the fighting against piracy in BrazilA Gestão Estratégica e a Ilegalidade: um estudo de caso do combate à pirataria no BrasilLa Gestión Estratégica y la Ilegalidad: un estudio de caso del combate a la piratería en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MACHADO, Solange Mata

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMultinational companies that suffer from the impact of piracy must recognize the important social and political differences between the local market and the international market to formulate their integrated market and nonmarket strategies. Little is known about the extent to which piracy affects the processes of strategic management of multinational companies operating in emerging countries, where institutional failures restrict the market, or about the type of nonmarket activities used by these companies to achieve their goals of political action. To study this phenomenon, three multinational pharmaceutical companies suffering from illegality were investigated. The evidences of the survey showed that there is a global strategic integration – market and nonmarket (BARON, 1995a. The companies that suffer from piracy tend to use a geocentric structure (PELMUTTER, 1969 formulating nonmarket centralized strategies with the support of specialists to maximize resources. Locally, the subsidiaries implement the global nonmarket strategies, choosing to perform collective activities - independently of the amount of resources available (HILMANN; HITT, 1999.RESUMOAs empresas multinacionais que sofrem com o impacto da pirataria precisam reconhecer as importantes diferenças sociais e políticas existentes entre o mercado local e o mercado internacional para formular estratégias de mercado e não mercado integradas, que sejam eficazes no combate dos produtos piratas. Pouco se sabe sobre a extensão em que a pirataria afeta os processos de gestão estratégica das empresas multinacionais que atuam em países emergentes, onde as falhas institucionais restringem o mercado, e nem tampouco se conhece a estrutura organizacional que suporta estas atividades e os tipos de atividades de não mercado escolhidas para atingir os seus objetivos de ação política. Para estudar este fenômeno foram pesquisadas três empresas multinacionais do setor farmac

  9. piracy around africa's west and east coasts: a comparative political

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abel

    vital sea lines of communication and trade interest, and the severity of the crisis has compelled .... Politics or Comparative Analysis include the notion of the actual act of comparison. It encapsulates a ..... and other material on board. In some ...

  10. A Maritime Approach to Countering Horn of Africa Piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    rights of all others. Additionally, the rights enjoyed by pirates must be balanced against concerns for the common good, mainly the safety of... worklife /08/27/woman.pirate/index.html (accessed 18 December 2011) . 27 Antony, 42. 28 Ibid., 44. 29 The British Navy engaged two notorious...http://edition.cnn.com/2007/LIVING/ worklife /08/27/woman.pirate/index.html (accessed 18 December 2011) . Kontorovich, Eugene. “A Guantanamo on the

  11. Strategic Implications of Piracy in Benin’s Territorial Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    four linguistic groups, from the former colonial, British, Spanish, French and Portuguese overlay domestic languages like Hausa, Wolof, Yoruba , cover...a wide range of geological, geographical and cultural diversity in the region. Among the many rivers that drain into the Gulf are the Niger and the...Rising nationalism implies sovereignty, culture clashes and leadership conflicts among key countries in the Gulf of Guinea. Such an ambiguous

  12. Video Film Piracy in Nigeria: Interfacing to Integrate the Pirate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It recommends the adoption of market segmentation policy in integrating the pirate, emphasises the run of video films in cinemas, halls etc before they go into the market and calls for a better synergy between producers and marketers among others. Key words: Identification, Interface, Integration, Market Segmentation ...

  13. Effects of book piracy on publishing in Nigeria | Ahmadu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 3 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Maritime piracy situation modelling with dynamic Bayesian networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dabrowski, James M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A generative model for modelling maritime vessel behaviour is proposed. The model is a novel variant of the dynamic Bayesian network (DBN). The proposed DBN is in the form of a switching linear dynamic system (SLDS) that has been extended into a...

  15. The Piracy Paradox: Innovation and Intellectual Property in Fashion Design

    OpenAIRE

    Sprigman, Chris; Raustiala, K

    2006-01-01

    The orthodox justification for intellectual property is utilitarian. Advocates for strong IP rights argue that absent such rights copyists will free-ride on the efforts of creators and stifle innovation. This orthodox justification is logically straightforward and well reflected in the law. Yet a significant empirical anomaly exists: the global fashion industry, which produces a huge variety of creative goods without strong IP protection. Copying is rampant as the orthodox account would predi...

  16. Digital piracy and the perception of price fairness

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Krawczyk; Anna Kukla-Gryz; Joanna Tyrowicz

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the relationship between pricing of cultural goods and willingness to download their unauthorized versions. Building on equity theory we propose that perceiving a price as overly high provides a self-justification for downloading content from unauthorized sources. In a large-scale online experiment on customers of a major e-book store we employ the Bayesian Truth Serum to induce truthful confessions of acquiring content from unauthorized sources. We confirm that self-reported down...

  17. Stopping Piracy: Refocusing on Land-based Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    control over Guadeloupe, Hispaniola, and Martinique. They also held nominal sway over Tortuga , later to become a pirate safe haven. The Dutch began to...population of Tortuga to move to Jamaica in an effort to reinforce the island’s defenses. By 1665, more than 2,000 pirates operated out of Port Royal...mainly worked out of Tortuga . The French pirate Francois l’Olonais was a particularly brutal criminal, and reportedly decapitated 87 Spanish

  18. Counter Piracy: A Repeated Game with Asymmetric Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Christopher D. Marsh Approved by: Kyle Y. Lin Thesis Advisor Timothy H. Chung Second Reader Robert F. Dell Chairman, Department of...encourage Malaysia and Indonesia to work with the Singapore Navy in coordinated patrols of the region. Increased cooperation in the region includes the

  19. Understanding Modern Maritime Piracy: A Complex Adaptive System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-12

    ready for rule 3 Ibid., 1-2. 4 Ibid., 3. 5 Ibid., 3-5. 6 Lester H. Brune, The United States and Post-Cold War Interventions: Bush and Clinton in...Somalia, and heavy fighting against peacekeeping troops erupted in November 22 Brune, The United States and Post-Cold War Interventions: Bush and...that a butterfly flapping its wings in Brazil could cause an ensuing tornado in Texas, otherwise known as the “ Butterfly Effect”6. The reality of

  20. China’s Role in Counter-Piracy Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    nineteenth century and set the precedence for the importance of achieving national greatness by obtaining economic wealth and building a navy capable...and South Africa; and biogas development in Guinea, Sudan, and Tunisia.142 Other Chinese economic sectors are actively involved in agriculture

  1. Private Security Companies (PSCs) as a Piracy Countermeasure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2012-01-01

    Private Security Companies (PSC) are a part of the Best Management Practice in the shipping industry. The ship owners are using PSCs to protect their vessels against pirates, but protection of the vessels is just a part of the services that PSCs can provide. The services can be divided in four main...... groups: (1) security intelligence, risk assessment and consulting; (2) security services; (3) crisis response; and (4) intervention. While the use of PSCs may offer some deterrent value, the potential costs of hiring these firms would appear to outweigh the benefits. The argument in this article...

  2. Frank Talk about Hacker Attacks, Emergency Notification, and Online Piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, Josh; Carlson, Scott; Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Technology decisions should not be made solely in some geeky corner of the campus, but should be central to strategic planning and involve top academic leaders. Campus-technology leaders traded tales from the trenches and plenty of advice during the two-day Technology Forum, held in Tampa, Florida in February 2008. Ohio University responded to a…

  3. ON PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHIATRIC IMPACT OF PIRACY ON SEAFARERS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Aleksandrov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been discussed that being held hostage can have harmful short and often long-term physical, psychological, familial and social effects on the victims. This is a complex area of research and the data is sparse yet. The aim of our study is to present our experience concerning some psychological and psychiatric consequences on Bulgarian seamen victims of pirate's attack long captivity and to suggest a suitable methodology of a psychological investigation in such cases. Methods: Seven Bulgarian hostage survivors underwent comprehensive psychological and psychiatric assessments twenty days after pirate’s captivity release. Results and discussion: In general terms, the psychological and psychiatric impact on the victims is similar to that of being exposed to other serious life-threatening events, including terrorist incidents and natural disasters. All the subjects, who have been examined in our study, reported feelings of detachment and alienation from close others and startle by noises, nightmares and sleep disturbances. Anxiety symptoms, characterized by apprehension, tension and fear in particular situations, and some depressive features (depressive mood, lack of interest and activities, lassitude on a sub- clinical level were registered. Conclusion: Despite some limitations our report discusses important issues, concerning psychological and psychiatric consequences on Bulgarian seamen victims of pirate’s attack long captivity and present a suitable model of a psychological investigation in such cases and states the need of supportive care of the victims.

  4. In-theater piracy: finding where the pirate was

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupeau, Bertrand; Massoudi, Ayoub; Lefèbvre, Frédéric

    2008-02-01

    Pirate copies of feature films are proliferating on the Internet. DVD rip or screener recording methods involve the duplication of officially distributed media whereas 'cam' versions are illicitly captured with handheld camcorders in movie theaters. Several, complementary, multimedia forensic techniques such as copy identification, forensic tracking marks or sensor forensics can deter those clandestine recordings. In the case of camcorder capture in a theater, the image is often geometrically distorted, the main artifact being the trapezoidal effect, also known as 'keystoning', due to a capture viewing axis not being perpendicular to the screen. In this paper we propose to analyze the geometric distortions in a pirate copy to determine the camcorder viewing angle to the screen perpendicular and derive the approximate position of the pirate in the theater. The problem is first of all geometrically defined, by describing the general projection and capture setup, and by identifying unknown parameters and estimates. The estimation approach based on the identification of an eight-parameter homographic model of the 'keystoning' effect is then presented. A validation experiment based on ground truth collected in a real movie theater is reported, and the accuracy of the proposed method is assessed.

  5. Textbook piracy : exploring the decision to pirate or not

    OpenAIRE

    Rebelo, Maria Francisca Vieira de Matos Tavares

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written about the consequences of the digitization of entertainment media (music, movies, etc.) and the best strategies to cope with copyright infringement, there is still little research on the effect of the digitization of books. This raises the question of how the publishing industry can learn from the experience of the entertainment industry. As tablets and e-readers become more prevalent, increasing the attractiveness of digital copies of textbooks and oth...

  6. What is the Primary Etiology of Contemporary Somali Piracy and Can the Current U.S. Counter-Piracy Strategy be Effective without Addressing it

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    are also long-term psychological affects that hostages and their families will undergo for many years after such an experience...guardian. However, with subtle interaction and assistance, the United States may be able to nudge the course of Somalia toward stability. If it does

  7. Piracy off Somalia and its Challenges to Maritime Security: Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pardo Sauvageot

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El reciente incremento de la piratería en las costas del Cuerno de África ha puesto en alerta a la Comunidad Internacional. Los nuevos métodos y un armamento más sofisticado han permitido a los piratas dañar al libre comercio de mercancías creando así un nuevo problema de seguridad. Los límites en el Derecho Internacional existente y la incapacidad de muchos países de poner en práctica sus disposiciones han llevado al Consejo de Seguridad a emitir una serie de Resoluciones para involucrar a todos los países afectados en labores de represión: La respuesta ha sido un despliegue sin precedentes por parte de diversas armadas extranjeras a través de iniciativas unilaterales y multilaterales para poner fin a la piratería y a la serie de secuestros que han tenido lugar. Sin embargo el desastroso estado en el que se encuentra Somalia, paradigma de estado fallido, es clave para vislumbrar las posibilidades de éxito de cualquier iniciativa naval: Hasta que Somalia no tenga un verdadero gobierno, no se tratará más que de parches sobre el problema real. Intervenir en Somalia requerirá una clara comprensión de la situación real y la posesión de las herramientas para poner en práctica una solución a largo plazo.

  8. SEE: improving nurse-patient communications and preventing software piracy in nurse call applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unluturk, Mehmet S

    2012-06-01

    Nurse call system is an electrically functioning system by which patients can call upon from a bedside station or from a duty station. An intermittent tone shall be heard and a corridor lamp located outside the room starts blinking with a slow or a faster rate depending on the call origination. It is essential to alert nurses on time so that they can offer care and comfort without any delay. There are currently many devices available for a nurse call system to improve communication between nurses and patients such as pagers, RFID (radio frequency identification) badges, wireless phones and so on. To integrate all these devices into an existing nurse call system and make they communicate with each other, we propose software client applications called bridges in this paper. We also propose a window server application called SEE (Supervised Event Executive) that delivers messages among these devices. A single hardware dongle is utilized for authentication and copy protection for SEE. Protecting SEE with securities provided by dongle only is a weak defense against hackers. In this paper, we develop some defense patterns for hackers such as calculating checksums in runtime, making calls to dongle from multiple places in code and handling errors properly by logging them into database.

  9. Digital movie piracy: A perspective on downloading behavior through social cognitive theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Ruud; Heuvelman, A.; Tan, Maurice; Peters, O.

    2012-01-01

    This study refined and specified a model based on the application (e.g. LaRose & Kim, 2007) of social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) to analyze and compare the behavior and attitudes exhibited by movie downloaders and to compare the number of movies they consume. The model is tested against data

  10. Sci-Hub: What Librarians Should Know and Do about Article Piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2017-01-01

    The high cost of journal articles has driven many researchers to turn to a new way of getting access: "pirate" article sites. Sci-Hub, the largest and best known of these sites, currently offers instant access to more than 58 million journal articles. Users attracted by the ease of use and breadth of the collection may not realize that these articles are often obtained using stolen credentials and downloading them may be illegal. This article will briefly describe Sci-Hub and how it works, the legal and ethical issues it raises, and the problems it may cause for librarians. Librarians should be aware of Sci-Hub and the ways it may change their patrons' expectations. They should also understand the risks Sci-Hub can pose to their patrons and their institutions.

  11. Toward Détente in Media Piracy | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2008 ... International treaties such as the World Trade Organization's Trade Related Intellectual Property Systems (WHO-TRIPS) agreement, as well as bilateral (free trade) agreements, have focused on strengthening and expanding international property protection of films, music, books, computer software and ...

  12. The Case for Spacecrime: The Rise of Crime and Piracy in the Space Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    sacrifices to help me succeed this past year. My daughter’s inexhaustible toddler energy and unwavering greetings at the door each evening served...rather than years. The drive toward off-the-shelf satellite design is epitomized in recent efforts to use a commercial smartphone as the primary...computer for a satellite. NASA successfully integrated and tested a smartphone - powered cubesat, and plans to launch its PhoneSat 2.0 in mid-2013.23

  13. International piracy and armed robbery at sea : hindering maritime trade and water transportation around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Pirates prey upon targets of opportunity. Given optimal conditions (e.g., calm weather, slow cruising speed, and daylight4) relatively small, fast vessels (e.g., containerships) may be no less at risk than large, slower vessels (e.g., crude carriers)...

  14. Old Glory and the Jolly Roger: The Cultural Constraints and Strategic Imperatives of Modern Piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    the Americas (Santa Barbara , CA: ABC-CLIO, 1994). 42 Eda Green, "Borneo: The Land of River and Palm," Project Canterbury (1909), http...Although they nker: the ultra caling the Tan John S. Burne tnam, Inc., 20 ext remarkab d much of D ritish-owne s, which tran 300,000 to te the...and Identity in IR Theory, edited by Yosef Lapid and Friedrich Kratochwil. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1996. LaRochelle, Dennis M., Jack A

  15. Pedagogy beyond Piracy: Un-Learning the White Body to Recreate a Body of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkinson, James W.

    2012-01-01

    This essay highlights a range of questions that arise when white suburban students engage urban neighborhoods of poverty and color in the United States. How can involvement in an "other" context move beyond "educational tourism"? The essay presents a pedagogical style that raises questions of the kind of socialized body one…

  16. Piracy among Undergraduate and Graduate Students: Influences on Unauthorized Book Copies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Pedro; Leal, Carmo; Pereira, Helia; Salgueiro, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    The unauthorized duplication of books through photocopies and Internet downloads, especially in the case of academic books, is currently one of the most challenging problems facing the publishing industry. Photocopying has become widespread with these texts, apparently without major ethical concerns on the part of students. The purpose of this…

  17. Counter Piracy In The Gulf Of Guinea: A Whole-Of-Government Approacch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-13

    consumers, insurance premiums for shipping companies, purchases of security details to protect merchant ships transiting through the region, and the...who benefited from the oil industry “make down payments for the purchase of influential ministerial positions” which the industry then fills with “oil...the WILBROS company, bribed the Nigerian government and some of its top leadership of the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) millions of dollars in

  18. Zinc piracy as a mechanism of Neisseria meningitidis for evasion of nutritional immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Stork

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria functions as a permeability barrier that protects these bacteria against harmful compounds in the environment. Most nutrients pass the outer membrane by passive diffusion via pore-forming proteins known as porins. However, diffusion can only satisfy the growth requirements if the extracellular concentration of the nutrients is high. In the vertebrate host, the sequestration of essential nutrient metals is an important defense mechanism that limits the growth of invading pathogens, a process known as "nutritional immunity." The acquisition of scarce nutrients from the environment is mediated by receptors in the outer membrane in an energy-requiring process. Most characterized receptors are involved in the acquisition of iron. In this study, we characterized a hitherto unknown receptor from Neisseria meningitidis, a causative agent of sepsis and meningitis. Expression of this receptor, designated CbpA, is induced when the bacteria are grown under zinc limitation. We demonstrate that CbpA functions as a receptor for calprotectin, a protein that is massively produced by neutrophils and other cells and that has been shown to limit bacterial growth by chelating Zn²⁺ and Mn²⁺ ions. Expression of CbpA enables N. meningitidis to survive and propagate in the presence of calprotectin and to use calprotectin as a zinc source. Besides CbpA, also the TonB protein, which couples energy of the proton gradient across the inner membrane to receptor-mediated transport across the outer membrane, is required for the process. CbpA was found to be expressed in all N. meningitidis strains examined, consistent with a vital role for the protein when the bacteria reside in the host. Together, our results demonstrate that N. meningitidis is able to subvert an important defense mechanism of the human host and to utilize calprotectin to promote its growth.

  19. Private Security Contractors: A Way of Combating Piracy in the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    civil war. The capital city of Mogadishu is seeing dramatic results with its rebuilding efforts. The building of hotels , shopping areas, and the re...nations include Australia, Bahrain, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Republic of Korea, Kuwait, Malaysia , the

  20. 77 FR 41316 - Federal Bureau of Investigation Anti-Piracy Warning Seal Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... consider a comprehensive ``brand marketing strategy'' for the APW Seal, including guidance on how to use..., subject to specific conditions of use. A. Discussion The FBI APW Seal is a modified image of the FBI's... the use of the APW Seal. The image of the APW Seal will be made available on the FBI's Web site, and...

  1. From "Piracy" to Payment: Audio-Visual Copyright and Teaching Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The changing circumstances in Australia governing the use of broadcast television and radio material in education are examined, from the uncertainty of the early 1980s to current management of copyrighted audiovisual material under the statutory licensing agreement between universities and an audiovisual copyright agency. (MSE)

  2. War, trade and piracy in the China Seas (1622-1683)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Weichung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the rise and fall of a prominent 17th century Chinese maritime power: the Cheng lineage. It elucidates how, due to the consequences of specific historical circumstances at a crucial moment in time, the Ming imperial administration initially tolerated a

  3. Linked Open Piracy: A story about e-Science, Linked Data, and statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hage, W.R.; van Erp, M.G.J.; Malaise, V.

    2012-01-01

    There is an abundance of semi-structured reports on events being written and made available on the World Wide Web on a daily basis. These reports are primarily meant for human use. A recent movement is the addition of RDF metadata to make automatic processing by computers easier. A fine example of

  4. 76 FR 55332 - Federal Bureau of Investigation Anti-Piracy Warning Seal Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... copyright holders on copyrighted works including, but not limited to films, audio recordings, electronic... advertising programmed into the same work on the same media utilizes such copyright anti-circumvention or copy...

  5. Piracy Versus Privacy: An Analysis of Values Encoded in the PirateBrowser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodó, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Piratebrowser is a web browser which utilizes the Privacy Enhancing Technology Tor to circumvent nationally implemented internet filters blocking the access to the Pirate Bay. The article analyzes the possible consequences of a mass influx of copyright pirates into the privacy domain. It

  6. The wine trade, piracy and maritime contract law in late medieval Southampton

    OpenAIRE

    Pamuk, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of History, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2014. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2014. Includes bibliographical references leaves 102-105. In late medieval Southampton, wine was a commodity, which was extensively traded, and quite precious to the pirates of the English Channel because it was easy to sell and the vessels loaded with wine had less protection than the ships of precious metals. Therefore, increase of wine trade in the late m...

  7. Piracy in Southeast Asia: A Growing Threat to the United States' Vital Strategic and Commercial Interests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    ... maritime targets of opportunity, a growing drug trade, China's attempts to exert sovereignty over the South China Sea, and new ominous link between the Osama Bin Ladin's Al-Qa'ida terrorist organization...

  8. 77 FR 4573 - Maritime Security Directive 104-6 (Rev 6); Guidelines for U.S. Vessels Operating in High Risk Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... political complexity. Despite these efforts, piracy persists and the combination of piracy and weak rule of... Development, Naval Criminal Investigative Service, Customs and Border Protection, Transportation Security...

  9. China’s Participation in Anti-Piracy Operations off the Horn of Africa: Drivers and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    stakeholder” in resolving global issues , China may be opening the door for other cooperative efforts in the future. China’s naval cooperation in anti...cooperate on global issues of mutual interest. This is particularly important, panelists noted, because the U.S. will increasingly need China’s...to continue to “challenge China to participate as a responsible stakeholder” on global issues , and to provide positive feedback when it does so

  10. COMBATING DIGITAL PIRACY IN NIGERIA. AN ANALYSIS OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROTECTIVE MEASURES AND RIGHTS MANAGEMENT INFORMATION UNDER THE COPYRIGHT BILL

    OpenAIRE

    Kuti, Aishat Obadunni

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of digital technologies and creation of global internet infrastructure for the vast array of companies and individuals offering products and services that leverage its connectivity has transformed our world over the past two decades. The Internet has grown from a resource platform for individuals to an essential omnichannel medium for more than 2 billion users worldwide and with each facet of growth comes unprecedented challenges. The impact of digital technology on Nigerian crea...

  11. Easy access to the version of record (VoR could help combat piracy: views from a publishing technologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasha Mellins-Cohen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the 1990s many publishers saw the potential of the internet and started to move their content online. This consolidated the need for a shift in their business models from a focus on individuals to IP-mediated institutional access. Libraries were purchasing institution-wide subscriptions with access facilitated through fixed computers, in libraries and offices on campus. Over time, publishers added other institutional authentication mechanisms – trusted referrer URLs, library cards, EZProxy support, and so on – but we never addressed the poor user experience associated with off-campus access. Now, with the rise in mobile and tablet devices and increasing flexibility in work spaces, access control is failing.    In this article, I argue that we need to find a balance between our desire for security and lowering barriers to access. As an industry, we can make use of technologies and initiatives which are already in place to help us to strike that balance, encouraging users to access versions of record instead of resorting to less legitimate copies through services such as Sci-Hub.

  12. An Overseas Naval Presence without Overseas Bases: China’s Counter-piracy Operation in the Gulf of Aden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kamerling

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to assess how China is using its navy to secure its interests in the Gulf of Aden, and what this means for the European Union. The analysis of how China’s naval presence in the Gulf of Aden has evolved since early 2009 suggests that China’s increasing interests and involvement in Africa do not necessarily lead to the establishment of Chinese naval bases in or close to the continent. To supply its ships, the Chinese navy may well continue using the commercial-diplomatic model that China has been developing. This model is based on China’s close diplomatic relations with countries in the region and the extensive presence of Chinese companies to whom logistical services can be outsourced and who are under a greater degree of state influence than most Western multinationals. One of the consequences of this approach is that although China may not establish overseas military bases, it may be able to keep expanding its naval presence in or around Africa.

  13. Decreasing Variance in Response Time to Singular Incidents of Piracy in the Horn of Africa Area of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    capture of the Edwin, however. The pursuer, a frigate armed with two rows of cannon on her broadside, overhauled the Edwin. Although no account...dispensed with identifying herself and fired a single cannon shot across the bow of the Edwin, the timeless display of force meant to be answered by force...Somali coast. He claims that the targets he and his men strike are “a legitimate form of taxation levied in abstentia on behalf of a defunct

  14. A Touchy Question for Trainers: Are You Guilty of Copyright Rip Off?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Presents an interview with Jack L. Copeland, President of Training Media Distributors Association on training and the copyright-piracy problem. Discusses video piracy and other unauthorized uses of materials in relation to the new copyright law. (CSS)

  15. Counterfeit and their museums: observation of the aesthetic categories of the pirate consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneus Trindade Barreto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper arises from discussions about consumption and piracy,analyzing the role of counterfeit museums, and their paradoxes in the way they communicating the ambivalences of meaning e types of commercial piracy; based on Lipovetsky’s thought (2004; 2007, the articles illustrates the debate about consumption and piracy with 3 museum cases in Thailand, Italy and France.

  16. Resurrecting Letters of Marque and Reprisal to Address Modern Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    three firms process 95% of credit card transactions resulting from phony drug advertising scams .97 These modern- day cyber piracy havens are generally...November, 2010), 354. 7 “Piracy,” Webster’s Online Dictionary, http://www.websters- online - dictionary.org/definitions/Piracy (accessed November 8, 2012

  17. Software Quality and Copyright: Issues in Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Virginia

    The two interconnected problems of educational quality and piracy are described and analyzed in this book, which begins with an investigation of the accusations regarding the alleged dismal quality of educational software. The reality behind accusations of rampant piracy and the effect of piracy on the quality of educational software is examined…

  18. 75 FR 29358 - Maritime Security Directive 104-6 (Rev 2 and 3); Guidelines for U.S. Vessels Operating in High...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... designated high risk waters, and provides additional anti-piracy guidance and mandatory measures for these vessels operating in these areas where acts of piracy and armed robbery against ships are prevalent... piratical activities. The combination of piracy and weak rule of law in the region offers a potential...

  19. Recherche d'une détente dans le dossier du piratage des médias ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    APC Access to knowledge / IP / Media Piracy Workshop, 7 April 2010, Sunnyside Park Hotel, Johannesburg, South Africa. Reports. Social and material life of Media Piracy: A comparative study from South Asia - Year Three Final Technical Report. Reports. Media piracy and enforcement in Brazil : costs and benefits; toward ...

  20. Naval War College Review. Volume 63, Number 1, Winter 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Impeccable Incident. Summer 2009:101–11 Raymond, Catherine Zara . Piracy and Armed Robbery in the Malacca Strait: A Problem Solved? Summer 2009:31–42...an Old Problem: Report of the Naval War College Workshop on Countering Maritime Piracy. Autumn 2009:141–54 Raymond, Catherine Zara . Piracy and Armed

  1. Improved resiliency and well-being among military personnel in a Swedish Naval Force after a counter-piracy operation off the coast of Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäccman, Charlotte; Hjärthag, Fredrik; Almqvist, Kjerstin

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore: (1) how the psychological health of the members of the first European Union Naval Force (ME01) was affected by international deployment off the coast of Somalia; and (2) if and how organizational and personal factors (e.g., type of personnel category, previous experiences, and resilience) affected their psychological health and well-being post-deployment. The study had an exploratory longitudinal design, where the participants were assessed both before and after deployment (i.e., T1 and T2). The participants (n = 129, 120 men, 9 women) were equally distributed between officers (n = 68; 64 men, 4 women) and sailors (n = 61; 56 men, 5 women). The members' average age was 31 years, ranging from 20 to 61. For the majority (78%) ME01 was their first international deployment and officers were, in general, more experienced than sailors. The overall results showed that the members' reported a positive experience with improved resilience and well-being (e.g., sense of coherence). However, the result also showed that type of personnel category (i.e., officer or sailor) affected their psychological health. Why and how these differences among military personnel arise is discussed, but deserves further attention. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Somalia’s ‘Pirate Cycle’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Edward

    2013-01-01

    -makers in the U.S. and elsewhere would be better able to judge when counter-piracy intervention is necessary. By preventing piracy from developing into large-scale professionalized operations, as witnessed in Somalia since 2007, the international community will be able carryout more efficient and effective piracy......This article provides a theoretical framework for examining Somali piracy from its origins in the 1990s to the present. This analysis provides both a detailed description of the changing nature of piracy, as well as explanations for why these changes have occurred. The increase in pirate activity...... off Somalia from 1991 to 2011 did not occur in a steady linear progression, but took place in three separate phases. These three phases can be viewed in terms of a “cycle of piracy,” based on a theory developed by the pirate historian Philip Gosse in 1932. By employing this framework, policy...

  3. Copyright for audiovisual work and analysis of websites offering audiovisual works

    OpenAIRE

    Chrastecká, Nicolle

    2014-01-01

    This Bachelor's thesis deals with the matter of audiovisual piracy. It discusses the question of audiovisual piracy being caused not by the wrong interpretation of law but by the lack of competitiveness among websites with legal audiovisual content. This thesis questions the quality of legal interpretation in the matter of audiovisual piracy and focuses on its sufficiency. It analyses the responsibility of website providers, providers of the illegal content, the responsibility of illegal cont...

  4. JPRS Report, East Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-09

    34 But the weekly NEWSWEEK, which provided this news item, commented gloomily, "Considering the existing difficulties, the film industry can expect that...complicated because, while in the United States, when piracy is proved, Mister Smith from the film industry is able to sue Mister Johnson for pirated...videotaping piracy will continue on its present scale." Of course, we will be even less able to cope with this piracy, because, first, our film

  5. Evaluation and selection of security products for authentication of computer software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roenigk, Mark W.

    2000-04-01

    Software Piracy is estimated to cost software companies over eleven billion dollars per year in lost revenue worldwide. Over fifty three percent of all intellectual property in the form of software is pirated on a global basis. Software piracy has a dramatic effect on the employment figures for the information industry as well. In the US alone, over 130,000 jobs are lost annually as a result of software piracy.

  6. 76 FR 49503 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Employment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... of criminal violence, aircraft piracy, and terrorist activities. The current estimated annual... operators maintain records of criminal history records checks and security threat assessments in compliance...

  7. 76 FR 49503 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Airport Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... acts of criminal violence, aircraft piracy, and the introduction of explosives, incendiaries, or... operators must ensure that individuals seeking unescorted access authority submit to and receive a criminal...

  8. Comprehensive Maritime Awareness (CMA) - Joint Capabilities Technology Demonstration (JCTD), FY 06-09

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dwyer, Chris

    2006-01-01

    ...) vision is to share maritime shipping information and tracks throughout the world to deter use of commercial maritime shipping for terrorism, WMD proliferation, drugs, piracy, and human trafficking...

  9. 著作權法「防盜拷措施」條款例外規定要點之檢討 The Review of Regulations Concerning the Exceptions of Anti-piracy Measures Clauses in Taiwan Copyright Law

    OpenAIRE

    章忠信 Chung-Hsin Chang

    2006-01-01

    「科技保護措施」是著作權人在數位網路環境下,以技術保護其權利的重要手段,國際著作權法制對於這些「科技保護措施」,再以法律保護,使其不被任意破解或規避。然而,這些規定對於廣大的公眾利益究竟有何負面影響,非無疑義。我國著作權法在2004 年9 月1 日增訂「防盜拷措施」條款後,主管機關終於在2006 年3 月23 日發布「防盜拷措施」排除適用範圍之認定要點,即「著作權法第80 條之2 第3 項各款內容認定要點」,本文針對此一要點的訂定背景與內容作簡要介紹與分析,期望引起各界的關注,也可以為本要點下一次的檢討修正作準備。 Technological Protection Measures (TPMs) is an important method for copyright owners to employ technology to protect his right under digital internet environment. International copyright treaty establishes legal regime to prevent tho...

