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Sample records for pinus caribaea var

  1. Family Outcrossing Rates of Pinus caribaea Morelet var. caribaea in Seed Orchard and Natural Populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Family outcrossing rates of Pinus caribaea var. caribaea populations that differed in origin and management were estimated by using isozyme markers. The family outcrossing rates were estimated by (1)fixing the probability of pollen gene frequency (p); (2) allowing pollen gene frequency to vary among families. The estimates of family outcrossing rates for all the populations varied widely among families (clones of the seed orchard), ranging from 0.39 to 2.0. The average family outcrossing rates of both m...

  2. Evaluación de tres métodos para el arrastre de madera en rodales naturales de Pinus caribaea var. caribaea Evaluation of three methods of the log Pinus caribaea skidding in natural set of wheels

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    Fidel Cándano Acosta

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se realizó en rodales naturales de Pinus caribaea var. caribaea, ubicados en la unidad silvícola San Andrés, La Palma, provincia Pinar del Río. El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar la eficiencia y los daños causados a la cubierta vegetal del suelo durante la operación de arrastre de madera. Se evaluaron tres métodos: 1 - el arrastre de fustes enteros con yuntas de bueyes hasta los patios de carga; 2 - el arrastre de fustes enteros con tractor hasta los patios de carga; 3 - el arrastre de fustes enteros con yuntas de bueyes hasta las pistas de arrastre y con tractor hasta los patios de carga. El método de arrastre de madera que consistió en la combinación del empleo de animales y de tractor resultó más eficiente y provocó menos alteraciones a la cubierta vegetal del suelo.The work was carried out in natural stand of Pinus caribaea var. caribaea located in San Andrés, Forestry enterprise of La Palma in the Pinar del Río province. The objective was determine which method of wood extraction results more efficient and reduce damages to the soil vegetable. Three method were evaluated: 1- the extraction of tree length with oxen to landing; 2 - the extraction of tree length with tractor to landing; 3 - the extraction of tree length with oxen to short distance and using tractor up to landing places. The method the extraction of tree length with oxen to short distance and using tractor up to landing places, resulted the most efficient and the one which fewer damages on the vegetable cover of the soil.

  3. Biomass and carbon stock from Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis under homogenous stands in southwest Bahia, Brazil

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    Máida Cynthia Duca de Lima

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: There is a large number of studies evaluating methods to quantify biomass for the genus Pinus in different regions of Brazil. However, knowledge about this subject in the Northeast region of Brazil is still incipient. The objective of the present study was to assess the biomass and carbon stocks and select mathematical models to estimate these variables in Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis , which is established in homogenous stands in the Southwest region of the state of Bahia (Brazil. The biomass was quantified using the destructive method. Samples of needles, bole, bark, and branches were analyzed to determine their carbon contents. Ten models were tested, and the best of them were chosen based on the following statistical indicators: adjusted determination coefficient, estimate standard error, maximum likelihood logarithm, and graphical analysis of waste. Values for total biomass and carbon stocks were 69 and 42Mg ha-1, respectively. Curtis and Schumacher-Hall Log models showed to be the most indicated to estimate the total dry biomass and carbon of the species under the conditions studied.

  4. PROPERTIES OF THERMO-MECHANICALLY TREATED WOOD FROM PINUS CARIBAEA VAR. HONDURENSIS

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    Cristiane Moreira Tavares Santos,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of thermo-mechanical treatment on properties of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis wood. Two pressure levels (25% and 50% of the compression strength perpendicular to grain were evaluated. The treatment was applied in a laboratory hot press in one-step or two-step modes for 50 minutes. In the one-step treatment, the total pressure was applied after the temperature of the center of the wood reached 170°C. In the two-steps treatment, half of the pressure was applied after the center of the wood reached 100°C, and the final pressure was applied when it reached 170°C. The weight loss immediately after treatment was equivalent to the wood moisture content, indicating that degradation of wood polymers did not occur. However, the treatments showed decreasing values of the moisture content, which were reduced from 12.3% to 9.8%. A moderate improvement on surface roughness was achieved, while wood wettability was highly reduced in all treatments, as determined by contact angle measurement. On the other hand, the treatment applied did not improve the wood dimensional stability, but all mechanical properties presented a trend of improvement.

  5. Provenance and family variation of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis from Guatemala and Honduras, grown in Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela

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    Moura Vicente Pongitory Gifoni

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis (Sénécl Barr. & Golf. is a tropical pine that naturally occurs in lowland areas of Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and eastern Mexico. It has been one of the most studied tropical pines and the one with the most commercial importance in Brazil. The objective of this work was to select the best provenances for plantations and best trees in families for the establishment of seed orchards. For that a trial with five provenances and 47 open-pollinated families was planted near Planaltina, Federal District, in the Cerrado Region of Brazil. The provenances tested were Poptun (Guatemala, Gualjoco, Los Limones, El Porvenir and Santa Cruz de Yojoa (Honduras and assessed at 12 years of age. Poptun and Gualjoco had larger volume, and Los Limones and El Porvenir the lowest incidence of forks and foxtails. Individual tree heritabilities for volume, stem form and branch diameter were 0.34, 0.06, and 0.26 respectively. More than 90% of the trees had defects, common in unimproved P. caribaea. Selection criteria for quality traits need to be relaxed in the first generation of breeding to allow for larger genetic gains in productivity. Results from this test compared with P. caribaea var. hondurensis trials in other Brazilian, Colombian and Venezuelan sites suggest that provenance x site and family x site interactions are not as strong as in other pine species.

  6. Wachstumsmodell für die Karibische Kiefer (Pinus caribaea Morelet var. hondurensis [Sénéclauze]) in der Dominikanischen Republik

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Die nachhaltige Bewirtschaftung des Waldes stellt eine der wichtigsten Anforderungen an das forstwirtschaftliche Handeln dar. In diesem Kontext befasst sich die vorliegende Arbeit mit der modellhaften Abbildung des Einzelbaumwachstums der Baumart Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis und bildet damit die Grundlage zur Entwicklung nachhaltiger Bewirtschaftungskonzepte in der Dominikanischen Republik. Die Datenbasis für die Berechnung von Ertragskennwerten und für die sich anschließende Modellie...

  7. DINÂMICA DA REGENERAÇÃO NATURAL NO SUB-BOSQUE DE Pinus caribaea Morelet. var. caribaea NA RESERVA BIOLÓGICA DE SALTINHO, TAMANDARÉ - PE

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    Izabela Souza Lopes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the structure and dynamics of natural regeneration in the understory of plantations with exotic species, such as those of the genus Pinus , makes it possible to provide information to management, conservation and re-establishment of native species in a plant community. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the dynamics of natural regeneration of woody tree species occurring in the understory of Pinus caribaea in Rebio of Saltinho, Pernambuco state, Brazil. Regenerating species were measured for 10 permanent plots, 1 x 50 m, and included individuals with circumference at the base to 30 cm from the ground (CAB 0, 30 m ≤ 15 cm and height of more than one meter. The height was classified in: Class 1, shrubby tree, individuals with height 1 ≤ H ≤ 2; Class 2 with 2 height 3 m and ≤ 15 cm CAP. Phytosociological parameters were calculated, the dynamics of the regeneration and the Shannon index (H ‘ and evenness (J ‘ by Pielou. Protium heptaphyllum had as many individuals and value of importance (VI and Miconia prasina the best frequency in the two surveys. How to index H ‘ of 3,32 nats. ind -1 (2007 went to 3,07 nats. ind -1 (2012, and the evenness of J ‘ of 0,85 to 0,62, and decrease for both the diversity and the distribution. The 2012 survey recorded 12,5% increase in the number of individuals, and the regenerating of 2007 had 48,31% mortality. With respect to the number of individuals and basal area, the percentage gains were greater than the losses. It is concluded that the ecological succession of understorey regeneration of the population studied, lies in positive modification, and the settlement of Pinus caribaea, is preventing the emergence of new individuals and species.

  8. The scope for using the volatile profiles of Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis as indicators of susceptibility to pine tortoise scale and as predictors of environmental stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul W C; Hamilton, Martin A; Sanchez, Michele D; Corcoran, Marcella R; Manco, Bryan N; Malumphy, Chris P

    2015-04-01

    Climate change, unseasonal fire and urbanization are contributing to the decline of Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis populations in the Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI). Infestation of pines with the invasive pine tortoise scale (PTS, Toumeyella parvicornis) is accelerating this decline. Pine trees in the Bahamas are larger and healthier and are not infested with PTS although they are subject to some of the same environmental pressures as the trees in TCI. Volatile compounds were collected from wild and nursery-reared P. caribaea var. bahamensis from TCI and the Bahamas and characterized using GC/MS analysis, to look for differences between the compounds detected in insect-infested pines of TCI and the healthy pines of the Bahamas. Ten compounds contributing at least 1% of the total detected peak areas in any one of the samples were selected for further study. Eight of these compounds were identified using authentic standards and mass spectral libraries. The main constituents in the samples were α- and β-pinene as well as β-phellandrene, and, together with β-myrcene, their contents varied the most between samples collected at different locations. Principal-component analysis showed that the two structural isomers of pinene, together with β-myrcene and β-phellandrene, contributed 98.4% of the variance between samples. There was a positive relationship between the concentrations of the two structural isomers of pinene and between levels of β-myrcene and β-phellandrene. The results are discussed in relation to the biology and adaptations of invasive scale insects, the importance of monoterpenes in pine as a defense against insect predation, whether these compounds can be used as indicators of tree health, and future directions for research into conserving the Caicos pine.

  9. AVALIAÇÃO DE ADESIVOS À BASE DE TANINOS DE Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis E DE Acacia mearnsii NA FABRICAÇÃO DE PAINÉIS AGLOMERADOS

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    Amélia Guimarães Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the methods for extraction of tannin from the bark of Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis , as well as to evaluate the technical feasibility of using tannins from the barks of Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis , of Acacia mearnsii, the mixtures of black wattle and pine tannins and the mixture of adhesive urea formaldehyde (UF with black wattle and pine tannins in the production of adhesives for particleboard. The barks of Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis were fragmented in hammer mill, sieved and extracted under reflux for 2 hours, using a bark: liquor relation of 1:15, in nine treatments. The best extraction was used to obtain large quantities of extracts, which were used in the manufacture of adhesives and mixtures with UF adhesive and tannins of black wattle and the manufacture of particleboard. The addition of sodium sulfite gave higher extraction of tannin, which was extracted with the addition of 5% sodium sulfite. The results showed that both the black wattle tannin, as the bark of Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis have good bonding properties. It is possible to add pine tannin solution to the solution of black wattle and to replace part of the UF adhesive for the wattle tannins up to 25%, without compromising the glue quality. Replacing 10% of UF for tannic extract, both pine and black wattle, did not alter the values of thickness swelling (TS of the panels. It is possible to obtain good mechanical properties with UF adhesives modified with tannic extracts at a ratio of 10%. The high values found for the internal bond (IB panels containing tannin extracts showed the potential of these tannic extracts for bonding wood materials.

  10. CURVAS ANAMÓRFICAS DE ÍNDICE DE SITIO PARA PLANTACIONES DE Pinus caribaea Morelet var. caribaea Barret y Golfari DE LA EMPRESA FORESTAL INTEGRAL MACURIJE (EFI EN LA PROVINCIA DE PINAR DEL RÍO, CUBA

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    Héctor Barrero-Medel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se seleccionó el mejor modelo para la obtención de curvas anamórficas de índice de sitio para la especie Pinus caribaea Morelet var. caribaea Barret y Golfari, en las condiciones de la Empresa Forestal Integral Macurije, perteneciente a los municipios Guane y Mantua de la provincia de Pinar del Río. Para ello se utilizó el registro de los datos de 14 parcelas permanentes establecidas en el año 2006 con mediciones consecutivas efectuadas y distribuidas en las diferentes Unidades Básicas de Producción Forestal (UBPF, 256 parcelas temporales distribuidas al azar en todo el patrimonio de la empresa y el inventario de la ordenación realizado en los años 2002-2003. El método de construcción del sistema de curvas de índice de sitio empleado mediante el principio anamórfico fue el de regresión anidada aplicado por Bailey y Clutter (1976 y descrito por Alder (1980 como método de regresión jerárquica con estimador de pendiente común. Como resultado del ajuste se obtuvieron las ecuaciones para la altura dominante (Ho para los 13,16, 19, 22, 25 y 28 metros a la edad base de 35 años, así como la ecuación para la determinación del índice de sitio.

  11. Retención de carbono en rodales para la producción de madera en Pinus caribaea Morelet var. caribaea B. & G., en la región de Tope de Collantes, Guamuhaya, Provincia Sancti Spiritus. Carbon retention in forest stands in Pinus caribaea Morelet var. caribaea B. & G. for wood production in the region of Tope de Collantes, Guamuhaya, Sancti Spiritus Province.

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    Alicia MERCADET

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba no existen antecedentes sobre cómo abordar de forma integrada la producción de madera para aserrío y la retención de carbono. Se establecieron 30 parcelas temporales de 500 m 2 en plantaciones de Pinus caribaea Morelet var. caribaea Barret y Golfari en la región de Tope de Collantes, ubicada en el macizo montañoso de Guamuhaya, provincia Sancti Spiritus, Cuba; en ellas se midieron el diámetro normal (d 1,30 , la altura total y el grosor de corteza por árbol (GCa, calculando el volumen total con corteza por árbol (VTcca, el rendimiento por hectárea (R y la retención de carbono (C. Se analizaron las tendencias de variación de estas variables con el espaciamiento manteniendo fijos los efectos sitio y edad primero y confundiendo el efecto sitio dentro del efecto espaciamiento después. En todos los casos el d 1,30 y el VTcca presentaron tendencias ascendentes con el aumento del espaciamiento, en tanto que el GCa, el R y el C presentaron tendencias descendentes, sugiriendo que para combinar la producción de madera para aserrío con la retención de carbono, resulta conveniente identificar un espaciamiento de compromiso entre ambas variables, que para esta especie y en estas condiciones resultó ser de 990 árboles*ha -1 , equivalente a 3,2 m x 3,2 m. In Cuba there are no precedents about how to manage wood plantations for sawmill, together with carbon retention. There were used 30 temporal plots (500 m 2 each in plantations of Pinus caribaea M. var. caribaea B. & G. in Tope de Collantes, region of Cuban south-centre mountains in Sancti Spiritus province. In each plot were measured normal diameter (d 1,30 , total height and bark thickness by tree, and then it was calculated total volume with bark per tree, yield per hectare and carbon retention in order to analyse variation tendencies of those variables with spacing, using first as fixed effects site and age and then, confounding site effect within spacing. In all cases normal

  12. Estimativa de parâmetros genéticos e ganhos na seleção para caracteres de crescimento em teste de progênies de Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis e var. bahamensis, em Assis-SP. Estimates of genetic parameters and gains from selection for growth traits in Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis and var. bahamensis progeny tests, in Assis-SP.

