WorldWideScience

Sample records for piracy

  1. Software piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Kráčmer, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present thesis is to clarify the term of software piracy and to determine responsibility of individual entities as to actual realization of software piracy. First, the thesis focuses on a computer programme, causes, realization and pitfalls of its inclusion under copyright protection. Subsequently, it observes methods of legal usage of a computer programme. This is the point of departure for the following attempt to define software piracy, accompanied with methods of actu...

  2. Controlling Software Piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Albert S.

    1992-01-01

    Explains what software manufacturers are doing to combat software piracy, recommends how managers should deal with this problem, and provides a role-playing exercise to help students understand the issues in software piracy. (SR)

  3. Law, Pirates, and Piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Tiffany Willey

    2010-01-01

    Maritime piracy has increasingly been in the news, and in the courtroom, in recent years. This article presents an interview with international legal and overseas piracy expert Douglas Guilfoyle. In this interview, Guilfoyle discusses why piracy is a growing problem and some of the challenges it creates for the international community. He also…

  4. Digital piracy: Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Belleflamme, Paul; Peitz, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews recent theoretical contributions on digital piracy. It starts by elaborating on the reasons for intellectual property protection, by reporting a few facts about copyright protection, and by examining reasons to become a digital pirate. Next, it provides an exploration of the consequences of digital piracy, using a base model and several extensions (with consumer sampling, network effects, and indirect appropriation). A closer look at market-structure implications of end-u...

  5. COMBATING PIRACY: THE INDONESIAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melda Kamil Ariadno

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Piracy at sea has been a threat to international navigation ever since the sea traverse by ships from west to east and north to south. Threat to international trade has resulted to various efforts in combating piracy regionally as well as internationally. International law has differentiated between piracy and sea-armed robbery, while the first requires regional or international cooperation due to universal jurisdiction, the second will directly fall under the jurisdiction of coastal state. Strait of Malacca has been used by international navigation and very fragile to the threat of piracy or even appropriately called as sea armed robbery since most of the time happened in the part of Indonesian territorial sea. Various efforts to combat piracy have been carried out by Indonesia including to cooperate with Malaysia and Singapore. This article discuss about piracy at sea, its legal definition and effort to combat piracy.

  6. Access, ethics and piracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Lawson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ownership of intellectual property rights for a large proportion of the scholarly record is held by publishers, so a majority of journal articles are behind paywalls and unavailable to most people. As a result some readers are encouraged to use pirate websites such as Sci-Hub to access them, a practice that is alternately regarded as criminal and unethical or as a justified act of civil disobedience. This article considers both the efficacy and ethics of piracy, placing ‘guerrilla open access’ within a longer history of piracy and access to knowledge. By doing so, it is shown that piracy is an inevitable part of the intellectual landscape that can render the current intellectual property regime irrelevant. If we wish to actively construct a true scholarly commons, open access emerges as a contender for moving beyond proprietary forms of commodifying scholarly knowledge towards the creation of an open scholarly communication system that is fit for purpose.

  7. Maritime Piracy, its Suppression and Punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Štemberg, Milan

    2011-01-01

    The text Maritime Piracy, Its Suppression and Punishment, analyses piracy as a classical threat to international maritime traffic, which has reappeared after being considered obsolete in a majority of the world for several decades. The text first discusses general questions connected with piracy - a definition of piracy according to public international law is presented. Consequently, the factual side of piracy is presented, since piracy still is a topic not very well-known in the Western wor...

  8. Convoying against piracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.; Ven, M.P.A. van der

    2013-01-01

    The last couple of years have shown an alarming increase in the incidence of piracy near Somalia. Both the Somali East Coast and the Gulf of Aden are high-risk areas. The Gulf of Aden is an important shipping lane due to its location. Convoying merchant vessels through the Gulf of Aden is one of the

  9. Analyzing Software Piracy in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesisko, Lee James

    This study analyzes the controversy of software piracy in education. It begins with a real world scenario that presents the setting and context of the problem. The legalities and background of software piracy are explained and true court cases are briefly examined. Discussion then focuses on explaining why individuals and organizations pirate…

  10. Piracy prevention methods in software business

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, J

    2016-01-01

    There are various forms of piracy in software business, and many prevention techniques have been developed against them. Forms of software piracy are, for example, cracks and serials, softlifting and hard disk loading, internet piracy and software counterfeiting, mischanneling, reverse engineering, and tampering. There are various prevention methods that target these types of piracy, although all of these methods have been broken. The piracy prevention measures can be divided into ethical, l...

  11. Access, ethics and piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Ownership of intellectual property rights for a large proportion of the scholarly record is held by publishers, so a majority of journal articles are behind paywalls and unavailable to most people. As a result some readers are encouraged to use pirate websites such as Sci-Hub to access them, a practice that is alternately regarded as criminal and unethical or as a justified act of civil disobedience. This article considers both the efficacy and ethics of piracy, placing ‘guerrilla open access...

  12. Technological Development and Software Piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Romeu, Andrés; Martínez Sánchez, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the differences in piracy rates from one country to another. Like previous papers on the topic, we find that more developed countries have lower incentives for pirating. Unlike previous papers, we find that the piracy rate is positively correlated with the tax burden rate but negatively correlated with the domestic market size and exports over GDP. We also separate the impacts of education and R&D on piracy, and find two effects with opposite signs. Moreover, we find...

  13. Piracy and its relationship to international law

    OpenAIRE

    Štemberg, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Résumé Piracy and its Relation to the International Law Piracy is a threat to maritime navigation - and to maritime trade in particular - that is as ancient as maritime navigation itself. Even the Roman ruler Julius Caesar was - according to historians - captured by the pirates and released only after paying a royal ransom. At the beginning of the twentieth century, some authors considered the crime of piracy to be 'obsolete'. However, as the latest development proves, piracy is unfortunately...

  14. Piracy and Its Impact on the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    piracy to be something daring and magical, as depicted through Disney movies, the reality is that piracy is a real and ever-growing threat to...BLANK 59 V. CONCLUSION As noted earlier, while many people believe piracy to be something daring and magical as depicted through Disney movies...the threat of piracy, but with the expansion from Somalia, more countries need to be involved in this process. Through the cooperation of other

  15. Congress Seeks Tales of Piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Brock

    2007-01-01

    This month, leaders of two committees in the U.S. House of Representatives sent letters warning of an epidemic of online music and movie piracy to 19 colleges, singling out those schools that, in the eyes of entertainment-industry officials, have been unable to stop students from illegally downloading music and movies. Enclosed with each message…

  16. China Cracks Down Internet Piracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      National Copyright Administration of China carried out a special operation to crack down on behaviors involving network infringement and piracy from September to December in 2005 ,according to the speech of Yan Xiaohong,Deputy Commissioner of National Copyright Administration on the Press Conference of the State Council.Now the relevant conditions are as follows:……

  17. China Cracks Down Internet Piracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ National Copyright Administration of China carried out a special operation to crack down on behaviors involving network infringement and piracy from September to December in 2005 ,according to the speech of Yan Xiaohong,Deputy Commissioner of National Copyright Administration on the Press Conference of the State Council.Now the relevant conditions are as follows:

  18. Internet piracy and consequences for victims

    OpenAIRE

    Savić Miljan; Petrović Nikola M.

    2016-01-01

    After the evolution of technology made it possible to perform actions via the Internet that constitute copyright violations, the analysis of the effects of internet piracy on social welfare became the subject of academic polemics. The main and the biggest victims of Internet piracy are the holders of copyright and related rights, however, the damage that piracy causes them comes from multiple sources, is difficult to quantify and is only a part of the total...

  19. CORE COMPETENCES OF PIRACY AND MARITIME TERRORISM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Piotr Gawliczek; Aneta Nowakowska-Krystman

    2016-01-01

    .... Recognizing the enemy - piracy and maritime terrorism - by identifying their resources, skills and competences is necessary action in building the safety of vessels and maritime infrastructure...

  20. Somalia Piracy: Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    organized predominately along clan lines and based in remote port towns along the coast of Somalia. The March 2009 UN Secretary General report...take notice and action. One major turning point of U.S. involvement in countering piracy was the hijacking of U.S. flagged ship Maersk Alabama in...the Horn of Africa: Partnership & Action Plan (CPAP). CPAP consist of three lines of action and embedded within these actions are five essential

  1. Deindividuation and Internet software piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinduja, Sameer

    2008-08-01

    Computer crime has increased exponentially in recent years as hardware, software, and network resources become more affordable and available to individuals from all walks of life. Software piracy is one prevalent type of cybercrime and has detrimentally affected the economic health of the software industry. Moreover, piracy arguably represents a rend in the moral fabric associated with the respect of intellectual property and reduces the financial incentive of product creation and innovation. Deindividuation theory, originating from the field of social psychology, argues that individuals are extricated from responsibility for their actions simply because they no longer have an acute awareness of the identity of self and of others. That is, external and internal constraints that would typically regulate questionable behavior are rendered less effective via certain anonymizing and disinhibiting conditions of the social and environmental context. This exploratory piece seeks to establish the role of deindividuation in liberating individuals to commit software piracy by testing the hypothesis that persons who prefer the anonymity and pseudonymity associated with interaction on the Internet are more likely to pirate software. Through this research, it is hoped that the empirical identification of such a social psychological determinant will help further illuminate the phenomenon.

  2. the first outbreak of somali piracy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plt

    South Mudug piracy model in Harardhere and Hobyo in 2005 laid the foundation for a decade of .... fishing defence narrative might hold some truth.12 Weldemichael ties piracy to ..... A very big decline that is hard to imagine and which is very .... the first pirate group.124 The innovation offered by Afweyne's company was the.

  3. Piracy off the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    Congressional Research Service 25 prevent, deter, and respond to pirate attacks.100 The IMB manages a 24-hour piracy reporting center in Kuala Lumpur ...regional trade, on the region’s tourism and fishing industries, and on food prices. Threats to Commercial Shipping and Global Trade47 Piracy results in

  4. Music Piracy-Music Producers’Views

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Stricter laws needed> Gao Xiaosong-music producer Piracy is better described as a global problem, and is not unique to China. You never expect to rid the country of music piracy completely [in a short period].China’s music copyright infringement problems remain more severe than that of

  5. Piracy, Globalisation and the Colonisation of the Commons

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade piracy has become a source of constant debate. While copyright organisations describe piracy as simple theft, others regard it as a legitimate form of cultural consumption in a digital environment. Piracy is, however, not a phenomenon unique to digital media of the 21st century. This article takes the history of copyright and piracy as a starting point for a discussion about piracy as a cultural and political phenomenon that goes beyond the contemporary preoccupation with...

  6. Retro Gaming Subculture and the Social Construction of a Piracy Ethic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steven Downing

    2011-01-01

    ...s. In relation to digital piracy, these studies tend to focus on the financial and social components of digital piracy as they relate to either a macro culture of piracy or gaming subcultures whose focus is piracy...

  7. Internet piracy and consequences for victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Miljan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the evolution of technology made it possible to perform actions via the Internet that constitute copyright violations, the analysis of the effects of internet piracy on social welfare became the subject of academic polemics. The main and the biggest victims of Internet piracy are the holders of copyright and related rights, however, the damage that piracy causes them comes from multiple sources, is difficult to quantify and is only a part of the total social cost of piracy. However, there are other categories of victims, such as those whose honor was besmirched as a result of piracy, and who suffer the consequences in the form of negative emotional reactions, loss of job as well as those who subsequently commit suicide. The object of this paper is to describe the effects of internet piracy on the victims of this phenomenon, and the goal is the analysis of the various direct and indirect effects of piracy on victims and their motivation for future creation, as well as analysis of prevention measures, with special emphasis on the Republic of Serbia.

  8. The war against on-line piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Julian

    2011-01-01

    A summary by Julian Harris, Deputy General Editor Amicus Curiae, of US attempts to control what it identifies as rogue Internet sites engaged in on-line piracy and opposition to such legislative moves.

  9. The New Barbary Wars: Forecasting Maritime Piracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daxecker, U.E.; Prins, B.C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends systematic analyses of maritime piracy by verifying the robustness of empirical results and examining the forecasting ability of empirical models. Recent research by Ward, Greenhill and Bakke (2010) finds that statistically significant relationships frequently offer poor guidance

  10. Piracy, Music, and Movies: A Natural Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Adermon, Adrian; Liang, Che-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of illegal file sharing (piracy) on music and movie sales. The Swedish implementation of the European Union directive IPRED on April 1, 2009 suddenly increased the risk of being caught and prosecuted for file sharing. We investigate the subsequent drop in piracy as approximated by the drop in Swedish Internet traffic and the effects on music and movie sales in Sweden. We find that the reform decreased Internet traffic by 18 percent during the subs...

  11. Digital Piracy: An Assessment of Consumer Piracy Risk and Optimal Supply Chain Coordination Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Bong-Keun

    2010-01-01

    Digital piracy and the emergence of new distribution channels have changed the dynamics of supply chain coordination and created many interesting problems. There has been increased attention to understanding the phenomenon of consumer piracy behavior and its impact on supply chain profitability. The purpose of this dissertation is to better…

  12. Digital Piracy: An Assessment of Consumer Piracy Risk and Optimal Supply Chain Coordination Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Bong-Keun

    2010-01-01

    Digital piracy and the emergence of new distribution channels have changed the dynamics of supply chain coordination and created many interesting problems. There has been increased attention to understanding the phenomenon of consumer piracy behavior and its impact on supply chain profitability. The purpose of this dissertation is to better…

  13. Global Cooperation in Combating Sea Piracy: The Factors behind Global Piracy Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radillah Khaerany

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The rising number of sea travel is followed by the emerging number of sea crimes such as sea piracy and maritime terrorism. In recent two decades, the number of crimes on the sea have shown an alarming figure, where areas with a dense traffic of vessels such as the Gulf of Aden and Malacca Strait becomes the hot spots for piracy crime. The main reason behind the emerging of modern piracy is the increasing number of sea transported goods which create a significant opportunity to be a huge target of crime considering the drives behind piracy is financial reason. Some area of sea piracy took place commonly in Africa and Southeast Asia.

  14. Digital Piracy and Stealing: A Comparison on Criminal Propensity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Szde Yu

    2010-01-01

    Digital piracy is compared to stealing by copyright holders. However, research has consistently found that perpetrators never viewed digital piracy as immoral or unethical, as they would view stealing...

  15. Trading cultural goods in the era of digital piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Lionetti; Roberto Patuelli

    2009-01-01

    The issue of digital piracy as violation of intellectual property rights is a hot button among many governments around the world. Until now, nor legislation or its enforcement have managed to keep up with the most recent technologies facilitating piracy. Piracy rates may significantly affect both internal demand and international trade of cultural goods. This paper aims to empirically assess the effect of digital piracy on bilateral trade in cultural goods. We focus on trade in music an...

  16. Trading cultural goods in the era of digital piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Lionetti; Roberto Patuelli

    2009-01-01

    The issue of digital piracy as violation of intellectual property rights is a hot button among many governments around the world. Until now, nor legislation or its enforcement have managed to keep up with the most recent technologies facilitating piracy. Piracy rates may significantly affect both internal demand and international trade of cultural goods. This paper aims to empirically assess the effect of digital piracy on bilateral trade in cultural goods. We focus on trade in music an...

  17. The Nature and Incidence of Software Piracy: Evidence from Windows

    OpenAIRE

    Athey, Susan; Stern, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the nature, relative incidence and drivers of software piracy. In contrast to prior studies, we analyze data that allows us to measure piracy for a specific product - Windows 7 - which was associated with a significant level of private sector investment. Using anonymized telemetry data, we are able to characterize the ways in which piracy occurs, the relative incidence of piracy across different economic and institutional environments, and the impact of enforcement effort...

  18. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight... upon receiving information that an act or suspected act of air piracy has been committed, the...

  19. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless...

  20. Counter Piracy: A More Comprehensive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    William M. Jr. Jack Tars and Commodores; The American Navy, 1783-1815(Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1984) Ginkel, Bibi Van and Van der Putten...44 Bibi van Ginkel and Frans-Paul van der Putten, The International Response to Somali Piracy; Challenges and Opportunities. (Leiden: Martinus

  1. Is this the end of Somali piracy?

    OpenAIRE

    Coutroubis, Alec D.; Kiourktsoglou, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    In the last five years since 2008, we have participated in a host of conferences on maritime security and more specifically on piracy in east Africa. The cardinal problematic has remained all along the same: ‘is there a solution to the problem?’ Recent Somali history promptly offers some valuable hints.

  2. Software Piracy in Research: A Moral Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillanes, Gary; Felder, Ryan Marshall

    2015-08-01

    Researchers in virtually every discipline rely on sophisticated proprietary software for their work. However, some researchers are unable to afford the licenses and instead procure the software illegally. We discuss the prohibition of software piracy by intellectual property laws, and argue that the moral basis for the copyright law offers the possibility of cases where software piracy may be morally justified. The ethics codes that scientific institutions abide by are informed by a rule-consequentialist logic: by preserving personal rights to authored works, people able to do so will be incentivized to create. By showing that the law has this rule-consequentialist grounding, we suggest that scientists who blindly adopt their institutional ethics codes will commit themselves to accepting that software piracy could be morally justified, in some cases. We hope that this conclusion will spark debate over important tensions between ethics codes, copyright law, and the underlying moral basis for these regulations. We conclude by offering practical solutions (other than piracy) for researchers.

  3. Pirates and Piracy in American Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kania Richard R. E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Piracy is both an ancient and a modern social ill. Yet in American popular culture pirates have emerged as dashing heroic figures and Robin Hoods of the Sea. Some examples of this transformation of the pirate image from criminal to popular hero are explored in British and American fiction, cinema and other forms of popular culture.

  4. CORE COMPETENCES OF PIRACY AND MARITIME TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Gawliczek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of the attacks, the level of violence, the scale of destruction in the maritime areas forces creation of certain security conditions. Recognizing the enemy - piracy and maritime terrorism - by identifying their resources, skills and competences is necessary action in building the safety of vessels and maritime infrastructure. Building competence of terrorist organization and maritime piracy requires the involvement of many interrelated resources and their proper coordination. It seems that, as in a business model, in these criminal organizations there are similar resources, skills and competences that determine the advantage and strategic value of the organization. However, the weight of each factor is different. The same assumption can be related to piracy and the activities of the terrorist organization at sea. The results of the study suggest that the main sources of success of analyzed criminal organizations generate harm for national security. In the case of piracy, they result from the following spheres: human capital, attributable to the skills capital; structural capital, belonging to innovation capital; relational capital, depending on customers' capital. As for terrorist activities, they stem from the spheres of: human capital, belonging to social capital; structural capital, attributable to the process capital; relational capital and determined by capital of standing out. In summary, this article is intended to show a terrorist organization and maritime piracy through the prism of resources theory, skills and competences of strategic management. As one of the first, it places many questions, formulate some theses in the area of competences of organizations. Answering the questions, verification of posed theses, requires also in-depth research that will be published in subsequent works.

  5. Software piracy: A study of causes, effects and preventive measures

    OpenAIRE

    Khadka, Ishwor

    2015-01-01

    Software piracy is a serious issue that has been affecting software companies for decades. According to Business Software Alliance (BSA), the global software piracy rate in 2013 was 43 percent and the commercial value of unlicensed software installations was $62.7 billion, which resulted in millions of revenues and jobs lost in software companies. The goal of this study was to better understand the software piracy behaviours, how it happens, how it affects to individuals and software compani...

  6. The EU Comprehensive Approach on Somali Piracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Caramerli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Aden represents a strategic issue for the international community, as its geographical position is fundamental as the major trade maritime route. About 50 percent of the world container ships pass through the Gulf of Aden each year, 80 percent of those cargos coming from Europe. For this reason, the piracy issue affecting Somalia is a problem affecting EU member states’ security and economy. This paper is focused on the comprehensive approach acted by the European Union, with a special attention on proposing the implementation of programs against illegal fishing and waste dumping in order to fight Somali piracy. The evaluation of the military mission offers an overview on a solution for the near future, while the training missions and the development funds sustain the build-up of national tools and focus on the solving of the roots of the issue.

  7. On the dynamics of stream piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, L.; Willett, S. D.

    2012-04-01

    Drainage network reorganization by stream piracy is invoked repeatedly to explain the morphology of unique drainage patterns and as a possible mechanism inducing abrupt variations of sediment accumulation rates. However, direct evidence of stream piracy is usually rare, and is highly interpretation dependent. As a first step in assessing how probable capture events are and establishing the conditions that favor stream piracy versus the those that favor stable landscapes, we formulate analytically the physics of divide migration and capture events and study this formulation from a dynamical system point of view. The formulation is based on a one-dimensional topographic cross section between two channels that share a water divide. Two hillslope profiles diverge from the divide and drain into two fluvial bedrock tributaries, whose erosion rate is controlled by a stream power law. The rate of erosion at the bounding channels is thus a function of the upstream drainage area and local slope. A tectonically induced downward perturbation of the elevation of one of the bounding channels lowers the channel slope but at the same time increases the drainage area due to outward migration of the water divide. The changes in slope and area have opposing effect on the erosion rate at the bounding channels, so that the perturbation may either grow or be damped. We define the geomorphic and tectonic parameters that control the behavior of the system and find the regimes that lead to stable landscapes and to capture events.

  8. Curbing International Piracy of Intellectual Property. Policy Options for a Major Exporting Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Gary M.; Marcou, George T.

    This report of the International Piracy Project addresses three major topics: (1) The Costs and Complications of Piracy; (2) Rights Enforcement Today; and (3) Policy Options for Curbing Piracy. The first section discusses piracy of copyrights, patents, and other intellectual property, including economic losses and damage to the finances and…

  9. Digital Piracy among Adults in Slovenia: An Application of the Theory if Interpersonal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Kos Koklič

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aim to address the phenomenon of digital piracy by utilizing the Theory of Interpersonal Behavior (TIB, and testing the model on a sample of adult Internet users. Following the basic premise of the TIB, we suggest an individual’s piracy intention is influenced by perceived consequences (benefits and risk, affect, and norm susceptibility. Further, we hypothesize that piracy intention together with subjective knowledge leads to actual piracy behavior. Based on survey data from Slovenia, we show that piracy intention and subjective knowledge influence digital piracy behavior, while perceived positive consequences, affect, and norm susceptibility significantly shape an individual’s piracy intention.

  10. College Students; Justification for Digital Piracy: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Szde

    2012-01-01

    A mixed methods project was devoted to understanding college students' justification for digital piracy. The project consisted of two studies, a qualitative one and a quantitative one. Qualitative interviews were conducted to identify main themes in students' justification for digital piracy, and then the findings were tested in a quantitative…

  11. College Students; Justification for Digital Piracy: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Szde

    2012-01-01

    A mixed methods project was devoted to understanding college students' justification for digital piracy. The project consisted of two studies, a qualitative one and a quantitative one. Qualitative interviews were conducted to identify main themes in students' justification for digital piracy, and then the findings were tested in a quantitative…

  12. How Piracy is Affecting Economic Development in Puntland, Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Beloff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The international community has united in its mission to halt the hijacking of merchant ships in the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea with a massive naval presence that monitors the vast, strategic seas in which Somali pirates operate. This naval presence consequently has had some success in reducing pirate attacks in 2012, but why are the Somalis turning to piracy in the first place? The economic history of piracy has been well documented with other former “pirate hotspots” worldwide; however, there is little data available on the microeconomic affects of piracy. This article explores the underlying reasons of why Somalis have turned to piracy as a “profession,” and offers recommendations for the international community to eliminate piracy effectively through non-military means.

  13. Self-control, deviant peers, and software piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, George E; Makin, David A

    2004-12-01

    Tests of self-control theory have examined a substantial number of criminal behaviors, but no study has examined the correlation of low self-control with software piracy. Using data collected from 302 students in this university, this study examined the correlation of low self-control with software piracy and the moderating role of associating with deviant peers in this correlation. Low self-control correlated with software piracy more strongly for those who had high associations with deviant peers than for students with low associations with deviant peers. Analysis indicated differential links for lack of moral attitude in relation to software piracy and favorable attitudes for software piracy for varying association with deviant peers.

  14. Maritime insurance as a way to struggle piracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina S. Anyanova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to research the features of maritime insurance from the viewpoint of fighting piracy at international level and to define the ways to improve the legal norms in this sphere. Methods dialectic method of cognition and private scientific research methods formallegal systemicstructural sociallegal comparativelegal statistical. Results basing on the analysis of normative legal acts regulating the relations in the sphere of maritime insurance as one of the ways to struggle against piracy the insufficiency of unified insurance norms at internationallegal level is revealed features of modern piracy are identified as well as the dependence of the insurance cost on the piratesrsquo activity the state of legal protection of the shipownerrsquos interests in case of piratesrsquo attacks at international routes a conclusion is made that the difficulties with the ldquopiracyrdquo notion do not hinder its fullfledged research in international law the drawbacks of the piracy concept in international law are reflected the insurance legal norms are studied as well as the drawbacks in insufficient unification and stronger protection of shipowners in case of ransom payments especially in RF. Scientific novelty for the first time in the article the internationallegal features of maritime piracy are viewed as one of the measures of struggle against piracy. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in practical scientific and educational activity when dealing with the issues of maritime insurance of piracy risks.

  15. Sea piracy and law of the sea

    OpenAIRE

    Hanif, Muhammad Tahir

    2010-01-01

    As the sea become world’s largest source to trade between the nations during the last few decades. Of course there are lots of problems in this regards when we are using the sea on such a large scale. The problem of piracy is most dangerous problems, among the all problems of the sea at the same time. Nations are trying to control this crime individually and collectively but the problem is still on its peak. Lots of international and national laws and conventions are held in this ...

  16. Motion pictures and piracy : a theoretical investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenlund, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, copyright-protected markets have been challenged by the sharp rise in usage of peer-to-peer networks. Many of these networks participate in illegal sharing of copyrighted materials, such as books, music and movies. The illegal copying and sharing of intellectual property – also known as piracy – is depicted by firms and media as a terrible crime. But what are the actual consequences of the file-sharing activity? While the music industry has progressed toward lower investm...

  17. 'We are Promoters not Pirates': A Qualitative Analysis of Artistes and Pirates on Music Piracy in Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oludayo Tade; Babatunde Akinleye

    2012-01-01

      Audio music piracy has become a perennial problem in Nigeria. Though there are many studies on music piracy, studies have not examined piracy from the perspectives of pirates, musicians and producers...

  18. Stream piracy in the Black Hills: A geomorphology lab exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaprowski, B.J.; Evenson, E.B.; Epstein, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    The Black Hills of South Dakota exhibits many fine examples of stream piracy that are very suitable for teaching geomorphology lab exercises. This lab goes beyond standard topographic map interpretation by using geologic maps, well logs, gravel provenance and other types of data to teach students about stream piracy. Using a step-by-step method in which the lab exercises ramp up in difficulty, students hone their skills in deductive reasoning and data assimilation. The first exercises deal with the identification of stream piracy at a variety of spatial scales and the lab culminates with an exercise on landscape evolution and drainage rearrangement.

  19. Digital Product Acquisition In The Context Of Piracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veitch, Rob; Constantiou, Ioanna

    2011-01-01

    between piracy and legal alternatives has received limited attention. Moreover, existing models of piracy emphasize some elements of the acquisition decision, but disregard other important influences. This paper presents a model of digital product acquisition in the context of piracy, integrating elements...... of previous digital piracy models and expanding upon them to reflect the decision’s complexity. We depict the acquisition decision as being influenced by the user’s price perceptions, perceived risks, product desire, skills, and internal regulators of behaviour. A preliminary and partial test of the model...... is conducted for film and music using data collected students in at two Danish universities. The paper concludes with an outline for future research....

  20. Widespread Piracy by Students Frustrates Developers of Computer Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoughry, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    Computer software producers view students' illegal copying of programs as lost revenue and feel powerless to stop the piracy. Some propose to change student attitudes about copying, others suggest reducing software prices, and still others are calling for prosecution. (MSE)

  1. Online music piracy and file-sharing in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Petko, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Internet piracy became a very prominent issue in the Recording Industry after MP3 technology was introduced. Nowadays more and more Internet users in the Russian Federation download pirated materials, and sothe rights holders have sounded the alarm about the subsequent financial losses the music industry must bear. Theopponents of file sharing maintain that indiscriminate Internet copying significantlyreduces music sales revenues, while the supporters of piracy argue that the practice is harm...

  2. Publisher's Announcements and Piracy-Monitoring Devices in Software Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Darmon, Eric; Rufini, Alexandra; Torre, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    à paraître dans les Annales d'Economie et de Statistique; International audience; In this paper, we investigate the distribution strategy of a software publisher. The user adoption context is characterized by uncertainty about quality (experience good) and heterogeneous piracy costs. Users can purchase or get unauthorized/illegal copies (digital piracy) of the software during two periods (or not adopt at all). Between these two periods, users can acquire information through word-of-mouth. To ...

  3. National Anti-Piracy Organisation Established in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    On 25 October 2002,the first national anti-piracyorganisation-the Anti-Piracy Committee of the ChinaCopyright Association was established,which consists of 82members representing all the regional and sectorial anti-piracyorganisations throughout China.The Anti-Piracy Committee will be responsible for thecoordination of the regional and sectorial anti-piracyorganisations nationwide,cooperate with the copyright

  4. Imperial boyhood: piracy and the play ethic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Representations of perpetual boyhood came to fascinate the late Victorians, partly because such images could naturalize a new spirit of imperial aggression and new policies of preserving power. This article traces the emergence of this fantasy through a series of stories about the relationship of the boy and the pirate, figures whose opposition in mid-Victorian literature was used to articulate the moral legitimacy of colonialism, but who became doubles rather than antitheses in later novels, such as R.L. Stevenson's "Treasure Island" and Joseph Conrad's "Lord Jim." Masculine worth needed no longer to be measured by reference to transcendent, universal laws, but by a morally flexible ethic of competitive play, one that bound together boyishness and piracy in a satisfying game of international adventure.

  5. Piracy, Property and the Crisis of Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fredriksson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A political battle is being waged over the use and control of culture and information. While media companies and copyright organisations argue for stricter intellectual property laws, a growing body of citizens challenge the contemporary IP-regime. This has seen a political mobilisation of piracy. Pirate parties see themselves as a digital civil rights movement, defending the public domain and the citizen’s right to privacy against copyright expansionism and increased surveillance. Since the first pirate party was formed in Sweden in 2006, similar parties have emerged across the world. This article draws on a study of the culture and ideology of copyright resistance, through interviews with pirate party representatives in Europe and North America. It focuses on challenges to democracy, and the distinction between public and private property and spaces, in the wake of the war on terror and the global financial crisis.

  6. Piracy around the Horn of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Ho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Piracy around the Horn of Africa has risen to a level serious enough for the international community to take concerted action to secure an international sea lane. However, the efforts so far have been initiated mainly by the international community while regional efforts are only just beginning. In the short term, more action will have to be taken at the operational level like dispatching more ships and integrating the operations of ships already deployed to the area. In the longer term, the root causes of piracy and the grievances of the Somali people have to be addressed. In particular, there is a need to restore law and order in Somalia by supporting moderate leaders in their attempts to create a representative government.La piraterie au large de la Corne de l’Afrique a augmenté à un degré tel que la communauté internationale a décidé d’agir de concert pour sécuriser cette voie maritime. Néanmoins, si les efforts entrepris sont principalement ceux de la communauté internationale, les démarches régionales ne sont qu’à leur commencement. Dans le court terme, davantage d’initiatives devront être prises au niveau opérationnel, comme l’envoi de bateaux supplémentaires et la coordination des actions menées. Dans le plus long terme, il faudra s’attaquer aux racines de la piraterie et aux difficultés auxquelles doivent faire face les Somaliens. Il s’agit en particulier de restaurer l’état de droit en supportant les chefs de file modérés dans leur tentative de créer un gouvernement représentatif.

  7. Digital Piracy among Adults in Slovenia: An Application of the Theory if Interpersonal Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mateja Kos Koklič

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aim to address the phenomenon of digital piracy by utilizing the Theory of Interpersonal Behavior (TIB), and testing the model on a sample of adult Internet users. Following the basic premise of the TIB, we suggest an individual’s piracy intention is influenced by perceived consequences (benefits and risk), affect, and norm susceptibility. Further, we hypothesize that piracy intention together with subjective knowledge leads to actual piracy behavior. Based on survey data fr...

  8. Sea piracy in Southeast Asia implications for countering maritime terrorism in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Geragotelis, John Michael Lewis

    2006-01-01

    Sea piracy has infested the seven seas throughout history. In modern times, the United States has paid little attention to piracy because the nation's isolated vastness has protected the shipping industry from maritime crime. But the events of 9/11 have changed the lens through which America views security. This thesis investigates modern day piracy and links between piracy and terrorism in order to determine implications for U.S. maritime security strategy. Specifically, the maritime env...

  9. What is the True Loss Due to Piracy?: Evidence from Microsoft Office in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Tin Cheuk

    2011-01-01

    Software piracy remains rampant despite the successful measures the Hong Kong government has taken to eradicate street piracy. This is because most people prefer substituting a counterfeit copy of a software CD (street piracy) with an illegal download of the software (Internet piracy). To support this claim, I construct a unique data set from 281 college students in Hong Kong to demonstrate two things. First, I estimate a random-coefficient discrete choice demand system for Microsoft Office f...

  10. USAFRICOM’s Role in Counter-Piracy Operations Within the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-04

    2008), 3. 45 “A Cooperative Strategy for 21 st Century Seapower”, October 2007. 46 Jacquelyn S. Porth , “Piracy Off the Horn of Africa Threatens...owens.piracy.html, (accessed 19 April 2009). Porth , Jacquelyn S. “Piracy Off the Horn of Africa Threatens Relief Efforts, Trade.” America.gov. http

  11. Searching for sanctuary: government power and the location of maritime piracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daxecker, U.E.; Prins, B.C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent systematic work on the incidence of maritime piracy shows the importance of various political, economic, and geographic correlates at the country level. Yet these correlates tell us little about the determinants of piracy location off states’ coasts, despite the fact that piracy is well known

  12. Ritual Piracy or Creolization with an Attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Romberg

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Discusses a renewed view on "creolization", in relation to the Caribbean's social and cultural history. Author first points at the different creolization theories, noting a recurrence in these of the concepts of "mixture", "creative mixture", or "dialogue" between cultures, and describes how such "harmonious mix" views of creolization influenced forms of nationalism and nation building in the Caribbean, thereby blurring inequalities. She, however, points at the unequal power relations, or "contentious constitution", historically involved in creolization processes, with hegemonic (cultural and religious colonial power over and against so-called superstitious or other vernacular interpretations. With a specific focus on late-19th c. creolization processes in urban slave and highland peasant-Maroon societies in Puerto Rico, she further shows how vernacular, magical religions and folk healing rechanneled hegemonic religious symbols, like the cross, to purposes other than those intended by the Church. She calls this a form of "ritual piracy", including tactical mimicry, representing thus subversion from within, but with maintained relations to the hegemonic, complicating the "resistance" aspect.

  13. Private Security Companies (PSCs) as a Piracy Countermeasure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2012-01-01

    Private Security Companies (PSC) are a part of the Best Management Practice in the shipping industry. The ship owners are using PSCs to protect their vessels against pirates, but protection of the vessels is just a part of the services that PSCs can provide. The services can be divided in four ma...... is that the use of PSCs works for the individual ship owners, but it is not a long term solution of the piracy problem unless they are used in a coordinated way by ship owners and the international society. In this way they can become an added value in the fight against piracy....

  14. Aspects concerning counterfeiting and piracy in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global problem of counterfeiting and piracy has increased in European Union though there are special laws defending Intellectual Properties Rights. The aim of this paper is to point out the aspects on the topic of counterfeiting and piracy inside the European Union Single Market. Analysing the information gathered, we can conclude that there are evident facts of growing and increasingly dangerous phenomena in the European Union, with significant impact on the economic and social sectors. European Commission is the one that identifies strategies and effective practices to help rightful owners protect their Intellectual Property Rights.