  10. The Need for US Coast Guard Underwater Mission Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    Denise Russell, Who Rules the Waves? Piracy, Overfishing and Mining the Ocean (London: Pluto Press, 2010), 1- 5, http://site.ebrary.com/lib...search.proquest.com/docview/918721378?accountid=14746. Russell, Denise. Who Rules the Waves? Piracy, Overfishing and Mining the Ocean. London: Pluto Press

  11. Preventing Pirates from Boarding Commercial Vessels - A Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Netherlands: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies/International Institute for Asian Studies Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships. 2014. ICC...integration, system architecture, Southeast Asia, Indonesia, piracy, boarding, countermeasures, hijacking, trade study 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 147 16...profile incidents where cargo, ship, and crew are held for ransom have made international news and have been dramatized in film , such as the 2013

  12. On How Editors of Academic Journals at Institutions of Higher Learning Should Resist Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiao

    2007-01-01

    Academic corruption is a hot issue in today's society. "Academic corruption" means that certain individuals in academic circles, driven by the desire for personal gain, resort to various kinds of nonnormative and unethical behavior in academic research activities. These include: academic self-piracy, academic piracy, copying and…

  13. Is China a Threat to the U.S. Economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-23

    2006 to discuss issues of concern to the U.S. steel industry. 71 Reuters, “China Piracy Costs Film Industry $2.7 Billion in 2005,” June 19, 2006. 72...Motion Picture Association of America estimated that China’s domestic film industry lost about $1.5 billion in revenue to piracy in 2005.71 Chinese

  14. Maritime Security in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja; Nordby, Johannes Riber

    The problem of maritime insecurity in the Gulf of Guinea is not a new phenomenon, but a contemporary form of piracy in the Gulf of Guinea has arguably developed over the past 25 years to be more organized and violent. Besides the issue of how the phenomenon of piracy in the Gulf of Guinea has...

  15. A Contemporary Approach to the Oldest International Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Scharf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Maritime piracy began to re-emerge a decade ago, mostly off the coast of Somalia, thereby presenting major economic, security and humanitarian concerns. Prosecuting piracy raises many issues, not in the least because traditional maritime piracy from 200 years ago is so notably different from contemporary piracy. The present article describes the Public International Law and Policy Group’s formation of the High Level Piracy Working Group (HLPWG, which since 2011 has been producing memoranda on major issues in contemporary piracy prosecution. The issues span the legal foundations of piracy prosecution, including how to criminalise certain acts and how to exercise jurisdiction over such acts. Laws governing the use of force could apply to government or private actors when capturing and apprehending pirates. Once captured, there are questions of extraditing and transferring these pirates. Moreover, when such pirates are eventually brought to trial, there are pre-trial, evidentiary, substantive and post-prosecution issues to consider. The article also explores the merits and likelihood of creating an international piracy court. It shows how the HLPWG has influenced legal and policy developments today that draw on the distant past, and will undoubtedly have an enduring legacy in the future.

  16. 75 FR 19869 - Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Conflict in Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... in Somalia, and acts of piracy and armed robbery at sea off the coast of Somalia, which have... determine that, among other threats to the peace, security, or stability of Somalia, acts of piracy or armed... order, and to take necessary action to give effect to that determination. Sec. 8. This order is not...

  17. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 551 - EXECUTIVE ORDER 13536

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deterioration of the security situation and the persistence of violence in Somalia, and acts of piracy and armed..., or stability of Somalia, acts of piracy or armed robbery at sea off the coast of Somalia threaten the... Annex to this order, and to take necessary action to give effect to that determination. Sec. 8. This...

  18. Fighting Pirates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Edward

    two centuries. Despite the considerable scholarly interest in examining how powerful states go about suppressing piracy, however, there has been little in-depth examination of why these states are willing expend resources combating piracy in the first place. When this question is addressed, counter...

  19. Černá vlajka pirátů znovu nahání strach? Opatření proti pirátství a ozbrojenému lupičství na moři na začátku 21. století

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šturma, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2009), s. 193-197 ISSN 1213-5313 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : maritime law * public international law * fight against piracy Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  20. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp 2000 pc

    Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management. 103 ... The study investigated the effects of book piracy on publishing in Nigeria. ... books, religious books, trade books, recreational books and reference books are.

  1. Maritime Security Cooperation in the Strait of Malacca

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Massey, Anthony S

    2008-01-01

    .... This change can be attributed to the relaxation of historical tensions, the recognition of a common threat in piracy and maritime terrorism, an increase in extra-regional pressure to cooperate...

  2. 49 CFR 1544.103 - Form, content, and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... traveling on flights provided by the aircraft operator against acts of criminal violence and air piracy, and... fingerprint-based criminal history records checks. (16) The procedures used to comply with the requirements of...

  3. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp 2000 pc

    Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management. 103 ... that educational books, religious books, trade books, recreational books and .... Piracy is an act of reproducing movies, music, books or other copyrighted works ...

  4. Uued plaadid / Marko Tiidelepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tiidelepp, Marko

    2008-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Mr. Lawrence "19/90-99", Indigolapsed "Voorimehe viis" ja "Ei tea kumb?", Lament "Lament", Tokio Hotel "Zimmer 483 - Live In Europe", OneRepublic "Dreaming Out Loud", "Jim Arrow & The Anachrones", Nice Try", Shower "Brain Piracy" ja "Humiliator"

  5. Publications | Page 317 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 3161 - 3170 of 6388 ... Visit the IDRC Digital Library now. ... UbuntuNet Alliance for Research and Education Networking : communication strategy (restricted access) ... For the last few decades media piracy has been the reference ...

  6. Information and Networks

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    arashid

    Information and Communication Technologies for Development .... costs of digital media reproduction – combined with rampant piracy – are fundamentally .... namely those related to reputation, resources, time, and ethics - all challenges that ...

  7. All projects related to | Page 538 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Toward Détente in Media Piracy. Project. Negotiations around ... Access to information and communication technology (ICT) is widely seen as a driver of economic growth, social empowerment and citizen engagement. Start Date: December 1, ...

  8. All projects related to | Page 539 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Toward Détente in Media Piracy. Project. Negotiations around ... Access to information and communication technology (ICT) is widely seen as a driver of economic growth, social empowerment and citizen engagement. Start Date: December 1, ...

  9. 77 FR 21837 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... by the fragile security situation and the persistence of violence in Somalia, and acts of piracy and... continue in effect beyond April 12, 2012. Therefore, in accordance with section 202(d) of the National...

  10. Mines and Underwater IEDs in U.S. Ports and Waterways: Context, Threats, Challenges, and Solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Truver, Scott C

    2008-01-01

    .... The threats of the Cold War are gone, and the United States finds itself operating in an environment where piracy, illegal migration, drug smuggling, terrorism, arms proliferation, and environmental...

  11. 76 FR 19895 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... deterioration of the security situation and the persistence of violence in Somalia, and acts of piracy and armed... in effect beyond April 12, 2011. Therefore, in accordance with section 202(d) of the National...

  12. 78 FR 21011 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... deterioration of the security situation and the persistence of violence in Somalia, acts of piracy and armed... measures adopted on that date and on July 20, 2012, to deal with that emergency, must continue in effect...

  13. MARITIME VIOLENCE : IMPLICATIONS TO MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurulizwan Ahmad Zubir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Maritime Piracy has been a serious threat to the international community especially in the SoutheastAsia region. This threat has caused tremendous implications towards the world economy, environment,political stability of the nations involved because 45% of the shipping company passes through theSoutheast Asia. The worrying fact is that these attacks were committed by terrorists as well as traditionalmaritime pirates. This paper examines on the implications of maritime crime in Malaysia and discusseswhether the definition of piracy under the International Law could be applied to these attacks. Thispaper concludes that cooperation between the region’s states and the enhancement of a good securitysystem of one state are needed to combat maritime violence. Thus it is imperative that the internationallaw need to be changed in order to enhance the meaning of piracy and also to include sea terrorism. Key words: piracy, maritime, terrorist

  14. Search Results | Page 822 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 8211 - 8220 of 8492 ... There is no "usual" period to negotiate a Free Trade Agreement, which ... Girls'' education has a particularly high payoff for Asia-Pacific countries ... United States' unfair competition acts and software piracy - which ...

  15. Vom Out-Law zum In-Law: Piraterie, Recht und Familie in Pirates of the CaribbeanCurrent Problems of Gypsy Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Irmtraud Hnilica

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyse the relationship between piracy, law and family, the article takes a look at thepopular Pirates of the Caribbean films. Hollywood turns out to link piracy with family; instead offorming the usually assumed contrast, both are closely intertwined entities. The film series cantherefore be seen as an unorthodox revision of the pirate’s common juridical classification as theanti-social hostis humani generis. It becomes apparent that, surprisingly, family sometimes maydevelop fr...

  16. Security Economics in the European Context: Implications of the EUSECON Project

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Brzoska; Raphael Bossong; Eric van Um

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents key aspects and policy implications of a multi-annual research project on economic analyses of European security issues (EUSECON), with an emphasis on intentional threats of organised crime, piracy and terrorism. The first part argues that rational models can provide significant insights on the emergence and current patterns of terrorism and piracy. These findings could lead to new priorities or to more nuanced interventions in response to these threats. The second part fo...

  17. The Land Component Role in Maritime Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-31

    nations for resources. They must also confront maritime threats, which include piracy , armed robbery, damage to the marine environment (i.e. pollution...such as an armed attack from a military vessel. Most definitions also usually include security from crimes at sea, such as piracy , armed robbery...security through stability operations, one must accept that any effective government must focus on basic governmental functions – providing for the

  18. Console modification in the video game industry an empirical study of the technological protection measure reforms of the Australian Copyright Act 1968 (Cth)

    OpenAIRE

    Raval, Melchor Inigo

    2017-01-01

    The Australian-United States Free Trade Agreement expanded the access rights provisions, including the technological protection measures (TPM) and anti-circumvention prohibitions in the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), to address the unauthorised distribution of copyrighted content, colloquially referred to as piracy. Copyright users object to these "paracopyright" principles being implemented as criminal penalties and restrictive Digital Rights Management (DRM). Evidence that piracy has persisted...

  19. Human Rights in Armed Conflicts and Constitutional Law

    OpenAIRE

    Antonios Maniatis

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to determine the impact of both International Humanitarian Law and anti-piracy International Law on Constitutional Law. International Law is endowed with a rich set of norms on the protection of private individuals in armed conflicts and copes with the diachronic crime of maritime piracy, which may be considered as a private war in the high seas. Constitutional Law has been traditionally geared at two generations of fundamental rights. The paper will aim at a...

  20. ANALISIS FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG BERPENGARUH TERHADAP SIKAP DAN PERILAKU MEMBELI BUKU BAJAKAN PADA MAHASISWA IPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retnaningsih Retnaningsih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze factors which influence IPB students attitudes and buying behaviour of piracy book. Research method used cross sectional study design. The primary data from samples was collected along Mei 2009. Data was taken from 100 girls and 100 boys as samples of this research. The samples chosen by proportional sampling in each faculty of IPB. The data consist of primary data and secondary data. Data was analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistic (Mann-Whitney, t-test, multivariate regression, and logistic regression. The result showed that almost samples readed books and mostly they bought a book on the last three months. Almost of them had knowledge about piracy book with average level. Meanwhile, the attitude of the samples to piracy book were neutral. Factors that influenced attitude to piracy book were ages, money allocation, information resources, and level of knowledge. Then, attitude to piracy book was the factor that influenced buying behavior of piracy book.

  1. PENEGAKAN HUKUM TERHADAP PEMBAJAKAN DI LAUT MELALUI YURISDIKSI MAHKAMAH PIDANA INTERNASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordan Gunawan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The international community, nowadays is facing the most serious problem of the piracy in the sea on a large scale than ever before. Todays piracy is destroying and disturbing the shipping industry worldwide with the modern way. The problem of piracy becomes increase day by day rather than to decrease. It is universally called as hostis humani generis. The piracy today is directed against victims from around the world, creates harms that are felt by the international community, and involves many of the same violation, as like as a murder and hostage-taking, that are used to commit the crimes within the jurisdiction of International Criminal Court (ICC. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the piracy in details which could be seen in some international laws concerning this problem as for UNCLOS 1982 and SUA Convention 1988. This paper also will elaborate how piracy could be called as a crime under international law, as well as the jurisdiction of the ICC. This permanent international judicial body is empowered to prosecute crimes of concern to the international community as a whole, in accordance with the Rome Statute 1998 and ICC is expected to fullfil the impunity as the biggest obstacle for countries to bring the pirates into the justice.

  2. Maritime Training Serbian Autonomous Vessel Protection Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoškić Svetislav D.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The crisis in Somalia has caused appearance of piracy at sea in the Gulf of Aden and the Western Indian Ocean. Somali pirates have become a threat to economic security of the world because almost 30 percent of world oil and 20 percent of global trade passes through the Gulf of Aden. Solving the problem of piracy in this part of the world have included international organizations, institutions, military alliances and the states, acting in accordance with international law and UN Security Council resolutions. The European Union will demonstrate the application of a comprehensive approach to solving the problem of piracy at sea and the crisis in Somalia conducting naval operation — EU NAVFOR Atalanta and operation EUTM under the Common Security and Defense Policy. The paper discusses approaches to solving the problem of piracy in the Gulf of Aden and the crisis in Somalia. Also, the paper points to the complexity of the crisis in Somalia and dilemmas correctness principles that are applied to solve the problem piracy at sea. One of goals is protections of vessels of the World Food Programme (WFP delivering food aid to displaced persons in Somalia. Republic of Serbia joined in this mission and trained and sent one a autonomous team in this military operation for protection WFP. This paper consist the problem of modern piracy, particularly in the area of the Horn of Africa became a real threat for the safety of maritime ships and educational process of Serbian Autonomous vessel protection detachment. Serbian Military Academy adopted and developed educational a training program against piracy applying all the provisions and recommendations of the IMO conventions and IMO model courses for Serbian Autonomous vessel protection detachment.

  3. Armed guards on vessels : insurance and liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišo Mudrić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Paper examines the insurance and liability issues resulting from the use of armed guards on board vessels. The study begins with an overview of the available data on key economic fi gures representing the projected overall annual costs of modern piracy. The focus is then shifted to the issue of public versus private security, where possible dangers of private-based security options are discussed in general. After explaining why the Somalia region deserves a closer attention when compared to other pirate-infested waters, a brief summary of the international effort to combat piracy threat is presented, followed by a structured overview of the use of private maritime security options in the maritime sector in general. One security option is the use of armed guards on board vessels. This option is explored both from the political (the acceptance by stakeholders and legal standpoint (legal issues arising from the use of armed guards. An important remedy for the shipping companies/ operators threatened by the piracy hazard is the existence of affordable and effective (specialized marine insurance. A study of available piracy insurance policies is presented, followed by an analysis of case law and other legal issues arising from piracy attacks, which could prove important when considering the legal implications of armed guards employment. Finally, a simplifi ed economic analysis of available security options is presented, followed by the final assessment of benefi ts derived from the use of armed guards.

  4. DIGITAL DATA PROTECTION USING STEGANOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rejani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In today’s digital world applications from a computer or a mobile device consistently used to get every kind of work done for professional as well as entertainment purpose. However, one of the major issue that a software publisher will face is the issue of piracy. Throughout the last couple of decades, almost all-major or minor software has been pirated and freely circulated across the internet. The impact of the rampant software piracy has been huge and runs into billions of dollars every year. For an independent developer or a programmer, the impact of piracy will be huge. Huge companies that make specialized software often employ complex hardware methods such as usage of dongles to avoid software piracy. However, this is not possible to do for a normal independent programmer of a small company. As part of the research, a new method of software protection that does not need proprietary hardware and other complex methods are proposed in this paper. This method uses a combination of inbuilt hardware features as well as steganography and encryption to protect the software against piracy. The properties or methods used include uniqueness of hardware, steganography, strong encryption like AES and geographic location. To avoid hacking the proposed framework also makes use of self-checks in a random manner. The process is quite simple to implement for any developer and is usable on both traditional PCs as well as mobile environments.

  5. A pirataria como campo de possibilidades: apropriações materiais e simbólicas em diferentes sentidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Martinelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses situations observed in a survey previously conducted on the consumption of luxury pirated goods. Representative fragments are gathered to help us think about (i the relation of social classes, especially urban middle classes, through the consumption of famous brands and its connection to the piracy of goods; and (ii how the objects, functioning as supports for these emblems, are immersed in social relations, how they are made available and accessed, and how the interactions around them occur. Also, we propose to reflect on the production of different contexts in which piracy intervenes with life trajectories, applying the notion of field of possibilities as presented by Gilberto Velho (2003b. We observe how the dimensions of consumption, work and production, although connected, display specific meanings about piracy that impact on the formulation of individual projects and on the social production of difference.

  6. User Decisions in a (Partly) Digital World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veitch, Rob; Constantiou, Ioanna

    2012-01-01

    of behaviour, resources and legal availability. We test the model for film and music using causal data of access-mode decisions collected from students at two Danish universities. Our findings indicate that the economic considerations of price perception and legal availability are the most consistent factors......Technologies enabling digital piracy have expanded the variety of options available to users when deciding how to access a product. As a result, access-mode decisions for film and music are broader than for other goods where the piracy option is not as prevalent. This paper presents a model...... of access-mode decisions for film and music which integrates elements of previous digital piracy models and expands upon them to reflect the decision’s complexity. We depict the access-mode decision as being influenced by the user’s product desire, price perceptions, perceived risks, internal regulators...

  7. Cyberpiracy and morality: Some utilitarian and deontological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mančić Željko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses one of the main problems of our time in the world of Internet – cyber piracy. It is often said that it is illegal, since pirates who practice it violate certain domestic and international laws. When we ask for justification of this laws and their enforcement, philosophers and legalists usually apply to one of the two sorts of philosophical arguments - deontology and utilitarianism. The former think that piracy is immoral in itself, while the others argue it should be prevented, otherwise it will produce very bad consequences for society sooner or later, and thus diminish the overall happiness of the society. It will be shown, howe­ver, that both of these arguments, when closely considered, fail with their intention, and, if we decide to follow them, we actually arrive to the very opposite conclusion - piracy is justified.

  8. Distribution of digital games via BitTorrent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Bauer, Kevin; Veitch, Robert W. D.

    2011-01-01

    distribution across game titles and game genres. This paper presents the first large-scale, open-method analysis of the distribution of digital game titles, which was conducted by monitoring the BitTorrent peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing protocol. The sample includes 173 games and a collection period of three...... months from late 2010 to early 2011. With a total of 12.6 million unique peers identified, it is the largest examination of game piracy via P2P networks to date. The study provides findings that reveal the magnitude of game piracy, the time-frequency of game torrents, which genres that get pirated...

  9. ReSOLV: Applying Cryptocurrency Blockchain Methods to Enable Global Cross-Platform Software License Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Litchfield

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for a decentralised peer-to-peer software license validation system using cryptocurrency blockchain technology to ameliorate software piracy, and to provide a mechanism for software developers to protect copyrighted works. Protecting software copyright has been an issue since the late 1970s and software license validation has been a primary method employed in an attempt to minimise software piracy and protect software copyright. The method described creates an ecosystem in which the rights and privileges of participants are observed.

  10. Maritime Security on the Horn of Africa: Threading the Needle at a Seam of Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-06

    Chamber of Commerce International Maritime Bureau. “Weekly Piracy Report 13-28 OCT 2007”. http://www.icc-ccs.org/prc/piracyreport.php (accessed 30 October 2007) 2 quarter of 2007 jumped by 37% when compared to the second quarter of 2006.2 The smuggling of refugees across the Gulf of Aden from Somalia to Yemen is also approaching record levels and reflects growing instability in the region. Piracy and human smuggling are motivated by profit and are predominantly criminal enterprises. Although both pirate and terrorist networks exist in

  11. The Republic of Singapore: Informed Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Singapore in 2001,” Asian Survey, Vol. XLII, No. 1, January/February 2002, p. 164. 14 International Chamber of Commerce , Commercial Crime Services, “Piracy...February 2003). 15 International Chamber of Commerce , “High seas terrorism alert in piracy report,”29 January 2003, <http://www.iccwbo.org/home...International Chamber of Commerce , “ICC report sends six warships into battle against pirates,” 12 February 2002, <http://www.iccwbo.org/home/news_archives/2002

  12. Pirates of the Philippines: A Critical Thinking Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruel A. Macaraeg

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Piracy had a formative impact on Filipino history, yet modern practitioners of Filipino Martial Arts generally do not acknowledge its influence. This brief study reconstructs the pirates’ martial practices through comparative historical analysis of their weapons, costume, and organization in order to draw conclusions about their relationship to martial cultures in the Philippines and across the region. Using analogous historical studies on piracy worldwide and examination of traditional arms and armor, this article restores the Iranun pirates to their rightful place as primary contributors to Filipino fighting arts and their influence in shaping Filipino national historiography as a whole.

  13. 78 FR 69653 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Allies and Partner personnel during Maritime Interception or Security Operations, vessel boardings... Federal Register Liaison Officer, Department of Defense. NM03800-1 System name: Naval Global Maritime... activity or piracy in the maritime sector; crew and passengers of maritime vessels defined by the...

  14. Ethical Issues of ICT Use by Teacher Trainers: Use of E-Books in Academic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilickaya, Ferit; Krajka, Jaroslaw

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to address the issue of ethics in ICT use by university teacher trainers, the current study aimed to investigate academics' downloading and sharing e-books as well as the reasons that led them to be involved in this piracy. The participants included 140 teacher trainers working at faculties of education in Turkey, and a questionnaire…

  15. The Classroom, Board Room, Chat Room, and Court Room: School Computers at the Crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael

    2000-01-01

    In schools' efforts to maximize technology's benefits, ethical considerations have often taken a back seat. Computer misuse is growing exponentially and assuming many forms: unauthorized data access, hacking, piracy, information theft, fraud, virus creation, harassment, defamation, and discrimination. Integrated-learning activities will help…

  16. UN Peacekeeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of civilians, Denmark’s contribution to the UN mission in Liberia, anti-piracy operations, and the prospective role of special forces in UN operations. The two forewords of the book have been written by Major General Hu Guangzheng from AMS and Rear Admiral Nils Christian Wang from the Royal Danish Defence...

  17. NIGERIAN WOMEN IN FILMS Abstract Nigeria is a multi-cultural societ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... image and the Westernized Nigerian, people's mentality has yet accepted the full impact of .... couple of days to make most Nollywood films. Due to piracy, .... lure women who are close friends into his bed and ruin their friendships. The well .... have very little or no influence over them as before. Thus, there.

  18. The Life-Cycle Policy model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anciaux, N.L.G.; Bouganim, Luc; van Heerde, H.J.W.; Pucheral, Philippe; Apers, Peter M.G.

    Our daily life activity leaves digital trails in an increasing number of databases (commercial web sites, internet service providers, search engines, location tracking systems, etc). Personal digital trails are commonly exposed to accidental disclosures resulting from negligence or piracy and to

  19. Protecting the Goodies in the Digital Candy Store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasch, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of the protection of intellectual property on the Internet suggests strong regulation of content. Topics addressed include economic losses; access control; encryption; educating the public on copyright law; illegal bulletin board systems; software piracy; copyright infringement; downloading copyrighted material; fair use; and copyright…

  20. Transnational Challenges and U.S. National Security: Defining and Prioritizing Borderless Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    gangs; piracy; money laundering , fraud, and extortion; illicit networks; intellectual property theft Terrorism / Violent Extremism The use of...example: Terrorist organizations can conduct business with criminal organizations to raise money for their cause. One area in which this can happen is

  1. Improved maritime situation awareness by fusing sensor information with intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.C. van den; Deves, T.K.G.; Neef, R.M.; Smith, A.J.E.

    2010-01-01

    In present-day military security operations threats are more difficult to reveal than inconventional warfare theatres, since they take place during the course of normal life. For example, during maritime missions in littoral environments, acts of piracy, drug trafficking and other threatening events

  2. 77 FR 65260 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... significant relationship between jailbreaking and piracy. On the other hand, the Register concluded that the... wireless network. Proponents advanced several theories as to why ``unlocking'' is a noninfringing use..., and widespread mobile customer ``lock- in.'' Although proponents acknowledged that unlocked mobile...

  3. The World in the Viking Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Viking Age was ignited by the art of building seaworthy sailing ships and the skills to sail them on the open sea. The growth in seafaring, trade, piracy, and exploration that began to gather momentum during the 8th century CE was not limited to Europe’s northern seas, however. Ships, laden...

  4. 76 FR 2402 - Maritime Security Directive 104-6 (Rev 5); Guidelines for U.S. Vessels Operating in High Risk Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Directive 104-6 (Rev 5); Guidelines for U.S. Vessels Operating in High Risk Waters AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... designated high risk waters, and provides additional counter-piracy guidance and mandatory measures for these... MARSEC Directives are available at your local Captain of the Port (COTP) office. Phone numbers and...

  5. The Implications of Unstable Yemen on Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    total illiteracy, overpopulation , poverty, and lawlessness draw quite a gloomy picture. Yemen has a rapidly growing population with limited resources...is a transit path for oil from the Arabian Gulf 21 and goods from Southeastern Asia . The piracy threat in the Gulf of Aden, along with terrorist

  6. India | Page 83 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language French. Read more about Toward Détente in Media Piracy. Language English. Read more about Recherche d'une détente dans le dossier du piratage des médias. Language French. Read more about Startup : Philippine Community eCentres Network. Language English. Read more about Mise sur pied d'un ...

  7. Maritime Security Concerns of the East African Community (EAC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The maritime domain of the East African Community (EAC) is affected by a number of maritime security threats, including piracy, armed robbery against ships and an ongoing maritime border dispute between Kenya and Somalia. Neither the EAC nor its member States have long-term and holistic maritime security policies.

  8. Support for Multi-Level Security Policies in DRM Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanenbaum, A.S.; Popescu, B.C.; Crispo, B.; Hempelmann, C.F.; Raskin, V.

    2004-01-01

    Digital rights management systems allow copyrighted content to be commercialized in digital format without the risk of revenue loss due to piracy. Making such systems secure is no easy task, given that content needs to be protected while accessed through electronic devices in the hands of

  9. Persistent maritime surveillance using multi-sensor feature association and classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, S.P. van den; Schwering, P.B.W.; Liem, K.D.; Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    In maritime operational scenarios, such as smuggling, piracy, or terrorist threats, it is not only relevant who or what an observed object is, but also where it is now and in the past in relation to other (geographical) objects. In situation and impact assessment, this information is used to

  10. Computer Ethics Topics and Teaching Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Jeanine A.

    An overview of six major issues in computer ethics is provided in this paper: (1) unauthorized and illegal database entry, surveillance and monitoring, and privacy issues; (2) piracy and intellectual property theft; (3) equity and equal access; (4) philosophical implications of artificial intelligence and computer rights; (5) social consequences…

  11. K S Valdiya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. K S Valdiya. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 19-28 General Article. River Piracy Saraswati that Disappeared · K S Valdiya · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 55-63 General ...

  12. Improving maritime situational awareness by fusing sensor information and intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.C. van den; Neef, R.M.; Hanckmann, P.; Gosliga, S.P. van; Halsema, D. van

    2011-01-01

    In present-day military security operations threats are more difficult to reveal than in conventional warfare theatres, since they take place during the course of normal life. These maritime missions often take place in littoral environments, where acts of piracy, drug trafficking and other

  13. Pirates, ports, and coasts in Asia: historical and contemporary perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinen, J.; Osseweijer, M.

    2010-01-01

    Pirates, Ports and Coasts in Asia aims to fill in some of the historical gaps in the coverage of maritime piracy and armed robbery in Asia. The authors highlight a variety of activities ranging from raiding, destroying and pillaging coastal villages and capturing inhabitants to attacking and taking

  14. The Music Industry as a Vehicle for Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Issues arising in the music industry in response to the availability of digital music files provide an opportunity for exposing undergraduate students to economic analyses rarely covered in the undergraduate economics curriculum. Three of these analyses are covered here: the optimal copyright term, the effect of piracy or illegal file sharing, and…

  15. Biographies Notices biographiques

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    fbouchard

    Joe Karaganis is vice president at The American Assembly at Columbia University. His work focuses on the relationship between digital convergence and cultural production, and has recently included research on broadband adoption, data policy, and media piracy. He is the editor of The Politics of Open. Source Adoption ...

  16. STRATEGI MENCARI MAKAN BURUNG PECUK PADI HITAM (PHALACROCORAX SULDROSTRIS DI SUAKA MARGASATWA PULAU RAMBUT, TELUK JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlDA FlTHRI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Little black cormorant (Phalacrocorax suldrostris} feeding activity around their breeding area face many problem such as high velocity wind and piracy by frigate birds. P. suldrostris developed six type of flying to overcome high velocity wind and flew in group to avoid frigate attack. As much as 13 fish species were consumed by little black cormorant during this research.

  17. South Asia | Page 72 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Asie du sud. Read more about Toward Détente in Media Piracy. Language English. Read more about Recherche d'une détente dans le dossier du piratage des médias. Language French. Read more about ONI-Asia - censure et surveillance numériques. Language French. Read more about OpenNet Initiative - Asia ...

  18. Plaat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Laseringi kauplustes müügilolevatest heliplaatidest: Sheryl Crow "Detours", Goldfrapp "Seventh Tree", "Eesti Rock Antologia: Shower "Brain Piracy", Shower "Humilator", Nice Try "Nice Try", Jim Arrow & The Anachrones "Jim Arrow & The Anachrones"", Morcheeba "Dive Deep", Hot Chip "Made In The Dark"

  19. A 5TH GENERATION FIGHTER FOR BELGIUM:LUXURY OR NECESSITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    violence to assert power. Overall, 3 we see threats, old and new, from piracy to terrorism to cyber-attacks. Based on these increased threats, NATO...share information seamlessly and contribute to a Common Operating Picture ( COP ). This construct will balance speed with accuracy to deliver the

  20. Re-thinking copyright through the copy in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sezneva, O.

    2013-01-01

    How one copy of a film or a single is made illegal, while its identical twin is treated as legitimate? By drawing from the material collected in Russia on the illegal copying and distribution of video and musical contents, this paper moves beyond the definition of media piracy in legal terms, and

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 937 ... Vol 43, No 2 (2015), Bloodshed and Breaking Wave: The first outbreak of Somali Piracy, Abstract PDF. Andreas Bruvik Westberg. Vol 16, No 1 (1986), Blue Gums Fortress Observation Post Simon's Bay fire command 1942-1955, Abstract PDF. W.M. Bisset. Vol 10, No 3 (1980), Boekbesprekings / Book ...

  2. The sweet trade revived

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Lane

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Women Pirates and the Politics of the Jolly Roger. ULRIKE KLAUSMANN, MARION MEINZERIN & GABRIEL KUHN. New York: Black Rose Books, 1997. x + 280 pp. (Paper US$ 23.99 Pirates! Brigands, Buccaneers, and Privateers in Fact, Fiction, and Legend. JAN ROGOZINSKI. New York: Da Capo Press, 1996. xvi + 398 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Sir Francis Drake: The Queens Pirate. HARRY KELSEY. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998, xviii + 566 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00 A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pirates. CAPT. CHARLES JOHNSON (edited and with introduction by DAVID CORDINGLY. New York: Lyons Press. 1998 [Orig. 1724]. xiv + 370 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 The subject of piracy lends itself to giddy jokes about parrots and wooden legs, but also talk of politics, law, cultural relativism, and of course Hollywood. This selection of new books on piracy in the Caribbean and beyond touches on all these possibilities and more. They include a biography of the ever-controversial Elizabethan corsair, Francis Drake; an encyclopedia of piracy in history, literature, and film; a reissued classic eighteenth-century pirate prosopography; and an anarchist-feminist political tract inspired by history and legend. If nothing else, this pot-pourri of approaches to piracy should serve as a reminder that the field of pirate studies is not only alive and well, but gaining new ground.

  3. PROSECUTING SOMALIA PIRATES AS TERRORISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ODHIAMBO E.O.S., ONKWARE K., KASSILLY J., NTABO O. M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article starts from the assumption that piracy resembles terrorism in many aspects and attempts to support it through both a theoretical investigation and practical examples. The argument it makes is that Somali pirates should be prosecuted as terrorists. Moreover, it emphasizes the idea that for Somalia’s neighboring countries and not only the implementation of such an approach consists in resorting to the antiterrorist conventions already in place. Thus, for example, Kenya Navy as a piracyfi ghting agency should rely on these conventions to justify the capture and prosecution of pirates in Kenyan courts. In this respect, we emphasize the idea that only by resorting to an established international legal framework can Kenya identify the tools to counter pirates’ actions within legal limits. Moreover, this should be paralleled by efforts towards rebuilding Somalia and its institutions if long-term solutions are to be envisaged in the eradication of piracy in the Indian Ocean. In conclusion, the article looks at the concepts of piracy, terrorism and development in the Horn of Africa, suggests that piracy is a form of Terrorism and, makes a series of recommendations.

