WorldWideScience

Sample records for pipe sheet pile

  1. Settlement during vibratory sheet piling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, P.

    2007-01-01

    During vibratory sheet piling quite often the soil near the sheet pile wall will settle. In many cases this is not a problem. For situations with houses, pipelines, roads or railroads at relative short distance these settlements may not be acceptable. The purpose of the research described in this

  2. Load Test in Sheet Pile

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Orlando Ibanez

    2016-01-01

    In this work, are discussed experiences in the use of mathematical modeling and testing in hydraulic engineering structures. For this purpose the results of load tests in sheet pile, evaluating horizontal and vertical deformations that occur in the same exposed. Comparisons between theoretical methods for calculating deformations and mathematical models based on the Finite Element Method are established. Finally, the coincidence between the numerical model and the results of the load test ful...

  3. Full size testing of sheet pile walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Katsma, H.; Stolle, P.

    1996-01-01

    Azobé (Lophira alata) is widely used in timber sheet pile walls in the Netherlands. The boards in these walls are coupled and therefore load-sharing can be expected. A simulation model based on the finite element method DIANA (DIANA, 1992) was developed and load-sharing could be calculated. To check

  4. Bracing system of the reflecting sheets making up an insulating pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    In order to reduce heat and radiation losses, the body of nuclear reactors and the connected pipe work are encased in reflecting and insulating piles of thin spaced sheets of aluminium or stainless steel. These spaced sheets are then encased in thicker and more solid internal and external shells. The piles and shells are generally shaped to follow the contour of the reactor and connected piping. It is therefore necessary to have available a study bracing system to keep the pile intact during the various handling and assembly operations. The fastening system must also exert an effect on the edge of the pile to prevent the sheets making it up from shifting in relation to each other. The description is given of a fastening system that includes an oblong section to be fitted along the edges of the piles up sheets; bracing substantially perpendicular to the oblong section, to space the sheets of the stack in pairs; and a maintaining system, normally perpendicular to the oblong section, to enable the fastener to be clipped to the edge of the sheets by bending it around the edge of each sheet of the pile [fr

  5. Pile load test on large diameter steel pipe piles in Timan-Pechora, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, S. [Golder Associates Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Tart, B. [Golder Associates Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States); Swartz, R. [Paragon Engineering Services Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Pile load testing conducted in May and June of 1993 at the Polar Lights Ardalin project in Arkangelsk province, Russia, was documented. Pile load testing was conducted to determine the ultimate and allowable pile loads for varying pile lengths and ground temperature conditions and to provide creep test data for deformation under constant load. The piles consisted of 20 inch diameter steel pipe piles driven open ended through prebored holes into the permafrost soils. Ultimate pile capacities, adfreeze bond, and creep properties observed were discussed. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. APPLICATION OF STEEL PIPE PILE LOADING TESTS TO DESIGN VERIFICATION OF FOUNDATION OF THE TOKYO GATE BRIDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Kusakabe, Osamu; Kiyomiya, Osamu; Yoneyama, Haruo; Kawakami, Taiji

    Steel sheet pipe pile foundations with large diameter steel pipe sheet pile were used for the foundation of the main pier of the Tokyo Gateway bridge. However, as for the large diameter steel pipe pile, the bearing mechanism including a pile tip plugging effect is still unclear due to lack of the practical examinations even though loading tests are performed on Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway. In the light of the foregoing problems, static pile loading tests both vertical and horizontal directions, a dynamic loading test, and cone penetration tests we re conducted for determining proper design parameters of the ground for the foundations. Design parameters were determined rationally based on the tests results. Rational design verification was obtained from this research.

  7. Optimal Design of Sheet Pile Wall Embedded in Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manas Ranjan; Das, Sarat Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Sheet pile wall is a type of flexible earth retaining structure used in waterfront offshore structures, river protection work and temporary supports in foundations and excavations. Economy is an essential part of a good engineering design and needs to be considered explicitly in obtaining an optimum section. By considering appropriate embedment depth and sheet pile section it may be possible to achieve better economy. This paper describes optimum design of both cantilever and anchored sheet pile wall penetrating clay using a simple optimization tool Microsoft Excel ® Solver. The detail methodology and its application with examples are presented for cantilever and anchored sheet piles. The effects of soil properties, depth of penetration and variation of ground water table on the optimum design are also discussed. Such a study will help professional while designing the sheet pile wall penetrating clay.

  8. Influence of cantilevered sheet pile deflection on adjacent roadways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Cantilevered sheet pile walls are often used adjacent roadways as temporary support during construction. Excess movement of these walls has led to excessive roadway distress causing additional repairs to be necessary. This study assessed the effects ...

  9. Efficiency analysis and assessment of interlocking PVC sheet piling walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emam, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    The use of PVC sheet piling in marine environments offers a number of unique advantages that include weight saving, corrosion resistance and environmentally safe material. In this study, one of the widely used classical methods as well as a finite element analysis are used to analyze such sheet piling walls. The analysis focuses on the effect of some important parameters on the wall global behavior, bending moments, stresses and deflections. The parameters include wall cross-section, wall height, embedment depth, number and spacing of anchor rods, and type of soil and loading conditions. Furthermore, the effect of the shape of the wall cross-section and the location of the interlocking joints has been studied by using plane frame and arch-like models. Results indicate that the finite element modeling is an effective tool for numerical approximation of soil-structure interaction problems. The required theoretical embedment depth is nearly 30 % of the clear wall height. Also, the modulus of subgrade reaction has a minor effect on both cantilever wall and one anchor sheet-pile wall. Finally, lateral (horizontal) action shows that deep sections tend to behave like an arch under radial loading which might increase normal stresses at some critical sections

  10. Steel Sheet Piles - Applications and Elementary Design Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobala, Dariusz; Rybak, Jarosław

    2017-10-01

    High-intensity housing having been carried out in town’s centres causes that many complex issues related to earthworks and foundations must be resolved. Project owners are required to ensure respective number of parking bays, which in turn demands 2-3 storeys of underground car parks. It is especially difficult to fulfil in dense buildings of old town areas where apart from engineering problems, very stringent requirements of heritage conservator supervision are also raised. The problems with ensuring stability of excavation sidewalls need to be, at the same time, dealt with analysis of foundations of neighbouring structures, and possible strengthening them at the stages of installing the excavation protection walls, progressing the excavations and constructing basement storeys. A separate problem refers to necessity of constructing underground storeys below the level of local groundwater. This requires long-term lowering of water table inside excavation while at possibly limited intervention in hydrological regime beyond the project in progress. In river valleys such “hoarding off” the excavation and cutting off groundwater leads to temporary or permanent disturbances of groundwater run-off and local swellings. Traditional way to protect vertical fault and simultaneously to cut-off groundwater inflow consists in application of steel sheet pilings. They enable to construct monolithic reinforced concrete structures of underground storeys thus ensuring both their tightness and high rigidity of foundation. Depending on situation, steel sheet pilings can be in retrieving or staying-in-place versions. This study deals with some selected aspects of engineering design and fabrication of sheet piling for deep excavations and underground parts of buildings.

  11. Torsional vibration of a pipe pile in transversely isotropic saturated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Changjie; Hua, Jianmin; Ding, Xuanming

    2016-09-01

    This study considers the torsional vibration of a pipe pile in a transversely isotropic saturated soil layer. Based on Biot's poroelastic theory and the constitutive relations of the transversely isotropic medium, the dynamic governing equations of the outer and inner transversely isotropic saturated soil layers are derived. The Laplace transform is used to solve the governing equations of the outer and inner soil layers. The dynamic torsional response of the pipe pile in the frequency domain is derived utilizing 1D elastic theory and the continuous conditions at the interfaces between the pipe pile and the soils. The time domain solution is obtained by Fourier inverse transform. A parametric study is conducted to demonstrate the influence of the anisotropies of the outer and inner soil on the torsional dynamic response of the pipe pile.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC PROSPECTS FOR USAGE OF PULTRUDED COMPOSITE SHEET PILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BURYA Alexander I.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the description of pultruded composite sheet piles. The article covers the production technology, advantages over other traditional materials, as well as environmental and economic prospects for expanding of the usage of composite sheet piling.

  13. Abating coal tar seepage into surface water bodies using sheet piles with sealed interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collingwood, B.I.; Boscardin, M.D.; Murdock, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    A former coal tar processing facility processed crude coal tar supplied from manufactured gas plants in the area. Coal-tar-contaminated ground water from the site was observed seeping through an existing timber bulkhead along a tidal river and producing a multicolored sheen on the surface of the river. As part of a short-term measure to abate the seepage into the river, 64-m long anchored sheet pile wall with sheet pile wing walls at each end was constructed inland of the of the timber bulkhead. The sheet piles extended to low-permeability soils at depth and the interlocks of the sheet piles were provided with polyurethane rubber seals. Based on postconstruction observations for leakage and sheens related to leakage, the steel sheet piles with polyurethane rubber interlock seals appeared to provide a successful seal and abate coal-tar-contaminated ground water seepage into the river. The tie rod penetration sealing proved to be a more problematic detail, but through several postconstruction grouting episodes, an effective seal was produced

  14. Method of vertically and horizontally cutting steel pipe piles and removing them based on the development of a steel pipe pile vertically cutting machine; Kokanko tatehoko setsudanki no kaihatsu ni yoru kochi chubu no juo setsudan tekkyo koho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S.; Takeshita, A.; Kobayashi, K.

    1997-07-25

    A machine for vertically cutting steel pipe piles has newly been developed for the purpose of removing the end portions the shore protection steel pipe piles which interfere with the shield tunneling work in the Ohokagawa River tunneling section on the Minato Mirai 21 Line. This paper reports the development of the machine for vertically cutting steel pipe piles, and a method of cutting the shield tunneling work hindering piles under the ground by using this machine. The obstacle-constituting portions of the piles are removed by destroying the copings, excavating the interior of the piles to make the same hollow so that a cutting machine can be inserted, and cutting the piles vertically and horizontally. The basic structure of the cutting machine comprises a lower cutting unit for making forward and backward and upward and downward movements of a cutter, and an upper movable unit for controlling the rotation of the cutting unit. The cutting of a pile is done by projecting the cutter by a cylinder the base of which is joined to a cutter driver, and then moving the rotating cutter upward. The amounts of movements of these parts are detected by sensors, and an arbitrary range of the underground portion of a pile can be cut by a remote control operation. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Stress analysis of primary pipe rigid support of the in pile loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasibuan, Dj.

    1998-01-01

    Base on requirement of the safety analysis report and operation planning preparation on the in pile loop by using the fuel bundle in the test section, the stress analysis of primary pipe support has been done. The analysis was performed for the 3 (three) points of pipe support, which are chosen by random selection, i.e.: GU 2001, GU 2002, and GU 2331. The analysis result showed that the maximum allowable stress was greater then the actual stress. It is concluded that the existing supports fulfil the safety requirement

  16. Improved soil characterization for pipe piles in sand in API RP-2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.K.; Briaud, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    In the offshore, most foundations are steel pipe piles and most of them are designed using the API RP 2A guidelines. For axial capacity of piles in sand the current guidelines in many cases show definite discrepancies when compared against actual load capacities of piles. An updated data base analysis shows that there are three major weaknesses in the current guidelines with respect to soil characterization: (a) the consideration of the lateral earth pressure coefficient, K, as a constant (1.0 or 0.8); (b) the consideration of the unit point bearing resistance, q, as a linear function of depth; and (c) the absence of an unambiguous soil parameter determination process based on reliable in-situ test results. In this paper, specific modifications to the current API RP 2A guidelines are proposed on the basis of a data base analysis to account for the discrepancies arising from (a), (b), and (c) above. These modifications will reduce the discrepancies in the current API RP 2A method and increase the accuracy of the prediction of axial capacity of pipe piles in sand. Furthermore this will make the method fundamentally more consistent with soil behavior in deep foundations

  17. Vertical Equilibrium of Sheet Pile Walls with Emphasis on Toe Capacity and Plugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kirsten Malte; Augustesen, Anders Hust; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    Constructions including retaining walls are normally established in areas where it is impossible to conduct an excavation with inclined sides. Due to large excavation depths and due to restrictions on the deformations of the wall, it is often necessary to anchor the wall. The limited space makes...... at the pile toe to fulfil vertical equilibrium. The paper describes a case study of sheet pile walls in Aalborg Clay, and the amount of loads transferred as point loads at the pile toe for free and anchored walls is estimated. A parametric study is made for the free wall with regards to the height...... and the roughness of the wall. Due to limitations of the calculation method, the study of the anchored wall only includes variation of the roughness. For the case study, it is found that the vertical equilibrium is fulfilled for the considered free wall. An anchored wall needs a plug forming at the pile toe...

  18. Influences of plasticity on a sheet pile phased stochastic FE analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A. de; Waarts, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    The paper deals with the stochastic analysis of the stability of a sheet pile soil structure. Most areas in the Netherlands have layered soil conditions. The decisive parameter in the nonlinear FE analysis is the behaviour of the soil. For layered soil conditions, the correct modelling of the

  19. Durability assessment of concrete sheet piling in the 'De Betuweroute' railway line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Polder, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of the durability of prestressed concrete sheet piles under the interference of CP gas pipeline system current, established that due to their low magnitude, these currents do not compromise the required 100-year service life of the structures. The sophisticated numerical modelling tools

  20. Monitoring dc stray current corrosion at sheet pile structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Neeft, E.A.C.; Leegwater, G.; Kanten-Roos, W. van; Courage, W.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Steel is discarded by railway owners as a material for underground structures near railway lines, due to uncertainty over increased corrosion by DC stray currents stemming from the traction power system. This paper presents a large scale field test in which stray currents interference of a sheet

  1. Analysis of Dynamic Coupling Characteristics of the Slope Reinforced by Sheet Pile Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Qu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Large deformation of slope caused by earthquake can lead to the loss of stability of slope and its retaining structures. At present, there have been some research achievements about the slope reinforcement of stabilizing piles. However, due to the complexity of the structural system, the coupling relationship between soil and pile is still not well understood. Hence it is of great necessity to study its dynamic characteristics further. In view of this, a numerical model was established by FLAC3D in this paper, and the deformation and stress nephogram of sheet pile wall in peak ground motion acceleration (PGA at 0.1 g, 0.2 g, and 0.4 g were obtained. Through the analysis, some conclusions were obtained. Firstly, based on the nephogram of motion characteristics and the positions of the slip surface and the retaining wall, the reinforced slope can be divided into 6 sections approximatively, namely, the sliding body parts of A, B, C, D, and E and the bedrock part F. Secondly, the deformation and stress distributions of slope reinforced by sheet pile wall were carefully studied. Based on the results of deformation calculation from time history analysis, the interaction force between structure and soil can be estimated by the difference of peak horizontal displacements, and the structure-soil coupling law under earthquake can be studied by this approach.

  2. SUITABLE LOCATION OF SHEET PILE UNDER DAM RESTING ON SANDY SOIL WITH CAVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith J. Aziz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This research describes the seepage characteristics of experimental model test of dam with cutoff located at different region (at dam heel, at mid floor of dam, and at dam toe. It is resting on sandy soil with cavity at different locations in X and Y directions (such as in Al-Najaf soil city. Thirty three model tests are performed in laboratory by using steel box to estimate the quantity of the seepage and flow lines direction. It was concluded that the best location of the cutoff wall is at the dam toe for model test with cavity ( Xc B = 0 and 0.5, but for model test with cavity ( Xc B ≥1, the best location of the sheet pile wall becomes at the dam heel. For negative location of the cavity, the best location of the sheet pile wall is at the middle of the floor dam.

  3. Investigation on the Effect of Drained Strength when Designing Sheet Pile Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kirsten Malte; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    that the height, anchor force, and the maximum bending moment in the wall can be lowered significantly when the effective cohesion is increased above zero. However, as the cohesion increases, the drop in the moment levels off, which implies that the benefit obtained from investigations increasing the cohesion......Long sheet pile walls are constructed in the cities as an integrated part of deep excavations for e.g. parking lots, pumping stations, reservoirs, and cut and cover tunnels. To minimise costs, the strength of the soil needs to be determined in the best possible way. The drained strength of clay...... expressed by c and ϕ is often estimated as c 10% = 10%・cu, and found by estimations based on the soil describtion, respectively. However, due to possible slicken slides and tension cracks, c = 0 is used on the back side of the sheet pile wall. This reduces the strength significantly. A parametric study...

  4. Model Solutions for Performance-Based Seismic Analysis of an Anchored Sheet Pile Quay Wall

    OpenAIRE

    C. J. W. Habets; D. J. Peters; J. G. de Gijt; A. V. Metrikine; S. N. Jonkman

    2016-01-01

    Conventional seismic designs of quay walls in ports are mostly based on pseudo-static analysis. A more advanced alternative is the Performance-Based Design (PBD) method, which evaluates permanent deformations and amounts of (repairable) damage under seismic loading. The aim of this study is to investigate the suitability of this method for anchored sheet pile quay walls that were not purposely designed for seismic loads. A research methodology is developed in which pseudo-static, permanent-di...

  5. MODEL TESTS AND 3D ELASTIC FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS FOR STEEL PIPE PILES WITH WINGS IN STALLED IN SOIL CEMENT COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Toshiyuki; Teramoto, Shuntarou; Kimura, Makoto

    Steel pipe piles with wings installed in soil cement column is a composite foundation of pile consisting of soil improvement with cement and steel pipe with wings. This type of pile shows higher vertical bearing capacity when compared to steel pipe piles that are installed without soil cement. It is thought the wings contribute to higher bearing capacity of this type of piles. The wings are also thought to play the role of structural unification of pile foundations and load transfer. In this study, model test and 3D elastic finite element analysis was carried out in order to elucidate the effect of wings on the structural unification of pile foundation and the load transfer mechanism. Firstly, the model test was carried out in order to grasp the influence of pile with and without wings, the shape of wings of the pile and the unconfined compression strength of the soil cement on the structural unification of the pile foundation. The numerical analysis of the model test was then carried out on the intermediate part of the pile foundation with wings and mathematical model developed. Finally load tran sfer mechanism was checked for the entire length of the pile through this mathematical model and the load sharing ratio of the wings and stress distribution occurring in the soil cement clarified. In addition, the effect of the wing interval on the structural unification of the pile foundation and load transfer was also checked and clarified.

  6. Sealable joint steel sheet piling for groundwater control and remediation: Case histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, D.; Jowett, R.; Gamble, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Waterloo Barrier trademark steel sheet piling (patents pending) incorporates a cavity at each interlocking joint that is flushed clean and injected with sealant after the piles have been driven into the ground to form a vertical cutoff wall. The installation and sealing procedures allow for a high degree of quality assurance and control. Bulk wall hydraulic conductivities of 10 -8 to 10 -10 cm/sec have been demonstrated at field installations. Recent case histories are presented in which Waterloo Barrier trademark cutoff walls are used to prevent off-site migration of contaminated groundwater or soil gases to adjacent property and waterways. Full enclosures to isolate DNAPL source zones or portions of contaminated aquifers for pilot-scale remediation testing will also be described. Monitoring data will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the Waterloo Barrier trademark in these applications

  7. Ultimate limit state design of sheet pile walls by finite elements and nonlinear programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Sven

    2005-01-01

    The design of sheet pile walls by lower bound limit analysis is considered. The design problem involves the determination of the necessary yield moment of the wall, the wall depth and the anchor force such that the structure is able to sustain the given loads. This problem is formulated...... as a nonlinear programming problem where the yield moment of the wall is minimized subject to equilibrium and yield conditions. The finite element discretization used enables exact fulfillment of these conditions and thus, according to the lower bound theorem, the solutions are safe....

  8. Uncertainty assessment of a dike with an anchored sheet pile wall using FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rippi Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dutch design codes for the dikes with retaining walls rely on Finite Element Analysis (FEM in combination with partial safety factors. However, this can lead to conservative designs. For this reason, in this study, a reliability analysis is carried out with FEM calculations aiming to demonstrate the feasibility of reliability analysis for a dike with an anchored sheet pile wall modelled in the 2D FEM, Plaxis. Sensitivity and reliability analyses were carried out and enabled by coupling the uncertainty package, OpenTURNS and Plaxis. The most relevant (ultimate limit states concern the anchor, the sheet pile wall, the soil body failure (global instability and finally the system. The case was used to investigate the applicability of the First Order Reliability Method (FORM and Directional Sampling (DS to analysing these limit states. The final goal is to estimate the probability of failure and identify the most important soil properties that affect the behaviour of each component and the system as a whole. The results of this research can be used to assess and optimize the current design procedure for dikes with retaining walls.

  9. Ultimate Limit State Design Of Sheet Pile Walls By Finite Elements And Nonlinear Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Sven

    2002-01-01

    Limit analysis has been used for decades in civil and mechanical engineering practice as a means of analyzing structures of materials which with reasonable accuracy can be described as being rigid-perfectly plastic. Such materials include steel, concrete and soils. Traditionally, most attention has...... been given to the problem which consists of determining the ultimate magnitude of a given set of loads acting on a structure with a given geometry. This problem is relevant when determining e.g. the necessary extrusion pressure in metal forming problems, when evaluating the bearing capacity...... is the load intensity. In the paper we consider the latter of these problems with particular reference to the design of sheet pile walls....

  10. In-Situ Subsurface Coating of Corroded Steel Sheet Pile Structures: Final Report on Project F08-AR06

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    shrink cement grout or epoxy resin in the gap between old and new steel , shown in Figure 19. This was the reason why the perforated piles needed to...be made liquid-tight with cement grout or epoxy. Other- wise, the material injected between the old and new steel would be lost be- hind the old steel ...ER D C/ CE RL T R- 17 -3 5 DoD Corrosion Prevention and Control Program In-Situ Subsurface Coating of Corroded Steel Sheet Pile

  11. Experimental use of Line-X coated steel pipe piles, Clay Hill Bridge (#2157) replacement project over the Mousam River, Route 9/Western Avenue, Kennebunk, Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Steel pipe piles used by MaineDOT for bridge construction are typically coated with a fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE). FBE is a powder-based coating with properties similar to traditional : epoxies. Its name is derived from the process by which it adheres ...

  12. Prediction of pile set-up for Ohio soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ODOT typically uses small diameter driven pipe piles for bridge foundations. When a pile is driven into the subsurface, it disturbs and displaces the soil. As the soil surrounding the pile recovers from the installation disturbance, a time dependant ...

  13. Device of connecting the metal sheet lining a concrete enclosure to a pipe opening inside the enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, Guy.

    1975-01-01

    Said invention relates to a sealed device connecting a metal sheet anchored on the internal side of a concrete vessel containing a hot pressurized fluid, with a metallic pipe opening inside said vessel. It is intended for heat insulating structures so-called 'hot skin' used for the pressure vessels of some boiling water reactors. Said invention is intended for different types of said pipe such as: the penetrations for the inlets and outlets of the primary circuit, or anchoring cylindrical sheaths used as supports of components or other elements located inside said pressure vessel [fr

  14. Prediction of pile set-up for Ohio soils : executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ODOT typically uses small diameter driven pipe piles for bridge foundations. When a pile is driven into the subsurface, it disturbs and displaces the soil. As the soil surrounding the pile recovers from the installation disturbance, a time dependant ...

  15. Big Pile or Small Pile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branca, Mario; Quidacciolu, Rossana G.; Soletta, Isabella

    2013-01-01

    The construction of a voltaic pile (battery) is a simple laboratory activity that commemorates the invention of this important device and is of great help in teaching physics. The voltaic pile is often seen as a scientific toy, with the "pile" being constructed from fruit. These toys use some strips of copper and zinc inserted in a piece…

  16. Pile Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.

  17. Screw piles for cold climate foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.; Sakr, M. [Almita Manufacturing Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Almita Manufacturing is an Alberta-based company that designs and builds screw piles with its own installation teams. It also engineers and supplies piles to numerous other companies and independent installers. The company services industries such as oil and gas; power transmission and distribution; and commercial construction. This presentation discussed the design and technical aspects of screw piles. A screw pile was defined as a steel pipe shaft with a 45 degree cut at the bottom and a formed helical plate welded to the outside of the pipe near the base and at a selected point on the shaft. The pile is screwed into the ground with a planetary drive head of suitable torque rating. The helical plate or helix helps facilitate the installation of the pile and gives the screw pile increased bearing capacity and pull-out resistance over a traditional straight-shaft pile. Screw piles were compared against cast in place concrete piles and steel driven piles. Screw piles were reported to have no tailings; no concrete curing time; no rebar, anchor belts, and no liners; and no dewatering. Screw piles can also be installed in all types of weather. Rhe Cree Burn Camp case study near Fort McMurray, Alberta was also presented. This residential camp and recreation complex consists of pre-fabricated units that make up three storey housing buildings and a single floor multi-use building. The case study provided information on soil; design parameter inputs; load testing program and pile configuration; geotechnical and structural design results; compression load test arrangement; pile test setup; and test results. The presentation also discussed fabrication as well as installation equipment. Various applications were also presented through a series of project pictures. Last, the presentation provided a simple cost analysis. tabs., figs.

  18. 29 CFR 1926.603 - Pile driving equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pile driving equipment. 1926.603 Section 1926.603 Labor... Operations § 1926.603 Pile driving equipment. (a) General requirements. (1) Boilers and piping systems which are a part of, or used with, pile driving equipment shall meet the applicable requirements of the...

  19. Thermomechanical Behavior of Energy Pile Embedded in Sandy Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional energy pile (solid energy pile has been implemented for decades. However, the design of different kinds of energy piles is still not well understood. In this study, a series of model tests were performed on an aluminum pipe energy pile (PEP in dry sandy soil to investigate the thermal effects on the mechanical behaviors of pipe energy pile. The thermal responses of the PEP were also analyzed. Steady temperatures of the PEP under different working conditions were also compared with that of the solid energy pile. Different loading tests were carried out on four pipe energy piles under three different temperatures of 5, 35, and 50°C, respectively. The bearing capacity change can be interpreted through the load-displacement curves. Experiment results were also compared with the solid energy pile to evaluate bearing capacities of the PEP and the solid energy pile under different temperature conditions. The mobilized shaft resistance was also calculated and compared with the solid energy pile data and the results show that the PEP has a similar load transfer mechanism with the solid energy pile. It could also be found that, for PEPs under working load, plastic displacement would appear after a whole heating cycle.

  20. Laboratory Test Setup for Cyclic Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive description and the considerations regarding the design of a new laboratory test setup for testing cyclic axially loaded piles in sand. The test setup aims at analysing the effect of axial one-way cyclic loading on pile capacity and accumulated displacements....... Another aim was to test a large diameter pile segment with dimensions resembling full-scale piles to model the interface properties between pile and sand correctly. The pile segment was an open-ended steel pipe pile with a diameter of 0.5 m and a length of 1 m. The sand conditions resembled the dense sand...... determined from the API RP 2GEO standard and from the test results indicated over consolidation of the sand. Two initial one-way cyclic loading tests provided results of effects on pile capacity and accumulated displacements in agreement with other researchers’ test results....

  1. Dynamic load testing on the bearing capacity of prestressed tubular concrete piles in soft ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuang; Liu, Songyu

    2008-11-01

    Dynamic load testing (DLT) is a high strain test method for assessing pile performance. The shaft capacity of a driven PTC (prestressed tubular concrete) pile in marine soft ground will vary with time after installation. The DLT method has been successfully transferred to the testing of prestressed pipe piles in marine soft clay of Lianyungang area in China. DLT is investigated to determine the ultimate bearing capacity of single pile at different period after pile installation. The ultimate bearing capacity of single pile was founded to increase more than 70% during the inventing 3 months, which demonstrate the time effect of rigid pile bearing capacity in marine soft ground. Furthermore, the skin friction and axial force along the pile shaft are presented as well, which present the load transfer mechanism of pipe pile in soft clay. It shows the economy and efficiency of DLT method compared to static load testing method.

  2. Removal of obstacles during steel pipe pile driving for coal unloading piers for the construction of a Maizuru Power Plant; Maizuru hatsudensho shinsetsu koji ni okeru yotan sanbashi kokan kui uchikomiji no shogaibutsu taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsuka, R.; Nishi, M.; Kishimoto, T. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-11-05

    Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., is constructing in Maizuru City a coal-fired thermoelectric power plant to operate two 900,000kw generators. The result of a preliminary survey predicted an encounter with boulders 50-900mm in diameter to obstruct the pile driving process. In a basic pile driving arrangement, a boat mounted with a 1600tf capable fully rotatable crane and a boat carrying an automatic lift type working platform are operated, and a pile is driven under the guidance of a keeper aboard by a vibratory hammer down until it can stand erect on its own. Next, the vibratory hammer gives place to a 50tf-m capable hydraulic hammer, which drives the pile further down until it lands at a depth level with prescribed bearing power. In case pile penetration under a vibratory hammer becomes difficult (at a shallow level), the pile is pulled out, a casing pile is driven in, and then boulders are removed by hammer gloves. In case boulders emerge during hydraulic hammer operation (at a relatively deep level), since dealing with such is beyond the capacity of hammer gloves, pile installation by inner excavation is performed by driving with a heavy bob. The bob is provided with multiple blades on its head, with water and compressed air supplied continuously for the bob to fall freely to crush boulders and to perform excavation at the same time. Mucking is accomplished using an air lift type reversely circulating water system. 1 ref., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Rational use of anchor pile material of the thin retaining walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushkov Boris Semenovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the urgency of application of the reinforced concrete anchor piles in the constructions of retaining structures associated with the possibility of establishing rigid joint of element interface and more durable pile constructions in the soil. The features of the inclined anchor piles work as a part of sheet-pile retaining walls are noted. There was performed a study of the stress-strain state of the inclined reinforced concrete anchor piles of the thin sheet-pile wall with the reinforced concrete face members of T-section, combined with piles by a longitudinal beam. The authors consider a constructive scheme of retaining structure and list the applied loads. The efforts in the anchor piles were determined. The bending-moment curves show the character of the force distribution along the pile. A form of the pile ensuring the rational distribution of material along the pile is presented. The distribution of efforts along the length and effect of filling on its operation in the soil were accepted as the criteria of construction solution for a pile. The substantiation of the proposed design of pile is presented in terms of its stress-strain state and the rational use of material. The authors made conclusions on the reasonability of adopted design solutions associated with an increase in the flexural strength of pile, increment of the ultimate pullout capacity, stability improvement, effective use of backfill and exception of the «out of operation» areas of the pile.

  4. Pulsed TIG welding of pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killing, U.

    1989-01-01

    The present study investigates into the effects of impulse welding parameters on weld geometry in the joint welding of thin-walled sheets and pipes (d=2.5 mm), and it uses random samples of thick-walled sheets and pipes (d=10 mm), in fixed positions. (orig./MM) [de

  5. Interesting Developments in Testing Methods Applied to Foundation Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobala, Dariusz; Tkaczyński, Grzegorz

    2017-10-01

    Both: piling technologies and pile testing methods are a subject of current development. New technologies, providing larger diameters or using in-situ materials, are very demanding in terms of providing proper quality of execution of works. That concerns the material quality and continuity which define the integral strength of pile. On the other side we have the capacity of the ground around the pile and its ability to carry the loads transferred by shaft and pile base. Inhomogeneous nature of soils and a relatively small amount of tested piles imposes very good understanding of small amount of results. In some special cases the capacity test itself form an important cost in the piling contract. This work presents a brief description of selected testing methods and authors remarks based on cooperation with Universities constantly developing new ideas. Paper presents some experience based remarks on integrity testing by means of low energy impact (low strain) and introduces selected (Polish) developments in the field of closed-end pipe piles testing based on bi-directional loading, similar to Osterberg idea, but without sacrificial hydraulic jack. Such test is suitable especially when steel piles are used for temporary support in the rivers, where constructing of conventional testing appliance with anchor piles or kentledge meets technical problems. According to the author’s experience, such tests were not yet used on the building site but they bring a real potential especially, when the displacement control can be provided from the river bank using surveying techniques.

  6. Taming Windscale's piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    The options as to what to do with the Windscale Piles are being assessed before a final decision on decommissioning is made. Both Piles were shutdown in 1957 following the fire in the Pile number 1. Pile 1 still contains 22 tons of natural uranium fuel. The details of graphite moderator content, biological shielding and other components and containment are given. The fuel and isotope channels in Pile 2 have been examined and the air and water ducts have been inspected. The chimneys of both Piles are contaminated and all entrances have been sealed. Before any work starts the air outlet ducts will be sealed from the chimney and a ventilation system installed. A manipulator is being prepared to remove the remaining fuel elements from both Piles. The proposed decommissioning programme for both Piles is outlined. (U.K.)

  7. The pile EL3; Pile EL3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, J.; Raievski, V. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Hainzelin, J. [Chantiers de l' Atlantique (Penhoet-Loire), 75 - Paris (France)

    1959-07-01

    The programme of the high flux laboratory pile EL3 was laid down in october 1954. It is a heavy-water moderated and cooled pile. The fuel rods are of uranium metal with 1.6 per cent - 2 per cent of molybdenum, with aluminium canning. The maximum thermal flux in the moderator is 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}/s. Studies began in january 1955, construction in may 1955, and the first divergence took place in July 1957. This report gives a general description of the pile and its adjacent buildings, the physical study of the pile, and certain technological studies carried out for the construction of EL3. (author) [French] Le programme de la pile laboratoire a haut flux EL3, a ete fixe en octobre 1954. C'est une pile moderee et refroidie a l'eau lourde. Les barres de combustible sont en uranium metal a 1,6 pour cent - 2 pour cent de molybdene, gainees a l'aluminium. Le flux thermique maximum dans le moderateur est de 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}/s. Les etudes ont commence en janvier 1955, la construction en mai 1955, la premiere divergence a eu lieu en juillet 1957. On trouvera dans ce rapport, une description generale de la pile et de ses batiments annexes, l'etude physique de la pile et un certain nombre d'etudes technologiques executees pour la construction d'EL3. (auteur)

  8. The pile EL3; Pile EL3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, J; Raievski, V [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Hainzelin, J [Chantiers de l' Atlantique (Penhoet-Loire), 75 - Paris (France)

    1959-07-01

    The programme of the high flux laboratory pile EL3 was laid down in october 1954. It is a heavy-water moderated and cooled pile. The fuel rods are of uranium metal with 1.6 per cent - 2 per cent of molybdenum, with aluminium canning. The maximum thermal flux in the moderator is 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}/s. Studies began in january 1955, construction in may 1955, and the first divergence took place in July 1957. This report gives a general description of the pile and its adjacent buildings, the physical study of the pile, and certain technological studies carried out for the construction of EL3. (author) [French] Le programme de la pile laboratoire a haut flux EL3, a ete fixe en octobre 1954. C'est une pile moderee et refroidie a l'eau lourde. Les barres de combustible sont en uranium metal a 1,6 pour cent - 2 pour cent de molybdene, gainees a l'aluminium. Le flux thermique maximum dans le moderateur est de 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}/s. Les etudes ont commence en janvier 1955, la construction en mai 1955, la premiere divergence a eu lieu en juillet 1957. On trouvera dans ce rapport, une description generale de la pile et de ses batiments annexes, l'etude physique de la pile et un certain nombre d'etudes technologiques executees pour la construction d'EL3. (auteur)

  9. Thermal response test data of five quadratic cross section precast pile heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi-Pagola, Maria

    2018-06-01

    This data article comprises records from five Thermal Response Tests (TRT) of quadratic cross section pile heat exchangers. Pile heat exchangers, typically referred to as energy piles, consist of traditional foundation piles with embedded heat exchanger pipes. The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Comparing heat flow models for interpretation of precast quadratic pile heat exchanger thermal response tests" (Alberdi-Pagola et al., 2018) [1]. The TRT data consists of measured inlet and outlet temperatures, fluid flow and injected heat rate recorded every 10 min. The field dataset is made available to enable model verification studies.

  10. Thermal response test data of five quadratic cross section precast pile heat exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alberdi-Pagola

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This data article comprises records from five Thermal Response Tests (TRT of quadratic cross section pile heat exchangers. Pile heat exchangers, typically referred to as energy piles, consist of traditional foundation piles with embedded heat exchanger pipes. The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Comparing heat flow models for interpretation of precast quadratic pile heat exchanger thermal response tests” (Alberdi-Pagola et al., 2018 [1]. The TRT data consists of measured inlet and outlet temperatures, fluid flow and injected heat rate recorded every 10 min. The field dataset is made available to enable model verification studies.

  11. Bending Moment Calculations for Piles Based on the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-xin Jie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the finite element analysis program ABAQUS, a series of calculations on a cantilever beam, pile, and sheet pile wall were made to investigate the bending moment computational methods. The analyses demonstrated that the shear locking is not significant for the passive pile embedded in soil. Therefore, higher-order elements are not always necessary in the computation. The number of grids across the pile section is important for bending moment calculated with stress and less significant for that calculated with displacement. Although computing bending moment with displacement requires fewer grid numbers across the pile section, it sometimes results in variation of the results. For displacement calculation, a pile row can be suitably represented by an equivalent sheet pile wall, whereas the resulting bending moments may be different. Calculated results of bending moment may differ greatly with different grid partitions and computational methods. Therefore, a comparison of results is necessary when performing the analysis.

  12. Swimming-pool piles; Piles piscines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trioulaire, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In France two swimming-pool piles, Melusine and Triton, have just been set in operation. The swimming-pool pile is the ideal research tool for neutron fluxes of the order of 10{sup 13}. This type of pile can be of immediate interest to many research centres, but its cost must be reduced and a break with tradition should be observed in its design. It would be an advantage: - to bury the swimming-pool; - to reject the experimental channel; - to concentrate the cooling circuit in the swimming-pool; - to carry out all manipulations in the water; - to double the core. (author) [French] En France, deux piles piscines, Melusine et Triton, viennent d'entrer en service. La pile piscine est l'outil de recherche ideal pour des flux de neutrons de l'ordre de 10{sup 13}. Ce type de pile peut interesser des maintenant de nombreux centres de recherches mais il faut reduire son prix de revient et rompre avec le conformisme de sa conception. Il y a avantage: - a enterrer la piscine; - a supprimer les canaux experimentaux; - a concentrer le circuit de refrigeration dans la piscine; - a effectuer toutes les manipulations dans l'eau; - a doubler le coeur. (auteur)

  13. Piles of objects

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for directly modeling piles of objects in multi-body simulations. Piles of objects represent some of the more interesting, but also most time-consuming portion of simulation. We propose a method for reducing computation in many of these situations by explicitly modeling the piles that the objects may form into. By modeling pile behavior rather than the behavior of all individual objects, we can achieve realistic results in less time, and without directly modeling the frictional component that leads to desired pile shapes. Our method is simple to implement and can be easily integrated with existing rigid body simulations. We observe notable speedups in several rigid body examples, and generate a wider variety of piled structures than possible with strict impulse-based simulation. © 2010 ACM.

  14. Temperature response functions (G-functions) for single pile heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loveridge, Fleur; Powrie, William

    2013-01-01

    Foundation piles used as heat exchangers as part of a ground energy system have the potential to reduce energy use and carbon dioxide emissions from new buildings. However, current design approaches for pile heat exchangers are based on methods developed for boreholes which have a different geometry, with a much larger aspect (length to diameter) ratio. Current methods also neglect the transient behaviour of the pile concrete, instead assuming a steady state resistance for design purposes. As piles have a much larger volume of concrete than boreholes, this neglects the significant potential for heat storage within the pile. To overcome these shortcomings this paper presents new pile temperature response functions (G-functions) which are designed to reflect typical geometries of pile heat exchangers and include the transient response of the pile concrete. Owing to the larger number of pile sizes and pipe configurations which are possible with pile heat exchangers it is not feasible to developed a single unified G-function and instead upper and lower bound solutions are provided for different aspects ratios. - Highlights: • We present new temperature response functions for pile heat exchangers. • The functions include transient heat transfer within the pile concrete. • Application of the functions reduces the resulting calculated temperature ranges. • Greater energy efficiency is possible by accounting for heat storage in the pile

  15. The pile EL3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, J.; Raievski, V.

    1959-01-01

    The programme of the high flux laboratory pile EL3 was laid down in october 1954. It is a heavy-water moderated and cooled pile. The fuel rods are of uranium metal with 1.6 per cent - 2 per cent of molybdenum, with aluminium canning. The maximum thermal flux in the moderator is 10 14 n/cm 2 /s. Studies began in january 1955, construction in may 1955, and the first divergence took place in July 1957. This report gives a general description of the pile and its adjacent buildings, the physical study of the pile, and certain technological studies carried out for the construction of EL3. (author) [fr

  16. Windscale pile core surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, R.F.; Mathews, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The two Windscale Piles were closed down, defueled as far as possible and mothballed for thirty years following a fire in the core of Pile 1 in 1957 resulting from the spontaneous release of stored Wigner energy in the graphite moderator. Decommissioning of the reactors commenced in 1987 and has reached the stage where the condition of both cores needs to be determined. To this end, non-intrusive and intrusive surveys and sampling of the cores have been planned and partly implemented. The objectives for each Pile differ slightly. The location and quantity of fuel remaining in the damaged core of Pile 1 needed to be established, whereas the removal of all fuel from Pile 2 needed to be confirmed. In Pile 1, the possible existence of a void in the core is to be explored and in Pile 2, the level of Wigner energy remaining required to be quantified. Levels of radioactivity in both cores needed to be measured. The planning of the surveys is described including strategy, design, safety case preparation and the remote handling and viewing equipment required to carry out the inspection, sampling and monitoring work. The results from the completed non-intrusive survey of Pile 2 are summarised. They confirm that the core is empty and the graphite is in good condition. The survey of Pile 1 has just started. (UK)

  17. Piles of objects

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei; Keyser, John

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for directly modeling piles of objects in multi-body simulations. Piles of objects represent some of the more interesting, but also most time-consuming portion of simulation. We propose a method for reducing computation in many

  18. Seismic Dynamic Damage Characteristics of Vertical and Batter Pile-supported Wharf Structure Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiren

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering a typical steel pipe pile-supported wharf as the research object, finite element analytical models of batter and vertical pile structures were established under the same construction site, service, and geological conditions to investigate the seismic dynamic damage characteristics of vertical and batter pile-supported wharf structures. By the numerical simulation and the nonlinear time history response analysis of structure system and the moment–axial force relation curve, we analyzed the dynamic damage characteristics of the two different structures of batter and vertical piles under different seismic ground motions to provide reasonable basis and reference for designing and selecting a pile-supported wharf structure. Results showed that the axial force of batter piles was dominant in the batter pile structure and that batter piles could effectively bear and share seismic load. Under the seismic ground motion with peak ground acceleration (PGA of 350 Gal and in consideration of the factors of the design requirement of horizontal displacement, the seismic performance of the batter pile structure was better than that of the vertical pile structure. Under the seismic ground motion with a PGA of 1000 Gal, plastic failure occurred in two different structures. The contrastive analysis of the development of plastic damage and the absorption and dissipation for seismic energy indicated that the seismic performance of the vertical pile structure was better than that of the batter pile structure.