  15. Piracy Activity vs. Product Features in Digital Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Bauer, Kevin; Veitch, Rob

    Torrent peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing protocol. The sample includes 173 games and a collection period of three months from late 2010 to early 2011. With a total of 12.6 million unique peers identified, it is the largest examination of game piracy via P2P networks to date. Analysis of the data shows...

  16. Dealing With Piracy. Intellectual Asset Management In Music And Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe music and software industry are employing copy-protection devices in CDs and digital downloads to strengthen their weak appropriability regimes that leave ample opportunities for modern-day piracy. The effectiveness of the strategy is explained on the grounds that (a) the knowledge i

  17. Piracy in cyber space: consumer complicity, pirates and enterprise enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Peggy E.; Chaudhry, Sohail S.; Stumpf, Stephen A.; Sudler, Hasshi

    2011-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the growth of internet piracy in the global marketplace. The ethical perceptions (or lack of) of the younger generation is addressed, in terms of their willingness to consume counterfeit goods on the web. Firms face the task of educating the consumer that downloading music, software, movies and the like, without compensation, is unethical. This awareness is critical for decreasing the demand for counterfeit goods in the virtual marketplace, where a consumer can exhibit a rogue behaviour with a limited fear of prosecution. We address the pyramid of internet piracy, which encompasses sophisticated suppliers/facilitators, such as the Warez group. Recent sting operations, such as Operation Buccaneer, are also depicted to highlight successful tactical manoeuvres of enforcement agencies. An overview of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act and the No Electronic Theft Act is included to debate the controversy surrounding this legislation. A discussion of enterprise enforcement mechanisms and novel anti-piracy technology for cyberspace is provided to reveal some of the tools used to fight the pirates, such as innovations in digital watermarking and NEC's recently announced video content identification technology. Enterprise information systems and its interdependence on the internet are also demanding new technologies that enable internet investigators to rapidly search, verify and potentially remove pirated content using web services. The quality of service of web services designed to efficiently detect pirated content is a growing consideration for new anti-piracy technology.

  18. Movie Piracy Networks at Alaba International Market, Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tade, Oludayo; Mmahi, Okoro Paul

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the veiled chain of film piracy, a major crime in the Nigeria entertainment industry. Studies on film piracy in Nigeria have focused on its economic implications, both on the copyright owners and on the Nigerian economy. The organization of the activities of the film pirates has, however, been neglected. Narratives were extracted through in-depth interviews with pirates, "marketers," and "producers." Data indicated that pirates were insiders in the film marketing industry and included importers of foreign movies, registered and nonregistered retailers of Nigerian films, as well as marketers appointed by copyright owners to distribute their films. With the connivance of sales girls working with the copyright owners and dubbing companies, original copies of films (white face) are "procured." Pirates distributed pirated copies, also secretly known as "green face," without issuing receipts or putting the logo of the company on it. For security reasons, pirated films are sold only to buyers introduced by a member in the piracy network. Efforts aimed at fighting piracy must take into account this veiled network to effectively combat intellectual theft via aggressive ban on the public sale of such products.

  19. Dealing With Piracy. Intellectual Asset Management In Music And Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe music and software industry are employing copy-protection devices in CDs and digital downloads to strengthen their weak appropriability regimes that leave ample opportunities for modern-day piracy. The effectiveness of the strategy is explained on the grounds that (a) the knowledge

  20. BLOODSHED AND BREAKING WAVE: THE FIRST OUTBREAK OF SOMALI PIRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bruvik Westberg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ten years ago, Somalia suffered its first outbreak of piracy. In early 2005, pirates began appearing hundreds of nautical miles out at sea, attacking and hijacking vessels off the shores of central Somalia. However, the circumstances of this outbreak remain poorly understood. Why did pirate groups originate from an area with a negligible history of maritime predation? The present study explored the environment within which Somalia’s first outbreak of piracy occurred, and offers a critical re-think of its origins. Drawing on the author’s own extensive fieldwork as well as contemporary reports, the study explored how pirate ventures were launched after the Indian Ocean tsunami on 26 December 2004 had obliterated the coastal economy. The tsunami coincided with the eruption of a deadly and highly destabilising conflict, unprecedented for a coastal area that had remained relatively peaceful since the state collapse in 1991. The tsunami and the establishment of the South Mudug piracy model in Harardhere and Hobyo in 2005 laid the foundation for a decade of ransom piracy.

  1. Publishers Press Colleges To Stop Software Piracy by Their Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Karla

    1997-01-01

    Software piracy among college students is increasing, and the software publishing industry insists colleges are responsible for the activities of their computer nets' users. Colleges generally cooperate with publishers when their students are found infringing on copyrights. The Software Publishers Association is holding a University of Puget Sound…

  2. What Do Computer Science Students Think about Software Piracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantakis, Nikos I.; Palaigeorgiou, George E.; Siozos, Panos D.; Tsoukalas, Ioannis A.

    2010-01-01

    Today, software piracy is an issue of global importance. Computer science students are the future information and communication technologies professionals and it is important to study the way they approach this issue. In this article, we attempt to study attitudes, behaviours and the corresponding reasoning of computer science students in Greece…

  3. Post-mating clutch piracy in an amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieites, David R; Nieto-Román, Sandra; Barluenga, Marta; Palanca, Antonio; Vences, Miguel; Meyer, Axel

    2004-09-16

    Female multiple mating and alternative mating systems can decrease the opportunity for sexual selection. Sperm competition is often the outcome of females mating with multiple males and has been observed in many animals, and alternative reproductive systems are widespread among species with external fertilization and parental care. Multiple paternity without associated complex behaviour related to mating or parental care is also seen in simultaneously spawning amphibians and fishes that release gametes into water. Here we report 'clutch piracy' in a montane population of the common frog Rana temporaria, a reproductive behaviour previously unknown in vertebrates with external fertilization. Males of this species clasp the females and the pair deposits one spherical clutch of eggs. No parental care is provided. 'Pirate' males search for freshly laid clutches, clasp them as they would do a female and fertilize the eggs that were left unfertilized by the 'parental' male. This behaviour does not seem to be size-dependent, and some males mate with a female and perform clutch piracy in the same season. Piracy affected 84% of the clutches and in some cases increased the proportion of eggs fertilized, providing direct fitness benefits both for the pirate males and the females. Sexual selection--probably caused by a strong male-biased sex ratio--occurs in this population, as indicated by size-assortative mating; however, clutch piracy may reduce its impact. This provides a good model to explore how alternative mating strategies can affect the intensity of sexual selection.

  4. Small-Business Computing: Is Software Piracy Justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immel, A. Richard

    1983-01-01

    Presents several different perspectives on the copying of computer software (discs, tapes, etc.) in an attempt to determine whether such infringement of copyright, often called "software piracy," can ever be justified. Implications for both the hardware and software firms and the users are also discussed. (EAO)

  5. On the Impact of Piracy on Innovation in the Presence of Technological and Market Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Dyuti Banerjee; Ishita Chatterjee

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of piracy on innovation in the presence of R&D competition with technological and market uncertainty. With a single innovating firm facing technological uncertainty, piracy unambiguously retards innovation. However, with R&D competition where firms face market and technological uncertainties, we show that piracy may enhance overall innovation. We also show that if the difference between the probabilities of success of the innovating firms is relatively large the...

  6. Music Piracy: Bad for Record Sales but Good for the iPod?

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Tin Cheuk

    2012-01-01

    Music piracy is a double-edged sword for the music industry. On the one hand, it hurts record sales. On the other hand, it increases sales of its complements. To quantify the effect of music piracy, I construct a unique survey data set and use a Bayesian method to estimate the demand for music and iPods, and find three things. First, music piracy decreases music sales by 24% to 42%. Second, music piracy contributes 12% to iPod sales. Finally, counterfactual experiments show that Apple's reven...

  7. Music Piracy: Bad for Record Sales but Good for the iPod?

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Tin Cheuk

    2012-01-01

    Music piracy is a double-edged sword for the music industry. On the one hand, it hurts record sales. On the other hand, it increases sales of its complements. To quantify the effect of music piracy, I construct a unique survey data set and use a Bayesian method to estimate the demand for music and iPods, and find three things. First, music piracy decreases music sales by 24% to 42%. Second, music piracy contributes 12% to iPod sales. Finally, counterfactual experiments show that Apple's reven...

  8. DOWNSTREAM ECOCIDE FROM UPSTREAM WATER PIRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah Muhammad Adel

    2012-01-01

    caused similar type of ecological problems. The construction of groins on the Indian side of the border rivers has caused bank erosion on the Bangladesh side which changes her map. India benefits herself by occupying the resulting shoal formation within the Bangladesh side of the riverbeds. The Tipaimukh Dam on the Barak River will affect the virgin haor ecosystem the same way as the Ganges basin over a certain time scale. India’s river networking plan is going to create a widespread ecocide in the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin. Water, if not the most, is one of the most important components in an ecosystem. Living being cannot survive without it. Ecocide occurs in its absence. Obstruction to the downstream natural flow of rivers by the upstream country unilateral actions is tantamount to violations of human rights which is a crime. With the dilapidated ecosystem, Bangladesh’s national security is at stake. Bangladesh’s internal immunity is not strong enough to face the threats of climate change events. Bangladesh government should take a tough stand for the country’s interests. Since she has failed to save her interests on a bilateral basis with India, she should take immediate steps for fair share of the pirated river water under the UN supervision. Also, she should approach the UN for getting back the river shoals captured by India. Bangladesh should have a master plan of dredging rivers and canals for water storage and inland distribution to the depleted surface water bodies to reestablish the wetland ecosystem. This will help, to some extent, in the gradual mitigation of all the problems including groundwater arsenic contamination, fish scarcity, erratic climate. It is due for Bangladesh to charge the upstream country for the dredging cost of the rivers and canals since upstream country’s water piracy has regionally silted her rivers and canals. Since the saving of the biodiversity is an international slogan of the time, Bangladesh should ask the

  9. Software Piracy Forensics: The Need for Further Developing AFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baboo, S. Santhosh; Bhattathiripad, P. Vinod

    Among all the available approaches for software piracy forensics, one existing and exceptional approach is the theoretical frame work called AFC (Abstraction-Filtering-Comparison), an accepted approach in US courts for evaluating copyright infringement claims involving computer software. Through this paper, the authors would like to approach AFC in a threefold manner: One, to discuss the nature and efficacy of AFC; two, to recount some existing observations on it, and three, to identify areas, if any, where there is scope and need for appropriate modifications to further increase the efficacy and validate the legitimacy of the AFC approach, and in particular from the view point of a researcher who believes that software intelligence offered by the automated tools for software piracy investigation needs to be supplemented with manual intelligence for making the expert report more judiciary-friendly.

  10. Piracy Activity vs. Product Features in Digital Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Bauer, Kevin; Veitch, Rob

    the substantial interest in game piracy, there is very little objective information available about its magnitude or its distribution across game titles and game genres.This paper presents a large-scale analysis of the illegal distribution of digital game titles, which was conducted by monitoring the Bit......The practice of illegally copying and distributing digital games is at the heart of one of the most heated and divisive debates in the international games environment, with stakeholders typically viewing it as a very positive (pirates) or very negative (the industry, policy makers). Despite......Torrent peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing protocol. The sample includes 173 games and a collection period of three months from late 2010 to early 2011. With a total of 12.6 million unique peers identified, it is the largest examination of game piracy via P2P networks to date. Analysis of the data shows...

  11. Maritime Piracy: without “internationalization” of the jurisdictional function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Thouvenin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available If the development of piracy off Somalia’s coasts seems now under control, pirates have moved and now concentrate their attacks in West Africa waters. To bring captured pirates to justice, the international community has relied on the courts of the states of the region, while requiring them to respect the standards of fair trial and the human rights. Strong supports, technical, financial and legal, have then been offered to them to improve their capacity of action. As the results were not immediate, the idea of creating an international court for the judgment of pirates, or an internationalized Court, has been discussed in the UN Security Council. It was ultimately rejected in favour of a reinforced international policy aiming at strengthening the action of national judicial processes against piracy.

  12. Buried Treasure: Evolutionary Perspectives on Microbial Iron Piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Matthew F; Elde, Nels C

    2015-11-01

    Host-pathogen interactions provide valuable systems for the study of evolutionary genetics and natural selection. The sequestration of essential iron has emerged as a crucial innate defense system termed nutritional immunity, leading pathogens to evolve mechanisms of 'iron piracy' to scavenge this metal from host proteins. This battle for iron carries numerous consequences not only for host-pathogen evolution but also microbial community interactions. Here we highlight recent and potential future areas of investigation on the evolutionary implications of microbial iron piracy in relation to molecular arms races, host range, competition, and virulence. Applying evolutionary genetic approaches to the study of microbial iron acquisition could also provide new inroads for understanding and combating infectious disease.

  13. CONSIDERING ANTI-PIRACY SHIP SECURITY: CITADEL DESIGN AND USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Carral

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As piracy continues to pose a threat to the shipping industry, a number of measures for protecting ships, cargo and crew will need to be implemented. Along with other steps, such as deploying military rescue teams, securing the crew within a ship’s citadel has proved to be a highly effective form of self-protection against hostage-taking by pirates. From a design standpoint, aspects that should be considered include the location and dimensions of the citadel, the maximum time crew can stay within it and the specific requirements for various elements of the ship or citadel equipment. Exploiting data on pirate attacks recently occurring in High Risk Areas, this article analyses the design and use of the citadel as a self-protection measure against piracy. As a conclusion, various requirements for these structures are recommended.

  14. China’s Role in Counter-Piracy Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Report for the Period 1 January–30 September 2014 (London: IMB, 2014), 3. 3 Bibi van Ginkel and Frans-Paul van der Putten, eds., The International...international maritime security cooperation. In their book, The International Response to Somali Piracy, Bibi Van Ginkel and Frans-Paul van der Putten...helps multiple navies to understand one another better.38 Better 34 Bibi van Ginkel and Frans-Paul van

  15. A Maritime Approach to Countering Horn of Africa Piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    Scotland UK: Whiterby Publishing Group, 2011), http://www.cusnc.navy.mil/marlo/Guidance/BMP4_web.pdf (accessed 21 Jan 2011). Many maritime vessels...Practices for Protection Against Somali Based Piracy ( Scotland UK: Whiterby Publishing Group, 2011), http://www.cusnc.navy.mil/marlo/Guidance...Kraska, 114. 37 Paulo Prada and Alex Roth , “On the Lawless Seas, It’s Not Easy Putting Somali Pirates in the Dock,” Wall Street Journal, 12 December

  16. Anti-piracy in a sea of predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruvik Westberg, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    a considerable impact on the decline in piracy. Moreover, naval–coastal engagement and cooperation run deeper than is commonly perceived. While grievances against illegal fishing are widespread, examination of the fishing sector reveals a significant amount of predation committed by local stakeholders....... Competition for fishing sector rents, particularly over distribution of licences, occurs on the local, regional and national levels. Bonds between some pirates, smugglers and officials threaten coastal community development and undermine their security. This study concludes that Somalia's maritime predatory...

  17. Piracy at Sea: Somalia an Area of Great Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniela, Santiago Iglesias

    In this paper, the author analyses piracy at sea in Somalia, to provide a general up-to-date vision of the problem which threatens the security of ships sailing in the Gulf of Aden. The pirates' modus operandi, the existing factors behind these punishable acts and the prevailing international response are analysed. Finally the paper reviews how the international community could act in order to tackle the problem with a view to its possible eradication.

  18. International cooperation in combating modern forms of maritime piracy: Legal and policy dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottlieb, Y.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, maritime piracy has reemerged as a serious threat to the international community, notably following the increase in piracy incidents off the coast of Somalia. Piratical activity has threatened the safety of navigation, the lives of seafarers, and the delivery of humanitarian aid. Th

  19. Old Glory and the Jolly Roger: The Cultural Constraints and Strategic Imperatives of Modern Piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Piracy Until recently, the phrase maritime piracy conjured up romanticized caricatures of seventeenth and eighteenth century Caribbean pirates enshrined... theatres of war as Napoleon could, "seasoned judgment and an instinct born of long experience" are no less necessary in today’s world.28 Further

  20. 77 FR 41316 - Federal Bureau of Investigation Anti-Piracy Warning Seal Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 41 CFR Part 128-1 RIN 1110-AA32 Federal Bureau of Investigation Anti-Piracy Warning Seal Program AGENCY... Bureau of Investigation (FBI) finalizes its proposed regulation regarding the FBI Anti-Piracy...

  1. Intention to Commit Online Music Piracy and Its Antecedents: An Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Neil A.; Koufteros, Xenophon

    2008-01-01

    Online piracy of copyrighted digital music has become rampant as Internet bandwidth and digital compression technologies have advanced. The music industry has suffered significant financial losses and has responded with lawsuits, although online music piracy remains prevalent. This article developed a research model to study the determinants of…

  2. 76 FR 55332 - Federal Bureau of Investigation Anti-Piracy Warning Seal Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 41 CFR Part 128-1 RIN 1110-AA32 Federal Bureau of Investigation Anti-Piracy Warning Seal Program AGENCY...- Piracy Warning Seal (APW Seal). The proposed rule will provide access to the APW Seal to all...

  3. Intention to Commit Online Music Piracy and Its Antecedents: An Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Neil A.; Koufteros, Xenophon

    2008-01-01

    Online piracy of copyrighted digital music has become rampant as Internet bandwidth and digital compression technologies have advanced. The music industry has suffered significant financial losses and has responded with lawsuits, although online music piracy remains prevalent. This article developed a research model to study the determinants of…

  4. Student Digital Piracy in the Florida State University System: An Exploratory Study on Its Infrastructural Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Digital piracy is a problem that may never disappear from society. Through readily available resources such as those found in a university, students will always have access to illegal goods. While piracy is a global phenomenon, an institution's resources combined with the typical college student's lack of funds makes it more lucrative. Students…

  5. Software Piracy among College Students: A Comprehensive Review of Contributing Factors, Underlying Processes, and Tackling Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhili; Yan, Zheng

    2005-01-01

    This article reviewed empirical studies published in the past 30 years that examined software piracy among college students. It focused on three areas of study: (a) major factors that affect college students' intentions, attitudes, and moral intensity regarding software piracy, (b) various decision-making processes that underlie software piracy…

  6. Terror on the seas: assessing the threat of modern day piracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, B.C.; Daxecker, U.; Sanford, A.

    2014-01-01

    Maritime piracy is a major post-Cold War challenge to U.S. and international security. While the Greater Gulf of Aden represents the face of modern maritime piracy, the threat is larger than just the Puntland region of Somalia and the Bab el-Mandeb waterway. Nearly 60 percent of all littoral states

  7. Student Digital Piracy in the Florida State University System: An Exploratory Study on Its Infrastructural Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Digital piracy is a problem that may never disappear from society. Through readily available resources such as those found in a university, students will always have access to illegal goods. While piracy is a global phenomenon, an institution's resources combined with the typical college student's lack of funds makes it more lucrative. Students…

  8. Political Economy of Piracy in Somalia: Basis for a Transformative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Carvalho de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the current wave of piracy off the coast of Somalia in light of political economy framework proposed by Michael Pugh and Neil Cooper. According to these authors, three types of economies flourish in protracted conflicts - combat economy, shadow economy, and coping economy - whose aims are, respectively, to finance combat activities, generate personal profits and provide minimum resources to the subsistence of poor and marginalized people. Based on empirical evidences showing that piracy in Somalia performs these three functions, one argues that the current international intervention against piracy is not sustainable because it does not seek to transform the factors and dynamics that make piracy an economically attractive alternative for local populations. For this reason, one proposes a shift on the Somali piracy agenda by adopting a critical perspective where piracy is no longer treated exclusively as a mere disruption of order at sea. Instead, one suggests a transformative approach where piracy is understood in its political economy dimension taking into account not only the local aspects, but also their regional links.

  9. The Effect of Piracy on Somalia as a Failed State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    2009, March 19) MSC.4/Circ.133. Kraska, James. " Freakonomics ofMaritime Policy." The Brown Journal of World Affairs 16, no. 2 (April1, 2010). Lake...Kraska. " Freakonomics of Maritime Policy." The Brown Journal of World Affairs 16, no. 2 (April1, 2010): 116. 27 Cmmable, B. & Libicki, M. (201 0...100 James Kraska. " Freakonomics ofMaritime Piracy." The Brown Journal of World A!fairs 16, no. 2 (April1, 2010): 117-118. 1 Ibid. 102 Eric Pardo

  10. Development of Novel Gas Brand Anti-Piracy System based on BP Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Y Y [Chinese-German School of Postgraduate Studies, Tongji University (China); Ding, L [Chinese-German School of Postgraduate Studies, Tongji University (China)

    2006-10-15

    The Wireless-net Close-loop gas brand anti-piracy system introduced in this paper is a new type of brand piracy technical product based on BP neural network. It is composed by gas brand piracy label possessing gas exhalation resource, ARM embedded gas-detector, GPRS wireless module and data base of merchandise information. First, the system obtains the information on the special label through gas sensor array ,then the attained signals are transferred into ARM Embedded board and identified by artificial neural network, and finally turns back the outcome of data collection and identification to the manufactures with the help of GPRS module.

  11. Piracy in the Horn of Africa the role of Somalia's fishermen

    OpenAIRE

    Sone, Emmanuel N.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Despite a strong naval presence, piracy off the Horn of Africa (HOA) has been rising at the impressive annual rate of about 100 percent since 2006. Repression at sea does not seem to be working, and it is critical to identify the root cause(s) of piracy before additional counter-measures can be applied with any measurable success. The rise in piracy off the HOA is blamed by some on the disenfranchisement of Somali fishermen. This paper...

  12. 盗版、反盗版激励与版权市场演化%Piracy, Anti-piracy Incentives and Evolution of Copyright Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡宏波; 张铭洪; 王斌

    2012-01-01

    As we know, genuine and piracy products have large price disparity and small quality difference, so conducive to technological progress and long-term development of genuine industry. But the academic research of the attitude taken on the piracy has yet to reach an agreement. Innovation is the collective product of the development of human civilization, intellectual property simply to define the private right of the innovator is not conducive to the spread of advanced knowledge, integration and further innovation. The piracy is the effective way of technology diffusion and the global share of human civilization. So what conditions are of the piracy to exist, enter and quit the market? What kind of impact do the piracy and anti-piracy have exactly on firms, consumers, the government, and overall social welfare? On this basis, should the government and copyright providers cope with piracy heavily? In short, there are not only plenty of studies on the piracy based on consumer choice or multi-main game competition, but also the analysis on the impact of piracy and anti-piracy on market parties and its change. It is easy to see that in the market composed by the copyright provider, piracy, consumer and government, the previous studies analyze the demands, prices and profits for the genuine and piracy as a clue to answer above contentious issue. However, due to different perspective and path, there is lack of comprehensive study on the copyright market competition and the game process, and the previous studies did not answer the issues whether market equilibrium exist and how to find optimal genuine price. Therefore, we can not fully explain the decision-making mechanism, supply and demand mechanism, pricing mechanism in copyright market. Based on previous studies, we introduce differentiated consumer utility function and set a multi-player game model which includes copyright provider, pirate, government and consumer. By random test, we numerically simulate welfare

  13. The Formation of Digital Piracy Management Business Models in the Music Records Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edverdas Vaclovas Bartkus; Marius Akulavicius

    2015-01-01

    ... (music, movies, books and software) digital distribution, the number of users copying and distributing these products without the legal consent of their authors is increasing - a phenomenon known as digital piracy...

  14. PIRACY REGULATION AND THE FILIPINO’S HISTORICAL RESPONSE TO GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando B. Tolentino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines the racial discourse of Moros and Moro-profiling by the state in piracy—sea piracy in olden times and media piracy in contemporary times. Moro piracy becomes a local cosmopolitanism in the Philippines’ attempt to integrate in various eras of global capitalism. From the analysis of media piracy, the Moro “dibidi” (pirated DVD seller becomes the body that mediates between the Filipinos’ middle-class fantasy of a branded lifestyle and the reality that most Filipinos do not have full access to global consumerism. Using a cultural studies framework, the essay draws a connection between seemingly unlinked events and sources, allowing for a historical and social dialog, past and present, to mix, creating junctures for sites of dialog and critique.

  15. Fighting Piracy: Experiences in Southeast Asia and off the Horn of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Robert M. Farley, Ph.D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent surge in acts of maritime piracy in the waters off the Horn of Africa stands in sharp contrast to a steep decline of such acts in Southeast Asia. In this study, we compare the development of the problem of piracy in both Southeast Asia and the Horn of Africa. We find that four main elements contributed to the recent decline in piracy in Southeast Asia: U.S. hegemonic interests, existing and emergent international institutions, bilateral relations among regional actors, and the density of naval forces in the region. Unfortunately, not all of these conditions are present in the Horn of Africa. Thus, the problem of piracy in that region will require new and innovative solutions.

  16. Blackbeard: Politician, Pirate or Jihadi - The Relationship Between State Failure and Piracy in Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    are those of the author( s ) and do not reflect the official policy or position of the US government or the Department of Defense. In accordance with...2011. Blair, Robert S . Disrupting Somali Piracy via Trust and Influence Operations. Navy Postgraduate School, Monterey, California. June 2009 Bowden...Anna. The Economic cost of Maritime Piracy. One Earth Future Working Paper. December 2010. Bruton , Bronwyn E. Somalia a New Approach. Council for

  17. Sharing without laws: an exploration of social practices and ad hoc labeling standards in online movie piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Tietzmann; Liana Gross Furini

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses self-labelling standards as sharing mediators in pirated versions of movies available online. Piracy has existed since the beginning of the film industry, challenging established rules and regulations. The dynamics of digital movie piracy often try to meet viewers' expectations while ignoring any regional and premiere date restrictions. Movie piracy organises its abundant offer by generating a self-regulatory repertoire of labeling standards. In this paper we propose an e...

  18. Where do beliefs about music piracy come from and how are they shared?:An Ethnographic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Steven Caldwell

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that those individuals engaging in music piracy have little concern for the potentially negative consequences of engaging in this illegal activity. This study aims to build on previous research which finds that sub-cultural piracy knowledge is effectively transmitted online. Explicitly, this study aims to observe the various justifications people forward to rationalise engagement in music piracy, in accordance with Sykes and Matza’s (1957) widely researched neutralizat...

  19. Digital piracy debunked: a short note on digital threats and intermediary liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo F. Frosio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the industry has deployed endlessly the rhetoric of the “digital threat” in order to demand harsher measures against digital piracy. Recently, the “digital threat” discourse called for enhanced liability of online intermediaries, especially those whose platforms may be used to infringe copyright. This short paper shows that the “digital threat” discourse is based on shaky grounds. Two related arguments might run against this approach. First, market conditions might incentivise piracy. Additionally, there are raising doubts over the argument that piracy is a threat to creativity, especially in the digital environment. Overall, it may be hard to find a factual justification for policy decisions based on the “digital threat” discourse. In fact, digital technology seems not to have negatively affected the creation of new works. In contrast, an observation of the literature and quantitative analysis on point may suggest that digital piracy can be an opportunity for the cultural market. Finally, piracy may function as an innovation policy by forcing market players to innovate in response to a consumer demand that widespread piracy highlights.

  20. The Formation of Digital Piracy Management Business Models in the Music Records Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edverdas Vaclovas Bartkus

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades due to the rapid expansion of the Internet and content products (music, movies, books and software digital distribution, the number of users copying and distributing these products without the legal consent of their authors is increasing - a phenomenon known as digital piracy. This poses new challenges to the creative content industry seeking to protect itself against the loss of income and copyright infringement.  This problem is particularly relevant to the recorded music industry, as it has the large scale of digital piracy related to very convenient reproduction and distribution of illegal music records.  The widespread practice of record use in the digital space is not favorable to traditional business models based on the distribution of music in physical format. An increasing variety of digital piracy forms and decreasing technical limitations at the same time create new opportunities to manage digital piracy through the use of new technical, legal or economic decisions. This creates need to discuss the relevance and theoretical aspects of digital piracy management in the recorded music industry, and to analyze and compare most widespread digital piracy management business models of in the recorded music industry.

  1. Product Piracy Prevention: Product Counterfeit Detection without Security Labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Horn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Counterfeiting is a challenge to companies, customers and markets all over the world. Besides the economic damage which affects in particular the companies and countries that use advanced production and manufacturing processes based on intensive research and development to produce high quality goods, safety standards are omitted. These standards protect usually the customer from goods which are dangerous or harzardous to health. Product piracy prevention is often followed by the application of RFID tags to supervise supply chains. The lack of robust counterfeit detection methods created a market for artificial security labels which are used to secure the product itself. The specific conditions of production, manufacturing technologies and materials generate specific features, which identify every product uniquely. The innovation of this text is the detection of these features in an automated fashion through the combination of digital sensing and machine learning, rendering the application of artificial security labels obsolete.

  2. Investigating the potential for "water piracy" in North East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Nanna B.; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2013-04-01

    The incorporation of subglacial processes in ice flow models remains a challenge while at the same time observational evidence increasingly underscores the important role liquid water plays in ice flow dynamics. One of the many problems ice flow models face (that also includes scarcity of data at the bed and the deformational properties of water-saturated sediments) is the different time-scales on which the processes operate. For example, observations indicate that subglacial water may be re-routed to a neighbouring ice stream in response to changes in surface elevation. This implies that ice flow models have to allow for changes in ice flow mode where, depending on the basal properties, the flow may be dominated by deformation or basal sliding. The re-routing of water between neighbouring ice streams is often termed "water piracy" and in this study we demonstrate that the potential for water piracy exists even in regions with very small surface elevation changes. We use a simple, vertically integrated, 2D-plane ice flow model based on the shallow ice flow approximation to model the large-scale changes in surface elevation of North East Greenland in response to gravity and mass balance. Considering time-scales of 100-500 years the model predicts changes in elevation of less than a metre per year which is in agreement with data from remote sensing. We then calculate the corresponding changes in hydrological pressure potential and use evidence from radio-echo sounding data to identify areas with basal melting and thus potential liquid water production. The corresponding change in hydrological pressure potential in response to the surface elevation changes is sufficient to divert the subglacial water to different pathways. This change in subglacial water pathways could be sufficient to change the ice flow mode from deformation to sliding and might initiate speed-up and/or slow-down of the ice streams at the margins of the basin.

  3. Predatory Journals, Piracy and New Models of Publishing Scientific Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Smutný

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper responds to observed absurd impacts associated with predatory journals, both at the personal and institutional level. There is mentioned the basic procedure to identify predatory journal and how to find it in Beall’s list. Briefly are commented the consequences associated with the first study in the Czech Republic dealing with the number of articles published in predatory journals, which are inserted into the Information register of R&D results (RIV by research institutions. On this basis, a part of the funding for universities and research organizations in the Czech Republic is redistributed. Furthermore, there are commented approaches to financing journals and publishing articles, in particular, a new model of paying membership fees used by the publication platform PeerJ. Finally, the issue of the availability of scientific articles including piracy issues is discussed. Described development, which we are currently witnessing, transforms the current system of science and related publishing of scientific articles or knowledge sharing within the society.

  4. Film piracy in the era of digital technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vukašin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction of films in the era of analog technology has been connected with a number of difficulties, involving, inter alia, technically complex process of reproduction, as well as high cash expenditures. In that sense, the very analog technology presented a barrier to reproduction of films by unauthorized persons. By switching to digital technology, the reproduction of mentioned copyright works became much easier, in terms of enabling individuals to, with easily available and relatively cheap technical means, in a fast and high quality way, make a large number of film copies. Since the digital era reflects progress of technology in the field of reproduction and distribution of films, as well as copyright works in general, the introduction of new exclusive rights in copyright law is very significant, as well as narrowing the existing limitations of copyright law rights and extension of duration of the protection. Effective enforcement of copyright protection in the new conditions opened a range of numerous issues, out of which the question of piracy in the field of film production is one of the most important, which presented the motivation for the author to cover this issue.

  5. Viral piracy: HIV-1 targets dendritic cells for transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekkerkerker, Annemarie N; van Kooyk, Yvette; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B H

    2006-04-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs), the professional antigen presenting cells, are critical for host immunity by inducing specific immune responses against a broad variety of pathogens. Remarkably the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) subverts DC function leading to spread of the virus. At an early phase of HIV-1 transmission, DCs capture HIV-1 at mucosal surfaces and transmit the virus to T cells in secondary lymphoid tissues. Capture of the virus on DCs takes place via C-type lectins of which the dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM-3) grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) is the best studied. DC-SIGN-captured HIV-1 particles accumulate in CD81(+) multivesicular bodies (MVBs) in DCs and are subsequently transmitted to CD4+ T cells resulting in infection of T cells. The viral cell-to-cell transmission takes place at the DC-T cell interface termed the infectious synapse. Recent studies demonstrate that direct infection of DCs contributes to the transmission to T cells at a later phase. Moreover, the infected DCs may function as cellular reservoirs for HIV-1. This review discusses the different processes that govern viral piracy of DCs by HIV-1, emphasizing the intracellular routing of the virus from capture on the cell surface to egress in the infectious synapse.

  6. User Decisions Among Digital Piracy and Legal Alternatives for Film and Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veitch, Robert; Constantiou, Ioanna

    2012-01-01

    Technologies enabling digital piracy have expanded the variety of modes available to users when deciding how to access film and music. We examine user decisions in context, investigating which factors influence the decision to use traditional or new legal options over piracy. Our study contributes...... from the general population. Findings indicate that the economic considerations of price perception and perceived legal availability are the most consistent factors in influencing the access-mode decisions across the various legal options. We close with a discussion of the implications for research...

  7. THE IMAGE OF PIRACY AND MARITIME TERRORISM. THE MEDIA AS A TOOL FOR ITS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Gawliczek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article was the issue of shaping the image of piracy and maritime terrorism. Emphasis was put on the media, including those using information and communication technologies. The answers to problem questions were sought: (1 Who and why forms that image (2 what tools are used for its construction. The article presents the trends and development tendencies of the analyzed phenomena, based on the report of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD. Furthermore, the results of surveys, conducted among students of military academies, on perception of piracy and maritime terrorism, are cited.

  8. Private Political Activists and the International Law Definition of Piracy: Acting for ‘Private Ends’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honniball, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Piracy under international law grants states the right to exercise universal jurisdiction, provided that all conditions of its definition are cumulatively met. Yet academic debate continues as to whether the requirement that piratical acts be committed ‘for private ends’ excludes politically motivat

  9. Private Political Activists and the International Law Definition of Piracy: Acting for ‘Private Ends’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honniball, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Piracy under international law grants states the right to exercise universal jurisdiction, provided that all conditions of its definition are cumulatively met. Yet academic debate continues as to whether the requirement that piratical acts be committed ‘for private ends’ excludes politically motivat

  10. The pirates of Nevskii Prospekt: intellectual property, piracy and institutional diffusion in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sezneva, O.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the circulation of unauthorized copies of music and movies in Russia—what is otherwise known as media piracy. On the basis of qualitative data, it argues that the media market in Russia is best perceived as a hybrid, where the boundaries between legal and illegal are porous and

  11. The pirates of Nevskii Prospekt: intellectual property, piracy and institutional diffusion in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sezneva, O.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the circulation of unauthorized copies of music and movies in Russia—what is otherwise known as media piracy. On the basis of qualitative data, it argues that the media market in Russia is best perceived as a hybrid, where the boundaries between legal and illegal are porous and

  12. Maritime Piracy in the Gulf of Guinea, Regional Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    africa-maritime-domain.pdf (accessed 13 October 2012). 21. 3 world’s supply of cocoa . 7 West Africa is largely dependent on the Gulf of Guinea...Aden states adopted the Djibouti Code of Conduct to combat piracy collectively. Their progress since 2009 demonstrates sustained will and provides

  13. Breaks, Flows, and Other In-Between Spaces: Rethinking Piracy and Copyright Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujen

    2006-01-01

    This article uses three case studies to examine the intersecting developments of technology, capitalism, and globalization through the contradictions and paradoxes of copyright governance and piracy. China is used as a case study to investigate the relations among the state, law, and global capitalism. (Contains 7 tables and 9 notes.)