  4. Online Ethics: What's a Teacher to Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Cal

    1996-01-01

    Considers ethics issues involved with using online resources like the Internet in elementary and secondary education and suggests that educators initiate and model a standardized role of ethical behavior for Internet users. Topics include hackers; privacy, piracy, and security; screening electronic sites; ethics education; and an ethics model.…

  5. From Realities to Values: A Strategy Framework for Digital Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowers, Helene

    2010-01-01

    For many Digital Natives, text messaging or SMS is the communication channel of choice, but preferences in communication channels aren't the only distinguishing traits of Digital Natives. Attitudes and perceptions related to digital privacy, identity, creativity, piracy, and advocacy also help to set younger generations apart. So how does one take…

  6. Options for the Navy’s Future Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Aircraft Procurement Under Option 2 This alternative would make the same reductions in the 9. See Dave Ahearn, "Winter Says Piracy a Major Challege for...was would need improvements to use the AGSs effec- reserved to accommodate a bank of 16 VLS cells in tively. Moreover, some internal rearrangement the

  7. Crime, Abuse, and Hacker Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Deborah G.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses computer ethics and the use of computer networks. Topics addressed include computer hackers; software piracy; computer viruses and worms; intentional and unintentional abuse; intellectual property rights versus freedom of thought; the role of information in a democratic society; individual privacy; legislation; social attitudes; and the…

  8. Copyright and the Assurance of Quality Courseware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Virginia M.

    Issues related to the illegal copying or piracy of educational software in the schools and its potential effect on quality software availability are discussed. Copyright violation is examined as a reason some software producers may be abandoning the school software market. An explanation of what the copyright allows and prohibits in terms of…

  9. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 623 - Explanation of Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... undertaken to: a. Minimize the effects upon the civilian population caused, or which would be caused, by an... by any such attack. c. Effect emergency repairs to, or the emergency restoration of, vital utilities... endangering safety of individuals or property. This definition does not include aircraft piracy emergencies...

  10. 75 FR 27798 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Certain Commodity-Based Clustered Storage Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ...) with instructions on it that allows it to perform certain functions of preventing piracy of software... and HDD canisters usually include a disk array controller frame which effects the interface between the subsystem's storage units and a CPU. In this case, the software effects the interconnection...

  11. 75 FR 81547 - Defense Support of Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... certified that 32 CFR part 182 does not: (1) Have an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more or... not have substantial direct effects on: (1) The States; (2) The relationship between the National... operations, DoD Directive 5111.13,\\1\\ and aircraft piracy. Responsibilities of the DoD Components for...

  12. 75 FR 67383 - Extension of the Designation of Somalia for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... designation of Somalia is effective March 18, 2011, and will remain in effect through September 17, 2012. The 60-day re-registration period begins November 2, 2010 and will remain in effect until January 3, 2011... humanitarian aid in Somalia is shrinking.'' The threat of piracy, insecurity, restrictions on movement and...

  13. A Novel Threshold Voltage Defined Multiplexer for Interconnect Camouflaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    piracy of nalysis due to gates has been ates. However, ower and delay amouflaging of tect the IP. A or multiplexer is since transistor e proposed...is hidden cost is higher tsourcing the ncreasing the s effective in ld loss during rmore, it still ly processes. propose an o hide the nceptually

  14. Copyright Protection for Computer Software: Is There a Need for More Protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Linlin

    Because the computer industry's expansion has been much faster than has the development of laws protecting computer software and since the practice of software piracy seems to be alive and well, the issue of whether existing laws can provide effective protection for software needs further discussion. Three bodies of law have been used to protect…

  15. Baywatch: two approaches to measure the effects of blocking access to The Pirate Bay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poort, J.; Leenheer, J.; van der Ham, J.; Dumitru, C.

    2013-01-01

    In the fight against the unauthorised sharing of copyright protected material, aka piracy, Dutch Internet Service Providers have been summoned by courts to block their subscribers’ access to The Pirate Bay (TPB) and related sites. This paper studies the effectiveness of this approach towards online

  16. The Economics of Educational Software Portability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Joao Batista Araujo e

    1990-01-01

    Discusses economic issues that affect the portability of educational software. Topics discussed include economic reasons for portability, including cost effectiveness; the nature and behavior of educational computer software markets; the role of producers, buyers, and consumers; potential effects of government policies; computer piracy; and…

  17. Transnational Security Challenges in Southeast Aisa: The Need for Multinational Military Cooperation and Coordination in ASEAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    of resources that were mobilized. The incident brought many countries and militaries together to work side by side , some of which had never before... paradise for seafaring bandits. In response to the threat posed by piracy and potential terrorism, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore began to carry...

  18. An Analysis of Music Fan towards Music Streaming Purchase Intention of Thailand's Music Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanitnarathorn, Pannawit

    2018-01-01

    Digital music streaming are climbing but overall music revenue is declining with digital music piracy being blamed as the culprit. In a 10 year period from 2003 to 2013, global music sales dropped from $US23.3 to $US15 billion dollars with Thailand's music industry following the trend dropping from $US 304 million in 2010 to $US 279 million in…

  19. Follow The Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batikas, Michail; Claussen, Jörg; Peukert, Christian

    Online copyright enforcement, in the form of either direct action against the supply- side (via website shutdowns) or the demand-side (via individual lawsuits against users), has not been very effective in reducing piracy. Regulators have therefore put forward the so called “follow the money...

  20. Piratería marítima, fuerza armada y seguridad privada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Sánchez Patrón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available States are failing to monopolize the use of force. Its use is being shared by private security companies that exploit the lack of regulations, both international and internal, which exists in this regard. The involvement of these private security companies in armed conflicts has received special attention. However, this concern has not spread to other situations in which these private security companies are also participating: the fight against maritime piracy; especially in the waters off the coast of Somalia. This contribution is to study this new phenomenon in relation to the last of the cases mentioned: the fight against maritime piracy. To this end, this study will attempt to answer the main legal questions that arise in connection with the use of armed force and its use by private security companies, as well as on the international responsibility for their actions and their possible attribution to State.

  1. Digital rights management for digital cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirovski, Darko; Peinado, Marcus; Petitcolas, Fabien A. P.

    2001-12-01

    There is a wide consensus among the feature film production studios that the Internet era brings a new paradigm for film distribution to cinemas worldwide. The benefits of digital cinema to both producers and cinemas are numerous: significantly lower distribution and maintenance costs, immediate access to film libraries, higher presentation quality, and strong potential for developing new business models. Despite these advantages, the studios are still reluctant to jump into the digital age. The main showstopper for digital cinema is the danger of widespread piracy. Piracy already costs Hollywood an estimated two billion dollars annually and digital cinema without proper copyright enforcement could increase this number. In this paper, we present a copyright management system that aims at providing the set of necessary security tools: standard cryptographic primitives and copyright protection mechanisms that enable a reliable and secure feature film delivery system.

  2. World-systems analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Amanda M.

    2007-12-01

    Jamaica sloops were vernacular watercraft designed, built, and utilized by Caribbean colonists beginning in the late-17th century. Despite their popularity, no design or construction records or even a specific definition of their form survive, and many sources simply describe them as an early version of the Bermuda sloop. Vernacular Jamaica sloops were a unique adaptation by English colonists to combat the effects of piracy, and their design was specific to the economic, geographic, and political circumstances of colonial Jamaica. This article proposes a set of characteristics that can be used to define vernacular Jamaica sloops, firstly to distinguish them from the eighteenth-century naval Jamaica-class sloops but also to better understand them as a social response to external stimuli within the complex relationship between maritime economy, piracy and colonial control executed through the navy.

  3. For a Greater Horn of Africa Sea Patrol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struwe, Lars Bangert

    Patrol. The capacity and resources devoted by the individual states, alliances and organisations to combating piracy could be used more efficiently by establishing a regional unit: a Greater Horn of Africa Sea Patrol (GHASP). GHASP could be built up on a regional basis founded on the states in and around...... of Somalia. Experience from the Absalon and Thetis missions shows that the use of helicopters combined with boarding and landing elements from the Danish Navy Frogman Corps are effective in combating attacks by pirates. Irrespective of whether there is a decision to act or react, the boarding and landing...... elements in particular should be strengthened. This would also strengthen participation in future international operations, such as controlling ships, for instance. A final recommendation is to: • Initiate research into the generic characteristics of piracy. This report also shows that we know too little...

  4. License Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Urhonen, Matti

    2014-01-01

    Anite Finland Ltd. is a Finnish based company providing a full range of software and hardware solutions for the mobile network testing. The Nemo product portfolio consists of several products from handheld measurement tools all the way to the powerful data analysing server solutions. The main customers are mobile operators all around the world. Anti-piracy and copy protecting is a serious business, as there are skilful people trying to break the copy protections for illegal income or to g...

  5. USAFRICOM Headquarters: The Complexity of Moving the Headquarters to the Continent of Africa and its Impact on the Army’s Organizational Design and Operational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    partners: 1. Somalia–fighting piracy 2. South Africa–diplomatic relations 6 3. Liberia –fighting Ebola /UN mission 4. Nigeria–Boko Haram threat...offices to address issues on the continent.9 Liberia was one of the few countries 18 considered that welcomed the presence of a headquarters in their...only small countries like Liberia welcome a headquarters in Africa, while the larger countries do not welcome the idea. However, there has not been

  6. The Case for Nation-building: Why and How to Fix Failed States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Asia), pandemic disease (AIDS), and ecologi - cal disaster—to say nothing of the occasional global terrorist organization. Time and time again...borders. And piracy along the east coast of Africa has increased over the last two decades since Somalia’s collapse into anarchy . These threats...ignore the problems, allow anarchy to consume failed states, and pay ever higher costs to isolate themselves and repair any damage after the fact. But

  7. Contemporary Indonesian Film; Spirits of Reform and ghosts from the past

    OpenAIRE

    Heeren, Katinka van

    2012-01-01

    This highly informative book explores the world of Post-Soeharto Indonesian audio-visual media in the exiting era of Reform. From a multidisciplinary approach it considers a wide variety of issues such as mainstream and alternative film practices, ceremonial and independent film festivals, film piracy, history and horror, documentary, television soaps, and Islamic films, as well as censorship from the state and street. Through the perspective of discourses on, and practices of film production...

  8. Ruská a česká specifika ochrany autorského práva v oblasti audiovize.

    OpenAIRE

    Podgornaia, Kseniia

    2015-01-01

    The significant part of the diploma thesis is oriented on the aspects of audiovisual content copyright law and the illegal usage in two countries, such as Czech Republic and Russia. The main task is to concentrate on pros and cons of their copyright law protection against content rights infringing, i.e. piracy. For deeper analysis, Czech and Russian laws investigation in details is to be made in relation to the law enforcement to the audiovisual content. Then the comparison of the punishments...

  9. "Graduated Response Policy and the Behavior of Digital Pirates: Evidence from the French Three-Strike (Hadopi) Law"

    OpenAIRE

    MICHAEL ARNOLD; ERIC DARMON; SYLVAIN DEJEAN; THIERRY PENARD

    2014-01-01

    Most developed countries have tried to restrain digital piracy by strength- ening laws against copyright infringement. In 2009, France implemented the Hadopi law. Under this law individuals receive a warning the first two times they are detected illegally sharing content through peer to peer (P2P) networks. Legal action is only taken when a third violation is detected. We analyze the impact of this law on individual behavior. Our theoretical model of illegal be- havior under a graduated respo...

  10. Skaitmeninio piratavimo valdymas kūrybinio turinio industrijoje

    OpenAIRE

    Akulavičius, Marius

    2015-01-01

    The present habits of digital content consumption and a rather easy access to illegal creative content reduce the opportunities to limit digital piracy by banning or invoking legislation. Such a context of the creative content industry results in the need to search for new business models that would encourage users to voluntarily switch from illegal to legal products of the creative content industry, rather than simply banning them from using the illegal ones. In order to determine which busi...

  11. Movie Pirates of the Caribbean: Exploring Illegal Streaming Cyberlockers

    OpenAIRE

    Ibosiola, Damilola; Steer, Benjamin; Garcia-Recuero, Alvaro; Stringhini, Gianluca; Uhlig, Steve; Tyson, Gareth

    2018-01-01

    Online video piracy (OVP) is a contentious topic, with strong proponents on both sides of the argument. Recently, a number of illegal websites, called streaming cyberlockers, have begun to dominate OVP. These websites specialise in distributing pirated content, underpinned by third party indexing services offering easy-to-access directories of content. This paper performs the first exploration of this new ecosystem. It characterises the content, as well the streaming cyberlockers' individual ...

  12. THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR : STUDI KASUS SOFTLIFTING DI SURABAYA

    OpenAIRE

    Junaedi, C. Marliana

    2010-01-01

    Computer became popular among business community or education causing ethicproblem in its usage. One of the ethic problems is software piracy on individuallevel or popularly called as softlifting. This research tries to analyze softlifting instudent community that based on Theory of Planned Behavior.The respondents are 280 students in Surabaya. The result shows that not all externalfactors motive internal factors. It also shows that not all internal factors motivestudents to do softlifting. T...

  13. Theory Of Planned Behavior : Studi Kasus Softlifting di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Junaedi, Marliana

    2010-01-01

    Computer became popular among business community or education causing ethicproblem in its usage. One of the ethic problems is software piracy on individuallevel or popularly called as softlifting. This research tries to analyze softlifting instudent community that based on Theory of Planned Behavior.The respondents are 280 students in Surabaya. The result shows that not all externalfactors motive internal factors. It also shows that not all internal factors motivestudents to do softlifting. T...

  14. L'impact du piratage sur l'achat et le téléchargement légal. Une comparaison de quatre filières culturelles

    OpenAIRE

    Irène Bastard; Marc Bourreau; François Moreau

    2014-01-01

    Using a survey on cultural habits and consumption behavior of 2,000 individuals, we study the determinants of physical purchases and pay-downloads in four cultural industries: books, recorded music, movies, and video games. We show that the impact of piracy on legal purchases differs among these industries: it is negative for recorded music, but positive for video games. This impact also differs among individuals, when we distinguish occasional pirates from intensive ones. Our results suggest...

  15. Rising Sun Over Africa: Japan’s New Frontier for Military Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Party MLIT Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism MOD Ministry of Defense MOFA Ministry of Foreign Affairs MSDF Maritime Self...primary go-between, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism (MLIT).100 Even shortly after the passing of Japan’s Anti-Piracy Law...construction of its presidential palace, its main administration building, a national war memorial, a stadium, and two sports complexes. More

  16. The Security Challenges of the “One Belt, One Road” Initiative and China’s Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Haiquan, Liu

    2017-01-01

    The Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road initiatives (“One Belt, One Road”) are of significance in enhancing China’s open economy. This article explores the dual security challenges faced by the “One Belt, One Road” initiative. These challenges include both traditional security challenges, such as great power competition, territorial and island disputes, and political turmoil in the region, as well as non-traditional threats such as terrorism, piracy, and transnatio...

  17. Current Behaviours and Future Prospects of Online Film Consumption in China: A Social Marketing Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang, Yunhong

    2013-01-01

    Free film downloading services have gained large popularity among Chinese consumers, although there is potential film copyright losses as many of the downloading resources offer pirated films. Based on previous studies of consumer behaviour theory, social marketing and film piracy, this research was an attempt to gain an understanding of the factors that influence consumer film downloading and to discuss the role of social marketing in changing such behaviour through promoting paid online fil...

  18. Impacto del tráfico ilícito internacional del germoplasma de los recursos fitogenéticos peruanos para uso medicinal y alimenticio en el equilibrio del ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Carnero Arroyo, Ena Rocío

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to study the impact of the illicit international traffic in plant germplasm of the Peruvian genetic resources on the environment. The sample consisted of all cases of illicit international traffic in plant germplasm of the Peruvian genetic resources (Cases of bio-piracy). To achieve the research objective we used the documentary technique that consisted in checking the books, articles and documents of the national and international institutions. It was found tha...

  19. Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles and their Role in Future Nuclear Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    while minimizing collateral damage, speed of response, and in-flight survivability. Without ICBMs, the US nuclear deterrent force would probably...September 2013. Delpech, Thérèse. Nuclear Deterrence in the 21st Century: Lessons from the Cold War for a New Era of Strategic Piracy. Santa Monica, CA...to Minimal Deterrence : A New Nuclear Policy on the Path toward Eliminating Nuclear Weapons. Occasion Paper no. 7. Washington, DC: Natural Resources

  20. Benefits of Ratification of the Madrid Protocol (Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks) for the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasari, Risti Dwi

    2013-01-01

    The role of marks in the era of globalization of markets is very important, especially in maintaining fairbusiness competition and preventing piracy of marks that will be detrimental to the registered mark, bothdomestically and Internationally. Therefore, the business requires International trademark registrationprocedures in order to obtain legal protection in both countries of origin and in other countries where theexpansion of business is required. Along with the development of Internation...

  1. Quantification of ecological debt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Alier, Joan

    2005-01-01

    The discussion about ecological debt is important keeping in mind historical foreign trade, where natural resources exploitation and primary production exported didn't assessment the ecological damage or the environmental values of the interchange. This essay shows the debate of ecological debt on greenhouse emission, enterprise environmental debit, unequal international trade, toxic waste export, and b io piracy ; in order to present the necessity of a new ecological and equitable world economy

  2. The ASEAN Political-Security Community: Enhancing Defense Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Yoong Lee, ASEAN Matters: Reflecting on the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Singapore; Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific., 2011), i, http...from becoming overpopulated —by moving Javanese to low-density islands: Kalimantan, Sumatera, Papua, and Sulawesi. 58 Collins, Security and Southeast...In the mid-2000s, the increasing number of piracy and armed robbery activities in the Malacca Straits attracted world attention and attributed to the

  3. La pirateria marittima negli stretti di Malacca e Singapore in prospettiva storica e attuale

    OpenAIRE

    Delogu, Emilio Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Maritime piracy is still one of the most interesting manifestations of human activity by reason of the fact that it has, directly or indirectly, a number of points of contact between different problems of social, religious, political, economical and, of course, historical matter. Specifically, South-east Asia is a great example of how history, politics and religion are strongly and crucially imbued with the maritime banditry phenomenology. During the era of great maritime political entities e...

  4. Encounter Detection Using Visual Analytics to Improve Maritime Domain Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Malaysia and Indonesia. The TBA was chosen as a geographic area of interest based on a history of piracy in the region. The TBA constitutes a single...induction to make predictions. There are five distinct functions that data mining performs: 1. Characterization and discrimination of data. 2...Border Area (TBA) of Southeast Asia, which includes Malaysia , Indonesia and the Philippines, was selected by specifying the minimum and maximum values

  5. Business Models for Start up Business

    OpenAIRE

    Boban, Nitin

    2010-01-01

    Gamingdom is a new start up venture that provides online gaming service utilising the latest cloud computing technology. The high demand, popularity and exponential growth in the number of gaming enthusiasts and the market have brought about this innovative idea. This new venture aims to provide an easy method of gaming through the internet without heavy expenses on hardware and software and also minimising the existing high rate of piracy. A business model is an essential tool for buildin...

  6. Spring 2008 Industry Study. Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Chamber of Commerce puts the number of U.S. manufacturing jobs lost to piracy at 750,000 (U.S. Chamber of Commerce , 2007). Interviews with...economy each year and puts millions at risk from counterfeit medicines and engine parts (U.S. Chamber of Commerce , 2007). There are, however, several...Association of Manufacturers (NAM) and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce advocate global changes to IP protection, calling for the “reform and harmonization

  7. Counterfeiting as corporate externality: intellectual property crime and global insecurity

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Corporate negative externalities occur when corporations place some of the costs of their profit-seeking activity onto society. This paper suggests that the current global problem of intellectual property crime is such an externality, and that it has not been recognised as such because corporations present product counterfeiting and piracy as crimes which reduce their revenue, rather than as predictable side effects of corporate production and merchandising, including bran...

  8. Maritime Security In South East Asia: Indonesian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ariadno, Melda Kamil Kamil

    2009-01-01

    Maritime security is an important issue particularly for the archipelagic state. As the largest archipelagic state in the world, Indonesia has its own responsibility to guard its waters from any threat. Indonesian waters have been used for centuries to accelerate International trade. In addition, Indonesia needs to address its boundary problems, handling of piracy, combating Transnational Organized Crime, such as, human trafficking, drugs trafficking, and human smuggling. This article explai...

  9. Continuum Model for River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Achille; Maritan, Amos; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1995-07-01

    The effects of erosion, avalanching, and random precipitation are captured in a simple stochastic partial differential equation for modeling the evolution of river networks. Our model leads to a self-organized structured landscape and to abstraction and piracy of the smaller tributaries as the evolution proceeds. An algebraic distribution of the average basin areas and a power law relationship between the drainage basin area and the river length are found.

  10. Building Maritime Security in Southeast Asia: Outsiders Not Welcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Najib Razak , has called for greater vigi- lance and intelligence sharing to combat piracy and prevent terrorism along the Malacca Strait.21 To improve...part a reward for its partnership in the war on terrorism. Weatherbee, International Rela- tions in Southeast Asia, p. 37. 18. Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib Tun...Abd Razak , “The Security of the Straits of Malacca and Its Im- plications to the South East Asia Regional Se- curity” (speech, Seoul, 13 March 2007

  11. Operation Atalanta and the Protection of EU Citizens: Civis Europaeus unheeded?

    OpenAIRE

    LARIK, Joris

    2011-01-01

    This paper critically assesses the EU’s anti-piracy operation Atalanta in the light of the protection of Union citizens. The main question is to which extent a Union citizen threatened by pirates off the coast of Somalia could rely on the promise of civis europaeus sum. The paper discusses the various legal aspects pertaining to the forceful protection of EU citizens in international law, EU constitutional law and the operational parameters of Atalanta. It argues that within the particular fr...

  12. Maritime Violence : Implications to Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zubir, Nurulizwan Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Maritime Piracy has been a serious threat to the international community especially in the SoutheastAsia region. This threat has caused tremendous implications towards the world economy, environment,political stability of the nations involved because 45% of the shipping company passes through theSoutheast Asia. The worrying fact is that these attacks were committed by terrorists as well as traditionalmaritime pirates. This paper examines on the implications of maritime crime in M...

  13. Naval War College Review. Volume 62, Number, 3, Summer 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    31 Catherine Zara Raymond Whatever the flaws of the efforts of littoral states to...collapse of the local fishing industry as well as that of a functioning Somali state during the 1990s. Catherine Zara Raymond, in “Piracy and Armed...Problem Solved? Catherine Zara Raymond The Malacca Strait is a narrow waterway that extends nearly six hundred nau-tical miles from the Andaman Sea to

  14. Genç Kadın ve Erkeklerin Müzik Ürünü Dinleme Cihazı ve Korsan Ürünler Karşısındaki Tutum Farklılıkları(The Attitude Differences of Young Women and Men Against Music Listening Products and Pirates Music Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz YILMAZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available All developments taking place in computers, internet, music product formats and audio device technologies have an impact on the location of music product sales, the amount and method of such sales, the people in the music industry and even the industry model itself. In regards to the music industry, which is one that is extremely open to such changes, people’s attitudes towards devices for listening to music and copyright piracy are highly variable. As in the case of worldwide sales, Turkish sales of music products have also been negatively influenced by pirate sales, and the largest group of the buyers are the youth population, therefore resulting in a need of investigation of the attitude of Turkish youth towards these changes and piracy. Hence, the aim of this study is to pinpoint differences in the choice of devices used for listening to music in young women and men, and to investigate their points of view towards physical and digital piracy.

  15. External threats to economic security of enterprises of shipping business

    OpenAIRE

    Khaiminova, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Розглядається морське піратство як загроза економічній безпеці підприємств судноплавного бізнесу. Досліджуються економічні наслідки морського піратства. Розглядаються напрями боротьби с морським піратством.Marine piracy as threat economic security of enterprises of shipping business was examined in the article. The economic consequences of marine piracy were investigated. Directions of fight of s are examined by marine piracy were considered....

  16. The World in the Viking Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Viking Age was ignited by the art of building seaworthy sailing ships and the skills to sail them on the open sea. The growth in seafaring, trade, piracy, and exploration that began to gather momentum during the 8th century CE was not limited to Europe’s northern seas, however. Ships, laden...... the story of Viking-Age seafaring and voyages of exploration. The World in the Viking Age reveals a global history concerning ships, people and objects on the move. It is a story that challenges entrenched ideas about the past and present, and the skills and opportunities of previous generations....

  17. SCANDINAVIAN MIGRATION IN THE VIKING AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladyslaw Duczko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Movements of Scandinavians in period between late 8th AD to middle of 11th AD, called Viking Age, were combined military actions-piracy – and migrations with goal to colonize territories in the West Europe – mainly Insular world of Atlantic and British isles, but also in East Europe, among Finno-Ugrians and Slavs. This activity is seen as the recent, and last, of the Migration Period, the time of great movements of Germanic people in the 4th century AD.

  18. Multimedia watermarking techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kirovski, Darko

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual property owners must continually exploit new ways of reproducing, distributing, and marketing their products. However, the threat of piracy looms as a major problem with digital distribution and storage technologies. Multimedia Watermarking Techniques and Applications covers all current and future trends in the design of modern systems that use watermarking to protect multimedia content. Containing the works of contributing authors who are worldwide experts in the field, this volume is intended for researchers and practitioners, as well as for those who want a broad understanding

  19. TRANSNATIONAL ORGANISED CRIME IN INDONESIA: THE NEED FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N Mitchell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the growing infuence of transnational organised crime on the nations of South East Asia. Human trafficking, maritime piracy, terrorism and wildlife trafficking are major transnational crimes that cause significant harm to both individuals and national economies. This article examines the continuing domestic and international legislative, law enforcement and policy efforts of South East Asian nations to address transnational organised crime. it is concluded that to effectively counter transnational organised crime there is a need to employ international cooperation that is focused on addressing the unique factors of each crime.

  20. Streamingtjänster av film och dess framtida utveckling som substitut för illegal nedladdning : Konsumenternas syn på digitala tjänster och de förbättringar som krävs för ett hållbart paradigmskifte

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson Ranta, Erik; Freskgård, Markus

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we aim to delve deeper into the film industry and how their approach to streaming services such as Netflix might be the solution to the problems with piracy (people downloading illegally instead of paying for the products) - but before they can change the mindset of people, they have to overcome some issues that might make it hard for the film industry to adapt a fully functionable streaming sollution in the veins of Spotify. To come up with some conclusions regarding this matte...

  1. Modern Olympic sport: economic mechanism of self-development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubka S.N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents characteristics of the Olympic movement as a real self-sufficient socio-economic phenomenon, with its inherent internal mechanism of self-development. There are identified the main problems of improving the mechanism of self-development, the modernization of the distribution of income from the sale of commercial programs between the participants of Olympic sports and enhance the fight against "piracy" marketing. The objectives of the NOC assistance program implemented by "Olympic Solidarity" fund are defined, the structure of expenditures on the IOC "Olympic Solidarity" program implementation are presented.

  2. Interests and propriety: some voices of brazilian cultural field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cruz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article originates of the strangeness generated by using the term piracy for any type of unauthorized reproduction. The article try to understand the relationship between values and interests related to two forms of propriety, copyright and intellectual property. For an interest in the collective representation, the general idea or dominant ideology associated with the subject, uses of media reports as documentary fonts for analysis of values and interests of three groups involved in discussions about the topic: the culture industry, government and artists / producers. Finally, performs a synthesis of the comparison between the values defended and the interests manifests (or hidden of the groups.

  3. Fortresses and Icebergs: The Evolution of the Transatlantic Defense Market and the Implications for U.S. National Security Policy. Volume 2: Country Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    an uf ac tu ri ng s ol ut io ns O ct 2 0 0 6 S cr ot h S af et y P ro du ct s A rm or H ol di ng s, in c. 28 .6 39 .0 V eh ic le s uv iv ab ili...rights and is designed in particular to combat piracy and counterfeiting . The German Act lives up to this mandate by providing virtually identical...fighting financial crimes, illegal drug trafficking, customs and borders control, money laundering, and cybercrime. Italy is able to deploy up to

  4. Multimedia encryption and authentication techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Furht, Borko

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual property owners must continually exploit new ways of reproducing, distributing, and marketing their products. However, the threat of piracy looms as a major problem with digital distribution and storage technologies. Multimedia Encryption and Authentication Techniques and Applications covers current and future trends in the design of modern systems that use encryption and authentication to protect multimedia content. Containing the works of contributing authors who are worldwide experts in their fields, this volume is intended for researchers and practitioners, as well as for thos

  5. Online file sharing innovations in media consumption

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson Schwarz, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    It is apparent that file sharing on the Internet has become an emerging norm of media consumption-especially among young people. This book provides a critical perspective on this phenomenon, exploring issues related to file sharing, downloading, peer-to-peer networks, ""piracy,"" and (not least) policy issues regarding these practices. Andersson Schwartz critically engages with the justificatory discourses of the actual file-sharers, taking Sweden as a geographic focus. By focusing on the example of Sweden-home to both The Pirate Bay and Spotify-he provides a unique insight into a mentality th

  6. Chokepoints global private regulation on the Internet

    CERN Document Server

    Tusikov, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    In January 2012, millions participated in the now-infamous "Internet blackout" against the Stop Online Piracy Act, protesting the power it would have given intellectual property holders over the Internet. However, while SOPA's withdrawal was heralded as a victory for an open Internet, a small group of corporations, tacitly backed by the US and other governments, have implemented much of SOPA via a series of secret, handshake agreements. Drawing on extensive interviews, Natasha Tusikov details the emergence of a global regime in which large Internet firms act as regulators for powerful intellec

  7. The Most Daring Act of the Age: Principles for Naval Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    autonomous, were the homes of a developed culture of piracy and slave trade that stretched as far back as the fall of the Ro- man Empire. During the...Derna), asked in a letter, “What have they [the squadron’s crews] done but dance and wench?”12 Morris’s deployment was even less successful...were putrid and unusable. On 7 February, as they approached the North African coast, a gale struck the two American ships; Intrepid’s small size and

  8. A.C.T.A. and the effects of the agreement on the on-line marketing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boitor, A.–B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the most controversial and discussed treaty over the last period and its consequences on the marketing strategies of different companies in fields such as the movie industry, the music industry and the publishing domain. The A.C.T.A. treaty was signed by over 27 countries, and brings up positive effects upon the strategies of those companies which suffer losses from piracy and counterfeiting of intellectual property rights. The paper reflects the changes that the treaty can bring especially to the online marketing strategies of the biggest movie studios and music production labels.

  9. Noise pollution and detaining captured persons at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, S; Milner, R

    2014-01-01

    During the course of military operations, the UK Armed Forces may have to capture and detain individuals. International law sets down a framework for the minimum basic standards that are applicable in these circumstances, and it is the responsibility of the UK Armed Forces to understand and implement these. This case review looks at a specific example of this issue related to noise pollution and appropriate detention facilities during anti-piracy operations, and how a flexible approach combined with good understanding of the regulations ensured compliance with these basic standards.

  10. A new approach of watermarking technique by means multichannel wavelet functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agreste, Santa; Puccio, Luigia

    2012-12-01

    The digital piracy involving images, music, movies, books, and so on, is a legal problem that has not found a solution. Therefore it becomes crucial to create and to develop methods and numerical algorithms in order to solve the copyright problems. In this paper we focus the attention on a new approach of watermarking technique applied to digital color images. Our aim is to describe the realized watermarking algorithm based on multichannel wavelet functions with multiplicity r = 3, called MCWM 1.0. We report a large experimentation and some important numerical results in order to show the robustness of the proposed algorithm to geometrical attacks.

  11. La piratería como conflicto. Discursos sobre la propiedad intelectual en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos G. Aguiar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo da cuenta de la evolución de la protección de los derechos de autor (IPR, por sus siglas en inglés con relación a las acciones antipiratería realizadas por el gobierno mexicano. La ‘guerra contra la piratería’ está fundada en la estructura legal del comercio mundial. El argumento central del autor es que la criminalización de la piratería no resulta de un proceso de interés nacional que tenga como objetivo promover e intensificar la propiedad intelectual o el estado de derecho, sino que surge de una perspectiva punitiva emanada de las redes de intereses internacionales y actores transnacionales propios del neoliberalismo global.AbstractThis article examines the evolution of intellectual property rights (IPR protection in relation to anti-piracy actions undertaken by the Mexican government. The ‘war against piracy’ is based on the world trade legal structure. The author’s central argument is that the criminalization of piracy is not the result of a process of national interest which has as its objective the promotion and intensification of intellectual property rights or the rule of law but, rather, emerges from a punitive perspective emanating from networks of international interests and transnational actors characteristic of global neoliberalism.