  19. Field Tests to Investigate the Penetration Rate of Piles Driven by Vibratory Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Qin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors directly affecting the penetration rate of piles installed by vibratory driving technique are summarized and classified into seven aspects which are driving force, resistance, vibratory amplitude, energy consumption, speeding up at the beginning, pile plumbness keeping, and slowing down at the end, from the mechanism and engineering practice of the vibratory pile driving. In order to find out how these factors affect the penetration rate of the pile in three major actors of vibratory pile driving: (i the pile to be driven, (ii the selected driving system, and (iii the imposed soil conditions, field tests on steel sheet piles driven by vibratory driving technique in different soil conditions are conducted. The penetration rates of three different sheet pile types having up to four different lengths installed using two different vibratory driving systems are documented. Piles with different lengths and types driven with or without clutch have different penetration rates. The working parameters of vibratory hammer, such as driving force and vibratory amplitude, have great influences on the penetration rate of the pile, especially at the later stages of the sinking process. Penetration rate of piles driven in different soil conditions is uniform because of the different penetration resistance including shaft friction and toe resistance.

  20. Swimming-pool piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trioulaire, M.

    1959-01-01

    In France two swimming-pool piles, Melusine and Triton, have just been set in operation. The swimming-pool pile is the ideal research tool for neutron fluxes of the order of 10 13 . This type of pile can be of immediate interest to many research centres, but its cost must be reduced and a break with tradition should be observed in its design. It would be an advantage: - to bury the swimming-pool; - to reject the experimental channel; - to concentrate the cooling circuit in the swimming-pool; - to carry out all manipulations in the water; - to double the core. (author) [fr

  1. Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Performance Monitoring of Piles Fiber in a Geotechnical Centrifugal Model Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Weng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In centrifugal tests, conventional sensors can hardly capture the performance of reinforcement in small-scale models. However, recent advances in fiber optic sensing technologies enable the accurate and reliable monitoring of strain and temperature in laboratory geotechnical tests. This paper outlines a centrifugal model test, performed using a 60 g ton geocentrifuge, to investigate the performance of pipe piles used to reinforce the loess foundation below a widened embankment. Prior to the test, quasidistributed fiber Bragg grating (FBG strain sensors were attached to the surface of the pipe piles to measure the lateral friction resistance in real time. Via the centrifuge actuator, the driving of pipe piles was simulated. During testing, the variations of skin friction distribution along the pipe piles were measured automatically using an optical fiber interrogator. This paper represents the presentation and detailed analysis of monitoring results. Herein, we verify the reliability of the fiber optic sensors in monitoring the model piles without affecting the integrity of the centrifugal model. This paper, furthermore, shows that lateral friction resistance developed in stages with the pipe piles being pressed in and that this sometimes may become negative.

  2. Influences on the thermal efficiency of energy piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecinato, Francesco; Loveridge, Fleur A.

    2015-01-01

    Energy piles have recently emerged as a viable alternative to borehole heat exchangers, but their energy efficiency has so far seen little research. In this work, a finite element numerical model is developed for the accurate 3D analysis of transient diffusive and convective heat exchange phenomena taking place in geothermal structures. The model is validated by reproducing both the outcome of a thermal response test carried out on a test pile, and the average response of the linear heat source analytical solution. Then, the model is employed to carry out a parametric analysis to identify the key factors in maximising the pile energy efficiency. It is shown that the most influential design parameter is the number of pipes, which can be more conveniently increased, within a reasonable range, compared to increasing the pile dimensions. The influence of changing pile length, concrete conductivity, pile diameter and concrete cover are also discussed in light of their energetic implications. Counter to engineering intuition, the fluid flowrate does not emerge as important in energy efficiency, provided it is sufficient to ensure turbulent flow. The model presented in this paper can be easily adapted to the detailed study of other types of geothermal structures. - Highlights: • A numerical model for 3D thermal transient analysis of energy piles is developed. • The model is validated against both field data and an analytical solution. • Key parameters are then identified for efficient thermal design of energy piles. • Energy efficiency is maximised by large pipe number and concrete conductivity. • Large exchanger fluid velocity does not have a major impact on efficiency

  3. Feasibility study of a V-shaped pipe for passive aeration composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunwande, Gbolabo A

    2011-03-01

    A V-shaped (Vs) pipe was improvised for composting of chicken litter in passive aeration piles. Three piles, equipped with horizontal (Ho), vertical (Ve) and Vs pipes were set up. The three treatments were replicated thrice. The effects of the aeration pipe on the physico-chemical properties of chicken litter and air distribution within the composting piles were investigated during composting. The properties monitored were temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, moisture content, total carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. Moisture level in the piles was replenished fortnightly to 60% during composting. The results of the study showed that all the piles attained the optimum temperature range (40-65°C) for effective composting and satisfied the requirements for sanitation. The non-significant (p > 0.05) temperature difference within the piles with Ve and Vs pipes indicated that these pipes were effective for uniform air distribution within the pile. The aeration pipe had significant (p ≤ 0.05) effect on pile temperature, pre-replenishment moisture content, pH and total phosphorus. In conclusion, the study showed that the Vs pipe is feasible and effective for passive aeration composting.

  4. On the phenomenon of the reversal of the cooling current in the hot pipes of a swimming-pool type pile cooled by forced convection; Sur un phenomene de renversement du courant de refrigeration dans les canaux chauds d'une pile piscine refroidie en convection forcee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boure, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    It is shown, for a swimming-pool type pile cooled by forced convection (general flow downwards), that a permanently stable regime with downward flow in all the channels is not possible when the flow is below a critical value for a given power. In the hot channels the natural convection then becomes preponderant, the direction of the flow is reversed and a permanently stable regime exists for which the flow is upwards in the hot channels. Calculations are made, with simplifying hypotheses in the case of Melusine. (author) [French] Pour une pile piscine refrigeree en convection forcee (ecoulement global descendant), on montre qu'un regime permanent stable avec ecoulement descendant dans tous les canaux est impossible lorsque le debit est inferieur a une valeur critique pour une puissance donnee. Dans les canaux chauds, la convection naturelle l'emporte alors, le sens du courant s'inverse et un regime permanent stable existe, pour lequel le courant est ascendant dans les canaux chauds. On fait les calculs, avec des hypotheses simplificatrices, dans le cas de Melusine. (auteur)

  5. Physical Modelling of Large Diameter Piles in Coarse-Grained Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødbæk, K. T.; Augustesen, Anders Hust; Møller, M.

    2011-01-01

    of increasing the effective stresses. The test setup is thoroughly described in the paper. Two non-slender aluminium pipe piles subjected to lateral loads have been tested in the laboratory. The piles are heavily instrumented with strain gauges in order to obtain p-y curves, displacement and bending moment......Monopiles are an often-used foundation concept for offshore wind turbine converters. These piles are highly subjected to lateral loads and overturning bending moments due to wind and wave forces. To ensure enough stiffness of the foundation and an acceptable pile-head deflection, monopiles...... with diameters of 4 to 6 m are typically employed. In current practice these piles are traditionally designed by means of the p-y curve method although the method is developed and verified for slender piles in sand with diameters up to approximately 2 m. One of the limitations of the p-y curves used in current...

  6. Pile Driving Analysis for Pile Design and Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Driven piles are commonly used in foundation engineering. The most accurate measurement of pile capacity is achieved from measurements made during static load tests. Static load tests, however, may be too expensive for certain projects. In these case...

  7. Uranium absorption study pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raievski, V.; Sautiez, B.

    1959-01-01

    The report describes a pile designed to measure the absorption of fuel slugs. The pile is of graphite and comprises a central section composed of uranium rods in a regular lattice. RaBe sources and BF 3 counters are situated on either side of the center. A given uranium charge is compared with a specimen charge of about 560 kg, and the difference in absorption between the two noted. The sensitivity of the equipment will detect absorption variations of about a few ppm boron (10 -6 boron per gr. of uranium) or better. (author) [fr

  8. Modelling the pile load test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prekop Ľubomír

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the modelling of the load test of horizontal resistance of reinforced concrete piles. The pile belongs to group of piles with reinforced concrete heads. The head is pressed with steel arches of a bridge on motorway D1 Jablonov - Studenec. Pile model was created in ANSYS with several models of foundation having properties found out from geotechnical survey. Finally some crucial results obtained from computer models are presented and compared with these obtained from experiment.

  9. Laterally Loaded Piles in Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle; Niewald, Gitte

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate lateral resistance of a pile element moved horizontally can be analyzed by the theory of plasticity. At a certain depth the movements around the pile are purely horizontal and upper bound solutions can be estimated theoretically under undrained circumstances. Model tests...... in the laboratory show ultimate resistances close to the estimated limits and p - y curves close to curves based on test results from full-scale piles. Rough and smooth piles with circular and square cross sections are investigated....

  10. Modelling the pile load test

    OpenAIRE

    Prekop Ľubomír

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the modelling of the load test of horizontal resistance of reinforced concrete piles. The pile belongs to group of piles with reinforced concrete heads. The head is pressed with steel arches of a bridge on motorway D1 Jablonov - Studenec. Pile model was created in ANSYS with several models of foundation having properties found out from geotechnical survey. Finally some crucial results obtained from computer models are presented and compared with these obtained from exper...

  11. Characterizing hand-piled fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton S. Wright; Paige C. Eagle; Cameron S. Balog

    2010-01-01

    Land managers throughout the West pile and burn surface fuels to mitigate fire hazard in dry forests. Whereas piling was historically conducted with heavy machinery following commercial harvesting operations, land managers are increasingly prescribing the use of hand piling and burning to treat surface fuels created by thinning and brush cutting. An estimate of the...

  12. Discovery: Pile Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestre, Neville

    2017-01-01

    Earlier "Discovery" articles (de Mestre, 1999, 2003, 2006, 2010, 2011) considered patterns from many mathematical situations. This article presents a group of patterns used in 19th century mathematical textbooks. In the days of earlier warfare, cannon balls were stacked in various arrangements depending on the shape of the pile base…

  13. Test Exponential Pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, Enrico

    The Patent contains an extremely detailed description of an atomic pile employing natural uranium as fissile material and graphite as moderator. It starts with the discussion of the theory of the intervening phenomena, in particular the evaluation of the reproduction or multiplication factor, K, that is the ratio of the number of fast neutrons produced in one generation by the fissions to the original number of fast neutrons, in a system of infinite size. The possibility of having a self-maintaining chain reaction in a system of finite size depends both on the facts that K is greater than unity and the overall size of the system is sufficiently large to minimize the percentage of neutrons escaping from the system. After the description of a possible realization of such a pile (with many detailed drawings), the various kinds of neutron losses in a pile are depicted. Particularly relevant is the reported "invention" of the exponential experiment: since theoretical calculations can determine whether or not a chain reaction will occur in a give system, but can be invalidated by uncertainties in the parameters of the problem, an experimental test of the pile is proposed, aimed at ascertaining if the pile under construction would be divergent (i.e. with a neutron multiplication factor K greater than 1) by making measurements on a smaller pile. The idea is to measure, by a detector containing an indium foil, the exponential decrease of the neutron density along the length of a column of uranium-graphite lattice, where a neutron source is placed near its base. Such an exponential decrease is greater or less than that expected due to leakage, according to whether the K factor is less or greater than 1, so that this experiment is able to test the criticality of the pile, its accuracy increasing with the size of the column. In order to perform this measure a mathematical description of the effect of neutron production, diffusion, and absorption on the neutron density in the

  14. Pipe support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollono, L.P.

    1979-01-01

    A pipe support for high temperature, thin-walled piping runs such as those used in nuclear systems is described. A section of the pipe to be suppported is encircled by a tubular inner member comprised of two walls with an annular space therebetween. Compacted load-bearing thermal insulation is encapsulated within the annular space, and the inner member is clamped to the pipe by a constant clamping force split-ring clamp. The clamp may be connected to pipe hangers which provide desired support for the pipe

  15. Numerical and experimental assessment of thermal performance of vertical energy piles: An application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jun; Zhang Xu; Liu Jun; Li Kuishan; Yang Jie

    2008-01-01

    A district space heating and cooling system using geothermal energy from bearing piles was designed in Shanghai and will be installed in two years before 2010. This paper describes the pile-foundation heat exchangers applied in an energy pile system for an actual architectural complex in Shanghai, 30% of whose cooling/heating load was designed to be provided by a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system using the energy piles. In situ performance tests of heat transfer are carried out to figure out the most efficient type of energy pile and to specify the design of energy pile system. Numerical investigation is also performed to confirm the test results and to demonstrate the medium temperature variations along the pipes. The averaged heat resistance and heat injection rate of different types of energy piles are calculated from the test and numerical results. The effect of pile type, medium flow rate and inlet temperature on thermal performance is separately discussed. From the viewpoint of energy efficiency and adjustability, the W-shaped underground heat exchanger with moderate medium flow rate is finally adopted for the energy pile system

  16. Numerical investigation on the thermo-mechanical behavior of a quadratic cross section pile heat exchanger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberdi Pagola, Maria; Madsen, Søren; Lund Jensen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Pile heat exchangers are traditional foundation piles with built in heat exchangers. As such, the footing of the building both serves as a structural component and a heating/cooling supply element. The existing geotechnical design standards do not consider the nature of thermo-active foundations...... and, therefore, there is a need to develop guidelines to design them properly. This paper contributes by studying the thermo-mechanical behavior of the precast piles which are 15-meter long and have a quadratic cross section and a W-shape pipe heat exchanger. This article aims to numerically assess...... the additional changes in the pile load transfer generated by its heating and cooling. In addressing this objective, a preliminary multi-physical finite element analysis is conducted which serves as a tool for exploring: i) the thermally induced mechanical stresses within the concrete and on the pile-soil axial...

  17. Mono pile foundation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyngesen, S.; Brendstrup, C.

    1997-02-01

    The use of mono piles as foundations for maritime structures has been developed during the last decades. The installation requirements within the offshore sector have resulted in equipment enabling driving of piles up to 3-4 m to large penetration depths. The availability of this equipment has made the use of large mono piles feasible as foundations for structures like wind turbines. The mono pile foundations consists of three parts; the bare pile, a conical transition and a boat landing. All parts are prefitted at the yard in order to minimise the installation work that has to be carried out offshore. The study of a mono pile foundations for a 1.5 MW wind turbine has been conducted for two locations, Horns Rev and Roedsand. Three different water depths: 5, 8 and 11 m have been investigated in the study. The on-site welding between pile and conical transition is performed by an automatic welding machine. Final testing and eventually repair of the weld are conducted at least 16 hours after welding. This is followed by final installation of J-tube, tie-in to subsea cables and installation of the impressed current system for corrosive protection of the mono pile. The total cost for procurement and installation of the mono pile using the welded connection is estimated. The price does not include procurement and installation of access platform and boat landing. These costs are estimated to 250.000 DKK. Depending on water depth the cost of the pile ranges from 2,2 to 2,7 million DKK. Procurement and fabrication of the pile are approx. 75% of the total costs. The remaining 25% are due to installation. The total costs are very sensitive to the unit price of pile steel. During the project it became obvious that ice load has a very large influence on the dimensions of the mono pile. (EG)

  18. Pipe damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    Studies are being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to determine whether an increase in the damping values used in seismic structural analyses of nuclear piping systems is justified. Increasing the allowable damping would allow fewer piping supports which could lead to safer, more reliable, and less costly piping systems. Test data from availble literature were examined to determine the important parameters contributing to piping system damping, and each was investigated in separate-effects tests. From the combined results a world pipe damping data bank was established and multiple regression analyses performed to assess the relative contributions of the various parameters. The program is being extended to determine damping applicable to higher frequency (33 to 100 Hz) fluid-induced loadings. The goals of the program are to establish a methodology for predicting piping system damping and to recommend revised guidelines for the damping values to be included in analyses

  19. Use of geothermal piles combined with pile foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kuzytskyi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of use of geothermal piles in conditions of cold climate is considered. Full-scale experiment is conducted for using this technology in Kiev. Obtained results testify about a possibility for using the system in conditions of Ukraine, but this technology requires more detailed study and simulation of multiannual cycle of use of geothermal piles 

  20. Aerial sampling of emissions from biomass pile burns in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5 µm), black carbon, ultraviolet absorbing PM, elemental/organic carbon, semi-volatile organics (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans), filter-based metals, and volatile organics were sampled for determination of emission factors. The effect on emissions from covering or not covering piles with polyethylene sheets to prevent fuel wetting was determined. Results showed that the uncovered (“wet”) piles burned with lower combustion efficiency and higher emissions of volatile organic compounds. Results for other pollutants will also be discussed. This work determined the emissions from open burning of forest slash wood, with and without plastic sheeting. The foresters advocate the use of plastic to keep the slash wood dry and aid in the controlled combustion of the slash to reduce fuel loading. Concerns about the emissions from the burning plastic prompted this work which conducted an extensive characterization of dry, wet, and dry with plastic slash pile emissions.

  1. Pipe damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Arendts, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    A program has been developed to assess the available piping damping data, to generate additional data and conduct seperate effects tests, and to establish a plan for reporting and storing future test results into a data bank. This effort is providing some of the basis for developing higher allowable damping values for piping seismic analyses, which will potentially permit removal of a considerable number of piping supports, particularly snubbers. This in turn will lead to more flexible piping systems which will be less susceptible to thermal cracking, will be easier to maintain and inspect, as well as less costly

  2. Heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggs, G.W.; Lightowlers, R.J.; Robinson, D.; Rice, G.

    1986-01-01

    A heat pipe for use in stabilising a specimen container for irradiation of specimens at substantially constant temperature within a liquid metal cooled fast reactor, comprises an evaporator section, a condenser section, an adiabatic section therebetween, and a gas reservoir, and contains a vapourisable substance such as sodium. The heat pipe further includes a three layer wick structure comprising an outer relatively fine mesh layer, a coarse intermediate layer and a fine mesh inner layer for promoting unimpeded return of condensate to the evaporation section of the heat pipe while enhancing heat transfer with the heat pipe wall and reducing entrainment of the condensate by the upwardly rising vapour. (author)

  3. Pulse pile-up IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.H.

    1991-05-01

    The study of pulse pile-up is extended from the case of unipolar pulses, for which ruin theory is an excellent approximation, to the case of bipolar pulses for which ruin theory is not applicable to the effect of the back-kicks in reducing the pile-up: an appropriate solution is presented. (Author) 3 refs., 11 figs

  4. Grouting for Pile Foundation Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Stoel, A.E.C.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the use of grouting methods for pile foundation improvement, a generic term that is used here to define both foundation renovation (increasing the bearing capacity of a pile foundation that has insufficient bearing capacity) and foundation protection

  5. Pipe connector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.E.; Pardini, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A safety test facility for testing sodium-cooled nuclear reactor components includes a reactor vessel and a heat exchanger submerged in sodium in the tank. The reactor vessel and heat exchanger are connected by an expansion/deflection pipe coupling comprising a pair of coaxially and slidably engaged tubular elements having radially enlarged opposed end portions of which at least a part is of spherical contour adapted to engage conical sockets in the ends of pipes leading out of the reactor vessel and in to the heat exchanger. A spring surrounding the pipe coupling urges the end portions apart and into engagement with the spherical sockets. Since the pipe coupling is submerged in liquid a limited amount of leakage of sodium from the pipe can be tolerated

  6. Seismic response of pile foundations and pile forces caused by kinematic and inertial interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, H.G.; Waas, G.

    1985-01-01

    The horizontal motion and pile forces of pile groups subjected to earthquake excitation are analysed. The piles are modelled as linear elastic beam elements embedded in a layered linear visco-elastic soil medium. Pile-soil-pile interaction is included. The earthquake excitation results from vertically propagating shear waves. Kinematic and inertial interaction effects on foundation motion and pile forces are studied for a single pile, a small pile group and a large pile group. Soft and stiff soil conditions are considered, and the effect of a flexible vs. a rigid halfspace below the soil layers is shown. (orig.)

  7. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1994-01-01

    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  8. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Staging piles. 264.554 Section 264.554... for Cleanup § 264.554 Staging piles. This section is written in a special format to make it easier to... staging pile? A staging pile is an accumulation of solid, non-flowing remediation waste (as defined in...

  9. Test Pile Reactivity Loss Due to Trichloroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumlee, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of trichloroethylene in the test pile caused a continual decrease in pile reactivity. A system which removed, purified, and returned 12,000 cfh helium to the pile has held contamination to a negligible level and has permitted normal pile operation

  10. The Windscale piles - past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.M.; Adams, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the Windscale reactor piles, in which a fire occurred in the core of pile 1 thirty years ago. A description is given of the two Windscale piles, along with the events leading up to the accident, and the state of the piles following shutdown. The surveillance and maintenance to ensure that the pile and associated buildings were in a safe condition is outlined. The present state of the core, water ducts and pile chimneys is described. The present and future programme of work to ensure long term safety is discussed. This includes the initial steps in decommissioning of the piles. (U.K.)

  11. Field testing of stiffened deep cement mixing piles under lateral cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raongjant, Werasak; Jing, Meng

    2013-06-01

    Construction of seaside and underground wall bracing often uses stiffened deep cement mixed columns (SDCM). This research investigates methods used to improve the level of bearing capacity of these SDCM when subjected to cyclic lateral loading via various types of stiffer cores. Eight piles, two deep cement mixed piles and six stiffened deep cement mixing piles with three different types of cores, H shape cross section prestressed concrete, steel pipe, and H-beam steel, were embedded though soft clay into medium-hard clay on site in Thailand. Cyclic horizontal loading was gradually applied until pile failure and the hysteresis loops of lateral load vs. lateral deformation were recorded. The lateral carrying capacities of the SDCM piles with an H-beam steel core increased by 3-4 times that of the DCM piles. This field research clearly shows that using H-beam steel as a stiffer core for SDCM piles is the best method to improve its lateral carrying capacity, ductility and energy dissipation capacity.

  12. IPM Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Submit A Report View Reports List [+] View Reports Map [+] CDM Alert System Sign Up For Alerts User Login Annual Epidemic Histories Annual Season Summaries Contact Us ipmPIPE User Login Web Administrator Login

  13. Piles of dislocation loops in real crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinko, V.I.; Turkin, A.A.; Yanovskij, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    Behaviour of piles of dislocation loops in crystals was studied in order to define metal swelling under irradiation. Energy of pile interaction with point defects and intrinsic pile energy are studied in the framework of the linear elasticity theory. Preference of dislocation pile calculated in the paper decreases with radiation dose hence, material swelling rate also decreases. Creation of conditions, which assume an existence of piles of dislocation loops being stable under irradiation, is of particular interest

  14. Pipe grabber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharafutdinov, I.G.; Mubashirov, S.G.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1981-05-15

    A pipe grabber is suggested which contains a housing, clamping elements and centering mechanism with drive installed on the lower end of the housing. In order to improve the reliable operation of the pipe grabber, the centering mechanism is made in the form of a reinforced ringed flexible shaft, while the drive is made in the form of elastic rotating discs. In this case the direction of rotation of the discs and the flexible shaft is the opposite.

  15. Underwater noise reduction of marine pile driving using a double pile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Impact pile driving of steel piles in marine environments produces extremely high sound levels in the water. : It has been shown that current pile driving noise attenuation techniques, such as bubble curtains and : cofferdams, provide limited noise r...

  16. Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than 57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was 28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  17. Energy piles. A fundamental energy pile; Energiepfaehle. Eine fundamentale Energiequelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Holger; Beldermann, Nico [GF-Tec GmbH, Roedermark (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    The Maintower, the new airport in Berlin/Brandenburg, a lot of Ikea buildings, and also small office buildings or residential buildings may exchange energy with the underground by means of pile fundaments. At the correct planning and execution, energy piles are low-cost geothermal power plants which sustainable generate heating and cooling for the buildings standing on them. Even more energy can be generated safely under compliance with the groundwater protection by means of a new development of the material and the transfer.

  18. Stability of Slopes Reinforced with Truncated Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Wei Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Piles are extensively used as a means of slope stabilization. A novel engineering technique of truncated piles that are unlike traditional piles is introduced in this paper. A simplified numerical method is proposed to analyze the stability of slopes stabilized with truncated piles based on the shear strength reduction method. The influential factors, which include pile diameter, pile spacing, depth of truncation, and existence of a weak layer, are systematically investigated from a practical point of view. The results show that an optimum ratio exists between the depth of truncation and the pile length above a slip surface, below which truncating behavior has no influence on the piled slope stability. This optimum ratio is bigger for slopes stabilized with more flexible piles and piles with larger spacing. Besides, truncated piles are more suitable for slopes with a thin weak layer than homogenous slopes. In practical engineering, the piles could be truncated reasonably while ensuring the reinforcement effect. The truncated part of piles can be filled with the surrounding soil and compacted to reduce costs by using fewer materials.

  19. Mitigation of Ground Vibration by Double Sheet-pile Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Frigaard, Peter; Augustesen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Open trenches are an effective means of vibration mitigation, but they cannot be established in practice. When the trenches are covered by a concrete pavement, part of the efficiency may be lost. However, the present analysis indicates that barriers of this kind may still lead to a significant re...... reduction of the horizontal and vertical vibrations caused by traffic at a nearby road or railway....

  20. Decontamination sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Emiko; Kanesaki, Ken.

    1995-01-01

    The decontamination sheet of the present invention is formed by applying an adhesive on one surface of a polymer sheet and releasably appending a plurality of curing sheets. In addition, perforated lines are formed on the sheet, and a decontaminating agent is incorporated in the adhesive. This can reduce the number of curing operation steps when a plurality steps of operations for radiation decontamination equipments are performed, and further, the amount of wastes of the cured sheets, and operator's exposure are reduced, as well as an efficiency of the curing operation can be improved, and propagation of contamination can be prevented. (T.M.)

  1. Characterizing Axial Stiffness of Individual Batter Piles with Emphasis on Elevated, Laterally Loaded, Clustered Pile Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    using the appropriate stiffness based on the direction of the calculated pile load. 1...load cases. CPGA utilizes the stiffness method (Saul 1968) of three-dimensional pile group analysis for user-specified static loadings. The pile...CPGA analysis and coordinate systems (global and pile) As discussed in Chapter 1, the CPGA software utilizes the stiffness method (Saul 1968) of

  2. Analysis of pile foundations under dynamic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waas, G.; Hartmann, H.G.

    1981-01-01

    A method is presented for the analysis of pile foundations which are subjected to horizontal dynamic loads from earthquakes, airplane impact, gas explosion or other sources. The motion of the pile cap and the pile forces are computed. - The loads may be applied to the pile cap or directly to the piles (e.g. by earthquake wave motion). The soil may be stratified and is considered to be an elastic or visco-elastic medium. The piles are assumed vertical. The method makes use of an approximate fundamental solution for displacements caused by a dynamic point load in a layered visco-elastic medium. The approximation involves a discretization of the medium in the vertical direction. In horizontal directions the medium is treated by continuum theory. The soil medium supports each pile at about 10 to 20 nodes. A dynamic flexiblity matrix for the soil is derived which relates the elastic, damping and inertial forces of the soil to the displacements at each node. It includes effects of radiation damping. All piles are coupled through the soil flexibility matrix. The piles are modelled by beam elements. Transient response is computed using fast discrete Fourier transforms. The arrangement of the piles is arbitrary. However, simple and double symmetry can be accounted for by the computer program. When the pile arrangement is axisymmetric, the degrees of freedom can be reduced to only those of two piles per ring. The influence of the number of piles and the influence of the pile spacing on group stiffness and on pile forces is presented for two soil profiles. Dynamic effects on pile forces of a foundation for a reactor building are studied. They are significant when soils are soft. (orig.)

  3. Pipe Explorer{trademark} surveying system. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Chicago Operations Office and the DOE`s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) developed a Large Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate potentially beneficial decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies in comparison with current baseline technologies. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} system was developed by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA), Albuquerque, NM as a deployment method for transporting a variety of survey tools into pipes and ducts. Tools available for use with the system include alpha, beta and gamma radiation detectors; video cameras; and pipe locator beacons. Different versions of this technology have been demonstrated at three other sites; results of these demonstrations are provided in an earlier Innovative Technology Summary Report. As part of a D and D project, characterization radiological contamination inside piping systems is necessary before pipes can be recycled, remediated or disposed. This is usually done manually by surveying over the outside of the piping only, with limited effectiveness and risk of worker exposure. The pipe must be accessible to workers, and embedded pipes in concrete or in the ground would have to be excavated at high cost and risk of exposure to workers. The advantage of the Pipe Explorer is its ability to perform in-situ characterization of pipe internals.

  4. Pipe Explorer surveying system. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Chicago Operations Office and the DOE's Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) developed a Large Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate potentially beneficial decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies in comparison with current baseline technologies. The Pipe Explorer trademark system was developed by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA), Albuquerque, NM as a deployment method for transporting a variety of survey tools into pipes and ducts. Tools available for use with the system include alpha, beta and gamma radiation detectors; video cameras; and pipe locator beacons. Different versions of this technology have been demonstrated at three other sites; results of these demonstrations are provided in an earlier Innovative Technology Summary Report. As part of a D and D project, characterization radiological contamination inside piping systems is necessary before pipes can be recycled, remediated or disposed. This is usually done manually by surveying over the outside of the piping only, with limited effectiveness and risk of worker exposure. The pipe must be accessible to workers, and embedded pipes in concrete or in the ground would have to be excavated at high cost and risk of exposure to workers. The advantage of the Pipe Explorer is its ability to perform in-situ characterization of pipe internals

  5. DRIVEN POLYSTRONG REINFORCED CONCRETE PILES AND NEW DESIGN OF PILE CAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Bekbasarov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents constructional and technological features for manufacturing driven piles with variable strength of pile shaft. Economical efficiency of their production has been shown in the paper. The paper provides a pile cap design that ensures perception of hammer impacts with the help of lateral edges of the pile cap. Driven reinforced concrete piles which are manufactured from three shaft sections having various strength have been proposed in the paper. Material strength (concrete grade and diameter of bars and length of shaft sections are given on a case by case basis in accordance with nature and rate of stresses in piles during their driving process. Manufacturing of polystrong piles provides an opportunity to select them for a particular construction site with due account of their preservation during driving process.A pile cap has been developed that as opposed to existing analogous designs makes it possible to transmit impact efforts from a hammer to the pile through lateral surface of its head part. The pile cap provides the possibility to increase an area for perception of hammer impact efforts by the pile and in doing so it is possible significantly to reduce a damage risk and destruction of pile concrete during its driving. Application of polystrong piles and their driving with the help of new pile cap are considered as a basis for defect-free and resource-saving technology for pile foundations in the construction.

  6. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Ashraf; Nasr, Ahmed

    2013-03-01

    Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21-31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18-75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

  7. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Nazir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21–31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18–75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

  8. Pile Load Capacity – Calculation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrana Bogumił

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of the current problems of the foundation pile capacity calculations. The article considers the main principles of pile capacity calculations presented in Eurocode 7 and other methods with adequate explanations. Two main methods are presented: α – method used to calculate the short-term load capacity of piles in cohesive soils and β – method used to calculate the long-term load capacity of piles in both cohesive and cohesionless soils. Moreover, methods based on cone CPTu result are presented as well as the pile capacity problem based on static tests.

  9. Introduction to Single Piles under Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    .2). The description is based on results of laboratory tests, full-scale field tests as well as numerical investigations presented in literature. Second, general methods that attempt to model lateral pile response are discussed in section 1.4. Third, focus is paid to a widely used method for prediction of the response......The purpose of this chapter is to give a short introduction to single piles subjected to lateral loading. First, the observed behaviour of laterally loaded piles is described, i.e. the effects of loading conditions, installation procedure, pile type etc. on pile behaviour are presented (section 1...... of a lateral loaded pile, namely the Winkler approach in which the pile is modelled as an elastic beam on an elastic foundation (section 1.5). The soil response and thereby the elastic foundation is represented by springs with nonlinear behaviour (p-y curves). In section 1.6 different types and formulations...

  10. Multisignal detecting system of pile integrity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zuting; Luo, Ying; Yu, Shihai

    2002-05-01

    The low strain reflection wave method plays a principal rule in the integrating detection of base piles. However, there are some deficiencies with this method. For example, there is a blind area of detection on top of the tested pile; it is difficult to recognize the defects at deep-seated parts of the pile; there is still the planar of 3D domino effect, etc. It is very difficult to solve these problems only with the single-transducer pile integrity testing system. A new multi-signal piles integrity testing system is proposed in this paper, which is able to impulse and collect signals on multiple points on top of the pile. By using the multiple superposition data processing method, the detecting system can effectively restrain the interference and elevate the precision and SNR of pile integrity testing. The system can also be applied to the evaluation of engineering structure health.

  11. Clips supporting and spacing flanged sheets of reflective insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to clips, spacing and supporting flanged sheets of reflective insulation used to encase the main body and associated piping of nuclear reactors to minimize heat and radiation losses. (UK)

  12. Study of solutions flow in a pilot copper leaching pile, using tritium as radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz V, Francisco; Duran P, Oscar

    1997-01-01

    The general objective of this work is featuring the flow of a solution in a pilot cooper leaching pile. The irrigating solutions were labeled with Tritium in the form of tritiated water, and the solution flow path is determined in a duct which recover all the solution at the outlet of the pile. This work is an important tool for describing the pipe's hydrodynamic behavior.It also provide experimental semi-industrial data profitable for defining parameters for the calibration or validation of models. The pile has 3788 tons of mineral ore with a high of 6 meters and upper and lower areas of 144 m 2 and 672 m 2 , respectively. The tracer is injected as a pulse, at the entry of the irrigating system and the mean residence time is about 30 hours. The tracer come forth before than expected; nevertheless, this is not due to a short-circuit nor an anomaly of the system, it just reflect the behavior of the process, because the feeding of the pile is by drops and sprinklers that irrigate the pipe. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs

  13. Numerical modeling of Thermal Response Tests in Energy Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A.; Toledo, M.; Moffat, R.; Herrera, P. A.

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays, thermal response tests (TRT) are used as the main tools for the evaluation of low enthalpy geothermal systems such as heat exchangers. The results of TRT are used for estimating thermal conductivity and thermal resistance values of those systems. We present results of synthetic TRT simulations that model the behavior observed in an experimental energy pile system, which was installed at the new building of the Faculty of Engineering of Universidad de Chile. Moreover, we also present a parametric study to identify the most influent parameters in the performance of this type of tests. The modeling was developed using the finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics, which allows the incorporation of flow and heat transport processes. The modeled system consists on a concrete pile with 1 m diameter and 28 m deep, which contains a 28 mm diameter PEX pipe arranged in a closed circuit. Three configurations were analyzed: a U pipe, a triple U and a helicoid shape implemented at the experimental site. All simulations were run considering transient response in a three-dimensional domain. The simulation results provided the temperature distribution on the pile for a set of different geometry and physical properties of the materials. These results were compared with analytical solutions which are commonly used to interpret TRT data. This analysis demonstrated that there are several parameters that affect the system response in a synthetic TRT. For example, the diameter of the simulated pile affects the estimated effective thermal conductivity of the system. Moreover, the simulation results show that the estimated thermal conductivity for a 1 m diameter pile did not stabilize even after 100 hours since the beginning of the test, when it reached a value 30% below value used to set up the material properties in the simulation. Furthermore, we observed different behaviors depending on the thermal properties of concrete and soil. According to the simulations, the thermal

  14. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the theory, design and manufacture of heat pipes and their applications. This latest edition has been thoroughly revised, up-dated and expanded to give an in-depth coverage of the new developments in the field. Significant new material has been added to all the chapters and the applications section has been totally rewritten to ensure that topical and important applications are appropriately emphasised. The bibliography has been considerably enlarged to incorporate much valuable new information. Thus readers of the previous edition, which has established

  15. Analysis on pile testing results of post-grouting bored pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, A. R.

    2017-04-01

    Based on static load test results, the bearing capacity of bored piles with pile-toe and pile-shaft post-grouting has been analyzed. The analysis reveals that: with post-grouting, the interface between pile and surrounding soil are strengthened and the relative sliding displacement in between is reduced; end resistance of pile is enhanced and can be mobilized at earlier stage with smaller sliding displacement. As a result, the performance of bored pile is improved with increased bearing capacity and reduced settlement.

  16. Static and dynamic pile testing of reinforced concrete piles with structure integrated fibre optic strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilder, Constanze; Kohlhoff, Harald; Hofmann, Detlef; Basedau, Frank; Habel, Wolfgang R.; Baeßler, Matthias; Niederleithinger, Ernst; Georgi, Steven; Herten, Markus

    2013-05-01

    Static and dynamic pile tests are carried out to determine the load bearing capacity and the quality of reinforced concrete piles. As part of a round robin test to evaluate dynamic load tests, structure integrated fibre optic strain sensors were used to receive more detailed information about the strains along the pile length compared to conventional measurements at the pile head. This paper shows the instrumentation of the pile with extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometers sensors and fibre Bragg gratings sensors together with the results of the conducted static load test as well as the dynamic load tests and pile integrity tests.

  17. Dynamic stiffness and seismic input motion of a group of battered piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    The dynamic stiffness (impedance function) and the corresponding seismic input motion of a group of battered piles, which can be end-bearing and floating, situated in any desired configuration in horizontally stratified soil, are determined. The soil and the piles consist of (frequency-dependent) visco-elastic material with hysteretic damping. The base mat can be rigid or flexible. Any seismic excitation, for which the free-field motion can be calculated, can be specified (body waves, propagating at an arbitrary angle, generalized surface waves). The soil is discretized by toroidal finite elements in conjunction with a Fourier expansion in the circumferential direction. Radiation and hysteretic damping are accounted for. The dynamic-flexibility matrix of the soil is generated, superimposing the basic dynamic-flexibility coefficients calculated by applying sequentially a horizontal and a vertical force at all nodes located on the axis of symmetry. The influence of the soil which is subsequently replaced by piles is taken into consideration. Pile-soil-pile interaction is accounted for in this method. The formulation can also be applied to embedded foundation and buried structures such as tunnels and pipe systems. (Auth.)

  18. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 817.81, the... drainage may not be diverted over the outslope of the refuse pile. Runoff from areas above the refuse pile...

  19. Test Setup for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    The test setup for testing axially static and cyclic loaded piles in sand is described in the following. The purpose for the tests is to examine the tensile capacity of axially loaded piles in dense fully saturated sand. The pile dimensions are chosen to resemble full scale dimension of piles used...... in offshore pile foundations today....

  20. Static pile load tests on driven piles in Intermediate-Geo Materials : research brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Research Objectives: : Investigate the use of modified standard penetration tests (MSPT) : Compare field results with predictions made by the WisDOT driving formula, PDA and CAPWAP : Improve prediction of pile lengths and pile capacities ...

  1. Simulation of bearing capacity of bored piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majeed Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on how one can possibly predict the ultimate load for the piles that did not reach failure. This challenge was acquired through Chin- Konder method by which, the estimated settlement that correspond to failure load is well defined. Hence, this research aims to make a comparative study between the results of pile load tests carried out in Al-Basrah sewage treatment plant project, and those results induced from the numerical analysis in term of ultimate pile capacity. Consequently, it may give a clear idea on the ability of numerical simulation in getting close to the actual behavior of piles. In the current study, a numerical study using Plaxis 3D Foundation program has been performed on bored piles by the assistance of site investigations of soil. Mohr- Coulomb and linear elastic models were adopted in the simulation for soil and pile respectively. Ten bored piles were used in this analysis under different values of loading. The diameter and length of pile are 0.6m and 24m respectively. The test results indicate that, an excellent agreement has been found as a response of pile capacity between the field and numerical studies. Also, ideal load- settlement curves were created using Chin- Konder method to predict the failure load of bored piles. Also, the results have demonstrated that, the pile capacity obtained from the simulation process is larger about 51% than that design load estimated before the design of piles. This may present a priority to use the finite element method to be accounted as an effective approach in the primary analysis.

  2. Global and local scour at pile groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Bundgaard, Klavs; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on scour around pile groups with different configurations exposed to steady current. Two kinds of tests were carried out: (1) Rigid-bed tests, and (2) Actual scour tests. In the former tests, the mean and turbulence properties...... of the flow were measured across the pile groups. The pile group configurations were such that the global scour was distinguished from the local scour. The results show that the global scour can be quite substantial....