  14. News Piracy: Unfair Competition and the Misappropriation Doctrine. Journalism Monographs No. 56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Paul W.

    Unfair competition is a complex problem affecting all areas of American business, including the communications media. Piracy of material, an alarmingly widespread example of unfair competition, involves legal as well as ethical questions. This monograph uses the historical approach to trace the development of common-law precedent and trends and…

  15. Sea piracy - can AFRICOM save the Gulf of Guinea; The US command for Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nodland, Arild

    2008-07-01

    The article discusses the rise in piracy in African sea regions and the importance for the petroleum sector and mentions Nigeria in particular where the security level has been increased as a result of the problems. The role of the new US command for Africa, AFRICOM, is discussed and various aspects of maritime security are mentioned (tk)

  16. Breaks, Flows, and Other In-Between Spaces: Rethinking Piracy and Copyright Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujen

    2006-01-01

    This article uses three case studies to examine the intersecting developments of technology, capitalism, and globalization through the contradictions and paradoxes of copyright governance and piracy. China is used as a case study to investigate the relations among the state, law, and global capitalism. (Contains 7 tables and 9 notes.)

  17. 盗版的囚徒困境%The Prisoner's Dilemma of Piracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田杨

    2011-01-01

    阐述了盗版对图书市场的冲击,并用博弈思想对出版行业进行了解读,用"囚徒困境"理论分析了盗版行为,提出了纳什均衡理论将导致盗版价值链终结。指出盗版的最终结果是没有赢家,应用博弈思想引领选题开发、图书设计到营销回款等所有出版环节,直至均衡,使利益最大化,要开发新技术进行防盗,保持图书市场的良性可持续发展。%The impact of piracy on the book markets is expounded.Piracy is analyzed by the theory of "prisoner's dilemma".The game theory is used to interpret the publishing industry.It is pointed out that the Nash equilibrium will lead to the end of the value chain of piracy.It is also put forward that the final result of piracy is that there is no winners.All the publishing linkages,from the topic-selection to the book design and the market back selection,should be guided by the game theory,maximizing the benefit.New techniques should be developed to prevent piracy and to keep the positive and sustainable development of book markets.

  18. Enhance the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights and Intensify the Strength of Fighting Against the Infringement and Piracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    National Copyright Administration of the People's

    2004-01-01

    @@ The government of China has always attached great importance to the protection of copyright and taken the activity of cracking down the infringement and piracy as an important work to rectify and standardize the market economic order.

  19. MARITIME SECURITY GOVERNANCE IN THE FIGHT AGAINST PIRACY OFF THE COAST OF SOMALIA: A FOCUS ON THE EU RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru VOICU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although currently on a declining trend, large scale piracy off the coast of Somalia cannot be safely dismissed as a thing of the past: since the mid-2000s, piracy in the Western Indian Ocean has put in peril the international and regional security. Maritime threats are interdependent, asymmetric, persistent, shifting and generated by manifold and mutually-reinforcing root causes, hence their high probability of recurrence or relocation in the absence of a generally improved and self-sustaining security environment. Confronted with these complex challenges, numerous state and non-state actors have taken steps to prevent, mitigate or suppress piracy off the Somali coast. Within the security governance framework, the present paper outlines the major actors activating in the counter-piracy field in the region and their specific responses, focusing on the comprehensive measures undertaken by the EU in this realm.

  20. Regional Governance on Piracy in Southeast Asia%东南亚海盗的区域治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨凯

    2005-01-01

    Rampant piracy in Southeast Asia has become an uncertain factor which affects Asian peace and prosperity. So, as an unconventional ""safety problem, it needs effective cooperation and regis)hal governance and ASEAN should cooperate with other countries, then follow the mode of 10 + 1 or 10 + 3, further take good use of international organizations' function, and finally integrate political. economic, diplomatic, iuristic, and high-tech ways into the regional governance on piracy.

  1. Options and Opportunities for Whole-of-Government Contributions in the Campaign Against International Piracy: Capstone Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    of the U.S.-flagged MV Maersk Alabama showed that even the United States is vulnerable to Somali piracy. Our study The circumstances in Somalia...protect shipping, secure sea lines of communications, and interdict pirates, the problem of Somali piracy persists. U.S. Naval Forces Africa (USNAVAF...through the enterprise lens. We find that pirate activities in both areas can be broken down along the above lines . Doing so can enable governments

  2. The Impact of Food Consumption, Government Type and Effectiveness, on the Rate of Somali Maritime Piracy, 2000-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Rohrer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of maritime piracy off the Horn of Africa is still a developing area of academic research. The work that has been conducted to date has remained largely qualitative.   Two recurring assumptions made but not empirically tested in this area of research are 1 the perceived link between government stability and the rate of maritime piracy, and 2 drought conditions implying food shortages in Somalia, and their impact on the rate of maritime piracy off the Horn of Africa.  The findings of this project show a strong increase in maritime piracy following the transition from assorted Islamic Courts to the Transitional Federal Government (TFG.  However, variations in the consumption of staple foodstuffs, and an index of the World Bank Governance Indicators do not have a significant impact on the frequency of maritime piracy in the region.  If maritime piracy off the Somali coast is to be eliminated, rather than policed, efforts should be made to encourage the development of governmental institutions that utilize culturally-respected institutions supported by the local populace.

  3. Only the good... get pirated: game piracy activity vs. metacritic score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Bauer, Kevin; Veitch, Robert W. D.

    2011-01-01

    the substantial interest in game piracy, there is very little objective information available about its magnitude or its distribution across game titles and game genres. This paper presents a large-scale analysis of the illegal distribution of digital game titles, which was conducted by monitoring the Bit......The practice of illegally copying and distributing digital games is at the heart of one of the most heated and divisive debates in the international games environment, with stakeholders typically viewing it as a very positive (pirates) or very negative (the industry, policy makers). Despite......Torrent peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing protocol. The sample includes 173 games and a collection period of three months from late 2010 to early 2011. A total of 12.6 million unique peers were identified, making this the largest examination of game piracy via P2P networks to date. The ten most pirated titles...

  4. The formation of digital piracy management business models in the music records industry

    OpenAIRE

    Edverdas Vaclovas Bartkus; Marius Akulavičius

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades due to the rapid expansion of the Internet and content products (music, movies, books and software) digital distribution, the number of users copying and distributing these products without the legal consent of their authors is increasing - a phenomenon known as digital piracy. This poses new challenges to the creative content industry seeking to protect itself against the loss of income and copyright infringement.  This problem is particularly relevant to the record...

  5. Explaining consumers' music preferences in a multi-channel framework :bthe case of music piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Dilmperi, Athina

    2013-01-01

    Understanding consumers’ behaviour towards music acquisition from all channels (both legal and illegal) is essential for marketers and policy makers in order to fight music piracy. Yet, existing research has not examined consumers’ intention to acquire music from all possible channels but has focused on digital illegal acquisition only. The purpose of this research is to create a model based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour for music acquisition from all possible channels and...

  6. Digital piracy debunked: a short note on digital threats and intermediary liability

    OpenAIRE

    Giancarlo F. Frosio

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades, the industry has deployed endlessly the rhetoric of the “digital threat” in order to demand harsher measures against digital piracy. Recently, the “digital threat” discourse called for enhanced liability of online intermediaries, especially those whose platforms may be used to infringe copyright. This short paper shows that the “digital threat” discourse is based on shaky grounds. Two related arguments might run against this approach. First, market conditions might in...

  7. Protecting Copyrights on the Internet——Local authorities' efforts to tackle on line piracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey

    2009-01-01

    @@ Vice-Minister Yan Xiao-hong from the National Copyright Administration of China(NCAC),Assistant Minister Chong Ouan from the Ministry of Commerce(MOFCOM)and Mr Antoine Seillan,Counsellor of the EC Delegation to China were in Yingchuan on June 18,to open a seminar on-line piracy copyright protection and enforcement on the internet involving more than 80 officials from China's local copyright authorities,cultural bureaus and judiciary.

  8. A Cost Effective RFID Based Customized DVD-ROM to Thwart Software Piracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Dogra

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Software piracy has been a very perilous adversary of the software-based industry, from the very beginning of the development of the latter into a significant business. There has been no developed foolproof system that has been developed to appropriately tackle this vile issue. We have in our scheme tried to develop a way to embark upon this problem using a very recently developed technology of RFID.

  9. Digital piracy debunked: a short note on digital threats and intermediary liability

    OpenAIRE

    Giancarlo F. Frosio

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades, the industry has deployed endlessly the rhetoric of the “digital threat” in order to demand harsher measures against digital piracy. Recently, the “digital threat” discourse called for enhanced liability of online intermediaries, especially those whose platforms may be used to infringe copyright. This short paper shows that the “digital threat” discourse is based on shaky grounds. Two related arguments might run against this approach. First, market conditions might in...

  10. Piracy in the Horn of Africa: The Role of Somalia’s Fishermen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ABBREVIATIONS Africa Fisheries Management - AFMET Anti-Shipping Activity Messages - ASAM British Broadcasting Corporation - BBC Economic Exclusive...published by the Federation of American Scientists (FAS), as “Anti-Shipping Activity Messages” ( ASAM ).57 Measuring economic trends is usually done at a...Aden,” 6. See also, Elleman et al., “Piracy and Maritime Crime,” 11. 57 FAS produced yearly ASAM reports between 1985 and 1999. Federation of

  11. Only the good... get pirated: game piracy activity vs. metacritic score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Bauer, Kevin; Veitch, Robert W. D.

    2011-01-01

    the substantial interest in game piracy, there is very little objective information available about its magnitude or its distribution across game titles and game genres. This paper presents a large-scale analysis of the illegal distribution of digital game titles, which was conducted by monitoring the Bit...... encompass 5.27 million aggregated unique peers alone. In addition to genre, review scores were found to be positively correlated with the logarithm of the number of unique peers per game (p

  12. Trading Nets for Guns: The Impact of Illegal Fishing on Piracy in Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    sector in the 1980s, devoted to exports to Europe and other East African countries .22 However, tax rates of 35–40% made commercial fishing barely...General Aideed reportedly earned a monthly income of $150,000 from taxing banana exports , just under the $175,000/month cost of funding his militia.50... worldwide attacks occurring in the waters surrounding Somalia. The incidence of piracy in Somali waters almost doubled in 2009, and the Somali share

  13. Piracy of adhesins: attachment of superinfecting pathogens to respiratory cilia by secreted adhesins of Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomanen, E

    1986-12-01

    Two proteins secreted by Bordetella pertussis are known to mediate adherence of these bacteria to mammalian respiratory cilia. When either ciliated cells or other pathogenic bacteria were pretreated with these adhesins, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus acquired the ability to adhere to cilia in vitro and in vivo. Such piracy of adhesins may contribute to superinfection in mucosal diseases such as whooping cough.

  14. Defeating terrorism, piracy and armed robbery against ships in a collective maritime security system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Selim Canca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With increasing global economic development, maritime security constitutes more important role throughout the world. The efforts of the international community including shipmasters, shipowners, international specialized agencies, intergovernmental organizations and States concentrate on ensuring the safety and security of ships, repressing acts of maritime violence, imposing obligations upon States, and developing regional agreements between States. As the oceans are used by all and controlled by no one[1], these efforts are very important for global trade and security. Taking into account the security concerns of littoral states, the shipping industry and passengers in general, these efforts continue to try to repress the serious crimes of terrorism, piracy and armed robbery at sea while staying in the lines of the freedoms of the seas that are being protected by state practice and customary international law. In this study, the consequent codification related to the acts of terrorism, piracy and armed robbery against ships and the problems related to the measures aiming to defeat these crimes were examined and recommendations to prevent these crimes were given.[1] Gabel, Jr., George D. (2007, "Smoother Seas Ahead: The Draft Guidelines as an International Solution to Modern-Day Piracy", 21st Biennial Admiralty Law Institute Symposium, 81 Tul.L.Rev.1433, p.1.

  15. PIRACY AROUND AFRICA’S WEST AND EAST COASTS: A COMPARATIVE POLITICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Neethling

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of politics, or political science, focuses on both the abstract theories andpractical operation of government and politics. The phenomenon of piracy on theeast and west coasts of Africa brings an important scholarly issue to the fore, namelythe significant roles of non-state actors in national, regional and global issues andpolitics. The phenomenon of maritime piracy along Africa’s coastal areas is indeedof great strategic and political-economic interest − specifically since globalisationand maritime trade show a close interface. This article examines the similarities anddifferences relating to the phenomenon of piracy on the east and west coasts ofAfrica from a Political Science perspective by assessing, interpreting and appraisingthe phenomenon, and ascribing meaning to recent events and developments. It alsoexplains the current insecurity off the west and east African coasts and closes with abrief comparison between the two regions under review. It concludes with the pointthat most security challenges confronting Africa have their origin in the lack orfailure of governance as states are the primary actors and agents of good order atsea. Thus the required good order at sea should be viewed as a function of howstates, such as Somalia and Nigeria, exercise their jurisdiction at sea to secure busysea lanes and also to protect the safe harvesting and extraction of resources.

  16. River piracy and drainage basin reorganization led by climate-driven glacier retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugar, Daniel H.; Clague, John J.; Best, James L.; Schoof, Christian; Willis, Michael J.; Copland, Luke; Roe, Gerard H.

    2017-04-01

    River piracy--the diversion of the headwaters of one stream into another one--can dramatically change the routing of water and sediment, with a profound effect on landscape evolution. Stream piracy has been investigated in glacial environments, but so far it has mainly been studied over Quaternary or longer timescales. Here we document how retreat of Kaskawulsh Glacier--one of Canada's largest glaciers--abruptly and radically altered the regional drainage pattern in spring 2016. We use a combination of hydrological measurements and drone-generated digital elevation models to show that in late May 2016, meltwater from the glacier was re-routed from discharge in a northward direction into the Bering Sea, to southward into the Pacific Ocean. Based on satellite image analysis and a signal-to-noise ratio as a metric of glacier retreat, we conclude that this instance of river piracy was due to post-industrial climate change. Rapid regional drainage reorganizations of this type can have profound downstream impacts on ecosystems, sediment and carbon budgets, and downstream communities that rely on a stable and sustained discharge. We suggest that the planforms of Slims and Kaskawulsh rivers will adjust in response to altered flows, and the future Kaskawulsh watershed will extend into the now-abandoned headwaters of Slims River and eventually capture the Kluane Lake drainage.

  17. Sharing without laws: an exploration of social practices and ad hoc labeling standards in online movie piracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Tietzmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses self-labelling standards as sharing mediators in pirated versions of movies available online. Piracy has existed since the beginning of the film industry, challenging established rules and regulations. The dynamics of digital movie piracy often try to meet viewers' expectations while ignoring any regional and premiere date restrictions. Movie piracy organises its abundant offer by generating a self-regulatory repertoire of labeling standards. In this paper we propose an exploration of social practices related to the ad hoc labeling standards as regulators of a presumed user experience in unofficial versions of the movie Captain America: The Winter Soldier. Lessons for sharing economy regulation, especially in contexts where chaotic social relationships are involved, are identified and discussed.

  18. Digital piracy: an examination of low self-control and motivation using short-term longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, George E

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the link between low self-control, motivation, and digital piracy. This study used short-term longitudinal data (i.e., once a week for 4 weeks) from undergraduate students (n = 292) and latent trajectory analysis. The results of this study revealed that the students had significant variability in initial levels and rates of change in digital piracy. The results indicated that whether motivation was treated as a time-invariant or time-varying measure, it along with sex (i.e., being male) had a significant link with the initial levels of digital piracy and that sex and low self-control had links with the rate of change. These results are discussed, and policy implications are made.

  19. IMPACT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS ON THE MUSIC AND FILM PIRACY: A GENERAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARUL BAJPAI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Film makers, musicians, writers, cinematographers, singers, choreographer…..without copyrights, none of these occupations could claim remuneration. But because culture must be accessible to the greatest number, UNESCO, WTO, WIPO are engaged in seeking the right balance between the interests of the artist and those of the general public. The new techniques of pirating musical recording or DVD’s however, are threatening this fragile equilibrium. This paper presents an overview of the current scenario of music and film piracy in different parts of the world. Intellectual property right is working as a global protector to protect rights of original creator, authors etc.

  20. High Noon on the High Seas: A Proximity-Complexity Model of Maritime Piracy Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    High Noon on the High Seas: A Proximity–Complexity Model of Maritime Piracy Threats by James E. McGinley and Jonathan P. Berliner Strategic...Jonathan P. Berliner works at the U.S. Army, 1st Information Operations Command where he serves as the Senior Pacific Command Planner in the S3/Plans...April 6, 2005). 20. Dana Dillon and Lucia Selvaggi, “Stopping an Al Qaeda attack in the Malacca Straits,” January 28, 2004. 21. Christian Purefoy

  1. In Search of a Sustainable and Coherent Strategy Assessing the Kaleidoscope of Counter-piracy Activities in Somalia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginkel, Bibi; Landman, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution, the authors sketch an overview of the different initiatives taken by the international community to counter Somali piracy, as well as the different policy goals that are pursued. Five strategies are highlighted: protection and deterrence, law enforcement, capacity building, pro

  2. Multinational Counter-Piracy Operations: How Strategically Significant is the Gulf of Guinea to the Major Maritime Powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    infrastructures, equipment interoperability and compatibility, effective motivation and reward systems for law enforcement personnel, adequate funding and...groups and other dark networks to score cheap political goals and attract disproportionate attention from the international community. Militarily, the...piracy prosecutions, among others. Second order costs include fisheries, food security and food price inflation, tourism , and environmental pollution

  3. The 'Private Ends' of International Piracy: The Necessity of Legal Clarity in Relation to Violent Political Activists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honniball, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Piracy under international law grants states the right to exercise universal jurisdiction, provided that all conditions of its definition are cumulatively met. Yet academic debate continues as to whether one requirement, that piratical acts be committed ‘for private ends’, excludes politically motiv

  4. A Cooperative Strategy of 21st Century Seapower: 200 Years of Repressing Piracy and Still Missing the Boat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-23

    Pirate incident data:” International Maritime Bureau (IMB) Piracy Reporting Center and NGA Anti- Shipping Activity Message ( ASAM ) service. Satellite...Message ( ASAM ) service. Satellite N/E. Image backdrop: MODIS copyright NASA. Vector data: Europa Technologies Inc., US Government. Map

  5. Cross-National Attitudes and Perceptions Concerning Software Piracy: A Comparative Study of Students from the United States and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlinson, David R.; Lupton, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Students' attitudes and perceptions regarding the use of unlicensed software are important to educators and businesses. Students have a proven propensity to pirate software and other intellectual property. By understanding how attitudes and perceptions toward software piracy differ among university students in a cross-national context, educators…

  6. ‘War on piracy’: the conflation of Somali piracy with terrorism in discourse, tactic and law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Singh (Currun); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper argues that since 2005, the global security discourse has confused maritime piracy off the Horn of Africa with terrorism. American and European policymakers and financiers have tapped a vulnerable public imaginary to exaggerate Somali pirates as ‘maritime terrorists’ linked to

  7. DNA Barcoding as a Molecular Tool to Track Down Mislabeling and Food Piracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Barcaccia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding is a molecular technology that allows the identification of any biological species by amplifying, sequencing and querying the information from genic and/or intergenic standardized target regions belonging to the extranuclear genomes. Although these sequences represent a small fraction of the total DNA of a cell, both chloroplast and mitochondrial barcodes chosen for identifying plant and animal species, respectively, have shown sufficient nucleotide diversity to assess the taxonomic identity of the vast majority of organisms used in agriculture. Consequently, cpDNA and mtDNA barcoding protocols are being used more and more in the food industry and food supply chains for food labeling, not only to support food safety but also to uncover food piracy in freshly commercialized and technologically processed products. Since the extranuclear genomes are present in many copies within each cell, this technology is being more easily exploited to recover information even in degraded samples or transformed materials deriving from crop varieties and livestock species. The strong standardization that characterizes protocols used worldwide for DNA barcoding makes this technology particularly suitable for routine analyses required by agencies to safeguard food safety and quality. Here we conduct a critical review of the potentials of DNA barcoding for food labeling along with the main findings in the area of food piracy, with particular reference to agrifood and livestock foodstuffs.

  8. Pirateria della strada: un’analisi criminologica /Road piracy: a criminological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piselli Andrea

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo innanzi tutto evidenzia, dal punto di vista criminologico, la differenza tra crimine di strada e criminalità della strada (o stradale passando poi all’esame di una casistica relativa alla criminalità stradale a partire dall’esperienza operativa. Successivamente, l’autore analizza le circostanze in cui scaturisce la fattispecie della pirateria stradale dedicando particolare attenzione alle vittime. Infine, nell’articolo vengono evidenziati gli elementi di successo ottenuti nella repressione al fenomeno della pirateria stradale. Cet article met en évidence la différence entre les crimes de la rue (street crimes et les crimes routiers d’un point de vue criminologique. Après quoi, il examine quelques cas d’accidents de la route du point de vue de l’expérience sur le terrain. Par la suite, l’auteur analyse certaines circonstances qui conduisent aux crimes routiers en accordant une attention particulière aux victimes. Enfin, il expose différents exemples de réussite de la répression du phénomène des crimes routiers. This article highlights the difference between street crime and road crime from a criminological point of view. Afterwards it examines a series of road accidents based on an operational experience. Subsequently, the author analyses some circumstances which lead to road piracy crimes, paying particular attention to victims. Finally, it emphasizes examples of successful elements in fighting road piracy.

  9. Growth of desferrioxamine-deficient Streptomyces mutants through xenosiderophore piracy of airborne fungal contaminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Anthony Argüelles; Lambert, Stéphany; Martinet, Loïc; Adam, Delphine; Tenconi, Elodie; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; Ongena, Marc; Rigali, Sébastien

    2015-07-01

    Due to the necessity of iron for housekeeping functions, nutrition, morphogenesis and secondary metabolite production, siderophore piracy could be a key strategy in soil and substrate colonization by microorganisms. Here we report that mutants of bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor unable to produce desferrioxamine siderophores could recover growth when the plates were contaminated by indoor air spores of a Penicillium species and Engyodontium album. UPLC-ESI-MS analysis revealed that the HPLC fractions with the extracellular 'resuscitation' factors of the Penicillium isolate were only those that contained siderophores, i.e. Fe-dimerum acid, ferrichrome, fusarinine C and coprogen. The restored growth of the Streptomyces mutants devoid of desferrioxamine is most likely mediated through xenosiderophore uptake as the cultivability depends on the gene encoding the ABC-transporter-associated DesE siderophore-binding protein. That a filamentous fungus allows the growth of desferrioxamine non-producing Streptomyces in cocultures confirms that xenosiderophore piracy plays a vital role in nutritional interactions between these taxonomically unrelated filamentous microorganisms.

  10. Subglacial lake matters: piracy on a divide between thawed and frozen bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S. P.; Bougamont, M. H.; Christoffersen, P.; Fricker, H. A.; Lipscomb, W. H.; Price, S. F.

    2011-12-01

    The two most populated active subglacial lake districts in Antarctica, upper Kamb Ice Stream and lower Whillans Ice Stream, occur along boundaries between where temperature models predict net basal freezing and net basal accretion. This occurs in part due to a basal traction contrast, which creates a ridge in the ice surface and creates a pressure seal; this impedes the downstream movement of water until a subglacial lake flood occurs. Here we use a model for basal water routing, which incorporates subglacial floods and a realistic term for effective pressure, to explore the ability of these floods to provide water to areas of net basal accretion and thus maintain basal lubrication. We hypothesize that these floods can distribute sufficient water to most of the regions experiencing net basal freezing; the exception being those nearest to the lakes themselves, Discharge in these regions likely occurs via narrow subglacial conduits. Over time this will cause ice downstream of the dam to thicken and pre-flood lake levels to increase until water ultimately exits the lake via an alternate route i.e. water piracy. Once piracy occurs, water is no longer supplied along the former flowpath and ice stream shutdown accelerates. We conclude that the formation and quasi-periodic flooding of lakes at the basal melt/ basal freezing boundary is a critical process in accelerating ice stream shutdown.

  11. 防范海盗形势分析及对策探讨%Analysis of the situation concerning anti-piracy and countermeasures to be taken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹志平

    2012-01-01

    文中引用IMB《2011年度海盗和武装抢劫报告》的数据,分析了近年来海盗活动的特点、规律和发展趋势,介绍了航运界在防范海盗方面所取得的经验,探讨了防范海盗应遵循的基本原则,并对船舶防范海盗的良好做法进行了阐述。%This paper, based on the data oflMB "2011 Annual Report on Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships" , analyses the features, patterns and trends of piracy in resent years, introdtzces the experience gained by shipping industry in preventing piracy attacks, discusses the basic principles for dealing with piracy, and also illustrates usefill practice in combating pirates.

  12. New functions of the Drosophila rhomboid gene during embryonic and adult development are revealed by a novel genetic method, enhancer piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, R; Sturtevant, M A; Gollapudi, R R; Bier, E

    1994-08-01

    Localized expression of the Drosophila rhomboid (rho) gene has been proposed to hyperactivate EGF-Receptor signaling in specific cells during development of the embryo and adult. In this report we use a novel transposon based genetic method, enhancer piracy, to drive ectopic expression of a rho cDNA transgene by endogenous genomic enhancers. Many enhancer piracy transposon-rho insertions cause dominant phenotypes, over half of which cannot be duplicated by ubiquitous expression of rho. Genetic interactions between various dominant enhancer piracy alleles and mutations in the EGF-R/RAS signaling pathway indicate that many of these novel phenotypes result from ectopic activation of EGF-R signaling. Patterned mis-expression of the rho cDNA transgene correlates in several cases with localized dominant enhancer piracy phenotypes. Enhancer piracy lines reveal an unanticipated role for rho in imaginal disc formation and provide the first evidence that mis-expression of rho is sufficient for converting entire intervein sectors into veins. Enhancer piracy may prove to be a general strategy for obtaining dominant alleles of a gene of interest in diverse insects, worms, plants, and potentially in vertebrates such as mice and fish.

  13. On International Criminal Law' s Regulation about Piracy Crime%海盗罪的国际刑法规制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秉志; 原佳丽

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary piracy crimes present different features from past ones, as a result of which the relevant regulations about piracy crimes stipulated in 1982' s United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea is not very applicable. On the basis of the features of contemporary piracy crimes and learning from other countries' regulations about piracy crimes, the following two aspects should be taken into consideration. First, the behaviour of piracy crimes should be expanded. Second, the scope of piracy crimes should also be expanded. Along with the increasing and more savage of piracy crimes, we must conclude the features of piracy crimes and perfect the legislation so that we can follow the international tendency to prevent piracy crimes.%当代海盗犯罪呈现出与以往海盗犯罪不同的特点,因而仅适用1982年《联合国海洋法公约》中对海盗罪的相关规定来对海盗罪进行打击会显得力不从心,结合当代海盗犯罪的特点,比较借鉴相关国家关于海盗罪的规定,具体应做到以下两点:一是海盗罪行为对象的拓宽。由于现代海盗罪作案方式的特殊性,为了有效地惩治海盗犯罪,可适当参照英国1700年补充法令的规定,“同船谋反以及对船长采取拘禁行为或限制自由以阻止船长对海盗行为的抵抗都可视为海盗行为”,将海盗罪行为对象予以拓宽,不再局限于另一船舶或飞机,或另一船舶或飞机上的人或物,而拓宽至任何船舶或飞机。二是海盗罪行为领域的延伸。由于目前海盗犯罪不仅仅发生在公海领域,海盗犯罪亦正呈向领海发展的趋势,因此如果一味地遵循《公约》所规定的只惩罚发生在公海或不属于任何国家管辖范围的行为,就会使相应的海盗犯罪无法受到惩罚,故为有效地打击相应犯罪。应取消对海盗犯罪行为领域的过度限定。随着"-3前海盗犯罪的日益猖獗,海盗

  14. Molecular piracy: manipulation of the ubiquitin system by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimuro, Masahiro; Hayward, S Diane; Yokosawa, Hideyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Ubiquitination, one of several post-translational protein modifications, plays a key role in the regulation of cellular events, including protein degradation, signal transduction, endocytosis, protein trafficking, apoptosis and immune responses. Ubiquitin attachment at the lysine residue of cellular factors acts as a signal for endocytosis and rapid degradation by the 26S proteasome. It has recently been observed that viruses, especially oncogenic herpesviruses, utilise molecular piracy by encoding their own proteins to interfere with regulation of cell signalling. Kaposi's sarcoma- associated herpesvirus (KSHV) manipulates the ubiquitin system to facilitate cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis and evasion from immunity. In this review, we will describe the strategies used by KSHV at distinct stages of the viral life-cycle to control the ubiquitin system and promote oncogenesis and viral persistence.

  15. Nutritional immunity. Escape from bacterial iron piracy through rapid evolution of transferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Matthew F; Elde, Nels C

    2014-12-12

    Iron sequestration provides an innate defense, termed nutritional immunity, leading pathogens to scavenge iron from hosts. Although the molecular basis of this battle for iron is established, its potential as a force for evolution at host-pathogen interfaces is unknown. We show that the iron transport protein transferrin is engaged in ancient and ongoing evolutionary conflicts with TbpA, a transferrin surface receptor from bacteria. Single substitutions in transferrin at rapidly evolving sites reverse TbpA binding, providing a mechanism to counteract bacterial iron piracy among great apes. Furthermore, the C2 transferrin polymorphism in humans evades TbpA variants from Haemophilus influenzae, revealing a functional basis for standing genetic variation. These findings identify a central role for nutritional immunity in the persistent evolutionary conflicts between primates and bacterial pathogens.

  16. Piracy in a Contested Periphery: Incorporation and the Emergence of the Modern World-System in the Colonial Atlantic Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nick Kardulias

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article uses world-systems analysis to examine the role that pirates and privateers played in the competition between European core states in the Atlantic and Caribbean frontier during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Piracy was an integral part of core-periphery interaction, as a force that nations could use against one another in the form of privateers, and as a reaction against increasing constraints on freedom of action by those same states, thus forming a semiperiphery. Although modern portrayals of pirates and privateers paint a distinct line between the two groups, historical records indicate that their actual status was rather fluid, with particular people moving back and forth between the two. As a result, the individuals were on a margin between legality and treason, often crossing from one to the other. In this study we discuss how pirates and privateers fit into the margins of society in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, also known as the Golden Age of Piracy, specifically using the example of Edward Teach, aka Blackbeard. The present analysis can contribute to our understanding not only of piracy, but also of the structure of peripheries and semiperipheries that in some ways reflect resistance to incorporation.

  17. Curbing Piracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Strategies differ widely in dealing with Somali pirates Hijacking,detaining hostages and ransom are the core of Somali pirates’ "business model." Up until recently, it has largely been unchallenged,as most countries have paid ransom to secure the release of hostages.

  18. Stream-piracy impact on the long-term evolution of the Meuse basin. Physical approach "modeling with GOLEM"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaichouche, A.; Stab, O.; Cojan, I.; Brulhet, J.; Tijani, M.; Tessier, B.

    2012-04-01

    Landscape evolution results of antagonistic processes. In the Paris basin (France): tectonic uplift seems to be globally balanced by river incision. But the dynamic equilibrium of the relief can be disturbed by other processes and singularities may appear. A remarkable example is observed in the Meuse basin (NE of France), where the river is actually perched at more than +50m above the surrounding valleys: the Marne valley to the west and the Moselle valley to the east. This special morphology is the result of several stream piracies (at the expense of the Meuse) which has interested numerous researchers since a long time (Davis 1895, Blache 1943, Lesson-Quinif 2001 & Le Roux Harmand 1997-2009…). The most important ones of these piracies are: 1) the well-known capture of the Haute-Moselle by a tributary of the Meurthe near Toul; 2) at the north-west, the capture of the river Aire by the Aisne. On-going evolution suggests that similar events can be expected in the long-term future. Where and when next streams piracies could occur, what consequences may be expected? Our approach is to simulate the dynamic evolution of the landscape with an improved version of GOLEM (Geomorphic / Orogenic Landscape Evolution Model - LEM), software developed by Tucker & Slingerland in 1994 (http://csdms.colorado.edu/wiki/Model:GOLEM). The LEM characterizes erosion by incorporating diffusion and advection equations whose parameters must be fixed, according to local conditions. First simulations for next millions years with « detachment-limited » mode, let us locate several potential captures of the Meuse river by tributaries of the Moselle, therefore inducing a complete reorganization of the hydrographic network. The results of the localizations agree with local topography/geometry analysis. The first capture induces the propagation of a knickpoint and a significant lowering of the upstream part of the Meuse's basin. Downstream of the capture, the orientation of the abandoned valley

  19. DIGITAL WATERMARKING SCHEMES FOR AUTHORIZATION AGAINST COPYING OR PIRACY OF COLOR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheerendra S Tomar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents digital watermarking methods for authorization against copying or piracy of color images. Watermarking is a very important field for copyrights of various electronic documents and media. With images widely available on the Internet, it may sometimes be desirable to use watermarks. Digital watermarking is the processing of combined information into a digital signal. A watermark is a secondary image, which is overlaid on the host image, and provides a means of protecting the image. This paper presents the survey on digital watermark features, its classifications and applications. Various watermarking techniques have been studied in detail in mainly three domains: spatial, frequency and statistical domain. In spatial domain, Least-Significant Bit (LSB, SSM-Modulation-Based Technique has been developed. For DCT domain, block based approach and for wavelet domain, multi-level wavelet transformation technique and CDMA based approaches has been developed.The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT is currently used in a wide variety of signal processing applications. This paper also presents the various error matrices for analyses the robustness of watermarking method.

  20. Wireless Sensor Networks and Real-Time Locating Systems to Fight against Maritime Piracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide range of military and civil applications where Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs and Multi-Agent Systems (MASs can be used for providing context-awareness for troops and special corps. On the one hand, WSNs comprise an ideal technology to develop Real-Time Locating Systems (RTLSs aimed at indoor environments, where existing global navigation satellite systems do not work properly. On the other hand, agent-based architectures allow building autonomous and robust systems that are capable of working on highly dynamic scenarios. This paper presents two piracy scenarios where the n-Core platform can be applied. n-Core is a hardware and software platform intended for developing and deploying easily and quickly a wide variety of WSNs applications based on the ZigBee standard. In the first scenario a RTLS is deployed to support boarding and rescue operations. In the second scenario a multi-agent system is proposed to detect the unloading of illegal traffic of merchandise at ports.

  1. Interspecies modulation of bacterial development through iron competition and siderophore piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, Matthew F; Seyedsayamdost, Mohammad R; Clardy, Jon; Kolter, Roberto

    2012-11-01

    While soil-dwelling actinomycetes are renowned for secreting natural products, little is known about the roles of these molecules in mediating actinomycete interactions. In a previous co-culture screen, we found that one actinomycete, Amycolatopsis sp. AA4, inhibited aerial hyphae formation in adjacent colonies of Streptomyces coelicolor. A siderophore, amychelin, mediated this developmental arrest. Here we present genetic evidence that confirms the role of the amc locus in the production of amychelin and in the inhibition of S. coelicolor development. We further characterize the Amycolatopsis sp. AA4 - S. coelicolor interaction by examining expression of developmental and iron acquisition genes over time in co-culture. Manipulation of iron availability and/or growth near Amycolatopsis sp. AA4 led to alterations in expression of the critical developmental gene bldN, and other key downstream genes in the S. coelicolor transcriptional cascade. In Amycolatopsis sp. AA4, siderophore genes were downregulated when grown near S. coelicolor, leading us to find that deferrioxamine E, produced by S. coelicolor, could be readily utilized by Amycolatopsis sp. AA4. Collectively these results suggest that competition for iron via siderophore piracy and species-specific siderophores can alter patterns of gene expression and morphological differentiation during actinomycete interactions.