  12. Evaluation of information ethical issues among undergraduate students: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezel Cilliers

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Higher education is increasingly making use of information and communication technology (ICT to deliver educational services. Young adults at higher educational institutions are also making use of ICTs in their daily lives but are not taught how to do so ethically. Software piracy, plagiarism and cheating, while making use of ICTs, are the most common ethical dilemmas that will face digital natives. Objective: The purpose of this article was to investigate information ethics of young adults at a higher education institution in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Method: This study made use of a positive, quantitative survey approach. A closed-ended questionnaire was distributed to a group of 312 first-year students, who had registered for a computer literacy class. A response rate of 69.2% was recorded, resulting in 216 students participating in the study. The results were analysed using descriptive and inferential (t-tests statistics in SPSS V22. Results: The results indicated that plagiarism is a problem among first-year students, and elements of authorship should be included in the curriculum. Students understood what software piracy was but did not think it was wrong to copy software from the Internet. Finally, the students understood that cheating, while making use of technology, is wrong and should be avoided. Conclusion: The recommendation of the study then is that information ethics must be included in the undergraduate curriculum in order to prepare students to deal with these ethical problems.

  13. Maritime oil freight flows to 2050: Delphi perceptions of maritime specialists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinwoodie, John; Tuck, Sarah; Rigot-Müller, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to synthesise maritime specialists' perceptions of changing patterns of maritime oil freight flows to 2050. Debate spans published maritime oil flows globally, diverse drivers of future flows including economic growth, shipping market changes and haul lengths. A classic Delphi study to explore the perceptions of likely trends and flows to 2050 recruited a panel of early career and established maritime specialists, many with long term career commitments to this industry. Underpinned by market volatility and legislative uncertainty, the perceptions of both groups coincided and were conservative. Local sourcing, new Arctic seaways and fossil fuel intolerance will tend to reduce oil freight work but perceptions of ship re-routing to avoid for example Emission Control Areas and piracy would tend to lengthen hauls. In advanced industrial nations, reducing energy intensities and diminishing social tolerance of fossil fuels imply gradually reducing maritime oil shipments. However, to achieve radical national commitments to carbon emissions reductions will necessitate specialist education for naturally conservative maritime professionals and vigorous oil import reduction policies to curtail domestic demand for oil shipments. - Highlights: • Local sourcing, Arctic seaways and fossil fuel intolerance lessen oil freight work. • Oil hauls lengthen if ships re-route to avoid Emission Control Areas and piracy. • Conservative perceptions of established specialists match early career views. • Carbon emission reduction policies imply significantly reduced oil shipments. • Attitude change in maritime professionals will require education and marketing

  14. Punishing the sea wolf: corsairs and cannibals in the early modern Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Lane

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Looks at how Western law was interpreted and applied to perceived cannibals and corsairs in the Spanish Caribbean in the 16th and 17th c., by Spanish jurists in the period, and at the development of the cannibal and corsair image in Spanish culture. Author outlines the convergence of terms suggesting a growing semantic linkage between certain indigenous peoples, specially the famed "Carib cannibals", and foreign, mostly Western European, corsairs poaching on Spanish wealth. He describes how of the Caribs, said to be cannibals, involved in piracy, an image was constructed of not only cannibals, but also greedy criminals, or rebelers against Catholicism, in order to (legally justify punishments or wars against them, and thus Spanish rule. He then discusses how of French, British, and other corsairs in the Caribbean involved in piracy against the Spanish, an in some ways similar image was painted of fanatical canine types ruled by appetites, and also of anti-Catholic heretics and criminals, in order to justify punishments as well as the Spanish claim on rule of the Caribbean.

  15. Beyond the Interconnections: Split Manufacturing in RF Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Bi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the globalization of the integrated circuit (IC design flow of chip fabrication, intellectual property (IP piracy is becoming the main security threat. While most of the protection methods are dedicated for digital circuits, we are trying to protect radio-frequency (RF designs. For the first time, we applied the split manufacturing method in RF circuit protection. Three different implementation cases are introduced for security and design overhead tradeoffs, i.e., the removal of the top metal layer, the removal of the top two metal layers and the design obfuscation dedicated to RF circuits. We also developed a quantitative security evaluation method to measure the protection level of RF designs under split manufacturing. Finally, a simple Class AB power amplifier and a more sophisticated Class E power amplifier are used for the demonstration through which we prove that: (1 the removal of top metal layer or the top two metal layers can provide high-level protection for RF circuits with a lower request to domestic foundries; (2 the design obfuscation method provides the highest level of circuit protection, though at the cost of design overhead; and (3 split manufacturing may be more suitable for RF designs than for digital circuits, and it can effectively reduce IP piracy in untrusted off-shore foundries.

  16. Processes of Terrace Formation on the Piedmont of the Santa Cruz River Valley During Quaternary Time, Green Valley-Tubac Area, Southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, David A.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    In this report we describe a series of stepped Quaternary terraces on some piedmont tributaries of the Santa Cruz River valley in southeastern Arizona. These terraces began to form in early Pleistocene time, after major basin-and-range faulting ceased, with lateral planation of basin fill and deposition of thin fans of alluvium. At the end of this cycle of erosion and deposition, tributaries of the Santa Cruz River began the process of dissection and terrace formation that continues to the present. Vertical cutting alternated with periods of equilibrium, during which streams cut laterally and left thin deposits of channel fill. The distribution of terraces was mapped and compiled with adjacent mapping to produce a regional picture of piedmont stream history in the middle part of the Santa Cruz River valley. For selected tributaries, the thickness of terrace fill was measured, particle size and lithology of gravel were determined, and sedimentary features were photographed and described. Mapping of terrace stratigraphy revealed that on two tributaries, Madera Canyon Wash and Montosa Canyon Wash, stream piracy has played an important role in piedmont landscape development. On two other tributaries, Cottonwood Canyon Wash and Josephine Canyon Wash, rapid downcutting preempted piracy. Two types of terraces are recognized: erosional and depositional. Gravel in thin erosional terraces has Trask sorting coefficients and sedimentary structures typical of streamflood deposits, replete with bar-and-swale surface topography on young terraces. Erosional-terrace fill represents the channel fill of the stream that cuts the terrace; the thickness of the fill indicates the depth of channel scour. In contrast to erosional terraces, depositional terraces show evidence of repeated deposition and net aggradation, as indicated by their thickness (as much as 20+ m) and weakly bedded structure. Depositional terraces are common below mountain-front canyon mouths where streams drop their

  17. On the implementation of IP protection using biometrics based information hiding and firewall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Abhishek; Nandy, Kingshuk; Banerjee, Avishek; Giri, Supratick; Sarkar, Souvik; Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2016-02-01

    System-on-chip-based design style creates a revolution in very large scale integration industry with design efficiency, operating speed and development time. To support this process, reuse and exchange of components are essential in electronic form called intellectual property (IP). This, however, increases the possibility of encroachment of IP of the design. So copyright protection of IP against piracy is the most important concern for IP vendors. The existing solutions for IP protection are still not secure enough with flexibility, cost, etc. This paper proposes an information-hiding-based solution for IP protection by embedding a biometric copyright information and firewall inside an IP in the form of a finite state machine with unique configuration. The scheme first introduces biometric signature-based copyright as ownership proof. Second, firewall interrupts the normal functionality of IP at the end of the user time period. The experimental outcomes of field-programmable-gate-array implementation illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  18. The Dog that Stopped Barking: Mass Legal Executions in 21st Century America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Blackman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the first two centuries of European colonization of what is now the United States, executions for a variety of offenses relatively frequently involved mass executions, that is, the execution for the same criminal incident of four or more persons. By the time of American independence, some of those crimes had largely ceased to exist or to elicit such punishment, like witchcraft and piracy. However, the punishment of slaves and Indians kept the percentage of executed persons involved in mass executions significant, if not large. During the last quarter of the 19th and first six decades of the 20th century, mass legal executions diminished as a percentage and were largely limited to punishing robbery-related homicides, including felony-homicides of conspirators. Throughout that period, the end of mass executions for a particular crime presaged the end of all executions for that offense, and the last mass legal execution occurred in 1960.

  19. Sun Tzu's Art of War and competition and cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Liselotte

    China’s national security strategy of coexistence encourages accommodation of divergent definitions of right and wrong conduct with the purpose of encouraging national social and economic development. The objective of this strategy is to protect China’s core interests of preserving communist part......-based legitimacy. In the Gulf of Aden, China has obtained legitimacy on the basis of reciprocity. Beijing's defiance of value-based legitimacy allows for pragmatic working China-US relations without the uncompromising ideological conflicts of the Cold War....... China’s contribution to anti-piracy operations in the Gulf of Aden as an example of an extra-regional security issue where the interest of the continued stable development of the economy and society is in focus. The paper concludes that China is not looking for a community-based type of value...

  20. The Role of the Military in Securing Suspects and Evidence in the Prosecution of Terrorism Cases before Civilian Courts: Legal and Practical Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi van Ginkel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the fact that civil authorities are usually involved in the investigation and prosecution of terrorist crimes, reality on the ground often leads to a different situation. Indeed, the military may be called upon to carry out law enforcement activities when embedded in situations characterised by conflict, high risk level of threat and/or a lack of local civil capacity. In this Research Paper, the role of the military when performing law enforcement activities in terms of collecting evidence and/or securing suspected terrorists is analysed. Dr. Bibi van Ginkel and Dr. Christophe Paulussen point out that past experiences, for instance from counter-piracy operations and evidence-based operations, may provide some guidance for future cases.

  1. Computationally Efficient Robust Color Image Watermarking Using Fast Walsh Hadamard Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suja Kalarikkal Pullayikodi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Watermark is the copy deterrence mechanism used in the multimedia signal that is to be protected from hacking and piracy such a way that it can later be extracted from the watermarked signal by the decoder. Watermarking can be used in various applications such as authentication, video indexing, copyright protection and access control. In this paper a new CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access based robust watermarking algorithm using customized 8 × 8 Walsh Hadamard Transform, is proposed for the color images and detailed performance and robustness analysis have been performed. The paper studies in detail the effect of spreading code length, number of spreading codes and type of spreading codes on the performance of the watermarking system. Compared to the existing techniques the proposed scheme is computationally more efficient and consumes much less time for execution. Furthermore, the proposed scheme is robust and survives most of the common signal processing and geometric attacks.

  2. Integrated fingerprinting in secure digital cinema projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannay, Damien; Delaigle, Jean-Francois; Macq, Benoit M. M.; Quisquater, Jean-Jacques; Mas Ribes, Joan M.; Boucqueau, Jean M.; Nivart, Jean-Francois

    2001-12-01

    This paper describes the functional model of a combined conditional access and fingerprinting copyright (-or projectionright) protection system in a digital cinema framework. In the cinema industry, a large part of early movie piracy comes from copies made in the theater itself with a camera. The evolution towards digital cinema broadcast enables watermark based fingerprinting protection systems. Besides an appropriate fingerprinting technology, a number of well defined security/cryptographic tools are integrated in order to guaranty the integrity of the whole system. The requirements are two-fold: On one side, we must ensure that the media content is only accessible at exhibition time (under specific authorization obtained after an ad-hoc film rental agreement) and contains the related exhibition fingerprint. At the other end, we must prove our ability to retrieve the fingerprint information from an illegal copy of the media.

  3. Genetic mating systems and reproductive natural histories of fishes: lessons for ecology and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avise, John C; Jones, Adam G; Walker, DeEtte; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Fish species have diverse breeding behaviors that make them valuable for testing theories on genetic mating systems and reproductive tactics. Here we review genetic appraisals of paternity and maternity in wild fish populations. Behavioral phenomena quantified by genetic markers in various species include patterns of multiple mating by both sexes; frequent cuckoldry by males and rare cuckoldry by females in nest-tending species; additional routes to surrogate parentage via nest piracy and egg-thievery; egg mimicry by nest-tending males; brood parasitism by helper males in cooperative breeders; clutch mixing in oral brooders; kinship in schooling fry of broadcast spawners; sperm storage by dams in female-pregnant species; and sex-role reversal, polyandry, and strong sexual selection on females in some male-pregnant species. Additional phenomena addressed by genetic parentage analyses in fishes include clustered mutations, filial cannibalism, and local population size. All results are discussed in the context of relevant behavioral and evolutionary theory.

  4. An Evaluation of Multiple Perceptions of Digital Rights Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Allyn D.; Taneja, Aakash

    Digital Rights Management (DRM) solutions have generated much interest because of their influence on the expectations and responsibilities of customers and related organizations. It was created to restrict piracy and enhance digital media sales, however, it is found to be unable to fulfill its objectives. We find the protections by DRM lack an understanding of the end user and the evolving nature of copyright and fair use. The potential motives for pirating appear to increase as DRM becomes more intrusive causing a conflict in the objectives of DRM. Thus, adjustments must be made to the current DRM model in order for it to become beneficial for both the producer and the consumer. Our research identifies the needs, desires, and responsibilities of the various DRM stakeholders so that a successful use of DRM technologies can be modeled: a challenge faced by the media industry.

  5. MAC, A System for Automatically IPR Identification, Collection and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrão, Carlos

    Controlling Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) in the Digital World is a very hard challenge. The facility to create multiple bit-by-bit identical copies from original IPR works creates the opportunities for digital piracy. One of the most affected industries by this fact is the Music Industry. The Music Industry has supported huge losses during the last few years due to this fact. Moreover, this fact is also affecting the way that music rights collecting and distributing societies are operating to assure a correct music IPR identification, collection and distribution. In this article a system for automating this IPR identification, collection and distribution is presented and described. This system makes usage of advanced automatic audio identification system based on audio fingerprinting technology. This paper will present the details of the system and present a use-case scenario where this system is being used.

  6. Collusion-resistant audio fingerprinting system in the modulated complex lapped transform domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Juan Garcia-Hernandez

    Full Text Available Collusion-resistant fingerprinting paradigm seems to be a practical solution to the piracy problem as it allows media owners to detect any unauthorized copy and trace it back to the dishonest users. Despite the billionaire losses in the music industry, most of the collusion-resistant fingerprinting systems are devoted to digital images and very few to audio signals. In this paper, state-of-the-art collusion-resistant fingerprinting ideas are extended to audio signals and the corresponding parameters and operation conditions are proposed. Moreover, in order to carry out fingerprint detection using just a fraction of the pirate audio clip, block-based embedding and its corresponding detector is proposed. Extensive simulations show the robustness of the proposed system against average collusion attack. Moreover, by using an efficient Fast Fourier Transform core and standard computer machines it is shown that the proposed system is suitable for real-world scenarios.

  7. A new era for the music industry: How new technologies and the internet affect the way music is valued and have an impact on output quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patokos Tassos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its early days, the Internet has been used by the music industry as a powerful marketing tool to promote artists and their products. Nevertheless, technology developments of the past ten years, and especially the ever-growing phenomenon of file sharing, have created the general impression that the Internet is responsible for a crisis within the industry, on the grounds that music piracy has become more serious than it has ever been. The purpose of this paper is to present the impact of new technologies and the Internet on the three main actors of the music industry: consumers, artists and record companies. It is claimed that the Internet has changed the way music is valued, and also, that it may have a direct effect on the quality of the music produced, as perceived by both artists and consumers alike.

  8. The Security Challenges of the “One Belt, One Road” Initiative and China’s Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiquan Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road initiatives (“One Belt, One Road” are of significance in enhancing China’s open economy. This article explores the dual security challenges faced by the “One Belt, One Road” initiative. These challenges include both traditional security challenges, such as great power competition, territorial and island disputes, and political turmoil in the region, as well as non-traditional threats such as terrorism, piracy, and transnational organized crime. This article analyzes the present situation of security cooperation in the region covered by “One Belt, One Road” and also suggests that China needs to pay special attention to three issues, namely the supply of public security goods, the interests of the United States and Russia, and the pivot of Pakistan, besides developing its own strength.

  9. Intentional cargo disruption by nefarious means: Examining threats, systemic vulnerabilities and securitisation measures in complex global supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Conor; Harrop, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Global trade and commerce requires products to be securely contained and transferred in a timely way across great distances and between national boundaries. Throughout the process, cargo and containers are stored, handled and checked by a range of authorities and authorised agents. Intermodal transportation involves the use of container ships, planes, railway systems, land bridges, road networks and barges. This paper examines the the nefarious nature of intentional disruption and nefarious risks associated with the movement of cargo and container freight. The paper explores main threats, vulnerabilities and security measures relevant to significant intermodal transit risk issues such as theft, piracy, terrorism, contamination, counterfeiting and product tampering. Three risk and vulnerability models are examined and basic standards and regulations that are relevant to safe and secure transit of container goods across international supply networks are outlined.

  10. Watermarking textures in video games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huajian; Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Lieb, Patrick; Steinebach, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Digital watermarking is a promising solution to video game piracy. In this paper, based on the analysis of special challenges and requirements in terms of watermarking textures in video games, a novel watermarking scheme for DDS textures in video games is proposed. To meet the performance requirements in video game applications, the proposed algorithm embeds the watermark message directly in the compressed stream in DDS files and can be straightforwardly applied in watermark container technique for real-time embedding. Furthermore, the embedding approach achieves high watermark payload to handle collusion secure fingerprinting codes with extreme length. Hence, the scheme is resistant to collusion attacks, which is indispensable in video game applications. The proposed scheme is evaluated in aspects of transparency, robustness, security and performance. Especially, in addition to classical objective evaluation, the visual quality and playing experience of watermarked games is assessed subjectively in game playing.

  11. E2LEMI:Energy-Efficient Logic Encryption Using Multiplexer Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qutaiba Alasad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the outsourcing of chip manufacturing, countermeasures against Integrated Circuit (IC piracy, reverse engineering, IC overbuilding and hardware Trojans (HTs become a hot research topic. To protect an IC from these attacks, logic encryption techniques have been considered as a low-cost defense mechanism. In this paper, our proposal is to insert the multiplexer (MUX with two cases: (i we randomly insert MUXs equal to half of the output bit number (half MUX insertions; and (ii we insert MUXs equal to the number of output bits (full MUX insertions. Hamming distance is adopted as a security evaluation. We also measure the delay, power and area overheads with the proposed technique.

  12. Terrorisme maritime et piraterie d’aujourd’hui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Eudeline

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Hors temps de conflits armés, les actes de violence dans le domaine maritime sont essentiellement de deux sortes : la piraterie, pratiquée à des fins privées, et le terrorisme qui poursuit des objectifs politiques. Répondant à des logiques différentes, ces deux formes de violence constituent, indépendamment, des menaces pour les 50 000 navires marchands qui transportent plus de 90% du commerce mondial. Leur éventuelle collusion, si elle était de grande ampleur, pourrait avoir un effet multiplicateur entraînant des conséquences très importantes sur une économie mondiale fragilisée.L’environnement physique qu’elles partagent est propice aux activités illégales. La mer couvre 71% de la surface du globe et constitue un espace pour l’essentiel libre de toute emprise étatique et impossible à contrôler. Les nombreuses actions des pirates autour de l’Afrique malgré les réactions internationales le montrent à l’envi. En parallèle, la mouvance terrorisme islamiste développe une stratégie d’attaque de l’économie mondiale dont les flux maritimes constituent un des principaux piliers.Les liens des deux activités avec la criminalité les rapprochent également. Le terrorisme les entretient pour des raisons logistiques et financières, alors que la piraterie, avec les différents trafics, en est une composante maritime majeure.Cette proximité et une complémentarité des compétences nécessaires à leur pratique pourraient les rapprocher plus encore. Cette entente contre-nature permettrait d’associer les connaissances nautiques des pirates, marins expérimentés aux capacités de planification des terroristes.Apart from times of high intensity conflict, the two main forms of violence at sea are piracy, and maritime terrorism. If the former is perpetrated at private ends, the latter is politically motivated. Although addressing different ends, both activities are important threats for the 50,000 merchant vessels

  13. The copyright book a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, William S

    2014-01-01

    Through five editions since 1981, this book has offered the most comprehensive accessible guide available to all aspects of copyright law. Now, with the sixth edition, The Copyright Book has been thoroughly updated to cover copyright for the Internet age, discussing a range of developments in the law since 2000. The only book written for nonlawyers that covers the entire field of copyright law, it is essential reading for authors, artists, creative people in every medium, the companies that hire them, users of copyrighted material, and anyone with an interest in copyright law from a policy perspective. New material includes greatly expanded coverage of infringement and fair use, with detailed discussion of recent decisions, including the Grateful Dead, Google, and HathiTrust cases. The new edition considers such topics as open access, the defeat of the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA), file sharing, e-reserves, the status of "orphan works," and the latest developments under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (...

  14. Agent-based Simulation of the Maritime Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vaněk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multi-agent based simulation platform is introduced that focuses on legitimate and illegitimate aspects of maritime traffic, mainly on intercontinental transport through piracy afflicted areas. The extensible architecture presented here comprises several modules controlling the simulation and the life-cycle of the agents, analyzing the simulation output and visualizing the entire simulated domain. The simulation control module is initialized by various configuration scenarios to simulate various real-world situations, such as a pirate ambush, coordinated transit through a transport corridor, or coastal fishing and local traffic. The environmental model provides a rich set of inputs for agents that use the geo-spatial data and the vessel operational characteristics for their reasoning. The agent behavior model based on finite state machines together with planning algorithms allows complex expression of agent behavior, so the resulting simulation output can serve as a substitution for real world data from the maritime domain.

  15. Morphotectonics of a high plateau on the northwestern flank of the Continental Rift of southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modenesi-Gauttieri, May Christine; Takashi Hiruma, Silvio; Riccomini, Claudio

    2002-03-01

    Integration of landform and structural analysis allowed the identification of Late Pleistocene-Holocene pulses of tectonic activity in the Campos do Jordão Plateau with ages and regimes similar to the ones from the continental rift. Fault reactivation along Precambrian shear zones give rise to a series of conspicuous morphotectonic features, determine the formation of stream piracy phenomena, and divide the plateau into smaller blocks. Recognition of these tectonic pulses as well as of their effects in landform development—particularly clear on the Campos de São Francisco at the highest area of the SE edge of the plateau—show that besides the climate-related Quaternary environmental changes significant neotectonic instability should be considered in the geomorphic evolution of the Campos do Jordão Plateau.

  16. The cytomegalovirus homolog of interleukin-10 requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity for inhibition of cytokine synthesis in monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Juliet V

    2007-02-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) has evolved numerous strategies for evading host immune defenses, including piracy of cellular cytokines. A viral homolog of interleukin-10, designated cmvIL-10, binds to the cellular IL-10 receptor and effects potent immune suppression. The signaling pathways employed by cmvIL-10 were investigated, and the classic IL-10R/JAK1/Stat3 pathway was found to be activated in monocytes. However, inhibition of JAK1 had little effect on cmvIL-10-mediated suppression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production. Inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway had a more significant impact on TNF-alpha levels but did not completely relieve the immune suppression, demonstrating that cmvIL-10 stimulates multiple signaling pathways to modulate cell function.

  17. Visible digital watermarking system using perceptual models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiang; Huang, Thomas S.

    2001-03-01

    This paper presents a visible watermarking system using perceptual models. %how and why A watermark image is overlaid translucently onto a primary image, for the purposes of immediate claim of copyright, instantaneous recognition of owner or creator, or deterrence to piracy of digital images or video. %perceptual The watermark is modulated by exploiting combined DCT-domain and DWT-domain perceptual models. % so that the watermark is visually uniform. The resulting watermarked image is visually pleasing and unobtrusive. The location, size and strength of the watermark vary randomly with the underlying image. The randomization makes the automatic removal of the watermark difficult even though the algorithm is known publicly but the key to the random sequence generator. The experiments demonstrate that the watermarked images have pleasant visual effect and strong robustness. The watermarking system can be used in copyright notification and protection.

  18. Ship recognition for improved persistent tracking with descriptor localization and compact representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; Bouma, Henri; den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Veerman, Henny E. T.; Benoist, Koen W.; Schwering, Piet B. W.

    2014-10-01

    For maritime situational awareness, it is important to identify currently observed ships as earlier encounters. For example, past location and behavior analysis are useful to determine whether a ship is of interest in case of piracy and smuggling. It is beneficial to verify this with cameras at a distance, to avoid the costs of bringing an own asset closer to the ship. The focus of this paper is on ship recognition from electro-optical imagery. The main contribution is an analysis of the effect of using the combination of descriptor localization and compact representations. An evaluation is performed to assess the usefulness in persistent tracking, especially for larger intervals (i.e. re-identification of ships). From the evaluation on recordings of imagery, it is estimated how well the system discriminates between different ships.

  19. Cooperative measures to mitigate Asia-Pacific maritime conflicts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Wen-Chung (Taiwan Navy)

    2003-05-01

    The economies of East Asia are predominantly export based and, therefore, place special emphasis on the security of the sea lines of communication (SLOCs). Due to economic globalization, the United States shares these concerns. Cooperative measures by the concerned parties could reduce the potential for disruption by maritime conflicts. Primary threats against the SLOCs are disputes over the resources under the seas, disputes over some small island groups, disputes between particular parties (China-Taiwan and North-South Korea), or illegal activities like smuggling, piracy, or terrorism. This paper provides an overview on these threats, issue by issue, to identify common elements and needed cooperation. Cooperation on other topics such as search and rescue, fisheries protection, and oil spill response may help support improved relations to prevent maritime conflicts. Many technologies can help support maritime cooperation, including improved communications links, tracking and emergency beacon devices, and satellite imaging. Appropriate technical and political means are suggested for each threat to the SLOCs.

  20. Hardware protection through obfuscation

    CERN Document Server

    Bhunia, Swarup; Tehranipoor, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers to various threats faced during design and fabrication by today’s integrated circuits (ICs) and systems. The authors discuss key issues, including illegal manufacturing of ICs or “IC Overproduction,” insertion of malicious circuits, referred as “Hardware Trojans”, which cause in-field chip/system malfunction, and reverse engineering and piracy of hardware intellectual property (IP). The authors provide a timely discussion of these threats, along with techniques for IC protection based on hardware obfuscation, which makes reverse-engineering an IC design infeasible for adversaries and untrusted parties with any reasonable amount of resources. This exhaustive study includes a review of the hardware obfuscation methods developed at each level of abstraction (RTL, gate, and layout) for conventional IC manufacturing, new forms of obfuscation for emerging integration strategies (split manufacturing, 2.5D ICs, and 3D ICs), and on-chip infrastructure needed for secure exchange o...

  1. Sustainable Disruption Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Bo Valdemar

    The world we live in is globalized. Goods are seldom made in the place where they are used or consumed, and we do increasingly travel to other countries for either business or pleasure. In our everyday lives we rely on well-functioning global transportations systems to continue the standard...... in the same way, when operation is disrupted. Never the less, we may recall that the Suez Canal was closed due to riots in Egypt, that the fuel price was impacted by threats of closing of the Strait of Hormuz, and we do from time to time hear about acts of piracy outside the coast of Somalia. All...... papers combining disruption management and flight planning through an integrated optimization approach. An additional contribution of the thesis is to show how flexible flight speeds can be used to improve recovery from disruptions, while at the same time allowing an airline to trade off fuel costs...

  2. “Não é propriamente um crime”: considerações sobre pirataria e consumo de música digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Castro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho pretende discutir a delicada questão dos direitos autorais na esteira das transformações nas práticas de circulação e consumo de música. Levantamento feito com universitários paulistanos confirma hipótese inicial de que, apesar das campanhas movidas pela indústria fonográfica que visam criminalizar o download gratuito, esta continua sendo prática corriqueira entre esses jovens e que considerações sobre possível violação de direitos autorais são postas em segundo plano. Dos indagados sobre o assunto, a maioria considerou que o download gratuito “não é propriamente um crime”, tendo se tornado “uma prática normal na cultura atual”. Palavras-chave: Música digital; internet; consumo; pirataria; direitos autorais. ABSTRACT This paper aims to discuss the delicate question of copyrights within the current transformations in the practices of music circulation and consumption. A survey focused on university students in São Paulo confirms our initial hipothesis that, despite anti-piracy campaigns promoted by the phonographic industry, which considers free music download a violation of copyrights, this practice is commonplace among these youths. Considerations about possible copyrights infringement tend to be disregarded.When questioned about this subject, most respondents argued that free music download is “not exactly a crime”, having become “a normal practice in today’s culture”. Keywords: Digital music; internet; consumption; piracy; copyrights.

  3. From the black Atlantic to the bleak Pacific: Re-reading “Benito Cereno”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganser, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herman Melville’s novella “Benito Cereno” (1855/56) is one of the best-studied texts both within Melville’s oeuvre and nineteenth-century American literature in general. In recent decades, its puzzling structure and fragmented narrative perspective as well as its symbolism and themes have been subject to critical scrutiny mostly in the context of inquiries into the text’s racial politics regarding the institution of slavery. More specifically, the canonical tale about a slave uprising on the ship San Dominick, its detection by a Massachusetts-born captain and its consequences, has been discussed in the context of Paul Gilroy’s black Atlantic paradigm. Few readings of the tale consider the significance of the Pacific setting of a story grounded in the transatlantic slave trade but happening far away from the center of American slavery. Taking a fresh look at Melville’s tale, this essay focuses on its translation of (black) Atlantic subject matters and epistemologies onto the Pacific. Not only do I read the tale as both an Atlantic and a Pacific text, demonstrating that the institution of slavery and its specters know no geographical borders in Melville’s imagination; I also argue that piracy is an important trope in this context. Anticipating the shift of piracy cases and slavery to the Pacific towards the end of the nineteenth century, it both recalls a black Atlantic and predicts a bleak Pacific of violent imperial scenarios that would come to characterize US–Pacific relations. PMID:29696056

  4. Implementasi Prinsip Yurisdiksi Universal Mengenai Pemberantasan Kejahatan Perompakan Laut Di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Korea

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The high seas are all parts of the sea that are not included in the exclusive economic zone, territorial sea, inland waters of a country, or in the archipelagic waters of an archipelago country. Consequently, the case of the interpretation of the case. This happens with the MV Ship. Sinar Kudus is an Indonesian ship that is a jurisdiction of the Indonesian state. For the case, Indonesia is obliged to participate in resolving the piracy case that happened on the MV ship. Sinar Kudus, so the jurisdiction of the Indonesian state against the MV ship. The Holy Light captured by Somali pirates is a passive nationality jurisdiction. In this jurisdictional principle, Indonesia has the right to protect its citizens who are victims of crimes abroad. Constraints in the implementation of Indonesian state jurisdiction over MV Ship. Sinar Kudus which was held hostage by Somali pirates such as MV ship. The holy rays while sailing in international waters were not accompanied by Indonesian warships, so the Indonesian Navy could not directly attack the pirates at the time of piracy. MV Ship. The holy rays are brought to the territorial waters of Somalia by pirates, so what prevails here is the jurisdiction of the Somali state. Seeing the weakness of law enforcement in Somalia makes it difficult for Indonesia to cooperate in the release of the crew of the Sinar Kudus ship held hostage by Somali pirates. Indonesia voted for negotiations on the release of the crew of Sinar Sudus for the safety of crew members being held hostage by Somali pirates.