  3. Pile Model Tests Using Strain Gauge Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasiński, Adam; Kusio, Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Ordinary pile bearing capacity tests are usually carried out to determine the relationship between load and displacement of pile head. The measurement system required in such tests consists of force transducer and three or four displacement gauges. The whole system is installed at the pile head above the ground level. This approach, however, does not give us complete information about the pile-soil interaction. We can only determine the total bearing capacity of the pile, without the knowledge of its distribution into the shaft and base resistances. Much more information can be obtained by carrying out a test of instrumented pile equipped with a system for measuring the distribution of axial force along its core. In the case of pile model tests the use of such measurement is difficult due to small scale of the model. To find a suitable solution for axial force measurement, which could be applied to small scale model piles, we had to take into account the following requirements: - a linear and stable relationship between measured and physical values, - the force measurement accuracy of about 0.1 kN, - the range of measured forces up to 30 kN, - resistance of measuring gauges against aggressive counteraction of concrete mortar and against moisture, - insensitivity to pile bending, - economical factor. These requirements can be fulfilled by strain gauge sensors if an appropriate methodology is used for test preparation (Hoffmann [1]). In this paper, we focus on some aspects of the application of strain gauge sensors for model pile tests. The efficiency of the method is proved on the examples of static load tests carried out on SDP model piles acting as single piles and in a group.

  4. Global and local scour at pile groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Bundgaard, Klavs; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on scour around pile groups with different configurations exposed to steady current. Two kinds of tests were carried out: rigid-bed tests and actual scour tests. In these, the mean and turbulence properties of the flow were measured...... across the pile groups. The pile-group configurations were such that the global scour was distinguished from the local scour. The results show that the global scour can be quite substantial....

  5. The Windscale piles initial decommissioning programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boorman, T.; Woodacre, A.

    1992-01-01

    The two Windscale Piles, the first large scale nuclear reactors built in the UK were constructed in the late 1940's and operated until the accident in Pile No 1 caused their permanent shutdown in 1957. Following a period of care and maintenance, a programme of initial decommissioning has begun aimed at establishing a satisfactory long-term safe condition for the Windscale Piles Complex with minimum maintenance commitments. For the chimneys this involves the removal of the top filter sections. The pond will be emptied and cleaned. For the Piles the initial phase includes the consideration of options for long-term decommissioning solutions. (author)

  6. Underwater Sound Propagation from Marine Pile Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyff, James A

    2016-01-01

    Pile driving occurs in a variety of nearshore environments that typically have very shallow-water depths. The propagation of pile-driving sound in water is complex, where sound is directly radiated from the pile as well as through the ground substrate. Piles driven in the ground near water bodies can produce considerable underwater sound energy. This paper presents examples of sound propagation through shallow-water environments. Some of these examples illustrate the substantial variation in sound amplitude over time that can be critical to understand when computing an acoustic-based safety zone for aquatic species.

  7. Safety precautions in atomic pile control (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furet, J.

    1962-01-01

    We have been led to study the problem of safety in atomic pile control as a result of our participation on the one hand in the planning of C.E.A. atomic piles, and on the other hand in the pile safety sub omission considering atomic pile safety of operational or planned C.E.A. piles. We have thus had to consider the wishes occurring in piles during their operation and also their behaviour in the dynamic state The present work deals mainly with the importance of intrinsic safety devices, with the influence of reactivity variations on the power fluctuations during accidental operation, and with the development of robust and reliable safety appliances. The starting p accident has been especially studied both for low-flux piles where a compromise is necessary between the response time of the safety appliances and the statistical fluctuations and for high lux piles where xenon poisoning has an effect on the lower limit of the velocity of reactivity liberation. The desirability has been stressed of automation as a safety factor in atomic pile control. The details required for an understanding of the diagrams of the apparatus are given. (author) [fr

  8. Simplified analysis of laterally loaded pile groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Abdrabbo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of laterally loaded pile groups is a complicated soil–structure interaction problem. Although fairly reliable methods are developed to predicate the lateral behavior of single piles, the lateral response of pile groups has attracted less attention due to the required high cost and complication implication. This study presents a simplified method to analyze laterally loaded pile groups. The proposed method implements p-multiplier factors in combination with the horizontal modulus of subgrade reaction. Shadowing effects in closely spaced piles in a group were taken into consideration. It is proven that laterally loaded piles embedded in sand can be analyzed within the working load range assuming a linear relationship between lateral load and lateral displacement. The proposed method estimates the distribution of lateral loads among piles in a pile group and predicts the safe design lateral load of a pile group. The benefit of the proposed method is in its simplicity for the preliminary design stage with a little computational effort.

  9. Static pile load tests on driven piles into Intermediate-Geo Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) has concerns with both predicting pile lengths and pile capacities for H-piles driven into Intermediate-Geo Materials (IGM). The goal of the research was to perform 7 static axial load tests at 7 lo...

  10. Use of pile driving analysis for assessment of axial load capacity of piles : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic response of a pile during driving is very : complex, involving the interactions of the hammer, cushion, : pile and soil during application of an impact load. : The first analysis aimed at simulating a hammer blow on : a pile was published...

  11. Design phase identification of high pile rebound soils : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    An engineering problem has occurred when installing displacement piles in certain soils. During driving, piles are rebounding excessively during each hammer blow, causing delay and as a result may not achieve the required design capacities. Piles dri...

  12. In-pile Instrumentation Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeeren, L.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced irradiations in research reactors require the on-line monitoring of crucial parameters like neutron fluxes, gamma dose rates, central fuel rod temperatures, fission gas release pressures and small geometry changes. Our activities in this field aim at a detailed understanding of the sensor behaviour in the irradiation conditions in order to extract reliable real-time information. The objectives of work performed by SCK-CEN are to study of the on-line in-pile measurement of gamma and neutron fluxes in real time and to investigate parasitic radiation-induced signals in instrumentation cables

  13. Fundamentals of piping design

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera

  14. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. 5 refs

  15. Some Remarks on Foundation Pile Testing Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Jarosław

    2017-10-01

    This work presents the review of pile capacity testing techniques. In an overview, the key points in pile designing are: determination of the appropriate computational schemes, reliable data on loads and the properties of structural materials (in particular, of the soil mass, which is marked by the greatest variability). The procedure of constructing a pile foundation should include: carrying out soil tests in the scope that ensures safe designing, selecting a piling technology that is relevant both to geotechnical conditions and expected loads, drafting a piling design together with the design of load tests, setting up a testing station for further load tests, static and/or dynamic tests of pile load capacity, preceded by supplementary soil tests when the conditions of test pile installation fail to comply with the design assumptions or when the pile length exceeds the depth of the previously investigated soil, making documentation of load capacity tests (with an additional correction of the piling design), the actual piling (ongoing analysis of pile driving logs and, if necessary, testing the piles’ integrity), drawing up the as-built documentation. Unfortunately, the design is corrected after the load test have been conducted only if the piles fail to show the designed bearing capacity. The designer is then obliged to revise the design assumptions on the basis of tests results. If the test results account for the a greater bearing capacity than necessary and it would be recommendable to limit the extent of the planned (i.e. set out in the contract) piling works, usually neither the contractor nor the designer, nor even the Construction Site Supervisor, acting for the benefit of the Investor, are willing to take on the responsibility for reducing the scope of the piling works. The necessity of conducting additional control tests before and during the implementation of the construction project is often treated by the investors as an attempt at extorting extra

  16. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. The design considerations and methods along with the development tests are presented. Special considerations to guard against adverse cracking of the insulation material, to maintain the clamp-pipe stiffness desired during a seismic event, to minimize clamp restraint on the pipe during normal pipe heatup, and to resist clamp rotation or spinning on the pipe are emphasized

  17. HPFRCC - Extruded Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Pedersen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of the research onHigh Performance Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composite -- HPFRCC --pipes recently carried out at Department of Structural Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. The project combines material development, processing technique development......-w$ relationship is presented. Structural development involved definition of a new type of semi-flexiblecement based pipe, i.e. a cement based pipe characterized by the fact that the soil-pipe interaction related to pipe deformation is an importantcontribution to the in-situ load carrying capacity of the pipe...

  18. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A; Parisher

    2000-01-01

    Pipe designers and drafters provide thousands of piping drawings used in the layout of industrial and other facilities. The layouts must comply with safety codes, government standards, client specifications, budget, and start-up date. Pipe Drafting and Design, Second Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers and drafters and students in Engineering Design Graphics and Engineering Technology through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings using symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. The book is appropriate primarily for pipe

  19. Analysis of effect of different construction methods of piles on the end effect on skin friction of piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hongbo; CHEN Zhuchang

    2007-01-01

    Based on the comparative analysis of end effect on skin friction of displacement-pile (driven pile),the end effect on skin friction of bored pile is studied.The end effect on skin friction between driven pile and bored pile is different and the end effect on skin friction of bored pile is reduce of skin friction in the soil layer adjacent to the pile end.The degradation degree of skin friction is deduced with the increase of the distance from pile end.The concept of additional mud cake formed by the effect of cushion at the bottom of borehole during pouring concrete is introduced to explain the mechanism of end effect on skin friction of the bored pile.The test results of post-grouting piles indicate that the post-grouting technique is an effective way to improve the end effect on skin friction of bored pile.

  20. Reliability of Estimation Pile Load Capacity Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudhi Lastiasih

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available None of numerous previous methods for predicting pile capacity is known how accurate any of them are when compared with the actual ultimate capacity of piles tested to failure. The author’s of the present paper have conducted such an analysis, based on 130 data sets of field loading tests. Out of these 130 data sets, only 44 could be analysed, of which 15 were conducted until the piles actually reached failure. The pile prediction methods used were: Brinch Hansen’s method (1963, Chin’s method (1970, Decourt’s Extrapolation Method (1999, Mazurkiewicz’s method (1972, Van der Veen’s method (1953, and the Quadratic Hyperbolic Method proposed by Lastiasih et al. (2012. It was obtained that all the above methods were sufficiently reliable when applied to data from pile loading tests that loaded to reach failure. However, when applied to data from pile loading tests that loaded without reaching failure, the methods that yielded lower values for correction factor N are more recommended. Finally, the empirical method of Reese and O’Neill (1988 was found to be reliable enough to be used to estimate the Qult of a pile foundation based on soil data only.

  1. Safety precautions in atomic pile control (1962); Securite dans le controle des piles atomiques (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    We have been led to study the problem of safety in atomic pile control as a result of our participation on the one hand in the planning of C.E.A. atomic piles, and on the other hand in the pile safety sub omission considering atomic pile safety of operational or planned C.E.A. piles. We have thus had to consider the wishes occurring in piles during their operation and also their behaviour in the dynamic state The present work deals mainly with the importance of intrinsic safety devices, with the influence of reactivity variations on the power fluctuations during accidental operation, and with the development of robust and reliable safety appliances. The starting p accident has been especially studied both for low-flux piles where a compromise is necessary between the response time of the safety appliances and the statistical fluctuations and for high lux piles where xenon poisoning has an effect on the lower limit of the velocity of reactivity liberation. The desirability has been stressed of automation as a safety factor in atomic pile control. The details required for an understanding of the diagrams of the apparatus are given. (author) [French] Nous avons aborde le probleme de la securite dans le controle des piles atomiques a la suite de notre participation d'une part aux avant rojets de piles atomiques du CE.A. et d'autre part a l'examen au sein de la sous ommission de surete des piles, de la securite des piles du CE.A. en fonctionnement ou en projet. Nous avons ete amenes a nous interesser alors aux risques encourus par les piles pendant leur fonctionnement et par la meme a leur comportement en regime dynamique. Ce travail traite principalement de l'importance des securites intrinseques, de l'influence des variations de reactivite sur les evolutions de puissance en regime d'accident et du developpement d'appareillages de securite robustes et de fonctionnement tres sur. L'accident de demarrage a ete particulierement

  2. Safety precautions in atomic pile control (1962); Securite dans le controle des piles atomiques (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    We have been led to study the problem of safety in atomic pile control as a result of our participation on the one hand in the planning of C.E.A. atomic piles, and on the other hand in the pile safety sub omission considering atomic pile safety of operational or planned C.E.A. piles. We have thus had to consider the wishes occurring in piles during their operation and also their behaviour in the dynamic state The present work deals mainly with the importance of intrinsic safety devices, with the influence of reactivity variations on the power fluctuations during accidental operation, and with the development of robust and reliable safety appliances. The starting p accident has been especially studied both for low-flux piles where a compromise is necessary between the response time of the safety appliances and the statistical fluctuations and for high lux piles where xenon poisoning has an effect on the lower limit of the velocity of reactivity liberation. The desirability has been stressed of automation as a safety factor in atomic pile control. The details required for an understanding of the diagrams of the apparatus are given. (author) [French] Nous avons aborde le probleme de la securite dans le controle des piles atomiques a la suite de notre participation d'une part aux avant rojets de piles atomiques du CE.A. et d'autre part a l'examen au sein de la sous ommission de surete des piles, de la securite des piles du CE.A. en fonctionnement ou en projet. Nous avons ete amenes a nous interesser alors aux risques encourus par les piles pendant leur fonctionnement et par la meme a leur comportement en regime dynamique. Ce travail traite principalement de l'importance des securites intrinseques, de l'influence des variations de reactivite sur les evolutions de puissance en regime d'accident et du developpement d'appareillages de securite robustes et de fonctionnement tres sur. L'accident de demarrage a ete particulierement developpe aussi bien pour les piles a bas

  3. 30 CFR 77.214 - Refuse piles; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; general. 77.214 Section 77.214... Installations § 77.214 Refuse piles; general. (a) Refuse piles constructed on or after July 1, 1971, shall be..., tipples, or other surface installations and such piles shall not be located over abandoned openings or...

  4. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 816.81, the... drainage may not be diverted over the outslope of the refuse piles. Runoff from the areas above the refuse...

  5. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be abandoned... refuse pile shall be abandoned in accordance with a plan submitted by the operator and approved by the...

  6. Measurements of pile driving noise from control piles and noise-reduced piles at the Vashon Island ferry dock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    As part of the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) pile attenuation test program, : researchers from the University of Washington Applied Physics Laboratory (APL-UW) conducted underwater sound : measurements on 7 and 8 December 2015...

  7. Pipe-to-pipe impact program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer, J.M.; Bampton, M.C.C.; Friley, J.R.; Simonen, F.A.

    1984-06-01

    This report documents the tests and analyses performed as part of the Pipe-to-Pipe Impact (PTPI) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This work was performed to assist the NRC in making licensing decisions regarding pipe-to-pipe impact events following postulated breaks in high energy fluid system piping. The report scope encompasses work conducted from the program's start through the completion of the initial hot oil tests. The test equipment, procedures, and results are described, as are analytic studies of failure potential and data correlation. Because the PTPI Program is only partially completed, the total significance of the current test results cannot yet be accurately assessed. Therefore, although trends in the data are discussed, final conclusions and recommendations will be possible only after the completion of the program, which is scheduled to end in FY 1984

  8. Soil heating during burning of forest slash piles and wood piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt D. Busse; Carol J. Shestak; Ken R. Hubbert

    2013-01-01

    Pile burning of conifer slash is a common fuel reduction practice in forests of the western United States that has a direct, yet poorly quantified effect on soil heating. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the heat pulse beneath hand-built piles ranging widely in fuel composition and pile size in sandy-textured soils of the Lake Tahoe Basin. The soil heat pulse...

  9. Solar heating pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinson-Rider, G.

    1977-10-04

    A fluid carrying pipe is described having an integral transparent portion formed into a longitudinally extending cylindrical lens that focuses solar heat rays to a focal axis within the volume of the pipe. The pipe on the side opposite the lens has a heat ray absorbent coating for absorbing heat from light rays that pass through the focal axis.

  10. Introduction of effective piles in a base structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.Б. Кашка

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available  Design features of effective piles such as СВ and their advantages in use are considered at the device of the pile bases in comparison with widely widespread types of piles. From results of comparative tests of piles under static pressing loading in different earth conditions the tendency of redistribution of bearing (carrying ability between a trunk and expansions an effective pile such as СВ was determined on earth conditions.

  11. Performance of pile supported sign structures : [brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Sign structures in Wisconsin are typically supported by drilled shaft foundations or spread : footing foundations. However, when the soil conditions are not suitable to be supported on : drilled shafts or spread footings, a group of piles could suppo...

  12. New trends in pile safety instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furet, J.

    1961-01-01

    This report addresses the protection of nuclear piles against damages due to operation incidents. The author discusses the current trends in the philosophy of safety of atomic power piles, identifies the parameters which define safety systems, presents tests to be performed on safety chains, comments the relationship between safety and the decrease of the number of pile inadvertent shutdowns, discusses the issues of instrument failures and chain multiplicity, comments the possible improvement of the operation of elements which build up safety chains (design simplification, development of semiconductors, replacement of electromechanical relays by static relays), the role of safety logical computers and the development of automatics in pile safety, presents automatic control as a safety factor (example of automatic start-up), and finally comments the use of fuses

  13. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a

  14. Tension Tests On Bored Piles In Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The lengths of the bored piles varied from 2 m to 6 m and all were of a diameter of 140 mm. The piles were tested to failure in tension and the load-displacement relations were recorded. The investigation has shown pronounced differences between the load bearing capacities obtained by different...... design methods. The methods proposed by Fleming et al. and Reese & O’Neill seem to produce the best match with the test results....

  15. Pulse pile-up. I: Short pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.H.

    1990-07-01

    The search for rare large pulses against an intense background of smaller ones involves consideration of pulse pile-up. Approximate methods are presented, based on ruin theory, by which the probability of such pile-up may be estimated for pulses of arbitrary form and of arbitrary pulse-height distribution. These methods are checked against cases for which exact solutions are available. The present paper is concerned chiefly with short pulses of finite total duration. (Author) (5 refs., 24 figs.)

  16. Grouting of uranium mill tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Tamura, T.; Williams, J.D.

    1984-03-01

    A program of remedial action was initiated for a number of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. These piles result from mining and processing of uranium ores to meet the nation's defense and nuclear power needs and represent a potential hazard to health and the environment. Possible remedial actions include the application of covers to reduce radon emissions and airborne transport of the tailings, liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles, physical or chemical stabilization of the tailings, or moving the piles to remote locations. Conventional installation of liners would require excavation of the piles to emplace the liner; however, utilization of grouting techniques, such as those used in civil engineering to stabilize soils, might be a potential method of producing a liner without excavation. Laboratory studies on groutability of uranium mill tailings were conducted using samples from three abandoned piles and employing a number of particulate and chemical grouts. These studies indicate that it is possible to alter the permeability of the tailings from ambient values of 10 -3 cm/s to values approaching 10 -7 cm/s using silicate grouts and to 10 -8 cm/s using acrylamide and acrylate grouts. An evaluation of grouting techniques, equipment required, and costs associated with grouting were also conducted and are presented. 10 references, 1 table

  17. Experimental Verification of Integrity of Low-Pressure Injection Piles Structure - Pile Internal Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachla, Henryk

    2017-12-01

    The idea of strengthening the foundation using injection piles lies in transferring loads from the foundation to the piles anchorage in existing structure and formed in the soil. Such a system has to be able to transfer loads from the foundation to the pile and from the pile onto the soil. Pile structure often reinforced with steel element has to also be able to transfer such a loading. According to the rules of continuum mechanics, the bearing capacity of such a system and a deformation of its individual elements can be determined by way of an analysis of the contact problem of three interfaces. Each of these surfaces is determined by different couples of materials. Those surfaces create: pile-foundation anchorage, bonding between reinforcement and material from which the pile is formed and pilesoil interface. What is essential is that on the contact surfaces the deformation of materials which adhere to each other can vary and depends on the mechanical properties and geometry of these surfaces. Engineering practice and experimental research point out that the failure in such structures occurs at interfaces. The paper is concentrating on presenting the experiments on interaction between cement grout and various types of steel reinforcement. The tests were conducted on the special low pressure injection piles widely used to strengthen foundations of already existing structures of historical buildings due to the technology of formation and injection pressure.

  18. Experimental Verification of Integrity of Low-Pressure Injection Piles Structure – Pile Internal Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachla Henryk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea of strengthening the foundation using injection piles lies in transferring loads from the foundation to the piles anchorage in existing structure and formed in the soil. Such a system has to be able to transfer loads from the foundation to the pile and from the pile onto the soil. Pile structure often reinforced with steel element has to also be able to transfer such a loading. According to the rules of continuum mechanics, the bearing capacity of such a system and a deformation of its individual elements can be determined by way of an analysis of the contact problem of three interfaces. Each of these surfaces is determined by different couples of materials. Those surfaces create: pile-foundation anchorage, bonding between reinforcement and material from which the pile is formed and pilesoil interface. What is essential is that on the contact surfaces the deformation of materials which adhere to each other can vary and depends on the mechanical properties and geometry of these surfaces. Engineering practice and experimental research point out that the failure in such structures occurs at interfaces. The paper is concentrating on presenting the experiments on interaction between cement grout and various types of steel reinforcement. The tests were conducted on the special low pressure injection piles widely used to strengthen foundations of already existing structures of historical buildings due to the technology of formation and injection pressure.

  19. Evaluation of axial pile bearing capacity based on pile driving analyzer (PDA) test using Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizir, H.; Suryanita, R.

    2018-01-01

    A few decades, many methods have been developed to predict and evaluate the bearing capacity of driven piles. The problem of the predicting and assessing the bearing capacity of the pile is very complicated and not yet established, different soil testing and evaluation produce a widely different solution. However, the most important thing is to determine methods used to predict and evaluate the bearing capacity of the pile to the required degree of accuracy and consistency value. Accurate prediction and evaluation of axial bearing capacity depend on some variables, such as the type of soil, diameter, and length of pile, etc. The aims of the study of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are utilized to obtain more accurate and consistent axial bearing capacity of a driven pile. ANNs can be described as mapping an input to the target output data. The method using the ANN model developed to predict and evaluate the axial bearing capacity of the pile based on the pile driving analyzer (PDA) test data for more than 200 selected data. The results of the predictions obtained by the ANN model and the PDA test were then compared. This research as the neural network models give a right prediction and evaluation of the axial bearing capacity of piles using neural networks.

  20. The Effects of Time on Soil Behaviour and Pile Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders

    When designing pile foundations, static design equations, pile driving formulae, static loading tests or stress wave analyses can be employed to estimate the axial capacity of single piles. Both laboratory and field tests show that soil exhibits time-dependent behaviour. An important result...... based on a set of static loading tests. In the literature it is suggested that the pile capacity increases with the logarithm to time after installation which is confirmed in this thesis. In continuation of this, it is analysed whether the magnitude of the set-up is related to the properties of the clay...... circumstances (e.g. load specifications, length of pile, pile material). In order to evaluate the design methods for piles in clay, it is necessary to correct for time between pile driving and pile testing. Results of testing the calculation procedures against the available data by employing different time...

  1. Analysis of Dynamic Stiffness of Bridge Cap-Pile System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Chu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the applicability of dynamic stiffness for bridge cap-pile system, a laboratory test was performed. A numerical model was also built for this type of system. The impact load was applied on the cap top and the dynamic stiffness was analysed. Then, the effect of the effective friction area between pile and soil was also considered. Finally, the dynamic stiffness relationship between the single pile and the cap-pile system was also compared. The results show that the dynamic stiffness is a sensitive index and can well reflect the static characteristics of the pile at the elastic stage. There is a significant positive correlation between the vertical dynamic stiffness index and bearing capacity of the cap-pile system in the similar formation environment. For the cap-pile system with four piles, the dynamic stiffness is about four times as large as the single pile between 10 and 20 Hz.

  2. Pile foundation of nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurkiewicz, W.J.; Thomaz, E.; Rideg, P.; Girao, M.

    1978-01-01

    The subject of pile foundation used for nuclear power plant structures, considering the experience gained by the designers of the Angra Nuclear Power Plant, Units 2 and 3 in Brazil is dealt with. The general concept of the pile foundations, including types and execution of the piles, is described briefly. Then the two basic models, i.e. the static model and the dynamic one, used in the design are shown, and the pertinent design assumptions as related to the Angra project are mentioned. The criteria which established the loading capacity of the piles are discussed and the geological conditions of the Angra site are also explained briefly, justifying the reasons why pile foundations are necessary in this project. After that, the design procedures and particularly the tools - i.e. the computer programs - are described. It is noted that the relatively simple but always time consuming job of loading determination calculations can be computerized too, as it was done on this project through the computer program SEASA. The interesting aspects of soil/structure interaction, applicable to static models, are covered in detail, showing the theoretical base wich was used in the program PILMAT. Then the advantage resulting from computerizing of the job of pile reinforcement design are mentioned, describing briefly the jobs done by the two special programs PILDES and PILTAB. The point is stressed that the effort computerizing the structural design of this project was not so much due to the required accuracy of the calculations, but mainly due to the need to save on the design time, as to allow to perform the design task within the relatively tight time schedule. A conclusion can be drawn that design of pile foundations for nuclear power plant structures is a more complex task than the design of bearing type of foundation for the same structures, but that the task can be always made easier when the design process can be computerized. (Author)

  3. Drill pipe bridge plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winslow, D.W.; Brisco, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method of stopping flow of fluid up through a pipe bore of a pipe string in a well. It comprises: lowering a bridge plug apparatus on a work string into the pipe string to a position where the pipe bore is to be closed; communicating the pipe bore below a packer of the bridge plug apparatus through the bridge plug apparatus with a low pressure zone above the packer to permit the fluid to flow up through the bridge plug apparatus; engaging the bridge plug apparatus with an internal upset of the pipe string; while the fluid is flowing up through the bridge plug apparatus, pulling upward on the work string and the bridge plug apparatus and thereby sealing the packer against the pipe bore; isolating the pipe bore below the packer from the low pressure zone above the packer and thereby stopping flow of the fluid up through the pipe bore; disconnecting the work string from the bridge plug apparatus; and maintaining the bridge plug apparatus in engagement with the internal upset and sealed against the pipe bore due to an upward pressure differential applied to the bridge plug apparatus by the fluid contained therebelow

  4. Measurement and Analysis of Horizontal Vibration Response of Pile Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boominathan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pile foundations are frequently used in very loose and weak deposits, in particular soft marine clays deposits to support various industrial structures, power plants, petrochemical complexes, compressor stations and residential multi-storeyed buildings. Under these circumstances, piles are predominantly subjected to horizontal dynamic loads and the pile response to horizontal vibration is very critical due to its low stiffness. Though many analytical methods have been developed to estimate the horizontal vibration response, but they are not well validated with the experimental studies. This paper presents the results of horizontal vibration tests carried out on model aluminium single piles embedded in a simulated Elastic Half Space filled with clay. The influence of various soil and pile parameters such as pile length, modulus of clay, magnitude of dynamic load and frequency of excitation on the horizontal vibration response of single piles was examined. Measurement of various response quantities, such as the load transferred to the pile, pile head displacement and the strain variation along the pile length were done using a Data Acquisition System. It is found that the pile length, modulus of clay and dynamic load, significantly influences the natural frequency and peak amplitude of the soil-pile system. The maximum bending moment occurs at the fundamental frequency of the soil-pile system. The maximum bending moment of long piles is about 2 to 4 times higher than that of short piles and it increases drastically with the increase in the shear modulus of clay for both short and long piles. The active or effective pile length is found to be increasing under dynamic load and empirical equations are proposed to estimate the active pile length under dynamic loads.

  5. Test Procedure for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    The test procedure described in the following is used when examining the effects of static or cyclic loading on the skin friction of an axially loaded pile in dense sand. The pile specimen is only loaded in tension to avoid any contribution from the base resistance. The pile dimensions are chosen...... to resemble full scale dimension of piles used in offshore pile foundations today. In this report is given a detailed description of the soil preparation and pile installation procedures as well data acquisition methods....

  6. Pile Design Based on Cone Penetration Test Results

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Rodrigo; Lee, Junhwan

    1999-01-01

    The bearing capacity of piles consists of both base resistance and side resistance. The side resistance of piles is in most cases fully mobilized well before the maximum base resistance is reached. As the side resistance is mobilized early in the loading process, the determination of pile base resistance is a key element of pile design. Static cone penetration is well related to the pile loading process, since it is performed quasi-statically and resembles a scaled-down pile load test. In ord...

  7. Tube sheet design for PFBR steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S.C.; Bhoje, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Top and bottom tube sheets of PFBR Steam Generators have been analysed with 3D and axisymmetric models using CASTEM Programs. Analysis indicates that the effects of piping reactions at the inlet/outlet nozzles on the primary stresses in the tube sheets are negligible and the asymmetricity of the deformation pattern introduced in the tube sheet by the presence of inlet/outlet and manhole nozzles is insignificant. The minimum tube sheet thicknesses for evaporator and reheater are 135 mm and 75 mm respectively. Further analysis has indicated the minimum fillet radius at the junction of tube sheet and dished end should be 20 mm. Simplified methodology has been developed to arrive at the number of thermal baffles required to protect the tube sheet against fatigue damage due to thermal transient. This method has been applied to PFBR steam generators to determine the required number of thermal baffles. For protecting the bottom tube sheet of evaporator against the thermal shock due to feed water and secondary pump trip, one thermal shield is found to be sufficient. Further analysis is required to decide upon the actual number to take care of the severe thermal transient, following the event of sudden dumping of water/steam, immediately after the sodium-water reaction. (author)

  8. Flat flexible polymer heat pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshman, Christopher; Li, Qian; Liew, Li-Anne; Yang, Ronggui; Bright, Victor M; Lee, Y C

    2013-01-01

    Flat, flexible, lightweight, polymer heat pipes (FPHP) were fabricated. The overall geometry of the heat pipe was 130 mm × 70 mm × 1.31 mm. A commercially available low-cost film composed of laminated sheets of low-density polyethylene terephthalate, aluminum and polyethylene layers was used as the casing. A triple-layer sintered copper woven mesh served as a liquid wicking structure, and water was the working fluid. A coarse nylon woven mesh provided space for vapor transport and mechanical rigidity. Thermal power ranging from 5 to 30 W was supplied to the evaporator while the device was flexed at 0°, 45° and 90°. The thermal resistance of the FPHP ranged from 1.2 to 3.0 K W −1 depending on the operating conditions while the thermal resistance for a similar-sized solid copper reference was a constant at 4.6 K W −1 . With 25 W power input, the thermal resistance of the liquid–vapor core of the FPHP was 23% of a copper reference sample with identical laminated polymer material. This work shows a promising combination of technologies that has the potential to usher in a new generation of highly flexible, lightweight, low-cost, high-performance thermal management solutions. (paper)

  9. Seismic behavior analysis of piled drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, H.; Kosaka, T.; Mizushina, T.; Shimizu, M.; Uji, S.; Tsuchiya, H.

    1987-01-01

    In general, low level radioactive waste is packed in drums and stored in a warehouse being piled vertically, or laid horizontally. To observe the behavior of piled drums during an earthquake, an experimental study was reported. The experimental study is limited by the vibrating platform capacity. To carry out these tests up to the supporting limit is not recommended, in view of the vibrating platform curing as well as the operators' security. It is very useful to develop the analytical method for simulating the behavior of the drums. In this report, a computer program of piled drum's dynamic motion is shown, and the analytical result is referred to the experimental result. From the result of experiment on piled drums, the sliding effect has been found to be very important for the stability of drum, and the rocking motion observed, showing a little acceleration is less than the static estimated value. Behavior of piled drums is a complex phenomena comprising of sliding, rocking and jumping

  10. Three dimensional analysis of laterally loaded piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, C.

    1987-01-01

    In this study static analysis of laterally loaded pile is studied by the three models. The first model is the beam on discrete elastic springs. This model is analyzed using a flexibility method. The second model is the beam on a two-parameter elastic foundation. This model is analyzed using the linear finite element method. The third model is the finite element model, using the three-dimensional iso-parametric parabolic brick element. Three-dimensional pile group analysis is also performed using elastic constants of single pile obtained by any one of the above analyses. The main objective is to develop computer programs for each model related to single piles and to group analysis. Then, the deflections, rotations, moments, shears, stresses and strains of the single pile are obtained at any arbitrary point. Comparison is made between each model and with other studies such as Poulos 1971, Desai and Appel 1976. In addition, to provide a benchmark of three-dimensional finite element analysis, the Boussinesq problem is analyzed. (orig.)

  11. Miniature Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Small Business Innovation Research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to Thermacore Inc. have fostered the company work on devices tagged "heat pipes" for space application. To control the extreme temperature ranges in space, heat pipes are important to spacecraft. The problem was to maintain an 8-watt central processing unit (CPU) at less than 90 C in a notebook computer using no power, with very little space available and without using forced convection. Thermacore's answer was in the design of a powder metal wick that transfers CPU heat from a tightly confined spot to an area near available air flow. The heat pipe technology permits a notebook computer to be operated in any position without loss of performance. Miniature heat pipe technology has successfully been applied, such as in Pentium Processor notebook computers. The company expects its heat pipes to accommodate desktop computers as well. Cellular phones, camcorders, and other hand-held electronics are forsible applications for heat pipes.

  12. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  13. Riser pipe elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, W.; Jimenez, A.F.

    1987-09-08

    This patent describes a method for storing and retrieving a riser pipe, comprising the steps of: providing an upright annular magazine comprised of an inside annular wall and an outside annular wall, the magazine having an open top; storing the riser pipe in a substantially vertically oriented position within the annular magazine; and moving the riser pipe upwardly through the open top of the annular magazine at an angle to the vertical along at least a portion of the length of the riser pipe.

  14. Piping engineering and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The conference 'Piping Engineering and Operation' was organized by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in November/December 1993 to follow on from similar successful events of 1985 and 1989, which were attended by representatives from all sectors of the piping industry. Development of engineering and operation of piping systems in all aspects, including non-metallic materials, are highlighted. The range of issues covered represents a balance between current practices and implementation of future international standards. Twenty papers are printed. Two, which are concerned with pressurized pipes or steam lines in the nuclear industry, are indexed separately. (Author)

  15. Piping equipment; Materiel petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This 'blue bible' of the perfect piping-man appeals to end-users of industrial facilities of the petroleum and chemical industries (purchase services, standardization, new works, maintenance) but also to pipe-makers and hollow-ware makers. It describes the characteristics of materials (carbon steels, stainless steels, alloyed steels, special alloys) and the dimensions of pipe elements: pipes, welding fittings, flanges, sealing products, forged steel fittings, forged steel valves, cast steel valves, ASTM standards, industrial valves. (J.S.)

  16. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... sheet Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) – CDC fact sheet Gonorrhea – CDC fact sheet STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis ( ...

  17. In pile helium loop ''Comedie''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The loop is located in the SILOE reactor at Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble. The purpose and objectives are divided into two groups, principal and secondary. The primary objective was to provide basic data on the deposition behavior of important condensable fission products on a variety of steel surfaces, i.e. temperature (sorption isotherms) and mass transfer (physical adsorption) dependencies; to provide information concerning the degree of penetration of important fission products into the metals comprising the heat exchanger-recuperator tubes as a function of alloy type and/or metal temperature; to provide complementary information on the reentrainment (liftoff) of important fission and activation products by performing out-of-pile blowdown experiments on tube samples representative of the alloy types used in the heat exchanger-recuperator and of the surface temperatures experienced during plateout. The secondary objective was to provide information concerning the migration of important fission products through graphite. To this end, concentration profiles in the web between the fuel rods containing the fission product source and the coolant channels and in the graphite diffusion sample will be measured to study the corrosion of metallic specimens placed in the conditions of high temperature gas cooled reactor. The first experiment SRO enables to determine the loop characteristics and possibilities related to thermal, thermodynamic, chemical and neutronic properties. The second experiment has been carried out in high temperature gas cooled reactor operating conditions. It enables to determine in particular the deposition axial profile of activation and fission products in the plateout section constituting the heat exchanger, the fission products balance trapped in the different filter components, and the cumulated released fraction of solid fission products. The SR1 test permits to demonstrate in particular the Comedie loop operation reliability, either

  18. Picking up Clues from the Discard Pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    As NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander excavates trenches, it also builds piles with most of the material scooped from the holes. The piles, like this one called 'Caterpillar,' provide researchers some information about the soil. On Aug. 24, 2008, during the late afternoon of the 88th Martian day after landing, Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager took separate exposures through red, green and blue filters that have been combined into this approximately true-color image. This conical pile of soil is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The sources of material that the robotic arm has dropped onto the Caterpillar pile have included the 'Dodo' and ''Upper Cupboard' trenches and, more recently, the deeper 'Stone Soup' trench. Observations of the pile provide information, such as the slope of the cone and the textures of the soil, that helps scientists understand properties of material excavated from the trenches. For the Stone Soup trench in particular, which is about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep, the bottom of the trench is in shadow and more difficult to observe than other trenches that Phoenix has dug. The Phoenix team obtained spectral clues about the composition of material from the bottom of Stone Soup by photographing Caterpillar through 15 different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager when the pile was covered in freshly excavated material from the trench. The spectral observation did not produce any sign of water-ice, just typical soil for the site. However, the bigger clumps do show a platy texture that could be consistent with elevated concentration of salts in the soil from deep in Stone Soup. The team chose that location as the source for a soil sample to be analyzed in the lander's wet chemistry laboratory, which can identify soluble salts in the soil. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed

  19. Synthesis of concrete bridge piles prestressed with CFRP systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation frequently constructs prestressed concrete piles for use in bridge : foundations. Such prestressed concrete piles are typically built with steel strands that are highly susceptible to : environmental degradation...

  20. Radiation Protection in the Experimental Pile Marius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohendy, G.

    1962-01-01

    Measurements made around the experimental pile 'Marius' made it possible to determine the valid characteristics of the slabs designed to improve the biological protection by covering the charge and discharge pits. These measurements also made it possible to evaluate the risks occurring when the pile is operating at various Powers and to make a reasonable estimate of the value of the ratio of the total danger due to neutrons (thermal and fast) and γ radiation and to the danger due only to the γ radiation. A knowledge of this ratio makes it possible to make satisfactory evaluations with a single apparatus which is really portable. (author) [fr

  1. Piles of dislocation loops in real crystals. 2. Evolution of dislocation piles under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinko, V.I.; Turkin, A.A.; Yanovskij, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    The given paper considers evolution of piles in a real molybdenum crystal under neutron irradiation. Obtained was a stability criterium, when meeting it interstitial piles (one-dimensional periodical structures of interstitial loops) in the crystal tend to stationary state under the irradiation and, when disturbing the criterium, they disintegrate into rapidly growing interstitial isolated loops. It was also shown that the generation of dense vacancy piles results in the formation of an ordering structure of isolated vacancy loops. Theoretical results agree good with experimental data

  2. Summary on out-of-pile and in-pile properties of M5 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenjin

    2001-01-01

    The out-of-pile and in-pile corrosion, mechanical properties, microstructure,hydrogen absorption, creep and growth resistances of M5 alloy using as PWR fuel rod cladding materials developed by FRAMATOME in France has been summarized with reference to the literatures. The results obtained from in-pile irradiation tests show that the corrosion and hydrogen absorption resistances, creep and irradiation growth resistances of M5 alloy cladding are superior to that of the optimized Zircaloy-4. It could be estimated that the M5 alloy enables rod burnups close to 65GWd/tU to be reached

  3. GASN sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    This document gathers around 50 detailed sheets which describe and present various aspects, data and information related to the nuclear sector or, more generally to energy. The following items are addressed: natural and artificial radioactive environment, evolution of energy needs in the world, radioactive wastes, which energy for France tomorrow, the consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, ammunitions containing depleted uranium, processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel, transport of radioactive materials, seismic risk for the basic nuclear installations, radon, the precautionary principle, the issue of low doses, the EPR, the greenhouse effect, the Oklo nuclear reactors, ITER on the way towards fusion reactors, simulation and nuclear deterrence, crisis management in the nuclear field, does nuclear research put a break on the development of renewable energies by monopolizing funding, nuclear safety and security, the plutonium, generation IV reactors, comparison of different modes of electricity production, medical exposure to ionizing radiations, the control of nuclear activities, food preservation by ionization, photovoltaic solar collectors, the Polonium 210, the dismantling of nuclear installations, wind energy, desalination and nuclear reactors, from non-communication to transparency about nuclear safety, the Jules Horowitz reactor, CO 2 capture and storage, hydrogen, solar energy, the radium, the subcontractors of maintenance of the nuclear fleet, biomass, internal radio-contamination, epidemiological studies, submarine nuclear propulsion, sea energy, the Three Mile Island accident, the Chernobyl accident, the Fukushima accident, the nuclear after Fukushima

  4. The design of in-pile test section for fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K. N.; Lee, J. M.; Shim, B. S.; Zee, D. Y.; Park, S. H.; Ahn, S. H.; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, Y. J. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    As an equipment for nuclear fuel's general performance irradiation test in HANARO, Fuel Test Loop(FTL) has been developed that can irradiate the pin to the maximum number of 3 at the core irradiation hole(IR1 hole) by considering for it's utility and user's irradiation requirement. 3-Pin FTL consists of In-Pile Test Section (IPS) and Out-of-Pile System (OPS). IPS consists for IPS Vessel assembly, In-Pool Piping, IPS Support, In-Pool Piping Support etc. Design that such IPS considers interference item consisted to do not bear in existing facilities by one. IVA that is connected to the OPS are controlled and regulated by means of system pressure, system temperature and the water quality. IPS Vessel assembly is consisted of outer pressure vessel, inner pressure vessel, IPS head, inner assembly and test fuel carrier. After 3-Pin FTL development which is expected to be finished by the 2006, FTL will be used for the irradiation test of the new PWR-type fuel and can maximize the usage of HANARO.