  2. Late Quaternary stream piracy and strath terrace formation along the Belle Fourche and lower Cheyenne Rivers, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, John F.; Hendricks, Robert R.; Sawyer, J. Foster; Mahan, Shannon; Zaprowski, Brent J.; Geibel, Nicholas M.; Azzolini, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Stream piracy substantially affected the geomorphic evolution of the Missouri River watershed and drainages within, including the Little Missouri, Cheyenne, Belle Fourche, Bad, and White Rivers. The ancestral Cheyenne River eroded headward in an annular pattern around the eastern and southern Black Hills and pirated the headwaters of the ancestral Bad and White Rivers after ~ 660 ka. The headwaters of the ancestral Little Missouri River were pirated by the ancestral Belle Fourche River, a tributary to the Cheyenne River that currently drains much of the northern Black Hills. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques were used to estimate the timing of this piracy event at ~ 22–21 ka. The geomorphic evolution of the Cheyenne and Belle Fourche Rivers is also expressed by regionally recognized strath terraces that include (from oldest to youngest) the Sturgis, Bear Butte, and Farmingdale terraces. Radiocarbon and OSL dates from fluvial deposits on these terraces indicate incision to the level of the Bear Butte terrace by ~ 63 ka, incision to the level of the Farmingdale terrace at ~ 40 ka, and incision to the level of the modern channel after ~ 12–9 ka. Similar dates of terrace incision have been reported for the Laramie and Wind River Ranges. Hypothesized causes of incision are the onset of colder climate during the middle Wisconsinan and the transition to the full-glacial climate of the late-Wisconsinan/Pinedale glaciation. Incision during the Holocene of the lower Cheyenne River is as much as ~ 80 m and is 3 to 4 times the magnitude of incision at ~ 63 ka and ~ 40 ka. The magnitude of incision during the Holocene might be due to a combined effect of three geomorphic processes acting in concert: glacial isostatic rebound in lower reaches (~ 40 m), a change from glacial to interglacial climate, and adjustments to increased watershed area resulting from piracy of the ancestral headwaters of the Little Missouri River.

  3. Late Quaternary stream piracy and strath terrace formation along the Belle Fourche and lower Cheyenne Rivers, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, John F.; Hendricks, Robert R.; Sawyer, J. Foster; Mahan, Shannon A.; Zaprowski, Brent J.; Geibel, Nicholas M.; Azzolini, David C.

    2013-09-01

    Stream piracy substantially affected the geomorphic evolution of the Missouri River watershed and drainages within, including the Little Missouri, Cheyenne, Belle Fourche, Bad, and White Rivers. The ancestral Cheyenne River eroded headward in an annular pattern around the eastern and southern Black Hills and pirated the headwaters of the ancestral Bad and White Rivers after ~ 660 ka. The headwaters of the ancestral Little Missouri River were pirated by the ancestral Belle Fourche River, a tributary to the Cheyenne River that currently drains much of the northern Black Hills. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques were used to estimate the timing of this piracy event at ~ 22-21 ka. The geomorphic evolution of the Cheyenne and Belle Fourche Rivers is also expressed by regionally recognized strath terraces that include (from oldest to youngest) the Sturgis, Bear Butte, and Farmingdale terraces. Radiocarbon and OSL dates from fluvial deposits on these terraces indicate incision to the level of the Bear Butte terrace by ~ 63 ka, incision to the level of the Farmingdale terrace at ~ 40 ka, and incision to the level of the modern channel after ~ 12-9 ka. Similar dates of terrace incision have been reported for the Laramie and Wind River Ranges. Hypothesized causes of incision are the onset of colder climate during the middle Wisconsinan and the transition to the full-glacial climate of the late-Wisconsinan/Pinedale glaciation. Incision during the Holocene of the lower Cheyenne River is as much as ~ 80 m and is 3 to 4 times the magnitude of incision at ~ 63 ka and ~ 40 ka. The magnitude of incision during the Holocene might be due to a combined effect of three geomorphic processes acting in concert: glacial isostatic rebound in lower reaches (~ 40 m), a change from glacial to interglacial climate, and adjustments to increased watershed area resulting from piracy of the ancestral headwaters of the Little Missouri River.

  4. Phycodnavirus potassium ion channel proteins question the virus molecular piracy hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Hamacher

    Full Text Available Phycodnaviruses are large dsDNA, algal-infecting viruses that encode many genes with homologs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Among the viral gene products are the smallest proteins known to form functional K(+ channels. To determine if these viral K(+ channels are the product of molecular piracy from their hosts, we compared the sequences of the K(+ channel pore modules from seven phycodnaviruses to the K(+ channels from Chlorella variabilis and Ectocarpus siliculosus, whose genomes have recently been sequenced. C. variabilis is the host for two of the viruses PBCV-1 and NY-2A and E. siliculosus is the host for the virus EsV-1. Systematic phylogenetic analyses consistently indicate that the viral K(+ channels are not related to any lineage of the host channel homologs and that they are more closely related to each other than to their host homologs. A consensus sequence of the viral channels resembles a protein of unknown function from a proteobacterium. However, the bacterial protein lacks the consensus motif of all K(+ channels and it does not form a functional channel in yeast, suggesting that the viral channels did not come from a proteobacterium. Collectively, our results indicate that the viruses did not acquire their K(+ channel-encoding genes from their current algal hosts by gene transfer; thus alternative explanations are required. One possibility is that the viral genes arose from ancient organisms, which served as their hosts before the viruses developed their current host specificity. Alternatively the viral proteins could be the origin of K(+ channels in algae and perhaps even all cellular organisms.

  5. Phycodnavirus potassium ion channel proteins question the virus molecular piracy hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Kay; Greiner, Timo; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Van Etten, James L; Gebhardt, Manuela; Villarreal, Luis P; Cosentino, Cristian; Moroni, Anna; Thiel, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Phycodnaviruses are large dsDNA, algal-infecting viruses that encode many genes with homologs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Among the viral gene products are the smallest proteins known to form functional K(+) channels. To determine if these viral K(+) channels are the product of molecular piracy from their hosts, we compared the sequences of the K(+) channel pore modules from seven phycodnaviruses to the K(+) channels from Chlorella variabilis and Ectocarpus siliculosus, whose genomes have recently been sequenced. C. variabilis is the host for two of the viruses PBCV-1 and NY-2A and E. siliculosus is the host for the virus EsV-1. Systematic phylogenetic analyses consistently indicate that the viral K(+) channels are not related to any lineage of the host channel homologs and that they are more closely related to each other than to their host homologs. A consensus sequence of the viral channels resembles a protein of unknown function from a proteobacterium. However, the bacterial protein lacks the consensus motif of all K(+) channels and it does not form a functional channel in yeast, suggesting that the viral channels did not come from a proteobacterium. Collectively, our results indicate that the viruses did not acquire their K(+) channel-encoding genes from their current algal hosts by gene transfer; thus alternative explanations are required. One possibility is that the viral genes arose from ancient organisms, which served as their hosts before the viruses developed their current host specificity. Alternatively the viral proteins could be the origin of K(+) channels in algae and perhaps even all cellular organisms.

  6. Forensic age estimation in anti-piracy trials in Seychelles: Experiences and challenges faced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, S A; Liyanage, U A; Weeratna, J B; Mendis, N D N A; Perera, H J M; Jayasekara, R W; Fernando, R

    2017-01-01

    Forensic age estimation (FAE) was conducted using a multifactorial method on thirteen Somali detainees claiming juvenile status during the anti-piracy trials of the Seychelles Supreme Court in 2014/2015. A multidisciplinary team, comprising of four of the authors covering specialties in forensic medicine, forensic odontology and radiology, conducted the FAE using a five-stage protocol. Each detainee was interviewed with an interpreter and examined for disorders affecting dental/skeletal development and for assessment of genital development through Tanner staging. Dental maturity was assessed clinically and radiologically. Eruption stage was assessed using Olze et al. and mandibular third-molar maturity was assessed using Demirjian's classification. Skeletal maturity was assessed from hand-wrist X-rays according to Greulich & Pyle and from CT-clavicle according to Kellinghaus et al. and Schultz et al. Interpretation of findings was done using reference population data from similar ethnic and social backgrounds wherever possible. Final age-ranges were calculated by combining dental and clavicle maturity stages using the regression formula developed by Bassed et al. followed by a 10% correction factor. The team later testified on their findings under cross-examination. The protocol adopted by the authors increased the scientific validity of the findings and was useful in addressing cross-examination queries on exclusion of developmental disorders, ethnic/socioeconomic variability and maintaining chain of custody. Unforeseen jurisdictional and practical limitations were experienced but did not affect the outcome. Combining dental and clavicle developmental data provided the court with a much clearer picture on the likelihood of the detainees' juvenile status which emphasizes the importance of conducting more population studies using combinations of different developmental sites. The authors note that available reference data is mostly from affluent populations whereas

  7. Effect of slope failures on river-network pattern: A river piracy case study from the flysch belt of the Outer Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroň, Ivo; Bíl, Michal; Bábek, Ondřej; Smolková, Veronika; Pánek, Tomáš; Macur, Lukáš

    2014-06-01

    Landslides are important geomorphic agents in various mountainous settings. We document here a case of river piracy from the upper part of the Malá Brodská Valley in the Vsetínské Mts., Czech Republic (Rača Unit of the flysch Magura Group of Nappes, flysch belt of the Outer Western Carpathians) controlled by mass movement processes. Based on the field geological, geomorphological and geophysical data, we found out that the landslide accumulations pushed the more active river of out of two subparallel river channels with different erosion activity westwards and forced intensive lateral erosion towards the recently abandoned valley. Apart from the landslide processes, the presence of the N-striking fault, accentuated by higher flow rates of the eastern channel as a result of its larger catchment area, were the most critical factors of the river piracy. As a consequence of the river piracy, intensive retrograde erosion in the elbow of capture and also within the upper portion of the western catchment occurred. Deposits of two landslide dams document recent minimum erosion rates to be 18.8 mm.ky- 1 in the western (captured) catchment, and 3.6 mm.ky- 1 in the eastern catchment respectively. The maximum age of the river piracy is estimated to be of the late Glacial and/or the early Holocene.

  8. Ancient Piracy Activities of Garp Ocakları in Mediterranean World as an International Problem in XVIII Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat KUZUCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Through XVI and XX centuries Ottoman State called Algeria, Tunisia and Tripolis as Western Colonies (Garp Ocakları. The Ottomans, for the first time, entered Algeria in 1516 owing to Captain Oruc; then in 1551 they took Tripolis and Tunisia in 1574. After those conquests, Algeria remained as Ottoman land between 1516 and 1830, Tripolis between 1574 and 1881 and Tunisia between 1574 and 1881. The most significant military force of the Western Colonies was the fleets. Those colonies, having a significant nautical power within the Mediterranean basin, made a great contribution to the naval forces of Ottoman state after they were captured. The Ottoman State governed here establishing a semi- independent policy. The appointed governors could rule independently when necessary. However, the reign of the Sultan of Ottoman State was always in power in those colonies like all other parts of the land. Friday sermons (khutbah were given in the name of the Sultan and the coins were in the name of the Sultan also. The most considerable sources of income of those colonies were merchant shipping and piracy. The piracy activities especially in the Mediterranean basin were the main source. However, in time, that situation became a problem between Ottoman State and other states that deal with maritime commerce in Mediterranean. Within this frame, Western Colonies that did not obey the international pacts from time to time left Ottoman State in a difficult situation.

  9. Stream capture and piracy recorded by provenance in fluvial fan strata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikesell, Leslie R.; Weissmann, Gary S.; Karachewski, John A.

    2010-03-01

    Stream capture and piracy in tectonically active regions have been described in geomorphic systems worldwide; however, few studies show the influence stream capture has on the rock record. We present an analysis of fluvial fan stratigraphy that developed as a result of multiple stream capture events, building a complex stratigraphic succession beneath the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), California. The LLNL site is located in the southeast portion of the tectonically active Livermore Basin, a transpressional basin in the California Coast Ranges. Geomorphic evidence for this stream capture include: (1) the Arroyo Seco enters the basin from the south through an uplifted fault block, (2) south of this fault block lies an abandoned Arroyo Seco fluvial fan, (3) north of the fault block, in the Livermore Basin, Arroyo Seco built a 7-km 2 fluvial fan, apparently forcing the Arroyo Las Positas, a smaller stream that enters the basin from the east, northward around the Arroyo Seco fan, and (4) a knickpoint exists near the point of capture on Arroyo Seco. Stratigraphic evidence reflecting this shift in the Arroyo Seco position into the Livermore Basin was evaluated through a provenance study of 215 gravel units from 34 boreholes spaced evenly over the 2.6 km 2 LLNL site. The Arroyo Seco derives its sediment from both the Jurassic-Cretaceous Franciscan Assemblage and the Altamont Hills (which are comprised of Mesozoic Great Valley Group and Tertiary continental sediments). The Arroyo Las Positas drains only the Altamont Hills and thus lacks the Franciscan Assemblage-derived clasts. The origin of the individual gravel units was determined by the percentage of Franciscan Assemblage indicator pebbles (red chert, green chert and blueschist) in the samples. Through this analysis, we determined that high-percentage Franciscan Assemblage-derived clasts were present below a depth of approximately 35 m below the surface, low-percentage Franciscan Assemblage

  10. Piracy Off the Coast of Somalia: The Argument for Pirate Prosecutions in the National Courts of Kenya, The Seychelles, and Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Sterio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    This Article will argue that, in order to combat the rise of Somali piracy, major maritime nations should rely on national prosecutions of Somali pirates in the courts of stable regional partners, such as Kenya, the Seychelles, and Mauritius.  A systematic transfer program and prosecutions in the national courts of several regional partners would preclude the possibility of pirate catch-and-release, and could ultimately provide enough deterrence to seriously dissuade young Somali men from engaging in piracy.  The Somali pirates, enemies of all mankind, may find potent foes in the form of Kenyan, Seychellois, and Mauritian prosecutors, who will subject pirates to prosecutions on behalf of all mankind.

  11. International law of the sea and national legislation on piracy and terrorism in the straits of Malacca: a study in law and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ja'afar, Sabirin Bin

    2007-01-01

    The issue of piracy and maritime terrorism becomes complicated when it is discussed in relation to the rights of the coastal states regarding the right of passage in straits used for international navigation. One of the issues in this respect is the conflicting interests of littoral states that insist on sovereignty over the sea areas adjacent to their coast and the needs of user states to retain and indeed to have more freedom in navigation while passing through and overflying these straits....

  12. Research on Counter-piracy Design Method of Ocean Ship%远洋船舶的防海盗设计方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟玉湘

    2015-01-01

    从防止海盗登船方法、海盗登船后抵御方法和安全舱布置设计这三方面入手,详细阐述了远洋船舶设计中可采用的防海盗方法,旨在通过加强船舶的自身防护措施,全面提高船舶安全性能,提升船舶产品的市场竞争力,并为今后远洋船舶开展相关防海盗设计提供一定借鉴和参考。%The paper laid a strong emphasis on counter-piracy methods in the design of ocean ships from three aspects of the prevention pirates landing ship, the counterwork against pirates on-board and the design and arrangement of counter-piracy safety cabins. It can highly improve the performance of ship safety with strengthen ship protection methods to upgrade the ship product’s market competition ability, and can give some directions on counter-piracy design of ocean ships in the future.

  13. Legal Regulation on Network Piracy Acts of Television Dramas%论影视剧作品网络盗播行为的法律规制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂洪涛; 雎华阳

    2015-01-01

    网络社会背景下 ,影视剧作品网络盗播侵权现象时有发生 ,欧美发达国家均通过健全的法律制度对影视剧作品网络盗播侵权行为予以有效规制.借鉴国外的先进经验 ,完善我国现行法律制度 ,严格执法 ,公正司法 ,提高公民的版权意识 ,有效预防并制止影视剧作品网络盗播侵权行为的发生 ,成为我国影视产业健康发展的当务之急.%In network social background ,network television dramas have occurred piracy violations .American and European countries have passed a sound legal system on network television dramas piracy infringement to be effective regulation .Learning from the advanced experience from foreign countries to improve the current legal system from strict law enforcement ,judicial justice ,and improving citizens' awareness of copyright ,effective preventing and suppressing the network piracy on television dramas infringement occurred .

  14. 小说广告与晚清文化市场的小说盗版现象%Novel Advertisement and the Novel Piracy Phenomenon in the Cultural Market during the Late Qing Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖慧

    2012-01-01

    晚清时期的《申报》、《时报》等报刊的广告栏目所刊载的小说出版广告中涉及大量关于小说盗版现象和出版商打击盗版的内容,如广百宋斋版《西游记》以及点石斋书局《淞隐漫录》、江左书林《侠女舍身缘》等的被盗版与反盗版现象,以及晚清书局的反盗版措施,对研究晚清小说市场盗版现象与读者趣味及小说市场的有序化进程有重要意义。%In the late Qing Dynasty on advertising column of newspapers, such as Declaration and Times, there are many advertisements involving novel piracy and anti-piracy. These piracy and anti-piracy measures are of important significance for the researches about the novel market's piracy, readers' interest and the novel market's orderly process in the late Qing Dynasty.

  15. 论打击海盗的国际法障碍%Obstacles in the International Law of Anti-Piracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒梦

    2012-01-01

    There are a lot of international treaties regarding anti-piracy,regarding definition and rules.They are various and incomplete with different focus and members.The No.1816 UN resolution gives a wide scope of definition for piracy solving many problems about authorization in the outer region of the international waters but it has been questioned,as well,for the controversial parts against the sovereignty doctrine.So the obstacles include co common definition,special treaty and the parts against sovereignty doctrine.These are great hindrances for the international cooperation against piracy.%关于海盗罪及海盗行为的界定存在众多国际公约,这些公约并不相同,各有偏重,规定不够全面,并拥有不同的签约国。联合国1816号决议在一定程度上拓宽了对海盗行为的限定,完善了众多公约关于公海外海域打击海盗授权的问题,但因其可能与主权原则有所冲突而受到众多质疑。界定不统一、没有相关的专门性公约以及与主权原则的冲突,这些都给国际合作打击海盗带来障碍。

  16. 船长在防抗海盗中的决定权%On Ship Master's Decision making Power in Anti-piracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬惠国; 许玉付

    2012-01-01

    当船舶航经海盗猖獗的高危海区时,部分船长因为社会环境、文化背景等原因,不能充分行使船长的决定权进行有效的防抗海盗部署工作,从而导致船舶被海盗袭击或劫持的事件时有发生.通过分析SOLAS公约中的“船长决定权”,对比数例船舶在亚丁湾防抗海盗的成功与失败的案例,论述船长在防抗海盗中应果断地行使其决定权.指出船长在防抗海盗中只有把安全放在首位,充分利用各种资源,周密准备,积极地申请护航,才有可能确保船舶及船员的安全.%Due to social environment, cultural background and some other factors, some captains fail to exercise the decision making power completely in resisting pirate attack, when vessels sailing in high risk sea areas of piracy, which leads the vessels to be attacked or hijacked. This paper points out that Captains should resolutely exert their decision making power in anti-piracy on the basis of the decision making power of ship masters authorized in SOLAS Convention and the analysis of several successful/ unsuccessful anti pirate cases happening in Yading Gulf. It stresses that only when the safety is given the highest priority, making careful preparation and full use of resources and actively applying convoy for anti-piracy, the safety of ships and the crew can be ensured.

  17. A Brief Introduction of Anti-piracy Equipment and Device%船舶防海盗设备和器材简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建明

    2012-01-01

    在当前海盗劫持船舶频发的形势下,各大航运公司和安保专业设备公司积极响应,研制开发出一系列专业设备和器材给广大船员带来福音。笔者曾多次通过亚丁湾及西非海域,因而根据自身抗击海盗经历及从事航海保安员培训经验中整理总结了目前开发使用的防海盗设备和器材,希望能够帮助广大船员熟悉这些设备和器材并充分利用,以提高防海盗技能,保证船舶安全航行。%In the current situation of frequent piracy,big shipping companies and security professional equipment companies make a positive response,and develops a series of professional equipments,which bring sailors good news.The author has repeatedly voyaged through the gulf of Aden and west African waters,and according to their own experience of fighting against pirates and training experience of security work,the writer summarizes the current equipments of anti-piracy,hoping to help the crew familiar with these devices and equipment and make full use of them,so as to improve anti-piracy skills,and ensure voyage security.

  18. “The dangerous classes”: Hugo Grotius and seventeenth-century piracy as a primitive anti-systemic movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Wilson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the historical and textual representations of piracy in the writings of Hugo Grotius, primarily De Indis/De iure praedae(1603-1608 and the Commentarius in Theses XI (c. 1600. Contrary to popular belief, Grotius, in stark contrast to Jean Bodin, was not an advocate of the constitutionally homogenous Nation-State. Rather, his central concept of divisible sovereignty, the lynchpin of the constitutional theory of his early writings, unambiguously presents us with the object of the heterogeneousState. In Grotian theory, the State may be “read” as a composite construction, with a residual degree of inalienable sovereignty accruing at each unit-level. Even if only unconsciously, Grotius describes a concurrent para-political sub-division of the state between institutional Government (the “magistrates”and civil society, one that constitutes an operational system of governance within the Nation-State. Like his contemporary Johannes Althusius, Grotius’theory allows for the emergence of a wholly “private,” albeit lawful, mode of authority. This is most apparent in Grotius’ treatment of the mercantile trading Company and its Privateering operations. The corporatist theory of sovereignty permits the Company’s private agents of violence, the legally ambivalent Privateer/Pirate, to be invested with a requisite degree of sovereignty. The Grotian theory of divisible sovereignty, investing the seventeenth-century Pirate band with legal personality, serves as a vital historical precursor to the quasi-statist (trans- national criminal cartels of the twenty-first century. The Grotian Pirate/Privateer/Just Avenger, therefore, is a “nomad”: a liminal entity that simultaneously transverses both geographical and juro-political spaces, rendering him or herselfin-determinable.

  19. Non-Traditional Security Threats in the Border Areas: Terrorism, Piracy, Environmental Degradation in Southeast Asian Maritime Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabova, E. L.

    2013-11-01

    with other subsystems like South East Asia may have different approaches to global governance, international constitutional order, or particular cases such as the measure of infringement of human rights when targeting individuals suspected of terrorist links. Yet international law remains the key part of the Asian and global security regime. The hypothesis of this study is that the "void of governance" regime in territorial and international waters provides lucrative environment for developing terrorism, piracy, environmental degradation, and other criminal activities that pose untraditional threats to the regional security. This "void of governance" regime can be caused by either, or both, de jure or de facto insufficient control over particular marine territories.

  20. 盗版:厂商的质量选择与政府的反盗版政策%Piracy: Manufacturers' quality selection and government's anti-piracy policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭梅; 邓流生; 丁雪峰

    2013-01-01

    针对反盗版政策研究中被忽略的盗版和政府监管对厂商产品质量选择的影响问题,以正版厂商、盗版厂商、政府和消费者四方博弈的信息产品市场为背景,建立了两阶段博弈模型,构建了受产品质量影响的消费者效用函数,分析了政府的反盗版监管政策对正版厂商质量选择的影响,并通过数据算例的方法分析了政府在社会福利最大化目标下的最优监管策略与厂商的质量决策.研究表明:政府的监管政策越严厉,正版厂商提供的产品质量越高.在一定的条件下,盗版厂商的仿冒水平是政府选择监管政策的关键.当仿冒水平较低时,市场机制自身的作用可以有效保护正版厂商,无需政府力量的介入,政府可以采取无保护政策.当仿冒水平较高时,市场机制的调节不足以保护正版厂商,此时,需要发挥政府监管的作用,政府应施以适度保护.%It has been ignored the question on the impact of the pirated products and government regulation on genuine manufacturers' quality selection.This paper analyzes the impact of government' supervision power and regulatory policy on manufacturers' quality selection through the establishment of a two-stage game model,and also analyzes the regulatory strategy and manufacturer's quality decision under the objective of maximizing social welfare the optimal by taking data simulation methods.The results show that:The more stringent the government's anti-piracy regulatory policies are,the higher the product quality provided by the genuine manufacturer is.Under certain conditions,pirated manufacturers' the level of counterfeit is a key factors which the government choose regulatory policy.When the counterfeit level is low,the role of market mechanisms can effectively protect the genuine companies without the involvement of government forces,and the government can take no protection policies.When the counterfeit level is high,the regulation of the

  1. 防海盗遥控空气动力喷砂枪设计构想%Conception on the design of anti-piracy remote control Aerodynamics sand-blasting gun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪峰

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes the design concept of a new type of anti-piracy equipment, remote-control air-pressure sand blasting gun, and briefly introduces its structure and working principles. It hopes that the equipment can be popularized onboard in the future in order to enhance anti-piracy skills and ensure safe navigation.%文中提出一种新型防海盗设备——遥控空气动力喷砂枪的设计构想,简单介绍了其结构和工作原理,希望将来该设备能够在船上普及,以提高防海盗技能,保证船舶安全航行。

  2. Patent and product piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, V.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced industrial countries are affected by technology theft. German industry annually loses more than 50 billion euros. The main causes are industrial espionage and fraudulent copying patents and industrial products. Many Asian countries are profiteering saving up to 65% of production costs. Most affected are small medium enterprises, who do not have sufficient economic power to assert themselves against some powerful countries. International organizations, such as Interpol and World Customs Organization - WCO - work together to combat international economic crime. Several methods of protection can be achieved by registering patents or specific technical methods for recognition of product originality. They have developed more suitable protection, like Hologram, magnetic stripe, barcode, CE marking, digital watermarks, DNA or Nano-technologies, security labels, radio frequency identification, micro color codes, matrix code, cryptographic encodings. The automotive industry has developed the method “Manufactures against Product Piracy”. A sticker on the package features original products and it uses a Data Matrix verifiable barcode. The code can be recorded with a smartphone camera. The smartphone is connected via Internet to a database, where the identification numbers of the original parts are stored.

  3. Piracy and Movie Revenues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peukert, Christian; Claussen, Jörg; Kretschmer, Tobias

    In this paper we make use of a quasi-experiment in the market for illegal downloading to study movie box office revenues. Exogenous variation comes from the unexpected shutdown of the popular file hosting platform Megaupload.com on January 19, 2012. The estimation strategy is based on a quasi dif...... for the theoretical perspective of (social) network effects where file-sharing acts as a mechanism to spread information about a good from consumers with zero or low willingness to pay to users with high willingness to pay....... difference-in-differences approach. We compare box office revenues before and after the shutdown to a matched control group of movies unaffected by the shutdown. We find that the shutdown had a negative, yet insignificant effect on box office revenues.This counterintuitive result may suggest support...

  4. INTERNET AND PIRACY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Internet has penetrated into all the aspects of our life and work.We can study and work by it;we can find a job by it;we can communicate by it;we can entertain by it;we can buy and sell by it.We can do almost everything on the Internet,and almost anywhere anytime. However,at the same time Internet provides services for us,it is inevitably invading our privacy to some degree.The services on most websites require our registering. If we want to enjoy these services,we have to provide much private informa-

  5. Piracy without Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Andrea L.

    2003-01-01

    Outlines the confusion arising when public colleges invoke a constitutional shield when they are accused of pirating software. Some state institutions claim immunity under the 11th Amendment from prosecution for infringement of intellectual property. (SLD)

  6. Analyzing the intelligence and information sharing in countering piracy off the Somali Coast%海军护航行动中国际间情报信息共享探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓明; 周尤亮; 王红霞

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two years, authorized by United Nations Security Council resolutions, China and other countries undertook several counter-piracy actions off the Somali coast and made much progress on tackling the Somali piracy issue. However, pirate attacks in the Gulf of Aden and the waters far off Somalia's eastern coast are still serious, and the tasks for the navies to counter the Somali piracy are still arduous. The navies cooperate with each other in the Gulf of Aden and the waters far off Somalids eastern coast at different levels. The intelligence and information sharing is one important part of the international military cooperation in countering piracy off the Somali coast. With the purpose of improving the effects of intelligence support to counter the Somali pirates, this paper analyzes the problems in the intelligence and information sharing for countering piracy off the Somali coast, and discusses how to carry out the multilevel intelligence cooperation among the countries.%最近两年来,遵照联合国决议授权,各国赴索马里海域护航反击海盗行动颇具成效。然而,索马里海盗活动依然猖獗,海军护航反海盗任务仍然艰巨。各国海军在护航行动中开展了多层次的军事合作。国际间情报信息共享是护航反海盗军事合作的重要组成部分。文中从加强护航行动中国际间情报信息共享的角度,分析了当前打击索马里海盗情报信息共享方面存在的主要问题,并认为在打击索马里海盗中应开展多层级情报合作,以提高打击索马里海盗情报支援能力。

  7. 中国网络电影盗版行为的多维分析%Multidimensional Analysis of Internet Film Piracy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶建华; 邱志伟

    2016-01-01

    盗版电影的传播不仅对电影行业造成了巨大损失,而且从社会道德层面也有损于社会的健康发展。以计划行为理论与道德理论作为基础,结合中国独特的网络环境,针对日益猖獗的盗版电影广泛传播这一现象,构建结构方程模型并加以验证。实证结果表明:感知收益、对电影质量的要求以及态度等个人因素对观看盗版电影这一行为都产生巨大影响;从传播途径而言,网络的传播属性同样有助于盗版电影的传播;但是,社会层面的法律制度以及相应的惩罚措施并没有对观看盗版电影产生明显的遏制作用。这些结论启示管理层应该从适当的方向来打击盗版电影这一不良现象。%The spread of pirated movies not only causes enormous loss to movie industry, but also impedes the healthy development of society from the moral point of view. Based on the theory of planned behavior and the moral theory, this paper establishes a structural equation model to study the phenomenon and tries to validate it in light of China's unique network environment where film piracy is increasingly rampant. The results show that personal factors like the viewers’ perceived benefits, requirement for film quality and their attitude greatly affect people’s behavior of watching pirated movies. In terms of transmission, the communication attributes of Internet also help spread pirated movies. However, the legal system at social level and the corresponding punishment do not curb the spread of pirated movies. The findings suggest the relevant departments should crack down on film piracy in the right direction.

  8. Piracy and post-opium war introduction of steam ships%鸦片战争后的海盗问题与轮船的引进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉辰

    2015-01-01

    鸦片战争之后,中国沿海的海盗活动有了新的抬头,传统的反海盗手段无力解决这一问题。为此,宁波、上海船商率先购置轮船用于护航捕盗,而官方亦随后仿效。对轮船的运用大大加强了反海盗斗争的效力,也提高了清政府在中外联合反海盗行动中的地位。更重要的是,通过这种途径,轮船开始为中国所用,推动了近代化的进程。%After the opium war ,pirates frequent the Chinese coastal waters .Traditional measures fail to curb the piracy ,and the ship merchants in Ningbo and Shanghai purchase steam ships to navigate the waters and to have pirates readily captured .Government follows suit .Steam ships help with the conque‐ring of pirates ,and the Chinese modernization ,as w ell .

  9. ['Piracy of kowledge'--the role of a buccaneer-scientist in the knowledge circulation around diseases and drugs in the tropics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelders, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge circulation in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was not only stimulated by the mutual interaction of trade and science. In the context of territorial expansion, war, and the activities of privateers and pirates, knowledge of diseases and drugs in the tropics was increased as well. An important part in this process was performed by so-called 'buccaneer-scientists': adventurers with medical and scientific backgrounds and/or interest who operated on the cultural borders in different parts of the hemisphere. The characteristics of this type of contributor to Early Modern knowledge circulation are explored and analyzed in the example of Scottish surgeon and pirate Lionel Wafer (c. 1660 - c. 1705). The buccaneer scientist had to share the passions of other scientists, resulting in accurate and detailed empirical observation; be able to judge the relevance of observations and 'facts'; be part of a context that stimulates these observations; be capable of describing of these observations; and be part of a network of dissemination of observations. His activities should have an important practical and pragmatic component stimulating trade, expansion and even piracy. And he should possess personal characteristics such as perseverance, a healthy constitution, and ruthlessness, to work and survive in a violent and traumatic environment. Wafer is typical for other 'buccaneer-scientists' of this period--not only pirates and privateers, but also physicians and natural explorers operating in other and more 'respectable' areas of the European overseas expansion.

  10. SHADE协调机制在亚丁湾、索马里海域护航中的作用%SHADE coordinative mechanism in combating piracy off the Somali coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萍; 苏敏

    2011-01-01

    "Shared Awareness and De-confliction" (SHADE) is a voluntary international military group that promotes multi-operations of international organizations to combat a wave of piracy. This paper traces back to its origin and discusses its contributing coordination to the military counter-piracy operations off the Somali coast. And the drawback of SHADE mechanism is also presented.%“信息共享与防止冲突”(简称SHADE)这一军事协调会议为国际社会开展多边合作实施海上护航提供了平台。通过梳理SHADE协调机制产生的背景及运作方式,并以第14次工作会议为例,分析了SHADE这一国际协调机制在打击索马里海盗、维护海上航行安全中的作用,同时指出了其存在的不足。

  11. Evidence for stasis and not genetic piracy in developmental expression patterns of Branchiostoma lanceolatum and Branchiostoma floridae, two amphioxus species that have evolved independently over the course of 200 Myr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somorjai, Ildiko; Bertrand, Stéphanie; Camasses, Alain; Haguenauer, Anne; Escriva, Hector

    2008-12-01

    Cephalochordates, the most basal extant group in the phylum Chordata, are represented chiefly by about 20 species of the genus Branchiostoma, commonly called amphioxus or lancelets. In recent years, insights into the evolutionary origin of the vertebrates have been gained from molecular genetic studies during the development of three of these amphioxus species (Branchiostoma floridae in North America, Branchiostoma lanceolatum in Europe, and Branchiostoma belcheri in East Asia). In spite of an estimated divergence time of 100-200 Myr among these species, all three are remarkably similar morphologically, and students of amphioxus have tacitly assumed that such resemblances arise during ontogeny from nearly identical networks of developmental genes. We felt that this assumption needed to be reexamined because instances are known--even in comparisons of closely related species--where characters seeming homologous on the basis of morphology actually develop under the control of conspicuously divergent genetic programs (a phenomenon termed "genetic piracy"). In the present work, we tested the hypothesis that morphological similarities reflect strict conservation of developmentally important genes' expression patterns in order to assess whether the developmental genetics of different amphioxus species show evidence of genetic piracy. To these ends, we cloned 18 genes implicated in different developmental functions in B. lanceolatum and compared their gene expression patterns with the known expression patterns of their orthologous genes in B. floridae. We show that, for the most part, conservation of gene expression parallels that of morphology in these two species. We also identified some differences in gene expression, likely reflecting experimental sensitivity, with the exception of Pax1/9, which may result from true developmental specificities in each amphioxus species. Our results demonstrate that morphological conservation reflects stasis in developmental gene

  12. 盗版影响下网络视频行业的定价策略研究%Pricing Strategy under the impact of piracy in online video industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董艺

    2015-01-01

    We build a duopoly model of Internet video industry and investigate the piracy impact under equilibrium conditions for equilibrium pricing,advertising levels,the number of consumers,the equilibrium profit,consumer surplus and social welfare . Studies have shown that,due to the presence of piracy makes the number of consumers and the amount of video content in the platform produce a contradiction,Content providers revenue access to the vague uncertain when efforts to increase the protection of property rights,in order to balance this contradiction at the same time platform to get maximum profit,we got three different behaviors to platform companies,content providers and advertisers under different efforts to protect property rights.%通过构建一个互联网视频行业的双寡头垄断模型,考察均衡条件下盗版对均衡定价、均衡利润、广告水平、消费者数量、视频内容数量、消费者剩余和社会福利的影响情况。研究表明,由于盗版的存在使得平台中的消费者数量与视频内容数量之间产生了矛盾,使得在加大产权保护力度时内容提供商获得的收益模糊不确定,为了在平衡这一矛盾的同时平台能获得最大利润,得到不同的产权保护力度下,平台企业、内容提供商和广告商不同的决策模式。

  13. On Application of Four-R Theory in Anti-piracy Military Sports Course Teaching%“防海盗”军事体育校本课程运用4R理论的实践研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦海

    2014-01-01

    Based on the research of some shipping enterprises ,the essay analyses the teaching status of military sports curriculum in Nantong Shipping College ,and discovers that many aspects of anti‐piracy school curriculum teaching need to be adjusted ,such as :structural system ,method of thinking and core concept .Four‐R model of crisis management is a com‐prehensive dynamic process of crisis management ,which meets the objective law to deal with the sudden piracy event .Based on Four‐R theory of crisis management ,the author adopts the optimization strategy and carries out empirical study to explore main teaching process , with a view to proving its feasibility and effectiveness .%本文在航运企业调查研究的基础上,通过对南通航院军事体育课程教学现状的分析,发现“防海盗”校本军体教材训练的结构框架、训练方法和教学目标等亟需优化调整。危机管理4R模式是一个较为全面的危机管理动态过程,符合突发海盗事件处理的客观规律。笔者基于危机管理4R理论,采取优化的策略,对教学的主要环节进行调查研究,以期证明其可行性和有效性。

  14. Piracy of decay-accelerating factor (CD55) signal transduction by the diffusely adhering strain Escherichia coli C1845 promotes cytoskeletal F-actin rearrangements in cultured human intestinal INT407 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, I; Servin, A L; Bernet-Camard, M F

    1998-09-01

    Diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) C1845 (clinical isolate) harboring the fimbrial adhesin F1845 can infect cultured human differentiated intestinal epithelial cells; this process is followed by the disassembly of the actin network in the apical domain. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanism by which DAEC C1845 promotes F-actin rearrangements. For this purpose, we used a human embryonic intestinal cell line (INT407) expressing the membrane-associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) protein-anchored decay-accelerating factor (DAF), the receptor of the F1845 adhesin. We show here that infection of INT407 cells by DAEC C1845 can provoke dramatic F-actin rearrangements without cell entry. Clustering of phosphotyrosines was observed, revealing that the DAEC C1845-DAF interaction involves the recruitment of signal transduction molecules. A pharmacological approach with a subset of inhibitors of signal transduction molecules was used to identify the cascade of signal transduction molecules that are coupled to the DAF, that are activated upon infection, and that promote the F-actin rearrangements. DAEC C1845-induced F-actin rearrangements can be blocked dose dependently by protein tyrosine kinase, phospholipase Cgamma, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein kinase C, and Ca2+ inhibitors. F-actin rearrangements and blocking by inhibitors were observed after infection of the cells with two E. coli recombinants carrying the plasmids containing the fimbrial adhesin F1845 or the fimbrial hemagglutinin Dr, belonging to the same family of adhesins. These findings show that the DAEC Dr family of pathogens promotes alterations in the intestinal cell cytoskeleton by piracy of the DAF-GPI signal cascade without bacterial cell entry.