  5. Un precedente de la ocupación italiana de Libia. La expedición naval de las Dos Sicilias contra Trípoli en 1828 y el tratado de paz napolitano- tripolino del mismo año, a través de la documentación diplomática española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan B. VILAR

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: A comienzos del siglo XIX sobrevivían en los estados musulmanes del norte de África algunas prácticas poco compatibles con el derecho internacional occidental tales como el corso indiscriminado contra la navegación mercante, el cautiverio y rescate de cristianos, y el sistema de regalos o compra de la paz mediante un tributo preceptivo. Entre esos países se hallaba la Regencia turca de Trípoli, regida desde 1711 por bajáes autónomos de la familia Caramanli. Sin embargo tres expediciones enviadas contra Trípoli por los Estados Unidos, Gran Bretaña y Piamonte-Cerdeña en 1804-1805, 1816 y 1825 lograron la abolición de tales prácticas en relación con esos tres estados y sus países protegidos. El Reino de las Dos Sicilias, sin duda el estado italiano más afectado por las depredaciones tripolinas en razón de su proximidad geográfica, quiso obtener similares resultados mediante una expedición naval contra ese país enviada en agosto de 1828. Sin embargo la empresa no tuvo éxito y Nápoles tuvo que negociar a través de Francia una paz poco ventajosa. El presente estudio se fundamenta en un amplio abanico de fuentes manuscritas, impresas y bibliográficas de diversa procedencia (italianas y francesas fundamentalmente, pero sobre todo aporta una visión nueva de la cuestión de referencia a través de fuentes españolas inéditas. Palabras clave: Dos Sicilias, Trípoli, Libia, Francia, Nápoles, Mediterráneo, 1828, comercio, corso y piratería, relaciones internacionales. ABSTRACT: At the beginning of the XIXth c., in the Muslim estates of Northern Africa, there were some old practices left, such as the piracy practice, the captivity- rescue of Christians or the tribute systems to guarantee peace. Among those countries, it is worth mentioning the Turkish Regency of Tripoli, ruled by the autonomous «bajaes» of the Caramanli family. However, three expeditions against Tripoli sent by the USA, the U.K. and Piamonte-Cerdeña in

  6. Quantifying erosion over timescales of one million years: A photogrammetric approach on the amount of Rhenish erosion in southwestern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Annette; Strasser, Marcel; Seyfried, Hartmut

    2010-10-01

    The Lein valley in southwestern Germany possesses well-preserved Pliocene to mid Pleistocene land surfaces featuring a gentle relief and sediments accumulated by former tributaries of the Danube. This ancient Danubian land surface was captured and incised by mid Pleistocene to Holocene tributaries of the River Rhine. In a photogrammetric approach we calculated the volume of material extracted by Rhenish erosion providing a first quantification of the effects of stream piracy on timescales of about 1 Ma. Using stereoscopic surface modelling software a DEM was generated with a resolution of 5 m. From borehole data, literature, geological maps, and own field observations we determined the morphometric parameters of the ancient Danubian Ur-Lein valley. The gradient was imported as a 3D-breakline into the model where it controls the reinterpolation of surrounding data points. The result is a high-resolution DEM of the valley of the Ur-Lein. Subtraction of the DEM of the actual landscape from the DEM of the ancient Ur-Lein valley yields a model representing the rock volume eroded by the Rhenish Lein which totals 1.39 km 3 and converts into a rate of erosion between 63 and 74 mm/ka over a period of 700 to 600 ka, respectively, in accordance with figures obtained elsewhere in Central Europe through cosmogenic nuclides. It reflects the dominance of frequent fluctuations in climate and is considered to be mainly a product of strong changes in temperature and related processes during the transitional times between mid to late Pleistocene warm and cold states. A filtering procedure applied to cold and transitional state erosion rates of the Middle and Late Pleistocene yielded peak values between 66 and 77 mm/ka, up to three times higher than the modern rate or the rate of warm-state episodes. An assessment of the contribution of Rhenish stream piracy on long-term mid Pleistocene denudation under changing climate conditions resulted in a maximum 4.9-fold acceleration.

  7. The good, the bad and the ugly: The shifting ethical stance of Malaysian consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck-Chai Lau

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the recent business ethical problems in Malaysia such as tax fraud, deceptive advertising, production of unsafe products and copyright piracy, the current research aim to examine ethical issues in the marketplace from the perspective of consumers. There are three objectives of this research. The first objective is to investigate the effect of moral ideologies and Machiavellianism on consumer ethical beliefs. The second objective is to determine which of these ideologies exert the greatest influence on consumer ethical beliefs and the third objective is to discover whether Malaysian consumers have evolved in their ethical stance over the last ten years. The dependent variable in this research is the recently modified consumer ethics scale developed by Vitell and Muncy (2005. An online survey was adopted as data collection method as it was inexpensive, fast and could ensure high response rates. However it has several limitations such as the possible non-representativeness of Internet respondents to the Malaysian population and higher non-response error. The results indicated that idealism exerted the greatest influence on all the four dimensions of consumer ethics. It was also revealed that Malaysian consumers had evolved over the past ten years in their moral ideology: from relativism to idealism.

  8. Konsep Perlindungan Hak Cipta Karya Musik Dalam Ranah Hukum Hak Kekayaan Intelektual Dari Tindak Pidana Pembajakan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksidelfa Yanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The concept of Protection of Copyright Works Music In the realm of Intellectual Property Rights Law Of Crime of Piracy. Intellectual Property Rights or IPR is a right arising from a work produced by using human intellectual abilities for the benefit of the community, both in the fields of science, art, literature and technology. Object of intellectual property is created by the human mind. HKI is actually a system of recognition, award, legal protection and economic value for intellectual works that cover a wide range. One form of IPR that is copyright protected. For example, music, art, painting, photography, books, and so forth.   Abstrak: Konsep Perlindungan Hak Cipta Karya Musik Dalam Ranah Hukum Hak Kekayaan Intelektual Dari Tindak Pidana Pembajakan. Hak Kekayaan Intelektual atau HKI adalah hak yang timbul dari suatu karya yang dihasilkan dengan menggunakan kemampuan intelektual manusia yang bermanfaat bagi kehidupan masyarakat, baik di bidang ilmu pengetahuan, seni, sastra dan teknologi. Obyek Kekayaan Intelektual adalah hasil kreasi pikiran manusia. Secara aktual HKI merupakan satu sistem pemberian pengakuan, penghargaan, perlindungan hukum dan mempunyai nilai ekonomi bagi karya-karya intelektual yang mencakup jangkauan yang luas. Salah satu bentuk HKI yang dilindungi adalah hak cipta. Misalnya, musik, seni, lukisan, fotografi, buku dan lain sebagainya. DOI: 10.15408/jch.v2i1.2310

  9. A new approach to pre-processing digital image for wavelet-based watermark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agreste, Santa; Andaloro, Guido

    2008-11-01

    The growth of the Internet has increased the phenomenon of digital piracy, in multimedia objects, like software, image, video, audio and text. Therefore it is strategic to individualize and to develop methods and numerical algorithms, which are stable and have low computational cost, that will allow us to find a solution to these problems. We describe a digital watermarking algorithm for color image protection and authenticity: robust, not blind, and wavelet-based. The use of Discrete Wavelet Transform is motivated by good time-frequency features and a good match with Human Visual System directives. These two combined elements are important for building an invisible and robust watermark. Moreover our algorithm can work with any image, thanks to the step of pre-processing of the image that includes resize techniques that adapt to the size of the original image for Wavelet transform. The watermark signal is calculated in correlation with the image features and statistic properties. In the detection step we apply a re-synchronization between the original and watermarked image according to the Neyman-Pearson statistic criterion. Experimentation on a large set of different images has been shown to be resistant against geometric, filtering, and StirMark attacks with a low rate of false alarm.

  10. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive

    2004-02-01

    The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development.

  11. The Ocean: Our Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Independent World Commission On The Oceans; Soares, Mario

    1998-09-01

    The Ocean, Our Future is the official report of the Independent World Commission on the Oceans, chaired by Mário Soares, former President of Portugal. Its aim is to summarize the very real problems affecting the ocean and its future management, and to provide imaginative solutions to these various and interlocking problems. The oceans have traditionally been taken for granted as a source of wealth, opportunity and abundance. Our growing understanding of the oceans has fundamentally changed this perception. We now know that in some areas, abundance is giving way to real scarcity, resulting in severe conflicts. Territorial disputes that threaten peace and security, disruptions to global climate, overfishing, habitat destruction, species extinction, indiscriminate trawling, pollution, the dumping of hazardous and toxic wastes, piracy, terrorism, illegal trafficking and the destruction of coastal communities are among the problems that today form an integral part of the unfolding drama of the oceans. Based on the deliberations, experience and input of more than 100 specialists from around the world, this timely volume provides a powerful overview of the state of our water world.

  12. A Novel Rules Based Approach for Estimating Software Birthmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binti Alias, Norma; Anwar, Sajid

    2015-01-01

    Software birthmark is a unique quality of software to detect software theft. Comparing birthmarks of software can tell us whether a program or software is a copy of another. Software theft and piracy are rapidly increasing problems of copying, stealing, and misusing the software without proper permission, as mentioned in the desired license agreement. The estimation of birthmark can play a key role in understanding the effectiveness of a birthmark. In this paper, a new technique is presented to evaluate and estimate software birthmark based on the two most sought-after properties of birthmarks, that is, credibility and resilience. For this purpose, the concept of soft computing such as probabilistic and fuzzy computing has been taken into account and fuzzy logic is used to estimate properties of birthmark. The proposed fuzzy rule based technique is validated through a case study and the results show that the technique is successful in assessing the specified properties of the birthmark, its resilience and credibility. This, in turn, shows how much effort will be required to detect the originality of the software based on its birthmark. PMID:25945363

  13. The World Summit of Harmonization on Traditional, Alternative and Complementary Medicine (TACM in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo F. Gonzales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Summit of Harmonization on Traditional, Alternative and Complementary Medicine (TACM was held in Lima, Peru, November 7–11, 2007, with almost 600 worldwide participants. This meeting was organized by Peruvian Medical College, the institution that affiliates and authorizes all physicians to practice medicine in Peru. The meeting included seven sections starting with an overview on the current status of the TACM. The second section included experiences from different countries on regulations and quality control in products and services used in the TACM. The worldwide experience of education and training in TACM was a very important part of the meeting in which speakers from Spain, Germany, Argentina, Italy, Brazil, Cuba and Peru shared their experience. The meeting included topics on homeopathy, acupuncture, mind–body medicine, neural therapy, chiropraxis, among others. Two final sessions were related to the ways of linking Traditional medicine to the national Health Systems in the Latin America countries and also the association between bio-commerce and TACM including intellectual properties and bio-piracy.

  14. Semantically transparent fingerprinting for right protection of digital cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaolin

    2003-06-01

    Digital cinema, a new frontier and crown jewel of digital multimedia, has the potential of revolutionizing the science, engineering and business of movie production and distribution. The advantages of digital cinema technology over traditional analog technology are numerous and profound. But without effective and enforceable copyright protection measures, digital cinema can be more susceptible to widespread piracy, which can dampen or even prevent the commercial deployment of digital cinema. In this paper we propose a novel approach of fingerprinting each individual distribution copy of a digital movie for the purpose of tracing pirated copies back to their source. The proposed fingerprinting technique presents a fundamental departure from the traditional digital watermarking/fingerprinting techniques. Its novelty and uniqueness lie in a so-called semantic or subjective transparency property. The fingerprints are created by editing those visual and audio attributes that can be modified with semantic and subjective transparency to the audience. Semantically-transparent fingerprinting or watermarking is the most robust kind among all existing watermarking techniques, because it is content-based not sample-based, and semantically-recoverable not statistically-recoverable.

  15. Facilitating or Restraining Access To Genetic Resources? Procedural Dimensions In Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanson Chege Kamau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available States have the right to regulate access to biological resources subject to national legislations. Allowing, restricting or prohibiting access, however, requires a balance to avoid contravention of the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Convention requires that, in regulating access, the measures adopted do not become a hindrance to access. In many instances, however, this has been the case. Overreaction to previous cases of bio-piracy and over-enthusiasm to tap into the benefits from discovered genetic resources have caused many provider countries to either over-regulate or extremely complicate access procedures, thus deterring access. In some instances, over-regulation and complex procedures are to be blamed on the users’ reluctance to collaborate with providers in minimising or eliminating abuse. Also, the need to protect certain rights over genetic resources or of an intellectual (property character, for example, might at times complicate regulation. While it is appreciated that such issues must also be taken into account in addressing and creating a balance in access and benefit sharing, a discussion embracing all these aspects cannot be captured within the ambit of this article. Focus is therefore laid on the procedural dimensions of access in Kenya and suggestions for improvement.

  16. FIGHTING ECONOMIC CRIME IN THE EUROPEAN ARENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Cristian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to put together a modest study on the actions taken at EU level in order to fight economic crime. A series of measures have been implemented at national and European level to create a framework for fighting criminality. The European institutions and the national authorities are improving their cooperation in order to fight the increasing number of economic crimes committed both in the private and public sector, while Member States are approximating their legislation to the provisions of the Community acquis. We have divided these efforts into five categories corresponding to the five main areas of economic crime identified at EU level: fight against fraud, which affects the financial interests of the European Union and mainly comprises fraudulent practices in the use of EU funds and in taxation, fight against piracy and counterfeiting, public and private corruption, money laundering and organised crime. In order to combat the negative influence criminality exerts on the development of the economy and of the overall society, for each of the above mentioned areas legislative, institutional, technical and administrative measures have been adopted. We have presented these measures considering their efficiency in meeting the targets set out and the role played in their implementation by the European and national institutions.

  17. Karst in evaporites in southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, G.O.

    1987-09-01

    Permian evaporites in southeastern New Mexico include gypsum, anhydrite, and salt, which are subject to both blanket and local, selective dissolution. Dissolution has produced many hundreds of individual karst features including collapse sinks, karst valleys, blind valleys, karst plains, caves, and breccia pipes. Dissolution began within some formations during Permian time and has been intermittent but continual ever since. Karst features other than blanket deposits of breccia are not preserved from the early episodes of dissolution, but some karst features preserved today - such as breccia pipes - are remnants of karst activity that was active at least as early as mid-Pleistocene time. Rainfall was much more abundant during Late Pleistocene time, and many features visible today may have been formed then. The drainage history of the Pecos River is related to extensive karstification of the Pecos Valley during mid-Pleistocene time. Large-scale stream piracy and dissolution of salt in the subsurface resulted in major shifts and excavations in the channel. In spite of intensive groundwater studies that have been carried out in the region, major problems in near-surface evaporite karst remain to be solved. Among these are determination of recharge areas and time of recharge. 109 refs., 31 figs., 1 tab

  18. Processos midiáticos musicais, mercado e alternativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valério Cruz Brittos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a midiatização da produção musical no canal de televisão MTV Brasil, enquanto apresenta a cena alternativa e a pirataria. Esses movimentos relacionam-se com a inovação tecnológica, que funciona como reforço do espaço hegemônico. São debatidas as relações das companhias de TV com outras organizações culturais. Identificam-se os processos midiáticos conformados por projetos de marketing, sendo prioritariamente publicizados tópicos musicais de cantores e grupos com forte base de sustentação econômica. Palavras-chave: Economia política da comunicação; processos midiáticos; políticas de comunicação. ABSTRACT This paper argues about the musical production media processes in the MTV Brazil channel, the alternative scene and piracy. These movements become related with the technological innovation that works as reinforcement of the hegemonic space. The relations between TV companies and other cultural organizations are discussed. The article identifies media processes conformed by marketing projects, in which musical topics of singers and groups with strong economic support are more readily publicized. Keywords: Political economy of communication; media processes; communication policies.

  19. On the shores of Titan's farthest sea a scientific novel

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Titan is practically a planet in its own right, with a diameter similar to that of Mercury, methane rainstorms, organic soot and ethane seas. All of the most detailed knowledge on the moon's geology, volcanology, meteorology, marine sciences and chemistry are gathered together here to paint a factually accurate hypothetical future of early human colonization on this strange world. The views from Titan’s Mayda Outpost are spectacular, but all is not well at the moon's remote science base. On the shore of a methane sea beneath glowering skies, atmospherics researcher Abigail Marco finds herself in the middle of murder, piracy and colleagues who seem to be seeing sea monsters and dead people from the past. On the Shores of Titan’s Farthest Sea provides thrills, excitement and mystery – couched in the latest science – on one of the Solar System’s most bizarre worlds, Saturn’s huge moon Titan. "This riveting story, set against a plausibly well integrated interplanetary space, carries us along with its ...

  20. Passing Through Vanity Fair: The Pilgrim’s Progress in the Marketplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Simonova

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although it is usually approached as a religious text or a precursor of the novel, John Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress was also a bestseller of its time and thus a valuable literary property, making it an important landmark in the history of authorship. This paper examines the publication history of The Pilgrim’s Progress and its sequels (by Bunyan and others from within the context of the Restoration book trade, focusing on their paratexts and the controversies of ownership that surrounded them Despite his initial apology for writing a work of fiction, Bunyan came to assert greater authority over it, motivated first by accusations of plagiarism and then by the publication of Thomas Sherman’s Second Part. A significant role in configuring Bunyan’s authorship was also played by his publisher, Nathaniel Ponder, who—working in his own interests as the ‘proprietor’ of The Pilgrim’s Progress—repeatedly defended Bunyan’s authorial canon from piracy and spurious texts, including the anonymous Third Part brought out after Bunyan’s death.

  1. Video Game Preservation in the UK: A Survey of Records Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasdair Bachell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Video games are a cultural phenomenon; a medium like no other that has become one of the largest entertainment sectors in the world. While the UK boasts an enviable games development heritage, it risks losing a major part of its cultural output through an inability to preserve the games that are created by the country’s independent games developers. The issues go deeper than bit rot and other problems that affect all digital media; loss of context, copyright and legal issues, and the throwaway culture of the ‘next’ game all hinder the ability of fans and academics to preserve video games and make them accessible in the future. This study looked at the current attitudes towards preservation in the UK’s independent (‘indie’ video games industry by examining current record-keeping practices and analysing the views of games developers. The results show that there is an interest in preserving games, and possibly a desire to do so, but issues of piracy and cost prevent the industry from undertaking preservation work internally, and from allowing others to assume such responsibility. The recommendation made by this paper is not simply for preservation professionals and enthusiasts to collaborate with the industry, but to do so by advocating the commercial benefits that preservation may offer to the industry.

  2. PERLINDUNGAN HUKUM HAK CIPTA FESYEN TERHADAP EKONOMI KREATIF DALAM MASYARAKAT EKONOMI ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidya Shery Muis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The creative economy is closely related to copyright because the development of the creative economy focuses on the creation of goods and services by relying on the skills, talents and creativity that can bring economic benefits to its creators. The creative economy in the AEC era made the fashion copyright vulnerable to piracy because the MEA imposed a single market on ASEAN member countries. Hijacking resulted in the creator experiencing moral loss because he felt his work was not appreciated and material losses because his work has been scattered but did not provide incentives to the creator. The form of copyright protection to the creative economy in the MEA is an evident from the government’s policy of updating the UUHC and the approval of the Presidential Regulation on Bekraf. Bekraf is tasked with establishing policies toward the creative economy. The UUHC renewal and the endorsement of the Presidential Regulation on Bekraf are expected to meet the elements of protection and development of the creative economy.

  3. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Lamb

    1964-10-01

    Full Text Available - B.V.A. Röling, Paul Shepard, Psycholex. Megwa, New York, 1960. 144 blz. - L. Sluimers, J.F. Cady, Southeast Asia: Its historical development. New York etc., McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964. XVII, 657, IX blz., foto, krtn. - H.J. de Graaf, Nicholas Tarling, Piracy and politics in the Malay world. A study of British imperialism in nineteenth-century Sout-East Asia. F.W. Cheshire, Melbourne, Canberra, Sydney, 1963. 273 pp., frontispiece, endpaper maps. - W. Brand, N.A. Simoniya, Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia - A Russian study. Data Paper Number 45, Southeast Asia Program, Department of Far Eastern Studies, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, December 1961, 151 blz. - B.H.M. Vlekke, Alistair Lamb, The China-India border, The origins of the disputed boundaries. Published for the Royal Institute of International Affairs by Oxford University Press, London 1964, XVI + 192 pp. - R.S. Karni, Beda Lim, Malaya, a background bibilography. Journal Malayan Branch, RAS, vol. XXXV, pts. 2 & 3, 1962; V. 199 pp. - L. Sluimers, R.K. Goldsen, Factors related to acceptance of innovation in Bang Chan, Thailand; Analysis of a survey conducted by the Cornell Cross-cultural Methodology Project, May 1955. Cornell Thailand Project Interim Report Series no. 3. Data Paper: No. 25 Southeast Asia Program Department of Far Eastern Studies Cornell University. 3de druk, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1963. VIII, 72, X blz., M. Rallis (eds.

  4. The First 50 Years of Electronic Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar J. Cox

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic watermarking can be traced back as far as 1954. The last 10 years has seen considerable interest in digital watermarking, due, in large part, to concerns about illegal piracy of copyrighted content. In this paper, we consider the following questions: is the interest warranted? What are the commercial applications of the technology? What scientific progress has been made in the last 10 years? What are the most exciting areas for research? And where might the next 10 years take us? In our opinion, the interest in watermarking is appropriate. However, we expect that copyright applications will be overshadowed by applications such as broadcast monitoring, authentication, and tracking content distributed within corporations. We further see a variety of applications emerging that add value to media, such as annotation and linking content to the Web. These latter applications may turn out to be the most compelling. Considerable progress has been made toward enabling these applications—perceptual modelling, security threats and countermeasures, and the development of a bag of tricks for efficient implementations. Further progress is needed in methods for handling geometric and temporal distortions. We expect other exciting developments to arise from research in informed watermarking.

  5. A Playful Multitude? Mobilising and Counter-Mobilising Immaterial Game Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Dyer-Witheford

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the conceptual grid of "immaterial labour" in the age of Empire, this article is a preliminary portrait of work in the video and computer game development industry, a sector of creative, cognitive labour that exemplifies the allure but also the peril of new media work. Drawing on interviews we conducted with game developers in Canada , we examine the conditions of labour in game studios, this cultural industry's "work as play" ethos, the pleasures and potentialities of game production, the blemishes that mar this attractive vista, and the new infractions these tensions provoke. Confirming that Empire sets in motion potentialities it cannot fully control, we also observe an emergent counter-mobilisation of game labour, whose manifestations range from digital piracy to dissident games produced in the context of activism. These experiments of a playful multitude flow into the wider currents of tactical media, hacktivism, open-source software, and distributed computing that are generating tumults throughout the circuits of Empire.

  6. Video Waterscrambling: Towards a Video Protection Scheme Based on the Disturbance of Motion Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, Yann; Laurent, Nathalie; Laurent, Christophe; Dugelay, Jean-Luc

    2004-12-01

    With the popularity of high-bandwidth modems and peer-to-peer networks, the contents of videos must be highly protected from piracy. Traditionally, the models utilized to protect this kind of content are scrambling and watermarking. While the former protects the content against eavesdropping (a priori protection), the latter aims at providing a protection against illegal mass distribution (a posteriori protection). Today, researchers agree that both models must be used conjointly to reach a sufficient level of security. However, scrambling works generally by encryption resulting in an unintelligible content for the end-user. At the moment, some applications (such as e-commerce) may require a slight degradation of content so that the user has an idea of the content before buying it. In this paper, we propose a new video protection model, called waterscrambling, whose aim is to give such a quality degradation-based security model. This model works in the compressed domain and disturbs the motion vectors, degrading the video quality. It also allows embedding of a classical invisible watermark enabling protection against mass distribution. In fact, our model can be seen as an intermediary solution to scrambling and watermarking.

  7. Video Waterscrambling: Towards a Video Protection Scheme Based on the Disturbance of Motion Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Bodo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available With the popularity of high-bandwidth modems and peer-to-peer networks, the contents of videos must be highly protected from piracy. Traditionally, the models utilized to protect this kind of content are scrambling and watermarking. While the former protects the content against eavesdropping (a priori protection, the latter aims at providing a protection against illegal mass distribution (a posteriori protection. Today, researchers agree that both models must be used conjointly to reach a sufficient level of security. However, scrambling works generally by encryption resulting in an unintelligible content for the end-user. At the moment, some applications (such as e-commerce may require a slight degradation of content so that the user has an idea of the content before buying it. In this paper, we propose a new video protection model, called waterscrambling, whose aim is to give such a quality degradation-based security model. This model works in the compressed domain and disturbs the motion vectors, degrading the video quality. It also allows embedding of a classical invisible watermark enabling protection against mass distribution. In fact, our model can be seen as an intermediary solution to scrambling and watermarking.

  8. The hybrid theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Ron

    2008-02-01

    Ever since the first movie picture house was opened, experiencing the unique cinematic experience has constantly evolved. Technological advances continually guarantee that more changes will happen to create the ultimate cinematic experience. Cinema has been reincarnated time after time, from the first hand cranked silent movie to the modern day Digital Cinema. The technology used to depict the story changes; along with that change is the human thirst for a better transformation, for a more enjoyable, more encompassing, more believable, more immersive, yet simultaneously a more bewitching, entertainment experience. "In this volatile business of ours, we can ill afford to rest on our laurels, even to pause in retrospect. Times and conditions change so rapidly that we must keep our aim constantly focused on the future." --Walt Disney. 1 It has been said that "content is king". By itself, that implies a disservice to the technology that supports it. Without the technology, the content could not exist. In today's digital society; a movie can be downloaded to a handheld playback device the moment it is released. Offering these services at a cheap rate would enable studios to stay ahead of the curve, virtually eliminate video piracy and create the ability to deliver first class uncompromised content. It's only a matter of time when new released movies would be distributed this way too and people are given the choice to view in the comfort of their own homes, hand held device or view at a local theatre.

  9. Pirate philosophy for a digital posthumanities

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Gary

    2016-01-01

    In Pirate Philosophy, Gary Hall considers whether the fight against the neoliberal corporatization of higher education in fact requires scholars to transform their own lives and labor. Is there a way for philosophers and theorists to act not just for or with the antiausterity and student protestors—“graduates without a future”—but in terms of their political struggles? Drawing on such phenomena as peer-to-peer file sharing and anticopyright/pro-piracy movements, Hall explores how those in academia can move beyond finding new ways of thinking about the world to find instead new ways of being theorists and philosophers in the world. Hall describes the politics of online sharing, the battles against the current intellectual property regime, and the actions of Anonymous, LulzSec, Aaron Swartz, and others, and he explains Creative Commons and the open access, open source, and free software movements. But in the heart of the book he considers how, when it comes to scholarly ways of creating, performing, an...

  10. STUDY ON COMPANY SECURITY POLICIES FROM DIGITAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA-MARIA RĂDULESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet development has brought both new opportunities and risks for either retailers or consumers. For example, electronic commerce is much faster and less expensive, but this openness makes it difficult to secure. People are aware of the fact that online businesses collecting, process and distribute enormous amounts of personal data and therefore, are concerned about their unauthorized use or their use in other purposes than intended by third parties in order to gain unauthorized access to them. There are more examples of cyber criminal activities, such as: hacking, software piracy, passwords attack, service prohibition attacks, scamming, etc. Such fears led to the editing of protection policies meant to secure personal data and to develop some mechanisms to ensure the reliability and confidentiality of electronic information. Security measures include access control devices, installation of firewalls and intrusion detection devices, of some security procedures to identify and authenticate authorized users of network systems. Such mechanisms constitute the core of this study. We will also analyze security and confidentiality policy of personal data of Google Inc.

  11. Basin-Wide Maritime Awareness From Multi-Source Ship Reporting Data

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    Harm Greidanus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A system was set up to ingest automatic ship position reports (terrestrial and satellite AIS, LRIT and fuse these into a Maritime Situational Picture, tracking the ships within an ocean basin-wide area of interest in real time. Trial runs were made over several months, collecting reporting data from a number of different sources, over the Gulf of Aden and the Western Indian Ocean. Also satellite radar surveillance was carried out in order to sample the presence of non-reporting ships. The trial showed that satellite AIS is a powerful tool for basin-wide ship traffic monitoring; that multiple AIS satellites are needed for sufficient completeness and update rate; and that coastal AIS and LRIT still provide essential complements to the satellite AIS data. The radar survey showed that about half of the radar-detected ships are not seen in the reporting data. The ultimate purpose of this work is to support the countries around the Horn of Africa in the fight against piracy and to help build their capacity to deliver maritime security and safety.

  12. The Eagle’s Nest in the Horn of Africa: US Military Strategic Deployment in Djibouti

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    Degang Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Djibouti is the only country in the world in which US, French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Japanese military forces are stationed simultaneously; China will soon have a presence there as well. The US military deployment in Djibouti has shifted from a soft military presence to an arrangement of significant strategic import, and from a small outpost to a large garrison in the past two decades. The internal dynamics of the US deployment are geopolitical, as the US presence facilitates the carrying out of its strategies regarding antiterrorism, anti-proliferation, the protection of energy investments, and anti-piracy. The external dynamics of the US deployment are geo-economic: the government of Djibouti, as the host nation, reaps economic windfalls from the US presence in this strategically located country. Given that the United States has failed since 2008 to persuade any country on the continent to host AFRICOM, the base in Djibouti is likely to remain the only one in East Africa. Djibouti may be part of a pattern whereby some small African nations, such as São Tomé and Príncipe, collect revenue through the provision of military bases to big powers.

  13. Piratería nabatea en el Mar Rojo

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    Carmen Blánquez Pérez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las actividades marítimas de los nabateos han sido poco estudiadas, a pesar de que aparecen mencionadas en las fuentes antiguas. En el presente artículo se revisan las distintas hipótesis planteadas por los historiadores actuales, que se centran en el declive del comercio nabateo y en el descubrimiento de los monzones. Sin embargo, no existió un declive comercial que justificara las actividades de piratería de los nabateos, y el descubrimiento de los monzones no se corresponde con el período en que dichas actividades de piratería tuvieron lugar.Maritime activities of the Nabataeans are poorly understood, although are mentioned in ancient sources. In this article we review the various hypotheses raised by modern historians, who focus on the Nabatean trade decline and the discovery of the monsoons. However, there was no declining sales to justify piracy activities of the Nabataeans, and the discovery of the monsoon does not correspond to the period in which these pirate activities took place.

  14. Far beyond the Line: Corsairs, Privateers, Buccaneers, and Invading Settlers in Cuba and the Caribbean (1529-1670

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    Martínez-Fernández, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay connects the course of war and peace in Europe with a variety of forms of European incursion in the Caribbean during the 1500s and 1600s. With special attention to Cuba, it traces the emergence and evolution of piracy and privateering as well as European colonial expansion by settlers and buccaneers. This essay also provides a systematic analysis of how belligerence in the Old World impacted the Caribbean. Lastly, it explores Spain’s efforts to protect its colonies through fortifications, fleet systems, and increased military presence.Este ensayo estudia la interconexión entre las guerras en Europa y una variedad de formas de incursión en el Caribe durante el siglo XVI y XVII. Con atención espacial a sucesos en la isla de Cuba este estudio recorre la evolución de actividades piraticas y la creación y desarrollo de colonias no-españolas y el establecimiento de enclaves bucaneros. Este también provee un análisis sistemático sobre el impacto de los conflictos europeos en la cuenca del Caribe. Por último, aquí se exploran los mecanismos defensivos españoles, tales como la militarización, construcción de fortificaciones y el establecimiento del sistema de flotas.

  15. Russian-Tunisian Relations at the Initial Stage: Catherine the Great’s Era in Russia and Hamuda Pasha in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejmeddine Kazdaghli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to history of the first contacts between the Russian Empire and Regency of Tunisia at the end of the 18th century. The research is based on works of the Russian, Tunisian and French historians. In Russia it was Catherine the Great’s era, the empress who considerably moved apart borders of the country, expanded the international contacts of Russia, laid the foundation for development of the Russian trade including Mediterranean trade relations. The Tunisian governor Hamuda Pasha also sought for development of international relations and the statement of the authority of the country. Although between Russia and Tunisia at this early stage had not yet been an official contractual relationship, but through the activities of freelance Consulate between the countries established trade, began political and cultural contacts. A special role in the development of Russian-Tunisian relations belongs to the family of the Dutch consuls Nyssens, which became a freelance Russian consuls in Tunis. The article analyzes the causes of weakness of trade relations between Russia and Tunisia, the slow development of political contacts. Special attention is paid to the problem of Mediterranean piracy, in which the main role played the corsairs of Tunis and Algeria. The distance of countries from each other, the difference of scale, cultures and political aspirations did not prevent them to do in the end of the 18th century the first steps towards each other, to establish friendly relations.

  16. Introduction to Hardware Security and Trust

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Cliff

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of a globalized, horizontal semiconductor business model raises a set of concerns involving the security and trust of the information systems on which modern society is increasingly reliant for mission-critical functionality. Hardware-oriented security and trust issues span a broad range including threats related to the malicious insertion of Trojan circuits designed, e.g.,to act as a ‘kill switch’ to disable a chip, to integrated circuit (IC) piracy,and to attacks designed to extract encryption keys and IP from a chip. This book provides the foundations for understanding hardware security and trust, which have become major concerns for national security over the past decade.  Coverage includes security and trust issues in all types of electronic devices and systems such as ASICs, COTS, FPGAs, microprocessors/DSPs, and embedded systems.  This serves as an invaluable reference to the state-of-the-art research that is of critical significance to the security of,and trust in, modern society�...

  17. CAN OPEN MEAN TERBUKA? NEGOTIATING LICENSES FOR INDONESIAN VIDEO ACTIVISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Crosby

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Since the fall of Suharto’s New Order regime in Indonesia, space has been opened up for the emergence and development of new practices of media production and distribution, such as the use of video for social change. As access to the technology for producing, distributing and watching video becomes increasingly democratised in Indonesia over this period, a spectrum of approaches to licensing are developing in response to ideology as well as economic impetus. These include the full adherence to the global norms of intellectual property rights, market-driven piracy, politically based rejection of any restrictions, and a burgeoning interest in Creative Commons.While Indonesia hosts one of the most enthusiastic cultures of digital sharing, this article argues that there is not yet a solution for the issues of copyright management that fits the Indonesian context. We examine the work of several groups who are currently active in producing social and environmental video in the archipelago. These include VideoBattle, Forum Lenteng, and the EngageMedia network.