  5. Analysis of radon protection cover on uranium tailings pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhe

    1993-01-01

    The average radon emanation rate of the whole surface over one year was used for evaluating the radon release of uranium tailings pile. The effective of radon protection cover depends on the shape and property of the tailings pile, the properties of covering and the control of air vadose in the pile. It was indicated that the covering with low diffusion coefficient, small porosity and bad permeability was suitable to cover the pile. The analytical formula of the covering layer thickness was given

  6. Transients in pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchesin, D.; Paes-Leme, P.J.S.; Sampaio, R.

    1981-01-01

    The motion of a fluid in a pipe is commonly modeled utilizing the one space dimension conservation laws of mass and momentum. The development of shocks and spikes utilizing the uniform sampling method is studied. The effects of temperature variations and friction are compared for gas pipes. (Author) [pt

  7. These Pipes Are "Happening"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The author is blessed with having the water pipes for the school system in her office. In this article, the author describes how the breaking of the pipes had led to a very worthwhile art experience for her students. They practiced contour and shaded drawing techniques, reviewed patterns and color theory, and used their reasoning skills--all while…

  8. Piping research program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    This document presents the piping research program plan for the Structural and Seismic Engineering Branch and the Materials Engineering Branch of the Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The plan describes the research to be performed in the areas of piping design criteria, environmentally assisted cracking, pipe fracture, and leak detection and leak rate estimation. The piping research program addresses the regulatory issues regarding piping design and piping integrity facing the NRC today and in the foreseeable future. The plan discusses the regulatory issues and needs for the research, the objectives, key aspects, and schedule for each research project, or group of projects focussing of a specific topic, and, finally, the integration of the research areas into the regulatory process is described. The plan presents a snap-shot of the piping research program as it exists today. However, the program plan will change as the regulatory issues and needs change. Consequently, this document will be revised on a bi-annual basis to reflect the changes in the piping research program. (author)

  9. Pile group program for full material modeling and progressive failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Strain wedge (SW) model formulation has been used, in previous work, to evaluate the response of a single pile or a group of piles (including its : pile cap) in layered soils to lateral loading. The SW model approach provides appropriate prediction f...

  10. 30 CFR 77.215-3 - Refuse piles: certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles: certification. 77.215-3 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-3 Refuse piles: certification. (a) Within 180 days following written notification by the District Manager that a refuse pile can present a hazard, the person owning...

  11. Interacting with piles of artifacts on digital tables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliakseyeu, D.; Lucero Vera, A.A.; Subramanian, S.

    2007-01-01

    Designers and architects regularly use piles to organise visual artifacts. Recent efforts have now made it possible for users to create piles in digital systems as well. However, there is still little understanding of how users shouldinteract with digital piles. In this paper we investigate this

  12. Design Optimization of Piles for Offshore Wind Turbine Jacket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Kasper; Zania, Varvara

    Numerical methods can optimize the pile design. The aim of this study is to automatically design optimal piles for offshore wind turbine jacket foundations (Figure 1). Pile mass is minimized with constraints on axial and lateral capacity. Results indicate that accurate knowledge about soil...

  13. 30 CFR 77.215-1 - Refuse piles; identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; identification. 77.215-1 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-1 Refuse piles; identification. A permanent identification marker, at least six feet high and showing the refuse pile identification number as assigned by the...

  14. 30 CFR 77.215-2 - Refuse piles; reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; reporting requirements. 77.215-2... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-2 Refuse piles; reporting requirements. (a) The proposed location of a new refuse pile shall be reported to and acknowledged in writing by the District Manager...

  15. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; construction requirements. 77.215... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215 Refuse piles; construction requirements. (a) Refuse deposited on a pile shall be spread in layers and compacted in such a manner so as to minimize the flow of air...

  16. Interacting with piles of artifacts on digital tables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliakseyeu, D.; Subramanian, S.; Lucero Vera, A.A.; Gutwin, C.

    2006-01-01

    Designers and architects regularly use piles to organize visual artifacts. Recent efforts have now made it possible for users to create piles in digital systems as well. However, there is still little understanding of how users should interact with digital piles. In this paper we investigate this

  17. Oscillating heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation,  theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary  factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer,  neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes.  The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...

  18. Heterogeneous dipolar theory of the exponential pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, P.V.

    1981-01-01

    We present a heterogeneous theory of the exponential pile, closely related to NORDHEIM-SCALETTAR's. It is well adapted to lattice whose pitch is relatively large (D-2O, grahpite) and the dimensions of whose channels are not negligible. The anisotropy of neutron diffusion is taken into account by the introduction of dipolar parameters. We express the contribution of each channel to the total flux in the moderator by means of multipolar coefficients. In order to be able to apply conditions of continuity between the flux and their derivatives, on the side of the moderator, we develop in a Fourier series the fluxes found at the periphery of each channel. Using Wronski's relations of Bessel's functions, we express the multipolar coefficients of the surfaces of each channel, on the side of the moderator, by means of the harmonics of each flux and their derivatives. We retain only monopolar (A 0 sub(g)) and dipolar (A 1 sub(g)) coefficients; those of a higher order are ignored. We deduce from these coefficients the systems of homogeneous equations of the exponential pile with monopoles on their own and monopoles plus dipoles. It should be noted that the systems of homogeneous equations of the critical pile are contained in those of the exponential pile. In another article, we develop the calculation of monopolar and dipolar heterogeneous parameters. (orig.)

  19. Underwater noise generated by offshore pile driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsouvalas, A.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise emission in the marine environment has always been an environmental issue of serious concern. In particular, the noise generated during the installation of foundation piles is considered to be one of the most significant sources of underwater noise pollution. This is mainly

  20. Literature review Quasi-static and Dynamic pile load tests : Primarily report on non-static pile load tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huy, N.Q.

    2010-01-01

    Pile testing, which plays an importance role in the field of deep foundation design, is performed by static and non-static methods to provide information about the following issues: (Poulos, 1998) - The ultimate capacity of a single pile. - The load-displacement behavior of a pile. - The performance

  1. Friction effects on lateral loading behavior of rigid piles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Hededal, Ole

    2012-01-01

    taking into account the shear frictional resistance along the pile. For this purpose efficient three dimensional finite element models of different diameter have been developed. The increase of the side friction and of the diameter of the pile is shown to alter the failure pattern and increase...... the lateral capacity of the pile. The obtained p - y curves demonstrate the importance of the aforementioned parameters in the design of rigid piles, as the reduction of friction along the interface reduces not only the ultimate load but also the stiffness of the soil-pile response. Read More: http...

  2. The Settlement Behavior of Piled Raft Interaction in Undrained Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghalesari, Abbasali Taghavi; Barari, Amin; Amini, Pedram Fardad

    2013-01-01

    Offshore piled raft foundations are one of the most commonly used foundations in offshore structures. When a raft foundation alone does not satisfy the design requirements, the addition of piles may improve both the ultimate load capacity and the settlement performance of the raft. In this paper......, the behavior of a piled raft on undrained soil is studied based on a series of parametric studies on the average and differential settlement of piled raft using three-dimensional finite element analysis. The settlement behavior is found to be dependent on the number of piles and raft thickness....

  3. Cooling Effect Analysis of Suppressing Coal Spontaneous Ignition with Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Shuanwei; Wang, Jianguo; Hao, Gaihong

    2018-05-01

    Suppression of spontaneous ignition of coal stockpiles was an important issue for safe utilization of coal. The large thermal energy from coal spontaneous ignition can be viewed as the latent energy source to further utilize for saving energy purpose. Heat pipe was the more promising way to diffuse effectively concentrated energy of the coal stockpile, so that retarding coal spontaneous combustion was therefore highly desirable. The cooling mechanism of the coal with heat pipe was pursued. Based on the research result, the thermal energy can be transported from the coal seam to the surface continuously with the use of heat pipe. Once installed the heat pipes will work automatically as long as the coal oxidation reaction was happened. The experiment was indicated that it can significantly spread the high temperature of the coal pile.

  4. Integrity and As-built capacity of bored pile group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.E.; Kissenpfennig, J.F.; Huemmer, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of statistical methods to the reliability evaluation of cast-in-place concrete piles. The difficulties associated with pile construction can lead to larger uncertainties than would be associated with normal reinforced concrete structures both due to uncertainty in concrete quality and end bearing capacity. These uncertainties can be dealt with through the use of statistical methods. A statistical model of an individual pile is formulated along with a methodology for determining necessary statistical parameters from results of concrete batch tests, core strength tests and visual logs, sonic geophysical testing methods, and proof tests. Strength models for both static vertical and seismic horizontal loadings are discussed. The overall safety of a pile foundation is dependent upon the distribution of individual pile strength as well as the additional reliability due to the use of a large number of parallel load paths provided by a pile group foundation. The paper presents a mechanical model of global pile behavior which accounts for individual pile ductility along with the possibility of redistribution of loads from weaker to stronger piles. The use of the Monte Carlo method to determine the overall reliability of the pile foundation is discussed. Numerical results for both individual pile behavior as well as overall foundation behavior are presented. (orig.)

  5. Starting up a programme of atomic piles using compressed gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, J.; Yvon, J.

    1959-01-01

    1) An examination of the intellectual and material resources which have directed the French programme towards: a) the natural uranium and plutonium system, b) the use of compressed gas as heat transfer fluid (primary fluid). 2) The parts played in exploring the field by the pile EL2 and G1, EL2 a natural uranium, heavy water and compressed gas pile, G1 a natural uranium, graphite and atmospheric air pile. 3) Development of the neutronics of graphite piles: physical study of G1. 4) The examination of certain problem posed by centres equipped with natural uranium, graphite and compressed carbon dioxide piles: structure, special materials, fluid circuits, maximum efficiency. Economic aspects. 5) Aids to progress: a) piles for testing materials and for tests on canned fuel elements, b) laboratory and calculation facilities. 6) Possible new orientations of compressed gas piles: a) raising of the pressure, b) enriched fuel, c) higher temperatures, d) use of heavy water. (author) [fr

  6. The Tensile Capacity Of Bored Piles In Frictional Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Andersen, Allan; Damkilde, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Three series of 10 piles each were installed in two different locations. The length of the piles varied from 2 to 6 m and the diameters were 14 and 25 cm. The piles were constructed above the groundwater table using continuous flight augers and the concrete was placed by gravity free fall. The pi....... The piles were tested to failure in axial uplift and the load-displacement relations were recorded.......Three series of 10 piles each were installed in two different locations. The length of the piles varied from 2 to 6 m and the diameters were 14 and 25 cm. The piles were constructed above the groundwater table using continuous flight augers and the concrete was placed by gravity free fall...

  7. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A

    2011-01-01

    Pipe Drafting and Design, Third Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers, drafters, and students through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings. It includes instructions for the proper drawing of symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. More than 350 illustrations and photographs provide examples and visual instructions. A unique feature is the systematic arrangement of drawings that begins with the layout of the structural foundations of a facility and continues through to the development of a 3-D model. Advanced chapters

  8. Full Scale Model Test of Consolidation Acceleration on Soft Soil deposition with Combination of Timber Pile and PVD (Hybrid Pile)

    OpenAIRE

    Sandyutama, Y.; Samang, L.; Imran, A. M.; Harianto4, T.

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the effect of composite pile-PVD (hybrid pile) as the reinforcement in embankment on soft soil by the means of numerical simulation and Full-Scale Trial Embankment. The first phase cunducted by numerical analysis and obtained 6-8 meters hybrid pile length effective. Full-Scale trial embankment. was installed hybrid pile of 6 m and preloading of 4,50 height. Full-scale tests were performed to investigate the performances of Hybrid pile reinforcement. This research...

  9. The reactor Cabri; La pile cabri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailloud, J; Millot, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    circumstances... - experimental investigations on power excursions linked with precise initial conditions: the aim of this work is to define the basis for theoretical research, and the limits beyond which the risks of explosion cease to be negligible. The research work will be done so as to enable checking with outside reactor experiments and to continue them in the explosion field. - studies of the behaviour of the reactor control-instrumentation. - experimental investigations related with transient operation with initial short life (study of boiling, temperature measurements, vacuum pressure and fraction...) with the aim of defining the hypotheses of a theory on swimming-pool reactor kinetics related to heat transfer phenomena, - investigations of the behaviour of fuels in reactors (these experiments are planned to be carried out in loops) Preliminary experimental results. CABRI went critical on the 21 December 1963. The first transient experiments are expected for March 1964. (authors) [French] II devenait necessaire de construire en France une pile qui permette d'etudier les conditions de fonctionnement des installations futures, de choisir, tester et mettre au point les dispositifs de securite a adopter. On a choisi une pile a eau, type de pile qui correspond aux constructions les plus nouvelles du CEA en matiere de piles laboratoire ou d'universite; il importe en effet de pouvoir evaluer les risques presentes et d'etudier les possibilites d'augmentation de puissance constamment demandees par les utilisateurs: il est particulierement interessant d'eclaircir les phenomenes d'oscillation de puissance et les risques de calefaction (burn out). Les programmes de travaux sur CABRI seront harmonises avec les travaux effectues sur les Spert americains de meme type; lors de sa construction des contacts fructueux ont ete etablis avec les specialistes americains qui ont defini les premiers de ces reacteurs. La communication donne une description sommaire de la pile et decrit le

  10. Moisture content in raw rubber sheet analyzed by transflectance near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnarit Rittiron

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Moisture content is an important trait for rubber sheet trading system. Therefore, a calibration equation for predicting moisture content was created by near infrared (NIR technique in order to develop a more fair trading system in Thailand. Spectra were recorded in two systems. One was measurement on each rubber sheet and the other was on a pile of sheets. Both were measured by a handheld NIR spectrometer in the short wavelength region (700–1100 nm in the transflectance mode using Teflon as a diffuse reflector. The spectra showed the peak at about 900 nm which belongs to isoprene, the major component of rubber sheet. Pretreatment with second derivative was applied to remove baseline shift effect occurring due to thickness differences on each rubber sheet. From validation results, moisture contents predicted by single sheet system were more accurate than a pile of sheet system with standard error of prediction (SEP = 0.39% and bias of -0.07%, and they were not significantly different from the actual values at 95% confidence. As a result, determining moisture content in each rubber sheet by a handheld NIR spectrometer provided accurate values, easy and rapid operation.

  11. A computational model of pile vertical vibration in saturated soil based on the radial disturbed zone of pile driving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiang; Shi Qian; Wang Kuihua

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a simplified computational model of pile vertical vibration was developed. The model was based on the inhomogeneous radial disturbed zone of soil in the vicinity of a pile disturbed by pile driving. The model contained two regions: the disturbed zone, which was located in the immediate vicinity of the pile, and the undisturbed region, external to the disturbed zone. In the model, excess pore pressure in the disturbed zone caused by pile driving was assumed to follow a logarithmic distribution. The relationships of stress and strain in the disturbed zone were based on the principle of effective stress under plain strain conditions. The external zone was governed by the poroelastic theory proposed by Biot. With the use of a variable separation method, an analytical solution in the frequency domain was obtained. Furthermore, a semi-analytical solution was attained by employing a numerical convolution method. Numerical results from the frequency and time domain indicated that the equivalent radius of the disturbed zone and the ratio of excess pore pressure had a significant effect on pile dynamic response. However, actual interactions between pile and soil will be weaker due to the presence of the radial disturbed zone, which is caused by pile driving. Consequently, the ideal undisturbed model overestimates the interaction between pile and soil; however, the proposed model reflects the interaction of pile and soil better than the perfect contact model. Numerical results indicate that the model can account for the time effect of pile dynamic tests.

  12. 3D FEM Analysis of a Pile-Supported Riverine Platform under Environmental Loads Incorporating Soil-Pile Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise-Penelope N. Kontoni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An existing riverine platform in Egypt, together with its pile group foundation, is analyzed under environmental loads using 3D FEM structural analysis software incorporating soil-pile interaction. The interaction between the transfer plate and the piles supporting the platform is investigated. Two connection conditions were studied assuming fixed or hinged connection between the piles and the reinforced concrete platform for the purpose of comparison of the structural behavior. The analysis showed that the fixed or hinged connection condition between the piles and the platform altered the values and distribution of displacements, normal force, bending moments, and shear forces along the length of each pile. The distribution of piles in the pile group affects the stress distribution on both the soil and platform. The piles were found to suffer from displacement failure rather than force failure. Moreover, the resulting bending stresses on the reinforced concrete plate in the case of a fixed connection between the piles and the platform were almost doubled and much higher than the allowable reinforced concrete stress and even exceeded the ultimate design strength and thus the environmental loads acting on a pile-supported riverine offshore platform may cause collapse if they are not properly considered in the structural analysis and design.

  13. Heat pipe development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienart, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to investigate analytically and experimentally the performance of heat pipes with composite wicks--specifically, those having pedestal arteries and screwthread circumferential grooves. An analytical model was developed to describe the effects of screwthreads and screen secondary wicks on the transport capability of the artery. The model describes the hydrodynamics of the circumferential flow in triangular grooves with azimuthally varying capillary menisci and liquid cross-sections. Normalized results were obtained which give the influence of evaporator heat flux on the axial heat transport capability of the arterial wick. In order to evaluate the priming behavior of composite wicks under actual load conditions, an 'inverted' glass heat pipe was designed and constructed. The results obtained from the analysis and from the tests with the glass heat pipe were applied to the OAO-C Level 5 heat pipe, and an improved correlation between predicted and measured evaporator and transport performance were obtained.

  14. Simplified pipe gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, H.; Nordskov, A.; Sass, B.; Visler, T.

    1987-01-01

    A simplified version of a deuterium pellet gun based on the pipe gun principle is described. The pipe gun is made from a continuous tube of stainless steel and gas is fed in from the muzzle end only. It is indicated that the pellet length is determined by the temperature gradient along the barrel right outside the freezing cell. Velocities of around 1000 m/s with a scatter of +- 2% are obtained with a propellant gas pressure of 40 bar

  15. Stuck pipe prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Majed

    2016-03-10

    Disclosed are various embodiments for a prediction application to predict a stuck pipe. A linear regression model is generated from hook load readings at corresponding bit depths. A current hook load reading at a current bit depth is compared with a normal hook load reading from the linear regression model. A current hook load greater than a normal hook load for a given bit depth indicates the likelihood of a stuck pipe.

  16. Stuck pipe prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Majed; Alsolami, Fawaz; Chikalov, Igor; Algharbi, Salem; Aboudi, Faisal; Khudiri, Musab

    2016-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments for a prediction application to predict a stuck pipe. A linear regression model is generated from hook load readings at corresponding bit depths. A current hook load reading at a current bit depth is compared with a normal hook load reading from the linear regression model. A current hook load greater than a normal hook load for a given bit depth indicates the likelihood of a stuck pipe.

  17. Heat pipe dynamic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issacci, F.; Roche, G. L.; Klein, D. B.; Catton, I.

    1988-01-01

    The vapor flow in a heat pipe was mathematically modeled and the equations governing the transient behavior of the core were solved numerically. The modeled vapor flow is transient, axisymmetric (or two-dimensional) compressible viscous flow in a closed chamber. The two methods of solution are described. The more promising method failed (a mixed Galerkin finite difference method) whereas a more common finite difference method was successful. Preliminary results are presented showing that multi-dimensional flows need to be treated. A model of the liquid phase of a high temperature heat pipe was developed. The model is intended to be coupled to a vapor phase model for the complete solution of the heat pipe problem. The mathematical equations are formulated consistent with physical processes while allowing a computationally efficient solution. The model simulates time dependent characteristics of concern to the liquid phase including input phase change, output heat fluxes, liquid temperatures, container temperatures, liquid velocities, and liquid pressure. Preliminary results were obtained for two heat pipe startup cases. The heat pipe studied used lithium as the working fluid and an annular wick configuration. Recommendations for implementation based on the results obtained are presented. Experimental studies were initiated using a rectangular heat pipe. Both twin beam laser holography and laser Doppler anemometry were investigated. Preliminary experiments were completed and results are reported.

  18. Replaceable liquid nitrogen piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasujima, Yasuo; Sato, Kiyoshi; Sato, Masataka; Hongo, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    This liquid nitrogen piping with total length of about 50 m was made and installed to supply the liquid nitrogen for heat insulating shield to three superconducting magnets for deflection and large super-conducting magnet for detection in the π-meson beam line used for high energy physics experiment in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. The points considered in the design and manufacture stages are reported. In order to minimize the consumption of liquid nitrogen during transport, vacuum heat insulation method was adopted. The construction period and cost were reduced by the standardization of the components, the improvement of welding works and the elimination of ineffective works. For simplifying the maintenance, spare parts are always prepared. The construction and the procedure of assembling of the liquid nitrogen piping are described. The piping is of double-walled construction, and its low temperature part was made of SUS 316L. The super-insulation by aluminum vacuum evaporation and active carbon were attached on the external surface of the internal pipe. The final leak test and the heating degassing were performed. The tests on evacuation, transport capacity and heat entry are reported. By making the internal pipe into smaller size, the piping may be more efficient. (Kako, I.)

  19. Are cometary nuclei primordial rubble piles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    Whipple's icy conglomerate model for the cometary nucleus has had considerable sucess in explaining a variety of cometary phenomena such as gas production rates and nongravitational forces. However, as discussed here, both observational evidence and theoretical considerations suggest that the cometary nucleus may not be a well-consolidated single body, but may instead be a loosely bound agglomeration of smaller fragments, weakly bonded and subject to occasional or even frequent disruptive events. The proposed model is analogous to the 'rubble pile' model suggested for the larger main-belt asteroids, although the larger cometary fragments are expected to be primordial condensations rather than collisionally derived debris as in the asteroid case. The concept of cometary nuclei as primordial rubble piles is proposed as a modification of the basic Whipple model, not as a replacement for it.

  20. Concentration processes under tubesheet sludge piles in nuclear steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, F.; Spekkens, P.

    1987-01-01

    The process by which bulk water solutes are concentrated under tubesheet sludge piles in nuclear steam generators was investigated in the laboratory under simulated CANDU operating conditions. Concentration rates were found to depend on the tube heat flux and pile depth, although beyond a critical depth the concentration efficiency decreased. This efficiency could be expressed by a concentration coefficient, and was found to depend also on the sludge pile porosity. Solute concentration profiles in the sludge pile suggested that the concentration mechanism in a high-porosity/permeability pile is characterized by boiling mainly near or at the tube surface, while in low-porosity piles, the change of phase may also become important in the body of the sludge pile. In all cases, the full depth of the pile was active to some extent in the concentration process. As long as the heat transfer under the pile was continued, the solute remained under the pile and slowly migrated toward the bottom. When the heat transfer was stopped, the solute diffused back into the bulk solution at a rate slower than that of the concentration process

  1. Review of vibration effect during piling installation to adjacent structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nurul Aishah Abd; Musir, Adhilla Ainun; Dahalan, Nurol Huda; Ghani, Abdul Naser Abdul; Khalil, Muhamad Kasimi Abd

    2017-12-01

    Basically, many major structures across the world such as towers, high rise building, houses and bridges utilize pile as a support material. The use of pile is important to strengthen the structures. However, this has led to another problem to the nearest surrounding structures resulted from pile driving. As part of a construction work, unavoidable pile driving activity generates a vibration towards the surrounding structures if uncontrolled may cause damage to the adjacent structure. As the current construction works are frequently located in urban areas where the distance between the nearest building structures is not far, vibration may cause damage to nearby structures. Knowing which part of the building that is mostly affected by various vibration patterns from the impact of pile driving is crucial. Thus, it is very important to predict the impact of vibration during piling installation work. This paper reviews the vibrations generated by piling activity toward surrounding structures in terms sources of vibration, impact of piling installation, pile-soil interaction, and factors affecting the vibration impact of building as well as to study the parameters involved in vibration generation during piling works.

  2. Laterally Loaded Partially Prestressed Concrete Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    of an extensive test program onl laterali y ioadeu. partially pr- estressed concrete fender piles. The study Included service load range as well ats...12,000-psi design strength). Configura- tion G utilized 14 r:- estress strand, in an unsymmetric pattern. To provide a uniform concrete prestress of 540...sudden loss in load carrying capacity directly related to the loss of concrete area. The compression concrete fractured longitudinally and along the

  3. CENTRIFUGAL VIBRATION TEST OF RC PILE FOUNDATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Shunichi; Tsutsumiuchi, Takahiro; Otsuka, Rinna; Ito, Koji; Ejiri, Joji

    It is necessary that nonlinear responses of structures are clarified by soil-structure interaction analysis for the purpose of evaluating the seismic performances of underground structure or foundation structure. In this research, centrifuge shake table tests of reinforced concrete pile foundation installed in the liquefied ground were conducted. Then, finite element analyses for the tests were conducted to confirm an applicability of the analytical method by comparing the experimental results and analytical results.

  4. Horizontal vibrations of piles in a centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdin, B.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is the study of soil dynamics for important structures like nuclear power plants, offshore platforms, dams etc. Experimental results of horizontal vibrations on a pile partially anchored in a soil scale model put into a centrifuge are presented. Mechanical similitude conditions from equilibrium equations or rheologic laws are described. After a description of testing equipment (centrifuge, electrodynamic excitator) experimental results are interpreted with a model. Non-linearities on frequency response curves are characterized [fr

  5. FORECASTING PILE SETTLEMENT ON CLAYSTONE USING NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarev Andrey Budimirovich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of designing pile foundations on claystones is reviewed. The purpose of this paper is comparative analysis of the analytical and numerical methods for forecasting the settlement of piles on claystones. The following tasks were solved during the study: 1 The existing researches of pile settlement are analyzed; 2 The characteristics of experimental studies and the parameters for numerical modeling are presented, methods of field research of single piles’ operation are described; 3 Calculation of single pile settlement is performed using numerical methods in the software package Plaxis 2D and analytical method according to the requirements SP 24.13330.2011; 4 Experimental data is compared with the results of analytical and numerical calculations; 5 Basing on these results recommendations for forecasting pile settlement on claystone are presented. Much attention is paid to the calculation of pile settlement considering the impacted areas in ground space beside pile and the comparison with the results of field experiments. Basing on the obtained results, for the prediction of settlement of single pile on claystone the authors recommend using the analytical method considered in SP 24.13330.2011 with account for the impacted areas in ground space beside driven pile. In the case of forecasting the settlement of single pile on claystone by numerical methods in Plaxis 2D the authors recommend using the Hardening Soil model considering the impacted areas in ground space beside the driven pile. The analyses of the results and calculations are presented for examination and verification; therefore it is necessary to continue the research work of deep foundation at another experimental sites to improve the reliability of the calculation of pile foundation settlement. The work is of great interest for geotechnical engineers engaged in research, design and construction of pile foundations.

  6. Reheating experiment in the 35-ton pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherot, J.; Girard, Y.

    1957-01-01

    When the 35-ton pile was started up it was necessary for us, in order to study certain effects (xenon for example), to know the anti reactivity value of the rods as a function of their dimensions. We have made use of the possibility, in the reheating experiment, of raising the temperature of the graphite-uranium block by simple heating, in order to determine the anti reactivity curves of the rods, and from that the overall temperature coefficient. For the latter we have considered two solutions: first, one in which the average temperature of the pile is defined as our arithmetical mean of the different values given by the 28 thermocouples distributed throughout the pile; a second in which the temperature in likened to a poisoning and is balanced by the square of the flux. The way in which the measurements have been made is indicated, and the different instruments used are described. The method of reheating does not permit the separation of the temperature coefficients of uranium and of graphite. The precision obtained is only moderate, and suffers from the changes of various parameters necessary to other manipulations carried out simultaneously (life time modulators for example), and finally it is a function of the comparatively restricted time allowed. It is evident of course that more careful stabilisation at the different plateaux chosen would have necessitated long periods of reheating. (author) [fr

  7. Stability Limits for Rubble Pile Asteroid Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeres, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    The stability of rubble pile asteroids are explored analytically, using simple models for their constituent components. Specifically, we look at the stability of spherical components resting and potentially rolling on each other as a function of their relative sizes, configuration and number. This talk will present some recent results in this problem. Of specific interest is a 5:1 limit on the elongation of a rubble pile body for stability, which is interestingly the same extreme elongation found for the first interstellar object. This limit is for a rubble pile consisting of stacked spheres, resting on each other in a straight line. If there are 5 or less bodies resting on each other in this configuration, there is an interval of spin rates for which the configuration is stable. If there are 6 or more bodies stacked as such, the spin rate for it to stabilize is beyond the spin rate at which it fissions. The talk will also explore additional results for different configurations of bodies resting on each other.

  8. Geomorphic reclmation of a coal refuse pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, L. C.; Quaranta, J.

    2017-12-01

    Geomorphic reclamation is a technique that may offer opportunities to improve mine reclamation in Central Appalachia. The design approach is based on constructing a steady-state, mature landform condition and takes into account the long-term climatic conditions, soil types, terrain grade, and vegetation. Geomorphic reclamation has been applied successfully in semi-arid regions but has not yet been applied in Central Appalachia. This work describes a demonstration study where geomorphic landforming techniques are being applied to a coarse coal refuse pile in southern West Virginia, USA. The reclamation design includes four geomorphic watersheds that radially drain runoff from the pile. Each watershed has one central draining channel and incorporates compound slope profiles similarly to naturally eroded slopes. Planar slopes were also included to maintain the impacted area. The intent is to alter the hydrology to decrease water quality treatment costs. The excavation cut and fill volumes are comparable to those of more conventional refuse pile reclamation designs. If proven successful then this technique can be part of a cost-effective solution to improve water quality at active and future refuse facilities, abandoned mine lands, bond forfeiture sites, landfills, and major earthmoving activities within the region.

  9. Response of shallow geothermal energy pile from laboratory model tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marto, A.; Amaludin, A.

    2015-09-01

    In shallow geothermal energy pile systems, the thermal loads from the pile, transferred and stored in the soil will cause thermally induced settlement. This factor must be considered in the geotechnical design process to avoid unexpected hazards. Series of laboratory model tests were carried out to study the behaviour of energy piles installed in kaolin soil, subjected to thermal loads and a combination of axial and thermal loads (henceforth known as thermo-axial loads). Six tests which included two thermal load tests (35°C and 40°C) and four thermo-axial load tests (100 N and 200 N, combined with 35°C and 40°C thermal loads) were conducted. To simulate the behaviour of geothermal energy piles during its operation, the thermo-axial tests were carried out by applying an axial load to the model pile head, and a subsequent application of thermal load. The model soil was compacted at 90% maximum dry density and had an undrained shear strength of 37 kPa, thus classified as having a firm soil consistency. The behaviour of model pile, having the ultimate load capacity of 460 N, was monitored using a linear variable displacement transducer, load cell and wire thermocouple, to measure the pile head settlement, applied axial load and model pile temperature. The acquired data from this study was used to define the thermo-axial response characteristics of the energy pile model. In this study, the limiting settlement was defined as 10% of the model pile diameter. For thermal load tests, higher thermal loads induced higher values of thermal settlement. At 40°C thermal load an irreversible settlement was observed after the heating and cooling cycle was applied to the model pile. Meanwhile, the pile response to thermo-axial loads were attributed to soil consistency and the magnitude of both the axial and thermal loads applied to the pile. The higher the thermoaxial loads, the higher the settlements occurred. A slight hazard on the model pile was detected, since the settlement

  10. Impedance function of a group of vertical piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, J.P.; Arx, G.A. von

    1978-01-01

    Impedance and transfer functions of a group of vertical piles located in any desired configuration in plan in a horizontally stratified soil layer are derived. Hysteretic and radiation damping are accounted for. The method separates the piles and the soil, introducing unknown interaction forces. The total flexibility matrix of the soil is constructed, superposing the (complex) flexibility coefficients caused by the interaction forces of a single pile only. The dependence of the impedance and transfer functions on the oscllating frequency for foundations with different numbers of piles is investigated. Pile-soil-pile interaction is shown to be very important for all modes of vibration. The procedure is used in the seismic analysis of a reactor building. (Author)

  11. Analytical out-of-pile and in-pile experiments on gadolinia bearing fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruet, M.; Francois, B.; Do, Q.; Bergeron, J.; Trotabas, M.

    1986-06-01

    New fuel management schemes in PWRs can be achieved through the use of burnable poisons like gadolinia bearing fuel rods. However, the introduction of such a design has required a qualification program, which has been performed in collaboration between CEA, FRAGEMA and/or FRAMATOME by specialized teams in CEA facilities. The main scoops of this program concern: the fabrication process; the out of pile physical properties determination: the in pile thermomechanical behaviour and fission product release; the neutronic studies in view to validate the Computed Gd efficiency and the LBP depletion calculation schemes and to analyse and assess various schemes of core calculations

  12. The reactor Cabri; La pile cabri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailloud, J.; Millot, J.P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    exceptional circumstances... - experimental investigations on power excursions linked with precise initial conditions: the aim of this work is to define the basis for theoretical research, and the limits beyond which the risks of explosion cease to be negligible. The research work will be done so as to enable checking with outside reactor experiments and to continue them in the explosion field. - studies of the behaviour of the reactor control-instrumentation. - experimental investigations related with transient operation with initial short life (study of boiling, temperature measurements, vacuum pressure and fraction...) with the aim of defining the hypotheses of a theory on swimming-pool reactor kinetics related to heat transfer phenomena, - investigations of the behaviour of fuels in reactors (these experiments are planned to be carried out in loops) Preliminary experimental results. CABRI went critical on the 21 December 1963. The first transient experiments are expected for March 1964. (authors) [French] II devenait necessaire de construire en France une pile qui permette d'etudier les conditions de fonctionnement des installations futures, de choisir, tester et mettre au point les dispositifs de securite a adopter. On a choisi une pile a eau, type de pile qui correspond aux constructions les plus nouvelles du CEA en matiere de piles laboratoire ou d'universite; il importe en effet de pouvoir evaluer les risques presentes et d'etudier les possibilites d'augmentation de puissance constamment demandees par les utilisateurs: il est particulierement interessant d'eclaircir les phenomenes d'oscillation de puissance et les risques de calefaction (burn out). Les programmes de travaux sur CABRI seront harmonises avec les travaux effectues sur les Spert americains de meme type; lors de sa construction des contacts fructueux ont ete etablis avec les specialistes americains qui ont defini les premiers de ces reacteurs. La communication donne une

  13. Assessment of Time Functions for Piles Driven in Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Andersen, Lars; Sørensen, Carsten Steen

    The vertical bearing capacity of piles situated in clay is studied with regard to the long-term set-up. A statistical analysis is carried out on the basis of data from numerous static loading tests. The database covers a wide range of both soil and pile properties, which ensures a general....... Hence, it is suggested that a constant set-up factor should be applied for the prediction of pile capacities at a given time after initial driving....

  14. Study of solutions flow in a pilot copper leaching pile, using tritium as radiotracer; Estudio del flujo de soluciones en proceso de lixiviacion en pilas de cobre, usando tritio como radiotrazador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz V, Francisco; Duran P, Oscar [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    1997-12-01

    The general objective of this work is featuring the flow of a solution in a pilot cooper leaching pile. The irrigating solutions were labeled with Tritium in the form of tritiated water, and the solution flow path is determined in a duct which recover all the solution at the outlet of the pile. This work is an important tool for describing the pipe`s hydrodynamic behavior.It also provide experimental semi-industrial data profitable for defining parameters for the calibration or validation of models. The pile has 3788 tons of mineral ore with a high of 6 meters and upper and lower areas of 144 m{sup 2} and 672 m{sup 2}, respectively. The tracer is injected as a pulse, at the entry of the irrigating system and the mean residence time is about 30 hours. The tracer come forth before than expected; nevertheless, this is not due to a short-circuit nor an anomaly of the system, it just reflect the behavior of the process, because the feeding of the pile is by drops and sprinklers that irrigate the pipe. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Characteristics of thermal neutron calibration fields using a graphite pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchita, Yoshiaki; Saegusa, Jun; Kajimoto, Yoichi; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Shimizu, Shigeru; Yoshizawa, Michio

    2005-03-01

    The Facility of Radiation Standards of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is equipped with thermal neutron fields for calibrating area and personal neutron dosemeters. The fields use moderated neutrons leaked from a graphite pile in which radionuclide sources are placed. In January 2003, we have renewed the pile with some modifications in its size. In accordance with the renewal, we measured and calculated thermal neutron fluence rates, neutron energy distributions and angular distributions of the fields. The thermal neutron fluence rates of the ''inside-pile fields'' and the outside-pile fields'' were determined by the gold foil activation method. The neutron energy distributions of the outside-pile fields were also measured with the Bonner multi-sphere spectrometer system. The contributions of epithermal and fast neutrons to the total dose-equivalents were 9% in the southern outside-pile field and 12% in the western outside-pile field. The personal dose-equivalents, H p,slab (10, α), in the outside-pile fields are evaluated by considering the calculated angular distributions of incoming neutrons. The H p,slab (10, α) was found to be about 40% higher than the value in assuming the unidirectional neutron between the pile and the test point. (author)

  16. Nanoindentation-induced pile-up in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantchev, B; Danesh, P; Wiezorek, J; Schmidt, B

    2010-01-01

    Nanoindentation-induced material extrusion around the nanoindent (pile-up) leads to an overestimation of elastic modulus, E, and nanohardness, H, when the test results are evaluated using the Oliver and Pharr method. Factors affecting the pile-up during testing are residual stresses in film and ratio of film and substrate mechanical properties. Nanoindentation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films has been carried out with the aim to study the effect of residual compressive stress on the pile-up in this material. To distinguish the contribution of compressive stress to the appearance of pile-up ion implantation has been used as a tool, which reduces the compressive stress in a-Si:H. Scanning probe microscope has been used for the imaging of the indent and evaluation of the pile-up. The values of E and H have been obtained from the experimental load-displacement curves using depth profiling with Berkovich tip, which has created negligible pile-up. A sharper cube corner tip has been used to study the pile-up. It has been established that pile-up is determined by the material plasticity, when the compressive stress is below 200 MPa. The contribution of mechanical stress to the pile-up is essential for the stress as high, as about 500 MPa.

  17. Analysis of transients in the SRP test pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, J.P.

    1976-11-01

    Analysis of the hypothetical upper limit accident in the Savannah River Test Pile showed that the offsite thyroid dose from fission product release would be -3 of the 10-CFR-100 guideline dose for 95 percent of measured meteorological conditions. Offsite whole body dose would be negligible. The Test Pile was modified to limit the length of test piece that can be charged to the pile. These modifications reduce the potential offsite dose to -5 of the regulatory guidelines. Assessment of Test Pile safety included calculations of transients initiated by a variety of reactivity additions that were either terminated or not terminated by safety systems. Reactivity addition mechanisms considered were abnormally driving control rods out of the pile and charging abnormal test pieces into the pile. The transients were evaluated in the adiabatic approximation in which three-dimensional calculations of static flux shapes and reactivity were superimposed on point reactor kinetics calculations. Negative reactivity feedback effects appropriate for the pile and the temperature dependence of material properties, such as specific heat and thermal conductivity, were included. The results show that, for the worst initiators, safety systems can prevent the temperature rise from exceeding 1 0 C anywhere in the Test Pile. If the safety systems do not function, the pile temperatures will increase until the transient is ended by the inherent negative reactivity effects, including the melting of some fuel

  18. Critical sizes and flux distributions in the shut down pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchereau, A.; Berthier, P.; Genthon, J.P.; Gourdon, C.; Lattes, R.; Martelly, J.; Mazancourt, R. de; Portes, L.; Sagot, M.; Schmitt, A.P.; Tanguy, P.; Teste du Bailler, A.; Veyssiere, A.

    1957-01-01

    An important part of the experiments carried out on the reactor G1 during a period of shut-down has consisted in determinations of critical sizes, and measurements of flux distribution by irradiations of detectors. This report deals with the following points: 1- Critical sizes of the flat pile, the long pile and the uranium-thorium pile. 2- Flux charts of the same piles, and study of an exponential experiment. 3- Determination of the slit effect. 4- Calculation of the anisotropy of the lattice. 5- Description of the experimental apparatus of the irradiation measurements. (author) [fr

  19. Foundation heat transfer analysis for buildings with thermal piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almanza Huerta, Luis Enrique; Krarti, Moncef

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A numerical transient thermal model for thermo-active foundations is developed. • Thermal interactions between thermal piles and building foundations are evaluated. • A simplified analysis method of thermal interactions between thermal piles and building foundations is developed. - Abstract: Thermal piles or thermo-active foundations utilize heat exchangers embedded within foundation footings to heat and/or cool buildings. In this paper, the impact of thermal piles on building foundation heat transfer is investigated. In particular, a simplified analysis method is developed to estimate the annual ground-coupled foundation heat transfer when buildings are equipped with thermal piles. First, a numerical analysis of the thermal performance of thermo-active building foundations is developed and used to assess the interactions between thermal piles and slab-on-grade building foundations. The impact of various design parameters and operating conditions is evaluated including foundation pile depth, building slab width, foundation insulation configuration, and soil thermal properties. Based on the results of a series of parametric analyses, a simplified analysis method is presented to assess the impact of the thermal piles on the annual heat fluxes toward or from the building foundations. A comparative evaluation of the predictions of the simplified analysis method and those obtained from the detailed numerical analysis indicated good agreement with prediction accuracy lower than 5%. Moreover, it is found that thermal piles can affect annual building foundation heat loss/gain by up to 30% depending on foundation size and insulation level

  20. Reducing Local Scouring at Bridge Piles Using Collars and Geobags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatirah Akib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the use of collars and geobags for reducing local scour around bridge piles. The efficiency of collars and geobags was studied experimentally. The data from the experiments were compared with data from earlier studies on the use of single piles with a collar and with a geobag. The results showed that using a combination of a steel collar and a geobag yields the most significant scour reduction for the front and rear piles, respectively. Moreover, the independent steel collar showed better efficiency than the independent geobag below the sediment level around the bridge piles.

  1. Heat transfer in the in-pile test section and penetration region of 3-pin fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Dae Young; Lee, Chung Young; Sim, Bong Shick; Park, Kook Nam; Park, Su Ki; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Young Jin

    2003-12-01

    This report studies two types of normal heat transfer. One is the heat loss from the pressure vessel of In-Pile Test Section to HANARO pool water via IPS insulation gas gap. The other is the heat transfer of the Penetration Cooling Water System including the effect of the Foamglas insulator at the penetration region. The heat transfer from IPS insulation gas gap has been performed according to the detail design results from NUKEM. The heat loss also occurs at the concrete penetration region between the HANARO pool water and the FTL pipe gallery. The Foamglas insulator has been already installed at the MCW piping of the penetration region. This insulation effect has been reviewed. The Penetration Cooling Water System has been designed to fulfill the design requirement not to exceed the allowable temperature at the penetration concrete wall. The cooling ability and heat loss of PCW system has been reviewed with the insulation effect.