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    Alexandre Magno SEBBENN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram estimar parâmetros genéticos e ganhos na seleção em diâmetro à altura do peito – DAP e altura em um teste de 14 progênies de polinização aberta de P. caribaea var. hondurensis e seis de P. caribaea var. bahamensis, aos 13 anos de idade, estabelecido em Assis, SP. Para fins de comparação, uma testemunha P. caribaea var. hondurensis foi incluída no ensaio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o látice retangular 4 x 5, com parcelas de dez plantas no espaçamento de 3 m x 3 m, totalizando 20 tratamentos com três repetições. Não foram detectadas diferenças entre as variedades. Variações significativas entre progênies de ambas asvariedades foram detectadas em altura. As médias das progênies de ambas as variedades foram maiores que a média da testemunha, indicando que o material testado tem potencial para ser utilizado em reflorestamentos na região de Assis. A variação genética e os coeficientes de herdabilidades foram maiores em DAP do que em altura, indicando que maiores ganhos podem ser obtidos mediante seleção em DAP. Os ganhos genéticos preditos em plantios com 13 anos de idade, em locais com características ambientais semelhantes às de Assis e realizados com sementes coletadas após a seleção no teste de progênies de Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis foi estimado para o DAP em 6,36%.The aims of this study were to estimate genetic parameters and gains from selection for diameter at breast height – DBH and height in 14 open-pollinated progenies of P. caribaea var. hondurensis and six of P. caribaea var. bahamensis, at 13 years of age, established in Assis, State of São Paulo. A control treatment with the same var. bahamensis was included in the trial. The trial was analyzed as a 4 x 5 rectangular lattice, with 21 treatments, three replications and 10 plants per plot. No significant differences were found between varieties. A significant variation among progenies within

  13. Soil properties and variability of tracheid dimensions and wood density in Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis Solo, dimensão dos traqueídeos e densidade da madeira em Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis

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    Robson Schaff Corrêa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The understanding of wood quality in relation to different forest sites is of fundamental relevance in current timber market. There are only few studies available concerning soil and wood quality of tropical pinots. So, the goal of this work was to characterize tracheid dimensions and wood density of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis, correlating these variables with soil properties at different sites. Discs were taken at 1.3 m height and comprised two radial samples in each of the four dominant trees removed at four different sites. Measurements for wood density were made from the third to the eleventh year old rings, and the measurement of tracheid dimensions were made in the fourth, eighth and eleventh year sold rings. The soil, collected in the canopy projection area of each tree was analyzed chemically and physically in different layers. The tracheid dimensions and wood density showed stabilization between the eighth and the eleventh years old rings. Moreover, the tracheid dimensions varied between sites and did not present a pattern of variation in relation to soil properties at the different sites.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.66.93

  1. BIODIVERSIDAD VEGETAL ASOCIADA A PLANTACIONES FORESTALES DE Pinus caribaea MORELET Y Eucalyptus pellita F. MUELL ESTABLECIDAS EN VILLANUEVA, CASANARE, COLOMBIA PLANT BIODIVERSITY ASSOCIATED TO FOREST PLANTATIONS WITH Pinus caribaea MORELET AND Eucalyptus pellita F. MUELL. ESTABLISHED IN VILLANUEVA, CASANARE, COLOMBIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fernando Fernández Méndez; Yeimy Katherine Camargo Martínez; Mónica Bibiana Sarmiento

    2012-01-01

    Resumen. Se analizó en una plantación ubicada en el bosque húmedo tropical la posibilidad que tienen las especies nativas de formar un sotobosque bajo plantaciones de Pinus caribaea y Eucalyptus pellita...

  2. Biological activities of procyanidins from the bark of Pinus caribaea Morelet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengge; Du, Xueyu; Wang, Fei

    2009-01-01

    The extraction and biological activities of procyanidins from the bark of Pinus caribaea Morelet (P. caribaea) have been studied for the first time in our research. The main factors influencing the extraction, including solvent, temperature and liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, were discussed. The results illustrate that the suitable conditions for the extraction of procyanidins from the bark of P. caribaea are as follows: extraction temperature at 50 degrees C, L/S ratio at 11 : 1 and ethanol volume fraction at 70%. The focus of this study is to investigate the biological activities of the procyanidins from the bark of P. caribaea. Free-radical scavenging activity of the procyanidins was measured by means of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, and it was clear that the procyanidins product had a strong radical scavenging ability. Furthermore, the inhibition effect of the procyanidins from the bark of P. caribaea on different human cancer cells cultured in vitro was investigated. The results indicated that the procyanidins extracted with water had a stronger inhibition on promycelocytic cells HL-60, an effective inhibition on human stomach adenocarcinoma cells BGC-823 and human hepatocellular carcinoma cells BEL-7402, but no effect on human lung carcinoma cells A549, whereas the procyanidins extracted with ethanol had an effective inhibition on HL-60 and BGC-823, but no effect on A549 or BEL-7402.

  3. Investigação de possíveis obstruções sílico-aluminosas em tecidos condutores em Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis relacionadas à senescência e morte de plantas

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    Lucélia Parreira Vasconcelos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Com base na hipótese de que polímeros associados a silício (Si estariam obstruindo traqueídeos, e assim contribuindo para um colapso nutricional de maciços florestais de Pinus caribaea, tropicais em áreas de cerrado, nos chapadões das regiões do Triângulo Mineiro e do Alto Paranaíba (MG, foi desenvolvido este trabalho. Estudos precedentes mostraram uma relação estreita deste quadro fisiológico com deficiências nutricionais. Sabe-se, no entanto, que as sementes usadas na implantação desses maciços apresentavam grande variabilidade genética bem expressa na diversidade de comportamento das plantas, uma vez que parte delas permanece sadia enquanto outras entram em processo de senescência de intensidade variável, culminando com a morte da planta. Neste estudo, foram amostrados segmentos de raízes e do ponteiro de plantas aparentemente normais (acículas verdes, em diferentes estágios de senescência (acículas amareladas e mortas. Essas amostras, após secagem até o ponto crítico, foram observadas em um microscópio eletrônico de varredura acoplado de uma microssonda de raios-X. Constatou-se a presença de Si e Al nos tecidos do xilema e do floema, tanto na parte aérea quanto nas raízes, e os maiores teores foram encontrados no xilema das raízes. Todavia, não foi constatada obstrução ou qualquer presença de corpos sílico-aluminosos nos tecidos condutores das partes analisadas. Verificou-se, no entanto, que a presença de Si em associação ao Al ocorreu segundo uma relação Al/Si da ordem de 2,6. Os dados revelaram ainda que a amplitude de variação do Si é de 1,5 vez maior que a do Al. Concluiu-se que a amplitude de variação do Si é maior que a do Al, estabelecendo uma relação de variação (Si-Al.

  4. Larvicidal effect of dried leaf extracts from Pinus caribaea against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae Efeito larvicida dos extratos de folhas secas de Pinus caribaea contra Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Luiz Alberto Kanis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the larvicidal activity of dried leaf extracts from Pinus caribaea Morelet against Aedes aegypti was evaluated for the first time. Pinus caribaea extracts were obtained by macerating dried leaves in alkaline hydroethanol, ethanol and acetone solutions followed by evaporation under reduced pressure. The lignin content was quantified using the thioglycolic acid complexation method. Lethality bioassays (LC50 and LC90 were carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the World Health Organization. The results showed that the acetone extract from Pinus caribaea was more active, and that larvicidal activity was associated with lignin concentration.Neste trabalho foi avaliada pela primeira vez a atividade larvicida contra Aedes aegypti de extratos obtido a partir de folhas secas de Pinus caribae. Os extratos de Pinus caribaea foram obtidos a partir da maceração de folhas secas em solução hidroetanólica alcalina, etanol e acetona, seguido de evaporação sob pressão reduzida. O teor de lignina foi quantificado usando o método de complexação com ácido tioglicóliclo. Os ensaios de letalidade foram conduzidos de acordo com a recomendação da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Os resultados demonstraram que o extrato obtido com acetona foi mais ativo, e a atividade larvicida esta associada com a concentração de ligninas.

  5. Optimisation of the manufacturing variables of sawdust pellets from the bark of Pinus caribaea Morelet: Particle size, moisture and pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Relova, I.; Leon, M.A. [Universidad de Pinar del Rio, Marti 270 esq, a 27 de Noviembre, Pinar del Rio (Cuba); Vignote, S.; Ambrosio, Y. [Departamento de Economia y Gestion Forestal, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    Different variables affect the processes of compacting biomass, and these variables depend on the raw material, such as the type of wood or type of biomass being compacted, its moisture, size, as well as on other aspects relating to the manufacturing process, such as the pressure applied and the temperature reached during compaction. This work analyses the influence of the size of the sawdust particles from the bark of the species Pinus caribaea var. Morelet, which ranges from 0.63 to 2 mm; it had a moisture content in dry basis of 6; 9.5; 13 and 20%; and the force applied in the laboratory was 8000, 12,000, 16,000 and 20,000 N. These values are relatively high given that they do not take into account the heat caused by the matrixes chafing with the material to be compacted, as occurs in industrial processes. The different experimental treatments were processed and statistically analysed using SSPS version 12.0, and Statgraphics version 5.0. Once the data had been tested in the ANOVA and in various comparison tests, it was observed that the results did not show any significant differences between the pellets obtained with forces of 16,000 and 20,000 N, or between pellets obtained with 9.5 and 13% moisture, and that the pellets with higher qualities were obtained from particle sizes of between 1 and 2 mm. (author)

  6. Aqueous extract of Pinus caribaea inhibits the damage induced by ultraviolet radiations, in plasmid DNA

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    Marioly Vernhes Tamayo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: The incidence of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV on Earth has increased due to diminish of the ozone layer. This enviromental agent is highly genotoxic causing numerous damage in DNA molecule. Nowadays there is a growing interest in the search of compounds capable to minimize these effects. In particular, phytocompounds have been tested as excelent candidates for their antigenotoxic properties. Aims: To evaluate the protective effect of the aqueous extract of Pinus caribaea (EPC against the damage induced by the UVB and UVC radiation. Methods: The cell-free plasmid DNA assay was employed. The forms of plasmid were separated electrophoretically in agarose gel. For genotoxic and photoprotective evaluation of P. caribaea, different concentrations of the extract (0.1 – 2.0 mg/mL and exposure times were evaluated. The CPD lesions were detected enzymatically. Additionally, the transmittance of the aqueous extract against 254 nm and 312 nm was measured. Results: None of the concentrations were genotoxic in 30 min of treatment, for superior times a clastogenic effect was observed. The EPC despite inhibiting the activity of the enzyme T4 endo V, impedes photolesions formation in DNA at concentrations ≥ 0.1 mg/mL. Conclusions: The EPC has photoprotective properties, this effect could be related with its antioxidants and absorptives capacities.

  7. Effect of the heat treatment on physical and chemical properties of Pinus caribaea wood

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    Dallyene da Silva Poubel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of the heat treatment on physical properties (density, equilibrium moisture content, mass loss, volumetric and linear swelling and shrinkage and chemical composition of normal (opposite side and compression wood of Pinus caribaea Morelet. Samples of 25 x 25 x 50 mm were heat-treated under two different temperatures: 200 and 220 ºC. The results indicated a reduction in equilibrium moisture content and swelling and shrinkage following heat treatment, independent of wood type. The compression wood showed higher longitudinal swelling than normal one, however, after heat treatment, the improvements were similar between both wood types. Samples heat-treated at 200 and 220 ºC had mass losses of 9.94 and 21.03 %, respectively. The heat treatment promoted a relative increase in lignin content and a decrease in holocellulose and α-cellulose contents, indicating the occurrence of thermal degradation of these components.

  8. Wood properties of Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus caribaea estimated by colorimetry

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    Patrícia Gomes Ribeiro Amorim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-destructive technologies has been very effective in characterization and evaluation of wood quality. This study aimed to characterize the technologically wood of Pinus caribaea and Eucalyptus grandis by Colorimetry. The study was conducted at the University of Brasilia (UNB in Physics and Engineering Laboratory the Laboratory of Forest Products/LPF - Brazilian Forest Service (SFB. Species were subjected to standard tests of basic density, shrinkage and bending. For the colorimetric determination of the parameters it was used a spectrophotometer according to the methodology adopted by Camargos (1999. The radial surface of the wood is most suitable for the collecting of the colorimetric parameters and prediction of properties. Property best estimated by this technique was the density, followed by modulus of elasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR.

  9. Inhibición de la replicación del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana por extractos de taninos de Pinus caribaea Morelet

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    Ignacio Juan Ruibal Brunet

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes concentraciones de 6 extractos de corteza de Pinus caribaea Morelet var. caribaea se enfrentaron a 2 dosis de virus en un ensayo in vitro, sobre células MT4; la actividad antiviral se midió por ensayo inmunoenzimático de captura de proteína 24 del virus. Todas las fracciones mostraron actividad citotóxica moderada y solo una fue altamente tóxica. La fracción 02 mostró un alto porcentaje de inhibición de la replicación viral, en relación con la dosis viral y la concentración del producto, con un índice de selectividad de 100, pero son necesarios estudios adicionales sobre la identificación de la estructura química para definir el mecanismo de acción del producto.Six different fractions from the bark of Pinus caribae Moralet var. caribae were faced in five different concentrations against two viral doses (MOI 0,1 y 0,01 in a vitro assay on MT4 cell lines; the antiviral activity was measured by p24 Ag capture ELISA assay (DAVIH Agp24. All the fractions showed a mild cytotoxicity activity and only one fraction showed the highest cytotoxicity activity. The fraction 02 had the highest percentage of viral replication inhibition, correlated with the viral dose and the product concentration, having a selectivity rate of 100; however, more research about the chemical structure of active compounds, and possible mechanisms of action are needed.

  10. [Substitution of native savanna by Pinus caribaea (Pinaceae) plantations in Venezuela: effect on parameters that indicated changes in soil carbon content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Yrma; Paolini, Jorge; Hernández, Rosa Mary

    2008-12-01

    A great extension (615,000 ha) of native savannas of the eastern plains of Venezuela have been replaced by plantations of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis; however, only scarce information exists about the impact of this land use on carbon dynamics in soils. We studied the effect of temporal variability and the substitution on the total organic carbon (TOC), water-soluble carbon (WSC), microbial biomass C (Cmic), basal respiration (BR), microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) and Cmic/Corg ratio. Selected chemical properties and biological parameters of soils were measured under 3 and 29 year old forest plantations of P. caribaea and an adjacent native savanna which was considered the control. At each site, nine soil composite samples were collected (0-10 cm depth). The studied parameters did not show a defined pattern in relation to temporal variability. Higher carbon preservation occurs in soil microbial biomass under pine plantations. The basal respiration rate and qCO2 suggests that there is a more efficient microbial carbon utilization in the plantations. The Cmic/Corg ratio shows that the microbial biomass has an important stock of soil carbon in pine plantations. The conversion of savannas to pine plantations can increase soil carbon in the eastern plains of Venezuela, but this must be balanced with the ecological importance of natural savannas ecosystems.

  11. Contenido del aceite esencial en el follaje de Pinus Caribaea morelet en función de la edad del árbol. II

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    Rolando Quert Álvarez

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la cuantificación del contenido de aceite esencial de la especie Pinus caribaea Morelet endémica de Cuba, en función de la edad del árbol. El estudio se realizó con árboles existentes en áreas de la Estación Experimental Forestal de Viñales, provincia de Pinar del Río, con edades de entre 8-30 a. El tamaño de muestra fue de 3 árboles y el tiempo de destilación para la extracción del aceite esencial de 3 h. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que el contenido de aceite esencial varía significativamente con la edad del árbol en forma ascendente, con el valor más bajo (0,12 % en peso a los 8 a y el más alto (0,27 % en peso a los 30 a.The results obtained in the quantitation of the content of essential oil of the Pinus caribaea Morelet, an endemic species from Cuba, according to the age of the tree, are presented. The study was conducted with trees existing in the areas of the Experimental Forestal Station in Viñales, province of Pinar del Río, at ages 8-30. The size of the sample was of 3 trees and the distillation time for the extraction of essential oil was of 3 hours. The results obtained showed that the content of esential oil increases significantly with age. The lowest value (0.12% in weight was registered at 8 and the highest (0,27% in weight at 30.

  12. Brazilian savanna re-establishment in a monoculture forest:diversity and environmental relations of native regenerating understory in Pinus caribaea Morelet. stands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gastao Viegas de Pinho Ju nior; Andre R Terra Nascimento; Barbara Tahara Valverde; Lucas H Clemente

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze and compare natural regeneration in shrub-tree community in three areas below Pinus caribaea stands and a natural area (cerrado sensu stricto). We also analyze the influence of biophysical and environmental variables on the distribution of regenerating shrub-tree species. The areas were analyzed and compared in relation to dispersal syndromes as well, being zoochory and anemochory the prevailing syndroms in the four areas. The sites below P. caribaea show a heterogeneous regen-eration with the number of species ranging from 18 to 42. We analyzed the influence of the biophysical and envi-ronmental variables performing a canonical correspon-dence analyses, being found significant values for variables distance from remnant and basal area. The species Si-paruna guianensis, Miconia albicans, Xylopia aromatica, Sclerolobium paniculatum, Casearia sylvestris and P. caribaea were the most importante ones in the four areas.