  18. A study of side-effects of Pandemrix® influenza (H1N1) vaccine on board a Norwegian naval vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch, Johan Storm; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Birkeland, Ingelin; Finne, Morten; Utkilen, Torun; Bøe, Tommy; Mjølhus, Gry; Sommerfelt-Pettersen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The frigate His Norwegian Majesty's ship (HNoMS) Fridtjof Nansen was participating in operations in the Gulf of Aden in support of the EU mission tasked with protecting vessels from the threat of piracy. The crew was therefore prioritized and given the first batch of Influenza A (H1N1) vaccine (Pandemrix(®)). To investigate the type, frequency, and intensity of side effects after whole-crew vaccination with Pandemrix vaccine in healthy subjects in a controlled environment. A hundred and thirty-three members of the crew were vaccinated, and then they participated in the study. The side effects of the vaccination were evaluated through a survey. Seventy-five per cent of the vaccinated sailors reported adverse reactions to the vaccine, with 9% not being able to perform their daily duties for one day. Muscle pain, headaches, malaise, and fatigue were the most frequent symptoms reported. The vaccination program using Pandemrix H1N1 vaccine resulted in a high rate of side effects, which were generally mild and resolved within a few days. No serious lasting side effects of the vaccination were reported or registered. The adverse effects of the vaccination did not affect the operational capacity of the vessel.

  19. Delineation of a Re-establishing Drainage Network Using SPOT and Landsat Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. E.; Self, S.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.

    2008-12-01

    The 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, The Philippines, provided a unique opportunity to study the effects on the landscape of a large eruption in part because it took place after the advent of regular satellite-based observations. The eruption formed one large (>100km2) ignimbrite sheet, with over 70% of the total deposit deposited in three primary drainage basins to the west of the volcano. High-resolution (20 m/pixel) satellite images, showing the western drainage basins and surrounding region both before and after the eruption were used to observe the re-establishment and evolution of drainage networks on the newly emplaced ignimbrite sheet. Changes in the drainage networks were delineated from a time series of SPOT (Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre) and Landsat multi-spectral satellite images. The analysis of which was supplemented by ground- based observations. The satellite images showed that the blue prints for the new drainage systems were established early (within days of the eruption) and at a large-scale followed the pre-eruption pattern. However, the images also illustrated the ephemeral nature of many channels due to the influence of secondary pyroclastic flows, lahar- dammed lake breakouts, stream piracy and shifts due to erosion. Characteristics of the defined drainage networks were used to infer the relative influence on the lahar hazard within each drainage basin.

  20. The Impact of the AMOC Resumption in the Western South Atlantic Thermocline at the Onset of the Last Interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Thiago P.; Lessa, Douglas O.; Venancio, Igor M.; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Mulitza, Stefan; Kuhnert, Henning; Albuquerque, Ana Luiza S.

    2017-11-01

    After glacial terminations, large amounts of heat and salt were transferred from low to high latitudes, which is a crucial phenomenon for the reestablishment of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). However, how different glacial terminations evolved in the (sub)tropics is still poorly documented. Here we use foraminifera oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) stable isotopes to show that the North Atlantic heat piracy, following the AMOC resumption at the early Last Interglacial, affected the thermocline δ18O levels of the subtropical western South Atlantic. Because of the cooling imposed by this process, glacial δ18O persisted in the thermocline for 7 kyr after the onset of the Last Interglacial, dampening the effect of sea level rise usually imprinted on foraminifera δ18O during terminations. Faunal composition and δ13C also suggest the existence of a colder and thicker South Atlantic Central Water coeval with the AMOC recovery. This process apparently did not occur during the last deglaciation.

  1. Cyclic AMP-receptor protein activates aerobactin receptor IutA expression in Vibrio vulnificus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choon-Mee; Kim, Seong-Jung; Shin, Sung-Heui

    2012-04-01

    The ferrophilic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus can utilize the siderophore aerobactin of Escherichia coli for iron acquisition via its specific receptor IutA. This siderophore piracy by V. vulnificus may contribute to its survival and proliferation, especially in mixed bacterial environments. In this study, we examined the effects of glucose, cyclic AMP (cAMP), and cAMP-receptor protein (Crp) on iutA expression in V. vulnificus. Glucose dose-dependently repressed iutA expression. A mutation in cya encoding adenylate cyclase required for cAMP synthesis severely repressed iutA expression, and this change was recovered by in trans complementing cya or the addition of exogenous cAMP. Furthermore, a mutation in crp encoding Crp severely repressed iutA expression, and this change was recovered by complementing crp. Accordingly, glucose deprivation under iron-limited conditions is an environmental signal for iutA expression, and Crp functions as an activator that regulates iutA expression in response to glucose availability.

  2. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of male alternative reproductive tactics in ray-finned fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mank, Judith E; Avise, John C

    2006-06-01

    Using comparative phylogenetic analysis, we analyzed the evolution of male alternative reproductive tactics (MARTs) in ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii). Numerous independent origins for each type of MART (involving sneaker males, female mimics, pirates, and satellite males) indicate that these behaviors have been highly labile across actinopterygiian evolution, consistent with a previous notion that convergent selection in fishes can readily mold the underlying suites of reproductive hormones into similar behaviors. The evolutionary appearance of MARTs was significantly correlated with the presence of sexually selected traits in bourgeois males (P = 0.001) but not with the presence of male parental care. This suggests that MARTs often arise from selection on some males to circumvent bourgeois male investment in mate monopolization, rather than to avoid male brood care per se. We found parsimony evidence for an evolutionary progression of MARTs wherein sneaking is usually the evolutionary precursor to the presumably more complex MARTs of female mimicry and cooperative satellite behavior. Nest piracy appears not to be part of this evolutionary progression, possibly because its late onset in the life cycle of most ray-finned fishes reduces the effects of selection on this reproductive tactic.

  3. Infrared technique for decoding of invisible laser markings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferkamp, Heinz; Jaeschke, Peter; Stein, Johannes; Goede, Martin

    2002-03-01

    Counterfeiting and product piracy continues to be an important issue not only for the Western industry, but also for the society in general. Due to the drastic increase in product imitation and the request for plagiarism protection as well as for reducing thefts there is a high interest in new protection methods providing new security features. The method presented here consists of security markings which are included below paint layers. These markings are invisible for the human eye due to the non-transparency of the upper layers in the visible spectral range. However, the markings can be detected by an infrared technique taking advantage on the partial transparency of the upper paint layers in the IR-region. Metal sheets are marked using laser radiation. The beam of a Nd:YAG-laser provides a modification of the surface structure, resulting in dark markings due to the annealing effect. After coating of the laser-marked material, the markings are invisible for the bare eye. In order to read out the invisible information below the coating, an infrared reflection technique is used. The samples are illuminated with halogen lamps or infrared radiators. Many coating materials (i. e. paints) show a certain transparency in the mid-infrared region, especially between 3 - 5 micrometers . The reflected radiation is detected using an IR-camera with a sensitivity range from 3.4 - 5 micrometers . Due to the different reflection properties between the markings and their surrounding, the information can be detected.

  4. Basal and thermal control mechanisms of the Ragnhild glaciers, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, Frank; de Brabander, Sang; Huyghe, Ann

    The Ragnhild glaciers are three enhanced-flow features situated between the Sør Rondane and Yamato Mountains in eastern Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. We investigate the glaciological mechanisms controlling their existence and behavior, using a three-dimensional numerical thermomechanical ice-sheet model including higher-order stress gradients. This model is further extended with a steady-state model of subglacial water flow, based on the hydraulic potential gradient. Both static and dynamic simulations are capable of reproducing the enhanced ice-flow features. Although basal topography is responsible for the existence of the flow pattern, thermomechanical effects and basal sliding seem to locally soften and lubricate the ice in the main trunks. Lateral drag is a contributing factor in balancing the driving stress, as shear margins can be traced over a distance of hundreds of kilometers along west Ragnhild glacier. Different basal sliding scenarios show that central Ragnhild glacier stagnates as west Ragnhild glacier accelerates and progressively drains the whole catchment area by ice and water piracy.

  5. Near Real Time Ship Detection Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusch, S.; Lehner, S.; Schwarz, E.; Fritz, T.

    2010-04-01

    A new Near Real Time (NRT) ship detection processor SAINT (SAR AIS Integrated Toolbox) was developed in the framework of the ESA project MARISS. Data are received at DLRs ground segment DLR-BN (Neustrelitz, Germany). Results of the ship detection are available on ftp server within 30 min after the acquisition started. The detectability of ships on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ERS-2, ENVISAT ASAR and TerraSAR-X (TS-X) images is validated by coastal (live) AIS and space AIS. The monitoring areas chosen for surveillance are the North-, Baltic Sea, and Cape Town. The detectability in respect to environmental parameters like wind field, sea state, currents and changing coastlines due to tidal effects is investigated. In the South Atlantic a tracking experiment of the German research vessel Polarstern has been performed. Issues of piracy in particular in respect to ships hijacked at the Somali coast are discussed. Some examples using high resolution images from TerraSAR-X are given.

  6. In vivo inhibition of CC and CX3C chemokine-induced leukocyte infiltration and attenuation of glomerulonephritis in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats by vMIP-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Bacon, K B; Li, L; Garcia, G E; Xia, Y; Lo, D; Thompson, D A; Siani, M A; Yamamoto, T; Harrison, J K; Feng, L

    1998-07-06

    Chemokines play a central role in immune and inflammatory responses. It has been observed recently that certain viruses have evolved molecular piracy and mimicry mechanisms by encoding and synthesizing proteins that interfere with the normal host defense response. One such viral protein, vMIP-II, encoded by human herpesvirus 8, has been identified with in vitro antagonistic activities against CC and CXC chemokine receptors. We report here that vMIP-II has additional antagonistic activity against CX3CR1, the receptor for fractalkine. To investigate the potential therapeutic effect of this broad-spectrum chemokine antagonist, we studied the antiinflammatory activity of vMIP-II in a rat model of experimental glomerulonephritis induced by an antiglomerular basement membrane antibody. vMIP-II potently inhibited monocyte chemoattractant protein 1-, macrophage inflammatory protein 1beta-, RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted)-, and fractalkine-induced chemotaxis of activated leukocytes isolated from nephritic glomeruli, significantly reduced leukocyte infiltration to the glomeruli, and markedly attenuated proteinuria. These results suggest that molecules encoded by some viruses may serve as useful templates for the development of antiinflammatory compounds.

  7. Active tectonics of the southeastern Upper Rhine Graben, Freiburg area (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivière, B.; Bruestle, A.; Bertrand, G.; Carretier, S.; Behrmann, J.; Gourry, J.-C.

    2008-03-01

    The Upper Rhine Graben has two Plio-Quaternary depocentres usually interpreted as resulting from tectonic reactivation. The southern basin, near Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany), contains up to 250 m of sediments. Beneath the younger alluvial deposits related to the current drainage system, a former river network deeply entrenched in the substratum reveals a very low regional base level of early Pleistocene age. The offset of channels at faults allows us to infer a Pleistocene reactivation of the syn-rift fault pattern and the estimation of slip rates. Maximum vertical movements along the faults have not exceeded 0.1 mm/yr since the middle Pleistocene. Current activity is concentrated along the westernmost faults. Morphologic markers indicate late Pleistocene reactivation of the Rhine River fault, and geophysical prospecting suggests a near-surface offset of young sedimentary deposits. The size of the fault segments potentially reactivated suggests that earthquakes with magnitude larger than Mw=6.3 could be expected in the area with a return interval of about 8000 years. Extrapolated to the duration of the Plio-Pleistocene, the strain rate estimates reveal that the tectonic forcing may account for only one-third to one-half of the whole thickness of the Plio-Pleistocene sediments of the basin fill. Thus other processes must be invoked to understand the growth of the Plio-Pleistocene basin. Especially the piracy of the Rhine River to the north during the early Pleistocene could explain these effects.

  8. Improved Ordinary Measure and Image Entropy Theory based intelligent Copy Detection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengpan Ye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, more and more multimedia websites appear in social network. It brings some security problems, such as privacy, piracy, disclosure of sensitive contents and so on. Aiming at copyright protection, the copy detection technology of multimedia contents becomes a hot topic. In our previous work, a new computer-based copyright control system used to detect the media has been proposed. Based on this system, this paper proposes an improved media feature matching measure and an entropy based copy detection method. The Levenshtein Distance was used to enhance the matching degree when using for feature matching measure in copy detection. For entropy based copy detection, we make a fusion of the two features of entropy matrix of the entropy feature we extracted. Firstly,we extract the entropy matrix of the image and normalize it. Then, we make a fusion of the eigenvalue feature and the transfer matrix feature of the entropy matrix. The fused features will be used for image copy detection. The experiments show that compared to use these two kinds of features for image detection singly, using feature fusion matching method is apparent robustness and effectiveness. The fused feature has a high detection for copy images which have been received some attacks such as noise, compression, zoom, rotation and so on. Comparing with referred methods, the method proposed is more intelligent and can be achieved good performance.

  9. Marine biotechnologies and synthetic biology, new issues for a fair and equitable profit-sharing commercial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Jean-François; Tardieu-Guigues, Elisabeth

    2014-10-01

    The sea will be a source of economic development in the next years. Today the research works in marine biotechnologies supply new products and processes. The introduction in the laboratories of a new technology, synthesis biology, is going to increase the possibilities of creation of new products. Exploitation of product stemming from marine biodiversity has to be made with regard to various rights among which industrial property law, maritime law and the Convention on BioDiversity. All participants involved in the promotion of research in marine biotechnology must address the fair and equitable sharing of any commercial exploitation. Carrying out work involving synthetic biology has increased the number of unanswered questions about how operators should manage in order to avoid any threat of being sued for infringements of IP rights or for alleged bio-piracy. This paper, by no means exhaustive in the field, analyzes some of the issues raised on the modification to the landscape in marine biotechnology by the advent of synthetic biology. Such issues indicate how important the collaboration between researchers, industrialists, lawyers is for allowing proper use of marine biotech. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Medieval and Renaissance anatomists: the printing and unauthorized copying of illustrations, and the dissemination of ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J; Lanska, John Robert

    2013-01-01

    The vanguard that began to question Galenic anatomical dogma originated in northern Italy in the latter half of the thirteenth century, and not coincidentally this was where human dissection was introduced, which in turn eventually fostered the origins of realistic anatomical illustration in the late fifteenth century. With the advent of the printing press and moveable type at this time, printed books began to supersede hand-copied medieval manuscripts, and labor-intensive techniques were soon developed to integrate text and illustrations on the printed page. The same technology was used to pirate the illustrations of prior authors with varying fidelity. Specific medieval and Renaissance anatomical illustrations can often be traced from their inceptions through different stages of development to the final printed images, and then through subsequent pirated versions in various abridgements or other compendia. The most important milestone in the development of anatomy and anatomical illustration was the publication in 1543 by Andreas Vesalii of De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body), commonly referred to simply as the Fabrica. With this work, Vesalii succeeded in coordinating a publication production team (author, artists, block cutters, publisher, and typesetters) to achieve an unprecedented integration of scientific discourse, medical illustration, and typography. However, despite Vesalii's valiant efforts to prevent unauthorized duplication, the illustrations from the Fabrica were extensively plagiarized. Although Vesalii found such piracy frustrating and annoying, the long-term effect was to make Vesalii's ideas known to a wider readership and to help solidify his own revolutionary contributions to anatomy. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Corrigendum to "Upper ocean climate of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the Holocene Insolation Maximum – a model study" published in Clim. Past, 7, 1103–1122, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Schmiedl

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nine thousand years ago (9 ka BP, the Northern Hemisphere experienced enhanced seasonality caused by an orbital configuration close to the minimum of the precession index. To assess the impact of this "Holocene Insolation Maximum" (HIM on the Mediterranean Sea, we use a regional ocean general circulation model forced by atmospheric input derived from global simulations. A stronger seasonal cycle is simulated by the model, which shows a relatively homogeneous winter cooling and a summer warming with well-defined spatial patterns, in particular, a subsurface warming in the Cretan and western Levantine areas. The comparison between the SST simulated for the HIM and a reconstruction from planktonic foraminifera transfer functions shows a poor agreement, especially for summer, when the vertical temperature gradient is strong. As a novel approach, we propose a reinterpretation of the reconstruction, to consider the conditions throughout the upper water column rather than at a single depth. We claim that such a depth-integrated approach is more adequate for surface temperature comparison purposes in a situation where the upper ocean structure in the past was different from the present-day. In this case, the depth-integrated interpretation of the proxy data strongly improves the agreement between modelled and reconstructed temperature signal with the subsurface summer warming being recorded by both model and proxies, with a small shift to the south in the model results. The mechanisms responsible for the peculiar subsurface pattern are found to be a combination of enhanced downwelling and wind mixing due to strengthened Etesian winds, and enhanced thermal forcing due to the stronger summer insolation in the Northern Hemisphere. Together, these processes induce a stronger heat transfer from the surface to the subsurface during late summer in the western Levantine; this leads to an enhanced heat piracy in this region, a process never identified before

  12. Fluvial Connectivity and Sediment Dispersal within Continental Extensional Basins; Assessment of Controlling Factors using Numerical Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, A., Jr.; Cowie, P. A.; Gawthorpe, R.; Huismans, R. S.; Pedersen, V. K.

    2017-12-01

    Progressive integration of drainage networks has been documented in many regional-scale studies of extensional continental systems. While endorheic drainage and lake sedimentation are common features observed in basin stratigraphy, they often disappear from the record due to the development of a through-going river network. Because changes in the fluvial connectivity of extensional basins have profound impact on erosion and sediment dispersal, and thus the feedback between surface processes and tectonics, it is of great importance to understand what controls them. Headward erosion (also called headward capture or river piracy) is often suggested to be the main mechanism causing basins to become interconnected over time with one another and with the regional/coastal drainage network. We show that overspill mechanisms (basin over-filling or lake over-spilling) play a key role in the actively extending central Italian Apennines, even though this area is theoretically favorable for headward erosion (short distances to the coast in combination with rapid surface uplift). In other tectonic settings (e.g. contractional basins and high plateaux) the role of headward erosion in transverse drainage development and integrating endorheic basins has also been increasingly questioned. These two mechanisms predict very different spatio-temporal patterns of sediment dispersal and thus timing of sediment loading (or erosional unloading) along active normal faults, which in turn may influence the locus of subsequent extensional deformation. By means of surface process modelling we develop a process-based understanding of the controls on fluvial connectivity between extensional basins in the central Italian Apennines. We focus on which conditions (tectonic and erosional) favour headward erosion versus overspill and compare our model results with published field evidence for drainage integration and the timing of basin sedimentation/incision.

  13. EIA cites importance of key world shipping routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    A disruption of crude oil or products shipments through any of six world chokepoints would cause a spike in oil prices, the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) warns. The strategic importance of each major shipping lane varies because of differing oil volumes and access to other transportation routes. But nearly half of the 66 million b/d of oil consumed worldwide flows through one or more of these key tanker routes, involving: 14 million b/d through the Strait of Hormuz from the Persian Gulf to the Gulf of Oman and Arabian Sea; 7 million b/d through the Strait of Malacca from the northern Indian Ocean into the South China Sea and Pacific Ocean; 1.6 million b/d through the Bosporus from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea; 900,000 b/d through the Suez Canal from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea; 600,000 b/d through Rotterdam Harbor from the North Sea to Dutch and German refineries on or near the Rhine River; and 500,000 b/d through the Panama Canal from the Pacific Ocean to the Caribbean Sea. In today's highly interdependent oil markets, the mere perception of less secure oil supplies is enough to boost oil prices, EIA said. Growing oil and product tanker traffic is increasing the likelihood of supply disruptions through oil arteries because of bad weather, tanker collisions, or acts of piracy, terrorism, or war. What's more, the increasing age of the world tanker fleet and dependability of navigational equipment could increase chances of accidents and, therefore, oil supply disruptions

  14. Mercados ilegais da pirataria: O comércio de mídias no Centro do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Coelho Bezerra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute o comércio ilícito de mídias piratas, representado pela venda de CDs e DVDs gravados com cópias ilegais de conteúdos digitalizados. A análise foi construída a partir de trabalho de campo realizado junto a um grupo de comerciantes informais no Rio de Janeiro, em 2009 e 2010. O relato etnográfico é composto por dados descritivos sobre a estrutura do comércio, referente à mercadoria, ponto, interação com clientes, repressão policial, e sobre o recurso às chamadas “mercadorias políticas”. A esses dados somam-se relatos dos camelôs a respeito de suas representações acerca do comércio ilegal de produtos culturais pirateados. The article Illegal Pirate Markets: The Sale of Media in Downtown Rio de Janeiro discusses the illicit trade of pirate media, namely the sale of CDs and DVDs burned by means of illegal copying of digitalized content. The analysis drew on a field study executed with a group of informal merchants in Rio de Janeiro, in 2009 and 2010. The ethnographic report is composed of descriptive data about the structure of the commerce, in relation to the merchandise, location, customer interaction, police con­trol, and about the recourse to so-called “political mer­chandise”. These data are complemented by accounts by stall owners regarding how they are represented in terms of the illegal commerce of pirate cultural products.Key words: piracy, illicit trade, informal work, illegal market, media

  15. Contingency table analysis of pebble lithology and roundness: A case study of Huangshui River, China and comparison to rivers in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, X.; Lindsey, D.A.; Lai, Z.; Liu, Xiuying

    2010-01-01

    Contingency table analysis of pebble lithology and roundness is an effective way to identify the source terrane of a drainage basin and to distinguish changes in basin size, piracy, tectonism, and other events. First, the analysis to terrace gravel deposited by the Huangshui River, northeastern Tibet Plateau, China, shows statistically contrasting pebble populations for the oldest terrace (T7, Dadongling, 1.2. Ma) and the youngest terraces (T0-T3, ?. 0.15. Ma). Two fluvial processes are considered to explain the contrast in correlation between lithology and roundness in T7 gravel versus T0-T3 gravel: 1) reworking of T7 gravel into T0-T3 gravel and 2) growth in the size of the river basin between T7 and T0-T3 times. We favor growth in basin size as the dominant process, from comparison of pebble counts and contingency tables. Second, comparison of results from Huangshui River of China to three piedmont streams of the Rocky Mountains, USA highlights major differences in source terrane and history. Like Rocky Mountain piedmont gravel from Colorado examples, the Huangshui gravels show a preference (observed versus expected frequency) for rounded granite. But unlike Rocky Mountain gravel, Huangshui gravel shows a preference for angular quartzite and for rounded sandstone. In conclusion, contrasting behavior of lithologies during transport, not always apparent in raw pebble counts, is readily analyzed using contingency tables to identify the provenance of individual lithologies, including recycled clasts. Results of the analysis may help unravel river history, including changes in basin size and lithology. ?? 2009.

  16. Canyon incision chronology based on ignimbrite stratigraphy and cut-and-fill sediment sequences in SW Peru documents intermittent uplift of the western Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouret, Jean-Claude; Gunnell, Yanni; Jicha, Brian R.; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Braucher, Régis

    2017-12-01

    Based on an 40Ar/39Ar- and U/Pb-based chronostratigraphy of ignimbrite sheets and the geomorphological features of watersheds, river profiles and slope deposits in the Ocoña-Cotahuasi-Marán (OCM) and Colca valleys of southwest Peru, we reconstruct the valley incision history of the western Central Andes over the last c. 25 Myr. We further document the Pleistocene and Holocene evolution of deep valleys on the basis of 14 10Be surface-exposure ages obtained on debris-avalanche deposits and river straths. The data suggest that uplift was gradual over the past 25 Myr, but accelerated after c. 9 Ma. Valley incision started around 11-9 Ma and accelerated between 5 and 4 Ma. Incision was followed by several pulses of valley cut-and-fill after 2.3 Ma. Evidence presented suggest that the post-5 Ma sequence of accelerated canyon incision probably resulted from a combination of drainage piracy from the Cordilleran drainage divide towards the Altiplano, accentuated flexural tilting of the Western Cordillera towards the SE, and increased rainfall on the Altiplano after late Miocene uplift of the Eastern Cordillera. The valley deepening and slope steepening driven by tectonic uplift gave rise to large occurrences of rockslope failure. The collapsed rock masses periodically obstructed the canyons, thus causing abrupt changes in local base levels and interfering with the steadiness of fluvial incision. As a result, channel aggradation has prevailed in the lower-gradient, U-shaped Pacific-rim canyons, whereas re-incision through landslide deposits has occurred more rapidly across the steeper V-shaped, upper valleys. Existing canyon knickpoints are currently arrested at the boundary between the plutonic bedrock and widespread outcrops of middle Miocene ignimbritic caprock, where groundwater sapping favouring rock collapse may be the dominant process driving headward erosion.

  17. An oceanography summer school in Ghana, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbic, B. K.; Ansong, J. K.; Johnson, W.; Nyadjro, E. S.; Nyarko, E.

    2016-02-01

    Because oceanography is a global science, it clearly benefits from the existence of a world-wide network of oceanographers. As with most STEM disciplines, sub-Saharan Africa is not as well represented in the field of oceanography as it should be, given its large population. The need for oceanographers in sub-Saharan Africa is great, due to a long list of ocean-related issues affecting African development, including but not limited to fishing, oil drilling, sea level rise, coastal erosion, shipping, and piracy. We view this as an opportunity as well as a challenge. Many of the world's fastest growing economies are in sub-Saharan Africa, and STEM capacity building could further fuel this growth. With support from the US National Science Foundation, we ran an oceanography summer school from August 24-27, 2015, at the Regional Maritime University (RMU) in Ghana, West Africa. This first summer school was lecture-based, with a focus on basic chemical oceanography, basic physical oceanography, ocean modeling, and satellite oceanography. About 35 participants came to almost every lecture, and about 20 other participants came to some of the lectures as their time permitted. The participants included RMU faculty, 12 students from the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, one Associate Oceanographer from the University of Ghana, and some participants from private sector companies and Ghanaian governmental agencies. There were long and lively discussions at the end of each lecture, and there was a lengthy discussion at the conclusion of the school on how to improve future summer schools. In 2016 and 2017, we plan to divide into smaller groups so that participants can pursue their particular interests in greater depth, and to allow time for student presentations. We also plan to begin exploring the potential for research partnerships, and to utilize distance learning to involve more faculty and students from locations throughout Ghana and perhaps from even other

  18. Destruction of illegal things and devices to contrast the counterfeiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Mario Antinucci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The movement of goods illegal and counterfeit in the circuit of the economy and the labor market, has put in place of criminal policy internal supranational and a primary need of confiscation and destruction in relation to safety issues transnational linked to all forms of counterfeiting, piracy agro-food to fraud in industrial brands of high fashion et similia: from here the major node of the procedure of destruction of goods illegal and counterfeit subject to seizure and confiscation and respect of guarantees communities of the criminal process, especially in the light of the amendment of art. 260, co. 3 bis and ter, c.p.p. with the d.l. 23-5-2008, n. 92 and subsequent amendments (so-called Safety Package. In line with the criminal policy of ''security'', in l. 23-7-2009, n. 99, the so-called Decree Development, between the ''darrangements for the development and the internationalization of enterprises, as well as in the field of energy'' and  wanted to redesign, with analytical provisions of particular edge, the perimeter of the criminal-law protection ''Dei property rights industrial'' through the introduction of four new hypothesis of offenses of counterfeiting (artt. 473, 474, 474 b and c, 517 b and c, c.p. and related hypothesis of obligatory confiscation (art. 474 bis and 517 ter c.p., with implications concerning the regime differentiated penitentiary (art. 4 bis, co. 1 ter, ord. penit. in relation to the cases of belonging to criminal association aimed to commit new offenses referred to in articles 473-474 c.p. (arts. 416 bis, 6º Co., c.p. and 51, co. 3 bis, c.p.p., as well as the regulatory body containing the so-called ''responsability of administrative entities'', within the meaning of art. 19, d.lg. 8-6-2001, n. 231.

  19. Military Strategy Of India

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    M. S. Zaitsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the evolution of military strategy of the Republic of India and key factors that influences its development. New Delhi keeps an eye on the balance of power in South Asia to create favorable conditions for its economic and social development, yet the remaining threats and new challenges still undermine the security and stability in India. The ambitions of China aspiring to power in Asia-Pacific region, combined with its immense military build-up and territorial disputes, cause disturbance in New Delhi. The remaining tensions between India and Pakistan also cause often border skirmishes and medium-scale conflicts. Close relations between China and Pakistan, labeled as “all-weather friendship”, are a source of major concern for India. The fact that both Beijing and Islamabad wield nuclear weapons means that without effective mechanisms of nuclear deterrence any military conflict may turn into a full-scale nuclear war. Terrorist activities and insurgency in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir and in the North-Eastern regions of the country, along with maritime piracy and illicit drug trafficking contribute to the complicated nature of the challenges to the Indian security. Indian military strategy is considered as a combination of the army doctrine, maritime doctrine and nuclear doctrine. The Indian political and military leadership wants to meet the challenges of changing geopolitical environment and thus continuously adapts its strategy. However, there is still a gap between theory and practice: Indian armed forces lack the capacity to implement the declared goals because of bulky bureaucratic system, outdated military equipment and insufficient level of command and control. The government needs to mobilize political will and administrative resources to upgrade its defense sector to counter its security threats and challenges.

  20. Aproximaciones a una estética de lo americano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Milagro Casalla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El legado filosófico que nos ha dejado Rodolfo Kusch tiene cada vez más presencia y valor en este largo itinerario de descubrirnos como americanos. La pasión de este pensador por la América profunda es una fuente de ins- piración para quienes creemos que vivir en América no es simplemente un episodio geográfico sino un horizonte desde y a partir del cual construimos nuestra identidad. En este trabajo se pretende recrear sus consideracio - nes estéticas recogidas en su ensayo “Anotaciones para una estética de lo americano”, escrito en el año 1955. Aunque se trata de uno de los primeros escritos de Rodolfo Kusch, en el mismo se encuentran presentes numerosos conceptos que luego serán tematizados extensamente a lo largo de toda su obra. Considero que el abordaje a sus consideraciones estéticas no ha sido tan frecuentado como sí otros aspectos de su pensamiento (ser-estar, geocultura, símbolo y religión, etc.. Por ello, creo que este trabajo puede constituir una orientación preeliminar para futuras interpretaciones y, a la vez, ser un humilde homenaje a su filosofía, que, a lo largo de los años, sigue estimulando a antiguas y nuevas generaciones de pensadores dedicados a la filosofía latinoamericana.

  1. Shape and amount of the Quaternary uplift of the western Rhenish shield and the Ardennes (western Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, A.; Hallot, E.

    2009-09-01

    A good evaluation of the Quaternary uplift of the Rhenish shield is a key element for the understanding of the Cenozoic geodynamics of the western European platform in front of the alpine arc. Previous maps of the massif uplift relied on fluvial incision data since the time of the rivers' Younger Main Terrace to infer a maximum post-0.73 Ma uplift of ~ 290 m in the SE Eifel. Here, we propose a new interpretation of the incision data of the intra-massif streams, where anomalies in the terrace profiles would result from knickpoint retreat in the tributaries of the main rivers rather than from tectonic deformation. We also use additional geomorphological data referring to (1) deformed Tertiary planation surfaces, (2) the history of stream piracy that severely affected the Meuse basin in the last 1 Ma, and (3) incision data outside the Rhenish shield. A new map of the post-0.73 Ma uplift of the Rhenish shield is drawn on the basis of this enlarged dataset. It reduces the maximum amount of tectonic uplift in the SE Eifel to ~ 140 m and modifies the general shape of the uplift, namely straightening its E-W profile. It is also suggested that an uplift wave migrated across the massif, starting from its southern margin in the early Pleistocene and currently showing the highest intensity of uplift in the northern Ardennes and Eifel. These features seem to favour an uplift mechanism chiefly related to lithospheric folding and minimize the impact on the topography of a more local Eifel plume.