  15. 全球视野下的十九世纪中期东南海盗问题述论——基于近代报刊的考察%The Mid-Nineteenth Century Piracy in Southeastern China From a Global Perspective -An Observation based on Modern Newspapers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃寿伟

    2011-01-01

    十九世纪中期中国东南海盗再度盛行,引起了中西各方的关注与干涉。传教士在通商口岸所办的《遐迩贯珍》等报刊对此也进行了详实的登载,从这些报刊的舆论反映出中外各利益方对于海盗活动的态度与反应.也折射了中西关于海洋观念的差异及十九世纪中期东南海疆社会的时代特点。%The reviving prevalence of piracy in southeastern China during the mid-nineteenth century caught the attention and in- tervention of Chinese and western parties. The missionary-founded newspaper "Chinese Serial" and other newspapers carried out detailed coverage of the event. These reports reflect not only the different attitudes and responses of the Chinese and foreign parties towards piracy, but also the different marine concept of Chinese and westerners, and the characteristics of the coastal area in South- eastern China during the mid-nineteenth century.

  16. 著作權法「防盜拷措施」條款例外規定要點之檢討 The Review of Regulations Concerning the Exceptions of Anti-piracy Measures Clauses in Taiwan Copyright Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    章忠信 Chung-Hsin Chang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available 「科技保護措施」是著作權人在數位網路環境下,以技術保護其權利的重要手段,國際著作權法制對於這些「科技保護措施」,再以法律保護,使其不被任意破解或規避。然而,這些規定對於廣大的公眾利益究竟有何負面影響,非無疑義。我國著作權法在2004 年9 月1 日增訂「防盜拷措施」條款後,主管機關終於在2006 年3 月23 日發布「防盜拷措施」排除適用範圍之認定要點,即「著作權法第80 條之2 第3 項各款內容認定要點」,本文針對此一要點的訂定背景與內容作簡要介紹與分析,期望引起各界的關注,也可以為本要點下一次的檢討修正作準備。 Technological Protection Measures (TPMs is an important method for copyright owners to employ technology to protect his right under digital internet environment. International copyright treaty establishes legal regime to prevent those TPMs from crack or circumvention. However, what negative side effects those regulations may cause to the public interest needs to be evaluated. Taiwan amended its Copyright Law and introduced so-call Anti-piracy Measures clauses on Sep. 1, 2004. In addition, the Competent Authority released the regulations concerning the details of exceptions and limitations set forth in Paragraph 3 of Article 80ter on Mar. 23, 2006. This Article summarizes the background and analysis the details of the regulations. The purpose of this Article is to raise the public concern to this issue. It may also make a preparation to amend the Regulation.

  17. Film Piracy, Organized Crime, and Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    produced locally in India, Hong Kong, Nigeria , Thailand, and elsewhere are also targets. In con- trast to Hollywood films, which may have broad appeal to...Armani suit instead of a leather jacket, and his best friend is his accountant, not his bodyguard.”4 “To put it crudely, once the bank-robber owns

  18. maritime terrorism and piracy: similarities and differences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stoop

    2002-11-05

    Nov 5, 2002 ... advantage of pirates, armed robbers and terrorists during attacks.100 .... the acquisition of arms and supplies as terrorist organisations already have these ..... 106 Aynte, A. “Understanding the Al-Shabaab/Al-Qaeda 'merger'”.

  19. Piracy: The Best Business Model Available

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Hague. Dr. Alexander organized and chaired six major conferences on nonlethal warfare and served as a U.S. delegate to four North Atlantic Treaty...report to a plenary body chaired on a rotational basis by volunteer nations. Participants also include Egypt, Japan, Greece, Norway, Korea, Turkey, and...terrorists shot a disabled American passenger, Leon Kling- hoffer, and threw his body and wheelchair overboard.158 This case is emblazoned on the annals

  20. Piracy and the Politics of Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the understanding of how and where politics are made has changed radically. Scholars such as Ulrich Beck and Maria Bakardjieva have discussed how political agency is enacted outside of conventional party organizations, and political struggles increasingly focus on single issues. Over the past two decades, this transformation of politics has become common knowledge, not only in academic research but also in the general political discourse. Recently, the proliferation of digita...

  1. A Music Service Dies, Survived by Piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2009-01-01

    For online music services, an endorsement from colleges is the kiss of death. Ruckus Network, in which more than 200 colleges had signed up with to provide a free and legal alternative to unauthorized file swapping, shut down without warning on February 6, reminding some officials of two years ago when another company, Cdigix, abruptly announced…

  2. Piracy and Maritime Terrorism; A Seamless Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-18

    members involved in the deadly Bali bombings, most of who have been sentenced for their crimes .” iv Recently, both Malaysia and Singapore have...per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing...Commander, Pacific Command, by virtue of his Pacific region responsibilities, along with the governments of Malaysia , Singapore and Indonesia, must

  3. PIRACY AROUND AFRICA'S WESTERN AND EASTERN COASTS:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    1998-10-21

    Oct 21, 1998 ... military, must consequently remain a leading role-player in conflict ... South Africa is likely to be one of the main role-players in the operational ..... expected of the SANDF to be ready for any regional or continental security.

  4. Combating Piracy in the Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    AFRICA SECURITY BRIEF A P u b l i c At i o n o f t h e A f r i c A c e n t e r f o r S t r At e g i c S t u d i e S n o . 3 0 / f e b r u...traffic in West Af- rican ports has grown 14 percent an- nually since 1995, the fastest of any region in Sub-Saharan Africa .1 The wider Gulf of Guinea...22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply

  5. Piracy and Box Office Movie Revenues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peukert, Christian; Claussen, Jörg; Kretschmer, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the heterogeneous effects of online copyright enforcement. We ask whether the unexpected shutdown of the popular file hosting platform Megaupload had a differential effect on box office revenues of wide-release vs. niche movies. Identification comes from a comparison...

  6. Molecular piracy of chemokine receptors by herpesviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P M

    1994-01-01

    To succeed as a biological entity, viruses must exploit normal cellular functions and elude the host immune system; they often do so by molecular mimicry. One way that mimicry may occur is when viruses copy and modify host genes. The best studied examples of this are the oncogenes of RNA retroviruses, but a growing number of examples are also known for DNA viruses. So far they all come from just two groups of DNA viruses, the herpesviruses and poxviruses, and the majority of examples are for genes whose products regulate immune responses, such as cytokines, cytokine receptors, and complement control proteins. This review will focus on human and herpesvirus receptors for chemokines, a family of leukocyte chemoattractant and activating factors that are thought to be important mediators of inflammation. Although the biological roles of the viral chemokine receptor homologues are currently unknown, their connection to specific sets of chemokines has suggested a number of possible functions.

  7. Molecular piracy of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J; Means, R E; Damania, B; Jung, J U

    2001-01-01

    Kaposi's Sarcoma associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) is the most recently discovered human tumor virus and is associated with the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and Multicentric Casttleman's disease. KSHV contains numerous open reading frames with striking homology to cellular genes. These viral gene products play a variety of roles in KSHV-associated pathogenesis by disrupting cellular signal transduction pathways, which include interferon-mediated anti-viral responses, cytokine-regulated cell growth, apoptosis, and cell cycle control. In this review, we will attempt to cover our understanding of how viral proteins deregulate cellular signaling pathways, which ultimately contribute to the conversion of normal cells to cancerous cells.

  8. Molecular piracy: the viral link to carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaitz, C M; Hicks, M J

    1998-11-01

    The vast majority of the human experience with viral infections is associated with acute symptoms, such as malaise, fever, chills, rhinitis and diarrhea. With this acute or lytic phase, the immune system mounts a response and eliminates the viral agent while acquiring antibodies to that specific viral subtype. With latent or chronic infections, the viral agent becomes incorporated into the human genome. Viral agents capable of integration into the host's genetic material are particularly dangerous and may commandeer the host's ability to regulate normal cell growth and proliferation. The oncogenic viruses may immortalize the host cell, and facilitate malignant transformation. Cell growth and proliferation may be enhanced by viral interference with tumor suppressor gene function (p53 and pRb). Viruses may act as vectors for mutated proto-oncogenes (oncogenes). Overexpression of these oncogenes in viral-infected cells interferes with normal cell function and allows unregulated cell growth and proliferation, which may lead to malignant transformation and tumour formation. Development of oral neoplasms, both benign and malignant, has been linked to several viruses. Epstein-Barr virus is associated with oral hairy leukoplakia, lymphoproliferative disease, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, B-cell lymphomas, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Human herpesvirus-8 has been implicated in all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphomas, multiple myeloma, angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy, and Castleman's disease. Human herpesvirus-6 has been detected in lymphoproliferative disease, lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. The role of human papillomavirus in benign (squamous papilloma, focal epithelial hyperplasia, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris), premalignant (oral epithelial dysplasia), and malignant (squamous cell carcinoma) neoplasms within the oral cavity is well recognized. Herpes simplex virus may participate as a cofactor in oral squamous cell carcinoma development by enhancing activation, amplification, and overexpression of pre-existing oncogenes within neoplastic tissues. Because of the integral role of viruses in malignant transformation of host cells, innovative antiviral therapy may prevent tumour development, involute neoplastic proliferations, or arrest malignant progression.

  9. Software Piracy, Ethics, and the Academician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassler, Richard A.

    The numerous software programs available for easy, low-cost copying raise ethical questions. The problem can be examined from the viewpoints of software users, teachers, authors, vendors, and distributors. Software users might hesitate to purchase or use software which prevents the making of back-up copies for program protection. Teachers in…

  10. 制度變更與盜版氾濫-轉型期大陸盜版問題研究之一 The Changing of System and the Overflowing of the Ptrate: A Study on the Problem of the Piracy in Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhiqiang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available 本文對大陸地區改革開放後出現的盜版成因進行了分析,認為盜版的氾濫與這一時期的制度變更密切相關。文章從出版物成為商品、民營出版經濟成分的出現及市場化的驅動、經濟結構的調整與就業問題的出現、對單位控制的減弱及單位自主權的增加、出版單位體制改革滯後等5個方面分析了制度變更與盜版製品氾濫之間的關係。This paper discusses the problem of the piracy in Mainland China after 1978, tries to reveal the relationship between the changing of institution and the overflowing of pirate. Chinese government set up the economic reform after 1978, and resulted in the below effect. Firstly, the publication became the merchandise; Secondly, the private sector in publishing field is emerging; Thirdly, the problem of obtaining employment is appearing because of the adjustment of economic structure; Fourthly, the government control of the unit became weaken; and the Fifth, the reform of the publishing house is stagnant.

  11. Countering Piracy with the Next-Generation Piracy Performance Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Mean 50th percentile ( MAREA ) is the average area containing 50% of the relative forecast of pirate presence probability density. MAREA and the...smoothed variant ( MAREAs ) were not used in the analysis as discussed in Chapter VI, Section B. 30 THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK 31 V...variable used in the analysis. Table 5 also shows that MAREA and MAREAs are negatively correlated to each of the other eight dependent variables

  12. The Strategic Management and the Illegality: a case study on the fighting against piracy in BrazilA Gestão Estratégica e a Ilegalidade: um estudo de caso do combate à pirataria no BrasilLa Gestión Estratégica y la Ilegalidad: un estudio de caso del combate a la piratería en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MACHADO, Solange Mata

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMultinational companies that suffer from the impact of piracy must recognize the important social and political differences between the local market and the international market to formulate their integrated market and nonmarket strategies. Little is known about the extent to which piracy affects the processes of strategic management of multinational companies operating in emerging countries, where institutional failures restrict the market, or about the type of nonmarket activities used by these companies to achieve their goals of political action. To study this phenomenon, three multinational pharmaceutical companies suffering from illegality were investigated. The evidences of the survey showed that there is a global strategic integration – market and nonmarket (BARON, 1995a. The companies that suffer from piracy tend to use a geocentric structure (PELMUTTER, 1969 formulating nonmarket centralized strategies with the support of specialists to maximize resources. Locally, the subsidiaries implement the global nonmarket strategies, choosing to perform collective activities - independently of the amount of resources available (HILMANN; HITT, 1999.RESUMOAs empresas multinacionais que sofrem com o impacto da pirataria precisam reconhecer as importantes diferenças sociais e políticas existentes entre o mercado local e o mercado internacional para formular estratégias de mercado e não mercado integradas, que sejam eficazes no combate dos produtos piratas. Pouco se sabe sobre a extensão em que a pirataria afeta os processos de gestão estratégica das empresas multinacionais que atuam em países emergentes, onde as falhas institucionais restringem o mercado, e nem tampouco se conhece a estrutura organizacional que suporta estas atividades e os tipos de atividades de não mercado escolhidas para atingir os seus objetivos de ação política. Para estudar este fenômeno foram pesquisadas três empresas multinacionais do setor farmac

  13. Scanner tags, comic book piracy and participatory culture

    OpenAIRE

    Delwiche, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    To learn more about the motivations of individuals who scan and distribute comic books, this study reports findings from a content analysis of 389 scanner tags extracted from comic books posted on the torrent network Pirate Bay. Coded according to four categories linked to the literature on comic fandom and participatory culture, tags were analyzed in terms of recognition, aesthetic style, textual signifiers, and visual signifiers. Though comic book pirates seek recognition from their peers, ...

  14. Strategic Implications of Piracy in Benin’s Territorial Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    region. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Gulf of Guinea, UNODC, Transnational Organized Crime, JIATF-South, Intelligence, Illegal Oil Industry, Seaport 16...Count: 9,009 Key Terms: Gulf of Guinea, UNODC, Transnational Organized Crime, JIATF- South, Intelligence, Illegal Oil Industry...northeastern part of the tropical Atlantic, with Angola to the south, and Cape Palmas in Liberia to the west.5 The Gulf of Guinea is formed by the

  15. Piracy and Maritime Crime: Historical and Modern Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    standard for enclosing the seas, several countries rapidly followed suit. In 1946, Argentina claimed control of its continental shelf, which extends...off the Riff coast the following day. At two o’clock that afternoon, he found the Spanish vessel Joven Emilia hauled up the beach and entirely...NP_35.vp Friday, January 08, 2010 8:37:11 AM Color profile: Disabled Composite Default screen Ardeal 129 Argentina 9 Argus 166 Ariel 129 Arktis

  16. Understanding Modern Maritime Piracy: A Complex Adaptive System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-12

    Mediterranean Sea comprised the majority of the shipping lanes; the historical Barbary States included Morocco , Algeria, Tunis, and Tripoli (the latter two...with the modern day names of Tunisia and Libya, respectively). The Mediterranean coastal area of Morocco , Algeria, and Tunis were primarily rocky...and high, while the coastal area of Tripoli was mainly low with reefs and shoal water extending well offshore . The coastal climate was mild with

  17. Predatory Journals, Piracy and New Models of Publishing Scientific Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Zdeněk Smutný

    2016-01-01

    The paper responds to observed absurd impacts associated with predatory journals, both at the personal and institutional level. There is mentioned the basic procedure to identify predatory journal and how to find it in Beall’s list. Briefly are commented the consequences associated with the first study in the Czech Republic dealing with the number of articles published in predatory journals, which are inserted into the Information register of R&D results (RIV) by research institutions. On thi...

  18. Stopping Piracy: Refocusing on Land-based Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    entire Spanish fleet in Matanzas Bay in 1628. Heyn escaped with loot valued at approximately 12 million guilders or 4.8 million pesos. French pirates...The Pirate Wars (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2005), 92. 68 Colin Woodard, The Republic of Pirates: Being the True and Surprising Story of the...540904/ship. (accessed 13 may 2011). 68 ———. “Colonialism.” 2011. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/126237/colonialism, under

  19. On the Web, a Textbook Proliferation of Piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Book publishers are stepping up efforts to stop college students from downloading illegal copies of textbooks online. One Web site, Textbook Torrents, promises more than 5,000 textbooks for download in PDF format, complete with the original books' layouts and full-color illustrations. Users must simply set up a free account and download a free…

  20. Frank Talk about Hacker Attacks, Emergency Notification, and Online Piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, Josh; Carlson, Scott; Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Technology decisions should not be made solely in some geeky corner of the campus, but should be central to strategic planning and involve top academic leaders. Campus-technology leaders traded tales from the trenches and plenty of advice during the two-day Technology Forum, held in Tampa, Florida in February 2008. Ohio University responded to a…

  1. Editorial: Internet piracy and the European political and legal orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reestman, J.H.; Eijsbouts, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most remarkable results of the elections for the European Parliament on 4-7 June 2009 is that the Swedish Piratpartiet won one seat, to which another will be added if the Treaty of Lisbon enters into force. One of the aims of this party is a reform of copyright law to restore the, in its

  2. In-theater piracy: finding where the pirate was

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupeau, Bertrand; Massoudi, Ayoub; Lefèbvre, Frédéric

    2008-02-01

    Pirate copies of feature films are proliferating on the Internet. DVD rip or screener recording methods involve the duplication of officially distributed media whereas 'cam' versions are illicitly captured with handheld camcorders in movie theaters. Several, complementary, multimedia forensic techniques such as copy identification, forensic tracking marks or sensor forensics can deter those clandestine recordings. In the case of camcorder capture in a theater, the image is often geometrically distorted, the main artifact being the trapezoidal effect, also known as 'keystoning', due to a capture viewing axis not being perpendicular to the screen. In this paper we propose to analyze the geometric distortions in a pirate copy to determine the camcorder viewing angle to the screen perpendicular and derive the approximate position of the pirate in the theater. The problem is first of all geometrically defined, by describing the general projection and capture setup, and by identifying unknown parameters and estimates. The estimation approach based on the identification of an eight-parameter homographic model of the 'keystoning' effect is then presented. A validation experiment based on ground truth collected in a real movie theater is reported, and the accuracy of the proposed method is assessed.

  3. IC Piracy Protection by APUF and Logic Obfuscation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    protocols applicable to several computing platforms. This paper proposes a novel lightweight (low overhead) strong PUF based on the timings of a classic...Short paper : Lightweight remote attestation using physical functions,” in Proceedings of the fourth ACM conference on Wireless network security, 2011...in 15th IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference (MELECON), 2010, pp. 304–308. [28] D. Holcomb, W. Burleson, and K. Fu, “Power-up SRAM state

  4. Structural basis for iron piracy by pathogenic Neisseria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noinaj, Nicholas; Easley, Nicole C; Oke, Muse; Mizuno, Naoko; Gumbart, James; Boura, Evzen; Steere, Ashley N; Zak, Olga; Aisen, Philip; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Evans, Robert W; Gorringe, Andrew R; Mason, Anne B; Steven, Alasdair C; Buchanan, Susan K

    2012-02-12

    Neisseria are obligate human pathogens causing bacterial meningitis, septicaemia and gonorrhoea. Neisseria require iron for survival and can extract it directly from human transferrin for transport across the outer membrane. The transport system consists of TbpA, an integral outer membrane protein, and TbpB, a co-receptor attached to the cell surface; both proteins are potentially important vaccine and therapeutic targets. Two key questions driving Neisseria research are how human transferrin is specifically targeted, and how the bacteria liberate iron from transferrin at neutral pH. To address these questions, we solved crystal structures of the TbpA-transferrin complex and of the corresponding co-receptor TbpB. We characterized the TbpB-transferrin complex by small-angle X-ray scattering and the TbpA-TbpB-transferrin complex by electron microscopy. Our studies provide a rational basis for the specificity of TbpA for human transferrin, show how TbpA promotes iron release from transferrin, and elucidate how TbpB facilitates this process.

  5. Piracy off Somalia Intensified%海盗袭来

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓东明

    2009-01-01

    2008年11月15日,索马里海盗在东非肯尼亚近海劫持了沙特阿拉伯新造的319430载重吨“天狼星”号超级油轮,这艘油轮长330米,最多可装载200万桶原油,是世界第二大油轮,所装载的石油货物连同船舶价格,价值估计2.56亿美元以上,海盗索要2500万美元的赎金。一艘又长又高的巨型船舶在海上航行,居然这么容易地就被几条小快艇劫持了,成为震惊世界的大事件。

  6. Estuarine stream piracy: Calvert County US Atlantic coastal plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, P.R. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-07-01

    The topography of Maryland's western shore of the Chesapeake Bay shows that five steams now flowing eastward into the bay comprise the pirated (and inverted) headwaters of streams previously flowing westward from a varnished Pliocene upland now occupied by the central Chesapeake. Estuarine shoreline erosion during Pleistocene interglaciations removed the upland, exposing the upper reaches of west-flowing stream valleys. Headward (westward) erosion by east-flowing streams then occurred along existing valleys, facilitated by steep eastward gradients and easily eroded valley-floor sediments. Stream inversion may be more common than previously recognized, since any eroding shoreline causes consumption of seaward-draining watershed and steepening of gradients, thus setting the stage for eventual stream inversion.

  7. Windows of War: A View on African Piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    high. In the late 1700s through the early 1800s, this principle was easy to categorize as high. The United States understood the importance of...European Union (EU) struggling to provide economical and budgetary stability to several members such as Greece and Ireland , economic resources are limited

  8. ON PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHIATRIC IMPACT OF PIRACY ON SEAFARERS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Aleksandrov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been discussed that being held hostage can have harmful short and often long-term physical, psychological, familial and social effects on the victims. This is a complex area of research and the data is sparse yet. The aim of our study is to present our experience concerning some psychological and psychiatric consequences on Bulgarian seamen victims of pirate's attack long captivity and to suggest a suitable methodology of a psychological investigation in such cases. Methods: Seven Bulgarian hostage survivors underwent comprehensive psychological and psychiatric assessments twenty days after pirate’s captivity release. Results and discussion: In general terms, the psychological and psychiatric impact on the victims is similar to that of being exposed to other serious life-threatening events, including terrorist incidents and natural disasters. All the subjects, who have been examined in our study, reported feelings of detachment and alienation from close others and startle by noises, nightmares and sleep disturbances. Anxiety symptoms, characterized by apprehension, tension and fear in particular situations, and some depressive features (depressive mood, lack of interest and activities, lassitude on a sub- clinical level were registered. Conclusion: Despite some limitations our report discusses important issues, concerning psychological and psychiatric consequences on Bulgarian seamen victims of pirate’s attack long captivity and present a suitable model of a psychological investigation in such cases and states the need of supportive care of the victims.

  9. Maritime piracy situation modelling with dynamic Bayesian networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dabrowski, James M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A generative model for modelling maritime vessel behaviour is proposed. The model is a novel variant of the dynamic Bayesian network (DBN). The proposed DBN is in the form of a switching linear dynamic system (SLDS) that has been extended into a...

  10. Disrupting Somali Piracy via Trust and Influence Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    activities of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). The program was initiated following the murders of three New York civil rights workers in Mississippi in the... Ku Klux Klan and 50 specified other hate groups” (Davis, 1992, p. 76). Over a period of several years, COINTELPRO was able to reduce the...series of campaigns to instill distrust within the Klan organization. Operating under strict secrecy, the FBI slowly undermined the trust within the

  11. Dynamic Asset Allocation Approaches for Counter-Piracy Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    In order to solve this NP-hard optimization problem, we used a greedy approach, based on the evolutionary algorithm , coupled with the auction ...among N search regions is a one- to-one asymmetric assignment problem. The auction algorithm [21] is one of the most efficient methods for solving the...may be present and where they may strike next. This paper proposes an algorithmic augmentation or add-on to PARS that allocates interdiction and

  12. Fish, Family, and Profit: Piracy and the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    nature: You hear people say, “I’m an Australian,” but people in Australia still know what you mean when you say “I’ll have a brew ,” a coffee , “I’ll have a...Siad Barre, who initially established very close ties with the Soviet Union within the context of the Cold War. His loy- alties later shifted when...as natural as the first cup of coffee in the morning, a fit so well engineered over time, socially and professionally, that it could become second

  13. Passive automatic anti-piracy defense system of ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szustakowski, M.; Życzkowski, M.; Ciurapiński, W.; Karol, M.; Kastek, M.; Stachowiak, R.; Markowski, P.

    2013-10-01

    The article describes the technological solution for ship self-defense against pirate attacks. The paper presents the design solutions in the field of direct physical protection. All the solutions are connected with the latest optoelectronic and microwave systems and sensors to detect, recognize and the threat posed by pirates. In particular, tests of effectiveness and the detection-range of technology demonstrator developed by a team of authors were carried out.

  14. Design Piracy: Student Perceptions of a Constructive Controversy Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcketti, Sara B.

    2007-01-01

    Optimal learning occurs when students are interested in the subject matter, are motivated with challenging and quality learning opportunities, and when immersed in atmospheres that make learning enjoyable. One technique to promote optimal learning is through the use of constructive controversies. The purpose of this study was to provide an example…

  15. Post-mating clutchy piracy in an amphibian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Vieites, D.; Nieto-Roman, S.; Barluenga, M.; Palanca, A.; Vences, M.; Meyer, A.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple mating and alternative mating systems can decrease the opportunity for sexual selection. Sperm competition after multiple mating has been observed in many animals1,4-7 and alternative reproductive systems are widespread among species with external fertilization and parental care. Multiple p

  16. Subversion and piracy: DNA viruses and immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, D M

    2001-06-01

    During the co-evolution of viruses with their vertebrate hosts, the DNA viruses have acquired an impressive array of immunomodulatory genes to combat host immune responses and their hosts have developed a sophisticated immune system to contain virus infections. In order to replicate, the viruses have evolved mechanisms to inhibit key host anti-virus responses that include apoptosis, interferon production, chemokine production, inflammatory cytokine production, and the activity of cytotoxic T-cells, natural killer cells and antibody. In addition, some of the viruses encode cytokine or chemokine homologues that recruit or expand cell numbers for infection or that subvert the host cellular response from a protective response to a benign one. The specificity of the viral immunomodulatory molecules reflects the life cycle and the pathogenesis of the viruses. Herpesviruses achieve latency in host cells by inducing cell survival and protecting infected cells from immune recognition. This involves interference with cell signal transduction pathways. Many of the viral immunomodulatory proteins are homologues of host proteins that appear to have been pirated from the host and reassorted in the virus genomes. Some of these have unique functions and indicate novel or important aspects of both viral pathogenesis and host immunity to viruses. The specific example of orf virus infection of sheep is described.

  17. Piracy on the molecular level: human herpesviruses manipulate cellular chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaby, Caleb; Tanner, Anne; Stutz, Eric W; Poole, Brian D; Berges, Bradford K

    2016-03-01

    Cellular chemotaxis is important to tissue homeostasis and proper development. Human herpesvirus species influence cellular chemotaxis by regulating cellular chemokines and chemokine receptors. Herpesviruses also express various viral chemokines and chemokine receptors during infection. These changes to chemokine concentrations and receptor availability assist in the pathogenesis of herpesviruses and contribute to a variety of diseases and malignancies. By interfering with the positioning of host cells during herpesvirus infection, viral spread is assisted, latency can be established and the immune system is prevented from eradicating viral infection.

  18. Post-mating clutchy piracy in an amphibian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Vieites, D.; Nieto-Roman, S.; Barluenga, M.; Palanca, A.; Vences, M.; Meyer, A.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple mating and alternative mating systems can decrease the opportunity for sexual selection. Sperm competition after multiple mating has been observed in many animals1,4-7 and alternative reproductive systems are widespread among species with external fertilization and parental care. Multiple

  19. Combating Piracy in the Gulf of Guinea: Taking a Page from the Gulf of Aden International Anti-Piracy Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    developed by international shipping organizations . The BMP provide guidance to commercial vessels on routes and methods to prevent hijackings...resources 71 Hodgkinson, 153-154. 35 and develop strategies in partnership to address organized ...leadership and support the regional organizations in developing a comprehensive strategy. The only new development was for the UNSG to direct its sub

  20. 盗版与反盗版的经济学分析%Economic Analyses on the Piracy and Fighting Against Piracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁君

    2004-01-01

    盗版是一种特殊的侵权行为,这种行为的基础在于,我国居民收入水平较低,知识产权意识淡漠.因此在打击盗版方面要根据我国国情,按照经济效率原则进行."补偿税"方案主张盗版行为合法化,然后通过征税补偿知识产权的所有者.这是一种旨在使生产者、消费者和盗版者三方都能改善的方案.

  1. Somali Piracy and Anti-Shipping Activity Messages: Lessons for a Successful Counterpiracy Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Springer Science + Business Media. Reprinted with permission. 36 are comfortable explaining. The literature review highlights the calculus used by... Pearson Education. Joint Chiefs of Staff (2011). Joint publication 3-0: Joint operations. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Defense. 12-14

  2. The study of perceived adverse effects of digital piracy and involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kos Koklic, M.; Vida, I.; Bajde, Domen

    2014-01-01

    intentions, and explore the rarely examined moderating effect of issue involvement on the relationship between the attitude and intention to pirate. The dominant attitude-behaviour theory is extended with an ethical decision-making theoretical perspective. The hypotheses are tested via mail survey data from...... a random sample of adult consumers using structural equations modelling. The results of this cross-sectional study show unfailing support for the relationships proposed in our model. Our findings suggest that, in addition to perceived risk, moral intensity (i.e. the expected consequences for others), has...... a particularly strong total effect on the intention to pirate, and that consumer involvement in illegally downloading files is a salient factor moderating the relationship between attitudes and behavioural intentions. Based on this pattern of results, we offer theoretical and practical implications. © 2013...

  3. Vulnerability without capabilities? Small state strategy and the international counter-piracy agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wivel, Anders; Smed, Ulrik Trolle

    2017-01-01

    Today, small European states regularly need to go out of area and out of tried and tested institutional settings to defend their security interests. How do small European states meet this challenge most effectively? This analysis suggests that small states can influence multilateral decisions...

  4. Is Music Piracy Innocent?%"音乐剽窃"无罪?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海沫

    2005-01-01

    @@ 当我在百度搜索中敲入"音乐剽窃"四个字时,出现了"找到相关网页约107,O00篇"的字样.我知道,这里决不是所有"音乐剽窃"的全部,同时,被贴上"音乐剽窃"标签的音乐作品也绝非全是"音乐剽窃"的事实.

  5. Modern Piracy and Regional Security Cooperation in the Maritime Domain: The Middle East and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Lotfian, “A Regional Security System in the Persian Gulf,” 111–125. 70 Risa Brooks, “Civil Military Relations in the Middle East,” in The Future Security...resources on assuring internal stability. 262 Risa Brooks, “Civil Military Relations in the Middle...December 2004): 480–505. Brooks, Risa . “Civil Military Relations in the Middle East.” In The Future Security Environment in the Middle East: Conflict

  6. Somali Piracy: Are We Making a Mountain Out of a Molehill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-23

    http://ejscontent.ebsco.com/ (Accessed on 25 September 2009) 228. 12. Bibi van Ginkel, Jort Hemmer, Susanne Kamerling, and Frans-Paul van der...http://www.usip.org/files/resources/1_0.pdf (Accessed 28 August 2009). 31 Ginkel, Bibi van, Jort Hemmer, Susanne Kamerling, and Frans-Paul

  7. The Long War Against Piracy: Historical Trends (Occasional Paper, Number 32)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    freeboard, they are easy to board and capture. Moreover, their cargoes, especially palm oil , are valuable and relatively easy to dispose of. Pirates...Strait of Malacca, Indonesia , and Southeast Asia ........ 133 Figure 13. Singapore and the Riau Archipelago ................................... 134 Figure...the Europeans. They exchanged African slaves, horses, fish, hides, dates, and olive oil for European wood, metals, and cloth (silk, wool, and cotton

  8. Counter Piracy Off Somalia; A Case for Applying the Comprehensive Approach Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    pdf/Afghanistan_pixie_engelsk.pdf accesed Oct 17 2010 7 engagement at the local level, the engagement has a strategic long term goal of...Engahement in Afghanistan 2008-2012 Copenhagen 2008, accessable at http://www.netpublikationer.dk/um/9103/pdf/Afghanistan_pixie_engelsk.pdf accesed

  9. Sea Piracy in Southeast Asia: Implications for Countering Maritime Terrorism in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    car-bomb attacks on the Australian Embassy and the J. W. Marriot Hotel in Jakarta. These events, along with foiled plans to bomb U.S. commercial...event held in Singapore’s Shangri La Hotel is designed as another avenue to promote Asian defense dialogue. The dialogue comprises key governmental...warning Indonesia about a heightened risk of attack on its hotels prior to Jakarta’s J. W. Marriott bombing in 2003. The intensified security at the

  10. Counter Piracy In The Gulf Of Guinea: A Whole-Of-Government Approacch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-13

    Nigerian States of Rivers and Akwa Ibom. 17 United States Africa Command Official Website. “United States Africa Command 2015 Posture ...Statement.” http://www.africom.mil/newsroom/document/25285/USAFRICOM- POSTURE -STATEMENT-2015/. (Accessed 27 August 2015). 5. 5 were much more violent...consumers, insurance premiums for shipping companies, purchases of security details to protect merchant ships transiting through the region, and the

  11. War, trade and piracy in the China Seas (1622-1683)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Weichung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the rise and fall of a prominent 17th century Chinese maritime power: the Cheng lineage. It elucidates how, due to the consequences of specific historical circumstances at a crucial moment in time, the Ming imperial administration initially tolerated a gr

  12. Photocopying and Record Piracy: Of Dred Scott and Alice in Wonderland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmer, Melville B.