  13. Macronutrientes no sistema solo-Pinus caribaea Morelet em palntios apresentando amarelecimento das acículas e morte de plantas Macronutrients in the soil- Pinus caribaea Morelet system with yellowing of the needles followed by senescence and death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselene de Queiroz Chaves

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido em áreas de Cerrado, no oeste de Minas Gerais, visando contribuir para o diagnóstico de causas que têm levado à morte precoce de pinheiros, verificada após amarelecimento e necrose progressiva das acículas. Foram comparadas árvores de Pinus caribaea Morelet das variedades caribaea e hondurensis, plantadas entre 1977-82. Em cada local de amostragem, coletou-se material de 20 árvores, sendo 10 com amarelecimento das acículas e 10 normais. Foram coletadas acículas e tecidos do xilema e floema de raízes nos quais foram analisados os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. A classe de solo dos sítios de estudo é Latossolo Amarelo ácrico típico. As amostras foram coletadas nas profundidades: 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100, 100-150, 150-200, 200-250 e 250-300 cm, nas quais se analisaram os teores trocáveis de Ca, Mg, P e K, bem como o pH em água e em KCl, a acidez extraível (H+Al e o teor de matéria orgânica. Os teores de N, P, K e S não diferiram significativamente entre acículas verdes e amarelecidas, enquanto os teores de Ca e Mg foram significativamente inferiores nelas. Os sintomas visuais, confirmados pelos resultados analíticos, revelaram um quadro complexo de deficiências no sistema solo-planta estudado, envolvendo principalmente os macronutrientes Ca e Mg.This study was carried out to diagnose senescence and pine trees death (Pinus caribaea Morelet, observed after yellowing and progressive necrosis of the needles in the Brazilian Cerrado in western Minas Gerais. The varieties caribaea and hondurensis, planted between 1977-82 were compared. In the three sites studied samples from twenty trees were collected; ten with yellowing of the needles and ten without symptoms. From each tree, phloem and xylem tissue from root segments and needles were collected and the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S were analyzed. The considered sites is formed by a Yellow Latosol (Typic Acrustox with high

  14. BIODIVERSIDAD VEGETAL ASOCIADA A PLANTACIONES FORESTALES DE Pinus caribaea MORELET Y Eucalyptus pellita F. MUELL ESTABLECIDAS EN VILLANUEVA, CASANARE, COLOMBIA PLANT BIODIVERSITY ASSOCIATED TO FOREST PLANTATIONS WITH Pinus caribaea MORELET AND Eucalyptus pellita F. MUELL. ESTABLISHED IN VILLANUEVA, CASANARE, COLOMBIA

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    Fernando Fernández Méndez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se analizó en una plantación ubicada en el bosque húmedo tropical la posibilidad que tienen las especies nativas de formar un sotobosque bajo plantaciones de Pinus caribaea y Eucalyptus pellita. Se establecieron parcelas permanentes en las plantaciones por especie, edad y tratamiento silvicultural; parcelas similares se instauraron en bosque natural y sabana. Se registraron individuos clasificados por tamaño y hábito. Se determinaron 49 familias botánicas y 102 especies. La mayor y menor diversidad se presentó en el bosque natural y en la sabana con 53 y 18 especies, respectivamente. Entre plantaciones, se encontró mayor diversidad en P. caribaea, con 46 especies, que en E. pellita con 38 especies. El cociente de mezcla indicó una vegetación heterogénea en todos los usos. Los índices Margalef y Menhinick mostraron que el bosque es más diverso, seguido de las plantaciones de mayor edad y por último la sabana. Los índices de Shannon y Simpson califican todos los sitios con vegetación heterogénea. Los tratamientos tuvieron diferencias estadísticas significativas en número de individuos, especies y categorías de tamaño, a excepción de las herbáceas. En cuanto a composición y abundancias se destacan tres grandes grupos: bosque con plantaciones maduras, plantaciones de edades intermedias y plantaciones jóvenes con sabana. Se observó una alta betadiversidad entre los tratamientos, que compartían menos del 50% de las especies y abundancias, según los índices Jaccard y Sorensen. Entre plantaciones se presentó el mayor número de especies compartidas. Se concluye que las plantaciones albergan buena cantidad de biodiversidad vegetal de sotoboque y no impiden el establecimiento de especies nativas.Abstract. It was analized in a plantation located in the tropical rainforest, the possibility that native species forming an understory in Pinus caribaea and Eucalyptus pellita plantations. Were established permanent plots

  15. Produção de painéis compensados estruturais com diferentes composições de lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus caribaea

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    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de painéis compensados estruturais produzidos com lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus caribaea var. caribaea, var. hondurensis e var. bahamensis com diferentes composições de lâminas. Foram produzidos painéis experimentais com dimensões de 50 x 50 cm, utilizando-se cinco lâminas de 2,2 mm, com as seguintes composições: (1 painéis com todas as lâminas de mesma espécie/variedades (T1, T2, T3 e T4; e (2 painéis com lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna de forma intercalada com as lâminas de três variedades de Pinus caribaea (T5 a T10. Os painéis produzidos exclusivamente com lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna apresentaram valores superiores de resistência da linha de cola aos esforços de cisalhamento, MOE e MOR paralelo e perpendicular. A composição dos painéis com lâminas das duas espécies/variedades de forma intercalada não influenciou, de forma significativa, a resistência da linha de cola e MOE e MOR perpendicular. A disposição das lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna na capa dos compensados resultou em maiores valores de MOE e MOR paralelo. Os resultados das propriedades mecânicas avaliadas foram satisfatórios, em comparação com os valores de referência apresentados na literatura e com aqueles requisitos mínimos requeridos pela norma técnica, indicando a viabilidade de produção de painéis compensados do tipo "combi" com combinação de espécies de folhosas e coníferas.

  16. Carbon stored in forest plantations of Pinus caribaea, Cupressus lusitanica and Eucalyptus deglupta in Cachí Hydroelectric Project

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    Marylin Rojas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest plantations are considered the main carbon sinks thought to reduce the impact of climate change. Regarding many species, however, there is a lack of information in order to establish metrics on accumulation of biomass and carbon, principally due to the level of difficulty and the cost of quantification through direct measurement and destructive sampling. In this research, it was evaluated carbon stocks of forest plantations near the dam of hydroelectric project Cachí, which belongs to Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad. 25 unit samples were evaluated along some plantations that contain three different species. 30 Pinus caribacea trees, 14 Cupressus lusitanica and 15 Eucalyptus deglupta were extracted. The biomass was quantified by means of the destructive method. First of all, every component of the tree was weighed separately; then, sampling was obtained in order to determine the dry matter and the carbon fraction. 110 biomass samples from the three species were analyzed in laboratory, including all the components (leaves, branches, shaft, and root. The carbon fraction varied between 47,5 and 48,0 for Pinus caribacea; between 32,6 and 52,7 for Cupressus lusitanica, and beween 36,4 and 50,3% for Eucalyptus deglupta. The stored carbon was 230, 123, and 69 Mg ha-1 in plantations of P. caribaea, C. lusitanica and E. deglupta, respectively. Approximately, 75% of the stored carbon was detected in the shaft.

  17. WEIGHT LOSS AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CASTOR OIL-TREATED Pinus caribaea (Morelet WOOD EXPOSED TO FUNGI

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    Adewunmi Omobolaji ADENAIYA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for environmental sustainability calls for a radical change from the use of synthetic wood preservatives which persist in the environment even after wood has been taken out of service. There has therefore been a growing interest in the development of efficacious biocides from plants, prompting the exploration of castor seed oil as a potential wood antifungal in this study due to its reported antimicrobial properties. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the resistance of castor oil treated P. caribaea wood against two strains of wood basidiomycetes. Five trees of Pinus caribaea were harvested at Shasha Forest Reserve, Osun State. Wood samples were obtained from the top, middle and base of the trees. The samples were conditioned and treated with four formulated fungicides prepared from mechanically extracted oil of castor seeds. The treated and control samples were inoculated with Sclerotium rolfsii (Brown rot and Ganoderma lucidum (White rot for 24 weeks. Parameters such as oil yield, preservative absorption, weight loss and compressive strength of the treated wood samples were determined. ANOVA was used in analyzing the data generated. Results show that the oil yield of the seed of the plant is 41.75%. The preservative absorption of the wood ranged between 114.85 - 277.12 (Kgm-3 , weight loss (1.36 - 15.85% and MCS// (33.05 - 48.35N/mm2 . Sampling height and preservative concentration significantly influenced weight loss of the wood (p<0.05. The 30% preservative concentration performed best, having the least weight loss (1.71% and 1.61% and highest MCS// (47.06N/mm2 and 44.65N/mm2 after exposure to S. rolfsii and G. lucidum, respectively. The brown rot (4.12% was more virulent than the white rot (3.66% on the basis of wood weight loss, however, the MCS// results indicated otherwise. It is concluded that castor seed oil is effective in protecting wood against white and brown rot fungi.

  18. Efecto tóxico de los extractos acuosos de pinus caribaea y halimeda monile en células humanas

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    Marioly Vernhes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Relacionado con la perspectiva farmacológica y/o nutricional que presentan algunas plantas y algas, el uso de estudios preclínicos que evalúan sus efectos tóxicos mutagénico y/o carcinogénico aumenta. Especies pertenecientes al género Pinus y género Halimeda han atraído la atención de especialistas por sus propiedades antioxidantes. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la toxicidad de los extractos acuosos de Pinus caribaea y Halimeda monile en células humanas. Dos líneas celulares transformadas con fragmento de SV40 fueron usadas como modelo experimental. Las células MRC5 y XP4PA fueron expuestas a diferentes concentraciones de ambos extractos durante 48 horas. El efecto citotóxico de los extractos fue evaluado mediante el ensayo de sobrevivencia clonogénica. Para ambas líneas celulares, el extracto acuoso de P.caribaea fue más tóxico que el extracto acuoso de H.monile. Para P.caribaea, dosis iguales y superiores a 10 ¿g/mL inhibieron la capacidad de formación de colonias en ambos tipos de células. Sin embargo, el efecto tóxico del extracto de H.monile se mostró a partir de las dosis 100 ¿g/mL y 2000 ¿g/mL para las células MRC5 y XP4PA respectivamente.

  19. Micronutrientes no sistema solo-Pinus caribaea Morelet em plantios apresentando amarelecimento das acículas e morte de plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves Roselene de Queiroz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de contribuir no diagnóstico de causas que têm levado à morte precoce de pinheiros, verificada após amarelecimento e necrose progressiva das acículas, foi desenvolvido este estudo em áreas de cerrado, no oeste de Minas Gerais. Foram comparadas árvores de Pinus caribaea Morelet das variedades caribaea e hondurensis, plantadas entre 1977-82. Em cada local de amostragem coletou-se material de 20 árvores, sendo 10 com acículas amarelecidas e 10 normais. Foram coletados acículas e tecidos do xilema e floema de raízes, nos quais foram analisados os teores de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu e B. A classe de solo dos sítios de estudo é Latossolo Amarelo ácrico típico. As amostras foram coletadas nas profundidades: 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100, 100-150, 150-200, 200-250 e 250-300 cm, nas quais foram analisados os teores trocáveis de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu e B. Os teores de Fe, Zn, Cu e B não diferiram significativamente entre acículas verdes e amarelecidas, enquanto os teores de Mn foram significativamente inferiores nestas. Observou-se também que os teores de Mn foram maiores no xilema e menores nas acículas das plantas anormais, ocorrendo o inverso nas plantas normais. Os sintomas visuais, confirmados pelos resultados analíticos, revelam haver deficiência de manganês no sistema solo-planta estudado.

  20. Influência do pinheiro (Pinus caribaea) sobre a fauna do solo na Amazônia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bandeira,Adelmar Gomes; Souza, Paulo Celso S.

    1982-01-01

    Na Amazônia vêm-se ultimamente devastando grandes áreas para implantação de monoculturas de essências madeireiras e pastagens, usando-se geralmente espécies exóticas. Pinus caribae, por seu rápido crescimento, tem sido uma das espécies mais cultivadas na região sem que se tenha, no entanto, levado em conta as consequências que isso acarreta ao meio ambiente. Algumas idéias a este respeito foram fundamentadas por observações sobre a fauna do solo em culturas dessa e de outras espécies vegetais...

  1. Micropropagation of an endangered species Pinus armandii var. Amamiana

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    Katsuaki Ishii

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For micropropagation via organ culture, mature embryos were excised from the seeds of Pinus armandii. Franch. var. amamiana (Koidz. Hatusima, an endangered species only inhabiting the south west islands of Japan. Adventitious buds were induced on the surface of the embryo on 1/2 DCR medium containing BAP, and they grew shoots after subculturing to medium containing activated charcoal or a low concentration of thidiazuron. From the elongated shoots, root primordia and roots were induced in medium containing IBA as an auxine. We found that a low concentration of zeatin or BAP added to the medium was beneficial for plant regeneration of mature embryos of this species. For micropropagation via somatic embryogenesis, embryogenic cell suspensions were induced from a mature and immature seed of P. armandii var. amamiana on MS liquid medium supplemented with 1 ľM 2, 4-D and 3 ľM BAP. The suspensions were incubated in the dark at 250. Induced suspension cells were transferred to ammonium free MS liquid medium supplemented with 1 ľM 2, 4-D, 3 ľM BAP and 30m M L-glutamine and subcultured every 2 weeks. In the other set of the experiment, the induction rate of somatic embryogenesis was high with ammonium free half strength MS medium. In order to develop somatic embryos, the suspension cells were transferred to ammonium free MS medium supplemented with 10 ľM ABA, 0.2% activated charcoal, 10% PEG (MW6000, 30m M L-glutamine and 6% maltose. The cultures were incubated under a 16h light/8h dark photoperiod. After 1-2 months of culture, differentiation of embryos progressed and cotyledonary embryos were obtained. These embryos were transferred on ammonium free MS solid medium under 16 h photoperiod. After 2-3 weeks plantlets with roots and green cotyledons were obtained. Plantlets were transplanted to vermiculite containing modified MS liquid medium in 200 ml culture flasks, then out planted after habituation procedure.

  2. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance.