  2. TINJUAN YURIDIS PENGATURAN RIGHTS MANAGEMENT INFORMATION DALAM KETENTUAN HAK MORAL PADA UNDANG-UNDANG NO. 19 TAHUN 2002 TENTANG HAK CIPTA DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zairul Alam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thedigital technological advancement and internet technology urges the new forms of  works protection against new model of piracy and copyright infringement. Technological Protection Measures (TPM and Rights Management Information (RMI seeks to answer the needs of new forms of technological protection as those provisions are regulated under WIPO Copyright Treaty 1996. This paper suggest that the RMI concept which is regulated under Moral Rights section in Indonesian Copyright Act reveals new obstacles in order to comply with adequate and effective legal remedies requirementsin WCT provision. As a conclusion, the arrangement of RMI under Moral Rights in Indonesian Copyright Act does not fit properly with the main objectives of RMI as one element of double protection of digital works along with TPM. Key words: rights management information, moral rights, technological protection Abstrak Kemajuan teknologi digital dan teknologi internet memunculkan urgensi bentuk perlindungan baru atas model pembajakann karya cipta dan pelanggaran hak cipta. TPM (Technological Protection Measures dan RMI (Rights Management Information mencoba memberikan jawaban atas kebutuhan perlindungan ciptaan dengan penggunaan teknologi sebagaimana diatur dalam WIPO Copyright Treaty 1996. Tulisan ini selanjutnya akan menjelaskan bahwa pengaturan RMI di bawah Ketentuan Hak Moral dalam Undang-Undang Hak Cipta memunculkan kendala dan tantangan baru dalam kaitannya dengan pemenuhan persyaratan akan pengaturan RMI yang memadai dan efektif. Tulisan ini berkesimpulan bahwa pengaturan RMI dalam Ketentuan Hak Moral dalam UUHC di Indonesia tidak secara tepat sesuai dengan apa yang dimaksudkan dalam WCT, bahwa baik RMI dan TPM berfungsi sebagai proteksi ganda perlindungan karya digital. Kata kunci: right management information, hak moral, perlindungan teknologi

  3. Application of year-round atmospheric transmission data, collected with the MSRT multiband transmissometer during the FATMOSE trial in the False Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Arie N.; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Cohen, Leo H.; Fritz, Peter J.; Gunter, Willem H.; Vrahimis, George; October, Faith J.

    2011-09-01

    The FATMOSE trial (False Bay Atmospheric Experiment) is a continuation of the cooperative work between TNO and IMT on atmospheric propagation and point target detection and identification in a maritime environment, South Africa). The atmospheric transmission, being of major importance for target detection, was measured with the MSRT multiband optical/IR transmissometer over a path of 15.7 km over sea. Simultaneously a set of instruments was installed on a midpath lighthouse for collection of local meteorological data, including turbulence, scintillation, sea surface temperature and visibility. The multiband transmission data allow the retrieval of the size distribution (PSD) of the particles (aerosols) in the transmission path. The retrieved PSD's can be correlated with the weather data such as windspeed, wind direction, relative humidity and visibility. This knowledge will lead to better atmospheric propagation models. The measurement period covered nearly a full year, starting in November 2009 and ending in October 2010. The False Bay site is ideal for studies on propagation effects over sea because of the large variety of weather conditions, including high windspeed, expected from the South East with maritime air masses, as well as Northerly winds, expected to bring warm and dry air from the continent. From an operational point of view the False Bay area is interesting, being representative for the scenery around the African coast with warships in an active protecting role in the battle against piracy. The yearround transmission data are an important input for range performance calculations of electro-optical sensors against maritime targets. The data support the choice of the proper spectral band and contain statistical information about the detection ranges to be expected. In this paper details on the instrumentation will be explained as well as the methods of calibration and PSD retrieval. Data are presented for various weather conditions, showing

  4. Intrinsic stream-capture control of stepped fan pediments in the High Atlas piedmont of Ouarzazate (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, A.; Babault, J.; Teixell, A.; Arboleya, M. L.

    2012-11-01

    The Ouarzazate basin is a Cenozoic foreland basin located to the south of the High Atlas Mountains. The basin has been externally drained during the Quaternary, with fluvial dynamics dominated by erosive processes from a progressive base level drop. The current drainage network is composed of rivers draining the mountain and carrying large amounts of coarse sediments and by piedmont streams with smaller catchments eroding the soft Cenozoic rocks of the Ouarzazate basin. The coarse-grained sediments covering the channel beds of main rivers cause the steepening of the channel gradient and act as a shield inhibiting bedrock incision. Under such circumstances, piedmont streams that incise to lower gradients evolve to large, depressed pediments at lower elevations and threaten to capture rivers originating in the mountain. Much of the current surface of the Ouarzazate basin is covered by coarse sediments forming large systems of stepped fan pediments that developed by the filling of low elevation pediments after a capture event. We identified 14 capture events, and previously published geochronology support an ~ 100 ka frequency for fan pediment formation. Our study indicates that the reorganization of the fluvial network in the Ouarzazate basin during the late Pleistocene and Holocene has been controlled by the piedmont-stream piracy process, a process ultimately controlled by the cover effect. The stream capture is influenced by erosion, sediment supply and transport, and therefore may not be entirely decoupled from tectonic and climatic forcing. Indeed, we show that at least two capture events may have occurred during climate changes, and local tectonic structures control at most the spatial localization of capture events.

  5. El corso del Flandes español como factor de guerra económica

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    Enrique OTERO LANA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El objeto del artículo es relacionar la práctica del corsarismo (que se diferencia desde el siglo XV de la piratería con el nacimiento y desarrollo del primer capitalismo y con la política económica de la Monarquía Hispánica. La Corona era consciente de las ventajas que podría obtener organizando el corso entre sus subditos, logrando beneficios militares a la vez que económicos. En el Flandes del siglo XVII son de destacar dos realizaciones, la armada de Flandes y la escuadra del Norte que causaron grandes pérdidas al enemigo. Finalmente, se evalúan los efectos reales del corso en la guerra económica contra el enemigo: el corso por sí mismo nunca ganaría la guerra, contra las esperanzas de los políticos españoles.ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to relate the practice of privateering (that differs from the XVth century of the piracy with the birth and development of the first capitalism and with the economic policy of the Hispanic Monarchy. The wreath was conscious of ace advantages that might be obtained of organizing the privateering among his subjects, by achieving military benefits simultaneously that economic. In the Flanders of the XVII**1 century it is to emphasize two accomplishments, the Armada de Flandes and the Escuadra del Norte, that caused big losses to the enemy. Finally, the real effects of privateering are evaluated in the economic war against the Dutch enemy: privateers by themselves would never win the war, against the hopes of the Spanish politicians.

  6. Effects of large deep-seated landslides on hillslope morphology, western Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korup, Oliver

    2006-03-01

    Morphometric analysis and air photo interpretation highlight geomorphic imprints of large landslides (i.e., affecting ≥1 km2) on hillslopes in the western Southern Alps (WSA), New Zealand. Large landslides attain kilometer-scale runout, affect >50% of total basin relief, and in 70% are slope clearing, and thus relief limiting. Landslide terrain shows lower mean local relief, relief variability, slope angles, steepness, and concavity than surrounding terrain. Measuring mean slope angle smoothes out local landslide morphology, masking any relationship between large landslides and possible threshold hillslopes. Large failures also occurred on low-gradient slopes, indicating persistent low-frequency/high-magnitude hillslope adjustment independent of fluvial bedrock incision. At the basin and hillslope scale, slope-area plots partly constrain the effects of landslides on geomorphic process regimes. Landslide imprints gradually blend with relief characteristics at orogen scale (102 km), while being sensitive to length scales of slope failure, topography, sampling, and digital elevation model resolution. This limits means of automated detection, and underlines the importance of local morphologic contrasts for detecting large landslides in the WSA. Landslide controls on low-order drainage include divide lowering and shifting, formation of headwater basins and hanging valleys, and stream piracy. Volumes typically mobilized, yet still stored in numerous deposits despite high denudation rates, are >107 m3, and theoretically equal to 102 years of basin-wide debris production from historic shallow landslides; lack of absolute ages precludes further estimates. Deposit size and mature forest cover indicate residence times of 101-104 years. On these timescales, large landslides require further attention in landscape evolution models of tectonically active orogens.

  7. Methanobactin from Methylocystis sp. strain SB2 affects gene expression and methane monooxygenase activity in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhan Ul-Haque, Muhammad; Kalidass, Bhagyalakshmi; Vorobev, Alexey; Baral, Bipin S; DiSpirito, Alan A; Semrau, Jeremy D

    2015-04-01

    Methanotrophs can express a cytoplasmic (soluble) methane monooxygenase (sMMO) or membrane-bound (particulate) methane monooxygenase (pMMO). Expression of these MMOs is strongly regulated by the availability of copper. Many methanotrophs have been found to synthesize a novel compound, methanobactin (Mb), that is responsible for the uptake of copper, and methanobactin produced by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b plays a key role in controlling expression of MMO genes in this strain. As all known forms of methanobactin are structurally similar, it was hypothesized that methanobactin from one methanotroph may alter gene expression in another. When Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b was grown in the presence of 1 μM CuCl2, expression of mmoX, encoding a subunit of the hydroxylase component of sMMO, was very low. mmoX expression increased, however, when methanobactin from Methylocystis sp. strain SB2 (SB2-Mb) was added, as did whole-cell sMMO activity, but there was no significant change in the amount of copper associated with M. trichosporium OB3b. If M. trichosporium OB3b was grown in the absence of CuCl2, the mmoX expression level was high but decreased by several orders of magnitude if copper prebound to SB2-Mb (Cu-SB2-Mb) was added, and biomass-associated copper was increased. Exposure of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b to SB2-Mb had no effect on expression of mbnA, encoding the polypeptide precursor of methanobactin in either the presence or absence of CuCl2. mbnA expression, however, was reduced when Cu-SB2-Mb was added in both the absence and presence of CuCl2. These data suggest that methanobactin acts as a general signaling molecule in methanotrophs and that methanobactin "piracy" may be commonplace. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    This discussion of the United Arab Emirates focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; defense; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the United Arab Emirates. In 1983 the population was estimated at 1,194,000. In 1984 the annual growth rate was negative. Life expectancy is about 60 years. Fewer than 20% of the population are UAE citizens. Indigenous Emiris are Arab; the rest of the population includes significant numbers of other Arabs -- Palestinians, Egyptians, Jordanians, Yemenis, Omanis, as well as many Iranians, Pakistanis, Indians, and West Europeans, especially in Dubai. The UAE is in the eastern Arabian Peninsula, bounded on the north by the Persian Gulf. European and Arab pirates roamed the Trucial Coast area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Early British expeditions against the pirates led to further campaigns against their headquarters. Piracy continued intermittently until 1835, when the shaikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the UK and the Trucial States established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty. In 1968 the British government announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationship with the gulf shaikhdoms. When the British protective treaty with the Trucial Shaikhdoms ended on December 1, they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, 6 of them entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The 7th, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972. Administratively, the UAE is a loose federation of 7 emirates, each with its own ruler. The pace at which local government in each emirate is evolving, from traditional to modern, is set primarily by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral rights, taxation, and police powers. In this milieu, the growth of federal powers has

  9. Implications of drainage rearrangement for passive margin escarpment evolution in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sordi, Michael Vinicius; Salgado, André Augusto Rodrigues; Siame, Lionel; Bourlès, Didier; Paisani, Julio Cesar; Léanni, Laëtitia; Braucher, Régis; Do Couto, Edivando Vítor; Aster Team

    2018-04-01

    Although several authors have pointed out the importance of earth surface process to passive margin escarpments relief evolution and even drainage rearrangements, the dynamics of a consolidated capture area (after a drainage network erodes the escarpment, as the one from the Itajaí-Açu River) remain poorly understood. Here, results are presented from radar elevation and aerial imagery data coupled with in-situ-produced 10Be concentrations measured in sand-sized river-born sediments from the Serra Geral escarpment, southern Brazil. The Studied area's relief evolution is captained by the drainage network: while the Itajaí-Açu watershed relief is the most dissected and lowest in elevation, it is significantly less dissected in the intermediate elevation Iguaçu catchment, an important Paraná River tributary. These less dissected and topographically higher areas belong to the Uruguai River catchment. These differences are conditioned by (i) different lithology compositions, structures and genesis; (ii) different morphological configurations, notably slope, range, relief; and (iii) different regional base levels. Along the Serra Geral escarpment, drainage features such as elbows, underfitted valleys, river profile anomalies, and contrasts in mapped χ-values are evidence of the rearrangement process, mainly beheading, where ocean-facing tributaries of the Itajaí-Açu River capture the inland catchments (Iguaçu and Uruguai). The 10Be derived denudation rates reinforced such processes: while samples from the Caçador and Araucárias Plateaus yield weighted means of 3.1 ± 0.2 and 6.5 ± 0.4 m/Ma respectively, samples from along the escarpment yield a weighted mean of 46.8 ± 3.6 m/Ma, almost 8 times higher. Such significant denudation rate differences are explained by base-level control, relief characteristics, and the geology framework. The main regional morphological evolutionary mechanism is headward denudation and piracy by the Itajaí-Açu River tributaries

  10. Conflito urbano e comércio informal: Quadros da repressão e da tolerância aos camelôs na cidade do Rio de Janeiro (1983-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Armando Mamani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo busca compreender os quadros sociais que explicaram e justificaram a expansão, a tolerância e a repressão no comércio informal no Centro do Rio de Janeiro entre 1983 e 2009. Com base em uma “cartografia” de notícias do jornal O Globo entre estes anos pretende-se identificar as arenas, conjunturas, atores e repertórios utilizados e reconhecer, na imprensa, termos e enquadramentos duráveis do conflito entre comerciantes e ambulantes, buscando identificar aqueles que predominam na definição da situação e sua mudança. As análises dispõem-se cronologicamente identificando a eclosão do problema (1983, sua estabilização no incentivo aos “camelódromos” (1984 e sua rotinização (1994. Em um segundo momento, trata da associação do comércio informal à “pirataria” (1999, à desordem urbana e à ilegalidade (2009. This article Urban Conflict and Informal Trade: Frames from the Repression and the Tolerance Towards the Camelôs in the City of Rio de Janeiro (1983-2009 seeks to understand the social frames which explained and justified the expansion, the tolerance and the repression towards the informal trade in downtown Rio de Janeiro between 1983 and 2009. Based on a "cartography" of news assembled from the Brazilian newspaper O Globo between these years, the article intends to identify the arenas, conjunctures, actors and repertoires employed and recognize, in the press, durable terms and frameworks from the conflict between traders and street vendors, seeking to identify those who predominate in defining the situation and its change. The analysis, which was arranged chronologically, identifies the outbreak of the issue (1983, its stabilization through the incitation of "camelódromos"(1984, and its routinisation (1994. This article addresses the subject of informal trade's association to "piracy" (1999, to urban disorder and to illegality (2009.Keywords: popular markets, informal trade, conflict, urban order

  11. Religião e criminalidade: da cultura da morte à cultura da paz e do perdão

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    Robson Sávio Reis Souza

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Um dos principais problemas sociais da atualidade é o assustador crescimento de várias modalidades de crimes violentos em várias cidades brasileiras. O retrato atual da violência no Brasil pode ser assim exposto: crescimento da delinqüência urbana, com espantoso aumento dos homicídios em torno do tráfico de drogas nas grandes cidades; consolidação da criminalidade organizada, através de redes de tráfico internacional, tráfico de órgãos e seres humanos, máfias internacionais de contrabando e pirataria; aumento das violações de direitos humanos, comprometendo a ordem social e política e, no campo, a explosão de conflitos motivados pela estrutura agrária concentradora e historicamente violenta. Como a religião, enquanto instrumento de coesão social, pode contribuir para a reversão dessa perversa onda de criminalidade e violência? É o que pretendemos apresentar.Palavras-chave: Religião; Violência urbana; Criminalidade; Coesão social; Doutrina Social da Igreja; Cultura da paz.ABSTRACTOne of the main current social problems is the appalling growth of various kinds of violent crime in many Brazilian cities. The current portrait of violence in Brazil can be thus designed: the growth of urban delinquency, with a remarkable increase in the number of murders connected to drug traffic in big cities; the consolidation of organised crime, through nets of international traffic, organs and human beings’ traffic, international smuggling and piracy mafias; an increase in the violation of human rights, jeopardising social and political order; and, in the rural area, the explosion of conflicts motivated by an agrarian structure of concentration and historical violence. How can religion, as an instrument of social cohesion, contribute to revert that hideous wave of criminality and violence? This is our scope.Key words: Religion; Urban violence; Criminality; Social cohesion; Social doctrine of the Church; Culture of peace.

  12. Morphotectonic Index Analysis as an Indicator of Neotectonic Segmentation of the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrish, S.; Marshall, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Nicoya Peninsula lies within the Costa Rican forearc where the Cocos plate subducts under the Caribbean plate at ~8.5 cm/yr. Rapid plate convergence produces frequent large earthquakes (~50yr recurrence interval) and pronounced crustal deformation (0.1-2.0m/ky uplift). Seven uplifted segments have been identified in previous studies using broad geomorphic surfaces (Hare & Gardner 1984) and late Quaternary marine terraces (Marshall et al. 2010). These surfaces suggest long term net uplift and segmentation of the peninsula in response to contrasting domains of subducting seafloor (EPR, CNS-1, CNS-2). In this study, newer 10m contour digital topographic data (CENIGA- Terra Project) will be used to characterize and delineate this segmentation using morphotectonic analysis of drainage basins and correlation of fluvial terrace/ geomorphic surface elevations. The peninsula has six primary watersheds which drain into the Pacific Ocean; the Río Andamojo, Río Tabaco, Río Nosara, Río Ora, Río Bongo, and Río Ario which range in area from 200 km2 to 350 km2. The trunk rivers follow major lineaments that define morphotectonic segment boundaries and in turn their drainage basins are bisected by them. Morphometric analysis of the lower (1st and 2nd) order drainage basins will provide insight into segmented tectonic uplift and deformation by comparing values of drainage basin asymmetry, stream length gradient, and hypsometry with respect to margin segmentation and subducting seafloor domain. A general geomorphic analysis will be conducted alongside the morphometric analysis to map previously recognized (Morrish et al. 2010) but poorly characterized late Quaternary fluvial terraces. Stream capture and drainage divide migration are common processes throughout the peninsula in response to the ongoing deformation. Identification and characterization of basin piracy throughout the peninsula will provide insight into the history of landscape evolution in response to

  13. Response of the St. Joseph River to lake level changes during the last 12,000 years in the Lake Michigan basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincare, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    The water level of the Lake Michigan basin is currently 177 m above sea level. Around 9,800 14C years B.P., the lake level in the Lake Michigan basin had dropped to its lowest level in prehistory, about 70 m above sea level. This low level (Lake Chippewa) had profound effects on the rivers flowing directly into the basin. Recent studies of the St. Joseph River indicate that the extreme low lake level rejuvenated the river, causing massive incision of up to 43 m in a valley no more than 1.6 km wide. The incision is seen 25 km upstream of the present shoreline. As lake level rose from the Chippewa low, the St. Joseph River lost competence and its estuary migrated back upstream. Floodplain and channel sediments partially refilled the recently excavated valley leaving a distinctly non-classical morphology of steep sides with a broad, flat bottom. The valley walls of the lower St. Joseph River are 12-18 m tall and borings reveal up to 30 m of infill sediment below the modern floodplain. About 3 ?? 108 m3 of sediment was removed from the St. Joseph River valley during the Chippewa phase lowstand, a massive volume, some of which likely resides in a lowstand delta approximately 30 km off-shore in Lake Michigan. The active floodplain below Niles, Michigan, is inset into an upper terrace and delta graded to the Calumet level (189 m) of Lake Chicago. In the lower portion of the terrace stratigraphy a 1.5-2.0 m thick section of clast-supported gravel marks the entry of the main St. Joseph River drainage above South Bend, Indiana, into the Lake Michigan basin. This gravel layer represents the consolidation of drainage that probably occurred during final melting out of ice-marginal kettle chains allowing stream piracy to proceed between Niles and South Bend. It is unlikely that the St. Joseph River is palimpsest upon a bedrock valley. The landform it cuts across is a glaciofluvial-deltaic feature rather than a classic unsorted moraine that would drape over pre-glacial topography

  14. A high-resolution record of Holocene millennial-scale oscillations of surface water, foraminiferal paleoecology and sediment redox chemistry in the SE Brazilian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, B. B.; Barbosa, C. F.; Albuquerque, A. L.; Piotrowski, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Holocene millennial-scale oscillations and Bond Events (Bond et al. 1997) are well reported in the North Atlantic as consequence of fresh water input and weaking of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). It has been hypothesized that the effect of weaking of AMOC would lead to warming in the South Atlantic due to "heat piracy", causing surface waters to warm and a reorganization of surface circulation. There are few reconstructions of AMOC strength in the South Atlantic, and none with a high resolution Holocene record of changes of productivity and the biological pump. We reconstruct past changes in the surface water mass hydrography, productivity, and sediment redox changes in high-resolution in the core KCF10-01B, located 128 mbsl water depth off Cabo Frio, Brazil, a location where upwelling is strongly linked to surface ocean hydrography. We use Benthic Foraminiferal Accumulation Rate (BFAR) to reconstruct productivity, which reveals a 1.3kyr cyclicity during the mid- and late-Holocene. The geochemistry of trace and rare earth elements on foraminiferal Fe-Mn oxide coatings show changes in redox-sensitive elements indicating that during periods of high productivity there were more reducing conditions in sediment porewaters, producing a Ce anomaly and reduction and re-precipitation of Mn oxides. Bond events 1-7 were identified by a productivity increase along with reducing sediment conditions which was likely caused by Brazil Current displacement offshore allowing upwelling of the nutritive bottom water South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW) to the euphotic zone and a stronger local biological pump. In a global context, correlation with other records show that this occurred during weakened AMOC and southward displacement of the ITCZ. We conclude that Bond climatic events and millennial-scale variability of AMOC caused sea surface hydrographic changes off the Brazilian Margin leading to biological and geochemical changes recorded in coastal records

  15. Drainage and Landscape Evolution in the Bighorn Basin Accompanying Advection of the Yellowstone Hotspot Swell Through North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, E. F.; Meigs, A.

    2012-12-01

    basin is an ideal location to quantify long wavelength dynamic topography due to its low relief. Long river profiles streams that are transverse to the topographic swell in the basin suggest a transient advective signal preserved as profile knickpoints. Abandoned strath terraces, stream piracy, drainage reorganization, and lateral channel migration within the Bighorn Basin are all consistent indicators of the advection of a topographic swell. However, the lack of a high-resolution absolute age chronology precludes us from attributing the primary landscape and drainage forcing to climate change or dynamic topography. Our future work will focus on the timing of geomorphic and river profile evolution to disentangle competing effects of topographic advection, climate, and other factors.

  16. Fault-sourced alluvial fans and their interaction with axial fluvial drainage: An example from the Plio-Pleistocene Upper Valdarno Basin (Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidolini, Francesco; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Aldinucci, Mauro; Billi, Paolo; Boaga, Jacopo; Deiana, Rita; Brivio, Lara

    2013-05-01

    The present study deals with the fault-sourced, alluvial-fan deposits of the Plio-Pleistocene Upper Valdarno Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy). Different phases of alluvial fan aggradation, progradation and backstep are discussed as possible effects of the interaction among fault-generated accommodation space, sediment supply and discharge variations affecting the axial fluvial drainage. The Upper Valdarno Basin, located about 35 km SE of Florence, is filled with 550 m palustrine, lacustrine and alluvial deposits forming four main unconformity-bounded units (i.e. synthems). The study alluvial-fan deposits belong to the two uppermost synthems (Montevarchi and Torrente Ciuffenna synthems) and are Early to Middle Pleistocene in age. These deposits are sourced from the fault-bounded, NE margin of the basin and interfinger with axial fluvial deposits. Alluvial fan deposits of the Montevarchi Synthem consist of three main intervals: i) a lower interval, which lacks any evidence of a depositional trend and testify balance between the subsidence rate (i.e. fault activity) and the amount of sediment provided from the margin; ii) a coarsening-upward middle interval, pointing to a decrease in subsidence rate associated with an augment in sediment supply; iii) a fining-upward, upper interval (locally preserved), documenting a phase of tectonic quiescence associated with a progressive re-equilibration of the tectonically-induced morphological profile. The basin-scale unconformity, which separates the Montevarchi and Torrente Ciuffenna synthems was due to the entrance of the Arno River into the basin as consequence of a piracy. This event caused a dramatic increase in water discharge of the axial fluvial system, and its consequent embanking. Such an erosional surface started to develop in the axial areas, and propagated along the main tributaries, triggering erosion of the alluvial fan deposits. Alluvial-fan deposits of the Torrente Ciuffenna Synthem accumulated above the

  17. Paleo-watertable definition using cave ferromanganese stromatolites and associated cave-wall notches (Sierra de Arnero, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Carlos; Villalaín, Juan J.; Lozano, Rafael P.; Hellstrom, John

    2016-05-01

    The steeply-dipping-dolostone-hosted caves of the Sierra de Arnero (N Spain) contain low-gradient relict canyons with up to ten mapped levels of ferromanganese stromatolites and associated wall notches over a vertical range of 85 m, the highest occurring 460 m above base level. Despite a plausible speleogenetic contribution by pyrite oxidation, and the irregular cave-wall mesomorphologies suggestive of hypogenic speleogenesis, the Arnero relict caves are dominantly epigenic, as indicated by the conduit pattern and the abundant allogenic sediments. Allogenic input declined over time due to a piracy-related decrease in the drainage area of allogenic streams, explaining the large size of the relict Arnero caves relative to the limited present-day outcrop area of the karstified carbonates. Allogenic-sediment input also explains the observed change from watertable canyons to phreatic conduits in the paleo-downstream direction. Stromatolites and notches arguably formed in cave-stream passages at the watertable. The best-defined paleo-watertables show an overall slope of 1.7°, consistent with the present-day relief of the watertable, with higher-slope segments caused by barriers related to sulfide mineralization. The formation of watertable stromatolites favored wall notching by the combined effect of enhanced acidity by Mn-Fe oxidation and shielding of cave floors against erosion. Abrasive bedload further contributed to notch formation by promoting lateral mechanical erosion and protecting passage floors. The irregular wallrock erosional forms of Arnero caves are related partly to paragenesis and partly to the porous nature of the host dolostones, which favored irregular dissolution near passage walls, generating friable halos. Subsequent mechanical erosion contributed to generate spongework patterns. The dolostone porosity also contributes to explain the paradox that virtually all Arnero caves are developed in dolostone despite being less soluble than adjacent

  18. GERMAN PARTICIPATION IN THE STRUGGLE WITH THE INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM AT THE TERRITORY OF SOMALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ф О Трунов

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Staying Somalia in a state of instability is a serious threat for the security of the international community, including countries and institutions of the West. At the modern period, its key element is the activity of the international terrorist structure Al Shabab. Germany and its EU partners face with the problem of the revitalization of Al Shabab terrorists. The methodological basis of the paper is the theories of armed conflicts resolution and the con-struction of armed forces (at the example of the Somalian national army. The key research methods are the event-analyses and the comparative analyses. The aim of the article is the research of the German approach to resolving the “Somali problem”. In this regard, the first task is to study the previous experience of Germany in counteracting with in-stability in Somalia in the 1990-s and since the late 2000-s. (in the framework of counteracting piracy. The second task, on the solution of which is paid the main attention in the article, is the research of complex usage by Germany of its political, military and economic tools for the weakening of Al Shabab. The article studies German participation in the EU mission for the reform of the security sector of Somali. At this base, the article concludes about the military participation of Germany in the struggle with the international terrorism. The article covers the course, problems and prospects of using the national army of Somalia for fighting against Al-Shabab in the south, as well as separatist currents in the northern part of the country. The paper researches German promotion in restoring the structures of power in the country and the process of federalization as the key direction of the stabilization in Somalia. The article covers the features of German economic participation in the decision of deep internal Somali problems, which mainly led to the appearance and strengthening of the Al Shabab positions. The research paper concludes about

  19. DCI control model of digital works based on blockchain%基于区块链的数字作品DCI管控模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李悦; 黄俊钦; 王瑞锦

    2017-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of copyright registration,rampant piracy and copyright disputes faced by digital intellectual property under Internet ecology,a Digital Copyright Identifier (DCI) control model of digital works without trusted third party was proposed.Firstly,the Peer-to-Peer (P2P) architecture based on the concept of de-centralization of blockchain was constructed.The blockchain replaced the traditional database as the core of storage mechanism.Through the creation of transactions,construction of blocks,legitimacy validation and link of blocks a digital work blockchain transaction information storage structure was built,guaranteeing the copyright information not be tampered and traceable.Secondly,the digital distribution protocol based on smart contract was proposed,three types of contracts include copyright registration,inquiry and transfer were designed,and the transactions were generated by automatically executing the preset instructions to ensure the transparency and high efficiency of models.Theoretical analysis and simulation show that the probability of forged block attack is close to zero in the digital work blockchain network,compared with the traditional copyright authentication mechanism based on trusted third party,the model has better architectural security.The experimental results show that the model simplifies the threshold of digital copyright registration,enhances the authority of copyright certification and has better real-time and robustness.%针对互联网生态下数字知识产权面临的版权登记、盗版猖獗和版权纠纷等问题,提出了去信任的数字作品数字版权唯一标识符(DCI)管控模型.首先,构建了基于区块链去中心化理念的端到端体系架构,区块链取代传统关系数据库作为核心存储机制,通过创建交易、构造区块、区块的合法性验证与链接构建了数字作品区块链的交易信息存储机制,保证版权信息不可

  20. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available I Wayan Arka, Malcolm Ross (eds; The many faces of Austronesian voice systems; Some new empirical studies (René van den Berg H.W. Dick; Surabaya, city of work; A socioeconomic history, 1900-2000 (Peter Boomgaard Josiane Cauquelin; The aborigines of Taiwan: the Puyuma; From headhunting to the modern world. (Wen-Teh Chen Mark Turner, Owen Podger (with Maria Sumardjono and Wayan K. Tirthayasa; Decentralisation in Indonesia; Redesigning the state (Dorian Fougères Jérôme Samuel; Modernisation lexicale et politique terminologique; Le cas de l’Indonésien (Arndt Graf Nicholas J. White; British business in post-colonial Malaysia, 1957-70: neo-colonialism or disengagement? (Karl Hack Chin Peng; Alias Chin Peng; My side of history; As told to Ian Ward and Norma Miraflor (Russell Jones C.C. Chin, Karl Hack (eds; Dialogues with Chin Peng; New light on the Malayan Emergency (Russell Jones Saw Swee-Hock; Population policies and programmes in Singapore (Santo Koesoebjono Domenyk Eades; A grammar of Gayo; A language of Aceh, Sumatra (Yuri A. Lander Derek Johnson, Mark Valencia (eds; Piracy in Southeast Asia; Status, issues, and responses (Carolyn Liss Niclas Burenhult; A grammar of Jahai (James A. Matisoff Ann R. Kinney, Marijke J. Klokke, Lydia Kieven (photographs by Rio Helmi; Worshiping Siva and Buddha; The temple art of East Java (Dick van der Meij Ruben Stoel; Focus in Manado Malay; Grammar, particles, and intonation (Don van Minde Pamela J. Stewart, Andrew Strathern (eds; Expressive genres and historical change; Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Taiwan. (Dianne van Oosterhout Johszua Robert Mansoben; Sistem politik tradisional di Irian Jaya, Indonesia; Studi perbandingan (Anton Ploeg Timothy B. Barnard (ed.; Contesting Malayness; Malay identities across boundaries (Nathan Porath Joel Bradshaw, Francisc Czobor (eds; Otto Dempwolff’s grammar of the Jabêm language in New Guinea (Ger Reesink

  1. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Edward Aspinall, Islam and nation; Separatist rebellion in Aceh, Indonesia. (Gerry van Klinken Greg Bankoff and Sandra Swart (with Peter Boomgaard, William Clarence-Smith, Bernice de Jong Boers and Dhiravat na Pombejra, Breeds of empire; The ‘invention’ of the horse in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa 1500–1950. (Susie Protschky Peter Boomgaard, Dick Kooiman and Henk Schulte Nordholt (eds, Linking destinies; Trade, towns and kin in Asian history. (Hans Hägerdal Carstens, Sharon A. Histories, cultures, identities; Studies in Malaysian Chinese worlds. (Kwee Hui Kian T.P. Tunjanan; m.m.v. J. Veenman, Molukse jongeren en onderwijs: quick scan 2008. Germen Boelens, Een doel in mijn achterhoofd; Een verkennend onderzoek onder Molukse jongeren in het middelbaar beroepsonderwijs. E. Rinsampessy (ed., Tussen adat en integratie; Vijf generaties Molukkers worstelen en dansen op de Nederlandse aarde. (Fridus Steijlen Isaäc Groneman, The Javanese kris. (Dick van der Meij Michael C. Howard, A world between the warps; Southeast Asia’s supplementary warp textiles. (Sandra Niessen W.R. Hugenholtz, Het geheim van Paleis Kneuterdijk; De wekelijkse gesprekken van koning Willem II met zijn minister J.C. Baud over het koloniale beleid en de herziening van de grondwet 1841-1848. (Vincent Houben J. Thomas Lindblad, Bridges to new business; The economic decolonization of Indonesia. (Shakila Yacob Julian Millie, Splashed by the saint; Ritual reading and Islamic sanctity in West Java. (Suryadi Graham Gerard Ong-Webb (ed., Piracy, maritime terrorism and securing the Malacca Straits. (Karl Hack Natasha Reichle, Violence and serenity; Late Buddhist sculpture from Indonesia. (Claudine Bautze-Picron, Arlo Griffiths Garry Rodan, Kevin Hewison and Richard Robison (eds, The political economy of South-East Asia; Markets, power and contestation. (David Henley James C. Scott, The art of not being governed; An anarchist history of