    1975-01-01

    The cases of Williams and Wilkins Co. v. United States and Duchess Music Corp. v. Stern are discussed as examples of unfair court interpretation of copyright law. The first concerns photocopying by NIH and the National Library of Medicine; the second, protection of rights in sound recordings. For journal availability see HE 508 824. (LBH)

  13. Failing Intellectual Property Protection 101: Character Education May Be the Key to Piracy Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Bob

    2004-01-01

    Behind every book there is an author; behind every music CD there are composers and musicians; and behind every software program there are developers and programmers. All are paid for their creative works--or at least they should be. Today's college students, however, are having trouble understanding the connection between the media they use and…

  14. Digital movie piracy: A perspective on downloading behavior through social cognitive theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Ruud; Heuvelman, Ard; Tan, Maurice; Peters, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    This study refined and specified a model based on the application (e.g. LaRose & Kim, 2007) of social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) to analyze and compare the behavior and attitudes exhibited by movie downloaders and to compare the number of movies they consume. The model is tested against data o

  15. Private Security Contractors: A Way of Combating Piracy in the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    pirates are the “very essence of rational profit maximizing entrepreneurs described in neo-classical economics.”6 Additionally, “the supply of pirates...nations include Australia, Bahrain, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Republic of Korea, Kuwait, Malaysia , the...enforcement agents, men and women that are specifically trained in military style tactics and conflict resolution. Numerous security companies work in

  16. Pedagogy beyond Piracy: Un-Learning the White Body to Recreate a Body of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkinson, James W.

    2012-01-01

    This essay highlights a range of questions that arise when white suburban students engage urban neighborhoods of poverty and color in the United States. How can involvement in an "other" context move beyond "educational tourism"? The essay presents a pedagogical style that raises questions of the kind of socialized body one…

  17. 561 Piracy in Somalia and Operation Atalanta: The Need for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... ... illegal dumping of chemical and industrial waste in that region. .... force of pirate psychology in Somalia? Can a legal cum ... eye of Ethnic Somali within Somalia and those living in Djibouti, Kenya and. Ethiopia. .... Measures.

  18. Zinc piracy as a mechanism of Neisseria meningitidis for evasion of nutritional immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Stork

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria functions as a permeability barrier that protects these bacteria against harmful compounds in the environment. Most nutrients pass the outer membrane by passive diffusion via pore-forming proteins known as porins. However, diffusion can only satisfy the growth requirements if the extracellular concentration of the nutrients is high. In the vertebrate host, the sequestration of essential nutrient metals is an important defense mechanism that limits the growth of invading pathogens, a process known as "nutritional immunity." The acquisition of scarce nutrients from the environment is mediated by receptors in the outer membrane in an energy-requiring process. Most characterized receptors are involved in the acquisition of iron. In this study, we characterized a hitherto unknown receptor from Neisseria meningitidis, a causative agent of sepsis and meningitis. Expression of this receptor, designated CbpA, is induced when the bacteria are grown under zinc limitation. We demonstrate that CbpA functions as a receptor for calprotectin, a protein that is massively produced by neutrophils and other cells and that has been shown to limit bacterial growth by chelating Zn²⁺ and Mn²⁺ ions. Expression of CbpA enables N. meningitidis to survive and propagate in the presence of calprotectin and to use calprotectin as a zinc source. Besides CbpA, also the TonB protein, which couples energy of the proton gradient across the inner membrane to receptor-mediated transport across the outer membrane, is required for the process. CbpA was found to be expressed in all N. meningitidis strains examined, consistent with a vital role for the protein when the bacteria reside in the host. Together, our results demonstrate that N. meningitidis is able to subvert an important defense mechanism of the human host and to utilize calprotectin to promote its growth.

  19. Why is online piracy ethically different from theft? A vignette experiment.

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Hardy; Michał Krawczyk; Joanna Tyrowicz

    2013-01-01

    This study employs a vignette experiment to inquire, which features of online “piracy” make it ethically discernible from a traditional theft. This question is pertinent since the social norm concerning traditional theft is starkly different from the evidence on ethical evaluation of online “piracy”. We specifically distinguish between contextual features of theft, such as for example the physical loss of an item, breach of protection, availability of alternatives, emotional proximity to the ...

  20. Piracy Versus Privacy: An Analysis of Values Encoded in the PirateBrowser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodó, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Piratebrowser is a web browser which utilizes the Privacy Enhancing Technology Tor to circumvent nationally implemented internet filters blocking the access to the Pirate Bay. The article analyzes the possible consequences of a mass influx of copyright pirates into the privacy domain. It address

  1. Music Piracy--Differences in the Ethical Perceptions of Business Majors and Music Business Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Susan Lee

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the author investigated the ethical perceptions of business majors and music business majors from a private university and observed whether the taking of a business ethics course affected students' perceptions regarding the ethical aspects of downloading, sharing, copying, and selling copyrighted music from Internet and non-Internet…

  2. Piracy among Undergraduate and Graduate Students: Influences on Unauthorized Book Copies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Pedro; Leal, Carmo; Pereira, Helia; Salgueiro, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    The unauthorized duplication of books through photocopies and Internet downloads, especially in the case of academic books, is currently one of the most challenging problems facing the publishing industry. Photocopying has become widespread with these texts, apparently without major ethical concerns on the part of students. The purpose of this…

  3. The Maritime Dimension of International Security: Terrorism, Piracy, and Challenges for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Cyprus, or Bermuda because their registration requirements are neither expensive nor stringent. See, for example, Catherine Meldrum, “Murky Waters...Luzon–Hong Kong terror triangle .32 More recently, similar problems have beset ter- minals in Bangladesh, Nigeria, Indonesia, and the Horn of Africa.33

  4. Rampant Piracy in Somalia%索马里海盗有恃无恐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥苗苗

    2007-01-01

    索马里附近海域被称为“世界上最危险的海域之一”,海盗活动日趋猖獗。据国际海事局海盗报告中心的数据显示,索马里海盗的活动范围已从近岸延伸至距岸200海里的远海。人们不禁要问,索马里海盗为何如此猖獗?这些人又是从何而来?怎样才能有效打击海盗?

  5. NATO Regional Capacity Building: The Foundation for Success in the Counter-Piracy Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-16

    could best tailor 68 Nana K. Poku, Neil Renwick, and Joao Gomes Porto, “Human Security and...April 2011). Poku, Nana K., Neil Renwick, and Joao Gomes Porto. “Human security and development in Africa.” International Affairs 83, no. 6

  6. War, trade and piracy in the China Seas (1622-1683)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Weichung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the rise and fall of a prominent 17th century Chinese maritime power: the Cheng lineage. It elucidates how, due to the consequences of specific historical circumstances at a crucial moment in time, the Ming imperial administration initially tolerated a

  7. The Case for Spacecrime: The Rise of Crime and Piracy in the Space Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    resulted in generally outdated hardware with limited capabilities.21 More recent hardware platforms such as Arduino, BeagleBone, Raspberry Pi and others...www.citizensinspace.org; Arduino platform, http://www.arduino.cc; Beaglebone platform, http://www.beagleboard.org; Raspberry Pi platform, http

  8. Digital movie piracy: A perspective on downloading behavior through social cognitive theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Ruud; Heuvelman, A.; Tan, Maurice; Peters, O.

    2012-01-01

    This study refined and specified a model based on the application (e.g. LaRose & Kim, 2007) of social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) to analyze and compare the behavior and attitudes exhibited by movie downloaders and to compare the number of movies they consume. The model is tested against data

  9. Consumer behavior toward counterfeiting: Exploring consumer's purchase intention after design piracy - Case Marimekko

    OpenAIRE

    Kajo, Zinaida

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is based on the Finnish design company Marimekko, and its case about plagiarism accusations, which began on May 2013. The study is cross-sectional. Based on a careful literature examination, the research model was constructed. The role of consumer ?s attitude toward counterfeits, brand trust and affective identification, and their influence on future purchase is examined. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the purchase intention of Marimekko produ...

  10. Piracy off Somalia and its Challenges to Maritime Security: Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pardo Sauvageot

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El reciente incremento de la piratería en las costas del Cuerno de África ha puesto en alerta a la Comunidad Internacional. Los nuevos métodos y un armamento más sofisticado han permitido a los piratas dañar al libre comercio de mercancías creando así un nuevo problema de seguridad. Los límites en el Derecho Internacional existente y la incapacidad de muchos países de poner en práctica sus disposiciones han llevado al Consejo de Seguridad a emitir una serie de Resoluciones para involucrar a todos los países afectados en labores de represión: La respuesta ha sido un despliegue sin precedentes por parte de diversas armadas extranjeras a través de iniciativas unilaterales y multilaterales para poner fin a la piratería y a la serie de secuestros que han tenido lugar. Sin embargo el desastroso estado en el que se encuentra Somalia, paradigma de estado fallido, es clave para vislumbrar las posibilidades de éxito de cualquier iniciativa naval: Hasta que Somalia no tenga un verdadero gobierno, no se tratará más que de parches sobre el problema real. Intervenir en Somalia requerirá una clara comprensión de la situación real y la posesión de las herramientas para poner en práctica una solución a largo plazo.

  11. Ship Response Capability Models for Counter-Piracy Patrols in the Gulf of Aden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    9 2.1.2 Ripple Propagation Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.1.3 Marsaglia et al. Algorithm...of Marsaglia et al. (1990) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Annex D: Error Calculations for 1D model...effectively patrolled by a particular asset. One 2D approach uses the an- alytical work of Marsaglia et al. [10] to generate the probability distribution of

  12. Piracy among Undergraduate and Graduate Students: Influences on Unauthorized Book Copies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Pedro; Leal, Carmo; Pereira, Helia; Salgueiro, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    The unauthorized duplication of books through photocopies and Internet downloads, especially in the case of academic books, is currently one of the most challenging problems facing the publishing industry. Photocopying has become widespread with these texts, apparently without major ethical concerns on the part of students. The purpose of this…

  13. Piracy in the high trees: ectomycorrhizal fungi from an aerial 'canopy soil' microhabitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlovich, David A; Draffin, Suzy J; Daly, Robert A; Stephenson, Steven L

    2013-01-01

    The mantle of dead organic material ("canopy soil") associated with the mats of vascular and nonvascular epiphytes found on the branches of trees in the temperate rainforests along the southwestern coast of the South Island of New Zealand were examined for evidence of ectomycorrhizal fungi. DNA sequencing and cluster analysis were used to identify the taxa of fungi present in 74 root tips collected from the canopy soil microhabitat of three old growth Nothofagus menziesii trees in the South West New Zealand World Heritage Area. A diverse assemblage of ectomycorrhizal fungi was found to infect an extensive network of adventitious canopy roots of Nothofagus menziesii in this forest, including 14 phylotypes from nine genera of putative ectomycorrhizal fungi. Seven of the genera identified previously were known to form ectomycorrhizas with terrestrial roots of Nothofagus: Cortinarius, Russula, Cenococcum, Thelephora/Tomentella, Lactarius and Laccaria; two, Clavulina and Leotia, previously have not been reported forming ectomycorrhizas with Nothofagus. Canopy ectomycorrhizas provide an unexpected means for increased host nutrition that may have functional significance in some forest ecosystems. Presumably, canopy ectomycorrhizas on host adventitious roots circumvent the tree-ground-soil nutrient cycle by accessing a wider range of nutrients directly in the canopy than would be possible for non-mycorrhizal or arbuscular mycorrhizal canopy roots. In this system, both host and epiphytes would seem to be in competition for the same pool of nutrients in canopy soil.

  14. Software Piracy among Technology Education Students: Investigating Property Rights in a Culture of Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teston, George

    2008-01-01

    When asked about individual perceptions of "technology," 68% of Americans primarily equate the term to the computer. Although this perception under represents the true breadth of the field, the statistic does speak to the ubiquitous role the computer plays across many technology disciplines. Software has become the building block of all major…

  15. Iron piracy: acquisition of transferrin-bound iron by bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, C N; Sparling, P F

    1994-12-01

    The mechanism of iron utilization from transferrin has been most extensively characterized in the pathogenic Neisseria species and Haemophilus species. Two transferrin-binding proteins, Tbp1 and Tbp2, have been identified in these pathogens and are thought to be components of the transferrin receptor. Tbp1 appears to be an integral, TonB-dependent outer membrane protein while Tbp2, a lipoprotein, may be peripherally associated with the outer membrane. The relative contribution of each of these proteins to transferrin binding and utilization is discussed and a model of iron uptake from transferrin is presented. Sequence comparisons of the genes encoding neisserial transferrin-binding proteins suggest that they are probably under positive selection for variation and may have resulted from inter-species genetic exchange.

  16. Piracy of Satellite Signals by Domestic Receive-Only Earth Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Steven D.

    Innovations in technology have enabled homeowners to pirate satellite signals intended for cable television operators through the use of home earth-stations. Section 605 of the Communications Act of 1934, which governs reception of signals, is inadequate to regulate this situation because it appears that publication of received programing outside…

  17. Zinc piracy as a mechanism of Neisseria meningitidis for evasion of nutritional immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Michiel; Grijpstra, Jan; Bos, Martine P; Mañas Torres, Carmen; Devos, Nathalie; Poolman, Jan T; Chazin, Walter J; Tommassen, Jan

    2013-10-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria functions as a permeability barrier that protects these bacteria against harmful compounds in the environment. Most nutrients pass the outer membrane by passive diffusion via pore-forming proteins known as porins. However, diffusion can only satisfy the growth requirements if the extracellular concentration of the nutrients is high. In the vertebrate host, the sequestration of essential nutrient metals is an important defense mechanism that limits the growth of invading pathogens, a process known as "nutritional immunity." The acquisition of scarce nutrients from the environment is mediated by receptors in the outer membrane in an energy-requiring process. Most characterized receptors are involved in the acquisition of iron. In this study, we characterized a hitherto unknown receptor from Neisseria meningitidis, a causative agent of sepsis and meningitis. Expression of this receptor, designated CbpA, is induced when the bacteria are grown under zinc limitation. We demonstrate that CbpA functions as a receptor for calprotectin, a protein that is massively produced by neutrophils and other cells and that has been shown to limit bacterial growth by chelating Zn²⁺ and Mn²⁺ ions. Expression of CbpA enables N. meningitidis to survive and propagate in the presence of calprotectin and to use calprotectin as a zinc source. Besides CbpA, also the TonB protein, which couples energy of the proton gradient across the inner membrane to receptor-mediated transport across the outer membrane, is required for the process. CbpA was found to be expressed in all N. meningitidis strains examined, consistent with a vital role for the protein when the bacteria reside in the host. Together, our results demonstrate that N. meningitidis is able to subvert an important defense mechanism of the human host and to utilize calprotectin to promote its growth.

  18. Pedagogy beyond Piracy: Un-Learning the White Body to Recreate a Body of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkinson, James W.

    2012-01-01

    This essay highlights a range of questions that arise when white suburban students engage urban neighborhoods of poverty and color in the United States. How can involvement in an "other" context move beyond "educational tourism"? The essay presents a pedagogical style that raises questions of the kind of socialized body one…

  19. Sci-Hub: What Librarians Should Know and Do about Article Piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2017-01-01

    The high cost of journal articles has driven many researchers to turn to a new way of getting access: "pirate" article sites. Sci-Hub, the largest and best known of these sites, currently offers instant access to more than 58 million journal articles. Users attracted by the ease of use and breadth of the collection may not realize that these articles are often obtained using stolen credentials and downloading them may be illegal. This article will briefly describe Sci-Hub and how it works, the legal and ethical issues it raises, and the problems it may cause for librarians. Librarians should be aware of Sci-Hub and the ways it may change their patrons' expectations. They should also understand the risks Sci-Hub can pose to their patrons and their institutions.

  20. Structural basis for haem piracy from host haemopexin by Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambolin, Silvia; Clantin, Bernard; Chami, Mohamed; Hoos, Sylviane; Haouz, Ahmed; Villeret, Vincent; Delepelaire, Philippe

    2016-05-18

    Haemophilus influenzae is an obligate human commensal/pathogen that requires haem for survival and can acquire it from several host haemoproteins, including haemopexin. The haem transport system from haem-haemopexin consists of HxuC, a haem receptor, and the two-partner-secretion system HxuB/HxuA. HxuA, which is exposed at the cell surface, is strictly required for haem acquisition from haemopexin. HxuA forms complexes with haem-haemopexin, leading to haem release and its capture by HxuC. The key question is how HxuA liberates haem from haemopexin. Here, we solve crystal structures of HxuA alone, and HxuA in complex with the N-terminal domain of haemopexin. A rational basis for the release of haem from haem-haemopexin is derived from both in vivo and in vitro studies. HxuA acts as a wedge that destabilizes the two-domains structure of haemopexin with a mobile loop on HxuA that favours haem ejection by redirecting key residues in the haem-binding pocket of haemopexin.

  1. Product piracy from nature: biomimetic microstructures and interfaces for high-performance optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Robert; Deparnay, Arnaud; Helgert, Michael; Burkhardt, Matthias; Lohmüller, Theobald; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2008-08-01

    Micro and nanostructured optical components are evolved over millions of years in nature and show a wide application range as microlens arrays, diffractive or subwavelength structures in manifold biological systems. In this contribution we discuss the advantages and challenges to transfer the concepts based on the nature models to increase the performance of high-end optical systems in applications such as beam shaping and imaging. Especially we discuss the application of sophisticated statistical microlens arrays and diffractive structures in different fields such as lithography, inspection or for medical instruments. Additionally we focus on anti-reflection coatings which are commonly used to suppress reflection of light from the surface of optical components in the visible range. We report an innovative approach for the fast and cost-efficient fabrication of highly UV transmissive, anti-reflective optical interfaces based on self assembled gold nanoparticles.

  2. Molecular piracy of mammalian interleukin-8 receptor type B by herpesvirus saimiri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, S K; Murphy, P M

    1993-10-05

    Viruses are known to acquire and modify the genes of their hosts to attain a survival advantage in the host environment. Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) is a T-lymphotropic virus that causes fatal lymphoproliferative diseases in several non-human primates. The gene ECRF3 of HVS was most likely acquired from a primate host. ECRF3 encodes a putative seven-transmembrane-domain receptor that is remotely related (approximately 30% amino acid identity) to the known mammalian alpha and beta chemokine receptors, namely interleukin-8 receptor (IL8R) types A and B and the MIP-1 alpha/RANTES receptor, respectively. Chemokines regulate the trafficking, activation, and, in some cases, proliferation of myeloid and lymphoid cell types. We now show that ECRF3 encodes a functional receptor for the alpha chemokines IL-8, GRO/melanoma growth stimulatory activity (MGSA), and NAP-2 but not for beta chemokines, a specificity identical to that of IL8RB. Paradoxically, IL8RA shares 77% amino acid identity with IL8RB but is not a receptor for GRO/MGSA or NAP-2. This is the first functional characterization of a viral seven-transmembrane-domain receptor. It suggests a novel role for alpha chemokines in the pathogenesis of HVS infection by transmembrane signaling via the product of ECRF3.

  3. SEE: improving nurse-patient communications and preventing software piracy in nurse call applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unluturk, Mehmet S

    2012-06-01

    Nurse call system is an electrically functioning system by which patients can call upon from a bedside station or from a duty station. An intermittent tone shall be heard and a corridor lamp located outside the room starts blinking with a slow or a faster rate depending on the call origination. It is essential to alert nurses on time so that they can offer care and comfort without any delay. There are currently many devices available for a nurse call system to improve communication between nurses and patients such as pagers, RFID (radio frequency identification) badges, wireless phones and so on. To integrate all these devices into an existing nurse call system and make they communicate with each other, we propose software client applications called bridges in this paper. We also propose a window server application called SEE (Supervised Event Executive) that delivers messages among these devices. A single hardware dongle is utilized for authentication and copy protection for SEE. Protecting SEE with securities provided by dongle only is a weak defense against hackers. In this paper, we develop some defense patterns for hackers such as calculating checksums in runtime, making calls to dongle from multiple places in code and handling errors properly by logging them into database.

  4. Antiviral activity of tumor-suppressor pathways: clues from molecular piracy by KSHV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P S; Chang, Y

    1998-04-01

    A common feature of many tumor viruses is that they possess genes that produce specific proteins to inhibit major cellular tumor-suppressor pathways. Despite intensive studies, the reasons why these diverse and unrelated viruses have independently evolved oncogenes remains obscure. Kaposi-sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or HHV8) has pirated a number of recognizable cellular genes that are key to cell survival and proliferation. In this review, we provide an overview of the known activities of these viral genes and show that many of these pirated proteins affect the same cellular pathways targeted by other, unrelated tumor viruses. We speculate that tumor-suppressor pathways are used by the cell as a primary defense against persistent virus infection, in addition to their well-known activity in regulating cell proliferation.

  5. Subglacial water drainage, storage, and piracy beneath the Greenland ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbäck, K.; Pettersson, R.; Hubbard, A. L.; Doyle, S. H.; As, D.; Mikkelsen, A. B.; Fitzpatrick, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    Meltwater drainage across the surface of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is well constrained by measurements and modeling, yet despite its critical role, knowledge of its transit through the subglacial environment remains limited. Here we present a subglacial hydrological analysis of a land-terminating sector of the GrIS at unprecedented resolution that predicts the routing of surface-derived meltwater once it has entered the basal drainage system. Our analysis indicates the probable existence of small subglacial lakes that remain undetectable by methods using surface elevation change or radar techniques. Furthermore, the analysis suggests transient behavior with rapid switching of subglacial drainage between competing catchments driven by seasonal changes in the basal water pressure. Our findings provide a cautionary note that should be considered in studies that attempt to relate and infer future response from surface temperature, melt, and runoff from point measurements and/or modeling with measurements of proglacial discharge and ice dynamics.

  6. Piracy in the Horn of Africa: A Comparative Study with Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    the link between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea, and other important waterways, such as the Singapore, Lombok and the Sunda Straits. The...The Strait of Malacca in Southeast Asia and lesser known straits, such as the Sumba, Lombok , Luzon, Singapore and Makassar Straits, have long been

  7. Enforcing IPR through informal institutions: The possible role of religion in fighting software piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Elbialy, Nora; Gouda, Moamen

    2011-01-01

    The existence of formal IPR laws can be considered a prerequisite for having efficient law enforcement but does not imply efficient enforcement in itself. A simple model is constructed to explain the interplay between the IPR law and human behavior within counterfeiting countries. It shows how a politically monitored IPR enforcement strategy is able to alter formal IPR laws or institutions but might not affect informal institutions, or human morals and behavior, to the same extent, hence bare...

  8. Шикова Л. В., Ластенко И. Анализ влияния пиратства на экономику страны и разработка эффективного способа борьбы с «пиратством»

    OpenAIRE

    Шикова, Л. В.; Ластенко, I. А.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the historical component of the emergence of the concept of "piracy". The term of violation of copyrights is determined and identified with “piracy” (according to some sources). The types of violations of copyrights are listed, namely: audio piracy, video piracy, piracy of software, piracy of computer, piracy of literary works. The main methods of protection of authorial rights are indicated in the internet: sending letters and claims to the proprietor of site or provide...

  9. 电子书的盗版与反盗版状况分析%An Analysis of the Present Status of the Piracy and Anti-Piracy of Electronic Books

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志强; 邢鹏

    2004-01-01

    电子书盗版主要有3种形式:把受版权保护的书籍制成电子书,在网上提供拷贝下载;对合法拥有的电子书,违背协议规定多次拷贝;破解加密程序,无偿或有偿提供下载.要防止电子书被盗版,需要建立完善的电子书版权保护体系.参考文献8.

  10. 海盗袭击与海员——海运行业共同努力阻止海盗行为%Seafarers and piracy attack -Stop the piracy through joint efforts of the shipping industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑田勇一; 郑晓燕

    2010-01-01

    @@ 亚洲船东协会介绍 首先,我需要介绍一下ASF.ASF是Aian Shipowner'S Association即亚洲船东协会的简称.ASF成立于1992年4月,包括澳大利亚船东协会,中国船东协会,中国香港船东协会,印度船东协会,日本船东协会,韩国船东协会,中国台北船东协会和FASA,也就是Federation of ASIAN Shipowners Association亚洲船主协会联盟,它包括菲律宾,印尼,马来西亚,缅甸,新加坡,泰国和越南.我们的组织现在有8个成员国,这些成员国拥有廿界上大约50%的船队.

  11. An Overseas Naval Presence without Overseas Bases: China’s Counter-piracy Operation in the Gulf of Aden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kamerling

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to assess how China is using its navy to secure its interests in the Gulf of Aden, and what this means for the European Union. The analysis of how China’s naval presence in the Gulf of Aden has evolved since early 2009 suggests that China’s increasing interests and involvement in Africa do not necessarily lead to the establishment of Chinese naval bases in or close to the continent. To supply its ships, the Chinese navy may well continue using the commercial-diplomatic model that China has been developing. This model is based on China’s close diplomatic relations with countries in the region and the extensive presence of Chinese companies to whom logistical services can be outsourced and who are under a greater degree of state influence than most Western multinationals. One of the consequences of this approach is that although China may not establish overseas military bases, it may be able to keep expanding its naval presence in or around Africa.

  12. China’s Participation in Anti-Piracy Operations off the Horn of Africa: Drivers and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    the same spirit of non-partisanship, objectivity, and empiricism that is the hallmark of CNA research. Our program is built upon a foundation of...effects may be relatively minimal. However, when we also consider the psychological strain on ship crews and the political implications of local

  13. Theatrical distribution and P2P movie piracy: a survey of P2P networks in Hungary using transactional data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodó, B.; Lakatos, Z.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines what appears to be the most important factor shaping file sharing: the failure of traditional cultural markets to efficiently supply the demand in the online environment. Its findings are based on tracking the traffic of movies on three Hungarian P2P networks. This dataset is t

  14. Theatrical distribution and P2P movie piracy: a survey of P2P networks in Hungary using transactional data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodó, B.; Lakatos, Z.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines what appears to be the most important factor shaping file sharing: the failure of traditional cultural markets to efficiently supply the demand in the online environment. Its findings are based on tracking the traffic of movies on three Hungarian P2P networks. This dataset is t

  15. The Fight Against Piracy in Peer-to-Peer Networks: the Sword of Damocles Hanging over ISP's Head?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkers, Evi; Coudert, Fanny

    During the past few years, copyright holders and holders of related rights have started to legally challenge peer-to-peer networks. Their latest strategy consists of trying to actively involve Internet service providers (ISPs) in this combat, e.g. through the implementation of filters. This development raises legal problems and questions both in terms of the liability of ISPs and the protection of privacy of their clients. This chapter discusses the difficult task of balancing copyright interests and fundamental rights which as the European Court of Justice clearly stated in the Promusicae case remains a matter of Member States.

  16. The War over Internet Piracy: Fearing Lawsuits, College Officials Crack down on Illegal Downloading of Music and Videos on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuszka, Peter

    2004-01-01

    For years, recording companies have been waging a losing war against millions of Net-savvy college students who download and copy digital music or videos and sell or swap them. Many students make illegal use of high-speed computer links owned by universities as administrators catch the flak. Meanwhile, the recording industry and artists claim…

  17. 索马里海盗与海上保险%Piracy in Somalia and Marine Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永刚

    2010-01-01

    索马里海盗行为不同予以往的海盗行为,以劫持船舶、货物和船员索要赎金为主要特点.在现有的海上保险体系中,赎金基本属于共同海损的范畴,但在合法性上是有缺陷的.在分摊损失的时候,船舶和货物的保险人应当分摊赎金损失,不应要求船东互保协会进行分担.在打击海盗的同时,各国应对海盗行为的定义和海盗赎金的性质达成共识,以更好的应对索马里海盗问题.

  18. Somalia piracy and relevant insurance peoblems%索马里海盗及其相关保险问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳

    2010-01-01

    @@ 现代海盗袭击事件的频发性及其不同于传统海盗的特点,引发了若干涉及海上保险及相关法律的新问题和分歧、争议,各保赔协会也不断接获船东会员就此的询问,为此,国际保赔协会集团经过研究、分析后,以该集团名义以通函形式于2009年6月3日汇总统一作出了一定的解释和答复.

  19. Piracy in Southeast Asia: A Growing Threat to the United States’ Vital Strategic and Commercial Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Catholics, but that they somehow managed to evade the influence of the Catholic Church which ruled the island for over three hundred years.33 Cotabato...Citizen, (New York: Copernicus Books, 2002), p.64. 37 XI. Bibliography Bonner, Kit. Great Naval Disasters. U.S. Naval Accidents in the 20th Century. Osceola...Wellington House, 125 Strand, 2000. Croddy, Eric. Chemical and Biological Warfare. A Comprehensive Survey for the Concerned Citizen. New York: Copernicus Books

  20. The War over Internet Piracy: Fearing Lawsuits, College Officials Crack down on Illegal Downloading of Music and Videos on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuszka, Peter

    2004-01-01

    For years, recording companies have been waging a losing war against millions of Net-savvy college students who download and copy digital music or videos and sell or swap them. Many students make illegal use of high-speed computer links owned by universities as administrators catch the flak. Meanwhile, the recording industry and artists claim…

  1. Ways to bring about peace in Conflicts arising out of incidents of Piracy in the Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutgé i Vives, Josefina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as its aim the study of the different systems used in the XIII and XIV centuries by the Catalano-Aragonese sovereigns to avoid the dreaded letters of warrant or reprisal issued by the governments of various nations. These were granted to one of their subjects to allow him to confiscate property belonging to the citizens from the foreign state which had suffered the wrong. The Catalano-Aragonese sovereigns tried to avoid the letters of warrant decreed against the Crown of Aragon by the kings of France. They used three ways to achieve this: 1. By diplomatic negotiations with the French Court. 2. By the institution of a tax on the merchandise, with which they could compensate those who had been wronged. 3. By the indemnification of the person wronged through the recourses available to the Catalano-Aragonese crown itself.

    Aquest treball té com a finalitat estudiar els diferents sistemes utilitzats en els segles XIII i XIV pels sobirans catalanoaragonesos per tal d’evitar el desencadenament de les temudes cartes de marca o de represalia que els governs de les nacions concedien a un dels seus súbdits per a confiscar els béns dels ciutadans de l’estat estranger del qual havia sofert un greuge. Els sobirans catalanoaragonesos tractaren d’impedir que les marques que els rei de França decretaren contra la Corona d’Aragó fossin evitades. Per això utilitzaren tres vies: 1. Les negociacions diplomàtiques amb la cort francesa. 2. La instauració d’un impost sobre les mercaderies, amb la recaptació del qual poder compensar els perjudicats. 3. La indemnització dels perjudicats utilitzant els recursos de la propia Corona catalanoaragonesa.

  2. The Threat of Maritime Terrorism and Piracy%海上恐怖主义和海盗威胁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    格拉汉·格拉德·奥

    2006-01-01

    在打击马六甲海峡沿岸的海盗中,区域各方力量已迈出了可喜的一步。在960万公里的海岸线上,沿岸国家印度尼西亚、马来西亚和新加坡为了海上安全,在首次提出“天空之眼”优先战略3个月后,便于2005年9月13日进行联合海上空中巡逻。事实上,“天空之眼”构想是在3个海岸国家共同制定“全天候联合海上巡逻”方案1年后产生的。海岸国家与东盟成员国站在主动的位置,组成一个打击海盗和海上新威胁的安全阵营,便是这个概念的演绎。

  3. 从建筑看原创、模仿和抄袭%Piracy, Imitation and innovation in Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张法

    2005-01-01

    在艺术批评中,原创、模仿、抄袭这三个概念.从不同的角度提出问题.其意义是完全不同的。从艺术的角度.三者呈现出一种从高到低的价值等级,引出艺术荣誉问题:从著作权的角度.三者意味着对作品归属的判定,引出法律和道德确认;从文化的角度.三者合成一种文化认同和文化影响图景。由于文化角度是与艺术生存和艺术意义有非常紧密的关联,因此,从文化角度切入这一问题的讨论.可以使这三个概念在具体的运用呈现出更为丰富的辩证关系。

  4. Bio-prospecting or bio-piracy: intellectual property rights and biodiversity in a colonial and postcolonial context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merson, J

    2000-01-01

    Despite the rhetoric of decolonization following World War II, developing countries are, if anything, more dependent now on the science and technology of the developed world than they were in colonial times. This has led some critics to describe their situation as "neo-colonial." This paper will explore the issue in relation to the biotechnology industry, and to the 1993 United Nations Convention on Biodiversity. This convention challenged the assumption that the earth's biological and genetic resources are part of the "global commons" by giving property rights over these resources to the nation-states. While the objective of encouraging states to conserve biodiversity is universally endorsed, the strategy of using property law to do so is not. The search for new genetic and biological resources has become a major priority for the agrichemical and pharmaceutical industries, and despite continuation of the colonial tradition of appropriating indigenous knowledge and resources, new and more equitable models are being explored and developed within the convention's framework. These strategies, while controversial, offer the hope of a new and more just "International Genetic Order."

  5. Decreasing Variance in Response Time to Singular Incidents of Piracy in the Horn of Africa Area of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Conflict and disorder, Underfunded law-enforcement/weak security, Permissive political environments, Cultural acceptability and the promise of...Mr. John Neal received the SOS at 0718 Zulu (Z) hours in Djakarta, Java working for the Delta Exploration Company (Guilmartin, 1995). The...community, given the civilian crew still being held aboard the ship. This fundamental difference in approaches highlights just some of the cultural

  6. Mobility and Cloud: Operating in Intermittent, Austere Network Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    35 viii 2. Piracy Interdiction Use Case.............................................................38 E...38 Figure 11. Operational view: Piracy interdiction operation. .............................................40...Storage Service SAR Search and Rescue SATCOM satellite communications SIPRNET Secret Internet Protocol Router Network SSAS Ship Security Alert System

  7. Bojovať alebo nebojovať proti internetovému pirátstvu: Je ACTA naozaj to čo potrebujeme?

    OpenAIRE

    Regináč, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Internet piracy has recently been addressed by several policies introduced in US, such as SOPA and ACTA. These policies suggest the general opinion to be that piracy reduce profits. The focus of this thesis is therefore put on the introduction of theoretical concept capable of describing possible piracy impacts and then showing empirical observations to prove it. We developed our own modified time-dependent model of demand function with network effect, which suggests that piracy can have inde...

  8. 78 FR 33886 - Identification of Ukraine as a Priority Foreign Country and Initiation of Section 301 Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    .... Online piracy now has significant and growing consequences for both the Ukrainian market and for... such as India, illustrating how Ukraine has become perceived as a safe haven for online piracy enterprises serving multiple markets. There was not a single online piracy-related conviction in Ukraine...

  9. Counterfeit and their museums: observation of the aesthetic categories of the pirate consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneus Trindade Barreto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper arises from discussions about consumption and piracy,analyzing the role of counterfeit museums, and their paradoxes in the way they communicating the ambivalences of meaning e types of commercial piracy; based on Lipovetsky’s thought (2004; 2007, the articles illustrates the debate about consumption and piracy with 3 museum cases in Thailand, Italy and France.

  10. Improved resiliency and well-being among military personnel in a Swedish Naval Force after a counter-piracy operation off the coast of Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäccman, Charlotte; Hjärthag, Fredrik; Almqvist, Kjerstin

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore: (1) how the psychological health of the members of the first European Union Naval Force (ME01) was affected by international deployment off the coast of Somalia; and (2) if and how organizational and personal factors (e.g., type of personnel category, previous experiences, and resilience) affected their psychological health and well-being post-deployment. The study had an exploratory longitudinal design, where the participants were assessed both before and after deployment (i.e., T1 and T2). The participants (n = 129, 120 men, 9 women) were equally distributed between officers (n = 68; 64 men, 4 women) and sailors (n = 61; 56 men, 5 women). The members' average age was 31 years, ranging from 20 to 61. For the majority (78%) ME01 was their first international deployment and officers were, in general, more experienced than sailors. The overall results showed that the members' reported a positive experience with improved resilience and well-being (e.g., sense of coherence). However, the result also showed that type of personnel category (i.e., officer or sailor) affected their psychological health. Why and how these differences among military personnel arise is discussed, but deserves further attention.