  2. Heat-pipe Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

    2013-09-26

    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.

  3. Pipe whip: a summary of the damage observed in BNL pipe-on-pipe impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes examples of the damage resulting from the impact of a whipping pipe on a nearby pressurised pipe. The work is a by-product of a study of the motion of a whipping pipe. The tests were conducted with small-diameter pipes mounted in rigid supports and hence the results are not directly applicable to large-scale plant applications where flexible support mountings are employed. The results illustrate the influence of whipping pipe energy, impact position and support type on the damage sustained by the target pipe. (author)

  4. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  5. A practical, systematic and structured approach to piping vibration assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukaih, Naren

    2002-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to present a systematic and structured approach to piping vibration assessment and control. Piping vibration assessment is a complex subject, since there are no general analytical methods for dealing with vibration problems. It was noted that most existing vibrating piping systems had poor or degraded support arrangements. This approach therefore focuses mainly on vibration control through assessing and improving the supporting systems. Vibration theory has not been covered in any detail. A simplified procedure is presented for the Integrity custodian to determine when a simple assessment may be carried out and when specialist/consultant services are required. The assessment techniques are based on simplifying assumptions, good rules of thumb and available literature and current practices. A typical case study is used to illustrate the use and the flexibility of the above approach. A standard sheet is proposed to record and document the assessment and recommendations

  6. PE 100 pipe systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brömstrup, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    English translation of the 3rd edition ""Rohrsysteme aus PE 100"". Because of the considerably increased performance, pipe and pipe systems made from 100 enlarge the range of applications in the sectors of gas and water supply, sewage disposal, industrial pipeline construction and in the reconstruction and redevelopment of defective pipelines (relining). This book applies in particular to engineers, technicians and foremen working in the fields of supply, disposal and industry. Subject matters of the book are all practice-relevant questions regarding the construction, operation and maintenance

  7. Pipe-to-pipe impact tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bampton, M C.C.; Alzheimer, J M; Friley, J R; Simonen, F A

    1985-11-01

    Existing licensing criteria express what damage shall be assumed for various pipe sizes as a consequence of a postulated break in a high energy system. The criteria are contained in Section 3.6.2 of the Standard Review Plan, and the purpose of the program described with this paper is to evaluate the impact criteria by means of a combined experimental and analytical approach. A series of tests has been completed. Evaluation of the test showed a deficiency in the range of test parameters. These deficiencies are being remedied by a second series of tests and a more powerful impact machine. A parallel analysis capability has been developed. This capability has been used to predict the damage for the first test series. The quality of predictions has been improved by tests that establish post-crush and bending relationships. Two outputs are expected from this project: data that may, or may not, necessitate changes to the criteria after appropriate value impact evaluations and an analytic capability for rapidly evaluating the potential for pipe whip damage after a postulated break. These outputs are to be contained in a value-impact document and a program final report. (orig.).

  8. Performance of buried pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of geometric and mechanical parameters : characterizing the soil structure interaction developed in a buried pipe installation located under : roads/highways. The drainage pipes or culverts instal...

  9. Integrated, digital experiment transient control and safety protection of an in-pile test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.W.; Whitacre, R.F.; Klingler, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    The Sodium Loop Safety Facility experimental program has demonstrated that in-pile loop fuel failure transient tests can be digitally controlled and protected with reliability and precision. This was done in four nuclear experiments conducted in the Engineering Test Reactor operated by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Loop sodium flow and reactor power transients can be programmed to sponsor requirements and verified prior to the test. Each controller has redundancy, which reduces the effect of single failures occurring during test transients. Feedback and reject criteria are included in the reactor power control. Timed sequencing integrates the initiation of the controllers, programmed safety set-points, and other experiment actions (e.g., planned scram). Off-line and on-line testing is included. Loss-of-flow, loss-of-piping-integrity, boiling-window, transient-overpower, and local fault tests have been successfully run using this system

  10. Natural radioactivity at CBPP waste pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, Jadranka; Marovic, Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Electrical power requirements will necessitate doubling the present generating capacity in Croatia in the future. As a result, environmental discharges associated with the coal power industry will considerably increase. Burning of coal is one source of enhanced radiation exposure to naturally occurring elements, particularly members of uranium and thorium decay chains. By coal burning (in CBPP at about 1700 C degrees) the activity originating from uranium and thorium is redistributed from underground (where the impact on humanity is nil) and liberated into the environment. Most of the radioactive substances are concentrated in the ash and slag, which are heavy and drop to the bottom of a furnace, lately transported to deposit pile, from where some activity may leach into aquifer, or be dispersed by wind. Lighter fly ash, however, is carried up the chimney and into the atmosphere and irradiates people and contaminates food crops. Also, 222 Rn escapes into the atmosphere during incineration, while the non-gaseous members of the uranium decay series remain in the ash and slag. Extensive investigations have been performed in the coal burning power plant (CBPP) Plomin in Croatia and at deposit pile. A network of radon escalation measurements, in-situ gamma-spectrometric measurements and monitoring of waste pile were organized. The results of the measurements confirm that the ash/slag deposite site are well monitored and involve all the necessary protective measures. All obtained data can be used as a valuable database for future estimations and modeling of the impact of radioactive pollution to the marine environment. (author)

  11. Occupational PAH Exposures during Prescribed Pile Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M. S.; Anthony, T. R.; Littau, S. R.; Herckes, P.; Nelson, X.; Poplin, G. S.; Burgess, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to evaluate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH metabolite. Personal and area sampling for particulate and PAH exposures were conducted on the White Mountain Apache Tribe reservation, working with 21 Bureau of Indian Affairs/Fort Apache Agency wildland firefighters during the fall of 2006. Urine samples were collected pre- and post-exposure and pulmonary function was measured. Personal PAH exposures were detectable for only 3 of 16 PAHs analyzed: naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, all of which were identified only in vapor-phase samples. Condensed-phase PAHs were detected in PM2.5 area samples (20 of 21 PAHs analyzed were detected, all but naphthalene) at concentrations below 1 μg m−3. The total PAH/PM2.5 mass fractions were roughly a factor of two higher during smoldering (1.06 ± 0.15) than ignition (0.55 ± 0.04 μg mg−1). There were no significant changes in urinary 1-HP or pulmonary function following exposure to pile burning. In summary, PAH exposures were low in pile burns, and urinary testing for a PAH metabolite failed to show a significant difference between baseline and post-exposure measurements. PMID:18515848

  12. Experimental Study on Post Grouting Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Bored Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Duanduan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post grouting can improve the inherent defects such as the formation of the mud cake at pile side and the sediment at pile end in the process of bored pile construction. Thus post grouting has been widely used in Engineering. The purpose of this paper is to research the influences of post grouting to pile bearing capacity more systematically and intuitively. Combined with the static load test of four test piles in Weihe River Bridge test area of new airport highway in Xi’an, the bearing capacity and settlement of routine piles and post grouting piles are comparatively analyzed. The test results show that under the same geological condition, post grouting can improve the properties of pile tip and pile shaft soil of bored piles significantly, enhance the ultimate resistance, improve the ultimate bearing capacity and reduce the pile tip settlement. Then post grouting can aim to optimize pile foundation.

  13. INFLUENCE OF A ROUND CAP ON THE BEARING CAPACITY OF A LATERALLY LOADED PILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buslov Anatoliy Semenovich

    2012-07-01

    The data has proven that cap-covered piles are substantially more economical (over 40 % in terms of materials consumption rate if compared to constant cross-section piles (cap-free or broadening piles, all other factors being equal.

  14. Engineering approach to modeling of piled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombs, R.F.; Silva, M.A.G. da

    1980-01-01

    Available methods of analysis of piled systems subjected to dynamic excitation invade areas of mathematics usually beyond the reach of a practising engineer. A simple technique that avoids that conflict is proposed, at least for preliminary studies, and its application, compared with other methods, is shown to be satisfactory. A corrective factor for parameters currently used to represent transmitting boundaries is derived for a finite strip that models an infinite layer. The influence of internal damping on the dynamic stiffness of the layer and on radiation damping is analysed. (Author) [pt

  15. Visual in-pile fuel disruption experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, G.L.; Ostensen, R.W.; Young, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    In a loss-of-flow (LOF) accident in an LMFBR, the mode of disruption of fuel may determine the probability of a subsequent energetic excursion. To investigate these phenomena, in-pile disruption of fission-heated irradiated fuel pellets was recorded by high speed cinematography. Instead of fuel frothing or dust-cloud breakup (as used in the SAS code) massive and very rapid fuel swelling, not predicted by analytical models, occurred. These tests support massive fuel swelling as the initial mode of fuel disruption in a LOF accident. (author)

  16. Installation effects of auger cast-in-place piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi M. Abdrabbo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in Europe and North America some 50 years ago, auger cast-in-place piles (ACIP have become increasingly popular all over the world. These piles offer considerable environmental advantages during construction including minimal vibration, and low noise beside their high productivity. The most severe limitation of the ACIP is its sensitivity to operator performance, which can lead to a pile of poor integrity or inconsistent quality. Thus the improper use of ACIP equipment can result in piles containing defects or can cause instability of nearby structures. Three case studies are presented and discussed in an effort to illustrate learned lessons. First case study highlights the misuse of ACIP equipment leading to unreliable defective pile foundations. Second and third case studies show the adverse effects of installing ACIP on the stability of nearby structures. The study revealed that it is essential to employ a clever pile crew during the installation of ACIP to observe, interpret, and take corrective actions for unusual situations. The authorities worldwide should oblige pile contractors to employ only experienced and qualified workers in charge of geotechnical engineering works. Tender documents should include precise clauses related to the technological factors affecting the quality of ACIP. Unfavorable side effects of installing ACIP in saturated loose and medium sand can cause tilt of adjacent existing structures; even they are on either shallow or deep foundations. A row of micro-piles and/or soil grouting adjacent to the existing buildings were successfully used to reduce the adverse effects of ACIP. Implementation of different codes on the results of pile loading tests produced different pile working loads. Therefore tender documents should specify the code upon which interpreting the pile test results. At the meantime the geotechnical engineer should implement his experience and judgment during application of the

  17. Heave induced reduction of friction capacity of pile embedded in clays

    OpenAIRE

    Setyo Budi Gogot; Wibowo Tantri Gondo

    2017-01-01

    Installation of new piles may cause heave which influence friction capacity of existing piles. The heave can be observed from the difference in the elevation of existing pile heads recorded before and after the installation of new piles or through load-settlement diagram from Static Load Test data. This paper presents the study of bearing capacity of hollow cylindrical concrete piles with diameter of 800 mm from two projects. The piles at Project I and Project II were hydraulically jacked int...

  18. Optimization of Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. T.; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1991-01-01

    algorithm using successive linear programming is presented. The performance of the algorithm is illustrated by optimizing a network with 201 pipes and 172 nodes. It is concluded that the new algorithm seems to be very efficient and stable, and that it always finds a solution with a cost near the best...

  19. Attenuation of pressure dips underneath piles of spherocylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiyang; An, Xizhong; Gou, Dazhao; Zhao, Bo; Yang, Runyu

    2018-05-30

    The discrete element method (DEM) was used to simulate the piling of rod-like (elongated sphero-cylindrical) particles, mainly focusing on the effect of particle shape on the structural and force properties of the piles. In this work, rod-like particles of different aspect ratios were discharged on a flat surface to form wedge-shaped piles. The surface properties of the piles were characterized in terms of angle of repose and stress at the bottom of the piles. The results showed that the rise of the angle of repose became slower with the increase of particle aspect ratio. The pressure dip underneath the piles reached the maximum when the particle aspect ratio was around 1.6, beyond which the pressure dip phenomenon became attenuated. Both the pressure dip and the shear stress dip were quantitatively examined. The structure and forces inside the piles were further analyzed to understand the change in pressure dip, indicating that "bridging" or "arching" structures within the piles were the cause of the pressure dip.

  20. Effect of piles on the seismic response of mosques minarets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Abdel-Motaal

    2014-03-01

    Minaret (60.0-m height was studied to investigate the effects of soil stiffness, pile length, diameter, and arrangement, on the minaret and pile dynamic behavior. Comparison between study results and conventional analysis method is illustrated. Study results, discussion, and conclusion are given.

  1. The homogenisation of bulk material in blending piles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerstel, A.W.

    1979-01-01

    In this thesis the homogenisation of bulk material in three types of piles is dealt with. The homogenisation implies that the fluctuations of a material proprety in the input flow of the pile are transformed into output fluctuations, whereby the latter ones are evened out. Analyses are presented

  2. Estimating setup of driven piles into Louisiana clayey soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Two types of mathematical models for pile setup prediction, the Skov-Denver model and the newly developed rate-based model, have been established from all the dynamic and static testing data, including restrikes of the production piles, restrikes, st...

  3. Lateral resistance of piles near vertical MSE abutment walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Full scale lateral load tests were performed on eight piles located at various distances behind MSE walls. The objective of the testing was to determine the effect of spacing from the wall on the lateral resistance of the piles and on the force induc...

  4. Bulk density and porosity distributions in a compost pile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van J.T.; Raats, P.A.C.; Haneghem, van I.A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with the description of the initial distribution of bulk density and porosity at the moment a compost pile is built or rebuilt. A relationship between bulk density and vertical position in a pile is deduced from theoretical and empirical considerations. Formulae to calculate

  5. Piling up technology of goods irradiated by single plate source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Hezhou; Chen Yuxia; Cao Hongyun; Lin Yong; Zhou guoquan

    1999-01-01

    In the irradiation process of piling up goods in static state, four irradiation working sites and single plate source was adopted. The results showed that piling up in this way remarkably raised the irradiation quality of goods. The utilization rate of radioactive ray reached 22.27%

  6. The Analysis of Soil Resistance During Screw Displacement Pile Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasinski, Adam

    2015-02-01

    The application of screw displacement piles (SDP) is still increasing due to their high efficiency and many advantages. However, one technological problem is a serious disadvantage of those piles. It relates to the generation of very high soil resistance during screw auger penetration, especially when piles are installed in non-cohesive soils. In many situations this problem causes difficulties in creating piles of designed length and diameter. It is necessary to find a proper method for prediction of soil resistance during screw pile installation. The analysis of screw resistances based on model and field tests is presented in the paper. The investigations were carried out as part of research project, financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. As a result of tests and analyses the empirical method for prediction of rotation resistance (torque) during screw auger penetration in non-cohesive subsoil based on CPT is proposed.

  7. Modeling temperature noise in a fast-reactor pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kebadze, B.V.; Pykhtina, T.V.; Tarasko, M.Z.

    1987-01-01

    To observe partial overlapping of the heat carrier cross section in piles, leading to local temperature rise or boiling of the sodium, provision is made for individual monitoring of the fuel assemblies with respect to the output temperature. Since the deviation of the mean flow rate through the pile and the output temperature is slight with this anomaly, the temperature fluctuations may provide a more informative index. The change in noise characteristics with partial overlapping of the cross sections occurs because of strong distortion of the temperature profile in the overlap region. The turbulent flow in the upper part of the pile transforms this nonuniformity into temperature pulsations which may be recorded by a sensor at the pile output. In this paper the characteristics of temperature noise are studied for various pile conditions and sensor locations by statistical modeling

  8. Static Tension Tests on Axially Loaded Pile Segments in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    This paper provides laboratory test results of static axially loaded piles in sand. With a newly developed test setup, the pile-soil interface friction was investigated by using an open-ended steel pile segment with a diameter of 0.5 m. Use of a pile length of 1 m enabled the pile-soil interface...... friction to be analyzed at a given soil horizon while increasing the vertical effective stress in the sand. Test results obtained by this approach can be analyzed as single t-z curves and compared to predictions of unit shaft friction from current design methods for offshore foundations. The test results...... showed best agreement with the traditional design method given in the American Petroleum Institute (API) design code. When t-z curves obtained from the test results were compared to t-z curve formulations found in the literature, the Zhang formulation gave good predictions of the initial and post...

  9. SHAKING TABLE TESTS ON SEISMIC DEFORMATION OF PILE SUPPORTED PIER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Daiki; Kohama, Eiji; Takenobu, Masahiro; Yoshida, Makoto; Kiku, Hiroyoshi

    The seismic deformation characeteristics of a pile supported pier was examined with the shake table test, especially focusing on the pier after its deformation during earthquakes. The model based on the similitude of the fully-plastic moment in piles was prepared to confirm the deformation and stress characteristic after reaching the fully-plastic moment. Moreover, assuming transportation of emergency supplies and occurrence of after shock in the post-disaster period, the pile supported pier was loaded with weight after reaching fully-plastic moment and excited with the shaking table. As the result, it is identified that the displacement of the pile supported pier is comparatively small if bending strength of piles does not decrease after reaching fully-plastic moment due to nonoccourrence of local backling or strain hardening.

  10. Theoretical study of short pile effect in tunnel excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao-yan; Liu, Jing; Gao, Xiao-mei; Li, Yuan

    2017-09-01

    The Misaki Sato Go ideal elastoplastic model is adopted and the two stage analysis theory is used to study the effect of tunnel excavation on short pile effect in this paper. In the first stage, the free field vertical displacement of the soil at the corresponding pile location is obtained by using empirical formula. In the second stage, the displacement is applied to the corresponding pile location. The equilibrium condition of micro physical differential equation settlement of piles. Then through logical deduction and the boundary condition expressions of the settlement calculation, obtain the pile side friction resistance and axial force of the week. Finally, an engineering example is used to analyze the influence of the change of main parameters on their effects.

  11. Physical Modelling of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Pile in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Wolf, Torben K.; Rasmussen, Kristian L.

    Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical in the service......Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical...... in the serviceability limit state. In this paper small-scale testing of a pile subjected to cyclic, lateral loading is treated in order to investigate the effect of cyclic loading. The test setup, which is an improvement of a previous setup, is described and the first results of testing are compared with previous...

  12. Laboratory Testing of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Pile in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Hansen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical in the service......Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical...... in the serviceability limit state. In this paper small-scale testing of a pile subjected to cyclic, lateral loading is treated in order to investigate the effect of cyclic loading. The test setup, which is an improvement of a previous setup, is described and the first results of testing are compared with previous...

  13. The Analysis of Soil Resistance During Screw Displacement Pile Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasinski Adam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of screw displacement piles (SDP is still increasing due to their high efficiency and many advantages. However, one technological problem is a serious disadvantage of those piles. It relates to the generation of very high soil resistance during screw auger penetration, especially when piles are installed in non-cohesive soils. In many situations this problem causes difficulties in creating piles of designed length and diameter. It is necessary to find a proper method for prediction of soil resistance during screw pile installation. The analysis of screw resistances based on model and field tests is presented in the paper. The investigations were carried out as part of research project, financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. As a result of tests and analyses the empirical method for prediction of rotation resistance (torque during screw auger penetration in non-cohesive subsoil based on CPT is proposed.

  14. Passive aeration composting of chicken litter: effects of aeration pipe orientation and perforation size on losses of compost elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunwande, Gbolabo A; Osunade, James A

    2011-01-01

    A passive aeration composting study was undertaken to investigate the effects of aeration pipe orientation (PO) and perforation size (PS) on some physico-chemical properties of chicken litter (chicken manure + sawdust) during composting. The experimental set up was a two-factor completely randomised block design with two pipe orientations: horizontal (Ho) and vertical (Ve), and three perforation sizes: 15, 25 and 35 mm diameter. The properties monitored during composting were pile temperature, moisture content (MC), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total carbon (C(T)), total nitrogen (N(T)) and total phosphorus (P(T)). Moisture level in the piles was periodically replenished to 60% for efficient microbial activities. The results of the study showed that optimum composting conditions (thermophilic temperatures and sanitation requirements) were attained in all the piles. During composting, both PO and PS significantly affected pile temperature, moisture level, pH, C(T) loss and P(T) gain. EC was only affected by PO while N(T) was affected by PS. Neither PO nor PS had a significant effect on the C:N ratio. A vertical pipe was effective for uniform air distribution, hence, uniform composting rate within the composting pile. The final values showed that PO of Ve and PS of 35 mm diameter resulted in the least loss in N(T). The PO of Ho was as effective as Ve in the conservation of C(T) and P(T). Similarly, the three PSs were equally effective in the conservation of C(T) and P(T). In conclusion, the combined effects of PO and PS showed that treatments Ve35 and Ve15 were the most effective in minimizing N(T) loss. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Heat pipe applications workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranken, W.A.

    1978-04-01

    The proceedings of the Heat Pipe Applications Workshop, held at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory October 20-21, 1977, are reported. This workshop, which brought together representatives of the Department of Energy and of a dozen industrial organizations actively engaged in the development and marketing of heat pipe equipment, was convened for the purpose of defining ways of accelerating the development and application of heat pipe technology. Recommendations from the three study groups formed by the participants are presented. These deal with such subjects as: (1) the problem encountered in obtaining support for the development of broadly applicable technologies, (2) the need for applications studies, (3) the establishment of a heat pipe technology center of excellence, (4) the role the Department of Energy might take with regard to heat pipe development and application, and (5) coordination of heat pipe industry efforts to raise the general level of understanding and acceptance of heat pipe solutions to heat control and transfer problems

  16. Ultimate capacity of piles penetrating in weak soil layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Obaidi Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A pile foundation is one of the most popular forms of deep foundations. They are routinely employed to transfer axial structure loads through the soft soil to stronger bearing strata. Piles generally used to increase the load carrying capacity of the foundation and reduce the settlement of the foundation. On the other hand, many cases in practice where piles pass through different layers of soil that contain weak layers located at different depths and extension, also some time cavities with a different shape, size, and depth are found. In this study, a total of 96 cases is considered and simulated in PLAXIS 2D program aiming to understand the influence of weak soil on the ultimate pile capacity. The piles embedded in the dense sand with a layer of weak soil at different extension and location. The cross section of the geometry used in this study was designed as an axisymmetric model with the 15-node element; the boundary condition recommended at least 5D in the horizontal direction, and (L+5D in the vertical direction where D and L are the diameter and length of pile, respectively. The soil is modeled as Mohr-Coulomb, with five input parameters and the behavior of pile material represented by the linear elastic model. The results of the above cases are compared with the results found in a pile embedded in dense soil without weak layers or cavities. The results indicated that the existence of weak soil layer within the surrounding soil around the pile decreases the ultimate capacity. Furthermore, it has been found that increase in the weak soil width (extension leads to reduction in the ultimate capacity of the pile. This phenomenon is applicable to all depth of weak soil. The influence of weak layer extension on the ultimate capacity is less when it is presentin the upper soil layers.

  17. Nuclear piping and pipe support design and operability relating to loadings and small bore piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, D.H.; Tubbs, J.M.; Callaway, W.O.; Tang, H.T.; Van Duyne, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The present nuclear piping system design practices for loadings, multiple support design and small bore piping evaluation are overly conservative. The paper discusses the results developed for realistic definitions of loadings and loading combinations with methodology for combining loads under various conditions for supports and multiple support design. The paper also discusses a simplified method developed for performing deadweight and thermal evaluations of small bore piping systems. Although the simplified method is oriented towards the qualification of piping in older plants, this approach is applicable to plants designed to any edition of the ASME Section III or B31.1 piping codes

  18. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S.

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  19. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  20. Waste pipe calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    A rapid method is presented for calculating transport in a network of one-dimensional flow paths or ''pipes''. The method defines a Green's function for each flow path and prescribes a method of combining these Green's functions to produce an overall Green's function for the flow path network. A unique feature of the method is the use of the Laplace transform of these Green's functions to carry out most of the calculations

  1. Pipe damping studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is conducting a research program to assist the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) in determining best-estimate damping values for use in the dynamic analysis of nuclear power plant piping systems. This paper describes four tasks in the program that were undertaken in FY-86. In the first task, tests were conducted on a 5-in. INEL laboratory piping system and data were analyzed from a 6-in. laboratory system at the ANCO Engineers facility to investigate the parameters influencing damping in the seismic frequency range. Further tests were conducted on 3- and 5-in. INEL laboratory piping systems as the second task to determine damping values representative of vibrations in the 33 to 100 Hz range, typical of hydrodynamic transients. In the third task a statistical evaluation of the available damping data was conduted to determine probability distributions suitable for use in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), and the final task evaluated damping data at high strain levels

  2. Pipe clamp effects on thin-walled pipe design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Clamp induced stresses in FFTF piping are sufficiently large to require structural assessment. The basic principles and procedures used in analyzing FFTF piping at clamp support locations for compliance with ASME Code rules are given. Typical results from a three-dimensional shell finite element pipe model with clamp loads applied over the clamp/pipe contact area are shown. Analyses performed to categorize clamp induced piping loads as primary or secondary in nature are described. The ELCLAMP Computer Code, which performs analyses at clamp locations combining clamp induced stresses with stresses from overall piping system loads, is discussed. Grouping and enveloping methods to reduce the number of individual clamp locations requiring analysis are described

  3. Digitalisation in atomic pile control (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furet, J.

    1962-01-01

    A brief survey is first given of the general theorems of Boodle's algebra and of sequence systems using D.A. Huffmans theory. Some indications are then given concerning the setting-up and the operation of digital computers and also of the principal codes used in digital techniques. It is then shown how digitalisation in atomic pile control makes it possible to use new techniques having the following advantages in particular: greater working safety, a higher degree of centralisation, and suppression of the linear elements. A few examples are given of the application of these techniques to control, particularly with respect to the measurement of the neutronic power and of the period and also of course, to the treatment of the data and the sequence automatisms. The advantage of using digital techniques in the shutdown channels is also examined. Finally a review is given of the technology and the viability of the control devices used. (author) [fr

  4. Ice sheet in peril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2016-01-01

    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions...

  5. Mobility Balance Sheet 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorritsma, P.; Derriks, H.; Francke, J.; Gordijn, H.; Groot, W.; Harms, L.; Van der Loop, H.; Peer, S.; Savelberg, F.; Wouters, P.

    2009-06-01

    The Mobility Balance Sheet provides an overview of the state of the art of mobility in the Netherlands. In addition to describing the development of mobility this report also provides explanations for the growth of passenger and freight transport. Moreover, the Mobility Balance Sheet also focuses on a topical theme: the effects of economic crises on mobility. [nl

  6. Analysis of Wave Fields induced by Offshore Pile Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnau, M.; Heitmann, K.; Lippert, T.; Lippert, S.; von Estorff, O.

    2015-12-01

    Impact pile driving is the common technique to install foundations for offshore wind turbines. With each hammer strike the steel pile - often exceeding 6 m in diameter and 80 m in length - radiates energy into the surrounding water and soil, until reaching its targeted penetration depth. Several European authorities introduced limitations regarding hydroacoustic emissions during the construction process to protect marine wildlife. Satisfying these regulations made the development and application of sound mitigation systems (e.g. bubble curtains or insulation screens) inevitable, which are commonly installed within the water column surrounding the pile or even the complete construction site. Last years' advances have led to a point, where the seismic energy tunneling the sound mitigation systems through the soil and radiating back towards the water column gains importance, as it confines the maximum achievable sound mitigation. From an engineering point of view, the challenge of deciding on an effective noise mitigation layout arises, which especially requires a good understanding of the soil-dependent wave field. From a geophysical point of view, the pile acts like a very unique line source, generating a characteristic wave field dominated by inclined wave fronts, diving as well as head waves. Monitoring the seismic arrivals while the pile penetration steadily increases enables to perform quasi-vertical seismic profiling. This work is based on datasets that have been collected within the frame of three comprehensive offshore measurement campaigns during pile driving and demonstrates the potential of seismic arrivals induced by pile driving for further soil characterization.

  7. Pipe inspection using the pipe crawler. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. In several of the buildings at the Fernald Site, there is piping that was used to transport process materials. As the demolition of these buildings occur, disposal of this piping has become a costly issue. Currently, all process piping is cut into ten-foot or less sections, the ends of the piping are wrapped and taped to prevent the release of any potential contaminants into the air, and the piping is placed in roll off boxes for eventual repackaging and shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal. Alternatives that allow for the onsite disposal of process piping are greatly desired due to the potential for dramatic savings in current offsite disposal costs. No means is currently employed to allow for the adequate inspection of the interior of piping, and consequently, process piping has been assumed to be internally contaminated and thus routinely disposed of at NTS. The BTX-II system incorporates a high-resolution micro color camera with lightheads, cabling, a monitor, and a video recorder. The complete probe is capable of inspecting pipes with an internal diameter (ID) as small as 1.4 inches. By using readily interchangeable lightheads, the same system is capable of inspecting piping up to 24 inches in ID. The original development of the BTX system was for inspection of boiler tubes and small diameter pipes for build-up, pitting, and corrosion. However, the system is well suited for inspecting the interior of most types of piping and other small, confined areas. The report describes the technology, its performance, uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned

  8. Heat pipes and heat pipe exchangers for heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L L; Grakovich, L P; Kiselev, V G; Kurustalev, D K; Matveev, Yu

    1984-01-01

    Heat pipes and heat pipe exchangers are of great importance in power engineering as a means of recovering waste heat of industrial enterprises, solar energy, geothermal waters and deep soil. Heat pipes are highly effective heat transfer units for transferring thermal energy over large distance (tens of meters) with low temperature drops. Their heat transfer characteristics and reliable working for more than 10-15 yr permit the design of new systems with higher heat engineering parameters.

  9. Pipe inspection using the pipe crawler. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. In several of the buildings at the Fernald Site, there is piping that was used to transport process materials. As the demolition of these buildings occur, disposal of this piping has become a costly issue. Currently, all process piping is cut into ten-foot or less sections, the ends of the piping are wrapped and taped to prevent the release of any potential contaminants into the air, and the piping is placed in roll off boxes for eventual repackaging and shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal. Alternatives that allow for the onsite disposal of process piping are greatly desired due to the potential for dramatic savings in current offsite disposal costs. No means is currently employed to allow for the adequate inspection of the interior of piping, and consequently, process piping has been assumed to be internally contaminated and thus routinely disposed of at NTS. The BTX-II system incorporates a high-resolution micro color camera with lightheads, cabling, a monitor, and a video recorder. The complete probe is capable of inspecting pipes with an internal diameter (ID) as small as 1.4 inches. By using readily interchangeable lightheads, the same system is capable of inspecting piping up to 24 inches in ID. The original development of the BTX system was for inspection of boiler tubes and small diameter pipes for build-up, pitting, and corrosion. However, the system is well suited for inspecting the interior of most types of piping and other small, confined areas. The report describes the technology, its performance, uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  10. Analysis of static and dynamic pile-soil-jacket behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azadi, Mohammad Reza Emami

    1998-12-31

    In the offshore industry, recent extreme storms, severe earthquakes and subsidence of the foundation of jacket platforms have shown that new models and methods must take into account the jacket- pile-soil foundation interaction as well as the non-linear dynamic performance/loading effects. This thesis begins with a review of the state of art pile-soil interaction model, recognizing that most existing pile-soil models have been established based on large diameter pile tests on specific sites. The need for site independent and mechanistic pile-soil interaction models led to the development of new (t-z) and (p-y) disk models. These are validated using the available database from recent large diameter pile tests in the North Sea and Gulf of Mexico. The established static disk models are applied for non-linear static analysis of the jacket-pile-soil system under extreme wave loading. Dynamic pile-soil interaction is studied and a new disk-cone model is developed for the non-linear and non-homogeneous soils. This model is applied to both surface and embedded disks in a soil layer with non-linear properties. Simplified non-linear as well as more complex analysis methods are used to study the dynamic response of the jacket platform under extreme sea and seismic loading. Ductility spectra analysis is introduced and used to study the dynamic performance of the jacket systems near collapse. Case studies are used to illustrate the effects of structural, foundation failure characteristics as well as dynamic loading effects on the overall performance of the jacket-pile-soil systems near ultimate collapse. 175 refs., 429 figs., 70 tabs.

  11. Field Test of Driven Pile Group under Lateral Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorska, Karolina; Rybak, Jaroslaw; Wyjadlowski, Marek

    2017-12-01

    All the geotechnical works need to be tested because the diversity of soil parameters is much higher than in other fields of construction. Horizontal load tests are necessary to determine the lateral capacity of driven piles subject to lateral load. Various load tests were carried out altogether on the test field in Kutno (Poland). While selecting the piles for load tests, different load combinations were taken into account. The piles with diverse length were chosen, on the basis of the previous tests of their length and integrity. The subsoil around the piles consisted of mineral soils: clays and medium compacted sands with the density index ID>0.50. The pile heads were free. The points of support of the “base” to which the dial gauges (displacement sensors) were fastened were located at the distance of 0.7 m from the side surface of the pile loaded laterally. In order to assure the independence of measurement, additional control (verifying) geodetic survey of the displacement of the piles subject to the load tests was carried out (by means of the alignment method). The trial load was imposed in stages by means of a hydraulic jack. The oil pressure in the actuator was corrected by means of a manual pump in order to ensure the constant value of the load in the on-going process of the displacement of the pile under test. On the basis of the obtained results it is possible to verify the numerical simulations of the behaviour of piles loaded by a lateral force.

  12. Elementary calculation of the shutdown delay of a pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yvon, J.

    1949-04-01

    This study analyzes theoretically the progress of the shutdown of a nuclear pile (reactor) when a cadmium rod is introduced instantaneously. For simplification reasons, the environment of the pile is considered as homogenous and only thermal neutrons are considered (delayed neutrons are neglected). Calculation is made first for a plane configuration (plane vessel, plane multiplier without reflector, and plane multiplier with reflector), and then for a cylindrical configuration (multiplier without reflector, multiplier with infinitely thick reflector, finite cylindrical piles without reflector and with reflector). The self-sustain conditions are calculated for each case and the multiplication length and the shutdown delay are deduced. (J.S.)

  13. Gas reactor in-pile safety test project (GRIST-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, A.P. Jr.; Arbtin, E.; St Pierre, R.

    1979-01-01

    Although out-of-pile tests may be expected to confirm individual phenomena models in core disruptive accident analysis codes, only in-pile tests are capable of verifying the extremely complex integrated model effects within the appropriate time phase for these accidents. For this reason, the GRIST-2 project, the purpose of which is to design and construct an in-pile helium loop capable of transient safety testing in the TREAT facility in Idaho, forms a cornerstone of the US GCFR safety program. The project organization, experiment program, facility, helium system design, and schedule which have been selected to meet the objectives are described

  14. Monitoring moisture content, temperature, and humidity in whole-tree pine chip piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Klepac; Dana Mitchell; Jason Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Two whole-tree chip piles were monitored for moisture content, temperature, and relative humidity from October 8th, 2010 to March 16th, 2011 at a location in south Alabama. Initial moisture content samples were collected immediately after chips were delivered to the study location on October 8th for Pile 1 and October 22nd for Pile 2. During pile construction, Lascar...

  15. 40 CFR 761.347 - First level sampling-waste from existing piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... existing piles. 761.347 Section 761.347 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... from existing piles. (a) General. Sample piles that are either specifically configured for sampling... alternate sampling plan in accordance with § 761.62(c). (b) Specifically configured piles. A specifically...

  16. Pile mixing increases greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stored dairy manure was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover pilot-scale manure piles. GHG emissions from piles that were mixed four times during the 80 day trial were about 20% higher than unmixed piles. ...

  17. Estimating volume, biomass, and potential emissions of hand-piled fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton S. Wright; Cameron S. Balog; Jeffrey W. Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Dimensions, volume, and biomass were measured for 121 hand-constructed piles composed primarily of coniferous (n = 63) and shrub/hardwood (n = 58) material at sites in Washington and California. Equations using pile dimensions, shape, and type allow users to accurately estimate the biomass of hand piles. Equations for estimating true pile volume from simple geometric...

  18. The effect of loading rate on pile bearing capacity of saturated sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archeewa, E.

    2005-01-01

    Pile load tests are commonly used by engineers to determine its bearing capacity. At present, there are three methods of pile load tests: the static, the dynamic and the quasi-static test. The static pile load test is done by applying an axial load on the pile with a long duration. The dynamic and

  19. Comparison of Three Different Methods for Pile Integrity Testing on a Cylindrical Homogeneous Polyamide Specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugovtsova, Y. D.; Soldatov, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    Three different methods for pile integrity testing are proposed to compare on a cylindrical homogeneous polyamide specimen. The methods are low strain pile integrity testing, multichannel pile integrity testing and testing with a shaker system. Since the low strain pile integrity testing is well-established and standardized method, the results from it are used as a reference for other two methods.

  20. Pipe support program at Pickering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahazizian, L.A.; Jazic, Z.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the pipe support program at Pickering. The program addresses the highest priority in operating nuclear generating stations, safety. We present the need: safety, the process: managed and strategic, and the result: assurance of critical piping integrity. In the past, surveillance programs periodically inspected some systems, equipment, and individual components. This comprehensive program is based on a managed process that assesses risk to identify critical piping systems and supports and to develop a strategy for surveillance and maintenance. The strategy addresses all critical piping supports. Successful implementation of the program has provided assurance of critical piping and support integrity and has contributed to decreasing probability of pipe failure, reducing risk to worker and public safety, improving configuration management, and reducing probability of production losses. (author)

  1. Field test on sand compaction pile method with copper slag sand; Dosuisai slag wo mochiita SCP koho no shiken seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, K.; Matsui, H.; Naruse, E.; Kitazume, M. [Port and Harbour Research Inst., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-09-20

    This paper describes the sand compaction pile (SCP) method using copper slag sand. The SCP method is a method by which sand compaction piles are constructed in the ground, and improvement can be obtained in a short period. This method has been widely used even in the port areas for enhancing the bearing power of soft clay ground and the lateral resistance of sheet pile. A great deal of sand is required as a material. The sand requires high permeability, proper size distribution with less fine particle fraction content, easy compaction property with enough strength, and easy discharging property from the casing of construction machines as required properties. Recently, it becomes hard to secure proper sand materials. The copper slag sand is obtained from refining process of copper as a by-product which is quenched in water flow and crushed in water. The copper slag sand has higher particle density than that of sand, excellent permeability, and similar size distribution to that of sand. From compaction drainage triaxial compression test and permeability test, it was found that the mechanical properties of copper slag sand did not change by the crushing of grains with keeping excellent permeability. Through the test construction, applicability of the copper slag sand to the SCP method could be confirmed as an alternate material of sand. 17 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Pile foundation response in liquefiable soil deposit during strong earthquakes. ; Centrifugal test for pile foundation model and correlation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Y.; Miura, K. (Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Scott, R.; Hushmand, B. (California Inst. of Technology, California, CA (United States))

    1992-09-30

    For the purpose of studying the pile foundation response in liquefiable soil deposit during earthquakes, a centrifugal loading system is employed which can reproduce the stress conditions of the soil in the actual ground, and earthquake wave vibration tests are performed in dry and saturated sand layers using a pile foundation model equipped with 4 piles. In addition, the result of the tests is analyzed by simulation using an analytic method for which effective stress is taken into consideration to investigate the effectiveness of this analytical model. It is clarified from the result of the experiments that the bending moment of the pile and the response characteristics of the foundation in the pile foundation response in saturated sand are greatly affected by the longer period of acceleration wave form of the ground and the increase in the ground displacement due to excess pore water pressure buildup. It is shown that the analytical model of the pile foundation/ground system is appropriate, and that this analytical method is effective in evaluating the seismic response of the pile foundation in nonlinear liquefiable soil. 23 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Methanogens predominate in natural corrosion protective layers on metal sheet piles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kip, Nardy; Jansen, S.; Leite, M.F.A.; De Hollander, M.; Afanasyev, M.; Kuramae, E.E.; van Veen, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms are able to cause, but also to inhibit or protect against corrosion. Corrosion inhibition by microbial processes may be due to the formation of mineral deposition layers on metal objects. Such deposition layers have been found in archaeological studies on ancient metal objects, buried

  4. Monitoring DC stray current interference of steel sheet pile structures in railway environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Neeft, E.A.C.; Leegwater, G.; Kanten-Roos, W. van; Courage, W.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Steel structures near DC powered railways are expected to be affected by stray current interference. This causes accelerated corrosion rates. Therefore steel is often not used as a building material in these cases, although certain advantages over the alternative material concrete exist. These

  5. Physical and numerical modelling of earth pressure on anchored sheet pile walls in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette Susanne; Fuglsang, Leif D

    2006-01-01

    The influence of wall flexibility on earth pressure, bending moments and failure modes is studied. Numerical models are compared to results from model tests carried out in a geotechnical centrifuge. The back-fill is dry sand and failure is introduced by allowing the wall to rotate around the anchor...

  6. Uncertainty assessment of a dike with an anchored sheet pile wall using FEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rippi, Aikaterini; Nuttall, Jonathan; Teixeira, Ana; Schweckendiek, T.; Lang, M.; Klijn, F.; Samuels, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch design codes for the dikes with retaining walls rely on Finite Element Analysis (FEM) in combination with partial safety factors. However, this can lead to conservative designs. For this reason, in this study, a reliability analysis is carried out with FEM calculations aiming to

  7. A Sustainable Approach for Optimal Steel Sheet Pile Structure Assessment, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    plants, electrical transmission network, pipelines) • public buildings (e.g., schools, hospitals, post offices, police stations, fire houses, court...developed under REMR focused on concrete and steel materials, along with geotechnical, hydraulic, electrical and mechanical, environmental, and coastal...between the wet or dry kilning processes in ce- ment production cannot be discerned from the overall impacts associ- ated with concrete production. The

  8. Model Solutions for Performance-Based Seismic Analysis of an Anchored Sheet Pile Quay Wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, C.J.W.; Peters, D.J.; de Gijt, J.G.; Metrikine, A.; Jonkman, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional seismic designs of quay walls in ports are mostly based on pseudo-static analysis. A more advanced alternative is the Performance-Based Design (PBD) method, which evaluates permanent deformations and amounts of (repairable) damage under seismic loading. The aim of this study is to

  9. Characteristics and distribution of soil piping erosion in loess-derived soils of Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verachtert, E.; Van Den Eeckhaut, M.; Poesen, J.; Deckers, J.