  3. Study on the Introducing Growth-Adaptability of the Individual and Stands of 12-year-old Pinus elliottii × P. caribaea in North-West of Fujian%闽西北引种湿加松12年生个体与林分生长适应性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴奇智

    2016-01-01

    The growth distribution of height and breast-diameter of 12-year stands of Pinus elliottii × P. caribaea were studied with statistics analysis in the northwest of Fujian. The results indicated that the growth distribution of height and breast-diameter showed the normal-distribution and the distribution of height and breast-diameter were respectively from 3 m to 14 m and from 2 cm to 22 cm. The early-height-growth and of P. elliottii × P. caribaea was better than that of P. massoniana, but the diameter breast height growth of P. massoniana was better after 6 years, until growing 12 years the breast-diameter growth of P. massoniana and P. elliottii × P. caribaea were approximate. The volume-growth of average individual of P. massoniana comparing with P. elliottii × P. caribaea were better in 12 years stands, but the volume-growth of average individual of P. massoniana became lower from 11 years and the volume-growth of average individual of P. elliottii × P. caribaea kept strong growth. The volume-growth of the different individual was in the fast growth period and the volume-growth of P. elliottii × P. caribaea was strong growth.%对福建西北地区栽培的湿加松 Pinus elliottii × P. caribaea 12年生林分树高与胸径生长分布进行统计分析。结果表明,林分树高分布在3~14 m 范围内,胸径生长分布于2~22 cm,林分的经济生长性状呈正态分布。在同等立地条件下,湿加松早期树高生长优于乡土树种马尾松,但马尾松胸径生长6年后有更好的生长量,12年生后胸径生长相接近,马尾松12年生林分中平均木单株材积优于湿加松林分,不过11年生后开始减缓,而湿加松保持持续生长势头。由材积生长来看,各树种个体材积生长正处于快速生长期,湿加松材积生长表现出较强的生长趋势。

  4. Grafting Techniques of Pinus densiflora var. Zhangwuensis%彰武松嫁接技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶晓梅

    2012-01-01

    通过对樟子松实生苗及其与彰武松的嫁接苗生长对照,研究了樟子松嫁接彰武松的可行性,表明樟子松嫁接彰武松成活率平均为77.3%,嫁接苗在嫁接后1a、2a高度生长分别高于樟子松实生苗36.0%和44.0%,在嫁接后9a,高度和地径生长分别高于樟子松82.0%和47.0%,以樟子松为砧木嫁接彰武松可以在北方推广。%Seeded plant of Pinus sylvestnis var. mongolica Litv. were compared with the grafted seed- ling with Pinus densiflora var. Zhangwuensis in terms of their growth. The result showed that the grafted seedlings would reach 77.3%, the height growth at 1 a and 2 a is 36.0% and 44.0% over the seedlings of Pinus sylvestnis var. mongolica Litv. After 9 years, the height growth and stem growth were 82.0% and 47.0% over, indicating the seedlings with Pinus sylvestnis var. mongolica Litv. as the stock is suitable for north China,

  5. Variación de las Características Anatómicas y de la Densidad Básica de la Madera en Árboles de Pinus Caribaea Morelet Varo Hondurensis Barret y Golfari en Función del Espaciamiento de Plantación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vásquez Correal Angela María

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron analizar las variaciones de la estructura anatómica, de los anillos de crecimiento y de la densidad básica de la madera de árboles de Pinus caribaea var, hondurensis, en un experimento de espaciamientos con 17 años de edad, instalado en la Estación Experimental de Recursos Naturales Renovables de Anhembi-SP, ESALQ-USP, Sao Paulo-Brasil. En este experimento fueron muestreados un total de 35 árboles, comprendidos en 3 clases de diámetro (dominantes, intermedios y dominados y en 3 diferentes tratamientos de espaciamiento 3, 01,5; 3, 02,5 Y 3, 03,5m. En cada uno de estos árboles se determino el diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP y la altura. Después del apeo de los individuos se colectaron discos de madera en los árboles de la clase de diámetro caracterizada como intermedia, en los 3 espaciamientos (12 árboles en total y a la altura del DAP. De estas muestras se obtuvo el material necesario para la evaluación de las dimensiones de las traqueídas en los leños inicial y tardío, en el sentido médula-corteza. También se analizó en las muestras de madera de todos los árboles, en los tres espaciamientos, el espesor de los anillos de crecimiento y de los leños inicial y tardío y la densidad básica de la madera en 5 submuestras obtenidas en el sentido médula-corteza. Se establecieron, a partir de estas evaluaciones, las relaciones entre las características de la madera de Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis y sus modelos de variación, en función de las diferentes clases de diámetro de los árboles, en los diferentes espaciamientos. De acuerdo con los resultados la variación de las dimensiones de las traqueídas en el sentido médula-corteza en la madera de Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis presentó, con relación a su largo, en lodos los tratamientos de espaciamiento y para los dos tipos de leño, un aumento de casi el doble del 3 ° hasta el 7° anillo de crecimiento, con un

  6. Establishment of MSAP Reaction Systems for Pinus elliottii×P.caribaea and Primers Screening%湿加松MSAP反应体系建立及引物筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李义良; 赵奋成; 李宪政; 陈铭甄; 钟岁英; 邓乐平; 李福明; 张应中

    2015-01-01

    为开展湿加松(Pinus elliottii×P.caribaea)甲基化研究,以湿加松幼嫩针叶为材料,建立了湿加松MSAP(甲基化敏感扩增多态性)反应体系,其中:酶切-连接体系为:400 ng基因组DNA用EcoRⅠ+HapⅡ或EcoR Ⅰ+MspⅠ各3U进行双酶切,37℃保温24 h,用T4 DNA ligase 16℃连接过夜.最佳预扩增体系为:酶切-连接产物1 μL、上下游引物各1μL、2×PCR mastermix 10 μL和ddH2O27μL.20 μL选择性扩增体系中,含有10倍稀释的模板DNA 2 μL、上下游引物各1灶、2×PCR mastermix10 μL和ddH2O26 μL.利用反应体系,筛选出了13对适宜于湿加松MSAP分析的引物,建立的MSAP反应体系可用于湿加松基因组DNA甲基化差异分析.

  7. Identification and characterization of microsatellite markers in Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (Pinaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Nian-Hui; Xu, Yu-Lan; Wang, Da-Wei; Chen, Shi; Li, Gen-Qian

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed in Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (Pinaceae), a species native to southwestern China, to investigate its genetic diversity and population structure in order to provide information for the conservation and management of this species. Methods and Results: Using next-generation sequencing, a total of 2349 putative simple sequence repeat primer pairs were designed. Eighteen polymorphic markers in 60 individuals belonging to four populations of P. kesiya var. langbianensis were identified and characterized with two to 11 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 to 0.800 and 0.000 to 0.840, respectively. Each of these loci cross-amplified in the closely related species P. massoniana, P. densata, P. tabuliformis, and P. yunnanensis, with one to seven alleles per locus. Conclusions: The new markers are promising tools to study the population genetics of P. kesiya var. langbianensis and related species. PMID:28224057

  8. STRUCTURES AND COMPOSITION OF COMMUNITIES BIRDS IN NATURAL AREAS OF Pinus caribaea Morelet, OF THE EFI “MINAS DE MATAHAMBRE”

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando R. Hernández Martínez; Yatsunaris Alonso Torrens; Rogelio Sotolongo Sospedra; Yarián Sánchez Oliva

    2008-01-01

    The investigation was carried out in the months understood between January and April of 2007, in a natural pinegrove of Pinus tropicalis Morelet 192 located in the Tibisí, which belongs to the lot 15 of the Unit Silvícola Santa Lucía of the Integral Forest Company "Mines of Matahambre"; with the objective of determining the structure and composition of the communities of birds associated to natural areas of Pinus tropicalis Morelet. For the census of birds the recount method was used in point...

  9. Biomass production of young lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia stands in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansons A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass as a source of renewable energy is gaining an increasing importance in the context of emission targets set by the European Union. Large areas of abandoned agricultural land with different soils are potentially available for establishment of biomass plantations in the Baltic states. Considering soil and climatic requirements as well as traits characteristic for lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm and the scarcity of published knowledge, we assessed the above-ground biomass of Pinus contorta in comparison to that of native Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and factors affecting biomass production. Data were collected in 3 experimental trials, located in two sites in central part of Latvia: Zvirgzde and Kuldiga (56°41’ N, 24°28’ E and 57°03’ N, 21°57’ E, respectively. Trials were established with density 5000 tree ha-1, using seed material from Canada (50°08’-60°15’ N, 116°25’-132°50’ W and two Pinus contorta stands with unknown origin growing in Latvia. Results reveal that absolute dry aboveground biomass of Pinus contorta reaches 114 ± 6.4 t ha-1 at age 16 on a fertile former arable land, 48 ± 3.6 and 94 ± 9.4 t ha-1 at age 22 and 25, respectively, on a sandy forest land (Vacciniosa forest type. The biomass is significantly (p < 0.01 and considerably (more than two-fold higher than that of the native Pinus sylvestris and the productivity is similar (in fertile soils or higher (on poor soils than reported for other species in energy-wood plantations. Provenance was a significant factor affecting the above-ground biomass, and the ranking of provenances did not change significantly between different soil conditions. It provides opportunities for further improvement of productivity using selection.

  10. Development and Characterization of 25 EST-SSR markers in Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica (Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: A set of novel expressed sequence tag (EST microsatellite markers was developed in Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica to promote further genetic studies in this species. Methods and Results: One hundred seventy-five EST–simple sequence repeat (SSR primers were designed and synthesized for 31,653 isotigs based on P. tabuliformis EST sequences. The primer pairs were used to identify 25 polymorphic loci in 48 individuals. The number of alleles ranged from two to eight with observed and expected heterozygosity values of 0.0435 to 0.8125 and 0.0430 to 0.7820, respectively. Conclusions: These new polymorphic EST-SSR markers will be useful for assessing genetic diversity, molecular breeding and genetic improvement, and conservation of P. sylvestris var. mongolica.

  11. Soil Type Affects Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum (Pinaceae Seedling Growth in Simulated Drought Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Lindsey

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Effects of drought stress and media type interactions on growth of Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum germinants were investigated. Methods and Results: Soil properties and growth responses under drought were compared across four growth media types: two native soils (dolomitic limestone and granite, a soil-less industry standard conifer medium, and a custom-mixed conifer medium. After 35 d of growth, the seedlings under drought stress (reduced watering produced less shoot and root biomass than watered control seedlings. Organic media led to decreased root biomass, but increased root length and shoot biomass relative to the mineral soils. Conclusions: Media type affected root-to-shoot biomass partitioning of P. ponderosa var. scopulorum, which may influence net photosynthetic rates, growth, and long-term seedling survival. Further work should examine how specific soil properties like bulk density and organic matter influence biomass allocation in greenhouse studies.

  12. Effect of plant growth regulators in the rooting of Pinus cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Andréia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the rooting of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis Morelet cuttings under the action of different levels of plant growth regulators. The cuttings consisted of 4-6 cm long shoots of P. caribaea var. hondurensis Morelet with their basal needles removed. The basal part of the cuttings were treated for 2 seconds with the following treatments: 1- NAA 2000mg L-1; 2- NAA 4000mg L-1; 3- NAA 6000mg L-1; 4- NAA 2000mg L-1 + PBZ 100mg L-1; 5- NAA 4000mg L-1 + PBZ; 6- NAA 6000mg L-1 + PBZ; 7- IBA 2000mg L-1; 8- IBA 4000mg L-1; 9- IBA 6000mg L-1; 10-IBA 2000mg L-1 + PBZ; 11- IBA 4000mg L-1 + PBZ; 12- IBA 6000mg L-1 + PBZ; and a control. After receiving the treatment, the cuttings were planted in tubes containing 50% carbonized rice hulls and 50% vermiculite. The evaluations, performed 60 days after planting, showed that P. caribaea var. hondurensis cuttings treated with IBA produced a higher percentage of rooted cuttings than those treated with NAA; the most effective treatment was IBA 4000mg L-1 plus 100mg L-1 paclobutrazol.

  13. Reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii in Brazilian sandy coastal plain vegetation: implications for biological invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campanhã Bechara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pinus is the most invasive woody taxon, exceeded only by herbaceous plants. This study reports the reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii, describing its invasive properties in a protected natural area of the Brazilian coastal sandy plains. We evaluated the seed germination and rain, longevity of seed viability and the initial dynamics of the seedlings of Pinus elliottii var elliottii through field and laboratory experiments. We recorded a continuous seed rain of about 204.0 viable seeds m- 2 per year, with a 90 % germination rate. The seeds exhibited a low longevity of viability in the soil and a dense, permanent seedling bank that may explain the high levels of pine invasion. The environmental impact caused by the pine's biological invasion suggests the recommendation for its immediate eradication, together with a restoration plan to restitute the native biodiversity gradually.

  14. Does animal-mediated seed dispersal facilitate the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    Full Text Available The Pinus armandii and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata mixed forest is one of the major forest types in the Qinling Mountains, China. P. armandii is considered to be a pioneer species during succession and it is usually invaded by late successional Q. aliena var. acuteserrata. However, the mechanism that underlies its invasion remains unclear. In the present study, we tracked seed dispersal of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata using coded plastic tags in the western, middle and eastern Qinling Mountains to elucidate the invasion process in the mixed forests. Our results indicated that the seeds of both P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were removed rapidly in the Qinling Mountains, and there were no differences in the seed removal rates between the two species. There were significant differences in rodent seed-eating and caching strategies between the two tree species. For P. armandii, seeds were more likely to be eaten in situ than those of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata in all plots. By contrast, the acorns of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were less frequently eaten in situ, but more likely to be removed and cached. Q. aliena var. acuteserrata acorns had significantly longer dispersal distances than P. armandii seeds in all plots. Although P. armandii seeds were less likely to be dispersed into the Q. aliena var. acuteserrata stands, over 30% of the released acorns were transported into the P. armandii stands where they established five seedlings. Based on the coupled recruitment patterns of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata, we suggest that the animal-mediated seed dispersal contributes to the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests.

  15. [Genetic diversity and mating system Pinus brutia var. Stankewiczii sukacz. in small localities of Sudak (Crimea)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Kalafat, L A; Milchevskaya, Ya G

    2015-01-01

    A comparative analysis of genetic variation at 12 polymorphic isozyme loci, and the mating system has been carried out in mature trees and their seed progeny in three small localities of Pinus brutia var. stankewiczii Sukacz. near the town of Sudak--settlement of Novyi Svet in the Crimea. We found that embryos maintain the same allelic diversity as mother plants but their observed heterozygosity is lower on the average by 37.4%. The significant deviation of genotype distribution from the theoretically expected ratios caused by the deficiency of heterozygotes was observed at 8 out of 12 loci. Multilocus estimate of outcrossing rate (t(m)) in populations varied from 68.9 to 94.9% making on the average 80.7%.

  16. Relationships between foliar phosphorus fractions of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica and soil available phosphorus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong ZHAO; Xingyu LIU; Dehui ZENG; Jinhuan LIU; Yalin HU

    2009-01-01

    In order to find out the best foliar diagnostic index of phosphorus (P) nutrition in Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) in the southeastern Keerqin Sandy Lands, the concentrations of total nitrogen (N), inorganic P, organic P and total P in needles of different ages and soil available P were examined. The results show that in the study area, soil available P was rather low (0.12-0.63mg/kg) and was significantly correlated with inorganic P (cPi) and total P (cPt) concentrations in current year needles of Mongolian pine. The significant correlation between soil available P and needle cPt derived from the significant correlation between cPi and cPt. Compared with cPt, cPi did reflect the level of soil P supply more accurately and more directly.

  17. Chemical composition changes in eucalyptus and pinus woods submitted to heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, J O; Silva, F G; Leão, M M; Almeida, G

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated the influence of heat treatment on the chemical composition of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis woods to understand its role in wood processing. E. saligna and P. caribaea var. hondurensis woods were treated in a laboratorial electric furnace at 120, 140, 160 and 180 degrees C to induce their heat treatment. The chemical composition of the resulting products and those from original wood were determined by gas chromatography. Eucalyptus and Pinus showed a significant reduction in arabinose, manose, galactose and xylose contents when submitted to increasing temperatures. No significant alteration in glucose content was observed. Lignin content, however, increased during the heat process. There was a significant reduction in extractive content for Eucalyptus. On the other hand, a slight increase in extractive content has been determined for the Pinus wood, and that only for the highest temperature. These different behaviors can be explained by differences in chemical constituents between softwoods and hardwoods. The results obtained in this study provide important information for future research and utilization of thermally modified wood.

  18. Exploration on Propagation Technology of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica%樟子松繁殖技术探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳一江

    2015-01-01

    This paper research the biological characteristics and breeding technology of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica (seedbed preparation, seed treatment, sowing, seedling management).%文章对樟子松的生物学特性和樟子松的繁殖技术(播种苗床准备、种子处理、播种操作、苗期管理)进行应用研究。

  19. Study of reproductive barriers in the production of P. elliottii x P. caribaea hybrid seed

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivlal, A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction, the P. elliottii (Pe) x P. caribaea var. hondurensis (Pch) hybrid has played a very important role in the plantation forestry industry due to its displayed improved growth, desirable wood properties (Du Plooy, 1984; Malan...

  20. PASTAS ESTIMULANTES EM SISTEMAS DE RESINAGEM DE Pinus elliottii var. elliottii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Marretto Fusatto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of stimulating pastes aims to increase the rate of resin flow and its time of duration. In the Forest Experiment Station of Itatinga, São Paulo state, 159 trees of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii were were submitted to the treatments with 5 stimulant pastes, (Red Alchem, Paste with Ethephon Planebrás, Black Resin Brazil, Red Eldorado and Test Paste (Paraquat + Ethephon that was compared to the Control (Black Planebrás. Biweekly chipping and collects every three months were accomplished (from the result of 5 grooves, being determined the resin weight during 2.5 years. The application of stimulating pastes with ethephon did not show significant advantage about application of pastes without ethephon. The stimulant pastes applied were different in the weightings performed. In the treatments applied, the percentage of pitch ranged from 71.33% to 76.56% and the turpentine ranged from 10.37% to 13.78%. The yield of alpha-pinene ranged from 37.70% to 53.31%, and of beta-pinene from 34.34% to 50.41%.