  11. Fight against Online Piracy and Build harmonious Culture%打击网络盗版构建和谐文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀玲

    2007-01-01

    @@ 互联网作为信息社会的一种传播载体,已深入到社会生活的各个方面,成为人们传播知识和获取信息的重要途径.截至2006年6月底,我国互联网用户已达1.23亿,网站数达到78.84万个,并呈现出加速发展的态势.

  12. 2006年全国网络侵权盗版典型案件%National Representative Cases of Online Infringement and Piracy in 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭轩

    2007-01-01

    “隆回电脑服装学校”网站是一家提供盗版专业软件的网站。经湖南省版权局调查查明,“隆回电脑服装学校”网站(网址:www.fxzz.com)系湖南省邵阳市隆回县罗某于2000年开办,网站主页载有“低价提供布易ET2006软件”、“低价提供智尊宝CAD”等各类CAD软件的信息,并公布了罗某的联系方式、购买流程和银行帐号。该网站没有依法在通信部门备案。上网用户通过访问该网站选定需要的服装CAD软件,按照网站公布的QQ号码,与罗某取得联系,谈好价格与交易细节后,用户将现金汇入罗某指定的帐号,由罗某邮寄软件和加密锁(软件需配备加密锁才能使用)给用户。

  13. On the Jurisdiction of Internet Piracy Cases%浅谈对Internet侵权案件的司法管辖权

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昌华; 李海霞

    2002-01-01

    Internet案件是近年来各国法律普遍碰到的新难题,本文就Internet侵权案件的司法管辖权与传统司法管辖权问题进行了比较和分析,并探讨了针对Internet侵权案件的新司法管辖模式.

  14. What are the Challenges for Small Navies to Make a Difference in Counter-Piracy Operation in the Horn of Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-27

    Institute. Proceedings. Annapolis December 2010. · · Crosbie, Judith. "Re-thinking Europe’~ naval power". Billiotheque Solvay , Brussel. March 16, 2009...thinking Europe’s naval power. Billiotheque Solvay , Brussel. March 16, 2009. Page 5. Available via http://www.securitydefenceaqenda.org/Portals/7/2009

  15. On the Sources and Countermeasures of Somalia Piracy Problem%浅析索马里海盗问题的根源及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹琳琳; 张威

    2010-01-01

    2008年以来,索马里海盗活动猖獗,严重威胁国际海洋和能源安全,给世界造成了巨额经济损失.通过考察索马里海盗问题的根源,反思当前国际社会对索马里海盗所采取干预措施的缺陷,以期为中国的反海盗活动及相关国际合作提供借鉴.

  16. 打击索马里海盗的法律规制研究%Research on the relevant legislation for combating piracy of Somalia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桢

    2011-01-01

    @@ 根据国际海事局海盗活动报告中心发布的年度调查报告,2010年是1991年以来全球海盗活动最猖獗的一年,而且92%的劫船事件都发生在索马早附近海域.索马里海盗问题不仅干扰了正常的国际贸易还威胁着各国的海运安全,国际社会急需携手铲除这一毒瘤.

  17. “Un piccolo pataccio al rio dell’Amazzoni”: European piracy and Italian projects on Amazon at the time of the Hispanic Monarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alírio Cardoso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the early seventeenth century, navigators and merchants of different nations attended the waters of the territory now known as Brazilian Amazon, corresponding to the ancient State of Maranhão and Grão-Pará (1621-1770. The objective of this paper is to discuss the relationship between Portugal and Spain with other European competitors in Atlantic scenario using as case study attempts to Tuscany navigation to the north of Portuguese America.

  18. "Yo-ho, A Pirates Life For Me" – Queer Positionalities, Heteronormativity, and Piracy in Pirates of the Caribbean. A Queer Reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhoff, Heike

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available At first sight Walt Disney's box office hit Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl (2003 appears as a product of Hollywood's (heteronormative blockbuster industry. It is a film that apparently caters for the needs of contemporary western mainstream audiences. Yet, as this paper will argue, the movie is fused with potentially queer elements, moments, and signifiers. Drawing on a broad working definition of 'queer,' this paper will present a 'queer reading' of the film. It will elucidate how Pirates of the Caribbean lends itself to such a reading not only due to the ambivalent and campy figure of Captain Jack Sparrow, but also due to the film's only seemingly classical narrative structure and protagonists. Moreover, it will analyze the figure of the pirate in the light of Foucauldian heterotopias.

  19. Piracy of prostaglandin E2/EP receptor-mediated signaling by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (HHV-8) for latency gene expression: strategy of a successful pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Paul, Arun; Sharma-Walia, Neelam; Kerur, Nagaraj; White, Carl; Chandran, Bala

    2010-05-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is implicated in the pathogenesis of KS, a chronic inflammation-associated malignancy. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), two pivotal proinflammatory/oncogeneic molecules, are proposed to play roles in the expression of major KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen-1 (LANA-1). Microsomal PGE2 synthase, PGE2, and its receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) were detected in KS lesions with the distinct staining of EP2/EP4 in KS lesions. In latently infected endothelial TIVE-LTC cells, EP receptor antagonists downregulated LANA-1 expression as well as Ca(2+), p-Src, p-PI3K, p-PKCzeta/lambda, and p-NF-kappaB, which are also some of the signal molecules proposed to be important in KS pathogenesis. Exogenous PGE2 and EP receptor agonists induced the LANA-1 promoter in 293 cells, and YY1, Sp1, Oct-1, Oct-6, C/EBP, and c-Jun transcription factors seem to be involved in this induction. PGE2/EP receptor-induced LANA-1 promoter activity was downregulated significantly by the inhibition of Ca(2+), p-Src, p-PI3K, p-PKCzeta/lambda, and p-NF-kappaB. These findings implicate the inflammatory PGE2/EP receptors and the associated signal molecules in herpes virus latency and uncover a novel paradigm that shows the evolution of KSHV genome plasticity to use inflammatory response for its survival advantage of maintaining latent gene expression. These data also suggest that potential use of anti-COX-2 and anti-EP receptor therapy may not only ameliorate the chronic inflammation associated with KS but could also lead to elimination of the KSHV latent infection and the associated KS lesions.

  20. Active reactions to piracy and urging international community to make joint efforts to fight against piracy——A.P.Moller took action to fight against piracy%积极应对海盗侵袭呼吁国际社会共同努力——马士基集团采取各种措施抗击海盗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晖

    2010-01-01

    @@ 当电影正在如火如荼拍摄的时候,当人们期待杰克船长再度出山的时候,好莱坞电影里的一幕幕却在索马里不断地真实上演.索马里海盗倾巢出动、活动频繁,无疑增加了航运的危险程度,对海运安全造成了严重威胁,也使全球海上贸易蒙上阴影.虽然国际社会越来越重视这个问题并不断在该区域增强海军部署、护航,但海盗肆虐还是给各大航运公司带来了巨大的挑战.

  1. New piracy trends frequently appeared, renewed administrative measures requested--suggestions on establishing anti-piracy integrated administration mechanism%盗版频现新动向治理需有新措施--关于建立反盗版综合治理机制的若干建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁家宝

    2005-01-01

    @@ 近来,在政府的严厉打击下,肆意泛滥的非法音像制品已得到有效遏制,市场环境开始逐步出现转好迹象.但从总体来看,市场状况依然严峻,非法音像制品仍随处可见,打击盗版任重道远.当前,盗版音像市场又出现了一些新动态、新特征,值得关注.

  2. Jurisdikční aspekty potírání pirátství

    OpenAIRE

    Menšík, Matyáš

    2013-01-01

    Jurisdictional Aspects of Repression of Piracy The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the jurisdictional aspects of repression of piracy in modern international law. The main reason for my research was to find out, whether there were sufficient legal instruments to be used while fighting piracy off the coast of Somalia. The thesis is composed of an introduction, five chapters and a summary. After an introductory chapter, which sets out the goals of this thesis, chapter one gives a brief ins...

  3. 《中国悬棺葬》版权侵权纠纷案引发的法理思考%Reflection on Intellectual Property Rights Piracy of Chinese Dangling Coffin Funeral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡春华; 罗奇

    2005-01-01

    版权法究竟保护作品的什么?这是长期困扰版权法界的一个问题.法官对此问题的不同理解则往往会对同一起版权纠纷案件是否侵权作出不同的认定.本文通过对一"悬棺葬"考古学学术专著与考古科普读物的版权侵权纠纷的个案分析,提出了学术作品的版权法保护范围及科普作品对学术专著的合理使用的界定.

  4. On Infringement of Online Piracy Based on the Huge Ticket Fined to QVOD Technology Company%快播“天价罚单”背后的网络盗版侵权思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任瑞芝

    2015-01-01

    以快播公司为典型的网络盗版侵权现象,反映了网络技术的发展所引起的作品传播技术的变革与著作权保护制度之间的激烈碰撞.治理网络盗版侵权,首先应坚持知识传播与权利保护相平衡的原则,长远任务在于充分利用网络在权利所有人和终端使用人之间开通的市场之路,尽快建立著作权人与网站、用户三方互利共赢的成熟的商业机制,当前则可以通过加大监管与惩罚力度乃至追究刑事责任等方式打击盗版侵权.

  5. A Solution on Electronic Information Products Against Internet Piracy%针对互联网盗版电子信息产品现状的一个解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张坚; 李定波

    2012-01-01

    Currently, The piratic phenomenon of electronic information product is serious, in order to solve this problem, we have developed a new type of digital information security transmission platform, which is based on two patented technologies of professor Gu Jian in Information Institute of Hainan University, the detailed name of two patents are" complexity controllable in any period to meet the pub/ic random sequence system and method" and" the same channel independent authorization digital information safety transmission method and system". The platform plays the very good protective function on copyright.%当前互联网电子信息产品盗版现象严重,为了解决这一问题,我们开发了新型数字信息安全传播平台。该平台基于海南大学信息学院顾建教授两项专利技术,即《任意周期可控复杂度满足公设的随机序列方法和系统》和《同一信道独立授权的数字信息安全传输方法和系统》。通过该平台,对电子信息产品版权起到很好的保护作用。

  6. Piracy of PGE2/EP receptor mediated signaling by Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpes virus (KSHV/HHV-8) for latency gene expression: Strategy of a successful pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Arun George; Sharma-Walia, Neelam; Kerur, Nagaraj; White, Carl; Chandran, Bala

    2010-01-01

    KSHV is implicated in the pathogenesis of KS, a chronic inflammation associated malignancy. COX-2 and its metabolite PGE2, two pivotal proinflammatory/oncogeneic molecules, are proposed to play roles in the expression of major KSHV latency associated nuclear antigen-1 (LANA-1). Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES), PGE2 and its receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) were detected in KS lesions with the distinct staining of EP2/EP4 in KS lesions. In latently infected endothelial TIVE-LTC cells, EP receptor antagonists down-regulated LANA-1 expression as well as Ca2+, p-Src, p-PI3K, p-PKCζ/λ, and p-NF-κB, which are also some of the signal molecules proposed to be important in KS pathogenesis. Exogenous PGE2 and EP receptor agonists induced the LANA-1 promoter in 293 cells, and YY1, Sp1, Oct-1, Oct-6, C/EBP and c-Jun transcription factors appear to be involved in this induction. PGE2/EP receptor induced LANA-1 promoter activity was down-regulated significantly by the inhibition of Ca2+, p-Src, p-PI3K, p-PKCζ/λ, and p-NF-κB. These findings implicate the inflammatory PGE2/EP receptors and the associated signal molecules in herpes virus latency and uncover a novel paradigm that demonstrates the evolution of KSHV genome plasticity to utilize inflammatory response for its survival advantage of maintaining latent gene expression. This data also suggests that potential use of anti-COX-2 and anti-EP receptor therapy may not only ameliorate the chronic inflammation associated with KS but could also lead to elimination of the KSHV latent infection and the associated KS lesions. PMID:20388794

  7. 微软黑屏事件给予高校计算机室的启示%Inspiration of Microsoft "Black Screen of Death" Anti-piracy Tool to the Computer Laboratories of University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张百钢; 叶欣; 梁鸣

    2009-01-01

    鉴于微软黑屏事件的发生,回顾了高校计算机实验室使用非正版软件的原因和历史,分析目前软件管理存在的问题,提出一些解决问题的设想:成立相应管理机构;洽谈获取正版软件;建立正版软件网站.

  8. 国际社会打击索马里海盗的国际法问题探要%Problems of International Law on International Community's Action against Somalia Piracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪国

    2010-01-01

    国际社会打击索马里海盗行动涉及诸多重要的国际法问题.该文试对其中的几个关键问题进行探讨:一,安理会通过的打击索马里海盗的四个决议,其自身效力有何依据;二,规范各国打击海盗行为的决议和公约中,共有哪些重要规定.三,我国海军编队目前在亚丁湾、索马里海域执行护航任务,其国际法依据,即合法性何在.

  9. 浅析索马里海盗现状和船舶加强防范的措施(二)%Analysis on the present situation of piracy off Somalia coasts and enhancement of preventive measures for ships(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟久刚

    2009-01-01

    @@ (接上期) (二)海盗袭击行动的新趋势 随着被劫船数量的增加,海盗收取的赎金越来越多,其装备更加完善、组织管理也趋于严密.据称,2008年12月,索马里各路海盗曾召开为期3天的秘密会议,成立了索马里海盗"行动委员会",统一指挥和协调行动.相关信息也显示出袭击行动经过严密的组织和一定的训练.

  10. 浅析索马里海盗现状和船舶加强防范的措施(一)%Analysis on the present situation of piracy off Somalia coasts and enhancement of preventive measures for ships(I)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟久刚

    2009-01-01

    目前,索马里海盗活动日益猖獗,对海上安全航行构成了重大威胁.文中通过分析近期索马里海盗活动的主要特点、手段和演变趋势以及反海盗行动面临的主要挑战,探索解决海盗问题需努力的方向,并对航经亚丁湾和索马里海域的中国籍船舶如何防范索马里海盗提出相关建议.

  11. The Anti——piracy Strategy of Ship under the Situation of Rampant Pirate Activity in Somalia%当前索马里海盗猖獗形势下船舶防海盗策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔刚; 齐绍江

    2009-01-01

    近年来索马里海盗的猖獗肆虐,使国际贸易和航运遭受重大损失,打击海盗已是当务之急,需要国际社会的通力合作.船舶作为海盗经常袭击的目标,更应该制定相应的防盗措施,以遏制海盗的袭击.

  12. 从集体无意识理论维度诠释索马里海盗行为%Somalia Piracy from the perspective of collective unconsciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗艳; 马惊鸿

    2011-01-01

    海盗行为作为一种明确思维动机和思维逻辑的暴力实践.已严重威胁到国际社会和各国人民的安全.近年来,国内外学者已经从经济、政治、法律等各个层面分析了海盗形成的原因,并制定了相应的打击策略.针对亚丁湾地区海盗活动越来越猖獗的现状,试图用哲学心理学中的集体无意识理论来探究索马里的政治经济制度和历史文化传统在海盗的社会心理和精神状态层面产生的无意识影响,以期从根本上关注海盗行为本身,达到消除暴力实践的目的.

  13. 转发圣文森特海事主管机关N°ISPS 012-Rev.3——PIRACY IN THE GULF OF ADEN AND OFF THE COAST OF OMALIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    圣文森特海事主管机关在2011年2月22日向船东、船舶经营人.船长和船员、认可组织、船旗国验船师下发了通函CIRCULAR N°ISPS 012-Rev.3提醒船东、船舶经营者要关注经修订的阻止索马里和亚丁湾水域海盗行为的最佳管理经验(BMP)。该BMP在MSC.1/Circ.1335以附件2形式附在本通函后。

  14. On How Editors of Academic Journals at Institutions of Higher Learning Should Resist Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiao

    2007-01-01

    Academic corruption is a hot issue in today's society. "Academic corruption" means that certain individuals in academic circles, driven by the desire for personal gain, resort to various kinds of nonnormative and unethical behavior in academic research activities. These include: academic self-piracy, academic piracy, copying and…

  15. Maritime Security in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja; Nordby, Johannes Riber

    The problem of maritime insecurity in the Gulf of Guinea is not a new phenomenon, but a contemporary form of piracy in the Gulf of Guinea has arguably developed over the past 25 years to be more organized and violent. Besides the issue of how the phenomenon of piracy in the Gulf of Guinea has dev...

  16. 16. J Situma A Critique of Foucault's Conception and Prediction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REGINALDS

    who attribute to him motive, creative power, design, and milieu. Foucault cites .... gamesmanship are the hallmarks of deconstructionism as evidenced in the excessive use of irony and ... Intrinsic to the exercise is the distinction .... progressive movement from what Lessig calls bad piracy to good piracy (Lessig 2004). The.

  17. 75 FR 24394 - Somalia Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY..., and acts of piracy and armed robbery at sea off the coast of Somalia, which have repeatedly been the... to the peace, security, or stability of Somalia, acts of piracy or armed robbery at sea off the...

  18. 77 FR 4573 - Maritime Security Directive 104-6 (Rev 6); Guidelines for U.S. Vessels Operating in High Risk Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... voyages through or in designated high risk waters, and provides additional counter-piracy guidance and mandatory measures for these vessels operating in these areas where acts of piracy and armed robbery...

  19. 75 FR 75486 - Maritime Security Directive 104-6 (Rev. 4); Guidelines for U.S. Vessels Operating in High Risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... voyages through or in designated high risk waters, and provides additional counter-piracy guidance and mandatory measures for these vessels operating in these areas where acts of piracy and armed robbery...

  20. 76 FR 39411 - Self-Defense of Vessels of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...-defense against piracy. DATES: This notice is effective on July 6, 2011. ADDRESSES: The policy letter and... States against an act of piracy shall not be liable for monetary damages for any injury or death...

  1. Strange Deja Vu: Tackling Information Sharing Problems for Efforts Against Transnational Organized Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    across international borders. Banditry and piracy are arguably the oldest forms of organized crime. Across millennia, bandit gangs in diverse...and captives for logistical support and sanctuary. Contemporary banditry and piracy remain menacing versions of organized crime, fundamentally...institutions to hold and transfer funds necessary for operations, and cyber-savvy criminals exploit legitimate online capabilities to identify

  2. Getting Their Dues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Baidu comes under fire for online piracy accusations The latest work of 15 writers in Chinais a claim of copyright infringement against Baidu Inc.,operator of the world’s most-used Chinese language search engine.The anti-piracy campaign was initiated

  3. 77 FR 67290 - Basic Service Tier Encryption Compatibility Between Cable Systems and Consumer Electronics Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... lower rates for subscribers. 14. Reduction of Theft and Piracy. Another benefit of basic tier encryption... less susceptible to piracy. 15. Regulatory Parity. Several commenters emphasized that the proposed...

  4. 75 FR 47609 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection; Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... on it that allows it to perform certain functions of preventing piracy of software constituted..., 1993, a device that software companies used to protect their software from piracy was...

  5. 76 FR 2402 - Maritime Security Directive 104-6 (Rev 5); Guidelines for U.S. Vessels Operating in High Risk Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... voyages through or in designated high risk waters, and provides additional counter-piracy guidance and mandatory measures for these vessels operating in these areas where acts of piracy and armed robbery...

  6. 75 FR 29358 - Maritime Security Directive 104-6 (Rev 2 and 3); Guidelines for U.S. Vessels Operating in High...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... international voyages through or in designated high risk waters, and provides additional anti-piracy guidance and mandatory measures for these vessels operating in these areas where acts of piracy and...

  7. 76 FR 4706 - Self-Defense of Vessels of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... ``Actions'' column. If you do not have access to the internet, you may view the docket online by visiting... United States against an act of piracy shall not be liable for monetary damages for any injury or death caused by such force to any person engaging in an act of piracy if such force was in accordance...

  8. On How Editors of Academic Journals at Institutions of Higher Learning Should Resist Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiao

    2007-01-01

    Academic corruption is a hot issue in today's society. "Academic corruption" means that certain individuals in academic circles, driven by the desire for personal gain, resort to various kinds of nonnormative and unethical behavior in academic research activities. These include: academic self-piracy, academic piracy, copying and plagiarism,…

  9. Teachers at Work with Imaginative Education: Philosopher Pirates--Teaching over Their Heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Caitlyn

    2006-01-01

    Pirates capture the imagination, span centuries of history, have great clothes, conform to surprising codes of conduct, and invite a wide variety of themes and subjects for teaching. Piracy can be a seductive topic for all ages. In spite of the imaginative appeal of the topic, piracy is insufficient as a starting point for a well-connected social…

  10. 49 CFR 1544.103 - Form, content, and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... traveling on flights provided by the aircraft operator against acts of criminal violence and air piracy, and... fingerprint-based criminal history records checks. (16) The procedures used to comply with the requirements of... piracy threats. (21) The procedures used to comply with § 1544.237 regarding flight deck privileges. (22...

  11. U.S. Navy - U.S. Air Force Relationships 1970-2010. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    War Somalia ops Yugoslav split Southern Watch Somalia/Adriatic Ops Iraq TLAM strike Haiti crises Adriatic ops Somalia ops Bosnia ops Taiwan...nuclear tests OIF "surge" Bangladesh cyclone Somalia piracy Nigeria piracy Mumbai terror attack Global econ. crisis DPRK nuclear tests DPRK

  12. Le Pirate, acteur interstitiel de la colonisation européenne dans les Caraïbes (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Laurent

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the perception of the Caribbean piracy through its evolution during the European colonization, and it intends to explain the profusion of its current representations. The political, social and economical European context allows us underlining the different aspects related to piracy in the Caribbean Basin. Furthermore, our analysis of the social and political situation of the pirate follows the history of piracy “from below”, on the way of scholars such us Marcus Rediker, Peter Linebaugh and Christopher Hill. Finally, the notion of “interstice” leads to a better comprehension of the pirate figure.

  13. Uued plaadid / Marko Tiidelepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tiidelepp, Marko

    2008-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Mr. Lawrence "19/90-99", Indigolapsed "Voorimehe viis" ja "Ei tea kumb?", Lament "Lament", Tokio Hotel "Zimmer 483 - Live In Europe", OneRepublic "Dreaming Out Loud", "Jim Arrow & The Anachrones", Nice Try", Shower "Brain Piracy" ja "Humiliator"

  14. On China's Marine Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianglin

    2010-01-01

    @@ The rising incidence of Somalian and Malaccan piracy has sounded an alarm bell for countries around the world.In order to ensure the safety of global shipping lanes,at least in the short term,it is necessary for countries to unite to combat these pirates.However,dealing with pirate activities is not easy.All countries know that competition for maritime rights and interests between various international powers lay behind the piracy.As a major developing country,China should understand the Somalian and Malaccan piracy from a national security perspective,while at the same time combating piracy and safeguarding world peace.In order to protect China's legitimate maritime rights,we should enact a long-term strategy for marine safety.By so doing,national security,as well as the uninterrupted use of the international sea lanes can be guaranteed.

  15. MARITIME VIOLENCE : IMPLICATIONS TO MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurulizwan Ahmad Zubir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Maritime Piracy has been a serious threat to the international community especially in the SoutheastAsia region. This threat has caused tremendous implications towards the world economy, environment,political stability of the nations involved because 45% of the shipping company passes through theSoutheast Asia. The worrying fact is that these attacks were committed by terrorists as well as traditionalmaritime pirates. This paper examines on the implications of maritime crime in Malaysia and discusseswhether the definition of piracy under the International Law could be applied to these attacks. Thispaper concludes that cooperation between the region’s states and the enhancement of a good securitysystem of one state are needed to combat maritime violence. Thus it is imperative that the internationallaw need to be changed in order to enhance the meaning of piracy and also to include sea terrorism. Key words: piracy, maritime, terrorist

  16. Intellectual Property Gets a Boost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China turns IPR protection into a national strategy for economic growth china’s intellectual property rights (IPR) protection authorities signaled they were prepared to shoulder heavier responsibilities in fighting piracy as they processed 828,000 patent

  17. 77 FR 57638 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... new measures; Formal safety assessment; Piracy and armed robbery against ships; Implementation...

  18. 75 FR 32532 - Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law A meeting of the Advisory Committee on...-binding arrangements; nuclear nonproliferation; international cooperation on piracy; the...

  19. 75 FR 12559 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public... violence, aircraft piracy, and the introduction of explosives, incendiaries, or weapons aboard an...

  20. 75 FR 22435 - Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Notice of Committee Meeting Title: Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting. The... of the human element --Formal safety assessment --Piracy and armed robbery against ships...

  1. 75 FR 64390 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... --Formal safety assessment --Piracy and armed robbery against ships --General cargo ship...

  2. The Online Underworld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrogan, Len

    1988-01-01

    Discusses some of the misuses of telecommunicating using school computers, including online piracy, hacking, phreaking, online crime, and destruction boards. Suggests ways that schools can deal with these problems. (TW)

  3. 78 FR 46358 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Security Programs for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under... against acts of criminal violence and air piracy, and the introduction of explosives, incendiaries,...

  4. 76 FR 49503 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Airport Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public..., aircraft piracy, and the introduction of explosives, incendiaries, or weapons aboard an aircraft....

  5. 76 FR 65740 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Employment Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under..., aircraft piracy, and terrorist activities. Number of Respondents: 1,337. Estimated Annual Burden Hours:...

  6. 76 FR 19176 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct two... safety --Piracy and armed robbery against ships --Implementation of instruments and related...

  7. 78 FR 29201 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... new measures Formal safety assessment Piracy and armed robbery against ships Implementation...

  8. 76 FR 49503 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Employment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public..., aircraft piracy, and terrorist activities. The current estimated annual recordkeeping burden is...

  9. Information Policy in the European Community: Balancing Protection and Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillince, J. A. A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses European Community policy relating to information technology and the information industry. Topics addressed include the information services industry; transborder information flow, including electronic mail, data owner responsibility, and software piracy; digital data networks; electronic data interchange; telecommunications; information…

  10. 32 CFR 623.3 - Submission of requests for loan of Army materiel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this section. (5) The Federal Bureau of Investigation. (i) Requests for aircraft piracy assistance... be sent to the Commander, US Army Center of Military History (para 4, app B). Specific information on...

  11. 75 FR 29568 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Aircraft Operator Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... violence, aircraft piracy, and the introduction of explosives, incendiaries, or weapons aboard an aircraft... submit to and receive a criminal history records check (CHRC). As part of the CHRC process, the...

  12. Uued plaadid / Marko Tiidelepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tiidelepp, Marko

    2008-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Mr. Lawrence "19/90-99", Indigolapsed "Voorimehe viis" ja "Ei tea kumb?", Lament "Lament", Tokio Hotel "Zimmer 483 - Live In Europe", OneRepublic "Dreaming Out Loud", "Jim Arrow & The Anachrones", Nice Try", Shower "Brain Piracy" ja "Humiliator"

  13. 05 Vreyx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abel

    Africa,1 an array of threats and vulnerabilities co-exist alongside narratives that depict the .... Piracy off Somalia allegedly mutated from local attempts to ..... pirates, formed the focus of the security service by NCM.75 However, the most.

  14. The Empire Strikes Back

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Suffering from rampant piracy, China's film, music and software industries look to special measures to counter attack Watching out for pirates has taken on an entirely new meaning for Fang Yunyun. No, she's not looking through a telescope for a ship loaded with mean-looking sailors brandishing swords. Fang is an executive at an audio-video company in Beijing, and her anti-piracy watch means being on the lookout

  15. Annual Report to Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    federal prosecutors indicted Chinese nationals Yuan Wanli and Song Jiang for export-control and money laundering violations in connection with a...Unnamed Search and Rescue Australia Unnamed Maritime New Zealand Unnamed Counter-Piracy South Korea Unnamed Search and Rescue Taiwan Unnamed, Air...Disaster Relief Australia 2012 Naval Cooperation 2012 Maritime Russia Unnamed Counter-Piracy France Blue Assault 2012 Maritime (Amphibious Assault

  16. Why do pirates buy music online? An empirical analysis on a sample of college students

    OpenAIRE

    Grazia Cecere; Nicoletta Corrocher; Fabio Scarica

    2012-01-01

    Despite a considerable amount of theoretical and empirical research in industrial organisation literature on the relationship between piracy, music sales and their antecedents, a significant gap exists for what concerns the linkage between digital music piracy and the recent success of online music stores (OMS). Our aim is to investigate the motivations behind digital music purchases on a population of college students who are music pirates. In doing so, we rely upon an original dataset from ...

  17. Small Combatants for the Homeland Defense Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    maritime related terrorism, weapons proliferation, transnational crime, piracy, environmental destruction, and illegal seaborne immigration.”35 But...humanitarian assistance, development assistance, environmental response operations, and security assistance. HA/DR missions can be both reactive and...Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations.”70 Some of the first missions of the Navy were raids against

  18. The Next Step in Somalia: Exploiting Victory Post-Mogadishu

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    region is that of piracy in the Western Indian Ocean. Al Shabab contributes to this menace by effectively thwarting the TFG’s ability to enforce...subsistence fishermen. These fishermen have felt compelled to engage in piracy for lack of suitable alternatives, 21 resulting in Somali pirates’ interdiction...the people in this region were quickly disenfranchised by Al Shabab’s draconian rule. Vice laws prevented anyone from listening to music , watching

  19. The U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    issues revolved around patent and data exclusivity issues related to pharmaceutical products, but Internet piracy also became a serious problem. The...works on computers ( music , videos, software, text), sole author rights for making their work available online, extended terms of protection for...service providers for copyright infringement. Patents and trade secrets rules conform more closely with U.S. norms. End-user piracy is criminalized and

  20. Digital Rights Management - Promises, Problems and Alternative Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Syversen, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    This thesis presents the introduction of Digital Rights Management (DRM) systems used to protect copyrighted content, why these systems are emphasized and by whom. Legal and technical aspects of such methods are also introduced. Moreover, progress in anti-piracy techniques and reasons for the current situation with online piracy are explained. In addition to presenting an alternative model for digital entertainment business, a new distribution system based on direct subscription on downloadab...

  1. Encounter Detection Using Visual Analytics to Improve Maritime Domain Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    addresses many potential threats to maritime security including nation-state threats, terrorist threats, criminal and piracy threats, and environmental and...Malaysia and Indonesia. The TBA was chosen as a geographic area of interest based on a history of piracy in the region. The TBA constitutes a single...overview of activity based intelligence and human domain analytics, Trajectory [ Online ]. http://trajectorymagazine.com/defense-intelligence/item/1369

  2. Security Cooperation Missions in Africa: Is the United States Conducting the Correct Types of Security Cooperation Missions in the African Continent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    The East Africa/Horn of Africa region has been a priority area for providing stability and offensive operations against the threat of piracy , al... online -based site is a DoD sponsored institution for strategic security studies, research, and outreach in Africa. The Africa center engages African...illegal trafficking, terrorism, political unrest and weapons proliferation, illicit trafficking and piracy , and instability (USAFRICOM 2014, 10). Illegal

  3. China Moves Out: Stepping Stones Toward a New Maritime Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    global in scope, which will influence how the country will employ its navy. Piracy is a threat to China’s economic interests and is subsumed under...objectives of enhancing capabilities to protect SLOCs and strate- gic chokepoints, countering piracy threats, and protecting commercial interests...Strait,” Yomiuri Shimbun; “PLA Sorties Threaten Encirclement,” Taipei Times Online , February 9, 2012; “Chinese Navy Fleet Passes Through Osumi-kaikyo

  4. Adopting Cloud Computing in the Pakistan Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    trafficking, arms smuggling, and piracy . In addition, the Pakistan Navy is participating in various multinational exercises and hosting exercises of...The Pakistan Navy is still in the process of modernization and is upgrading its equipment to conduct counter- piracy and counterterrorism operations...drives from its data center will be sold on some online store like eBay or Amazon, thus causing consumers to lose control over their data. Data

  5. Maritime Improvised Explosive Devices: A Threat Based Technology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    ROV Remotely Operated Vehicle ix RSP Render Safe Procedure SIPRNet Secret Internet Protocol Router Network SLOC Sea Lines of Communication TTP...ways to inflict terrorism at sea, such as piracy and maritime improvised explosive devices (MIED). “MIEDs can take many forms, which can include...natural disaster, and we cannot intercede when whole societies are torn asunder by slavery, weapons of mass destruction, drugs, and piracy . Without sea

  6. The PLA Navy: New Capabilities and Missions for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    underscores the potential to achieve mutually beneficial objectives, such as countering piracy . Similarly, China’s new hospital ships, amphibious...important. Internet photos from 2012 indicated the development of a Y-9 naval variant that is equipped with a MAD (magnetic anomaly detector) boom...Tian participated in an international panel of naval officers in London, addressing the impact of piracy . Tian’s strong foreign engagement experience

  7. The Role of North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) In Military Cyber Attack Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    17 “2014: Piracy , Terrorism and Direct Maritime Threats,” The Maritime Executive, 14 Mar 2014...accessed 20 Apr 2015, http://www.maritime-executive.com/article/2014- Piracy -Terrorism--Diverse- Maritime-Threats-2014-03-14/. Figure 8. Maritime...strategy to protect Canada’s digital infrastructure. It acts as a cornerstone of the government’s commit to keep Canada, including their cyberspace, safe

  8. Analyzing Naval Strategy for Counterpiracy Operations, Using the Massive Multiplayer Online War Game Leveraging the Internet (MMOWGLI) and Discrete Event Simulation (DES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Maritime Force formed CTF–151 (Haywood & Spivak , pp. 50–51). Operation Ocean Shield’s mission is to deter and disrupt piracy, protect merchant vessels...which attempted to bridge the gaps and share information and intelligence (Haywood & Spivak , pp. 51–52). The major issue is that all three operations...calhoun.nps.edu/public/bitstream/handle/10945/1105/03Mar_Harney.pdf?s equence=1 Haywood, R., & Spivak , R. (2012). Maritime piracy (Global Institutions Series

  9. 全球性的海盗现象和对策%Global pirates and countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑旭红

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 全球性的海盗和海上武装抢窃 长期严重困扰国际航运业的海盗事故(piracy incident),实际上是性质有所区别的两类事件的统称:海盗侵袭(piracy attack)和海上武装抢窃(armed robbery at sea).

  10. PENEGAKAN HUKUM TERHADAP PEMBAJAKAN DI LAUT MELALUI YURISDIKSI MAHKAMAH PIDANA INTERNASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordan Gunawan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The international community, nowadays is facing the most serious problem of the piracy in the sea on a large scale than ever before. Todays piracy is destroying and disturbing the shipping industry worldwide with the modern way. The problem of piracy becomes increase day by day rather than to decrease. It is universally called as hostis humani generis. The piracy today is directed against victims from around the world, creates harms that are felt by the international community, and involves many of the same violation, as like as a murder and hostage-taking, that are used to commit the crimes within the jurisdiction of International Criminal Court (ICC. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the piracy in details which could be seen in some international laws concerning this problem as for UNCLOS 1982 and SUA Convention 1988. This paper also will elaborate how piracy could be called as a crime under international law, as well as the jurisdiction of the ICC. This permanent international judicial body is empowered to prosecute crimes of concern to the international community as a whole, in accordance with the Rome Statute 1998 and ICC is expected to fullfil the impunity as the biggest obstacle for countries to bring the pirates into the justice.

  11. Crackdown on Infringement and Piracy: An Important Duty of Public Security Organizations——Speech by Mr. Gao Gongzan, Deputy Director-General of Public Security Bureau of Tianjin,at the Inaugural Meeting of the Committee for Anti-Piracy,Tianjin Association of Copyright Protection%打击侵权盗版是公安机关的重要工作职责——天津市公安局副局长高恭赞在天津市版权保护协会反盗版工作委员会成立大会上的讲话

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ 各位领导,同志们: 首先,我代表天津市公安局和全体公安民警对反盗版工作委员会的成立表示热烈祝贺!向长期致力于版权保护事业的同志们致以诚挚的敬意!