    2009-01-01

    Subsurface erosion (piping, tunnel erosion) in non-karstic landscapes has been considered of little importance compared to sheet and gully erosion for a long time. Although the basic factors responsible for piping in certain environments are well understood, there is still uncertainty about the topographic and soil properties inducing subsurface pipe development in loess-derived soils under temperate climate. Therefore, this research aims at understanding the factors controlling the occurrence of piping erosion in the loess-derived soils of the Flemish Ardennes (Belgium). Analysis of ortho photos as well as field surveys were conducted to detect the sites with piping in the study area. Enquiries among farmers and technical services were carried out. In total, 114 sites (parcels) with 301 collapsed soil pipes were found in a 170 kM 2 study area. For each site with piping, data was collected on possible controlling factors: topographic parameters, land use, lithology and soil type. Land use plays an important role as 94% of the sites with piping are found under pasture. (Author) 15 refs.

  10. Characteristics and distribution of soil piping erosion in loess-derived soils of Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verachtert, E.; Van Den Eeckhaut, M.; Poesen, J.; Deckers, J.

    2009-07-01

    Subsurface erosion (piping, tunnel erosion) in non-karstic landscapes has been considered of little importance compared to sheet and gully erosion for a long time. Although the basic factors responsible for piping in certain environments are well understood, there is still uncertainty about the topographic and soil properties inducing subsurface pipe development in loess-derived soils under temperate climate. Therefore, this research aims at understanding the factors controlling the occurrence of piping erosion in the loess-derived soils of the Flemish Ardennes (Belgium). Analysis of ortho photos as well as field surveys were conducted to detect the sites with piping in the study area. Enquiries among farmers and technical services were carried out. In total, 114 sites (parcels) with 301 collapsed soil pipes were found in a 170 kM{sup 2} study area. For each site with piping, data was collected on possible controlling factors: topographic parameters, land use, lithology and soil type. Land use plays an important role as 94% of the sites with piping are found under pasture. (Author) 15 refs.

  11. Numerical Simulation for the Soil-Pile-Structure Interaction under Seismic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Luan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Piles are widely used as reinforcement structures in geotechnical engineering designs. If the settlement of the soil is greater than the pile, the pile is pulled down by the soil, and negative friction force is produced. Previous studies have mainly focused on the interaction of pile-soil under static condition. However, many pile projects are located in earthquake-prone areas, which indicate the importance of determining the response of the pile-soil structure under seismic load. In this paper, the nonlinear, explicit, and finite difference program FLAC3D, which considers the mechanical behavior of soil-pile interaction, is used to establish an underconsolidated soil-pile mode. The response processes of the pile side friction force, the pile axial force, and the soil response under seismic load are also analyzed.

  12. Experimental Comparison of Statically and Cyclically Loaded Non-Slender Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    rigid form of motion. The Winkler model approach, employing p-y curves to describe the soil-pile interaction, is often employed as the design method for laterally loaded piles. The p-y curve formulation, currently recommended by the American Petroleum Institute and Det Norske Veritas, is based on tests...... on slender piles with length to diameter ratios larger than ten and outer pile diameters less than two meters. Hence, the pile tests that form the basis of the currently recommended p-y curve formulation are conducted with use of piles that exhibits a flexible behaviour, which is in contrast to the piles...... used as foundation for modern offshore wind energy converters. The aim of the present work is to investigate the pile behaviour for non-slender piles by means of small-scale testing. The pile behaviour is investigated and compared for both static and cyclic loading. When conducting small-scale tests...

  13. The Use of Tactile Sensors and PIV Analysis for Understanding the Bearing Mechanism of Pile Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhijia; Chen, Yulong

    2018-02-06

    Model tests were carried out in dry silica sand under pile loading and visualizing observation to investigate the behavior of a pile group. The pile group consisted of nine cylindrical model piles of 40 mm in diameter in most tests or three rectangular parallelepiped model piles in the visualizing observation. Pile spacings of 200 mm and 100 mm between pile centers were used in the models. Tactile sensors were installed to measure the pressure distribution in the ground and colored sand layer with particle image velocimetry (PIV) analysis to reveal the ground deformation in addition to strain gauges inside the model piles to investigate the interaction among group piles. The tests results showed that a narrower spacing between piles resulted in a wider affected area of the ground and the interaction was more significant below the tips.

  14. Damping in LMFBR pipe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Barta, D.A.; Lindquist, M.R.; Renkey, E.J.; Ryan, J.A.

    1983-06-01

    LMFBR pipe systems typically utilize a thicker insulation package than that used on water plant pipe systems. They are supported with special insulated pipe clamps. Mechanical snubbers are employed to resist seismic loads. Recent laboratory testing has indicated that these features provide significantly more damping than presently allowed by Regulatory Guide 1.61 for water plant pipe systems. This paper presents results of additional in-situ vibration tests conducted on FFTF pipe systems. Pipe damping values obtained at various excitation levels are presented. Effects of filtering data to provide damping values at discrete frequencies and the alternate use of a single equivalent modal damping value are discussed. These tests further confirm that damping in typical LMFBR pipe systems is larger than presently used in pipe design. Although some increase in damping occurred with increased excitation amplitude, the effect was not significant. Recommendations are made to use an increased damping value for both the OBE and DBE seismic events in design of LMFBR pipe systems

  15. Dynamic experiments on cracked pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, M.; Brunet, G.; Buland, P.

    1991-01-01

    In order to apply the leak before break concept to piping systems, the behavior of cracked pipes under dynamic, and especially seismic loading must be studied. In a first phase, an experimental program on cracked stainless steel pipes under quasi-static monotonic loading has been conducted. In this paper, the dynamic tests on the same pipe geometry are described. These tests have been performed on a shaking table with a mono frequency input signal. The main parameter of the tests is the frequency of excitation versus the frequency of the system

  16. Water hammer in elastic pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.; Tiselj, I.

    2002-01-01

    One dimensional two-fluid six-equation model of two-phase flow, that can be found in computer codes like RELAP5, TRAC, and CATHARE, was upgraded with additional terms, which enable modelling of the pressure waves in elastic pipes. It is known that pipe elasticity reduces the propagation velocity of the shock and other pressure waves in the piping systems. Equations that include the pipe elasticty terms are used in WAHA code, which is being developed within the WAHALoads project of 5't'h EU research program.(author)

  17. Carbon sheet pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Sagara, A.; Kawamura, T.; Motojima, O.; Ono, T.

    1993-07-01

    A new hydrogen pumping scheme has been proposed which controls recycling of the particles for significant improvement of the energy confinement in toroidal magnetic fusion devices. In this scheme, a part of the vacuum vessel surface near the divertor is covered with carbon sheets of a large surface area. Before discharge initiation, the sheets are baked up to 700 ∼ 1000degC to remove the previously trapped hydrogen atoms. After being cooled down to below ∼ 200degC, the unsaturated carbon sheets trap high energy charge exchange hydrogen atoms effectively during a discharge and overall pumping efficiency can be as high as ∼ 50 %. (author)

  18. A Systematic Approach for Determining Vertical Pile Depth of Embedment in Cohensionless Soils to Withstand Lateral Barge Train Impact Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-30

    at the top of the piles, vertical pile groups must be designed to exhibit long-pile behavior (e.g., nominal change of deflection at the pile cap...smeared crack” pile properties (and thus, the advisability of using COM624G for analysis) for the incremental pushover design method, as compared...to show nominal change as the pile-tip depth is increased. This same behavior should exist for piles in any homogeneous, cohesionless soil. From

  19. Zebra mussels enter the compost pile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Zebra mussels, introduced accidentally into the Great Lakes, are overpopulating at phenomenal rates, especially in Lake Erie, where they damage oyster beds, foster excessive algae growth and cling to boats. They also clog the intake pipes of city water systems and power generating plants. The expense of cleaning intake screens is considerable, since they have to be physically removed and cleaned. Then the mussels must be disposed of, costing some power plants as much as $50,000 a year to landfill, says Wayne Koser of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources.

  20. An Estimating Formula of Lateral Load Acting on Stabilizing Piles for Landslide

    OpenAIRE

    尾崎, 叡司; 石田, 陽博

    1984-01-01

    An estimating method of lateral load acting on stabilizing piles in a raw due to the plastic deformation of soil for landslide was discussed in this paper. Special emphasis was put on the problems of the space between stabilizing piles and of lateral load induced in piles through the surrounding soils due to plastic deformation in the vicinity of piles. In order to obtain an analytical result of the lateral load acting on stabilizing piles, the authors tried to solve the equilibrium equation ...

  1. Assessment of Soil Arching Factor for Retaining Wall Pile Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Despite the prevalence of the soldier piles retaining wall systems as temporary and even permanent shoring systems along state highways, relatively little is known on the effect of the foreslope bench width and the slope inclination on the arching ca...

  2. Field testing of jet-grouted pile : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In many areas of Florida, local geology dictates the use of deep foundations for transportation structures bridges, noise walls, signage, etc. When concrete piles are used, they are either prestressed at the casting yard, cast in situ through a h...

  3. 20051655 - Petronas, Capacity of Driven Piles Offshore Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders

    This document is the second of four notes concerning the effects of time (in this case ageing) on the vertical capacity of piles. It includes a critical review of the relevant publications described in note a....

  4. Lateral response of pile foundations in liquefiable soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asskar Janalizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquefaction has been a main cause of damage to civil engineering structures in seismically active areas. The effects of damage of liquefaction on deep foundations are very destructive. Seismic behavior of pile foundations is widely discussed by many researchers for safer and more economic design purposes. This paper presents a pseudo-static method for analysis of piles in liquefiable soil under seismic loads. A free-field site response analysis using three-dimensional (3D numerical modeling was performed to determine kinematic loads from lateral ground displacements and inertial loads from vibration of the superstructure. The effects of various parameters, such as soil layering, kinematic and inertial forces, boundary condition of pile head and ground slope, on pile response were studied. By comparing the numerical results with the centrifuge test results, it can be concluded that the use of the p-y curves with various degradation factors in liquefiable sand gives reasonable results.

  5. Airborne thermography of temperature patterns in sugar beet piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D. G.; Bichsel, S.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the use of thermography for locating spoilage areas (chimneys) within storage piles and to subsequently use the information for the scheduling of their processing. Thermal-infrared quantitative scanner data were acquired initially on January 16, 1975, over the storage piles at Moorhead, Minnesota, both during the day and predawn. Photographic data were acquired during the day mission to evaluate the effect of uneven snow cover on the thermal emittance, and the predawn thermography was used to locate potential chimneys. The piles were examined the day prior for indications of spoilage areas, and the ground crew indicated that no spoilage areas were located using their existing methods. Nine spoilage areas were interpreted from the thermography. The piles were rechecked by ground methods three days following the flights. Six of the nine areas delineated by thermography were actual spoilage areas.

  6. Repair systems for deteriorated bridge piles : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop a durable repair system for deteriorated steel bridge piles that : can be implemented without the need for dewatering. A rigorous survey of the relevant practice nationwide was : conducted to infor...

  7. After the fire: preparing the Windscale Piles for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The Windscale Piles in the UK were taken out of service in 1957 after a fire in Pile 1. They have remained essentially in the same state since that time and during this period there have been periodic inspections of the complete structures to ensure that there is no degradation taking place. The Piles are in a safe condition and would remain so for a considerable period (50 years or more) provided they were undisturbed. However, the Piles must be decommissioned at some time and clearly this will require preparatory work which is now being carried out. The work is scheduled for completion in 1994, at a cost of Pound 8 million at present day prices. (author)

  8. Hydroacoustic pile driving noise study - comprehensive report : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-28

    Alaska DOT&PF and JASCO Applied Sciences partnered to characterize underwater noise from pile driving activities to inform the assessment of the potential impact of such noise on marine mammals. JASCO measured underwater sounds at the Kake, Auke Bay,...

  9. The Influence of Time on Bearing Capacity of Driven Piles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J. Lysebjerg; Augustesen, A.; Sørensen, Carsten S.

    2004-01-01

    In Danish engineering practice, one of the ways to determine the ultimate bearing capacity of an axially loaded pile is by means of geostatic formulas. In the equation describing the contribution from the shaft friction to the total bearing capacity for piles located entirely or partly in clay......, a regeneration factor appears. The regeneration factor accounts for effects of dissipation of pore pressure due to pile driving and true time effects such as ageing on the ultimate bearing capacity. Normally the factor is 0.4 but in this paper, the influence of the undrained shear strength and time...... on the regeneration factor is investigated. A relation between the quantities is proposed, which in the end may imply an economical benefit in the design of pile foundations....

  10. Piles, tabs and overlaps in navigation among documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    Navigation among documents is a frequent, but ill supported activity. Overlapping or tabbed documents are widespread, but they offer limited visibility of their content. We explore variations on navigation support: arranging documents with tabs, as overlapping windows, and in piles. In an experim......Navigation among documents is a frequent, but ill supported activity. Overlapping or tabbed documents are widespread, but they offer limited visibility of their content. We explore variations on navigation support: arranging documents with tabs, as overlapping windows, and in piles....... In an experiment we compared 11 participants’ navigation with these variations and found strong task effects. Overall, overlapping windows were preferred and their structured layout worked well with some tasks. Surprisingly, tabbed documents were efficient in tasks requiring simply finding a document. Piled...... on document navigation and its support by piling....

  11. Acoustic emission diagnosis of concrete-piles damaged by earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiotami, Tomoki; Sakaino, Norio; Ohtsu, Masayasu; Shigeishi, Mitsuhiro

    1997-01-01

    Earthquakes often impose unexpected damage on structures. Concerning the soundness of the structure, the upper portion is easily estimated by visual observation, while the lower portion located in deep underground is difficult to be estimated. Thus there exist few effective methods to investigate underground structures. In this paper, a new inspection technique for damage evaluation of concrete-piles utilizing acoustic emission (AE) is proposed, and is verified by a series of experiments. Firstly, such basic characteristics as the attenuation and effective wave-guides for detecting AE underground, are examined through laboratory tests. Secondary, fracture tests of full-scale prefabricated concrete piles are conducted, and the characteristics of the AE are examined. Finally, actual concrete-piles attacked by the 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake are investigated. Results confirm that the estimated damages by the proposed method are in good agreement with actual damaged locations. Thus, the method is very effective for the diagnosis of the concrete-piles.

  12. Computerised analysis of sulphate action on model concrete piles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukh, A.M.; Balasubramanian, S.; Venugopal, C.

    Sulphate action severely affects the durability of marine structures. It is imperative to study precisely the effects of magnesium sulphate on pile foundations in the marine environment. In the present paper an attempt is made to assess and analyse...

  13. Dynamic Soil-Pile Interaction for large diameter monopile foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara

    2013-01-01

    of the study is to analyse the dynamic interaction of the soil and a single pile embedded in it by accounting for the geometric and stiffness properties of the pile. In doing so, a semi – analytical approach is adopted based on the fundamental solution of horizontal pile vibration by Novak and Nogami (1977...... eigenfrequencies of the soil layer do not affect the soil – pile interaction. The decrease of the eigefrequency of the OWT depends on the aforementioned variation of the dynamic stiffness and the slenderness ratio of the monopile.......Monopile foundations have been used in a large extent to support offshore wind turbines (OWT), being considered as a reliable and cost effective design solution. The accurate estimation of their dynamic response characteristics is essential, since the design of support structures for OWTs has been...

  14. Plastics pipe couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, J.B.

    1980-07-01

    A method is described of making a pipe coupling of the type comprising a plastics socket and a resilient annular sealing member secured in the mouth thereof, in which the material of at least one component of the coupling is subjected to irradiation with high energy radiation whereby the material is caused to undergo cross-linking. As examples, the coupling may comprise a polyethylene or plasticised PVC socket the material of which is subjected to irradiation, and the sealing member may be moulded from a thermoplastic elastomer which is subjected to irradiation. (U.K.)

  15. Processing Satellite Imagery To Detect Waste Tire Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, Joseph; Schmidt, Cynthia; Wuinlan, Becky; Huybrechts, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    A methodology for processing commercially available satellite spectral imagery has been developed to enable identification and mapping of waste tire piles in California. The California Integrated Waste Management Board initiated the project and provided funding for the method s development. The methodology includes the use of a combination of previously commercially available image-processing and georeferencing software used to develop a model that specifically distinguishes between tire piles and other objects. The methodology reduces the time that must be spent to initially survey a region for tire sites, thereby increasing inspectors and managers time available for remediation of the sites. Remediation is needed because millions of used tires are discarded every year, waste tire piles pose fire hazards, and mosquitoes often breed in water trapped in tires. It should be possible to adapt the methodology to regions outside California by modifying some of the algorithms implemented in the software to account for geographic differences in spectral characteristics associated with terrain and climate. The task of identifying tire piles in satellite imagery is uniquely challenging because of their low reflectance levels: Tires tend to be spectrally confused with shadows and deep water, both of which reflect little light to satellite-borne imaging systems. In this methodology, the challenge is met, in part, by use of software that implements the Tire Identification from Reflectance (TIRe) model. The development of the TIRe model included incorporation of lessons learned in previous research on the detection and mapping of tire piles by use of manual/ visual and/or computational analysis of aerial and satellite imagery. The TIRe model is a computational model for identifying tire piles and discriminating between tire piles and other objects. The input to the TIRe model is the georeferenced but otherwise raw satellite spectral images of a geographic region to be surveyed

  16. 20051655 - Petronas, Capacity of Driven Piles Offshore Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Andersen, Lars

    This document is the third of four notes concerning the vertical capacity of piles. It includes an assessment of the effect of previous static load testing upon the measured capacity, i.e. preshearing effects.......This document is the third of four notes concerning the vertical capacity of piles. It includes an assessment of the effect of previous static load testing upon the measured capacity, i.e. preshearing effects....

  17. Seismological analysis of group pile foundation for reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Demin.

    1984-01-01

    In the seismic analysis for reactor foundation of nuclear power plant, the local raise of base mat is of great significance. Base on the study of static and dynamic stability as well as soil-structure interaction of group piles on stratified soil, this paper presents a method of seismic analysis for group piles of reactor foundation at abroad, and a case history is enclosed. (Author)

  18. Pile Structure Program, Projected Start Date : January 1, 2010 (Implementation).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Chris; Corbett, Catherine [Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership; Ebberts, Blaine [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    2009-07-27

    The 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion includes Reasonable and Prudent Alternative 38-Piling and Piling Dike Removal Program. This RPA directs the Action Agencies to work with the Estuary Partnership to develop and implement a piling and pile dike removal program. The program has since evolved to include modifying pile structures to enhance their habitat value and complexity by adding large woody debris. The geographic extent of the Pile Structure Program (PSP) includes all tidally-influenced portions of the lower Columbia River below Bonneville Dam; however, it will focus on the mainstem. The overarching goal of the PSP is to enhance and restore ecosystem structure and function for the recovery of federally listed salmonids through the active management of pile structures. To attain this goal, the program team developed the following objectives: (1) Develop a plan to remove or modify pile structures that have lower value to navigation channel maintenance, and in which removal or modification will present low-risk to adjacent land use, is cost-effective, and would result in increased ecosystem function. (2) Determine program benefits for juvenile salmonids and the ecosystem through a series of intensively monitored pilot projects. (3) Incorporate best available science and pilot project results into an adaptive management framework that will guide future management by prioritizing projects with the highest benefits. The PSP's hypotheses, which form the basis of the pilot project experiments, are organized into five categories: Sediment and Habitat-forming Processes, Habitat Conditions and Food Web, Piscivorous Fish, Piscivorous Birds, and Toxic Contaminant Reduction. These hypotheses are based on the effects listed in the Estuary Module (NOAA Fisheries in press) and others that emerged during literature reviews, discussions with scientists, and field visits. Using pilot project findings, future implementation will be adaptively managed

  19. THE NEW STRUCTURE OF A PLATE-PILE FOUNDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMORODOV О. V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. In the construction of high-rise buildings with significant loads on foundations and bedding at the base of not rocky soils tend to use the most common pile foundation to reduce the deformation and correspond to regulations [1] on the maximum permissible deformation. Monitoring of the stress-strain state (SSS pile foundations constructed buildings shows the existing reserves of bearing capacity on the one hand - soil bases of the second group of limit states, on the other - the foundation of the first group of limit states by regulating the SSS foundation during construction and exploitation. Therefore, are increasingly using more progressive structure of foundations consisting of piles and of plate, as well as methods for their construction [2 - 10], however, in their design there are a number of disadvantages associated with the ambiguity of the application of methods for the calculation of such structures, which allows to do only partial conclusions and recommendations. Purpose. Is proposing the new structure of a plate-pile foundation, which overcomes the drawbacks of the existing design solutions and methods of consruction their, as well as is proposing an engineering method of a determination of basic parameters. Conclusion. Is proposes the new structure of a plate-pile foundation and the method of a determination of basic parameters his in the design of a soil base to the maximum permissible deformation Su buildings. Efficiency of application this type plate-pile foundation obtained by rational distribution resistance between a plate and piles, when under load from the building to the first work fully incorporated plate that allows maximum deformed for plate, and then the piles - due to of the hinge connection with the plate. Thus, depending on the maximum permissible deformation for buildings resistance of plate part of a full load of more than 50%, that significantly reduces the consumption of concrete.

  20. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system

  1. Heat pipe and method of production of a heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The heat pipe consists of a copper pipe in which a capillary network or wick of heat-conducting material is arranged in direct contact with the pipe along its whole length. Furthermore, the interior space of the tube contains an evaporable liquid for pipe transfer. If water is used, the capillary network consists of, e.g., a phosphorus band network. To avoid contamination of the interior of the heat pipe during sealing, its ends are closed by mechanical deformation so that an arched or plane surface is obtained which is in direct contact with the network. After evacuation of the interior space, the remaining opening is closed with a tapered pin. The ratio wall thickness/tube diameter is between 0.01 and 0.6. (TK/AK) [de

  2. Relationship between collapse history and ore distribution in Sage Breccia pipe, northwestern Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, N.A.; Mead, R.H.; McMurray, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Sage pipe is similar to other collapse breccia pipes in northern Arizona which have their beginnings in cave systems in the Redwall Limestone. Stoping of successively younger units caused the upward propagation of the pipe and provided the pipe-filling breccia. The Sage pipe extends at least 2,500 ft (762 m) vertically; the horizontal dimensions range from 100 to 300 ft (30.5-91 m), depending on variations in the adjoining host stratigraphy. The composition and distribution of breccia facies suggest a complex collapse history and variability in the mechanics of collapse. Rock failure took place both by block stoping and by decementation of sandstone and siltstone followed by flow of unconsolidated grains. The resulting breccias range from matrix to fragment-dominated, to sand flow breccia resulting from flow of individual grains. Episodic secondary collapse or readjustment within the breccia pile complicated facies distribution. Paragenetic studies indicate multiple periods of mineralization at Sage resulting in enrichment in an extensive suite of elements. Ore-grade uranium mineralization extends vertically for nearly 700 ft (213 m). Lateral distribution of the ore is variable and is directly related to breccia facies distribution. In generally, the more permeable breccias tend to be the most highly mineralized. Fracture, intergranular, and interfragment permeability were important to mineral distribution. Breccia continuity or plumbing was also important to lateral and vertical mineral distribution

  3. Reheating experiment in the 35-ton pile; Experience de rechauffage sur la pile de 35 tonnes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherot, J; Girard, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    When the 35-ton pile was started up it was necessary for us, in order to study certain effects (xenon for example), to know the anti reactivity value of the rods as a function of their dimensions. We have made use of the possibility, in the reheating experiment, of raising the temperature of the graphite-uranium block by simple heating, in order to determine the anti reactivity curves of the rods, and from that the overall temperature coefficient. For the latter we have considered two solutions: first, one in which the average temperature of the pile is defined as our arithmetical mean of the different values given by the 28 thermocouples distributed throughout the pile; a second in which the temperature in likened to a poisoning and is balanced by the square of the flux. The way in which the measurements have been made is indicated, and the different instruments used are described. The method of reheating does not permit the separation of the temperature coefficients of uranium and of graphite. The precision obtained is only moderate, and suffers from the changes of various parameters necessary to other manipulations carried out simultaneously (life time modulators for example), and finally it is a function of the comparatively restricted time allowed. It is evident of course that more careful stabilisation at the different plateaux chosen would have necessitated long periods of reheating. (author) [French] Nous avions besoin lors de la montee en puissance de la pile de 35 tonnes, pour l'elude de divers effets (xenon par ex.) de la valeur de l'antireactivite des barres en fonction de leurs cotes. Nous avons profite dans l'experience rechauffage de la possibilite de monter en temperature, non nucleairement, le bloc graphite uranium, pour determiner les courbes d'antireactivite des barres et de la le coefficient global de temperature. Nous avons considere pour ce dernier deux solutions. Une premiere dans laquelle la temperature moyenne de la pile est definie comme

  4. Anesthesia Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Anesthesia Anesthesia Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area En español ... Version (464 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is anesthesia? Anesthesia is a medical treatment that prevents patients ...

  5. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Structural Biology Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (688 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  6. Radiation protecting sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makiguchi, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    As protection sheets used in radioactivity administration areas, a thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet with a thickness of less 0.5 mm, solid content (ash) of less than 5% and a shore D hardness of less than 60 is used. A composite sheet with thickness of less than 0.5 mm laminated or coated with such a thermoplastic polyurethane composition as a surface layer and the thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet applied with secondary fabrication are used. This can satisfy all of the required properties, such as draping property, abrasion resistance, high breaking strength, necking resistance, endurance strength, as well as chemical resistance and easy burnability in burning furnace. Further, by forming uneveness on the surface by means of embossing, etc. safety problems such as slippage during operation and walking can be overcome. (T.M.)

  7. Global ice sheet modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed

  8. PROCESS DIAGRAMS FOR INSTALLATION OF DRIVEN PILES IN PENETRATED WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the main options of improved and newly devised designs and process diagrams for installation of foundations made of driven, or jack, piles in the penetrated wells with expanded shoe, mainly in weak wet (waterlogged and water-saturated soils. The article presents six options of process diagrams for installation of driven piles in penetrated wells, listing the main procedures: for well-compacted weak soils, for the case when the water ingress is excluded, for the case when it is necessary to increase the load-bearing capacity of pile's bearing face in the waterlogged soils, for the case when the load-bearing capacity of the pile shall be increased both for the end and for the sides, for the case when peat or other biogenous water-saturated soils are present at the bottom of the well, and for the case when there is no contracted zone nor practical possibility to ensure the stability of the walls. The proposed six options of process diagrams for installation of the driven piles in penetrated wells provide expansion of their area of application regarding the soil conditions, increase of load-bearing capacity, and possibility of using jack systems for driving the piles under conditions of dense urban development.

  9. Kinematic seismic response of piles in layered soil profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Khan, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is aimed at highlighting the importance of Kinematic Seismic Response of Piles, a phenomenon often ignored in dynamic analysis. A case study is presented where the end bearing pile is embedded in two layer soil system of highly contrasting stiffnesses; a typical case where kinematic loading plays important role. The pile soil system is modeled as continuous system and as discrete parameter system; both are based on BDWF (Beam on Dynamic Winkler Foundation) formulation. For discrete parameter system, a finite element software SAP2000 is used and the modeling technique of kinematic interaction in finite element software is discussed. For pile soil system modeled as continuous system, a general MATLAB code is developed capable of performing elastic site response analysis in two layer soil system, solving differential equation governing kinematic interaction, and giving as output the maximum ground displacement, maximum pile displacement, rotation, moment and shear distribution along pile length. The paper concludes that kinematic seismic actions must be evaluated particularly at the interface of soil layers of significantly differing soil stiffnesses. (author)

  10. Theoretical computation background for transformation of foundations using pile drains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ter-Martirosyan Zaven

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the design of foundations for buildings and structures of various purposes, including improved risk, weak water-saturated clay soils with low mechanical characteristics are often found on a construction site. One of the possible ways of using them as a foundation is to seal them in various ways, including using pile drains of sand or rock stone material that are capable of both absorbing the load at the base and accelerating the process of filtration consolidation. This paper describes an analytical solution to the problem of interaction between the pile and the mattress with the surrounding soil of the foundation, taking into account the possibility of expanding the pile shaft. Solutions are obtained for determining the stresses in the shaft of the pile drain and in the soil under the mattress. The solution takes into account the influence of the pre-stressed state of the foundation after compaction on the formation of a stress-strain state during the erection and operation of structures. The solutions are relevant for consolidating pile drains made of rubble or for jet grouting piles, the rigidity of which is comparable to the rigidity of the surrounding soil. The paper describes the technique for determining the characteristics of the strength and deformability of the converted foundation and the results of large-scale tests at the experimental site for the construction of a large energy facility in Russia.

  11. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  12. New trends in pile safety instrumentation; Les tendances nouvelles dans l'instrumentation de securite des piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furet, J.

    1961-04-19

    This report addresses the protection of nuclear piles against damages due to operation incidents. The author discusses the current trends in the philosophy of safety of atomic power piles, identifies the parameters which define safety systems, presents tests to be performed on safety chains, comments the relationship between safety and the decrease of the number of pile inadvertent shutdowns, discusses the issues of instrument failures and chain multiplicity, comments the possible improvement of the operation of elements which build up safety chains (design simplification, development of semiconductors, replacement of electromechanical relays by static relays), the role of safety logical computers and the development of automatics in pile safety, presents automatic control as a safety factor (example of automatic start-up), and finally comments the use of fuses.

  13. Part 1: Logging residues in piles - Needle loss and fuel quality. Part 2: Nitrogen leaching under piles of logging residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtikangas, P.; Lundkvist, H.

    1991-01-01

    Part 1: Experimental piles were built in three geographical locations during May-Sept. 1989. Logging residues consisted of 95% spruce and 5% pine. Height of the piles varied between 80 and 230 cm. Needles were collected by placing drawers under 40 randomely chosen piles. The drawers were emptied every two weeks during the storage period. Natural needle loss was between 18 and 32% of the total amount of needles after the first two months of storage. At the end of the storage period, 24-42% of the needles had fallen down to the drawers. At the end of the experiment the total needle fall was 95-100% in the shaken piles. According to the results of this study piles smaller than 150 cm had the most effective needle fall. Piles should be placed on open places where the air and sun heat penetrate and dry them. Needles were the most sensitive fraction to variations in precipitation compared to the other components, such as branches. Piles usually dried quickly, but they also rewet easily. This was especially true in the smaller piles. The lowest moisture content was measured at the end of June. The ash content in needles varied between 4 and 8%. 16 refs., 15 figs. Part 2: Three field experiments were equipped with no-tension humus lysimeters. Pairs of lysimeters with the same humus/field layer vegetation material were placed in pairs, one under a pile of felling residues and another in the open clear felling. Leaching of nitrogen as well as pH and electric conductivity in the leachate was followed through sampling of the leachate at regular intervals. The results from the investigation show that: * the amount of leachate was higher in lysimeters in the open clear felling, * pH in the leachate was initially lower under piles of felling residues, * the amount of nitrogen leached was higher in the open clear felling. Thus, storing of felling residues in piles during the summer season did not cause any increase in nitrogen leaching, which had been considered to be a risk

  14. Impact analyses after pipe rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, R.C.; Chuang, T.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Two of the French pipe whip experiments are reproduced with the computer code WIPS. The WIPS results are in good agreement with the experimental data and the French computer code TEDEL. This justifies the use of its pipe element in conjunction with its U-bar element in a simplified method of impact analyses

  15. Mechanical Behaviour of Lined Pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilberink, A.

    2011-01-01

    Installing lined pipe by means of the reeling installation method seems to be an attractive combination, because it provides the opportunity of eliminating the demanding welds from the critical time offshore and instead preparing them onshore. However, reeling of lined pipe is not yet proven

  16. Preliminary report on coal pile, coal pile runoff basins, and ash basins at the Savannah River Site: effects on groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-04-28

    Coal storage piles, their associated coal pile runoff basins and ash basins could potentially have adverse environmental impacts, especially on groundwater. This report presents and summarizes SRS groundwater and soil data that have been compiled. Also, a result of research conducted on the subject topics, discussions from noted experts in the field are cited. Recommendations are made for additional monitor wells to be installed and site assessments to be conducted.

  17. BOA: Pipe-asbestos insulation removal robot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Mutschler, E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the BOA system, a mobile pipe-external crawler used to remotely strip and bag (possibly contaminated) asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations across the DOE weapons complex. The mechanical removal of ACLIM is very cost-effective due to the relatively low productivity and high cost involved in human removal scenarios. BOA, a mechanical system capable of removing most forms of lagging (paper, plaster, aluminum sheet, clamps, screws and chicken-wire), and insulation (paper, tar, asbestos fiber, mag-block) uses a circular cutter and compression paddles to cut and strip the insulation off the pipe through compression, while a HEPA-filter and encapsulant system maintain a certifiable vacuum and moisture content inside the system and on the pipe, respectively. The crawler system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. Key design parameters and performance parameters are developed and used in performance testing. Since the current system is a testbed, we also discuss future enhancements and outline two deployment scenarios (robotic and manual) for the final system to be designed and completed by the end of FY '95. An on-site demonstration is currently planned for Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee

  18. Functional capability of piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terao, D.; Rodabaugh, E.C.

    1992-11-01

    General Design Criterion I of Appendix A to Part 50 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations requires, in part, that structures, systems, and components important to safety be designed to withstand the effects of earthquakes without a loss of capability to perform their safety function. ne function of a piping system is to convey fluids from one location to another. The functional capability of a piping system might be lost if, for example, the cross-sectional flow area of the pipe were deformed to such an extent that the required flow through the pipe would be restricted. The objective of this report is to examine the present rules in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, and potential changes to these rules, to determine if they are adequate for ensuring the functional capability of safety-related piping systems in nuclear power plants

  19. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept

  20. Experimental Investigations of Tension Piles in Sand Subjected to Static and Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    to accumulated upwards displacement of the piles and, thus, undesired deflection of the wind turbine structure. This study concerns the effect of cyclic loading on a pile installed in dense sand and loaded in tension. A new laboratory test setup was constructed to make these pile load tests. The thesis discusses...... the advantages and disadvantages of the test setup. The results of cyclic loading tests showed that the loading conditions are very important for the behavior of piles. Some wind and wave conditions can be beneficial and increase the pile capacity while other conditions can be damaging and reduce the pile......The present thesis regards the behavior of the piles in jacket pile foundations used for offshore wind turbines. The piles are often loaded in tension because of the combination of wind and wave conditions and the low self-weight of the wind turbine. The repeated cyclic loading can lead...

  1. Characterization of Odorant Compounds from Mechanical Aerated Pile Composting and Static Aerated Pile Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Kumari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied airborne contaminants (airborne particulates and odorous compounds emitted from compost facilities in South Korea. There are primarily two different types of composting systems operating in Korean farms, namely mechanical aerated pile composting (MAPC and aerated static pile composting (SAPC. In this study, we analyzed various particulate matters (PM10, PM7, PM2.5, PM1, and total suspended particles, volatile organic compounds and ammonia, and correlated these airborne contaminants with microclimatic parameters, i.e., temperature and relative humidity. Most of the analyzed airborne particulates (PM7, PM2.5, and PM1 were detected in high concentration at SAPC facilities compered to MAPC; however these differences were statistically non-significant. Similarly, most of the odorants did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, except for dimethyl sulfide (DMS and skatole. DMS concentrations were significantly higher in MAPC facilities, whereas skatole concentrations were significantly higher in SAPC facilities. The microclimate variables also did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, and did not correlate significantly with most of the airborne particles and odorous compounds, suggesting that microclimate variables did not influence their emission from compost facilities. These findings provide insight into the airborne contaminants that are emitted from compost facilities and the two different types of composting agitation systems.

  2. Characterization of Odorant Compounds from Mechanical Aerated Pile Composting and Static Aerated Pile Composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Priyanka; Lee, Joonhee; Choi, Hong-Lim

    2016-04-01

    We studied airborne contaminants (airborne particulates and odorous compounds) emitted from compost facilities in South Korea. There are primarily two different types of composting systems operating in Korean farms, namely mechanical aerated pile composting (MAPC) and aerated static pile composting (SAPC). In this study, we analyzed various particulate matters (PM10, PM7, PM2.5, PM1, and total suspended particles), volatile organic compounds and ammonia, and correlated these airborne contaminants with microclimatic parameters, i.e., temperature and relative humidity. Most of the analyzed airborne particulates (PM7, PM2.5, and PM1) were detected in high concentration at SAPC facilities compered to MAPC; however these differences were statistically non-significant. Similarly, most of the odorants did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, except for dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and skatole. DMS concentrations were significantly higher in MAPC facilities, whereas skatole concentrations were significantly higher in SAPC facilities. The microclimate variables also did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, and did not correlate significantly with most of the airborne particles and odorous compounds, suggesting that microclimate variables did not influence their emission from compost facilities. These findings provide insight into the airborne contaminants that are emitted from compost facilities and the two different types of composting agitation systems.

  3. Investigation of a North Sea oil platform drill cuttings pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.P.; Watson, T.N.

    1993-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the drill cuttings pile at North West Hutton was undertaken in August, 1992. Fifty one wells have been drilled in the field, mainly using mineral oil based drill fluids, with the cuttings discharged to sea. The cuttings pile was mapped using a 3D side scan sonar system and the periphery was defined by towed side scan sonar and gamma ray spectrometer surveys. The pile was cored by vibrocorer to a maximum depth of 2.35m. The cores were assessed geotechnically and subsampled for physical and chemical analyses. Environmental impact was investigated by grab sampling at 12 stations out to 7,500m, selected on the basis of cuttings distribution. The results are relevant to the corrosion and long-term environmental effects of oily cuttings piles, the remove/leave alone debate, and abandonment planning. The cores were subsampled for hydrocarbon, trace metals and sulphide content and grain size analysis. Metals analyses included identification of metal species to estimate bioavailability and implications of pile disturbance. Estimates of oil migration within the pile are made from correlation of the chemical analyses results with the drilling history, in particular the change from diesel to low toxicity base oil in 1984. Strong gradients were found in the faunal data which correlate well with the physical and chemical results. Dense populations of opportunists species were present adjacent to the platform, including a novel molluscan opportunist. This is the first comprehensive study of an oily cuttings pile and is a contribution to the debate on their long term impact and fate on abandonment

  4. Waste pipe calculus extensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    The waste pipe calculus provides a rapid method, using Laplace transforms, to calculate the transport of a pollutant such as nuclear waste, by a network of one-dimensional flow paths. The present note extends previous work as follows: (1) It provides an alternate approximation to the time-domain function (inverse Laplace transform) for the resulting transport. This algebraic approximation may be viewed as a simpler and more approximate model of the transport process. (2) It identifies two scalar quantities which may be used as summary consequence measures of the waste transport (or inversely, waste retention) system, and provides algebraic expressions for them. (3) It includes the effects of radioactive decay on the scalar quantity results, and further provides simplifying approximations for the cases of medium and long half-lives. This algebraic method can be used for quick approximate analyses of expected results, uncertainty and sensitivity, in evaluating selection and design choices for nuclear waste disposal systems

  5. Solar chemical heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.; Levitan, R.; Rosin, H.; Rubin, R.

    1991-08-01

    The performance of a solar chemical heat pipe was studied using CO 2 reforming of methane as a vehicle for storage and transport of solar energy. The endothermic reforming reaction was carried out in an Inconel reactor, packed with a Rh catalyst. The reactor was suspended in an insulated box receiver which was placed in the focal plane of the Schaeffer Solar Furnace of the Weizman Institute of Science. The exothermic methanation reaction was run in a 6-stage adiabatic reactor filled with the same Rh catalyst. Conversions of over 80% were achieved for both reactions. In the closed loop mode the products from the reformer and from the metanator were compressed into separate storage tanks. The two reactions were run either separately or 'on-line'. The complete process was repeated for over 60 cycles. The overall performance of the closed loop was quite satisfactory and scale-up work is in progress in the Solar Tower. (authors). 35 refs., 2 figs

  6. Subsea pipe dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcombe, Mark

    1988-09-22

    The Gulf of Mexico is famous today mainly for the ferocity of its hurricanes. But for anyone in the oil industry, it is also known for the vast array of oil pipelines that criss-cross its stormy waters, and for the large number of pipeline-laying barges which install them. Soon many of these vessels could be steaming to British waters - not to escape the weather, but to cash in on a bonanza of pipe-laying activity which could soon take place offshore northern Europe. The construction of new pipelines off the UK, Norway and Netherlands will, however, present a new range of challenges for pipeline designers and builders. First and foremost is the Piper Alpha platform disaster, which could saddle the UK offshore industry with a Pound 500 million-plus bill for the installation of emergency shutdown valves (ESVs) on existing lines.

  7. 3D Centrifuge Modeling of the Effect of Twin Tunneling to an Existing Pile Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Soomr

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In densely built urban areas, it is inevitable that tunnels will be constructed near existing pile groups. The bearing capacity of a pile group depends on shear stress along the soil-pile interface and normal stress underneath the pile toe while the two would be adversely affected by the unloading process of tunneling. Although extensive studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of tunnel construction on existing single piles, the influence of twin tunnel advancement on an existing pile group is merely reported in the literature. In this study, a series of three-dimensional centrifuge tests were carried out to investigate the response of an existing pile group under working load subjected to twin tunneling at various locations in dry Toyoura sand. In each twin tunneling test, the first tunnel is constructed near the mid-depth of the pile shaft, while the second tunnel is subsequently constructed either next to, below or right underneath the pile toe (Tests G_ST, G_SB and G_SU, respectively. Among the three tests, the 2nd tunnel excavated near the pile toe (Test G_ST results in the smallest settlement but the largest transverse tilting (0.2% of pile group. Significant bending moment was induced at the pile head (1.4 times of its bending moment capacity due to the 2nd tunnel T. On the contrary, tunneling right underneath the toe of pile (i.e., Test G_SU results in the smallest tilting but largest settlement of the pile group (4.6% of pile diameter and incremental mobilisation of shaft resistance (13%. Due to stress release by the twin tunneling, the axial force taken by the front piles close to tunnels was reduced and partially transferred to the rear piles. This load transfer can increase the axial force in rear piles by 24%.