  1. Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litv. Forest and Natural Regeneration in Sandy Land%沙地樟子松林与天然更新问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫德仁; 牟宁; 张健; 张秀华

    2011-01-01

    呼伦贝尔沙地是我国重要的樟子松林种源地。从1955年开始在其他地区进行引种造林并获得成功,但是多数引种地的樟子松人工林天然更新却不能正常进行。本文结合资料论述了沙地樟子松天然林起源与分布和自然更新特点,并分析探讨了引种地沙地樟子松人工林自然更新的障碍、影响因素以及冬季降雪影响更新等可能的关键因子等问题。%Hulunbeier Sandy Land is an important seed source area of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litv. in our country. Since 1955, the introduction and afforestation of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litv. have been begun and succeeded in other districts, but the Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litv. plantation couldn' t regenerate naturally in many introduction districts. Combined with the relative materials, the origin, distribution and the characters of nat- ural regeneration of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litv. natural forest have been discussed, and the factors influen- cing the natural regeneration of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litv. plantation have been analyzed.

  2. Understory plant diversity assessment of Szemao pine (Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantations in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu, J. X.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a key objective for managers of both natural forests and plantations, and biodiversity assessments are important tools to improve conservation of endangered species. Szemao pine (Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis is a native Chinese tree species used in plantations. This study evaluated differences in understory diversity among Szemao pine plantations (SP and other local current vegetation types: secondary evergreen forests (SE and abandoned farmlands (AF in Yunnan Province. Sampling was performed at three elevation ranges, where species richness, species cover, and environmental variables in the herb and shrub layers were measured. We found that indexes for average richness and Shannon–Wiener diversity were higher in SE than in SP, which were in turn higher than in AF, while the index for evenness was higher in SP. These indexes increased with elevation in SP and AF, but were higher at low and medium elevations in SE. Inclusion of environmental factors highlighted elevation differences, with water content (at herb layer and soil type (at shrub layer being the most significant variables. In conclusion, plantations of Szemao pine negatively affect understory diversity in Yunnan, and furthermore, only a few rare or threatened species could be found in the plantations. Nature reserves and transplanting could protect threatened species if established before plantations.La sostenibilidad es un objetivo clave para la gestión tanto de bosques naturales como de plantaciones, mientras que los estudios sobre biodiversidad constituyen herramientas muy útiles para mejorar la conservación de especies amenazadas. El pino Szemao (Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis es un árbol nativo de China que se usa en plantaciones. Este estudio evalúa la diversidad del sotobosque en plantaciones de pino Szemao (SP y otros tipos de vegetación local, como bosques secundarios perennifolios (SE y tierras de cultivo abandonadas (AF, en la provincia de

  3. 彰武松引种试验初报%Preliminary Report on Introduced Pinus densiflora var.zhangwuensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贯春雨; 王福森; 李树森; 李晶; 王福龙

    2015-01-01

    Experimental points were established in Haiyang Forest Farm of Longjiang County.Pinusdensiflora var. zhangwuensis were grafted by selecting Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica as rootstocks.Silviculture experiments of timber plantation and ecological forest for Pinus densiflora var.zhangwuensis were conducted.Result shows that:in the relatively poor natural conditions of the western region in Heilongjiang Province,grafted trees can grow nor-mally,and flowering and fruiting;by survey data in september 2014,the tree height,DBH,volume of 11-year-old Pinusdensiflora var.zhangwuensi can reach 4.88 m,8.32 cm and 0.017 5 m3 ,respectively,which is 22.3%,6. 8% and 24.1% respectively higher than that of CK.%通过在龙江县绿色海洋林场设立试验点,选择樟子松作砧木嫁接彰武松,进行彰武松用材兼生态林营林试验研究,结果表明:在黑龙江省西部地区较恶劣的自然条件下,嫁接树木能正常生长,并开花结实;2014年9月调查,树高可达到4.88 m,胸径可达到8.32 cm,材积可达到0.0175 m3,上述指标分别较对照品种高出22.3%、6.8%和24.1%。

  4. Comparative proteomic analysis of differential responses of Pinus massoniana and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen-Jun; Chen, Juan; Liu, Ting-Wu; Simon, Martin; Wang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Liu, Xiang; Shen, Zhi-Jun; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2014-03-12

    Acid rain (AR), a serious environmental issue, severely affects plant growth and development. As the gymnosperms of conifer woody plants, Pinus massoniana (AR-sensitive) and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei (AR-resistant) are widely distributed in southern China. Under AR stress, significant necrosis and collapsed lesions were found in P. massoniana needles with remarkable yellowing and wilting tips, whereas T. wallichiana var. mairei did not exhibit chlorosis and visible damage. Due to the activation of a large number of stress-related genes and the synthesis of various functional proteins to counteract AR stress, it is important to study the differences in AR-tolerance mechanisms by comparative proteomic analysis of tolerant and sensitive species. This study revealed a total of 65 and 26 differentially expressed proteins that were identified in P. massoniana and T. wallichiana var. mairei, respectively. Among them, proteins involved in metabolism, photosynthesis, signal transduction and transcription were drastically down-regulated in P. massoniana, whereas most of the proteins participating in metabolism, cell structure, photosynthesis and transcription were increased in T. wallichiana var. mairei. These results suggest the distinct patterns of protein expression in the two woody species in response to AR, allowing a deeper understanding of diversity on AR tolerance in forest tree species.

  5. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Differential Responses of Pinus massoniana and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei to Simulated Acid Rain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jun Hu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acid rain (AR, a serious environmental issue, severely affects plant growth and development. As the gymnosperms of conifer woody plants, Pinus massoniana (AR-sensitive and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei (AR-resistant are widely distributed in southern China. Under AR stress, significant necrosis and collapsed lesions were found in P. massoniana needles with remarkable yellowing and wilting tips, whereas T. wallichiana var. mairei did not exhibit chlorosis and visible damage. Due to the activation of a large number of stress-related genes and the synthesis of various functional proteins to counteract AR stress, it is important to study the differences in AR-tolerance mechanisms by comparative proteomic analysis of tolerant and sensitive species. This study revealed a total of 65 and 26 differentially expressed proteins that were identified in P. massoniana and T. wallichiana var. mairei, respectively. Among them, proteins involved in metabolism, photosynthesis, signal transduction and transcription were drastically down-regulated in P. massoniana, whereas most of the proteins participating in metabolism, cell structure, photosynthesis and transcription were increased in T. wallichiana var. mairei. These results suggest the distinct patterns of protein expression in the two woody species in response to AR, allowing a deeper understanding of diversity on AR tolerance in forest tree species.

  6. (Pinus caribaea Morelet and Pinus oocarpa Schiede) in the Nursery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Abstract. An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of four sowing media .... development was assessed eight weeks after seedling emergence, when the secondary .... as Constraint for Conservation Forest Productivity in India”. Sym.

  7. Cold hardiness estimation of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis based on changes in ionic leakage, chlorophyll fluorescence and other physiological activities under cold stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Meng; Xuefeng Bai; Hongdan Li; Xiaodong Song; Xueli Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis grows fast, and its drought and salinity resistance are better than Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. We compared cold hardiness and mechanisms of cold hardiness between the two species, to provide a theoretical basis for promoting and applying P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis in cold regions. A cold stress experiment was carried out on 3-year-old plantlets of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mon-golica after hardening at five temperature regimes, 5,-10,-20, -40, and -60 ?C, respectively. Some indices of needle samples for both species were measured, such as relative conductivity (REL), maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), proline (Pro), soluble sugar (SS), and stomata density. REL and MDA values of both species after hard-ening had the same trend of increasing, but the trend was opposite in Fv/Fm value with increasing cold stress. Com-pared with P. sylvestris var. mongolica, the P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis had smaller increases in REL and MDA, and a smaller decline in Fv/Fm during cold stress. Com-pared to the control, REL growth of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica at -60 ?C were 0.41 and 0.60, and MDA growth was 29.94 mol g-1 FW and 47.80 mol g-1 FW, and Fv/Fm declines were 0.08 and 0.27. Half-lethal temperatures (LT50) calculated by logistic equation for P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica were -58.23 and -50.34 ?C, respectively. These data suggest that cold resistance of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis is stronger than that of P. sylvestris var. mongolica. Cold-resistance mechanisms of the two species differed. In response to cold stress, P. sylvestris var. mongolica had strong osmotic adjustment ability because of higher Pro and SS content, while P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis had strong antioxidant ability due to stronger CAT activity. Stomata density and diameter of P. densiflora var

  8. 山西省北部彰武松引种试验初报%Introduction Experiments of Pinus densiflora var zhangwuensis in Northern Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁全利

    2012-01-01

    Pinus densiflora var zhangwuensis was introduced from Zhangwu county in northern Liaoning to wind sandy area of northern Shanxi. Graft survival rate and growth of Pinus densiflora var zhangwuensis were investigated to study its adaptabili- ty. Results showed that its graft survival rate and growth were more than Pinus tabulaeformis and Pinus sylvestris and it had excellent stress resistance to show that Pinus densiflora var zhangwuensis was suitable in wind sandy area of northern Shanxi.%以辽宁省彰武县的彰武松为接穗,油松和樟子松为砧木,在山西省北部风沙区进行了引种试验。结果表明,彰武松在山西省北部风沙区嫁接成活率平均为77.5%,以樟子松为砧木的嫁接成活率高于以油松为砧木的。嫁接后3年高生长表现优良,以樟子松为砧木的生长量普遍高于以油松为砧木的,抗逆性表现优良。

  9. Evaluation of Compatibility between Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta var. Latifolia Wood with Portland Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Hartley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility of wood from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia with Portland cement was investigated based on time-since-death as a quantitative estimator, and the presence of blue-stained sapwood, brown rot, or white rot as qualitative indicators. The exothermic behavior of cement hydration, maximum heat rate, time to reach this maximum, and total heat released within a 3.5–24 h interval were used for defining a new wood-cement compatibility index (CX. CX was developed and accounted for large discrepancies in assessing wood-cement compatibility compared to the previous methods. Using CX, no significant differences were found between fresh or beetle-killed wood with respect to the suitability for cement; except for the white rot samples which reached or exceeded the levels of incompatibility. An outstanding physicochemical behavior was also found for blue-stained sapwood and cement, producing significantly higher compatibility indices.

  10. Optimization of SSR Reaction System for Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica%樟子松SSR反应体系优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方攀; 张运城; 袁虎威; 刘玉林; 李伟

    2013-01-01

      In order to research the genetic structure diversity of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, SSR reaction sys-tem was optimized in this study. At first, for the sake of determining a suitable reaction system, single factor tests with multi-level were designed respectively under six factors (DNA template, Taq DNA polymerase, dNTP, primer, annealing temperature, cycles). On the basis of above, the 4 factors which were DNA template, Taq DNA poly-merase, dNTP, Primer were further optimized in 4 levels using L16(45) orthogonal test. The obtained optimal reaction system for Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica was as follows:25μL volume of reaction system cotains DNA template 50 ng, Taq DNA polymerase 1.0 U, dNTP 0.3 mmol/L, Primer 0.15μmol/L, 10íTaq Buffer (including Mg2+) 2.5μL. The optimization of SSR reaction system for Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica contributes to the development of SSR markers, and lays the foundation for analyzing the genetic structure diversity of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in natural populations and artificial populations, constructing the genetic map, and mapping function genes.%  从模板DNA、Taq酶含量、dNTP浓度、引物浓度、退火温度、循环次数6个方面,分别设置单因素多水平试验,观察条带的亮度及清晰度,以确定合适的反应体系。然后利用L16(45)正交试验,对DNA模板浓度、Taq酶含量、dNTP浓度、引物浓度这4个因素在4个水平上做进一步优化。建立了樟子松SSR最佳反应体系:25滋L的反应体系中包含模板DNA 50 ng,Taq 酶1.0 U,dNTP 0.3 mmol/L,引物0.15滋mol/L,10×Taq Buffer (含Mg2+)2.5滋L。樟子松SSR反应体系的优化,有助于对樟子松SSR分子标记的研究,为分析樟子松天然群体和人工群体的遗传结构多样性,构建遗传图谱和定位功能基因奠定了基础。

  11. Comparação entre modelos para determinação da porcentagem de madeira em árvores de Pinus caribaea Morelet var. hondurensis Barr. et Golf. em Itirapina. Comparison between models to estimate the percentage of wood in Pinus caribaea Morelet var . hondurensis Barr. et Golf . Trees in Itirapina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto de Souza PINHEIRO

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Efetuou-se a comparação de doismodelos para determinação da porcentagem demadeira com a obtida pela razão entre o volumecom casca com o volume sem casca. As análises devariância efetuadas com aplicação do teste deTukey permitem concluir que a porcentagem demadeira obtida pela média aritmética dos valoresquadráticos do fator casca, encontrados ao longodo fuste aproxima-se mais do valor real que oestimado através do modelo simplificado obtidopelo quadrado da razão entre o DAP sem casca e oDAP com casca. A análise da somatória dosdesvios em valores relativos mostra que o modelosimplificado subestima o valor da porcentagem demadeira, enquanto o modelo da média aritmética osuperestima. Dessa forma se sugere a utilizaçãoapenas do valor obtido pelo cociente do volumesem casca pelo volume com casca.The aim of this study was to comparetwo different models with estimate the percentageof wood obtained by quotient between volume of atree without bark and volume of a tree with bark( 1 K with two different models: 22 K , obtainedby the square of mean of the values along thesteam and 23 K , the simplified model, obtained byonly two measures: the square of the quotientbetween DBH without bark and DBH with bark.Effectuated the statistical analysis by analysis ofvariance procedure, Tukey’s Test and sum ofrelatives values of deviation, it was concluded thatthe best model to calculate the percentage of woodis the one obtained by the quotient between thevolume without bark and the volume with bark.

  12. Effects of peat and weathered coal on the growth of Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica seedlings on aeolian sandy soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The experiment was conducted at the Ganqika Sandy Land Ecological Station in Ke'erqinzuoyihouqi County, Inner Mongolia, in a growing season from April 28 to October 28, 2001. Peat and weathered coal wereadded to the aeolian sandy soil in different ratios. Two-year-old Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica seedlings and plastic pots wereused in the experiment. The experimental results indicat ed that: 1) the peat and weathered coal could significantly improve the physical and chemical properties of aeolian sandy soil, and thus promoted the growth of seedlings;2) the effect of peat on seedling growth, including height, base diam eter, root length and biomass, presented an order of 8%>10%>5%>2%>0 in terms of peat contents, and the effect of weathered coal on seedling growth presented an order of 5%>8%>10%>2%>0 in terms of weathered coal contents for height and basal diameter, 5%>8%>2% >10%>0 for root length, and 5%>2%>8% >10%>0 for biomass;3) the effects of peat were generally greater than that of weathered coal. Meanwhile, 8% peat was the best treatment to promote the growth of P. Sylvestris var. Mo ngolica seedlings.

  13. Estimation of Heritability and Combining Ability for Growth, Stem-Straightness and Wood Density of the F1 Generation of Pinus taeda × P.caribaea%火炬松×加勒比松F1代生长、树干通直度和基本密度遗传和配合力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾启福; 姜景民; 张建忠; 张守攻

    2011-01-01

    @@ 松类杂种直到20世纪中期才开始被培育利用,如窄果松X辐射松(Pinus attenuata X P.radiata)、欧洲落叶松X日本落叶松(Larix decidua×L.kaempferi)等(Dungey,2001).%The genetic characteristics and combining ability for growth, stem-straightness and wood density were estimated on 16 seven-year-old F1 families derived from crossing with 4 female and 4 male parents of Pinus taeda × P.caribaea with the NC Ⅱ mating design.Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences( P < 0.01 ) in growth and wood basic density among 16 crosses, and ( P < 0.05 ) in stem-straightness.The heritability ( h2 ) analysis showed that family mean heritability of growth, stem-straightness and wood density for female parents was higher than that for male parents, while the mean h2 for the full-sib families was in the middle of the parents' heritability.The h2 of growth was 0.292 3 -0.469 9 for female parents, and 0.191 9 -0.403 3 for male parents.The family mean and single tree h2 of wood basic density for female parents was 0.176 4 and 0.034 6, respectively, and the single tree h2 of stem-straightness for male and female parents was 0.162 7 and 0.098 3, respectively.The heritability of DBH and volume was increasing in the last 6 years while the heritability of tree height was decreasing.The analysis of genetic correlation showed that growth traits had positive correlation ( |rG| = 0.467 2 -0.351 6) with stem-form, and had a negative one( |rG| = 0.220 30.679 8 ) with wood basic density.The general combining ability (GCA) effect of male or female parents for growth traits and stem-straightness was significantly different, and their special combining ability (SCA) effect for wood basic density was significant.The effective value of combining ability for GCA and SCA was estimated and the better parents and hybrids were evaluated.The correlation between genetic background of the parents and genetic differences of the progenies was discussed.