  12. Maritime Training Serbian Autonomous Vessel Protection Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoškić Svetislav D.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The crisis in Somalia has caused appearance of piracy at sea in the Gulf of Aden and the Western Indian Ocean. Somali pirates have become a threat to economic security of the world because almost 30 percent of world oil and 20 percent of global trade passes through the Gulf of Aden. Solving the problem of piracy in this part of the world have included international organizations, institutions, military alliances and the states, acting in accordance with international law and UN Security Council resolutions. The European Union will demonstrate the application of a comprehensive approach to solving the problem of piracy at sea and the crisis in Somalia conducting naval operation — EU NAVFOR Atalanta and operation EUTM under the Common Security and Defense Policy. The paper discusses approaches to solving the problem of piracy in the Gulf of Aden and the crisis in Somalia. Also, the paper points to the complexity of the crisis in Somalia and dilemmas correctness principles that are applied to solve the problem piracy at sea. One of goals is protections of vessels of the World Food Programme (WFP delivering food aid to displaced persons in Somalia. Republic of Serbia joined in this mission and trained and sent one a autonomous team in this military operation for protection WFP. This paper consist the problem of modern piracy, particularly in the area of the Horn of Africa became a real threat for the safety of maritime ships and educational process of Serbian Autonomous vessel protection detachment. Serbian Military Academy adopted and developed educational a training program against piracy applying all the provisions and recommendations of the IMO conventions and IMO model courses for Serbian Autonomous vessel protection detachment.

  13. 2007 Special Action against Online Infringement and Piracy Achieves Remarkable Success%重拳三度出击部门优势互补2007打击网络侵权盗版专项治理行动成效显著

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓红

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2007年8月至10月,在全国范围内开展的第三次打击网络侵权盗版专项治理行动共办理网络侵权盗版案件1001件,是2005年,2006年两年办理案件总和的1.6倍,这是国家版权局副局长阎晓宏在日前的新闻发布会发布的.

  14. "2009全国打击网络侵权盗版专项行动新闻发布会"在京举行%The "Press Conference of 2009 National Sepcial Action Against Online Infringement and Piracy"was Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖虹

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1月20日下午,由国家版权局、公安部、工业和信息化部联合召开的"2009全国打击网络侵权盗版专项行动新闻发布会"在京举行.国家版权局版权管理司司长王自强代表三部委通报了2009年打击网络侵权盗版专项行动情况并回答了记者提问.

  15. Analysis of Russian Anti-piracy Law and Its Enlightenment to China's Internet Copyright Protection%俄罗斯《反盗版法》评析及其对我国网络著作权保护的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍玲; 王文敏

    2015-01-01

    迫于国际压力和国内需求,俄罗斯在2013年通过了《反盗版法》并于2014年对其进行了修订.该法直接借鉴了美国SOPA法案激进的封锁网站措施,严厉地打击电影和电视剧网络盗版.与我国规定的“通知与删除”规则不同,该法创设了“法院颁布禁令一行政机关通知——限制用户访问”的著作权侵权行为处理规则,但其中的“禁令环节”、“通知环节”和“限制访问环节”的规定都存在着不合理之处,在具体执行过程中也遇到了不少问题.我国应从俄罗斯网络著作权立法和执法实践的得失成败中吸取教训,网络著作权的保护应注意立足本国实际,在立法上应尽量借鉴国际通行规则和他国成熟的立法经验.

  16. 图书馆、网络服务商、网络盗版与"利益平衡"——中国社科院七位学者维权实践的理论贡献%Library, Internet Service Provider, Internet Piracy And "the Balance of Profits":——Theoretical Contribution of CASS Seven Scholars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑成思

    2005-01-01

    "中国社会科学院郑成思等七专家状告书生数字公司侵权"一案判决,使人们明白了知识产权保护与利益平衡的关系、图书馆与营利性公司的区别,划清了"公益数字图书馆"与"营利数字公司"的界线,利益平衡为当前知识产权领域的新话题,作者与公司之间确有利益平衡的问题,而作者与盗版作者之间则是侵权与维权的问题.

  17. The Web Sites Committed Reveal the Secrets of the Internet Piracy's Hidden Rules, It's Rather With A Fine for Network Traffic%揭秘网络盗版潜规则网站宁愿用罚款换流量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ 甄子丹主演的新片上映才六天,就遭遇网络盗版重创.虽然在片方的交涉下Verycd等网站下载链接被撤除,但提供BT下载的小网站链接还大量存在,很多视频网站仍在提供在线播放.据制片人之一安晓芬女士估计,影片大概有1000万的观看、下载次数,票房损失达3亿元之巨.

  18. 浅析索马里海盗现状和船舶加强强防范的措施(三)%Analysis on the present situation of piracy off Somalia coasts and enhancement of preventive measures for ships(Ⅲ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟久刚

    2009-01-01

    @@ (接上期) 六、对各航运公司、船舶防范索马里海盗的相关建议 目前航运市场正处于低谷,各公司都在致力于紧抓船期、节约成本,但公司管理人员也应清醒地认识到索马里海盗活动日益猖獗的形势:几乎每艘单独航行于亚丁湾的船舶都会遭遇海盗的袭扰,船方应急措施稍有不当就可能直接导致遭劫的后果.

  19. DIGITAL DATA PROTECTION USING STEGANOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rejani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In today’s digital world applications from a computer or a mobile device consistently used to get every kind of work done for professional as well as entertainment purpose. However, one of the major issue that a software publisher will face is the issue of piracy. Throughout the last couple of decades, almost all-major or minor software has been pirated and freely circulated across the internet. The impact of the rampant software piracy has been huge and runs into billions of dollars every year. For an independent developer or a programmer, the impact of piracy will be huge. Huge companies that make specialized software often employ complex hardware methods such as usage of dongles to avoid software piracy. However, this is not possible to do for a normal independent programmer of a small company. As part of the research, a new method of software protection that does not need proprietary hardware and other complex methods are proposed in this paper. This method uses a combination of inbuilt hardware features as well as steganography and encryption to protect the software against piracy. The properties or methods used include uniqueness of hardware, steganography, strong encryption like AES and geographic location. To avoid hacking the proposed framework also makes use of self-checks in a random manner. The process is quite simple to implement for any developer and is usable on both traditional PCs as well as mobile environments.

  20. Changes in reproductive life-history strategies in response to nest density in a shell-brooding cichlid, Telmatochromis vittatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Kazutaka; Hori, Michio; Kohda, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether the appearance of a reproductively parasitic tactic varies, and how this variation affects territorial males of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish Telmatochromis vittatus, we examined the reproductive ecology of territorial males in Mtondwe and compared it with that of a neighboring Wonzye population, where nest density differs from that at Mtondwe. In Wonzye, with high nest density, male tactics change with their body size from a territorial to a non-territorial parasitic tactic called piracy in which they conquer several nests defended by territorial males and take over the nests while females are spawning. These "pirate" males could decrease the costs incurred by travelling among nests by exclusively targeting aggregations of nests in close proximity while avoiding separate nests. Territorial males in Wonzye sacrifice the potential higher attractiveness offered by large nests and instead compete for nests farther from neighbors on which pirates less frequently intrude. In contrast, the Mtondwe population had lower nest density and piracy was absent. Given that the success of piracy depends on the close proximity of nests, nest density is likely responsible for the observed variation in the occurrence of piracy between the two populations. Furthermore, in Mtondwe, territorial males competed for larger nests and were smaller than the territorial males in Wonzye. Thus, this lower nest density may free territorial males from the selection pressures for increased size caused by both defense against nest piracy and the need to develop into pirates as they grow.

  1. Cyberpiracy and morality: Some utilitarian and deontological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mančić Željko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses one of the main problems of our time in the world of Internet – cyber piracy. It is often said that it is illegal, since pirates who practice it violate certain domestic and international laws. When we ask for justification of this laws and their enforcement, philosophers and legalists usually apply to one of the two sorts of philosophical arguments - deontology and utilitarianism. The former think that piracy is immoral in itself, while the others argue it should be prevented, otherwise it will produce very bad consequences for society sooner or later, and thus diminish the overall happiness of the society. It will be shown, howe­ver, that both of these arguments, when closely considered, fail with their intention, and, if we decide to follow them, we actually arrive to the very opposite conclusion - piracy is justified.

  2. Watermarking Java Programs using Dummy Methods with Dynamically Opaque Predicates

    CERN Document Server

    Akbar, Zaenal

    2010-01-01

    Software piracy, the illegal using, copying, and resale of applications is a major concern for anyone develops software. Software developers also worry about their applications being reverse engineered by extracting data structures and algorithms from an application and incorporated into competitor's code. A defense against software piracy is watermarking, a process that embeds a secret message in a cover software. Watermarking is a method that does not aim to stop piracy copying, but to prove ownership of the software and possibly even the data structures and algorithms used in the software. The language Java was designed to be compiled into a platform independent bytecode format. Much of the information contained in the source code remains in the bytecode, which means that decompilation is easier than with traditional native codes. In this thesis, we present a technique for watermarking Java programs by using a never-executed dummy method (Monden et.al., 2000) combined with opaque predicates (Collberg et.al...

  3. User Decisions in a (Partly) Digital World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veitch, Rob; Constantiou, Ioanna

    2012-01-01

    of access-mode decisions for film and music which integrates elements of previous digital piracy models and expands upon them to reflect the decision’s complexity. We depict the access-mode decision as being influenced by the user’s product desire, price perceptions, perceived risks, internal regulators......Technologies enabling digital piracy have expanded the variety of options available to users when deciding how to access a product. As a result, access-mode decisions for film and music are broader than for other goods where the piracy option is not as prevalent. This paper presents a model...... of behaviour, resources and legal availability. We test the model for film and music using causal data of access-mode decisions collected from students at two Danish universities. Our findings indicate that the economic considerations of price perception and legal availability are the most consistent factors...

  4. Distribution of digital games via BitTorrent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Bauer, Kevin; Veitch, Robert W. D.

    2011-01-01

    The practice of illegally copying and distributing digital games is at the heart of one of the most heated and divisive debates in the international games environment. Despite the substantial interest in game piracy, there is very little objective information available about its magnitude or its...... distribution across game titles and game genres. This paper presents the first large-scale, open-method analysis of the distribution of digital game titles, which was conducted by monitoring the BitTorrent peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing protocol. The sample includes 173 games and a collection period of three...... months from late 2010 to early 2011. With a total of 12.6 million unique peers identified, it is the largest examination of game piracy via P2P networks to date. The study provides findings that reveal the magnitude of game piracy, the time-frequency of game torrents, which genres that get pirated...

  5. Online Copyright Enforcement, Consumer Behavior and Market Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, Luis; Claussen, Jörg; Peukert, Christian

    find that the shutdown led to significant but short-lived declines in piracy levels. The streaming piracy market quickly recovered due to the existence of alternative unlicensed platforms, leading to limited substitution into licensed consumption. The fact that the post-shutdown market structure......Taking down copyright-infringing websites is a way to reduce consumption of pirated media content and increase licensed consumption. We analyze the consequences of the shutdown of the most popular German video streaming website - kino.to - in June 2011. Using individual-level clickstream data, we...

  6. Fake CDs Are Out of Tune

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francois; Essomba

    2011-01-01

    Music piracy in Africa needs urgent attention PIRACY is a scourge worldwide,and that’s the music variety we are talking about.Africa is no exception and in a continent where rhythm and voices color every part of daily life it needs urgent attention.In order to highlight the plight of authors and artists who make a living from music who suffer from copyright infringement and share what those rights are,an international forum was held in Yaounde,Cameroon from August 24 to 25.

  7. A New Watermarking Protocol against Conspiracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun; KOU Weidong; FAN Kai; CAO Xuefei

    2006-01-01

    A trusted third party introduced in watermarking protocols would decrease the security and affect the implementation of the protocols. In this paper, a new watermarking protocol with an un-trusted third party (UTTP) was proposed. Based on the idea of all-or-nothing disclosure of secret (ANDOS), all of the buyer, the seller and the third party didn't know the exact watermark, which was embedded in a digital content for tracing piracy. The proposed protocol provided mechanisms to trace piracy and protect customer's right. In addition, the problem that a seller colluded with UTTP to frame the buyer, namely, the conspiracy problem, could be avoided.

  8. Multinational Experiment 7. Regional Analysis: Western Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    www.counterpiracy.ae/upload/Briefing/Ibrahim%20Al%20Musharrakh-Essay-Eng-2.pdf 10 To the notion of a “failed state” see Mario Silva , Somalia State...Notes, Report prepared for CGPCS’s WG2 3rd meeting, August 2009 27Robin Gless and Anna Petrig, “Piracy and Armed Robbery at Sea”, 2011, p. 70 ff...30 See Danmarks Radio: http://www.dr.dk/Nyheder/Udland/2012/03/22/165225.htm (8.4.2012) and Robin Gless/ Anna Petrig, Piracy and Armed Robbery at Sea

  9. Pirates of the Philippines: A Critical Thinking Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruel A. Macaraeg

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Piracy had a formative impact on Filipino history, yet modern practitioners of Filipino Martial Arts generally do not acknowledge its influence. This brief study reconstructs the pirates’ martial practices through comparative historical analysis of their weapons, costume, and organization in order to draw conclusions about their relationship to martial cultures in the Philippines and across the region. Using analogous historical studies on piracy worldwide and examination of traditional arms and armor, this article restores the Iranun pirates to their rightful place as primary contributors to Filipino fighting arts and their influence in shaping Filipino national historiography as a whole.

  10. Intellectual property protection systems and digital watermarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Jack; Quackenbush, Schuyler R.; Reibman, Amy; Snyder, James H.

    1998-12-01

    Adequate protection of digital copies of multimedia content - both audio and video - is a prerequisite to the distribution of this content over networks. Until recently digital audio and video content has been protected by its size: it is difficult to distribute and store without compression. Modern compression algorithms allow substantial bitrate reduction while maintaining high-fidelity reproduction. If distribution of these algorithms is controlled, cleartext uncompressed content is still protected by its size. However, once the compression algorithms are generally available cleartext content becomes extremely vulnerable to piracy. In this paper we explore the implications of this vulnerability and discuss the use of compression and watermarking in the control of piracy.

  11. Distribution of digital games via BitTorrent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Bauer, Kevin; Veitch, Robert W. D.

    2011-01-01

    distribution across game titles and game genres. This paper presents the first large-scale, open-method analysis of the distribution of digital game titles, which was conducted by monitoring the BitTorrent peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing protocol. The sample includes 173 games and a collection period of three...... months from late 2010 to early 2011. With a total of 12.6 million unique peers identified, it is the largest examination of game piracy via P2P networks to date. The study provides findings that reveal the magnitude of game piracy, the time-frequency of game torrents, which genres that get pirated...

  12. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Air China’s strong stance trampled Singapore Airlines’ attempt to buy China Eastern Airlines. The country’s liquor prices have risen substantially just before the Spring Festival(February 6-13). Home appliance giant Siemens also decided to increase its prices to cope with higher raw material and human resources costs. In a bid to protect the environment, China invited the U.S.-based General Biodieses to produce diesel from organic products. Meanwhile, China has vowed to strike hard against software piracy on news that domestic software development has grown robustly, though piracy has eaten into its profits.

  13. Online Copyright Enforcement, Consumer Behavior and Market Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, Luis; Claussen, Jörg; Peukert, Christian

    Taking down copyright-infringing websites is a way to reduce consumption of pirated media content and increase licensed consumption. We analyze the consequences of the shutdown of the most popular German video streaming website - kino.to - in June 2011. Using individual-level clickstream data, we...... find that the shutdown led to significant but short-lived declines in piracy levels. The streaming piracy market quickly recovered due to the existence of alternative unlicensed platforms, leading to limited substitution into licensed consumption. The fact that the post-shutdown market structure...

  14. Online Copyright Enforcement, Consumer Behavior, and Market Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, Luis; Claussen, Jörg; Peukert, Christian

    Taking down copyright-infringing websites is a way to reduce consumption of pirated media content and increase licensed consumption. We analyze the consequences of the shutdown of the most popular German video streaming website - kino.to - in June 2011. Using individual-level clickstream data, we...... find that the shutdown led to significant but short-lived declines in piracy levels. The streaming piracy market quickly recovered due to the existence of alternative unlicensed platforms, leading to limited substitution into licensed consumption. The fact that the post-shutdown market structure...

  15. Plaat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Laseringi kauplustes müügilolevatest heliplaatidest: Sheryl Crow "Detours", Goldfrapp "Seventh Tree", "Eesti Rock Antologia: Shower "Brain Piracy", Shower "Humilator", Nice Try "Nice Try", Jim Arrow & The Anachrones "Jim Arrow & The Anachrones"", Morcheeba "Dive Deep", Hot Chip "Made In The Dark"

  16. Persistent maritime surveillance using multi-sensor feature association and classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, S.P. van den; Schwering, P.B.W.; Liem, K.D.; Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    In maritime operational scenarios, such as smuggling, piracy, or terrorist threats, it is not only relevant who or what an observed object is, but also where it is now and in the past in relation to other (geographical) objects. In situation and impact assessment, this information is used to determi

  17. Improved maritime situation awareness by fusing sensor information with intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.C. van den; Deves, T.K.G.; Neef, R.M.; Smith, A.J.E.

    2010-01-01

    In present-day military security operations threats are more difficult to reveal than inconventional warfare theatres, since they take place during the course of normal life. For example, during maritime missions in littoral environments, acts of piracy, drug trafficking and other threatening events

  18. Improving maritime situational awareness by fusing sensor information and intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, A.C.; Neef, R.M.; Hanckmann, P.; van Gosliga, S.P.; van Halsema, D.

    2011-01-01

    In present-day military security operations threats are more difficult to reveal than in conventional warfare theatres, since they take place during the course of normal life. These maritime missions often take place in littoral environments, where acts of piracy, drug trafficking and other

  19. A multi-sensor scenario for coastal surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.C. van den; Broek, S.P. van den; Heuvel, J.C. van den; Schwering, P.B.W.; Heijningen, A.W.P. van

    2007-01-01

    Maritime borders and coastal zones are susceptible to threats such as drug trafficking, piracy, undermining economical activities. At TNO Defence, Security and Safety various studies aim at improving situational awareness in a coastal zone. In this study we focus on multi-sensor surveillance of the

  20. 18th International Seapower Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    ways been safe, secure or without damage to the maritime environment and the ecology . Piracy and armed robbery against ships is still a cause of...as you see it here. It is a joint staff with an operational center in Las Palmas , with represen- tatives from law enforcement. It is based on

  1. Crime, Abuse, and Hacker Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Deborah G.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses computer ethics and the use of computer networks. Topics addressed include computer hackers; software piracy; computer viruses and worms; intentional and unintentional abuse; intellectual property rights versus freedom of thought; the role of information in a democratic society; individual privacy; legislation; social attitudes; and the…

  2. Building A Middle Eastern Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-12

    good prospect of reducing the possibility of war, where the potential belligerent would chose diplomacy over combat when confronted with such an...well as peacekeeping in Kosovo and new threats to security such as cyber -attacks, and global threats such as terrorism and piracy that affect the...32 Norvelle B. DeAktine, “Why arabs lose wars”, American Diplomacy (December

  3. The Life-Cycle Policy model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anciaux, N.L.G.; Bouganim, Luc; van Heerde, H.J.W.; Pucheral, Philippe; Apers, Peter M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Our daily life activity leaves digital trails in an increasing number of databases (commercial web sites, internet service providers, search engines, location tracking systems, etc). Personal digital trails are commonly exposed to accidental disclosures resulting from negligence or piracy and to ill

  4. Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, Annual Report 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Australia Papua New Guinea Solomon Islands Fiji Tuvalu Marshall Islands Micronesia Guam Palau Rep. of Korea TongaVanuatu Madagascar...International financial crisis Global warning/ climate change Pandemic disease Drug trafficking Illegal migration Piracy Terrorism Arms smuggling Illegal...Resource scarcity/rivalry Global warming/ climate change Drug trafficing Illegal fishing Crime Territorial disputes Pandemic disease

  5. Plaat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Laseringi kauplustes müügilolevatest heliplaatidest: Sheryl Crow "Detours", Goldfrapp "Seventh Tree", "Eesti Rock Antologia: Shower "Brain Piracy", Shower "Humilator", Nice Try "Nice Try", Jim Arrow & The Anachrones "Jim Arrow & The Anachrones"", Morcheeba "Dive Deep", Hot Chip "Made In The Dark"

  6. Combating Stability Concerns and Promoting Development Through Literacy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Sex , 2011 ..................................................4 Figure 3. Conflict and Instability throughout Africa...literacy rates by region and gender. Figure 2. Adult Literacy Rate by Region and Sex , 2011 Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific and...West Africa, the 5 Ebola outbreak in 2014 caused massive worldwide panic. Illicit trafficking and piracy affect both West and East Africa. These

  7. Digital culture industry a history of digital distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Allen-Robertson, James

    2013-01-01

    How did digital media happen? Through a unique approach to digital documents, and detailed intricate histories of illicit internet piracy networks, The Digital Culture Industry goes beyond the Napster creation myth and illuminates the unseen individuals, code and events behind the turn to digital media.

  8. The Classroom, Board Room, Chat Room, and Court Room: School Computers at the Crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael

    2000-01-01

    In schools' efforts to maximize technology's benefits, ethical considerations have often taken a back seat. Computer misuse is growing exponentially and assuming many forms: unauthorized data access, hacking, piracy, information theft, fraud, virus creation, harassment, defamation, and discrimination. Integrated-learning activities will help…

  9. American Colony in Africa: Lessons Learned from Other Former Colonial Powers in West Africa That Can Be Applied to the United States’ Relationship with Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    tourism (Rodriguez 2016, 10). However, this area is rife with piracy, armed robbery, illegal fishing, and kidnap-for-ransom (Rodriguez 2016, 10). These...in Africa. New York, NY: Vintage Books. Garson, G. David. 2016. Validity and Reliability. Asheboro, NC: Statistical Associates Publishing. Ham

  10. Indigenous Knowledge and Intellectual Property Rights: Confronting Modern Norms to Promote Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole-Chaudhuri, Pragati; Srikantaiah, Deepa; van Fleet, Justin

    2008-01-01

    The global proliferation of intellectual property rights (IPRs), most recently through the World Trade Organization's Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement, poses a grave threat for Indigenous knowledge systems. There is an increasing amount of "piracy" of Indigenous knowledge, whereby corporations and scientists…

  11. It’s All About The Benjamins: An Empirical Study On Incentivizing Users To Ignore Security Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    the value extracted from the software (access to free music or screen savers) trumped the potentially dangerous security compromises and privacy...participants from the developing world and unpatched versions of Windows (φ = 0.241, p < 0.0005), which hints at a correlation between software piracy and

  12. The Music Industry as a Vehicle for Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Issues arising in the music industry in response to the availability of digital music files provide an opportunity for exposing undergraduate students to economic analyses rarely covered in the undergraduate economics curriculum. Three of these analyses are covered here: the optimal copyright term, the effect of piracy or illegal file sharing, and…

  13. Antipiracy Campaign Exasperates Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampell, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the withdrawal of some universities' support of a music industry's campaign against music piracy on their campuses. Talk to the chief information officer at just about any American university, and he will probably say that his institution has bent over backward to help the Recording Industry Association of America curb…

  14. The Economics of Educational Software Portability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Joao Batista Araujo e

    1990-01-01

    Discusses economic issues that affect the portability of educational software. Topics discussed include economic reasons for portability, including cost effectiveness; the nature and behavior of educational computer software markets; the role of producers, buyers, and consumers; potential effects of government policies; computer piracy; and…

  15. Online Ethics: What's a Teacher to Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Cal

    1996-01-01

    Considers ethics issues involved with using online resources like the Internet in elementary and secondary education and suggests that educators initiate and model a standardized role of ethical behavior for Internet users. Topics include hackers; privacy, piracy, and security; screening electronic sites; ethics education; and an ethics model.…

  16. 78 FR 72922 - TSA Pre✓TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... includes, but is not limited to, indictments and convictions for crimes such as treason, air piracy, murder... online by submitting biographic information and then completing the application process by visiting...

  17. 76 FR 19895 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 76 Friday, No. 68 April 8, 2011 Part V The President Notice of April 7, 2011--Continuation of the National Emergency With... and the persistence of violence in Somalia, and acts of piracy and armed robbery at sea off the...

  18. 75 FR 63888 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... regarding piracy --Matters arising from the 25th extraordinary and the 104th regular sessions of the...

  19. 78 FR 62592 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... Republic of Singapore to contribute to regional security. Its contributions to counter-piracy...

  20. 77 FR 64853 - Manual for Courts-Martial; Proposed Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 77 Tuesday, No. 205 October 23, 2012 Part II Defense Department Manual for Courts-Martial; Proposed Amendments; Notice #0;#0... piracy of an aircraft or vessel; or while the accused was engaged in the commission or...

  1. 78 FR 21011 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 78 Monday, No. 67 April 8, 2013 Part II The President Notice of April 4, 2013--Continuation of the National Emergency With... and the persistence of violence in Somalia, acts of piracy and armed robbery at sea off the coast...

  2. Better Enforcement of Online Copyright Would Help, Not Harm, Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Legislation introduced in Congress last month (the "Combating Online Infringement and Counterfeits Act") would take an aggressive and needed stand against online piracy, a growing problem that hurts American consumers and costs Americans jobs. Critics of the legislation argue that this bill would hurt free speech, encourage censorship in foreign…

  3. 78 FR 21826 - Defense Support of Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 182 Defense Support of Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies AGENCY... piracy operations conducted pursuant to title 10, U.S.C. Sec. 182.3 Definitions. The...

  4. 76 FR 12787 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... piracy; --Matters arising from the 105th regular session of the IMO Council; --Technical...

  5. 76 FR 47647 - Additional Designation of Person Whose Property and Interests in Property Are Blocked Pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designation of Person Whose Property and Interests in... piracy and armed robbery at sea off the coast of Somalia. Section 1 of the Order blocks, with...

  6. 77 FR 37961 - Hazardous Materials: Incorporating Rail Special Permits Into the Hazardous Materials Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 77 Monday, No. 122 June 25, 2012 Part II Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... ``conceal the presence of high value cargoes that might be the target of piracy or hijacking...

  7. 76 FR 47646 - Additional Designation of Person Whose Property and Interests in Property Are Blocked Pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designation of Person Whose Property and Interests in... piracy and armed robbery at sea off the coast of Somalia. Section 1 of the Order blocks, with...

  8. Navy John Lewis (TAO-205) Class Oiler Shipbuilding Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-08

    Lowest Total Price For LHA, Oiler To Win Bulk Of LX(R),” Inside the Navy, February 23, 2015 (posted online February 20, 2015). 33 Government...counter- piracy , and improving adversary A2/AD capabilities cause strike groups and ready groups to disperse over more expansive areas. Additionally

  9. Baywatch: two approaches to measure the effects of blocking access to The Pirate Bay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poort, J.; Leenheer, J.; van der Ham, J.; Dumitru, C.

    2013-01-01

    In the fight against the unauthorised sharing of copyright protected material, aka piracy, Dutch Internet Service Providers have been summoned by courts to block their subscribers’ access to The Pirate Bay (TPB) and related sites. This paper studies the effectiveness of this approach towards online

  10. 77 FR 12353 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... Convention, 2006; Fair treatment of seafarers in the event of a maritime accident; Piracy; Matters...

  11. 77 FR 40948 - Additional Designation of Persons Whose Property and Interests in Property Are Blocked Pursuant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designation of Persons Whose Property and Interests in... security situation and the persistence of violence in Somalia and acts of piracy and armed robbery at...

  12. 78 FR 51737 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Certain Hard Disk Drives and Self-Encrypting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Certain... allow it to perform certain functions that prevent piracy of software constitute...

  13. 77 FR 4055 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public... flights provided by the aircraft operator against acts of criminal violence, aircraft piracy, and...

  14. 77 FR 21837 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 77 Wednesday, No. 70 April 11, 2012 Part II The President Notice of April 10, 2012--Continuation of the National Emergency... persistence of violence in Somalia, and acts of piracy and armed robbery at sea off the coast of...

  15. Navy TAO(X) Oiler Shipbuilding Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-17

    Bulk Of LX(R),” Inside the Navy, February 23, 2015 (posted online February 20, 2015). 33 Government Accountability Office, Defense Acquisitions...smaller fleet, new missions, such as ballistic missile defense and counter- piracy , and improving adversary A2/AD capabilities cause strike groups

  16. 75 FR 59136 - Implementation of Regional Fishery Management Organizations' Measures Pertaining to Vessels That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 300 RIN 0648-AW09 Implementation of Regional... alarm resolution, piracy, and complex multi-disciplinary events. Comment 12: Two commenters...

  17. 78 FR 37210 - Request of the United States Patent and Trademark Office for Public Comments: Voluntary Best...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... intellectual property infringement that occurs online--such as copyright piracy and trademark counterfeiting... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Request of the United States Patent and Trademark Office...

  18. 77 FR 12069 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... their aircraft against acts of criminal violence or air piracy. With the enactment of Vision 100... collected to assess the qualifications and suitability of prospective and current FFDOs through an...

  19. 78 FR 17467 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... seafarers in the event of a maritime accident. --Piracy. --Collation and preservation of evidence...

  20. 75 FR 20672 - Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose Property and Interests in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose... piracy and armed robbery at sea off the coast of Somalia. Section 1 of the Order blocks, with...

  1. 75 FR 70961 - Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law A meeting of the Advisory Committee on... international piracy; sovereign immunity of foreign government officials; U.N. resolutions and...

  2. 75 FR 79069 - Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement: Request for Comments From the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES... addressing counterfeiting and piracy. USTR is requesting written comments from the public on the final text... international cooperation, enforcement practices and legal frameworks for addressing counterfeiting and...

  3. Ethical Issues of ICT Use by Teacher Trainers: Use of E-Books in Academic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilickaya, Ferit; Krajka, Jaroslaw

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to address the issue of ethics in ICT use by university teacher trainers, the current study aimed to investigate academics' downloading and sharing e-books as well as the reasons that led them to be involved in this piracy. The participants included 140 teacher trainers working at faculties of education in Turkey, and a questionnaire…

  4. 77 FR 21619 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will... implementation of new measures; Role of the human element; Formal safety assessment; Piracy and armed...

  5. 78 FR 50045 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... its borders and littoral waters, as well as conduct counter- terrorism/counter-piracy operations....

  6. The Life-Cycle Policy model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anciaux, Nicolas; Bouganim, Luc; Heerde, van Harold; Pucheral, Philippe; Apers, Peter M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Our daily life activity leaves digital trails in an increasing number of databases (commercial web sites, internet service providers, search engines, location tracking systems, etc). Personal digital trails are commonly exposed to accidental disclosures resulting from negligence or piracy and to ill

  7. Legal Considerations of Internet Use--Issues To Be Addressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daphyne Saunders; Forcht, Karen A.; Counts, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Explores issues related to legal considerations of the widespread use of the Internet worldwide. Topics considered include: e-mail; data theft and piracy; search and seizure; electronic banking; offensive behavior; liability; copyright infringement; laws regulating the Internet; and the Telecommunications Act. (PEN)

  8. Improved maritime situation awareness by fusing sensor information with intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.C. van den; Deves, T.K.G.; Neef, R.M.; Smith, A.J.E.

    2010-01-01

    In present-day military security operations threats are more difficult to reveal than inconventional warfare theatres, since they take place during the course of normal life. For example, during maritime missions in littoral environments, acts of piracy, drug trafficking and other threatening events

  9. Copyright Goes Philosophical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Carlin

    2012-01-01

    Last month brought an explosion of breaking news about intellectual-property issues, including copyright--the public battle over Internet-piracy bills in Congress, with ideological alliances crisscrossing standard lines, and sponsors turning against their own bills; the Supreme Court decision, "Golan v. Holder," which strengthened copyright…

  10. Protecting the Goodies in the Digital Candy Store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasch, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of the protection of intellectual property on the Internet suggests strong regulation of content. Topics addressed include economic losses; access control; encryption; educating the public on copyright law; illegal bulletin board systems; software piracy; copyright infringement; downloading copyrighted material; fair use; and copyright…

  11. From Neutral Thirds to Private Law Enforcers: Toward a Criterial Framework for Requests Placed on Internet Service Providers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der N.S.; Lodder, A.R.

    Undeniably the traditional neutral role of ISPs has come under increasing pressure. This is mainly a result of the requests placed on them which are becoming more diverse and far reaching. ISPs are called upon to lead the fight against botnets, combat digital piracy and child pornography, amongst ot

  12. From Realities to Values: A Strategy Framework for Digital Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowers, Helene

    2010-01-01

    For many Digital Natives, text messaging or SMS is the communication channel of choice, but preferences in communication channels aren't the only distinguishing traits of Digital Natives. Attitudes and perceptions related to digital privacy, identity, creativity, piracy, and advocacy also help to set younger generations apart. So how does one take…

  13. Research on Intellectual Property Right Problems of Peer-to-Peer Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ying; Li, Mingshu; Chen, Meizhang; Zheng, Shengli

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital intellectual property rights relating to peer-to-peer networks, using Napster as an example. Suggests anti-piracy solutions to prevent litigation and considers how libraries can develop potential service models using peer-to-peer networks, including the development of personal libraries on the Internet, interlibrary loan,…

  14. Boarding Team Networking on the Move: Applying Unattended Relay Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    BETWEEN VMNS AND MANETS ........................... 26 E. INTERNET CONNECTION FOR MANETS ........................................ 27 IV...Figure 12. MANET Architecture for Internet Connection (from [21]) .................... 28 Figure 13. MIO Test bed, SF Bay , East Coast and Overseas...Figure 2. Chokepoints and Maritime Trade Routes (from [4]) Statistics published by the IMO about piracy reinforce the idea of increasing

  15. 78 FR 68814 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Calendar Year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... IBP, the DOC selects domestic trade shows which will receive DOC assistance in the form of global... to assist the DOC to reach and educate U.S. exhibitors on the Strategy Targeting Organized Piracy... marketing opportunities as identified by ITA. Previous international attendance at the show may be used...

  16. US Navy’s Engagement in the African Littoral Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    Ronald O’Rourke, R. Chuck Mason, Rawle O. King. Piracy off the Horn of Africa. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, April 2009. http......Gudmundsson, William S. Lind, Douglas Macgregor, Chet Richards, Col. John Sayen, Pierre Sprey, James P. Stevenson, Donald E. Vandergriff, G.I

  17. Naval Science & Technology: Enabling the Future Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Peer Competitors • Security of Global Commons (Cyber/Piracy) • Climate Change & Natural Disasters • Revised Defense Strategy, Re-Balance to Pacific... corn for disruptive technologies Laser Cooling Spintronics Bz 1st U.S. Intel satellite GRAB Semiconductors GaAs, GaN, SiC GPS

  18. Computer Ethics Topics and Teaching Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Jeanine A.

    An overview of six major issues in computer ethics is provided in this paper: (1) unauthorized and illegal database entry, surveillance and monitoring, and privacy issues; (2) piracy and intellectual property theft; (3) equity and equal access; (4) philosophical implications of artificial intelligence and computer rights; (5) social consequences…

  19. Somali Pirates: A New Phase Zero Stability Operational Approach, a Strategic Imperative in the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    This methodology will not only meet the writing requirement, it may also prepare you for oral boards. The name of the game is efficiency. My...3.3 billion barrels of oil travel daily. Along with piracy at the chock point in the north, to the south threats have emanated from terrorist safe

  20. Theoretical Approaches to Dealing with Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    always 1938, no matter whether dealing with Saddam Hussein, Slobodan Milosevic, or “ Baby Doc” Duvalier. 11 The word appeasement immediately spells...report to the United Nations Security Council, Secretary General Ban Ki- moon confirmed that piracy is a symptom of weak governance in Somalia. 27