  8. Superconducting pipes and levitating magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Yan; Rizzato, Felipe B

    2006-12-01

    Motivated by a beautiful demonstration of the Faraday and the Lenz laws in which a small neodymium magnet falls slowly through a conducting nonferromagnetic tube, we consider the dynamics of a magnet falling coaxially through a superconducting pipe. Unlike the case of normal conducting pipes, in which the magnet quickly reaches the terminal velocity, inside a superconducting tube the magnet falls freely. On the other hand, to enter the pipe the magnet must overcome a large electromagnetic energy barrier. For sufficiently strong magnets, the barrier is so large that the magnet will not be able to penetrate it and will be levitated over the mouth of the pipe. We calculate the work that must done to force the magnet to enter a superconducting tube. The calculations show that superconducting pipes are very efficient at screening magnetic fields. For example, the magnetic field of a dipole at the center of a short pipe of radius a and length L approximately > a decays, in the axial direction, with a characteristic length xi approximately 0.26a. The efficient screening of the magnetic field might be useful for shielding highly sensitive superconducting quantum interference devices. Finally, the motion of the magnet through a superconducting pipe is compared and contrasted to the flow of ions through a trans-membrane channel.

  9. Disintegration of liquid sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Adel; Chigier, Norman

    1990-01-01

    The development, stability, and disintegration of liquid sheets issuing from a two-dimensional air-assisted nozzle is studied. Detailed measurements of mean drop size and velocity are made using a phase Doppler particle analyzer. Without air flow the liquid sheet converges toward the axis as a result of surface tension forces. With airflow a quasi-two-dimensional expanding spray is formed. The air flow causes small variations in sheet thickness to develop into major disturbances with the result that disruption starts before the formation of the main break-up region. In the two-dimensional variable geometry air-blast atomizer, it is shown that the air flow is responsible for the formation of large, ordered, and small chaotic 'cell' structures.

  10. Safety advice sheets

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    You never know when you might be faced with questions such as: when/how should I dispose of a gas canister? Where can I find an inspection report? How should I handle/store/dispose of a chemical substance…?   The SI section of the DGS/SEE Group is primarily responsible for safety inspections, evaluating the safety conditions of equipment items, premises and facilities. On top of this core task, it also regularly issues “Safety Advice Sheets” on various topics, designed to be of assistance to users but also to recall and reinforce safety rules and procedures. These clear and concise sheets, complete with illustrations, are easy to display in the appropriate areas. The following safety advice sheets have been issued so far: Other sheets will be published shortly. Suggestions are welcome and should be sent to the SI section of the DGS/SEE Group. Please send enquiries to general-safety-visits.service@cern.ch.

  11. Loop Heat Pipe Startup Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2016-01-01

    A loop heat pipe must start successfully before it can commence its service. The startup transient represents one of the most complex phenomena in the loop heat pipe operation. This paper discusses various aspects of loop heat pipe startup behaviors. Topics include the four startup scenarios, the initial fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir that determines the startup scenario, factors that affect the fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir, difficulties encountered during the low power startup, and methods to enhance the startup success. Also addressed are the pressure spike and pressure surge during the startup transient, and repeated cycles of loop startup and shutdown under certain conditions.

  12. FIELD INVESTIGATIONS OF PILED-RAFT FOUNDATIONS WITH SHORT-LENGTH CONIC PILES IN BUILDING AREAS OF MINSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sernov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent time piled foundations are extensively applied due to an increase of storeys in buildings constructed in Minsk and load increment on the soil. Preference is given to this approach even in the case when relatively firm soil occurs in the top part of the foundation bed. In this case maximum usage of the foundation bed bearing capacity and reduction of foundation cost are considered as top-priority tasks for designers. One of the ways to increase the bearing capacity of piled foundations is the necessity to take into account resistance of foundation bed soil located under raft bottom. The raft as well as a shallow foundation is capable to transfer a significant part of building load into the soil. Such approach makes it possible to reduce a number of piles in the foundation or shorten their length. Then it results in shortening of the construction period and significant reduction in zero cycle. However up to the present moment reliable calculation methods that permit to take into account soil resistance in the raft base. An analysis of previous investigations on the matter executed by various researchers and a number of field investigations have been carried out with the purpose to develop the proposed methods.The paper presents results of field investigations on foundations consisting of short stamped tapered piles which are joined together with the help of the raft fragment. Strength and deformation characteristics of the bases are increasing while making such foundations in the fill-up soil. In this case the filled-up ground layer becomes a bearing layer both for piles and rafts as well. Improvement of high-plastic clay-bearing soil properties is ensured by ramming dry concrete mix under pile foot. The paper describes an experience on application of the piled-raft foundation in complicated engineering and geological conditions while constructing the Orthodox Church in Minsk.

  13. Bore pile foundation tall buildings closed in the heritage building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triastuti, Nusa Setiani

    2017-11-01

    Bore pile foundation for high building surroundings heritage building should be not damage. Construction proses must good, no necking, no mixed deep water, no sliding soil, nonporous concrete. Objective the execution of bore pile so that heritage buildings and neighboring buildings that are old do not experience cracks, damage and tilting. The survey methodology was observe the process of the implementation of the dominant silt, clay soil, in addition a limited space and to analyze the results of loading tests, investigations of soil and daily reports. Construction process determines the success of the structure bore pile in high building structure bearing, without damaging a heritage building. Attainment the hard soil depth, density concrete, observable clean reinforcement in the implementation. Monitoring the implementation of, among others, the face of the ground water little reduce in the area and outside the footprint of the building, no impact of vibration drilling equipment, watching the mud content on the water coming out at the time of drilling, concrete volume was monitored each 2 m bore depth of pile, The result researched heritage building was not damage. The test results bore pile axial, lateral analyzed the results have the appropriate force design required.

  14. Contribution to Estimating Bearing Capacity of Pile in Clayey Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusa, Marián; Gago, Filip; Vlček, Jozef

    2016-12-01

    The estimation of real geotechnical parameters is key factor for safe and economic design of geotechnical structures. One of these are pile foundations, which require proper design and evaluation due to accessing more deep foundation soil and because remediation work of not bearable piles or broken piles is a crucial operation. For this reason, geotechnical field testing like cone penetration test (CPT), standard penetration (SPT) or dynamic penetration test (DP) are realized in order to receive continuous information about soil strata. Comparing with rotary core drilling type of survey with sampling, these methods are more progressive. From engineering geologist point of view, it is more important to know geological characterization of locality but geotechnical engineers have more interest above the real geotechnical parameters of foundation soils. The role of engineering geologist cannot be underestimated because important geological processes in origin or during history can explain behaviour of a geological environment. In effort to streamline the survey, investigation by penetration tests is done as it is able to provide enough information for designers. This paper deals with actual trends in pile foundation design; because there are no new standards and usable standards are very old. Estimation of the bearing capacity of a single pile can be demonstrated on the example of determination of the cone factor Nk from CPT testing. Then results were compared with other common methods.

  15. Multi-scale sensitivity analysis of pile installation using DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Ricardo Gurevitz; Velloso, Raquel Quadros; , Eurípedes do Amaral Vargas, Jr.; Danziger, Bernadete Ragoni

    2017-12-01

    The disturbances experienced by the soil due to the pile installation and dynamic soil-structure interaction still present major challenges to foundation engineers. These phenomena exhibit complex behaviors, difficult to measure in physical tests and to reproduce in numerical models. Due to the simplified approach used by the discrete element method (DEM) to simulate large deformations and nonlinear stress-dilatancy behavior of granular soils, the DEM consists of an excellent tool to investigate these processes. This study presents a sensitivity analysis of the effects of introducing a single pile using the PFC2D software developed by Itasca Co. The different scales investigated in these simulations include point and shaft resistance, alterations in porosity and stress fields and particles displacement. Several simulations were conducted in order to investigate the effects of different numerical approaches showing indications that the method of installation and particle rotation could influence greatly in the conditions around the numerical pile. Minor effects were also noted due to change in penetration velocity and pile-soil friction. The difference in behavior of a moving and a stationary pile shows good qualitative agreement with previous experimental results indicating the necessity of realizing a force equilibrium process prior to any load-test to be simulated.

  16. Contribution to Estimating Bearing Capacity of Pile in Clayey Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drusa Marián

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of real geotechnical parameters is key factor for safe and economic design of geotechnical structures. One of these are pile foundations, which require proper design and evaluation due to accessing more deep foundation soil and because remediation work of not bearable piles or broken piles is a crucial operation. For this reason, geotechnical field testing like cone penetration test (CPT, standard penetration (SPT or dynamic penetration test (DP are realized in order to receive continuous information about soil strata. Comparing with rotary core drilling type of survey with sampling, these methods are more progressive. From engineering geologist point of view, it is more important to know geological characterization of locality but geotechnical engineers have more interest above the real geotechnical parameters of foundation soils. The role of engineering geologist cannot be underestimated because important geological processes in origin or during history can explain behaviour of a geological environment. In effort to streamline the survey, investigation by penetration tests is done as it is able to provide enough information for designers. This paper deals with actual trends in pile foundation design; because there are no new standards and usable standards are very old. Estimation of the bearing capacity of a single pile can be demonstrated on the example of determination of the cone factor Nk from CPT testing. Then results were compared with other common methods.

  17. Leachate storage transport tanker loadout piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report shows the modifications to the W-025 Trench No. 31 leachate loadout discharge piping, and also the steps involved in installing the discharge piping, including dimensions and welding information. The installation of the discharge pipe should be done in accordance to current pipe installation standards. Trench No. 31 is a radioactive mixed waste land disposal facility

  18. Determination of the pipe stemming load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowin, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    A mechanical model for the emplacement pipe system is developed. The model is then employed to determine the force applied to the surface collar of the emplacement pipe, the pipe-stemming load, and the stress along the emplacement pipe as a function of stemming height. These results are presented as integrals and a method for their numerical integration is given

  19. Determination of Secondary Encasement Pipe Design Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI, A.R.

    2000-10-26

    This document published results of iterative calculations for maximum tank farm transfer secondary pipe (encasement) pressure upon failure of the primary pipe. The maximum pressure was calculated from a primary pipe guillotine break. Results show encasement pipeline design or testing pressures can be significantly lower than primary pipe pressure criteria.

  20. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known....... The first part concerns time series analysis of ice core data obtained from the Greenland Ice Sheet. We analyze parts of the time series where DO-events occur using the so-called transfer operator and compare the results with time series from a simple model capable of switching by either undergoing...

  1. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  2. ANALYSIS OF EXISTING SCHEMES AND THE OPTIMIZING SETTLEMENT CHOIS OF PILES WORK SCHEMES IN CLAY SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. It were considered and analyzed the existing schemes of piles work in clay soils. 1. Leningrad scientific school, where the formation of pile bearing capacity use as the basis of the thixotropic clay soils hardening and radial soil pressing around the pile shaft during the piles driving with pile-driving equipment for the exploitation period. 2. Odessa scientific school, in which the uplift soil formation from the edge pile use as the basis of the pile bearing capacity during the piles driving, the formation of the pressed zones (platform in the piles edge plane, the gap formation around the pile shaft during its diving by ground pushed moving with the pile edge. 3. Preconditions of the pile bearing capacity formation of the pile by the thixotropic soil hardening in time and the radial soil pressing around the pile shaft can not give an answer to the following questions: 1 Why during the pile driving is formed the gap around the trunk of dived piles, when by condition there is a radial soil hardening around the trunk? 2 Why in the interpiled space is formed the lune (deflection, not the soil mass swelling (due to the radial hardening? 3 By what is formed the calculated soil resistance under the lower end (edge of the pile? which is about 10 times higher than the calculated soil resistance in the edge plane, according to the Building Code V.2.1-10. 2009? The justified answers on all these and other technical and technological matters give perquisites of the Odessa scientific school with additions and authors developments

  3. Ground Vibration Isolation of Multiple Scattering by Using Rows of Tubular Piles as Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-miao Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new formal solution for the multiple scattering of plane harmonic waves by a group of arbitrary configuration tubular piles in an elastic total space is derived. Each order of scattering satisfies prescribed boundary conditions at the interface of tubular piles, which is delivered as the sum of incident and scattering waves. The first order performs the scattering wave by each scattered pile and the subsequent orders resulted from the excitation of each pile of first order of scattering from the remaining tubular piles. Advanced scattering orders can be regarded as the same manners. Several series of scattering coefficients are figured out with the aids of addition theorem so that the exact steady-state solution for the scattered displacement and stress is obtained. Particularly, when internal diameter of tubular piles tends to be infinitely small, it degenerates to a solid pile problem. By imposing the normalized displacement amplitudes and transmissibility indices, the influences of specific parameters such as scattering orders, internal and external diameter ratio of piles, pile material rigidity, position and distances between tubular pile and pile rows, and pile numbers are discussed. Certain recommended conclusions have been drawn as the guidelines of practical engineering design for discontinuous barrier of tubular piles.

  4. Nitrogen heat pipe for cryocooler thermal shunt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenger F.C.; Hill, D.D.; Daney, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    A nitrogen heat pipe was designed, built and tested for the purpose of providing a thermal shunt between the two stages of a Gifford-McMahan (GM) cryocooler during cooldown. The nitrogen heat pipe has an operating temperature range between 63 and 123 K. While the heat pipe is in this temperature range during the system cooldown, it acts as a thermal shunt between the first and second stage of the cryocooler. The heat pipe increases the heat transfer to the first stage of the cryocooler, thereby reducing the cooldown time of the system. When the heat pipe temperature drops below the triple point, the nitrogen working fluid freezes, effectively stopping the heat pipe operation. A small heat leak between cryocooler stages remains because of axial conduction along the heat pipe wall. As long as the heat pipe remains below 63 K, the heat pipe remains inactive. Heat pipe performance limits were measured and the optimum fluid charge was determined

  5. Pipe restraints for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keever, R.E.; Broman, R.; Shevekov, S.

    1976-01-01

    A pipe restraint for nuclear power plants in which a support member is anchored on supporting surface is described. Formed in the support member is a semicylindrical wall. Seated on the semicylindrical wall is a ring-shaped pipe restrainer that has an inner cylindrical wall. The inner cylindrical wall of the pipe restrainer encircles the pressurized pipe. In a modification of the pipe restraint, an arched-shaped pipe restrainer is disposed to overlie a pressurized pipe. The ends of the arch-shaped pipe restrainer are fixed to support members, which are anchored in concrete or to a supporting surface. A strap depends from the arch-shaped pipe restrainer. The pressurized pipe is supported by the depending strap

  6. Recent hydrological observations from the Riverton and Maybell tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, T.; Narasimhan, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reports on field and laboratory hydrologic studies of two inactive uranium mill tailings piles under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRA). The ultimate goal of the studies is to evaluate the nature of the contaminant potential of the piles with sufficient detail so that appropriate remedial measures can be designed and implemented under the UMTRA Program. The field studies included the monitoring of hydraulic head profiles of the piles and infiltration tests. Both the field and laboratory results from the Riverton tailings indicate a great deal of spatial variability in hydraulic properties. It is determined that the bulk of the precipitation input at the Riverton tailings is lost by evapotranspiration within the upper meter of soil cover and tailings

  7. Seismic soil-structure interaction of foundations with large piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, L.

    1996-01-01

    In seismic regions with soft soil deposits subjected to ground surface subsidence, there is the necessity to support the weight of constructions on large diameter piles or piers hearing on deep firm strata. To justify the action of these elements working under flexo compression and shear, it is necessary to perform calculations of soil pile interaction from a practical engineering point of view and estimate the order of magnitude of the forces and displacements to which these elements will be subjected during the seismic action assigned to the foundation. In this paper we defined a pier as a large diameter pile constructed on site. Furthermore, in the seismic analysis it is necessary to evaluate the seismic pore water pressure to learn on the effective seismic soil stresses close to the ground surface. (author)

  8. ESTIMATION OF AGING EFFECTS OF PILES IN MALAYSIAN OFFSHORE LOCATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JERIN M. GEORGE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An increasing demand for extending life and subsequently higher loading requirements of offshore jacket platforms are among the key problems faced by the offshore industry. The Aging effect has been proved to increase the axial capacity of piles, but proper methods to estimate and quantify these effects have not been developed. Borehole data from ten different Malaysian offshore locations have been analysed and they were employed to estimate the setup factor for different locations using AAU method. The setup factors found were used in the Skov and Denver equation to calculate capacity ratios of the offshore piles. The study showed that there will be an average improvement in the axial capacity of offshore piles by 42.2% and 34.9% for clayey and mixed soils respectively after a time equal to the normal design life (25 years of a jacket platform.

  9. Design of Jetty Piles Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjei Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the complication of jetty pile design process, artificial neural networks (ANN are adopted. To generate the training samples for training ANN, finite element (FE analysis was performed 50 times for 50 different design cases. The trained ANN was verified with another FE analysis case and then used as a structural analyzer. The multilayer neural network (MBPNN with two hidden layers was used for ANN. The framework of MBPNN was defined as the input with the lateral forces on the jetty structure and the type of piles and the output with the stress ratio of the piles. The results from the MBPNN agree well with those from FE analysis. Particularly for more complex modes with hundreds of different design cases, the MBPNN would possibly substitute parametric studies with FE analysis saving design time and cost.

  10. Clinical efficacy of Jalaukawacharana (leech application) in Thrombosed piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Pradnya J; Raut, Subhash Y; Lakhapati, Arun M

    2012-04-01

    'Arsha' (hemorrhoids) is an ailment that affects all economical groups of population. Though the disease is within the limits of management, it has its own complications like severe hemorrhage, inflammation, and thrombosis, by which a patient gets severe pain and is unable to continue his routine work. Prior to surgical treatment of hemorrhoids, associated conditions like inflammation, strangulation, thrombosis, etc. need to be managed. Thrombosed piles possibly occur due to high venous pressure associated with severe anal pain. Leech (Hirudina medicanalis) application is found to be effective in reducing pain. In thrombosed piles, leech application has shown thrombolytic action, which contributes in re-establishment of circulation. It is observed in the study that, pus and mucous discharge have been reduced after leech application; which may be due to antimicrobial and mucolytic properties of leech. This method of treatment is found to be effective and increase the quality of life in patients suffering with thrombosed piles.

  11. Statistical Estimation of Subgrade Reaction Coefficient For Horizontally Loaded Piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honjo, Yusuke; Zaika, Yulvi; Pokharel, Gyaneswor

    2002-01-01

    Appropriate horizontal subgrade reaction (k h ) is required to evaluate stress and displacement in horizontal loading pile. In order to obtain more accurate prediction of pile behavior, statistical analysis is employed. Based on 21 data set gathered on horizontal loading piles, inverse analysis and regression analysis are carried out. The main value and uncertainty are obtained by inverse analysis, could be employed in the regression analysis. The relationship between the lateral resistant constant (k c ) and SPT N value takes into account in correlated and uncorrelated condition. The results are compared with Port and Harbor Technical Research Institute (JPHA, 1999) and Japan Highway Bridge Specification IV (JRA, 1996). The computed values are found to be very close to the JPHA line and within the range of JRA lines in diameter 0.5 m and 2 m

  12. Centrifuge modelling of drained lateral pile - soil response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte

    of rigid piles. The tests have been performed in homogeneously dense dry or saturated Fontainebleau sand in order to mimic simplified drained offshore soil conditions. Approximately half of the tests have been carried out to investigate the centrifuge procedure in order to create a methodology of testing...... tests were used to investigate the pile - soil interaction to gain a better in-sight into the complex problem. A monotonic test series was carried out initially and then pile - soil interaction curves were deduced from these tests and compared with methodologies used today. The results indicate...... that the current methodologies can be improved and a modification to the methodology has been proposed. Secondly, a cyclic test series was carried out. The accumulation of displacement and the change in secant stiffness of the total response of these tests were evaluated. A simple mathematical model was proposed...

  13. Cascades of pile-up and dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomme, S.

    2008-01-01

    Count loss through a cascade of pile-up and dead time is studied. Time interval density-distribution functions and throughput factors are presented for counters with a series arrangement of pile-up and extending or non-extending dead time. A counter is considered, where an artificial dead time is imposed on every counted event, in order to control the length and type of dead time. For such a system, it is relatively easy to determine an average count-loss correction factor via a live-time clock gated by the imposed dead-time signal ('live-time mode'), or otherwise to apply a correction factor based on the inversion of the throughput function ('real-time mode'). However, these techniques do not account for additional loss through pulse pile-up. In this work, counting errors associated with neglecting cascade effects are calculated for measurements in live-time and real-time mode

  14. Cumulative Damage in Strength-Dominated Collisions of Rocky Asteroids: Rubble Piles and Brick Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housen, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory impact experiments were performed to investigate the conditions that produce large-scale damage in rock targets. Aluminum cylinders (6.3 mm diameter) impacted basalt cylinders (69 mm diameter) at speeds ranging from 0.7 to 2.0 km/s. Diagnostics included measurements of the largest fragment mass, velocities of the largest remnant and large fragments ejected from the periphery of the target, and X-ray computed tomography imaging to inspect some of the impacted targets for internal damage. Significant damage to the target occurred when the kinetic energy per unit target mass exceeded roughly 1/4 of the energy required for catastrophic shattering (where the target is reduced to one-half its original mass). Scaling laws based on a rate-dependent strength were developed that provide a basis for extrapolating the results to larger strength-dominated collisions. The threshold specific energy for widespread damage was found to scale with event size in the same manner as that for catastrophic shattering. Therefore, the factor of four difference between the two thresholds observed in the lab also applies to larger collisions. The scaling laws showed that for a sequence of collisions that are similar in that they produce the same ratio of largest fragment mass to original target mass, the fragment velocities decrease with increasing event size. As a result, rocky asteroids a couple hundred meters in diameter should retain their large ejecta fragments in a jumbled rubble-pile state. For somewhat larger bodies, the ejection velocities are sufficiently low that large fragments are essentially retained in place, possibly forming ordered "brick-pile" structures.

  15. Digitalisation in atomic pile control (1962); La digitalisation dans le controle des piles atomiques (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    A brief survey is first given of the general theorems of Boodle's algebra and of sequence systems using D.A. Huffmans theory. Some indications are then given concerning the setting-up and the operation of digital computers and also of the principal codes used in digital techniques. It is then shown how digitalisation in atomic pile control makes it possible to use new techniques having the following advantages in particular: greater working safety, a higher degree of centralisation, and suppression of the linear elements. A few examples are given of the application of these techniques to control, particularly with respect to the measurement of the neutronic power and of the period and also of course, to the treatment of the data and the sequence automatisms. The advantage of using digital techniques in the shutdown channels is also examined. Finally a review is given of the technology and the viability of the control devices used. (author) [French] On rappelle d'abord ici les theoremes generaux de l'algebre de Boole et des systemes a sequences en s'appuyant sur la theorie de D.A. Huffmann. On donne ensuite quelques indications sur l'agencement et le fonctionnement des calculateurs digitaux ainsi que les principaux codes utilises dans les techniques digitales. On montre alors comment la digitalisation dans le controle des piles atomiques permet d'utiliser de nouvelles techniques presentant principalement les avantages suivants: securite de fonctionnement plus grande, centralisation plus elevee et suppression des elements lineaires. Un certain nombre d'exemples sont donnes sur l'application de ces techniques au controle, particulierement en ce qui concerne la mesure de la puissance neutronique, de la periode et aussi bien entendu du traitement des informations et des automatismes a sequences. On analyse aussi l'avantage de l'utilisation des techniques digitales dans les chaines de securite. Enfin, un apercu est donne sur la technologie et la fiabilite des dispositifs

  16. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace

  17. Flow induced vibrations of piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, R.J.; Axisa, F.

    1977-01-01

    In order to design the supports of piping systems, estimations of the vibrations induced by the fluid conveyed through the pipes are generally needed. For that purpose it is necessary to calculate the model parameters of liquid containing pipes. In most computer codes, fluid effects are accounted for just by adding the fluid mass to the structure. This may lead to serious errors. This paper presents a method to take into account these effects, by solving a coupled mechanical-acoustical problem: the computer code TEDEL of the C.E.A /D.E.M.T. System, based on the finite-elements method, has been extended to calculate simultaneously the pressure fluctuations in the fluid and the vibrations of the pipe. By this way the mechanical-acoustical coupled eigenmodes of any piping system can be obtained. These eigenmodes are used to determine the response of the system to various sources. Equations have been written in the hypohesis that acoustical wave lengths remain large compared to the diameter of the pipe. The method has been checked by an experiment performed on the GASCOGNE loop at D.E.M.T. The piping system under test consists of a tube with four elbows. The circuit is ended at each extremity by a large vessel which performs acoustical isolation by generating modes for the pressure. Excitation of the circuit is caused by a valve located near the downstream vessel. This provides an efficient localised broad band acoustical source. The comparison between the test results and the calculations has shown that the low frequency resonant characteristics of the pipe and the vibrational amplitude at various flow-rates can be correctly predicted

  18. Collisionless current sheet equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukirch, T.; Wilson, F.; Allanson, O.

    2018-01-01

    Current sheets are important for the structure and dynamics of many plasma systems. In space and astrophysical plasmas they play a crucial role in activity processes, for example by facilitating the release of magnetic energy via processes such as magnetic reconnection. In this contribution we will focus on collisionless plasma systems. A sensible first step in any investigation of physical processes involving current sheets is to find appropriate equilibrium solutions. The theory of collisionless plasma equilibria is well established, but over the past few years there has been a renewed interest in finding equilibrium distribution functions for collisionless current sheets with particular properties, for example for cases where the current density is parallel to the magnetic field (force-free current sheets). This interest is due to a combination of scientific curiosity and potential applications to space and astrophysical plasmas. In this paper we will give an overview of some of the recent developments, discuss their potential applications and address a number of open questions.

  19. Cholera Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cholera","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... that includes feedback at the local level and information-sharing at the global level. Cholera cases are ...

  20. Pseudomonas - Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    Fact sheet on Pseudomonas, including:What is Pseudomonas?What infections does it cause?Who is susceptible to pseudomonas infection?How will I know if I have pseudomonas infection?How can Pseudomonas be prevented from spreading?How can I protect myself from Pseudomonas?How is Pseudomonas infection treated?

  1. NTPR Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak Atoll Cleanup Documents TRAC About Who We Are Our Values History Locations Our Leadership Director Support Center Contact Us FAQ Sheet Links Success Stories Contracts Business Opportunities Current

  2. Production (information sheets)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Documentation sheets: Geo energy 2 Integrated System Approach Petroleum Production (ISAPP) The value of smartness 4 Reservoir permeability estimation from production data 6 Coupled modeling for reservoir application 8 Toward an integrated near-wellbore model 10 TNO conceptual framework for "E&P

  3. Hibernia fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This fact sheet gives details of the Hibernia oil field including its location, discovery date, oil company's interests in the project, the recoverable reserves of the two reservoirs, the production system used, capital costs of the project, and overall targets for Canadian benefit. Significant dates for the Hibernia project are listed. (UK)

  4. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  5. Machining of the nuclear tube sheet with small hole diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lifeng

    2010-01-01

    Regarding the tube sheet for the heat exchanger of Qinshan Phase II extension project, its material is 00Cr19Ni10 forgings, the tube sheet thickness is 125 mm, requiring 178-φ10.35 0 +0.05 hole, the tube array shall take the shape of equilateral triangle, the center distance is 15 mm, and the tube hole roughness is Ra 3.2. The guide sleeve shall be adopted for positioning prior to machining of the high precision small hole of the thick tube sheet, and the gun drill and BTA drill shall be adopted for testing, finally BTA drilling with internal chip removal shall be adopted, this method shall overcome the disadvantage factor of BTA drilling and shall be the new approach for drilling. The diameter of BTA drill is φ10.34 mm. The machined hole diameter shall be φ10.375-φ10.355 mm. The ellipticity of the tube hole shall be less than 0.01 mm, the pipe bridge dimension shall be 4.6 mm, conforming to the requirement of the drawing. The paper presents the precautions during machining so as to provide the reference for the similar pipe hole machining in the future. (author)

  6. Numerical modeling of centrifuge cyclic lateral pile load experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerolymos, Nikos; Escoffier, Sandra; Gazetas, George; Garnier, Jacques

    2009-03-01

    To gain insight into the inelastic behavior of piles, the response of a vertical pile embedded in dry sand and subjected to cyclic lateral loading was studied experimentally in centrifuge tests conducted in Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées. Three types of cyclic loading were applied, two asymmetric and one symmetric with respect to the unloaded pile. An approximately square-root variation of soil stiffness with depth was obtained from indirect in-flight density measurements, laboratory tests on reconstituted samples, and well-established empirical correlations. The tests were simulated using a cyclic nonlinear Winkler spring model, which describes the full range of inelastic phenomena, including separation and re-attachment of the pile from and to the soil. The model consists of three mathematical expressions capable of reproducing a wide variety of monotonic and cyclic experimental p-y curves. The physical meaning of key model parameters is graphically explained and related to soil behavior. Comparisons with the centrifuge test results demonstrate the general validity of the model and its ability to capture several features of pile-soil interaction, including: soil plastification at an early stage of loading, “pinching” behavior due to the formation of a relaxation zone around the upper part of the pile, and stiffness and strength changes due to cyclic loading. A comparison of the p-y curves derived from the test results and the proposed model, as well as those from the classical curves of Reese et al. (1974) for sand, is also presented.

  7. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and an uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  8. Reliability analysis of stiff versus flexible piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a technical basis for flexible piping designs which will improve piping reliability and minimize the use of pipe supports, snubbers, and pipe whip restraints. The current study was conducted to establish the necessary groundwork based on the piping reliability analysis. A confirmatory piping reliability assessment indicated that removing rigid supports and snubbers tends to either improve or affect very little the piping reliability. The authors then investigated a couple of changes to be implemented in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.61 and RG 1.122 aimed at more flexible piping design. They concluded that these changes substantially reduce calculated piping responses and allow piping redesigns with significant reduction in number of supports and snubbers without violating ASME code requirements. Furthermore, the more flexible piping redesigns are capable of exhibiting reliability levels equal to or higher than the original stiffer design. An investigation of the malfunction of pipe whip restraints confirmed that the malfunction introduced higher thermal stresses and tended to reduce the overall piping reliability. Finally, support and component reliabilities were evaluated based on available fragility data. Results indicated that the support reliability usually exhibits a moderate decrease as the piping flexibility increases. Most on-line pumps and valves showed an insignificant reduction in reliability for a more flexible piping design

  9. The response of pile-guided floats subjected to dynamic loading : volume I final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Pile : - : Guided floats can be a desirable alternative to stationary berthing structures. Both floats and guide piles are subjected to dynamic : forces such as wind generated waves and impacts from vessels. This project developed a rational basis fo...

  10. Load and resistance factor design of bridge foundations accounting for pile group-soil interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Pile group foundations are used in most foundation solutions for transportation structures. Rigorous and reliable pile design methods are : required to produce designs whose level of safety (probability of failure) is known. By utilizing recently dev...

  11. Dynamic stiffness of pile groups in a multilayered soil. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Y.; Hijikata, K.; Kobayashi, Y.

    1989-01-01

    For evaluating the dynamic stiffness of the pile group foundations, forced vibration tests are executed on pile group foundation models. Two types of test models are used, one is a single pile model and the other a four-pile model. Dividing the tests into 4 steps, the forced vibration tests are performed. Step 1 is for the single pile model, and steps 2 to 4 are for the four-pile model. In step 2 and step 3, the gap effects between the foundation bottom and the ground surface are examined. In step 4, the backfill effects are obtained. Based on the test results, the pile group effects, the gap effects and the backfill effects on the dynamic characteristics of the pile group foundations are described in this paper

  12. Numerical Study on Dynamic Response of Pile Group Foundation of Geotechnical Centrifuge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Quansheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on National Engineering Laboratory for Harbor Engineering Structure-Geotechnical Centrifuge Laboratory construction project, the dynamical response of piles foundation under horizontal-rocking vibration was analyzed by using finite element software Abaqus, and the displacement and stress characteristics of piles were discussed with soil between the piles reinforced by high pressure jet piles. The result indicates that in the operation of the centrifuge, foundation changes of vertical load of center pile are very small; the vertical displacement of the pile head is increasing, the vertical displacement of the pile head is no longer changed until the vibration time reaches 3 times period,; the horizontal load of piles varies with sinusoidal, the horizontal displacement amplitude is increasing, , and the vibration amplitude reaches to fixed value at 2 times vibration period.

  13. Piping inspection round robin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heasler, P.G.; Doctor, S.R.

    1996-04-01

    The piping inspection round robin was conducted in 1981 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify the capability of ultrasonics for inservice inspection and to address some aspects of reliability for this type of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The round robin measured the crack detection capabilities of seven field inspection teams who employed procedures that met or exceeded the 1977 edition through the 1978 addenda of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section 11 Code requirements. Three different types of materials were employed in the study (cast stainless steel, clad ferritic, and wrought stainless steel), and two different types of flaws were implanted into the specimens (intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCCs) and thermal fatigue cracks (TFCs)). When considering near-side inspection, far-side inspection, and false call rate, the overall performance was found to be best in clad ferritic, less effective in wrought stainless steel and the worst in cast stainless steel. Depth sizing performance showed little correlation with the true crack depths

  14. Centrifuge modelling of a laterally cyclic loaded pile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte; Leth, Caspar Thrane; Hededal, Ole

    2010-01-01

    A total number of 9 static and 6 cyclic centrifuge tests on laterally loaded piles in very dense, dry sand was erformed. The prototype dimensions of the piles were 1 meter in diameter and penetration depths varying from 6 to 10 meters. The static tests were used to investigate the initial subgrade...... reaction modulus and as a reference for cyclic tests. For the cyclic tests the accumulation of deflections and the change in secant stiffness of the soil from repetitive loading were investigated. From all the tests carried out accumulations of deflections were seen. rom the centrifuge tests it was seen...

  15. Constituent-level pile-up mitigation techniques in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Pile-up of simultaneous proton-proton collisions at the LHC has a significant impact on jet reconstruction. In this note the performance of several pile-up mitigation techniques is evaluated in detailed simulations of the ATLAS experiment. Four algorithms that act on the jet-constituent level are evaluated: SoftKiller, the cluster vertex fraction algorithm and Voronoi and constituent subtraction. We find that application of these constituent-level algorithms improves the resolution of low-transverse-momentum jets. The improvement is significant for collisions with 80-200 simultaneous proton-proton collisions envisaged in future runs of the LHC.

  16. Testing of Laterally Loaded Rigid Piles with Applied Overburden Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    Small-scale tests have been conducted for the purpose of investigating the quasi-static behaviour of laterally loaded, non-slender piles installed in cohesionless soil. For that purpose, a new and innovative test setup has been developed. The tests have been conducted in a pressure tank...... such that it was possible to apply an overburden pressure to the soil. Hereby, the traditional uncertainties related to low effective stresses for small-scale tests has been avoided. A scaling law for laterally loaded piles has been proposed based on dimensional analysis. The novel testing method has been validated against...... the test results by means of the scaling law....

  17. Testing of Laterally Loaded Rigid Piles with Applied Overburden Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Foglia, Aligi

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale tests have been conducted to investigate the quasi-static behaviour of laterally loaded, non-slender piles installed in cohesionless soil. For that purpose, a new and innovative test setup has been developed. The tests have been conducted in a pressure tank such that it was possible...... to apply an overburden pressure to the soil. As a result of that, the traditional uncertainties related to low effective stresses for small-scale tests have been avoided. A normalisation criterion for laterally loaded piles has been proposed based on dimensional analysis. The test results using the novel...... testing method have been compared with the use of the normalisation criterion....

  18. Wave Run-up on Slender Piles in Design Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter; Damsgaard, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    in the design of Horns Reef 1. As a consequence damage was observed on the platforms. This has been the situation for several sites and design tools for platform loads are lacking. As a consequence a physical model test study was initiated at Aalborg University to clarify wave run-up on cylindrical piles...... to the pile an empirical factor is included on the velocity head. The evaluation of the calculation model shows that an accurate design rule can be established even in breaking wave conditions. However, calibration of a load model showed that it was necessary to increase the run-up factor on the velocity head...

  19. Collapse mechanisms and strength prediction of reinforced concrete pile caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe G.; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2012-01-01

    . Calculations have been compared with nearly 200 test results found in the literature. Satisfactory agreement has been found. The analyses are conducted on concentrically loaded caps supported by four piles. The paper briefly outlines how the approach may be extended to more complicated loadings and geometries......This paper describes an upper bound plasticity approach for strength prediction of reinforced concrete pile caps. A number of collapse mechanisms are identified and analysed. The procedure leads to an estimate of the load-carrying capacity and an identification of the critical collapse mechanism...

  20. Timber Piling Barrier and Chemical Preservation Annual Costs Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    has such an informative collection of pertinent records. The estimated useful life of PVC wrapped piling has been increasing yearly with the continued...by the more than 25 tons of floating debris that is collected from the harbor daily, there has been no failure of a wrapped pile. The relative...8217I Nuk \\% pns Sck OMu ’,iol ’L I t OS-IAS 14 ilu"M odk 41~IS I’cad l II-o Ill 0 OS-*IN-SN HI 51-4 )H it l uk s. %ctt O rl-un..I5 uk 2 ti I ()MNASSt

  1. Wave transmission by suspended pipe breakwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mani, J.S.; Jayakumar, S.

    ratio of 0.46), a 5% reduction in incident-wave height can be achieved. The cost and performance of conventionally adopted pile breakwater (involving a row of closely spaced piles driven on the seabed) were compared with the present system...

  2. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Rubéola The best way ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  3. Analytical Method Used to Calculate Pile Foundations with the Widening Up on a Horizontal Static Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupchikova, N. V.; Kurbatskiy, E. N.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the analytical research solutions for the work pile foundations with surface broadening and inclined side faces in the ground array, based on the properties of Fourier transform of finite functions. The comparative analysis of the calculation results using the suggested method for prismatic piles, piles with surface broadening prismatic with precast piles and end walls with precast wedges on the surface is described.

  4. Stress transfer from pile group in saturated and unsaturated soil using theoretical and experimental approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    al-Omari Raid R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Piles are often used in groups, and the behavior of pile groups under the applied loads is generally different from that of single pile due to the interaction of neighboring piles, therefore, one of the main objectives of this paper is to investigate the influence of pile group (bearing capacity, load transfer sharing for pile shaft and tip in comparison to that of single piles. Determination of the influence of load transfer from the pile group to the surrounding soil and the mechanism of this transfer with increasing the load increment on the tip and pile shaft for the soil in saturated and unsaturated state (when there is a negative pore water pressure. Different basic properties are used that is (S = 90%, γd = 15 kN / m3, S = 90%, γd = 17 kN / m3 and S = 60%, γd =15 kN / m3. Seven model piles were tested, these was: single pile (compression and pull out test, 2×1, 3×1, 2×2, 3×2 and 3×3 group. The stress was measured with 5 cm diameter soil pressure transducer positioned at a depth of 5 cm below the pile tip for all pile groups. The measured stresses below the pile tip using a soil pressure transducer positioned at a depth of 0.25L (where L is the pile length below the pile tip are compared with those calculated using theoretical and conventional approaches. These methods are: the conventional 2V:1H method and the method used the theory of elasticity. The results showed that the method of measuring the soil stresses with soil pressure transducer adopted in this study, gives in general, good results of stress transfer compared with the results obtained from the theoretical and conventional approaches.

  5. Static Test and Result Analysis on Different Types of Pile Composite Foundation in the Same Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Tuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining with the situation of soil test site, the large scale experiment was studying about natural foundation, rammed soil-cement piles, CFG pile and gravel pil. A series of conclusions were given from p-s curve, the fitting curve, and the Angle of the stress ratio of pile-soil composite modulus. It has certain guiding significance for the design and construction of pile type, which is used in North China area.

  6. Three dimensional modeling of laterally loaded pile groups resting in sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Farouk Elhakim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many structures often carry lateral loads due to earth pressure, wind, earthquakes, wave action and ship impact. The accurate predictions of the load–displacement response of the pile group as well as the straining actions are needed for a safe and economic design. Most research focused on the behavior of laterally loaded single piles though piles are most frequently used in groups. Soil is modeled as an elastic-perfectly plastic model using the Mohr–Coulomb constitutive model. The three-dimensional Plaxis model is validated using load–displacement results from centrifuge tests of laterally loaded piles embedded in sand. This study utilizes three dimensional finite element modeling to better understand the main parameters that affect the response of laterally loaded pile groups (2 × 2 and 3 × 3 pile configurations including sand relative density, pile spacing (s = 2.5 D, 5 D and 8 D and pile location within the group. The fixity of the pile head affects its load–displacement under lateral loading. Typically, the pile head may be unrestrained (free head as the pile head is allowed to rotate, or restrained (fixed head condition where no pile head rotation is permitted. The analyses were performed for both free and fixed head conditions.

  7. 30 CFR 56.16002 - Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles... MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 56.16002 Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles. (a) Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles, where loose unconsolidated materials are stored, handled or...

  8. 30 CFR 57.16002 - Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles... NONMETAL MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 57.16002 Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles. (a) Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles, where loose unconsolidated materials are stored, handled...

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure: Delaying pile mixing does not reduce overall emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of the timing of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during dairy manure composting was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover replicate pilot-scale compost piles. GHG emissions from compost piles that were mixed at 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks after initial c...

  10. Recovery of small pile burn scars in conifer forests of the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles C. Rhoades; Paula J. Fornwalt; Mark W. Paschke; Amber Shanklin; Jayne L. Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The ecological consequences of slash pile burning are a concern for land managers charged with maintaining forest soil productivity and native plant diversity. Fuel reduction and forest health management projects have created nearly 150,000 slash piles scheduled for burning on US Forest Service land in northern Colorado. The vast majority of these are small piles (

  11. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.24 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products composed thereof may be...