  14. Crescimento in vitro de isolados de Armillaria sp. obtidos de Pinus elliottii var: elliottii sob várias temperaturas In vitro growth of Armillaria sp. isolates obtained from Pinus elliottii var: elliottii under several temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nei Sebastião Braga Gomes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A armilariose tem sido considerada a principal doença em Pinus no Brasil. Os sintomas e danos consistem no amarelecimento de acículas, declínio, podridão de raízes, exsudação de resina e morte. A temperatura é um dos fatores ambientais que influencia patógenos, doença de plantas ou ambos. Este trabalho avaliou o comportamento de três isolados de Armillaria sp. obtidos de P. elliottii var. elliottii, submetidos a uma faixa de temperatura de 16 a 26 ºC, utilizando a biomassa seca produzida em meio líquido como parâmetro de análise. Verificou-se que todos os isolados apresentaram máxima produção de biomassa a 22 ºC. Utilizando-se de regressão cúbica encontrou-se temperaturas de máximo crescimento entre 21,79 e 23,19 ºC. De acordo com os resultados, a melhor temperatura para crescimento dos isolados testados situou-se em 22 ºC.Armillaria root rot is the major pine disease in Brazil. Symptoms of this disease are yellowing of the needles, decline, root rot, resin exsudation and plant death. Temperature is an environmental factor that affects pathogens, the disease or both. This work evaluated the behaviour of three isolates of Armillaria sp. obtained from P. elliottii var. elliottii. The fungus isolates were submitted to temperature ranging from 16 to 26 ºC, by using dry biomass production in liquid medium as a measureable variable. All isolates produced higher amount of biomass at 22 ºC. A cubic regression showed a maximum point of temperatures between 21,8 e 23,2 ºC. The best temperature for fungus isolates growth was around 22 ºC.

  15. 思茅松AFLP分子标记体系的建立%Establishment of AFLP Molecular Mark System of Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚鹏强; 李培; 王曙光; 普晓兰

    2012-01-01

    采用改进的SDS法,提取思茅松胚乳DNA,获得较高质量的DNA样品,用Eco RI和Pst I2种限制性内切酶完全酶切后,再经过预扩和选扩,从82对引物中筛选出24对带型分布均匀、多态性高且分辨力强的引物.扩增产物经聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳后,可获得清晰指纹图谱,重复性较好.建立的思茅松AFLP体系可用于后续研究.%High quality genome DNA of Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis was extracted from endosperm by the improved SDS method. After the DNA samples were completely digested by restriction enzymes of EcoRI and PstI and through pre-amplification and selective amplification, 24 pairs of primers out of 82 pairs with even band distribution , abundant polymorphism and high distinctiveness were selected. The distinct finger-printings of Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis with high reproducibility were obtained through electrophoresis of the amplified product. The establishment of this AFLP mark system will be helpful to further study on Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis.

  16. [Responses of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica radial growth to climate warming in Great Xing' an Mountins: a case study in Mangui].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing-Liang; He, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Zhen-Ju; Cui, Ming-Xing; Li, Na

    2011-12-01

    Based on the theory and methodology of dendrochronology, the tree ring width chronology of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in Mangui of Great Xing' an Mountains was developed, and the relationships between the standardized tree ring width chronology and local climate factors (temperature and precipitation) as well as the effects of climate factors on the P. sylvestris var. mongolica radial growth were analyzed. In this region, the mean monthly temperature in April-August of current year was the main factor limiting the radial growth, and the increasing mean monthly temperature from April to August had negative effects to the radial growth. The simulation of the variations of the radial growth by the mean monthly temperature change in April-August showed that the radial growth of P. sylvestris var. mongolica would present a declining trend accompanied with the warmer and drier regional climate condition.

  17. Volumetric models for tropical pine in pure stand in Rondônia State, Brazil Modelos volumétricos para Pinus tropicais, em povoamento homogêneo, no Estado de Rondônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Libanio Pelissari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This study aimed to adjust volumetric models to tropical pines, in pure stand, in the municipality of Vilhena, Rondonia State.  The data came from 20 felled trees of Pinus caribaea var.  hondurensis and 10 Pinus tecunumanii trees with discs collected at fixed positions of 0.20 m, 0.70 m, 1.30 m and in distances of one meter along the stem, for later counting and measurement of the growth rings at ages from 4 to 12 years. Eight volumetric models were adjusted. The selection criteria used were: standard error of estimate, adjusted coefficient of  determination, F test, significance of regression coefficients,  mean deviation, standard deviation of the differences, sum of square of the relative residual, percentage of the residuals and graphic analysis of residuals. The models from Näslund  modified and from Spurr presented, respectively, best fit to estimate the volume for Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis submitted to the first thinning and for Pinus tecunumanii, with  ages between 4 and 12 years, in Vilhena, Rondonia State, Brazil.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.67.173

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo ajustar modelos volumétricos para Pinus tropicais, em povoamento homogêneo, no Município  de Vilhena, RO. Para a coleta de dados, foram derrubadas 20  árvores de Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis e 10 de Pinus  tecunumanii, sendo coletados discos em posições fixas de 0,20  m; 0,70 m; 1,30 m e em distâncias de um metro ao longo do  fuste, para a posterior contagem e mensuração dos anéis de crescimento nas idades de 4 a 12 anos. Foram ajustados oito modelos volumétricos e o critério de seleção considerou os  resultados do erro padrão da estimativa, coeficiente de determinação ajustado, teste F, significância dos coeficientes de regressão, desvio médio, desvio-padrão das diferenças, soma de quadrados do resíduo relativo, resíduo percentual

  18. Characteristics of photosynthetic productivity and water-consumption for transpiration in Pinus densiflora var.zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica%彰武松、樟子松光合生产与蒸腾耗水特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟鹏; 李玉灵; 尤国春; 王曼

    2012-01-01

    采用Li-6400光合测定系统对性成熟(18 a)阶段彰武松(Pinus densiflora var.zhangwuensis)和樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica)光合及蒸腾指标不同季节日变化进行了测定,并采用切枝蒸腾法对两个树种叶片气孔蒸腾和角质层蒸腾进行对比测定,评价了气孔开闭敏感性,探讨了两个树种光合生产与蒸腾耗水特性.结果表明:在同样生境条件下,彰武松比樟子松有较大的光合速率(Pn)和较小的蒸腾速率(Tr).在5月和7月,彰武松的Pn和Tr日变化呈现明显双峰型,其Pn和Tr“午休”现象均主要受气孔限制;在10月呈单峰型.樟子松的Pn和Tr日变化在整个生长季均呈单峰型,而且,彰武松日光合量(DAP)均高于樟子松,是樟子松的163.4%(5月)、211.1%(7月)和183.6%(10月).光响应曲线参数表明:在不同月份,彰武松最大光合速率(Pmax)均大于樟子松,且光饱和点(LSP)较高,光补偿点(LCP)较低.在任意被测时刻,彰武松气孔导度(Ga)和Tr都小于樟子松.彰武松具有较小气孔和角质层蒸腾速度,并且在同样干旱条件下,彰武松气孔下陷,其气孔的开闭反应更加敏感.彰武松水分利用效率(WUE)较高,约是樟子松的2.29倍.这些结果暗示,彰武松以其高的光合速率和低的蒸腾耗水特性,提高水分利用效率,以其敏感的气孔开闭机制和旱生叶片结构进而实现在干旱半干旱地区的速生特性.

  19. 毛乌素沙地樟子松和油松人工林光合生理特性%The Photosynthetic Characteristics of Pinus Sylvestris var, Mongolica and Pinus Tabulae formis in Mu Us Sandland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晓纲; 何茜; 李吉跃; 张方秋; 刘育贤

    2011-01-01

    In the growing season, the daily gas exchange, water use efficiency of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica and Pinus tabulae formis in Mu Us sandland were measured with a portable Li-6400 gas analysis system under natural conditions. The results showed that the diurnal courses of net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate display a singal-peak pattern. Water use efficiency culminates in the early morning. The maximum and the average value of the net photosynthesis of the Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica is larger than that of the Pinus tabulaeformis. The average value of the water use efficiency of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica is 3. 63 tμmolCO2/mmolH2O, which was higher than that of Pinus tabulaeformis (3. 22 μmol CO2/mmolH2O). Regression analysis showed that the net photosynthetic rate of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica was controlled by PAR, Gs and Ci, while for Pinus tabulaeformis was PAR and Gs.%利用Li-6400便携式气体分析系统,在自然条件下对毛乌素沙地腹地樟子松和油松人工林生长季叶片气体交换、水分利用效率及相关环境因子进行测定,同时探讨了影响樟子松、油松光合速率的内外因素.结果表明:生长季内毛乌素地区油松和樟子松的光合速率、蒸腾速率都表现出一定的日变化规律,都呈单峰型变化曲线;6月、7月、8月针叶树水分利用效率曲线呈下降趋势,上午时段的水分利用效率明显高于下午时段的水分利用效率.5月和9月针叶树水分利用效率日变化呈"W"型曲线,樟子松水分利用效率生长季均值为3.6μcmo1O0 /mmo1HO0,油松水分利用效率生长季均值为3.22μmmolCO2/mmolH2O,樟子松的水分利用效率始终高于油松.樟子松的净光合速率主要受光合有效辐射、气孔导度和胞间CO2浓度的影响,限制油松净光合速率的主要因子是光合有效辐射PAR和气孔导度.

  20. Introduction & Grafting Test for Pinus sylvestris var. fastigiata (Carr.) Q. F. Anet in Qiqihar Area%齐齐哈尔地区钻天松引种与嫁接繁殖试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑兴伟; 郑兴秋; 赵凌泉; 史绍林

    2012-01-01

    Compared with climatic conditions between Qiqihar region and provenance, Pinus sylvestris var. fastigiata ( Carr. ) were introduced. According to characteristics ( a large progeny variation in the seed production) of Pinus sylvestris var. fastigiata (carr) ,grafting experiments were conducted by using Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica as stock. Result shows that introduction of Pinus sylvestris var. fastigiata (carr) Q. F. Anet is possible. In order to cultivate large seedlings of Pi- nus sylvestris var. fastigiata( carr ) Q. F. Anet, three-year-old Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica were used as stock;softwood of one-year-old Pinus sylvestris var. fastigiata Q. F. Anet were grafted;the mean grafting ratio are 73.5%.%在齐齐哈尔地区与种源地气候条件比较基础上,进行了钻天松的引种,并针对其种子繁殖后代变异较大的特点,开展了用樟子松作砧木进行嫁接繁殖试验,试验结果表明,在齐齐哈尔地区引种钻天松是可行的。为了尽快培育大量的钻天松苗木,可以用樟子松3年生容器苗作砧木,采集1年生钻天松嫩枝进行嫁接,平均嫁接成活率为73.5%。

  1. 彰武松腋芽诱导研究%Axillary Bud Induction in Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范岳霞; 袁文华; 孔冬梅

    2013-01-01

      为了探讨彰武松组培快繁的可行性,以彰武松封顶芽为外植体进行培养,研究灭菌方法、培养基成分以及植物生长调节物质等对其腋芽诱导的影响。结果表明:外植体用70%的乙醇处理30 s 后用0.1%的 HgCl2灭菌5 min,在添加 BA 2~5 mg/L 和蔗糖30 g/L 的 WPM 培养基上,腋芽诱导率达50%~70%,NAA对腋芽诱导无促进作用。通过在添加和不添加植物生长调节物质(PGR)的WPM培养基中交替继代培养可以实现芽丛伸长与增殖。%In order to explore the feasibility of propagating Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis by tissue culture, the dormant shoot buds of the species were used as explants to investigate the influence of sterilization methods, medium composition and plant growth regulators on axillary bud induction. The results showed that:the most effective sterilization treatment was rinsing the explants in 70% ethanol for 30 s following with 0.1%HgCl2 for 5 min. The optimal medium for axillary bud induction was WPM containing 2-5 mg/L BA and 30 g/L sucrose (shoot induction 50%-70% ). NAA didn’t promote axillary bud induction. The new axillary shoots alternately subcultured in WPM with and without PGR elongated and proliferated well.

  2. Soil and Root Respiration Under Elevated CO2 Concentrations During Seedling Growth of Pinus sylvestris var. sylvestriformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of higher CO2 concentrations (500 and 700 μmol mol-1) in atmosphere on total soil respiration and the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration during seedling growth of Pinus sylvestris var. sylvestriformis. During the four growing seasons (May-October) from 1999 to 2003, the seedlings were exposed to elevated concentrations of CO2 in open-top chambers. The total soil respiration and contribution of root respiration were measured using an LI-6400-09 soil CO2 flux chamber on June 15 and October 8, 2003. To separate root respiration from total soil respiration, three PVC cylinders were inserted approximately 30 cm deep into the soil in each chamber. There were marked diurnal changes in air and soil temperatures on June 15. Both the total soil respiration and the soil respiration without roots showed a strong diurnal pattern, increasing from before sunrise to about 14:00in the afternoon and then decreasing before the next sunrise. No increase in the mean total soil respiration and mean soil respiration with roots severed was observed under the elevated CO2 treatments on June 15, 2003, as compared to the open field and control chamber with ambient CO2. However, on October 8, 2003, the total soil respiration and soil respiration with roots severed in the open field were lower than those in the control and elevated CO2 chambers. The mean contribution of root respiration measured on June 15, 2003, ranged from 8.3% to 30.5% and on October 8, 2003,from 20.6% to 48.6%.

  3. Comparison of stand structure and growth between artificial and natural forests of Pinus sylvestiris var, mongolica on sandy land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUJiao-jun; FANZhi-ping; ZENGDe-hui; JIANGFeng-qi; MATSUZAKITakeshi

    2003-01-01

    Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestiris Linnaeus var. mongolica Litvinov) as a valuable conifer tree species has been broadly introduced to the sandy land areas in “Three North” regions (North, northwest and northeast of China), but many prob-lems occurred in the earliest Mongolian pine plantations in 7hanggutai, 7hangwu County, Liaoning Province (ZZL). In order to clarify the reason, comprehensive investigations were carried out on differences in structure characteristics, growth processes and ecological factors between artificial stands (the first plantation established in ZZL in 1950s) and natural stands (the origin forests of the tree species in Honghuaerji, Inner Mongolia) on sandy land. The results showed that variation of diameter-class distributions in artificial stands and natural stands could be described by Weibull and Normal distribution models, respectively.Chapman-Richards growth model was employed to reconstruct the growth process of Mongolian pine based on the data from field investigation and stem analysis. The ages of maximum of relative growth rate and average growth rate of DBH, height, and volume of planted trees were 11,22 years, 8, 15 years and 35, 59 years earlier than those of natural stand trees, respectively. In respect of the incremental acceleration of volume, the artificial and natural stands reached their maximum values at 14 years and 33 years respectively. The quantitative maturity ages of artificial stands and natural stands were 43 years and 102 years respectively. It was concluded that the life span of the Mongolian pine trees in natural stands was about 60 years longer than those in artificial stands. The differences mentioned above between artificial and natural Mongolian pine forests on sandy land were partially attributed to the drastic variations of ecological conditions such as latitude, temperature, precipitation, evaporation and height above sea level. Human beings'' disturbances and higher density in plantation forest may

  4. 彰武松主要特性的研究%Major Characters of Pinus densiflora Var. zhangwuensis Clones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷泽勇; 孟鹏; 周凤艳

    2003-01-01

    对中国新发现的树种-彰武松(Pinus densiflora var zhanguensis)的主要物理特性进行了初步的研究.结果表明:①形态特征,彰武松为高大常绿乔木,两针一束,也有三针一束的,种子黑色,千粒重21.4g.②生态学特性,彰武松是属于春季生长类型的树种,其苗高累计生长呈S型曲线,全年最大生长量出现在5月上中旬;地径开始生长比高生长晚10d左右,全年出现两次生长,其中以春季生长为主;主根的生长和地径的生长交错进行,和苗高生长基本同步.③生理生态特性,彰武松的嫩叶组织含水量介于53.3%~73.3%之间,自由水在37.5%~67.7%,束缚水在5.6%~15.8%之间.其自由水/束缚水为12.09~2.37.彰武松每个季节的蒸腾速率日变化明显地不同,6月份呈现双峰型,8月份的蒸腾速率呈现双峰型,10月份呈现单峰型,彰武松的年蒸腾速率的走势呈现单峰型,全年蒸腾速率的最高值出现在7月份.与樟子松进行比较研究发现,在同样的生态条件下,平均每克彰武松针叶的叶绿素含量是樟子松的1.53倍;同时,彰武松比樟子松有较小的蒸腾强度、较低的失水速度以及更多的干物质储备.