  2. Altporn, corpos, categorias e cliques: notas etnográficas sobre pornografia online Altporn, bodies, categories, and clicks: ethnographic notes about online pornography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Parreiras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo discuto o tema dos vídeos pornôs encontrados na internet, para pensar sobre os possíveis impactos e modificações proporcionados por essa tecnologia nos modos de representação pornográfica. A escolha do on-line se deu a partir da constatação do enorme crescimento e segmentação do mercado pornô nesse espaço, bem como das constantes tentativas nacionais e transnacionais de controle do conteúdo veiculado na rede, cujos principais pontos de discussão são a pornografia, a pedofilia e a pirataria. Assim, pretendo neste paper, a partir de uma perspectiva antropológica, abordar as maneiras como o online atua no mercado erótico, especialmente no Brasil, aumentando a segmentação do gênero pornográfico e permitindo o crescimento da chamada pornografia alternativa (altporn. Para tal, tomarei como base dados de minha pesquisa empírica enfocando o site brasileiro pioneiro na produção e comercialização de pornografia alternativa. Meu intento é perceber de que modo se organiza a produção desse ramo da pornografia - com estreita ligação com os avanços tecnológicos - e quais convenções de gênero estão operando nesse segmento a partir da observação dos corpos, desejos e práticas sexuais encontrados nos vídeos e imagens.This article discusses the topic of porn videos found on the Internet in order to think about the possible impacts and modifications provided by this technology in pornographic representation. The choice for the online was due to the tremendous growth and market segmentation of porn in this space, as well as national and transnational constant attempts to control the content posted on the network, whose main points of discussion are pornography, pedophilia and piracy. So, in this paper, I intend, from an anthropological perspective, to address the ways in which online acts in the porn market, especially in Brazil, increasing segmentation of the genre pornographic and enabling the growth of

  3. Amaro-autonomous real-time detection of moving maritime objects: introducing a flight experiment for an on-board ship detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Kurt; Willburger, Katharina; Pless, Sebastian

    2017-10-01

    Motivated by politics and economy, the monitoring of the world wide ship traffic is a field of high topicality. To detect illegal activities like piracy, illegal fishery, ocean dumping and refugee transportation is of great value. The analysis of satellite images on the ground delivers a great contribution to situation awareness. However, for many applications the up-to-dateness of the data is crucial. With ground based processing, the time between image acquisition and delivery of the data to the end user is in the range of several hours. The highest influence to the duration of ground based processing is the delay caused by the transmission of the large amount of image data from the satellite to the processing centre on the ground. One expensive solution to this issue is the usage of data relay satellites systems like EDRS. Another approach is to analyse the image data directly on-board of the satellite. Since the product data (e.g. ship position, heading, velocity, characteristics) is very small compared to the input image data, real-time connections provided by satellite telecommunication services like Iridium or Orbcomm can be used to send small packets of information directly to the end user without significant delay. The AMARO (Autonomous real-time detection of moving maritime objects) project at DLR is a feasibility study of an on-board ship detection system involving a real-time low bandwidth communication. The operation of a prototype on-board ship detection system will be demonstrated on an airborne platform. In this article, the scope, aim and design of a flight experiment for an on-board ship detection system scheduled for mid of 2018 is presented. First, the scope and the constraints of the experiment are explained in detail. The main goal is to demonstrate the operability of an automatic ship detection system on board of an airplane. For data acquisition the optical high resolution DLR MACS-MARE camera (VIS/NIR) is used. The system will be able to

  4. Earth Science knowledge and Geodiversity awareness in the Langhe area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calorio, Matteo; Giardino, Marco; Lozar, Francesca; Perotti, Luigi; Vigna, Rossella

    2017-04-01

    Hills of Central Piemonte Region (Langhe, Monferrato) have a range of geological and geomorphological features that make them very attractive for both viticulture and tourism activities. Particularly, the Langhe area, located at the inner margin of the SW-Alps, is part of the Piedmont Basin (PB) a Late Eocene-Miocene succession composed by continental, shallow and deep marine deposits. Its monocline structure caused the present-day characteristic "cuestas" morphology of the Langhe hills. Quaternary evolution of river network is here characterized by the effects of the Tanaro piracy. Despite of its rich geodiversity and even if on 2014 the area has been included within the UNESCO WH, its recognition is limited to cultural heritage. In fact, a comprehensive use of Earth science knowledge in the assessment of natural heritage of this area is still lacking. As a consequence, geoheritage is under-recognized as well as endangered by both natural hazards and increased human "pressure". The geodiversity loss in the Langhe area is thus due either to human activities, i.e. high mechanization of viticulture activities in the last 30 years, particularly for new vineyards installation, or to active geomorphological processes, such as planar slide, flow, soil slips and floods. The Langhe area is in fact highly sensitive to climate change and prone to these processes. In term of "human sensitivity", several sociological surveys have shown that "perceived risk", not "real risk", influences people's behavior towards natural hazards. The same approach can be applied to geodiversity and geoheritage. Based on these assumptions, we considered the possible strategic roles played by dissemination of scientific research and application of new technologies: 1) to enhance awareness, either of geodiversity or environmental dynamics and 2) to improve knowledge, both on geoheritage management and natural risk reduction. Within the activities of the "PROGEO-Piemonte Project" we performed a

  5. Assessment of an in-channel redistribution technique for large woody debris management in Locust Creek, Linn County, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.

    2017-10-24

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Conservation and Missouri Department of Natural Resources, completed a study to assess a mechanical redistribution technique used for the management of large woody debris (LWD) jams in Locust Creek within Pershing State Park and Fountain Grove Conservation Area, Linn County, Missouri. Extensive LWD jams were treated from 1996 to 2009 using a low-impact technique in which LWD from the jams was redistributed to reopen the channel and to mimic the natural geomorphic process of channel migration and adjustment to an obstruction. The scope of the study included the comparison of selected channel geometry characteristics and bed material particle-size distribution in seven LWD treatment reaches with that of adjacent untreated reaches (unaffected by LWD accumulations) of Locust Creek. A comparison of 1996 and 2015 survey cross sections in treated and untreated reaches and photograph documentation were used to assess channel geomorphic change and the stability of redistributed LWD. The physical characteristics of LWD within jams present in the study reach during 2015–16 also were documented.Based on the general lack of differences in channel metrics between treated and untreated reaches, it can be concluded that the mechanical redistribution technique has been an effective treatment of extensive LWD jams in Locust Creek. Channel alterations, including aggradation, streamflow piracy, and diversions, have resulted in temporal and spatial changes in the Locust Creek channel that may affect future applications of the redistribution technique in Pershing State Park. The redistribution technique was used to effectively manage LWD in Locust Creek at a potentially lower financial cost and reduced environmental disturbance than the complete removal of LWD.A comparison of four channel metrics (bankfull cross-sectional area, channel width, streamflow capacity, and width-depth ratio) for individual treatment

  6. Geodiversity, geoheritage and cultural landscape: an example from the Messinian geosites of the Piemonte region (NW-Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Enrico; Natalicchio, Marcello; Ghiraldi, Luca; Lozar, Francesca; Dela Pierre, Francesco; Giardino, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The Piemonte region (NW-Italy) contains a remarkable diversity of landscapes, some of them included in and protected by the World Heritage list, as well as some recently proposed geosites which testify the dramatic paleoevironmental, paleobiological and paleoclimatic event that occurred in the Mediterranean area around 6 Ma ago during the so-called Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). However the link between landform, geodiversity, geoheritage, and cultural landscape has not yet fully explored. The aims of this study, promoted by the multidisciplinary research project 'PROGEO-Piemonte' (PROactive management of GEOlogical heritage in the Piemonte region), are: 1) to analyse the link between geosites and recent landscape modification, 2) to reconstruct the landscape evolution and, through geotourism, 3) to promote geological knowledge in an area with great potential for tourism. The study area is located in the SE part of the Cuneo plain, at the foot of the Langhe hills, where heterogeneous landforms, mainly related to the Tanaro river piracy, are observed. The sediments recording the MSC event, mostly consisting of thick gypsum layers, have been recently studied by a multidisciplinary approach and the results allowed the detailed reconstruction of the MSC evolution in this region. Two maps have been produced to disseminate the geodiversity knowledge (the geological - landscape map) and to promote geotourism fruition (the geotouristic map). The geological - landscape map deals with different geological and geomorphologic issues thanks to illustrations of the main features of the Messinian deposits, their depositional environments and the exposed landforms. To underline the high geodiversity of the area, it has been divided into several geomorphologic sectors based of their characteristic landforms and evolution. In each of these sectors, geosites have been identified to clarify the comprehension of the related topics at the widest public: particularly, the geosites help

  7. Il valore dell'eBook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Cavalli

    2013-03-01

    scambio di testi in modo informale online. A fronte di questo panorama complesso, che riguarda certamente una frangia di lettori molto particolare, ma esemplare in un’ipotetica linea di diffusione dell’e-book come veicolo del testo scritto, si è indagata la correlazione tra la percezione dell’illegalità della condivisione in rete di un testo, di particolare interesse personale o professionale per il lettore, e il suo prezzo, così come proposto dalle case editrici.EnWhat value perceives those who buy and use e-books? The diffusion of e-book readers at affordable prices is changing the perception of the commercial value of ebook object and the value attributed by the consumer to the work of publishing and distribution. Alternative system of distribution arise, therefore does still make sense speaking of piracy in the market for e-books? This study has the objective to carry out a fact-finding on these issues, which are becoming increasingly important. The survey has seen, at this early stage, the use of a questionnaire disseminated on online social networks, websites and forums dedicated to reading through the mailing list of interest groups, with the primary objective to define the profile of that vanguard of strong readers, to collect information with respect to their search habits of new readings and describe the dynamics of matchmaking prior to the acquisition.

  8. Encyclopedia of Information Ethics and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Yavuz AKBULUT

    2008-01-01

    andcommunication technologies provided in the source can help educationaladministrators and policy-makers. Table of contents along with the names ofcontributors are provided below: 3D Avatars and Collaborative Virtual Environments/Koon-Ying Raymond Li,James Sofra, and Mark Power Access Control for Healthcare/Yifeng Shen Advertising in the Networked Environment/Savvas Papagiannidis and MichaelBourlakis Anonymous Peer-to-Peer Systems/Wenbing Zhao Argumentation and Computing/Ephraim Nissan Argumentation with Wigmore Charts and Computing/Ephraim Nissan Artificial Intelligence Tools for Handling Legal Evidence/Ephraim Nissan Barriers Facing African American Women in Technology/Jianxia Du, George H.Pate, Deneen Sherrod, and Wei-Chieh Yu B-POS Secure Mobile Payment System/Antonio Grillo, Alessandro Lentini, andGianluigi Me Building Secure and Dependable Information Systems/Wenbing Zhao Classifying Articles in Information Ethics and Security/Zack Jourdan, R. KellyRainer Jr., and Thomas E. Marshall Computational Ethics/Alicia I. Ruvinsky Computer Ethics and Intelligent Technologies/Yefim Kats Computer Worms, Detection, and Defense/Robert J. Cole and Chao-Hsien Chu Conflicting Value of Digital Music Piracy/Matthew Butler Content Filtering Methods for Internet Pornography/Jengchung V. Chen andShaoYu F. Huang Cyber-Terrorism in Australia/Christopher Beggs Data Security and Chase/Zbigniew W. Ras and Seunghyun Im Defending against Distributed Denial of Service/Yang Xiang and Wanlei Zhou Digital Divide Implications and Trends/Irene Chen and Terry T. Kidd Digital Rights Management Metadata and Standards/Jo Anne Cote and Eun G.Park235 Dilemmas of Online Identity Theft/Omer Mahmood Document Security in the Ancient World/Christopher H. Walker DRM Practices in the E-Publication Industry/Bong Wee Kiau and NorshuhadaShiratuddin Educational Technology Practitioner-Research Ethics/Kathleen Gray E-Health and Ensuring Quality

  9. Sustaining Shipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnardel-Azzarelli, Betty [World Nuclear Transport Institute, Remo House, 4th Floor, 310-312 Regent Street, London, London W1B 3AX (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    . Producer shippers accordingly are being denied options for competitive choice of services. Shippers too often are met by a lack of standardisation in documentation. And, of course, worst of all, is when shipping lines deny, or withdraw from services. This situation inevitably can drive consignors to consider charter options; but this is not a panacea. Charters can mean reduced shipping schedules, and a lack of delivery flexibility. This, in turn, results in increased overall inventory holdings, and increased total shipping and other related business costs. And of course, use of slower, smaller charter vessels increases the potential risk of security breaches by potentially diverting cargoes away from mainstream access terminals to small ports or terminals, and the potential for piracy. This paper examines reasons for increasing delays and denials of shipments. It examines the impact delays and denials are having on industry, and describes the various international initiatives to address the problem including industry efforts through the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI). Just as the problems of denial and delay are varied and multi-layered, so too are the possibilities for responding to them at all levels - international, regional, national and local. A number of suggestions for further action are advanced. These include the need to cast the training net to a wider cross section of stakeholders; moves towards a more harmonised approach by the various authorities within a national jurisdiction; and the need for more regular, collective exchanges within countries between those whose job it is to develop and enforce the regulations and standards for Class 7 transport, and those whose job it is to operate within them. If denials and delays of shipments are to be overcome, then all stakeholders, intergovernmental organisations, national governments and industry must work together, without let up, to exchange experiences, and ideas to develop positive responses. (author)

  10. Pakistan's rise to nuclear power and the contribution of German companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricke, Klaus-Peter

    2013-09-01

    , post-shipment controls, in other words checking whether goods have reached the country to which they were being exported or whether those goods are still there.The Federal Customs Administration makes use of customs liaison officers/customs attaches in numerous countries and these could take over this task. Included among these countries are the United Arab Emirates, a commonly used conduit for exporting goods to the final destination of Iran or Pakistan. The number of foreign trade and payments audits would have to be drastically increased. For effective export controls in the future measures at the level of the EU are of critical importance. Here the German government should exert its influence in order to see to it that cooperation among customs administrations in the area of export controls is decisively improved. The intensive cooperation that is common practice in for example narcotrafficking, contraband cigarette smuggling or brand piracy must be possible in the case of export controls too. In my opinion, the breakthrough to effective European export controls would be achieved through the creation of a European Anti-Proliferation Office - similar to the European Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF), which has already existed for years - which would collate the data on proliferation activities (companies and individuals) already available in the various European countries, process them and use them in investigations.

  11. Globalization, the Information Society and New Crimes : the Challenge for the XXI Century / Mondialisation, société de l’information et crimes nouveaux : le défi du 21ème siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viano Emilio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines in depth the current phenomenon of globalization and its trends; its impact, positive or negative which is the cornerstone of the current restructuring of the global economy; the nature and consequences of the globalization of trade and financial services; the operations and impact of the multinationals; and the hierarchy of countries based on their relative importance in the global economy, and its consequences. The paper then distinguishes between real and virtual globalization and its impact on economic growth; its inclusive and exclusive dynamics and their consequences for individual and corporate economic actors. The paper then addresses the information society, a phenomenon that accompanies and significantly facilitates globalization through drastic and significant improvements in communications and transport. The Internet and electronic devices used for massive surveillance, the collection of personal information, and the systematic erosion of privacy - the Internet as Panopticon – are also examined.Finally, the paper analyzes the vulnerability of the global information society to crime, especially economic and identity theft crimes, ironically facilitated especially by its global and inter-connected nature. Even the global improvement in the financial conditions of most people worldwide, creating more wealth and economic well being, has negative, and at times criminal, repercussions, impacting especially indigenous or vulnerable populations, fauna and flora. Most illustrative examples of these criminal trends are trafficking in people, endangered species, animal organs and products, antiquities, art and various types of counterfeiting. In conclusion there is a clear and close connection between globalization, the information society, criminal behavior and a society’s ability to effectively protect itself from piracy and the violations of a country’s laws and treaties.Ce document examine en profondeur le ph

  12. TRIPs公約、NAFTA、我國「商標法」有關「仿品進口」邊境管制措施之比較研究 Border Measures Provisions of Counterfeiting: A Comparision Study of TRIPs, NAFTA and Taiwan Trademark Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    易建明 Jiann-Ming Yih

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available 仿品進口「邊境管制措施」為 TRIPs 協定(Agreement on Trade — Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights 簡稱TRIPs)第4 篇(第51 條至第60 條)所規範之範圍,另明文規範相關民事救濟。而我國2003 年「商標法」配合TRIPs 之修改等,主管機關已於2004 年9 月15 日訂定「海關查扣侵害商標權物品實施辦法」。本文就TRIPs、NAFTA、我國商標法有關「仿品」邊境管制措施之比較(區分為權利人的申請和海關依職權主動調查兩類),以作為我國未來與美國洽簽自由貿易協定是否採NAFTA 模式之參考。 (1有關「權利人的申請」邊境管制措施,我國若與美國洽簽自由貿易協定,若採NAFTA 模式,在「海關暫緩放行」的申請等,因大致相同,故無須修改我國「商標法」;至於有關「表面證據」以及表面證據之要件,係英美法之概念,在TRIPs、NAFTA「邊境管制措施」相關規定均強調「表面證據」;而我國2003 年「商標法」第65 條第2 項前段規定:「申請,應以書面為之,並釋明侵害之事實。」 (2另有關「海關依職權主動採取邊境管制措施」部分,我國2003 年「商標法」並未參照TRIPs 第58 條制定相關規範。由於TRIPs 第58 條並非強制性規範,我國未違反TRIPs 之規範。但TRIPs 與NAFTA 均明文規定「海關依職權主動採取邊境管制措施」,我國未來若與美國洽簽FTA 時,若採NAFTA 模式時應修改商標法,參照TRIPs 協定第58 條與NAFTA 第1718 條第11 項,增訂相關條文。 This Article tries to compare the regulations of border measures among TRIPs Agreement, NAFTA and Taiwan Trademark Law. The TRIPs Agreement distinguishes between infringement, for which civil judicial procedures and remedies must be available, and counterfeiting and piracy. In the case of counterfeiting, additional procedures and remedies, including border

  13. Universal Jurisdiction between Unity and Fragmentation of International Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasculli Maria Antonella

    2011-04-01

    over other international or transnational crimes, which would be a sign of real fragmentation between modern ICL (the core crimes and transnational ICL (crimes such as terrorism, piracy, money counterfeiting, etc..In section 2, on the basis of a few selected case studies, I will ask whether the exercise of UJ has the tendency to lead to fragmented jurisprudence on substantive ICL. I will try to answer: Do States in their implementation of legislation and subsequently the national courts use the same crime definitions as the ICC, or are they generally different and tailored to domestic circumstances? And those questions arise even more strongly for modes of liability? If the latter is the case, to what extent is the jurisprudence fragmented – is it on minor points, or do we see great divergences in case law on crime definitions?Finally, I will make some final observations on the utility of UJ and whether in general it will lead to further fragmentation within ICL, with my personal interpretation of ideal UJ.Dans cet article, la question que nous allons aborder est celle de la juridiction universelle, de manière à comprendre si elle conduira à l’unité ou à la fragmentation du droit pénal international. Sur la base d’un bref aperçu de la littérature sur le sujet, on évaluera le pour et le contre de l’implémentation du principe de juridiction universelle. Après quoi, afin de porter notre attention sur l’efficacité et la légitimité du principe de juridiction universelle, défini aussi comme une forme de juridiction controversée, on l’examinera dans les pays qui ont légiféré différemment en la matière.Dans la première partie du texte, on donnera un aperçu des Etats qui, par respect pour la ratification du Statut de Rome, ont résolu le problème de l’universalité de la juridiction en droit pénal selon différentes formes et modalités. Dans la deuxième partie, à travers quelques cas de jurisprudence, on essayera de répondre à la

  14. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available -Stanley L. Engerman, Heather Cateau ,Capitalism and slavery fifty years later: Eric Eustace Williams - A reassessment of the man and his work. New York: Peter Lang, 2000. xvii + 247 pp., S.H.H. Carrington (eds -Philip D. Morgan, B.W. Higman, Writing West Indian histories. London: Macmillan Caribbean, 1999. xiv + 289 pp. -Daniel Vickers, Alison Games, Migration and the origins of the English Atlantic world. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1999. xiii + 322 pp. -Christopher L. Brown, Andrew Jackson O'Shaughnessy, An empire divided: The American revolution and the British Caribbean. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000. xviii + 357 pp. -Lennox Honychurch, Samuel M. Wilson, The indigenous people of the Caribbean. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1997. xiv + 253 pp. -Kenneth Bilby, Bev Carey, The Maroon story: The authentic and original history of the Maroons in the history of Jamaica 1490-1880. St. Andrew, Jamaica: Agouti Press, 1997. xvi + 656 pp. -Bernard Moitt, Doris Y. Kadish, Slavery in the Caribbean Francophone world: Distant voices, forgotten acts, forged identities. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000. xxiii + 247 pp. -Michael J. Guasco, Virginia Bernhard, Slaves and slaveholders in Bermuda, 1616-1782. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1999. xviii + 316 pp. -Michael J. Jarvis, Roger C. Smith, The maritime heritage of the Cayman Islands. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000. xxii + 230 pp. -Paul E. Hoffman, Peter R. Galvin, Patterns of pillage: A geography of Caribbean-based piracy in Spanish America, 1536-1718. New York: Peter Lang, 1999. xiv + 271 pp. -David M. Stark, Raúl Mayo Santana ,Cadenas de esclavitud...y de solidaridad: Esclavos y libertos en San Juan,siglo XIX. Río Piedras: Centro de Investigaciones Sociales, Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1997. 204 pp., Mariano Negrón Portillo, Manuel Mayo López (eds -Ada Ferrer, Philip A. Howard, Changing history: Afro-Cuban Cabildos and

  15. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2000-07-01

    : The Press University of the West Indies, 1998. xviii + 152 pp. -Kris Lane, Hans Turley, Rum, sodomy, and the lash: Piracy, sexuality, and masculine identity. New York: New York University Press, 1999. lx + 199 pp. -Jonathan Schorsch, Eli Faber, Jews, slaves, and the slave trade: Setting the record straight. New York: New York University Press, 1998. xvii + 367 pp. -Bonham C. Richardson, Bridget Brereton ,The Colonial Caribbean in transition: Essays on postemancipation social and cultural history. Barbados: The Press University of the West Indies; Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1999. xxiii + 319 pp., Kevin A. Yelvington (eds -Ransford W. Palmer, Thomas Klak, Globalization and neoliberalism: The Caribbean context. New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998. xxiv + 319 pp. -Susan Saegert, Robert B. Potter ,Self-help housing, the poor, and the state in the Caribbean. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1997. xiv + 299 pp., Dennis Conway (eds -Peter Redfield, Michèle-Baj Strobel, Les gens de l'or: Mémoire des orpailleurs créoles du Maroni. Petit-Bourg, Guadeloupe: Ibis Rouge, 1998. 400 pp. -Donald R. Hill, Louis Regis, The political calypso: True opposition in Trinidad and Tobago 1962-1987. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1999. xv + 277 pp. -A. James Arnold, Christiane P. Makward, Mayotte Capécia ou l'aliénation selon Fanon. Paris: Karthala, 1999. 230 pp. -Chris Bongie, Celia M. Britton, Edouard Glissant and postcolonial theory: Strategies of language and resistance. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999. xiv + 224 pp. -Chris Bongie, Anne Malena, The negotiated self: The dynamics of identity in Francophone Caribbean narrative. New York: Peter Lang, 1999. x + 192 pp. -Catherine A. John, Kathleen M. Balutansky ,Caribbean creolization: Reflections on the cultural dynamics of language, literature, and identity., Marie-Agnès Sourieau (eds -Leland Ferguson, Jay B. Haviser, African sites archaeology in the Caribbean. Princeton NJ: Markus

  16. Pakistan's rise to nuclear power and the contribution of German companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricke, Klaus-Peter

    2013-01-01

    , in other words checking whether goods have reached the country to which they were being exported or whether those goods are still there.The Federal Customs Administration makes use of customs liaison officers/customs attaches in numerous countries and these could take over this task. Included among these countries are the United Arab Emirates, a commonly used conduit for exporting goods to the final destination of Iran or Pakistan. The number of foreign trade and payments audits would have to be drastically increased. For effective export controls in the future measures at the level of the EU are of critical importance. Here the German government should exert its influence in order to see to it that cooperation among customs administrations in the area of export controls is decisively improved. The intensive cooperation that is common practice in for example narcotrafficking, contraband cigarette smuggling or brand piracy must be possible in the case of export controls too. In my opinion, the breakthrough to effective European export controls would be achieved through the creation of a European Anti-Proliferation Office - similar to the European Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF), which has already existed for years - which would collate the data on proliferation activities (companies and individuals) already available in the various European countries, process them and use them in investigations.

  17. Intellectual property protection for brand Jamaica’s creative industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisha LaRaine Ingram

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the last decade, strategies employed by governments to manage their country brands have evolved beyond tourism marketing techniques. It is quite commonplace now for most governments to hire marketing specialists to design and implement county brand campaigns and policies to promote country brands globally to attract foreign direct investment into that country. Whether it is the arts-based “creative industry” or an “enterprise culture”, these features have evolved to become the drivers of profit in global markets, and give each nation a “competitive edge” over other nations in regards to their national brand. Country brand management is integral for the successful development of industry sectors and is also dependent on good country image. For Brand Jamaica one such industry is the creative industries sector. Brand Jamaica’s creative industries are mostly comprised of the branded tourism accommodations, atmosphere, heritage and culture as well as the indigenous music and recordings of local artistes and singers. For the development of this sector which currently contributes to Jamaica GDP it is interpreted that enforced intellectual property will play a key role especially in the promoting of the brand online. Good management of country brands creative industries involves good business acumen on protecting and developing that sector as it is vital towards translating the intangible wealth of developing countries into economic growth. Enforced intellectual property protection for Brand Jamaica’s music, arts, theatrical productions and creative expressions ultimately lessen the occurrence of infringements of the brand’s assets, piracy and production of counterfeit goods and services produces, while creating future possibilities in cyberspace.Purpose – as a source of unlimited supply of intellectual property, Brand Jamaica requires formal management of those assets especially in the creative industries sector that the brand

  18. Acumulação primitiva:  um processo atuante na sociedade contemporânea Accumulation Primitive: un processus actif dans la societé contemporaine Primitive accumulation: a process active in contemporary society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lencioni

    2012-03-01

    èrement le lien entre l’accumulation primitive et la reproduction du capital dans la société contemporaine.With the hegemony of the social accumulation reproduction, the primitive accumulation is interpreted sometimes like a fact of the past and sometimes like a process that continues until today. Our point of view is that the historical primitive accumulation has not disappeared, including being one of the important components of contemporary society. In this society, the capitalists processes of primitive accumulation and the reproduction of capital coexist and complement each other in a contradictory and dialectical way. The first, the process of primitive accumulation is related to spoliation and to the production of new capital, while the second, the reproduction of capital is related to the exploration and it is a part of a capital already existing. The difference between the names 'spoliation' and 'exploitation' is confronted and the Harvey's opinion about accumulation by dispossession is discussed in the first part of the text. The second part discusses about the primitive accumulation of today, repeating the fraud, the theft and the violence, that were presents in the moment of the genesis of capitalism. Although the world seems to have changed, with both technical advancement and a variety of laws about human rights, it has not changed that much. Acts of fraud, theft and violence as expedients to generate capital still continues. Several examples of robbery of the natural resources are given, including the bio-piracy. Also, the debt slavery is emphasized as a violent form of spoliation, a form of primitive accumulation of capital in which the free worker, by mechanisms of subjection which he is subjugated, loses his freedom. The theft of land constitutes another example of primitive accumulation of the contemporary society. It is stated that all forms of dispossession are producing money and producing potential capital. Particularly, the financial capital is

  19. "India’s Foreign Policy: Retrospect and Prospect” by Sumit Ganguly (ed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Stuenkel

    2011-08-01

    reliable allies and a counterweight against the Pakistan- China alliance starting in the 1960s. Chapter 6 on India- Southeast Asia relations shows how difficult it has been in the past for India to exert influence in the region given its low economic integration due to its autarkic model. Despite these limitations, worries about Indian hegemony in the region have surfaced numerous times in the past decades. Chapter 7 (on India-Iran relations is among the most interesting, reflecting how challenging it has been for India to maintain warm ties to an important energy supplier despite sharp criticism by India’s other allies, namely the United States, Israel and the Arab nations. Chapter 8 (on India-Israel relations is a fascinating case study of how the Indian leadership used a brief window of opportunity after the Cold War to diversity its partnerships, making Israel into one of India’s most important providers of military equipment. Chapter 9 (on India-Korea ties is more normative and points to commonalities regarding the dependence on Middle Eastern energy and the exposure to piracy in the Indian Ocean, but it remains somewhat unclear why Korea deserves a full chapter, while other important countries such as Turkey, Brazil, South Africa, Indonesia or the EU are left out. Chapter 10 (on India-Japan relations is yet another example of how the Cold War constrained India’s foreign policy, given that Japan regarded the Soviet Union as a threat in the region. Despite not standing on the same side in the “cauldron of East-West confrontation”, the two managed to cooperate during the Cold War, and by the 1980s Japan was India’s largest aid donor. While both countries stand divided over India’s refusal to sign the NPT, the rise of China is likely to strengthen ties between India and Japan. Chapter 11 describes India’s ties to Russia, its former stalwart ally which remains India’s most important provider of arms, with over 70%, although this figure is set to decline

  20. Biodiversity and global health—hubris, humility and the unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Carolyn

    2012-03-01

    threatens fish biodiversity in marine reserves Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 101 8251-3 [13] Merson J 2000 Bio-prospecting or bio-piracy: intellectual property rights and biodiversity in a colonial and postcolonial context Osiris 15 282-96 [14] Soejarto D D 1996 Biodiversity prospecting and benefit-sharing: perspectives from the field J. Ethnopharmacol. 51 1-15 [15] Foley J A et al 2007 Amazonia revealed: forest degradation and loss of ecosystem goods and services in the Amazon Basin Front. Ecol. Environ. 5 25-32 [16] King S R, Carlson T J and Moran K 1996 Biological diversity, indigenous knowledge, drug discovery and intellectual property rights: creating reciprocity and maintaining relationships J. Ethnopharmacol. 51 45-57 [17] Witzig R and Ascencios M 1999 The road to indigenous extinction: case study of resource exportation, disease importation, and human rights violations against the Urarina in the Peruvian Amazon Health Hum. Rights 4 60-81 [18] Fundacion Proyungas 2007 Bitácora de las Yungas: Bosques Nublados (Tucuman: Fundacion de las Yungas) [19] US Government 2003 Conserving Biodiversity in the Amazon Basin: Context and Opportunities for USAID (Washington, DC: USAID) [20] Montenegro R A and Stephens C 2006 Indigenous health in Latin America and the Caribbean Lancet 367 1859-69 [21] Stephens C, Nettleton C and Bristow F (ed) 2003 Utz' Wach'il: Health and Well-Being Among Indigenous Peoples (London: Health Unlimited and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine) (http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/php/sehr/indigenous/docs/utzpamphlet.pdf) [22] Brown A et al 2007 Finca San Andres—Un Espacio de Cambios Ambientales y Sociales en el Alto Bermejo (Ediciones del Subtropico: Yerba Buena) [23] Ramos A and Junqueira R 2010 The contribution of indigenous people to forest conservation and recovery Everything is Connected: Climate and Biodiversity in a Fragile World ed C Foley (London: DEFRA) (http://sd.defra.gov.uk/2010/11/everything