  12. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may be...

  13. Nondestructive methods of evaluating quality of wood in preservative-treated piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping. Wang; Robert J. Ross; John R. Erickson; John W. Forsman; Gary D. McGinnis; Rodney C. De Groot

    2000-01-01

    Stress-wave-based nondestructive evaluation methods were used to evaluate the potential quality and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of wood in used preservative-treated Douglas-fir and southern pine piles. Stress wave measurements were conducted on each pile section. Stress wave propagation speeds in the piles were then obtained to estimate their MOE. This was followed by...

  14. 40 CFR 411.30 - Applicability; description of the materials storage piles runoff subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... materials storage piles runoff subcategory. 411.30 Section 411.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Materials Storage Piles Runoff Subcategory § 411.30 Applicability; description of the materials storage piles runoff subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  15. Rehabilitating slash pile burn scars in upper montane forests of the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula J. Fornwalt; Charles C. Rhoades

    2011-01-01

    Slash pile burning is widely conducted by land managers to dispose of unwanted woody fuels, yet this practice typically has undesirable ecological impacts. Simple rehabilitation treatments may be effective at ameliorating some of the negative impacts of pile burning on plants and soils. Here, we investigated: (1) the impacts of slash pile burning on soil nitrogen and...

  16. Centrifuge modeling of rapid load tests with open-ended piles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.C.; Van Lottum, H.; Holscher, P.; Van Tol, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid and static load tests were conducted on open-ended and close-ended piles in the Deltares GeoCentriflige. hi flight, a pile was driven into the soil. Both fme-grained sand and silt beds were tested. Both the rapid and static soil resistances o f a close-ended pile were higher than the soil

  17. Modelling of pile load tests in granular soils : Loading rate effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.C.

    2017-01-01

    People have used pile foundations throughout history to support structures by transferring
    loads to deeper and stronger soil layers. One of the most important questions during the design of the pile foundation is the bearing capacity of the pile. The most reliable method for determining the

  18. Experimental study on performance of laterally loaded plumb and battered piles in layered sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra S. Albusoda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a series of single and pile group model tests subjected to lateral loads in . multilayered sand from Karbala, Iraq. The aim of this study is to investigate: the performance of the pile groups subjected to lateral loads; in which the pile batter inclination angle is changed; the effect of pile spacing (s/d ratio, the influence of using different number of piles and pile group configuration. Results revealed that the performance of single negative (Reverse Battered piles with inclination of 10° and 20° show a gain of 32% and 76 % in the ultimate lateral capacity over the regular ones. For pile groups, the use of a combination of regular, negative and positive battered piles in different angles of inclination within the same group shows a significant increase in the ultimate lateral load carrying capacity. Increasing the spacing between piles in groups of the same category shows an increase in the group efficiency, also changing the piles number within the group by using different patterns will influence the ultimate lateral resistance of the pile group.

  19. Out-of-pile and in-pile temperature noise investigations: a survey of methods results and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dentico, G.; Giovannini, R.; Marseguerra, M.; Pacilio, N.; Taglienti, S.; Tosi, V.; Vigo, A.; Oguma, R.

    1982-01-01

    A review is given of the main results obtained from temperature noise measurements performed in out-of-pile sodium loops on fast fuel element mock-ups. Sources of data were thermocouples placed in the central axis of the channel downstream from the bundle end. Autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models have been applied to several temperature time series; the analysis shows that a simple ARMA (3, 2) model adequately accounts for the observed fluctuations. Finally, highlights of a heat transfer stochastic model are also reported together with a preliminary validation against in-pile experimental data. (author)

  20. Automated ultrasonic pipe weld inspection. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl Deutsch, W.A.; Schulte, P.; Joswig, M.; Kattwinkel, R.

    2006-01-01

    This article contains a brief overview on automated ultrasonic welded inspection for various pipe types. Some inspection steps might by carried out with portable test equipment (e.g. pipe and test), but the weld inspection in all internationally relevant specification must be automated. The pipe geometry, the production process, and the pipe usage determine the number of required probes. Recent updates for some test specifications enforce a large number of ultrasonic probes, e.g. the Shell standard. Since seamless pipes are sometimes replaced by ERW pipes and LSAW pipes (in both cases to save production cost), the inspection methods change gradually between the various pipe types. Each testing system is unique and shows its specialties which have to be discussed by supplier, testing system user and final customer of the pipe. (author)

  1. 水下挖孔灌注桩施工技术在复合地层中的应用%Application of Construction Techniques of Underwater Dug Piles to Construction of Underwater Dug Piles in Compound Stratum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王南海; 王吉兵

    2012-01-01

    为确保复合地层条件下水下挖孔灌注桩施工顺利,以猫铺2号大桥为背景,采取集水坑截水、无渗透排水等措施进行桩基施工.在河道上、下游远离桩基15 m处分别开挖1个上口半径8 m的集水坑,自然放坡,深度开挖至砂卵石层底;在河道上、下游远离施工区域挖掘1条宽2m、深1.5m的倒梯形水渠并铺设塑料薄膜,进、出水口设置在集水坑影响范围外;在集水坑位置搭设支架,安装倒链拴大流量潜水泵,将集水坑内的水泵至水渠内;采用间隔交错跳挖施工顺序施工水下挖孔灌注桩.在河滩砂卵石地层相同施工条件下,挖孔桩成孔和冲击成孔的工期、造价与环保效益的对比结果表明:对于单排4根桩,挖孔灌注桩的工期、造价分别为52 d、103 832元,均小于冲击成孔的工期和造价且较为环保.%To ensure the smooth construction of the underwater dug piles under the conditions of compound stratum, the Maopu Bridge No. 2 was cited as an example, the piles of the bridge were constructed by the measures of collecting water by the catch pits and dewatering with no seeping. At the places of 15 m far from the piles upstream and downstream in the river channel, a catch pit with its upper radius being 8 m and with natural slope was respectively excavated to the sand and pebble layer and at the place far from the construction area, an inverted trapezoidal water channel, 2 m wide and 1. 5 m deep, was also excavated and was laid with the plastic sheets. The water inlet and outlet were set beyond the influential range of the catch pit and at the catch pit, the scaffolding was set up and the high flow chain submersible pumps were installed. The water in the catch pits was pumped out to the water channel and the underwater dug piles were constructed by the construction sequences of alternative andinterval excavation. The comparison of the construction time schedules, cost, and environment benefits of the

  2. Heat Rejection from a Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiator Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Gibson, M. A.; Hervol, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    A titanium-water heat pipe radiator having an innovative proprietary evaporator configuration was evaluated in a large vacuum chamber equipped with liquid nitrogen cooled cold walls. The radiator was manufactured by Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT), Lancaster, PA, and delivered as part of a Small Business Innovative Research effort. The radiator panel consisted of five titanium-water heat pipes operating as thermosyphons, sandwiched between two polymer matrix composite face sheets. The five variable conductance heat pipes were purposely charged with a small amount of non-condensable gas to control heat flow through the condenser. Heat rejection was evaluated over a wide range of inlet water temperature and flow conditions, and heat rejection was calculated in real-time utilizing a data acquisition system programmed with the Stefan-Boltzmann equation. Thermography through an infra-red transparent window identified heat flow across the panel. Under nominal operation, a maximum heat rejection value of over 2200 Watts was identified. The thermal vacuum evaluation of heat rejection provided critical information on understanding the radiator s performance, and in steady state and transient scenarios provided useful information for validating current thermal models in support of the Fission Power Systems Project.

  3. Film sheet cassette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A novel film sheet cassette is described for handling CAT photographic films under daylight conditions and facilitating their imaging. A detailed description of the design and operation of the cassette is given together with appropriate illustrations. The resulting cassette is a low-cost unit which is easily constructed and yet provides a sure light-tight seal for the interior contents of the cassette. The individual resilient fingers on the light-trap permit the ready removal of the slide plate for taking pictures. The stippled, non-electrostatic surface of the pressure plate ensures an air layer and free slidability of the film for removal and withdrawal of the film sheet. The advantage of the daylight system is that a darkroom need not be used for inserting and removing the film in and out of the cassette resulting in a considerable time saving. (U.K.)

  4. Neutron spectrum in small iron pile surrounded by lead reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Itsuro; Hayashi, S.A.; Kobayashi, Katsuhei; Matsumura, Tetsuo; Nishihara, Hiroshi.

    1978-01-01

    In order to save the quantity of sample material, a possibility to assess group constants of a reactor material through measurement and analysis of neutron spectrum in a small sample pile surrounded by a reflector of heavy moderator, was investigated. As the sample and the reflector, we chose iron and lead, respectively. Although the time dispersion in moderation of neutrons was considerably prolonged by the lead reflector, this hardly interferes with the assessment of group constants. Theoretical calculation revealed that both the neutron flux spectrum and the sensitivity coefficient of group constants in an iron sphere, 35 cm in diameter surrounded by the lead reflector, 25 cm thick, were close to those of the bare iron sphere, 108 cm in diameter. The neutron spectra in a small iron pile surrounded by a lead reflector were experimentally obtained by the time-of-flight method with an electron linear accelerator and the result was compared with the predicted values. It could be confirmed that a small sample pile surrounded by a reflector, such as lead, was as useful as a much larger bulk pile for the assessment of group constants of a reactor material. (auth.)

  5. The role of the waveform in pulse pile-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datlowe, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Pulse pile-up is the distortion of pulse-height distributions due to the overlap of detector responses to the arrival of two or more particles or photons within the detector resolving time. This paper presents a computational technique for simulating pile-up effects, which includes explicitly the dependence on the pulse-shape of the detector system. The basis of the technique is the manipulation of probability densities. The method is applicable to all types of linear pulse counting systems for nucleons, electrons, and photons, as long as the result is a pulse-height distribution. The algorithms are highly efficient in the amount of computing required for simulations, and internal checks for the numerical accuracy of the results are included. Studies of pile-up by monoenergetic pulses are used to determine the interrelationship between pulse shapes and spectral features; this information can be used to minimize pile-up. For broad spectra, the square wave approximation is compared with the present model including the correct waveform; introducing the pulse shape information smooths spectral features but does not qualitatively change the spectrum. (Auth.)

  6. 20051655 - Petronas, Capacity of Driven Piles Offshore Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders

    This report presents the results of work carried out by Aalborg Univesity for NGI related to the effects of ageing on the axial capacity of piles in clay and sand. The document is the fourth of four notes regarding the subject and it includes a recommended approach to account for ageing effects f...

  7. 20051655 - Petronas, Capacity of Driven Piles Offshore Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders

    This document is one of four notes concerning the effects of time (in this case ageing) on the vertical capacity of piles. It includes summaries of relevant publications related to the topic. Further, focus has been paid to publications that deal with quantification of setup and not the mechanism...

  8. Centrifuge modelling of rigid piles in soft clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, R.T.; Poder, M.; Truong, P.

    2016-01-01

    of this study is to employ centrifuge modelling in order to derive experimental p-y curves for rigid piles embedded in over-consolidated soft clay. A kaolin clay sample was prepared and pre-consolidated by applying a constant pressure at the soil surface, while different over-consolidation ratios were achieved...

  9. The Metal Hoard from Pile in Scania, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandkilde, Helle

    was a maritime node and a landing place for exogenous metals and exotic daggers and rings, but also a site where the smith produced coveted axes for wider distribution locally and regionally. Such robust axes of ‘Pile-type’ boosted the political economy of Southern Scandinavia 2100-1700 BCE while adding to a hot...

  10. Aerial Sampling of Emissions from Biomass Pile Burns in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5 µm), ...

  11. Numerical experiments with rubble piles : equilibrium shapes and spins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, Derek C.; Elankumaran, Pradeep; Sanderson, Robyn E.

    2005-01-01

    We present numerical experiments investigating the shape and spin limits of self-gravitating "perfect" rubble piles that consist of identical, smooth, rigid, spherical particles with configurable normal coefficient of restitution and no sliding friction. Such constructs are currently employed in a

  12. Total Strain FE Model for Reinforced Concrete Floors on Piles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeyer, H.; Bos, van den A.A.

    2008-01-01

    A finite element (FE) model using a total strain material model has been developed to predict the behavior of warehouse reinforced concrete floors on piles. The material model (not the FE model itself) was calibrated to material tests. The FE model for the floor structure was checked with full-scale

  13. Disaggregation of small, cohesive rubble pile asteroids due to YORP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeres, D. J.

    2018-04-01

    The implication of small amounts of cohesion within relatively small rubble pile asteroids is investigated with regard to their evolution under the persistent presence of the YORP effect. We find that below a characteristic size, which is a function of cohesive strength, density and other properties, rubble pile asteroids can enter a "disaggregation phase" in which they are subject to repeated fissions after which the formation of a stabilizing binary system is not possible. Once this threshold is passed rubble pile asteroids may be disaggregated into their constituent components within a finite time span. These constituent components will have their own spin limits - albeit potentially at a much higher spin rate due to the greater strength of a monolithic body. The implications of this prediction are discussed and include modification of size distributions, prevalence of monolithic bodies among meteoroids and the lifetime of small rubble pile bodies in the solar system. The theory is then used to place constraints on the strength of binary asteroids characterized as a function of their type.

  14. Stress distribution in quasi-crystalline granular piles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trigger, S.A.; Heijst, van G.J.F.; Krasnopolskaya, T.S.; Schram, P.P.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is a rigorous consideration of the stress problem in some simple models of granular piles. Discrete models are considered and the transition to the continuous description is accomplished in order to find the coarse-grained average stress. Some phenomenological rules are

  15. Emissions from prescribed burning of timber slash piles in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash (Douglas fir) in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matte...

  16. Thermal response testing of precast pile heat exchangers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagola, Maria Alberdi; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    The report is organized as follows: first, the concept of TRT is explained. Second, the test sites are described. Third, the field work is presented and a summary of the future work regarding the methodology to treat the data from the tests is provided. Finally, further documentation...... of the fieldwork, the pile heat exchangers and the TRT equipment is extended in diverse appendices....

  17. Seismic analysis of the in-pile test section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. M.; Park, K. N.; Chi, D. Y.; Park, S. K.; Sim, B. S.; Ahn, S. H.; Lee, C. Y.; Kim, Y. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This study gives the results of the seismic analysis of the IPS (In Pile Section) with lower bracket support. The results cover the natural frequency and seismic response of the IPS for the SSE and OBE events. An FE (Finite Element) model which includes the two vessels of the IPS and its support structure were analyzed by ABAQUS.

  18. Influence of loading rate on pile capacity in unsaturated sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.

    2004-01-01

    When in-situ tests are performed to determine the ultimate capacity of a pile after the installation, quite a lot of types of tests are available. The following tests are generally used, in order from most used method to least used method: the static testing method, dynamic testing methods,

  19. Improved Design Basis for Laterally Loaded Large Diameter Pile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    of up-to-date facilities has been: Equipment for controlling centrifuge tests, data acquisition, preparation of test samples and equipment for and making of lateral load tests. The present research has been narrowed to investigate the static and cyclic behaviour of stiff piles with a diameter of 1-3 m...... in dry sand by use of centrifuge modelling and to compare the findings with the standard p-y curves. It has been chosen to apply piles with an embedment length of 6 to 10 times the diameter of the applied piles. The general static behaviour of monopiles in dry sand has based on centrifuge tests been...... with a capacity of 3.6 MW and placed at water depths beyond 25 m. Different foundation solutions have over the years been applied for offshore turbines, but monopiles are currently the most applied foundation type and are typically with a pile diameter of 4-6 m and applied up to a water depth of 25 m...

  20. Rapid pile load tests in the geotechnical centrifuge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holscher, P.; Van Tol, A.F.; Huy, N.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Centrifiige experiments were carried out to gain insight into the factors that affect the mobilized resistance during rapid load testing on piles in sand. The influence of generated pore water pressure during rapid load tests is shidied, and its effect on the commonly used unloadmg point method to

  1. Vision-based autonomous grasping of unknown piled objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Computer vision techniques have been used to develop a vision-based grasping capability for autonomously picking and placing unknown piled objects. This work is currently being applied to the problem of hazardous waste sorting in support of the Department of Energy's Mixed Waste Operations Program

  2. 30 CFR 77.209 - Surge and storage piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface... a reclaiming area or in any other area at or near a surge or storage pile where the reclaiming...

  3. The impact of wind energy turbine piles on ocean dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grashorn, Sebastian; Stanev, Emil V.

    2016-04-01

    The small- and meso-scale ocean response to wind parks has not been investigated in the southern North Sea until now with the help of high-resolution numerical modelling. Obstacles such as e.g. wind turbine piles may influence the ocean current system and produce turbulent kinetic energy which could affect sediment dynamics in the surrounding area. Two setups of the unstructured-grid model SCHISM (Semi-implicit Cross-scale Hydroscience Integrated System Model) have been developed for an idealized channel including a surface piercing cylindrical obstacle representing the pile and a more realistic test case including four exemplary piles. Experiments using a constant flow around the obstacles and a rotating M2 tidal wave are carried out. The resulting current and turbulence patterns are investigated to estimate the influence of the obstacles on the surrounding ocean dynamics. We demonstrate that using an unstructured ocean model provides the opportunity to embed a high-resolution representation of a wind park turbine pile system into a coarser North Sea setup, which is needed in order to perform a seamless investigation of the resulting geophysical processes.

  4. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  5. Information sheets on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    These sheets, presented by the Cea, bring some information, in the energy domain, on the following topics: the world energy demand and the energy policy in France and in Europe, the part of the nuclear power in the energy of the future, the greenhouse gases emissions and the fight against the greenhouse effect, the carbon dioxide storage cost and the hydrogen economy. (A.L.B.)

  6. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  7. Pipe line construction for reactor containment buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Masataka; Yoshinaga, Toshiaki

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the missile phenomenon caused by broken fragments due to pipe whip phenomenon in a portion of pipe lines connected to a reactor containment from prevailing to other portions. Constitution: Various pipe lines connected to the pressure vessel are disposed at the outside of the containments and they are surrounded with a plurality of protection partition walls respectively independent from each other. This can eliminate the effect of missile phenomena upon pipe rupture from prevailing to the pipe lines and instruments. Furthermore this can afford sufficient spaces for the pipe lines, as well as for earthquake-proof supports. (Horiuchi, T.)

  8. Development of new damping devices for piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hiroe

    1991-01-01

    An increase of the damping ratio is known to be very effective for the seismic design of a piping system. Increasing the damping ratio and reducing the seismic response of the piping system, the following three types of damping devices for piping systems are introduced: (1) visco-elastic damper, (2) elasto-plastic damper and (3) compact dynamic damper. The dynamic characteristics of these damping devices were investigated by the component test and the applicability of them to the piping system was confirmed by the vibration test using a three dimensional piping model. These damping devices are more effective than mechanical snubbers to reduce the vibration of the piping system. (author)

  9. Sheet pinch devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.; Baker, W.R.; Ise, J. Jr.; Kunkel, W.B.; Pyle, R.V.; Stone, J.M.

    1958-01-01

    Three types of sheet-like discharges are being studied at Berkeley. The first of these, which has been given the name 'Triax', consists of a cylindrical plasma sleeve contained between two coaxial conducting cylinders A theoretical analysis of the stability of the cylindrical sheet plasma predicts the existence of a 'sausage-mode' instability which is, however, expected to grow more slowly than in the case of the unstabilized linear pinch (by the ratio of the radial dimensions). The second pinch device employs a disk shaped discharge with radial current guided between flat metal plates, this configuration being identical to that of the flat hydromagnetic capacitor without external magnetic field. A significant feature of these configurations is the absence of a plasma edge, i.e., there are no regions of sharply curved magnetic field lines anywhere in these discharges. The importance of this fact for stability is not yet fully investigated theoretically. As a third configuration a rectangular, flat pinch tube has been constructed, and the behaviour of a flat plasma sheet with edges is being studied experimentally

  10. Flow induced vibrations of piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, R.J.; Axisa, F.

    1977-01-01

    In order to design the supports of piping systems, estimations of the vibrations induced by the fluid conveyed through the pipes are generally needed. For that purpose it is necessary to calculate the model parameters of liquid containing pipes. In most computer codes, fluid effects are accounted for just by adding the fuid mass to the structure. This may lead to serious errors.- Inertial effects from the fluid are not correctly evaluated especially in the case of bended or of non-uniform section pipes. Fluid boundary conditions are simply ignored. - In many practical problems fluid compressibility cannot be negelcted, even in the low frequencies domain which corresponds to efficient excitation by turbulent sources of the flow. This paper presents a method to take into account these efects, by solving a coupled mechanical acoustical problem: the computer code TEDEL of the C.E.A./D.E.M.T. System, based on the finite-elements method, has been extended to calculate simultaneously the pressure fluctuations in the fluid and the vibrations of the pipe. (Auth.)

  11. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs

  12. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.

  13. Microcomputer generated pipe support calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankinson, R.F.; Czarnowski, P.; Roemer, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The cost and complexity of pipe support design has been a continuing challenge to the construction and modification of commercial nuclear facilities. Typically, pipe support design or qualification projects have required large numbers of engineers centrally located with access to mainframe computer facilities. Much engineering time has been spent repetitively performing a sequence of tasks to address complex design criteria and consolidating the results of calculations into documentation packages in accordance with strict quality requirements. The continuing challenges of cost and quality, the need for support engineering services at operating plant sites, and the substantial recent advances in microcomputer systems suggested that a stand-alone microcomputer pipe support calculation generator was feasible and had become a necessity for providing cost-effective and high quality pipe support engineering services to the industry. This paper outlines the preparation for, and the development of, an integrated pipe support design/evaluation software system which maintains all computer programs in the same environment, minimizes manual performance of standard or repetitive tasks, and generates a high quality calculation which is consistent and easily followed

  14. Hybrid pulse pile-up rejection system as applied to Rutherford backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boie, R.A.; Wildnauer, K.R.

    1977-01-01

    The problems of pulse on pulse pile-up and noise limited pile-up rejectors are considered in detail for Rutherford backscattering spectra. The forms of these spectra allow the distortions from pile-up and the residual pile-up after rejection to be understood via a simple model. Extended calculations allow us to predict the effects quite accurately. A new pile-up rejection system is described. The ''linear'' rejection method is implemented with peak stretchers and advantageously combined with an event counting rejector to provide a versatile high performance system

  15. Lateral displacement and pile instability due to soil liquefaction using numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Salam Ahmed Mokhtar

    2014-12-01

    Extensive studies were performed to investigate the effects of soil submergence, pile diameter, earthquake magnitude and duration on pile lateral deformation and developed bending moment along pile shaft. Study results show that earthquake magnitude and time duration have a particular effect on the pore water pressure generation and hence pile lateral deformation and bending moments. They also show the benefits of using relatively large piles to control the lateral displacement. Recommendations are presented for designers to perform comprehensive analysis and avoid buckling and plastic hinge failures.

  16. Field monitoring of static, dynamic, and statnamic pile loading tests using fibre Bragg grating strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Correia, Ricardo P.; Chehura, Edmon; Staines, Stephen; James, Stephen W.; Tatam, Ralph; Butcher, Antony P.; Fuentes, Raul

    2009-10-01

    Pile loading test plays an important role in the field of piling engineering. In order to gain further insight into the load transfer mechanism, strain gauges are often used to measure local strains along the piles. This paper reports a case whereby FBG strain sensors was employed in a field trial conducted on three different types of pile loading tests in a glacial till. The instrumentation systems were configured to suit the specific characteristic of each type of test. Typical test results are presented. The great potential of using FBG sensors for pile testing is shown.

  17. Flexibility of trunnion piping elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.D.; Chao, Y.J.

    1987-01-01

    Flexibility factors and stress indices for piping component such as straight pipe, elbows, butt-welding tees, branch connections, and butt-welding reducers are contained in the code, but many of the less common piping components, like the trunnion elbow, do not have flexibility factors or stress indices defined. The purpose of this paper is to identify the in-plane and out-of-plane flexibility factors in accordance with code procedures for welded trunnions attached to the tangent centerlines of long radius elbows. This work utilized the finite element method as applicable to plates and shells for calculating the relative rotations of the trunnion elbow-ends for in-plane and out-of-plane elbow moment loadings. These rotations are used to derive the corresponding in-plane and out-of-plane flexibility factors. (orig./GL)

  18. Pipe Lines – External Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Babor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two areas of corrosion occur in pipe lines: corrosion from the medium carried inside the pipes; corrosion attack upon the outside of the pipes (underground corrosion. Electrolytic processes are also involved in underground corrosion. Here the moisture content of the soil acts as an electrolyte, and the ions required to conduct the current are supplied by water-soluble salts (chlorides, sulfates, etc. present in the soil. The nature and amount of these soluble materials can vary within a wide range, which is seen from the varying electrical conductivity and pH (varies between 3 and 10. Therefore the characteristics of a soil will be an important factor in under-ground corrosion.

  19. Enhanced seismic criteria for piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touboul, F. . E-mail francoise.touboul@cea.fr; Blay, N.; Sollogoub, P.; Chapuliot, S.

    2006-01-01

    In situ or laboratory experiments have shown that piping systems exhibit satisfactory seismic behavior. Seismic motion is not severe enough to significantly damage piping systems unless large differential motions of anchorage are imposed. Nevertheless, present design criteria for piping are very severe and require a large number of supports, which creates overly rigid piping systems. CEA, in collaboration with EDF, FRAMATOME and IRSN, has launched a large R and D program on enhanced design methods which will be less severe, but still conservative, and compatible with defect justification during operation. This paper presents the background of the R and D work on this matter, and CEA proposed equations. Our approach is based on the difference between the real behavior (or the best estimated computed one) with the one supposed by codified methods. Codified criteria are applied on an elastically calculated behavior that can be significantly different from the real one: the effect of plasticity may be very meaningful, even with low incursion in the plastic domain. Moreover, and particularly in piping systems, the elastic follow-up effect affects stress distribution for both seismic and thermal loads. For seismic load, we have proposed to modify the elastic moment limitation, based on the interpretation of experimental results on piping systems. The methods have been validated on more industrial cases, and some of the consequences of the changes have been studied: modification of the drawings and of the number of supports, global displacements, forces in the supports, stability of potential defects, etc. The basic aim of the studies undertaken is to make a decision on the stress classification problem, one that is not limited to seismic induced stresses, and to propose simplified methods for its solution

  20. Simulation analyses of vibration tests on pile-group effects using blast-induced ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayuki Hashimoto; Kazushige Fujiwara; Katsuichirou Hijikata; Hideo Tanaka; Kohji Koyamada; Atsushi Suzuki; Osamu Kontani

    2005-01-01

    Extensive vibration tests have been performed on pile-supported structures at a large-scale mining site to promote better understanding of the dynamic behavior of pile-supported structures, especially pile-group effects. Two test structures were constructed in an excavated pit. One structure was supported on 25 tubular steel piles and the other on 4. The test pit was backfilled with sand of an appropriate grain size distribution to ensure good compaction. Ground motions induced by large-scale blasting operations were used as excitation forces for the tests. The 3D Finite Element Method (3D FEM)and a Genetic Algorithm (GA) were employed to identify the shear wave velocities and damping factors of the compacted sand, especially of the surface layer. A beam-interaction spring model was employed to simulate the test results of the piles and the pile-supported structures. The superstructure and pile foundation were modeled by a one-stick model comprising lumped masses and beam elements. The pile foundations were modeled just as they were, with lumped masses and beam elements to simulate the test results showing that, for the 25-pile structure, piles at different locations showed different responses. It was confirmed that the analysis methods employed were very useful for evaluating the nonlinear behavior of the soil-pile-structure system, even under severe ground motions. (authors)

  1. An experimental study on pile spacing effects under lateral loading in sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khari, Mahdy; Kassim, Khairul Anuar; Adnan, Azlan

    2013-01-01

    Grouped and single pile behavior differs owing to the impacts of the pile-to-pile interaction. Ultimate lateral resistance and lateral subgrade modulus within a pile group are known as the key parameters in the soil-pile interaction phenomenon. In this study, a series of experimental investigation was carried out on single and group pile subjected to monotonic lateral loadings. Experimental investigations were conducted on twelve model pile groups of configurations 1 × 2, 1 × 3, 2 × 2, 3 × 3, and 3 × 2 for embedded length-to-diameter ratio l/d = 32 into loose and dense sand, spacing from 3 to 6 pile diameter, in parallel and series arrangement. The tests were performed in dry sand from Johor Bahru, Malaysia. To reconstruct the sand samples, the new designed apparatus, Mobile Pluviator, was adopted. The ultimate lateral load is increased 53% in increasing of s/d from 3 to 6 owing to effects of sand relative density. An increasing of the number of piles in-group decreases the group efficiency owing to the increasing of overlapped stress zones and active wedges. A ratio of s/d more than 6d is large enough to eliminate the pile-to-pile interaction and the group effects. It may be more in the loose sand.

  2. Seismic analysis of the pile foundation of the reactor building of the NPP ANGRA 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, J.P.; Arx, G.A. von; Barros, F.C.P. de; Kakubo, M.

    1981-01-01

    A pile foundation subjected to dynamic loads interacts with the surrounding soil. Frequency-dependent stiffness and radiation damping must be properly taken into account in pile-soil-pile interaction. Assuming that the soil consists of horizontal layers of elastic material with hysteretic damping, the dynamic stiffness of a group of (even battered) piles can be determined, accounting rigorously for the cavities where the soil is subsequently replaced by the piles. By way of illustration, this substructure procedure, which works in the frequency domain, is applied to the final design of the pile foundation of the Reactor Building of Angra 2 in Brazil. Below the basemat, a strongly horizontally-layered compressive soil of 36 m thickness rests on bedrock. The reactor building is founded on 202 endbearing piles and 88 floating piles of 15 m length. Every pile is modelled. Along each pile, compatibility between the pile and the soil in all three directions is formulated in seven nodes. The basemat is assumed to be rigid. On the level of bedrock a broad-banded response spectrum specifies the excitation (outcropping). (orig./WL)

  3. An Experimental Study on Pile Spacing Effects under Lateral Loading in Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khari, Mahdy; Kassim, Khairul Anuar; Adnan, Azlan

    2013-01-01

    Grouped and single pile behavior differs owing to the impacts of the pile-to-pile interaction. Ultimate lateral resistance and lateral subgrade modulus within a pile group are known as the key parameters in the soil-pile interaction phenomenon. In this study, a series of experimental investigation was carried out on single and group pile subjected to monotonic lateral loadings. Experimental investigations were conducted on twelve model pile groups of configurations 1 × 2, 1 × 3, 2 × 2, 3 × 3, and 3 × 2 for embedded length-to-diameter ratio l/d = 32 into loose and dense sand, spacing from 3 to 6 pile diameter, in parallel and series arrangement. The tests were performed in dry sand from Johor Bahru, Malaysia. To reconstruct the sand samples, the new designed apparatus, Mobile Pluviator, was adopted. The ultimate lateral load is increased 53% in increasing of s/d from 3 to 6 owing to effects of sand relative density. An increasing of the number of piles in-group decreases the group efficiency owing to the increasing of overlapped stress zones and active wedges. A ratio of s/d more than 6d is large enough to eliminate the pile-to-pile interaction and the group effects. It may be more in the loose sand. PMID:24453900

  4. Case Study of CPT-based Design Methods for Axial Capacity of Driven Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2012-01-01

    loaded offshore driven piles in cohesionless soil has until now been the β-method given in API. The API-method is based on the effective overburden pressure at the depth in question. Previous studies show deviations between full-scale load test measurements of the axial pile capacity and the predictions...... found by means of the API-method. Compared to the test measurements, the API-method under-estimates the capacity of short piles (piles in loose sand, and gives a shaft capacity less conservative for piles in tension than for piles in compression......Today the design of onshore axially loaded driven piles in cohesionless soil is commonly made on basis of CPT-based methods because field investigations have shown strong correlation between the local shaft friction and the CPT cone resistance. However, the recommended design method for axially...

  5. Finite Element Investigations on the Interaction between a Pile and Swelling Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, Kristine Lee; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    of Little Belt Clay. The case study involves a circular concrete pile installed in clay immediately after an excavation. The influence of the swelling soil on the soil–pile interaction and the internal pile forces are analysed by solely observing the upper pile part positioned in the swelling zone...... of the surrounding soil implies upward shear stresses at the soil–pile interface leading to tensile vertical stresses in the pile. In the current case, they exceed the tensile strength of concrete. The tensile vertical stresses peak after 35-50 years. However, the heave of the soil continues for additional 300 years....... It appears that the development of plastic interface implies the shrinkage of the pile....

  6. Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. This course will discuss operating principles and performance characteristics of a loop heat pipe. Topics include: 1) pressure profiles in the loop; 2) loop operating temperature; 3) operating temperature control; 4) loop startup; 4) loop shutdown; 5) loop transient behaviors; 6) sizing of loop components and determination of fluid inventory; 7) analytical modeling; 8) examples of flight applications; and 9) recent LHP developments.

  7. Seismic design of piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglaret, G.; Beguin, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with the method used in France for the PWR nuclear plants to derive locations and types of supports of auxiliary and secondary piping systems taking earthquake in account. The successive steps of design are described, then the seismic computation method and its particular conditions of applications for piping are presented. The different types of support (and especially seismic ones) are described and also their conditions of installation. The method used to compare functional tests results and computation results in order to control models is mentioned. Some experiments realised on site or in laboratory, in order to validate models and methods, are presented [fr

  8. Energy absorbers as pipe supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlafallah, M.Z.; Lee, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    With the exception of springs, pipe supports currently in use are designed with the intent of maintaining their rigidity under load. Energy dissipation mechanisms in these pipe supports result in system damping on the order presented by Code Case N-411 of ASME Section III code. Examples of these energy dissipation mechanisms are fluids and gaps in snubbers, gaps in frame supports, and friction in springs and frame supports. If energy absorbing supports designed in accordance with Code Case N-420 are used, higher additional damping will result

  9. Thermal properties of highly structured composite and aluminium sheets in an aerodynamic tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhavy, Petr; Egert, Josef

    This article deals with the thermodynamic behaviour of heat shields - structured metal and composite plates. Experiments have been carried out in a wind tunnel with an additional heating, which simulates the heat source from engine or exhaust pipe and simultaneously the airflow generated during a car movement. The tested sheets with hexagonal structure were a standard commercial made of aluminium and a second manufactured by replication (lamination, diffusion) from glass fabric. The airflow in a parallel way along the sheets was analysed experimentally in order to determine the heat transfer efficiency between surfaces of sheets and surrounding airflow. The temperature on the sheets was chosen to observe the effects of different sheets material, various heat power and airflow velocity. During the experiment a thermal input below the sheets and airflow velocity through the tunnel have been changed. The thermal field distribution on the metal sheet is different than in case of composite sheet. For the composite material the thermal field distribution was more homogeneous. This article describe briefly also methods of obtaining real composite geometry based on scanned data and their reconstruction for using in some future numerical models.

  10. Thermal properties of highly structured composite and aluminium sheets in an aerodynamic tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulhavy Petr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the thermodynamic behaviour of heat shields - structured metal and composite plates. Experiments have been carried out in a wind tunnel with an additional heating, which simulates the heat source from engine or exhaust pipe and simultaneously the airflow generated during a car movement. The tested sheets with hexagonal structure were a standard commercial made of aluminium and a second manufactured by replication (lamination, diffusion from glass fabric. The airflow in a parallel way along the sheets was analysed experimentally in order to determine the heat transfer efficiency between surfaces of sheets and surrounding airflow. The temperature on the sheets was chosen to observe the effects of different sheets material, various heat power and airflow velocity. During the experiment a thermal input below the sheets and airflow velocity through the tunnel have been changed. The thermal field distribution on the metal sheet is different than in case of composite sheet. For the composite material the thermal field distribution was more homogeneous. This article describe briefly also methods of obtaining real composite geometry based on scanned data and their reconstruction for using in some future numerical models.

  11. Research program plan: piping. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagins, M.; Strosnider, J.

    1985-07-01

    Regulatory issues related to piping can be divided into the three areas of pipe cracking, postulated design basis pipe breaks, and design of piping for seismic and other dynamic loads. The first two of these issues are in the domain of the Materials Engineering Branch (MEBR), while the last of the three issues is the responsibility of the Mechanical/Structural Engineering Branch. This volume of the MEBR Research Plan defines the critical aspects of the pipe cracking and postulated design basis pipe break issues and identifies those research efforts and results necessary for their resolution. In general, the objectives of the MERB Piping Research Program are to provide experimentally validated analytic techniques and appropriate material properties characterization methods and data to support regulatory activities related to evaluating and ensuring piping integrity

  12. Performance evaluation of buried pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of geometric and mechanical parameters characterizing the soil structure interaction developed in a buried pipe installation located under roads/highways. The drainage pipes or culverts installed ...

  13. Review of nuclear piping seismic design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slagis, G.C.; Moore, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    Modern-day nuclear plant piping systems are designed with a large number of seismic supports and snubbers that may be detrimental to plant reliability. Experimental tests have demonstrated the inherent ruggedness of ductile steel piping for seismic loading. Present methods to predict seismic loads on piping are based on linear-elastic analysis methods with low damping. These methods overpredict the seismic response of ductile steel pipe. Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code stresses limits for piping systems that are based on considerations of static loads and hence are overly conservative. Appropriate stress limits for seismic loads on piping should be incorporated into the code to allow more flexible piping designs. The existing requirements and methods for seismic design of piping systems, including inherent conservations, are explained to provide a technical foundation for modifications to those requirements. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Failure Analysis Of Industrial Boiler Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsir, Muhammad; Soedardjo, B.; Arhatari, Dewi; Andryansyah; Haryanto, Mudi; Triyadi, Ari

    2000-01-01

    Failure analysis of industrial boiler pipe has been done. The tested pipe material is carbon steel SA 178 Grade A refer to specification data which taken from Fertilizer Company. Steps in analysis were ; collection of background operation and material specification, visual inspection, dye penetrant test, radiography test, chemical composition test, hardness test, metallography test. From the test and analysis result, it is shown that the pipe failure caused by erosion and welding was shown porosity and incomplete penetration. The main cause of failure pipe is erosion due to cavitation, which decreases the pipe thickness. Break in pipe thickness can be done due to decreasing in pipe thickness. To anticipate this problem, the ppe will be replaced with new pipe

  15. Corrosion of Spiral Rib Aluminized Pipe : [Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Large diameter, corrugated steel pipes are a common sight in the culverts that run alongside many Florida roads. Spiral-ribbed aluminized pipe (SRAP) has been widely specified by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) for runoff drainage. Th...

  16. Corrosion of Spiral Rib Aluminized Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Large diameter, corrugated steel pipes are a common sight in the culverts that run alongside many Florida roads. Spiral-ribbed aluminized pipe (SRAP) has been widely specified by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) for runoff drainage. Th...

  17. Laboratory exercises on oscillation modes of pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeberli, Willy

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes an improved lab setup to study the vibrations of air columns in pipes. Features of the setup include transparent pipes which reveal the position of a movable microphone inside the pipe; excitation of pipe modes with a miniature microphone placed to allow access to the microphone stem for open, closed, or conical pipes; and sound insulation to avoid interference between different setups in a student lab. The suggested experiments on the modes of open, closed, and conical pipes, the transient response of a pipe, and the effect of pipe diameter are suitable for introductory physics laboratories, including laboratories for nonscience majors and music students, and for more advanced undergraduate laboratories. For honors students or for advanced laboratory exercises, the quantitative relation between the resonance width and damping time constant is of interest.

  18. Dense sheet Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsu, Miyamoto

    1999-01-01

    The steady state and quasi-steady processes of infinite- and finite-width sheet z-pinches are studied. The relations corresponding to the Bennett relation and Pease-Braginskii current of cylindrical fiber z-pinches depend on a geometrical factor in the sheet z-pinches. The finite-width sheet z-pinch is approximated by a segment of infinite-width sheet z-pinch, if it is wide enough, and corresponds to a number of (width/thickness) times fiber z-pinch plasmas of the diameter that equals the sheet thickness. If the sheet current equals this number times the fiber current, the plasma created in the sheet z-pinches is as dense as in the fiber z-pinches. The total energy of plasma and magnetic field per unit mass is approximately equal in both pinches. Quasi-static transient processes are different in several aspects from the fiber z-pinch. No radiation collapse occurs in the sheet z-pinch. The stability is improved in the sheet z-pinches. The fusion criterions and the experimental arrangements to produce the sheet z-pinches are also discussed. (author)

  19. Management of manufacture and installation of plant pipings by bar code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwa, Minoru

    1995-01-01

    As for the piping system of nuclear power plants, the number of parts is very large, and the mill sheet is attached to each part, therefore, it is necessary to manage them individually, and large man power is required. In order to resolve the delay of mechanization in the factory, bar code system was adopted on full scale. At the time of taking parts out from the store, bar code labels are stuck to all piping parts. By this means, all the processes of manufacture and inspection are managed with a computer, and it is useful for labor saving and the prevention of mistaken input. This system is centering around the system of the progress management for piping manufacture, and is operated by being coupled with respective systems of production design, order and inventory, mill sheet management and installation management. The management of production design, manufacture, inspection and installation is explained. There is the problem of sticking bar code labels again as the labels become dirty or parts pass through coating and pickling processes. The direct carving of bar codes on parts by laser marker was tried, and it was successful for stainless steel, but in carbon steel pipes, it was hard to read. It is desirable to develop the bar codes which endure until the end of plant life. (K.I.)

  20. Analysis of Municipal Pipe Network Franchise Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Sun; Haichuan, Tian; Feng, Xu; Huixia, Zhou

    Franchise institution of municipal pipe network has some particularity due to the characteristic of itself. According to the exposition of Chinese municipal pipe network industry franchise institution, the article investigates the necessity of implementing municipal pipe network franchise institution in China, the role of government in the process and so on. And this offers support for the successful implementation of municipal pipe network franchise institution in China.