  5. 钻天松嫁接技术研究%Grafting Technique of Pinus sylvestris var . f astigiata (Carr .) Q .F .Anet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王妍; 徐连峰

    2013-01-01

    The suitable grafting technique is the optimal means for breeding Pinus sylvestris var .fastigiata (Carr .) Q .F .Anet .Study shows that :factors affecting the survival rate of Pinus sylvestris var .fastigiata (Carr .) Q .F . Anet are more;the result is more ideal by using softwood to graft in late July to mid-August than that by using hardwood to graft in spring ;weather and different rootstocks in grafted parts have great influences on survival rate ;different people engaged in grafting ,different grafting time of one day has basically no influence on grafting .%  适宜的嫁接技术是钻天松繁育的最佳手段。研究表明,影响嫁接成活率的因素较多,7月下旬至8月中旬嫩枝嫁接比春季硬枝嫁接效果更为理想;天气、砧木不同嫁接部位都对嫁接成活率影响很大,而不同的嫁接人群、一天中不同的嫁接时间基本上不会对嫁接产生影响。

  6. Eficiência dos herbicidas oxadiazil, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen e Imazapyr sobre a cultura de pinus Efficiency of the oxadiazil, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen and imazapyr herbicides on Pinus cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson da Silva

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a seletividade de alguns herbicidas para mudas de Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis e suas eficiências no controle de plantas daninhas. As mudas com 20 cm de altura, produzidas em tubetes, foram transplantadas num espaçamento de 2,0 m x 2,0 m, em parcelas de quatro fileiras com 10,0 m de comprimento. Os tratamentos utilizados foram oxadiazil (600; 800 e 1000 g ha-1, oxadiazon (1140; 1520 e 1900 g ha-1, oxyfluorfen (720 g ha-1, imazapyr (250 g ha-1 e testemunhas (capinada e sem capina, dispostos em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Os herbicidas foram aplicados sete dias após o transplante, usando-se pulverizador costal, pressurizado com CO2, calibrado para 200 L ha- 1 de calda. As principais plantas daninhas com maior infestação foram: Brachiaria plantaginea e Ipomoea grandifolia e com menor infestação: Galinsoga parviflora e Bidens pilosa. O oxadiazil apresentou excelente controle de B. plantaginea, I. grandifolia e G. parviflora, não sendo eficiente para controle de B. pilosa, embora proporcionasse controle superior ao observado pelo oxadiazon. O oxadiazon foi eficiente até 45 dias após o tratamento para B. plantaginea, G. parviflora e até 90 dias para I. grandifolia. Tanto o oxyfluorfen quanto o imazapyr apresentaram excelente controle das plantas daninhas. De todos os herbicidas avaliados, apenas o imazapyr não deve ser recomendado para aplicação sobre o dossel de Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis, em face da toxicidade provocada.The selectivity of some herbicides were evaluated on Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis seedlings as well as these herbicide efficiencies in the weed control. When the tubule-produced seedlings were 20 cm height they were transplanted at 2,0 m x 2,0 m spacings in fourrows plots with 10,0 m length. The treatments with oxadiazil (600; 800 and 1000 g ha-1, oxadiazon (1140; 1520 and 1900 g ha-1, oxyfluorfen (720 g ha-1, imazpyr (250 g ha-1 and controls (weeded and without weeding were disposed

  7. Biodegrading effects of some rot fungi on Pinus caribaea wood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Department of Forestry and Environment, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port ... Wood decay varied along the tree bole but was not related ... same s that the rate of wood degradation appeared to be.

  8. 彰武松采穗圃的营建与管理技术%Building and management techniques of cutting orchard of Pinus densiflora var.zhangwuensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曼; 安宇宁; 孟鹏; 尤国春

    2008-01-01

    彰武松(Pinus densiflora var.Zhangwuensis)是在辽宁省彰武县章古台区域内的一片樟子松人工林中发现的;现已推广到黑龙江、内蒙古、山西、陕西等省(自治区),1999年辽宁省固沙造林研究所为了扩大彰武松的繁育数量,建立了一个面积2 hm2的采穗圃.目的是加快彰武松的扩繁地区,让彰武松更快地适宜三北地区,它也是我国唯一的一个彰武松采穗圃.

  9. Climatic response of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica tree-ring width and precipitation reconstruction for the northern Greater Higgnan Mountains, China, since 1720

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TongWen Zhang; YuJiang Yuan; WenShou Wei; RuiBo Zhang; ShuLong Yu; Feng Chen; HuaMing Shang; Li Qin; ZiAng Fan

    2014-01-01

    August-June precipitation has been reconstructed back to AD 1720 for the northern Greater Higgnan Mountains, China, by use of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica tree-ring width. The reconstruction explains the variance of 39%in observed pre-cipitation from 1973 to 2008. Some extremely dry/wet signals in historical documents and other precipitation recon-structions in previous studies are precisely captured in our reconstruction. Wet periods occurred during the periods of 1730 to 1746, 1789 to 1812, 1844 to 1903, 1920 to 1930, 1942 to 1961, and 1985 to 1998;while periods of 1747 to 1788, 1813 to 1843, 1904 to 1919, 1931 to 1941, and 1962 to 1984 were relatively dry. Power spectral and wavelet analyses demon-strated the existence of significant 24-year, 12-year, and 2-year cycles of variability.

  10. Effects of Pruning on Growth Performance of Plantations of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litv%修枝对樟子松人工林生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘延文

    2014-01-01

    The paper studied 25-year-old Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litv plantations in Saihanba forest center by using the method of sample plot investigation to tally,and then analyzed and compared. The re-sults indicate artificial pruning can promote the growth of DBH,however,he tree height is not affected.%以塞罕坝机械林场境内的25a生樟子松人工林为研究对象,用标准地调查法对其进行每木检尺,并进行分析比较。结果表明,人工修枝可以促进樟子松人工林胸径的生长,但不影响其树高的生长。

  11. Planting technique of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica in "Three Norths"%三北地区樟子松造林技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙少辉; 张桂梅; 南海涛; 张春晖

    1999-01-01

    @@ 樟子松(Pinus sylvstris var.mongolica)是欧洲赤松(Pinus sylvestris)的地理变种,在不断受变化的地史环境控制和推动的进化过程中,形成了忍瘠薄,耐干旱,抗低温,速生长,高抗逆性和强生命力等诸多特性,由于这些特性,使樟子松具有特宽的生态幅.经过多年的实践,人们对樟子松树种个体、群体生态效益和在三北防护林体系建设中的地位、作用的认识已经趋向统一.所以三北地区樟子松造林获得了蓬勃发展,预计在今后造林中樟子松将成为主要目的树种.

  12. Pinus tropical com potencial para uso em plantios comerciais no Brasil. Tropical pine for commercial planting in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Silveira WREGE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre os pinus tropicais, Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis é uma variedade natural, oriunda de região com clima tropical na América Central. A espécie se aclimatou bem em várias partes do mundo, em regiões com alta pluviosidade e temperaturas elevadas. Embora não tolere geadas severas, pode ser plantada em partes da região Sul do Brasil onde o clima é mais quente e a frequência de geadas é menor e é indicado para plantio em boa parte do Brasil, em mais de 3,5 milhões de km2 . Essa é uma variedade que apresenta alto rendimento em madeira de boa qualidade, além de possibilitar a exploração da resina. Neste trabalho, são apresentadas as regiões no Brasil que apresentam potencial para cultivo dessa variedade em regime de silvicultura intensiva, tomando como base sua região de origem no mundo. São indicadas para plantio comercial as zonas com os menores riscos de geada nos estados da região Sul, no Estado de São Paulo e nas demais regiões que oferecem condições climáticas favoráveis, principalmente de disponibilidade hídrica para o desenvolvimento dessa variedade de pinus. – Among tropical pines, Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis is a natural variation from the tropical regions of Central America. The species has adapted well in various parts of the world, in regions with high rainfall and high temperatures. Although intolerance to severe frosts, it can be grown in parts of southern Brazil, where the climate is hot, with infrequent frosts and even can be used for commercial planting in over 3.5 million square kilometers.This variety presents high yield in quality wood as well as resin. This work shows regions in Brazil where environmental conditions are favorable for commercial plantations with this variety, by making comparisons with the conditions in its origin. Climatic zones within the Southern Region, as well as in the state of São Paulo and elsewhere with the lowest risks of frost and plenty of water for the

  13. 拉雅松和细叶云南松松针挥发油的化学成分%Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils from Pine Needle of Pinus crassicorticea and Pinus yunnanensis Franch.var tenuifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉红; 李梓; 梁才

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the chemical constituents from pine needle of Pinus crassicorticea and P. Yunnanensis Franch. Var tenuifolia. Method: The essential oils from Pinus crassicorticea and P. Yunnanensis Franch. Var tenuifolia were extracted by steam distillation. The volatile components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods. The relative contents of these constituents were calculated by peak area normalization. Result: Sixty two compounds in the essential oil from P. Crassicorticea were identified, counting for 95. 565% of the total area of the peaks. The principal constituents were α-pinene (24. 659% ) ,β-pinene (11. 471% ) ,β-caryophyllene (9.932%) and terpinolene (5. 167% ). 55 compounds in the essential oil from P. Yunnanensis Franch. Var tenuifolia were identified, counting for 90. 794% of the total area of the peaks. The principal constituents were a-pinene ( 22. 542% ) 、 β-caryophyllene (16.636%) and 1, 2 , 4a, 5 , 8 , 8a-hexahydro-4,7-dimethyl-l-( 1-methylethyl)- naphthalene (5.085%). Conclusion: The essential oils from pine needle of P. Crassicorticea · and P. Yunnanensis Franch. Var tenuifolia were investigated for the first time. It had provided scientific foundation for exploitation and utilization of P. Crassicorticea and P. Yunnanensis Franch. Var tenuifolia.%目的:研究拉雅松和细叶云南松松针挥发油的化学成分.方法:采用水蒸汽蒸馏法从拉雅松和细叶云南松松针中提取挥发油,利用气相色谱-质谱联用技术分析挥发油的化学成分.结果:从拉雅松松针挥发油中鉴定出62个化合物,占挥发油总量的95.565%,主要成分为α-蒎烯(24.659%)、β-蒎烯(11.471%)、β-石竹烯(9.932%)和异松油烯(5.167%);从细叶云南松松针挥发油中鉴定出55个化合物,占挥发油总量的90.794%,主要成分为α-蒎烯(22.542%)、β-石竹烯(16.636%)和1,2,4a,5,8,8a-六氢化-4,7-二甲基-1-(1-甲基乙基)-萘(5.085%).结论:首

  14. Study on the Technology of Watering and Film Mulching and Its Water Retention Effect for Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica%樟子松浇水覆膜技术及其保水效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹楗翊; 屈升银; 孙占锋

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the planting effect of watering and film mulching of Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica in Mu Su Desert. [ Method] The Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica in this area was respectively treated by three technologies of watering and film mulching, watering and no film mulching, no watering and no film mulching, the survival rate and increment of Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica under the three treatments were compared, and the effect of watering and film mulching on the soil moisture content was analyzed. [ Result] The survival rate and increment of Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica were the largest under the treatment of watering and film mulching, then followed by the watering and no film mulching, and the smallest no watering and no film mulching; the technology of watering and film mulching could obviously improve the soil moisture content, and directly affect the survival and growth of Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica. [Conclusion] Excellent planting effect could be gained by the technology of watering and film mulching, whose popularization and wide application had significant practical value and theoretical meaning.%[目的]了解毛乌沙漠樟子松浇水覆膜造林技术的成效.[方法]对该区樟子松进行了浇水覆膜、浇水不覆膜、不浇水不覆膜三种技术的处理试验,对比分析三个处理的成活率及生长量,并对樟子松浇水覆膜技术对土壤含水量的影响做了分析.[结果]樟子松的存活率和生长量浇水覆膜时最大,浇水不覆膜次之,不浇水不覆膜时最差;通过浇水覆膜能提高土壤含水量,土壤含水量的明显增加,直接影响樟子松的存活与生长.[结论]浇水覆膜这一造林措施可以获得良好的效益,对该技术的推广应用具有极其重要的实践价值和理论意义.

  15. 不同类型樟子松林分土壤养分空间变异性的初步研究%Spatial Variability of Soil Nutrients for Different kinds of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑鑫

    2011-01-01

    Content characteristics of major soil nutrients of pure forest of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica,mixed forest of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica larch were studied.Variability of soil nutrient content under different forest types correlation of every index of soil were discussed.Spatial distribution certain various laws of soil nutrients for forest ecosystem in research area were revealed.Result shows that: coefficient of variation of soil pH value of pure forest of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica mixed foresrt of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica larch is about 4.22-5.90,being weak variability;the coefficient of variation of available phosphorus content of subsoil of pure forest of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica reached 90.97%,being strong variability;other indicators of the measured coefficient of variation of soil nutrients are about 16.83%-50.89%,belonging to the moderate variability.%就樟子松纯林和樟子松落叶松混交林下的土壤主要养分的含量、性质进行研究,探讨不同林型下土壤养分含量的变异性以及土壤各指标之间的相关关系,揭示研究区域内森林生态系统土壤养分空间分布特征和变异的某些规律。结果表明,樟子松纯林和樟子松落叶松混交林下土壤pH值变异系数为4.22~5.90,属弱变异性;樟子松纯林下层土壤的有效磷含量变异系数达到90.97%,属于强变异性,其他所测的土壤养分指标变异系数在16.38%~50.89%,均属于中等程度变异性。

  16. Oviposition Preferences of Major Lepidoptera Pest of Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis%思茅松主要鳞翅目害虫的产卵选择性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马惠芬; 刘凌; 闫争亮; 刘云彩

    2013-01-01

    运用同时蒸馏萃取( SDE)和气相色谱-质谱联用技术( GC-MS)比较了思茅松( Pni usk esiyavar 。 langbianensis)、阿丁枫( Altingia chinensis)和西南桦( Bteu la alnoides)的树叶挥发性物质的组成和含量,并对松实小卷蛾( Rte inia crstata)、微红梢斑螟( Dioryctria rubella)、思茅松毛虫( Dendrolimus kikuchii)在3种树上的产卵选择性进行了试验。 GC-MS分析结果表明:思茅松针叶的挥发性物质以α-蒎烯为主,也含有较多的β-蒎烯、莰烯、石竹烯、月桂烯和β-水芹烯等萜烯类化合物;阿丁枫树叶的挥发物以( E)-石竹烯、异石竹烯、α-依兰油烯、愈创烷-1(5),11-二烯及双环大根香叶烯为主;而西南桦树叶挥发物中,除含有α-蒎烯等萜烯类化合物外,主要以2-己烯醛、2-己烯-1-醇、( Z)-3-己烯-1-醇、( Z)-2-己烯-1-醇等绿叶气味物质为主。产卵选择性试验表明:松实小卷蛾、微红梢斑螟、思茅松毛虫偏好选择思茅松针叶为其产卵场所,而将思茅松喷施阿丁枫和西南桦树叶提取物后,针叶上的产卵量大大减少。说明植物挥发物在松实小卷蛾、微红梢斑螟、思茅松毛虫等鳞翅目松树害虫的产卵寄主选择中起关键作用,松树挥发物提供了寄主对雌虫产卵适宜性的化学信息,而阔叶树挥发物则对其产卵具有驱避作用。%By simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we compared the leaf volatile compositions of Pinus kesiya var.l angbianensis, Altingia chinensis, Betula alnoides and we tested oviposi-tion preferences of Re tiin a csr tata, Dioryctria rubella and Dendrolimus kikuchi .In volatile of Pinus kesiya var.langbianen-sis,α-pinene is the dominant component.β-pinene, camphene,caryophyllene , myrcene and βp-hellandrene are also the maincomponents .In volatile ofA ltingi a chinensis, (E

  17. Genetic variation of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, chemical and physical defenses that affect mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, attack and tree mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Daniel S; Yanchuk, Alvin D; Huber, Dezene P W; Wallin, Kimberly F

    2011-09-01

    Plant secondary chemistry is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, and while large intraspecific variation in secondary chemistry has been reported frequently, the levels of genetic variation of many secondary metabolites in forest trees in the context of potential resistance against pests have been rarely investigated. We examined the effect of tree genotype and environment/site on the variation in defensive secondary chemistry of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, against the fungus, Grosmannia clavigera (formerly known as Ophiostoma clavigerum), associated with the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. Terpenoids were analyzed in phloem samples from 887, 20-yr-old trees originating from 45 half-sibling families planted at two sites. Samples were collected both pre- and post-inoculation with G. clavigera. Significant variation in constitutive and induced terpenoid compounds was attributed to differences among families. The response to the challenge inoculation with G. clavigera was strong for some individual compounds, but primarily for monoterpenoids. Environment (site) also had a significant effect on the accumulation of some compounds, whereas for others, no significant environmental effect occurred. However, for a few compounds significant family x environment interactions were found. These results suggest that P. c. latifolia secondary chemistry is under strong genetic control, but the effects depend on the individual compounds and whether or not they are expressed constitutively or following induction.

  18. Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var.zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses%盐碱胁迫下沙地彰武松和樟子松苗木生理特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟鹏; 李玉灵; 张柏习

    2013-01-01

    为了在北方沙漠化、盐碱化土地上推广应用沙地彰武松这一新的造林树种,客观评价彰武松的耐盐碱性及其耐盐碱机理,本文以4年生的彰武松和樟子松为试材,采用盆栽试验方法,研究NaCl、Na2CO3和NaHCO33种单盐胁迫及NaOH碱胁迫对苗木生长和叶片生理生化特性的影响.结果表明:盐碱胁迫下,彰武松苗木的受害级别较小,根系忍耐指数较大,叶片的过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性显著提高,最高为对照的22.6倍,丙二醛(MDA)含量没有显著提高,叶绿素(Chl)含量降幅较小,其叶片含水量(LWC)有所提高.樟子松则表现出与彰武松不同的变化规律,各处理MDA含量显著提高,CAT活性没有显著变化,Chl含量显著下降,LWC有所下降.说明彰武松的耐盐碱性高于樟子松.彰武松针叶内较高的Fe含量使其CAT活性和Chl含量较高,而Zn、Cu含量较高与其抗性强有关.%For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses-, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase ( CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde ( MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt

  19. GC- MS analysis of volatile oil from the pine needles of Pinus densiflora and Pinus sylvestris var.sylvtriforms%赤松与长白赤松松针挥发油成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕坤; 张海丰; 徐敏; 朱俊义

    2011-01-01

    Objective;To analyze volatile oil from the pine needles of Pinus densiflora Sieb. Et Zucc. And Pinus syl-vestris L. Var. Sylvtriforms Cheng et C. D. Chu by GC - MS. Methods; The volatile oil was extracted by steam distillation from the pine needles of P. Densiflora and P. Sylvestris var. Sylvtriforms, respectively, and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry( GC - MS) technology, injector temperature was 230 ℃. The GC - MS analysis with a HP -5 fused silica capillary column(0. 25 mm ×30 m,0. 25 μm). Flow rate was 1 mL · Min-1. The split ratio was 40: 1. The injection volume was 0. 5 μL. The temperature programming was begun at 50 ℃, then programmed from 50 to 120 ℃ at 5 ℃ · Min-1 ,then programmed from 120 to 180 ℃ at 8 ℃ · Min-1 and finally,programmed from 180 to 200 ℃ at 5 ℃ · Min-1. Mass spectrometer conditions were;ionization mode,El; electron energy 70 eV; interface temperature 280 °C; ion source temperature 230℃. The mass selective detector was operated in the TIC mode,mass scan range,20 -500 amu. Results; From volatile oil of the pine needles of P. Densiflora, 36 compounds were separated,30 of them were identified; These 30 compounds amounted totally to about 98. 37% of the total peak area; The major components in the volatile oil were β - phellandrene (20. 96% ) , α - pinene (16. 081 % ) , camphene ( 11. 529 % ) , and santolina triene ( 16. 471 % ). From volatile oil of the pine needles of P. Sylvestris var. Sylvtriforms, 34 compounds were separated, 31 of them were identified; These 31 compounds amounted totally to about 99. 24% of the total peak area; The major components of the volatile oil were 1 -R-α- pinene (17. 592% ) ,caryophyllene( 15. 398% ) ,β - phellandrene ( 14. 813% ),[ S -(E,E)]- 1 - methyl - 5 - methyl-ene - 8 - ( 1 - methylethyl) -1,6- cyclodecadiene ( 7. 573% ) ,β - pinene ( 5. 929% ) , 1 - methyl - 4 - ( 1 -methylethylidene) - cyclohexene (4. 663% ). Conclusions: Components of volatile oil of the

  20. The effects of heat treatment on physical and technological properties and surface roughness of Camiyani Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana var. pallasiana) wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Gökhan; Korkut, Süleyman; Korkut, Derya Sevim

    2008-05-01

    Heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of Camiyani Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana var. pallasiana) wood were examined. Samples obtained from Yenice-Zonguldak Forest Enterprises, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures and for varying durations. The physical properties of heat-treated and control samples were tested, and oven-dry density, air-dry density, and swelling properties were determined. The mechanical properties of heat-treated and control samples were tested, and compression strength, and Janka-hardness were determined. A stylus method was employed to evaluate the surface characteristics of the samples. Roughness measurements by the stylus method were made in the direction perpendicular to the fiber. Four main roughness parameters, mean arithmetic deviation of profile (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), root mean square roughness (Rq), and maximum roughness (Ry) obtained from the surface of wood were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the surface characteristics of the specimens. Significant difference was determined (p=0.05) between physical and technological properties, and surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, Ry, Rq) for three temperatures and three durations of heat treatment. Based on the findings in this study, the results showed that density, swelling, compression strength, Janka-hardness and surface roughness values decreased with increasing treatment temperature and treatment times. Increase in temperature and duration further diminished technological strength values of the wood specimens. Camiyani Black Pine wood could be utilized by using proper heat treatment techniques without any losses in strength values in areas where working, stability, and surface smoothness, such as in window frames, are important factors.

  1. 搭设障蔽控制樟子松风蚀沙埋危害的效果%Control Effect on Wind Erosion and Sand Cover by Building Sand-Barrier for Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈升银; 叶竹林

    2011-01-01

    The control effect on wind erosion and sand cover by building sand-barrier was studied by taking Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica as planting tree species. The results showed that building sand-barrier could promote the survival rate of the plantation up to 100% , which was significantly higher than that of the control. There were also significant differences in the growth rate of the Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica plantation between building the sand-barrier and the control. The experiment showed that building the sand-barrier could promote the average sapling height, basal diameter and crown growth by 55.4% , 66. 6% and 60.1% respectively compared to the control. Sand-barrier building provided the morphology construction of the Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica saplings with much better environment that significantly reduced the phenomena such as trunk bending, wind throw and drying up of the brnaches and turning yellow of the leaves due to the wind damage.%以樟子松为对象探讨搭设沙障控制风蚀沙埋危害的效果.结果表明:搭设与未搭设沙障的造林保存率存在显著差异,搭设沙障可使造林保存率高达100%;搭设与未搭设沙障的生长量也存在显著差异,搭设沙障可使树高、地径、树冠生长量分别提高55.4%、66.6%和60.7%;搭设沙障为樟子松的形态建成创造了良好的环境条件,树干弯曲、风倒及枯黄现象明显减少.

  2. Relationship between High Yield in Cone Production for Pinus sy lvest ris var .mongolica and Temperature Factor%温度因子与樟子松球果产量丰产的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴汝松; 侯庆娟

    2014-01-01

    为了分析温度因子与樟子松(Pinus sylvestnis var .mongolica Litv .)球果产量丰歉产之间的关系,设置3块面积为150 m×300 m的样带,连续6年对样带内单株樟子松的结实量和月平均温度进行调查,结合以上数据,逐年进行处理,采用因子筛选法和线性回归分析,进行温度因子与樟子松球果产量的相关系数分析。结果表明:球果生长期第3年3月份月均温、第2年11月的极端最高温度与樟子松球果产量之间的相关系数颇高,回归关系显著。%In order to analyze the relationship among temperature factor ,high yield and low yield in cone production for Pinus sylvestris var .mongolica ,three sample plots were set in the study area ;the cone production and the monthly mean temperature were investigated for six consecutive years ;combining the above data ,analyzed year by year;correlation coefficient analysis be-tween temperature factor & yield of cones were conducted by using factor screening method & linear regression analysis .Re-sult shows that :the correlation coefficient among the monthly mean temperature in March in the 3rd year of cone growing stage ,extreme temperature in November in the 2nd year ,the yield among the cone production of Pinus sylvestris var .mongol-ica is quite high and its regression relationship is significant .

  3. 沙地樟子松天然更新影响因素探讨%The Factors Influencing Natural Regeneration of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫德仁; 白文才; 宝成; 杜敏

    2012-01-01

    Based on the meteorological data and many research achievements, the factors influencing natural regen- eration of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in sandy land have been analyzed on the aspects of the process of natural regeneration and the features of meteorological factors in origin. The results show that the naturally falling seeds from April to May are the material base for realizing the natural regeneration of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. The snowfall days, the snow cover days, the relative humidity fi'om May to July and the average temperature from May to July are the main factors influencing the natural regeneration of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. Among them, the relative humidity from May to July and the average temperature from May to July are the key factors influencing the germination of the naturally falling seeds and the growth of seedlins of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. The snowfall days and snow cover days can influence the current year seedlings to overwinter safely.%根据气象资料和诸多研究结果,从沙地樟子松自然更新过程以及原产地气象因子的特征等方面进一步分析了沙地樟子松天然更新的影响因素,结果表明:沙地樟子松当年4~5月自然落种的种子是实现自然更新的物质基础;降雪日数、积雪日数、5~7月相对湿度、5~7月平均温度等是影响沙地樟子松自然更新的主要因素。其中,5~7月相对湿度、5~7月平均温度变化特征是影响沙地樟子松自然落种的种子萌发及其幼苗生长的关键因素,而降雪日数、积雪日数是影响并决定当年幼苗安全越冬的保证。

  4. 科尔沁沙地樟子松造林技术研究%STUDY ON THE AFFORESTATION TECHNOLOGY OF Pinus sylvestris Linn.var.mongolica IN KEERQIN SANDY LAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    红玉; 郭连生; 德永军

    2003-01-01

    本文以位于科尔沁沙地西缘的巴林右旗为研究地点,通过对比试验方法比较植物活沙障、覆膜、干水剂、保水剂、ABT生根粉浸根等几种造林技术和浇水量控制对樟子松(Pinus sylvestris L. var. mongolica)造林成活的影响,为选定适合当地条件的造林技术措施提供科学依据.

  5. 樟子松不同容器育苗试验%Nursery Trials of Pinus sylvestris var .mongolica with Different Containers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱春阳

    2013-01-01

    Nursery trials of Pinus sylvestris var .mongolicawere conducted by using three kinds of containers (plastic bags ,paper cups & peat cups) .Result shows that :water holding capacity of the three kinds of containers are lar-ger ,water holding capacity of peat cups is the least ;seedlings sprouted two days and four days earlier by using plas-tic container cups than paper cups ,peat cup ,respectively and time of emergence are shorted by 2-6 d;phenomenon of spiral growth & twisted root in plastic bags is very serious ;phenomenon of spiral growth of root in paper cups are lighter than that in plastic cups ;lateral root in peat cups are shorter & less ,but its fibrous roots are well-developed . Grow th of different containers aboveground is significantly different ;capability of heat preservation & water conser-vation of peat cups is poor ,so the growth is slow ;plastic bags & paper cups are more favorable for growth of seed-lings aboveground .%  通过采用塑料袋、纸杯和草炭杯3种容器进行樟子松育苗试验,结果表明,3种容器持水力相差较大,草炭杯持水力最小;塑料容器较纸杯提早2d、比草炭杯提早4d达出苗高峰,出苗时间缩短2~6d;塑料袋内根系盘旋生长及窝根现象非常严重,纸杯旋生现象较塑料袋为轻,草炭杯的侧根较短较少,但须根特别发达。不同容器地上部分生长影响差异极显著,草炭杯由于保温保水能力较差,生长缓慢,塑料袋和纸杯对地上部分生长较为有利。

  6. Energy rating and productive of wood from reforestation of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the state of Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammal Filho, Fawaz Ali; Bruder, Edson Marcelo; Rezende, Marcos Antonio de [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: In recent years, wood consumption is increasing, and the need to increase the availability of commercial wood reforestation becomes essentially important. In the state of Sao Paulo a few species of Eucalyptus and Pinus have stood out for having high productivity and with updated technical genetic improvements to productivity can be increased to 60 %. The work has to evaluate the productivity and quality of wood provided with commercial reforestation species of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the midwestern region of Sao Paulo. In this study we used six treatments: a seminal Eucalyptus grandis; two clones of Eucalyptus grandis, three hybrid clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. Pinus were analyzed for five hybrid progenies of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis and Pinus tecunumanii. We evaluated the productivity rates of each treatment and the quality of wood produced, by studying their average density and specific variations possible by the methods: TARG (Technique attenuation of gamma radiation from {sup 241}Am) and immersion. Productivity mass IMAM treatments for Eucalyptus S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 18.7, 17.0, 21.2, 28.1, 30.1 and 27.2 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 451.3, 439.0, 411.9, 518.8, 526.4 and 526.3 kg/m{sup 3}. Productivity for Pinus mass IMAM treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 14.7, 13.5, 13.7, 14.8, 12.4 and 13.0 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 475, 522, 459, 478, 430 and 514 kg/m{sup 3}. These results are extremely important and come to contradict some literature results that correlate productivity gains with losses in density. It was concluded that the values of density and productivity of each treatment and sperm Pinus hybrids there was significant improvement in the indices assessed. While in the Eucalyptus the results were remarkable, reflecting the improvement in

  7. Effects of Different Methods of Accelerated Germination on Germination Rate of Pinus sylvestris var .mongolica%不同催芽方式对樟子松发芽率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽清

    2015-01-01

    In order to grasp the effects of different methods of accelerated germination on germination rate of Pinus sylvestris var .mongolica seeds ,the germination experiments were conducted at room temperature .Result shows that the germination rate of Pinus sylvestris var .mongolica is not the same by using different methods of acceler‐ated germination;among of which the effect is optimal by soaking 200 mg ▌L -1 GA3 ,the germination rate being 60% ,followed by 40 ℃ warm water soaking ,the germination rate being 57% .%为了解不同催芽方式对樟子松种子发芽率的影响,在室温下进行了发芽试验。结果表明,不同催芽方式樟子松种子发芽率不相同,其中200mg▌L-1赤霉素溶液浸种效果最好,发芽率达到60%;其次为40℃温水浸种,发芽率达到57%。

  8. Rogue Thinning of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica Clonal Seed Orchards%樟子松无性系种子园去劣疏伐技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树森; 王福森; 李晶; 贯春雨

    2015-01-01

    Through the research of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica clonal seed orchard,the result shows that the canopy density of 30 to 33-year-old Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica clonal seed orchard with 30% of thinning for two times decreased from 1.0 d to 0.75 to 0.79,retaining 180 to 250 trees ?hm-2;the yield of individual mother tree of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica increased 2.98 times than that before thinning,being 3.89 kg per tree;the seed yield increase 1.00 times than that before thinning,being 12.06 kg ?hm-2;one thousand quality of seed increase 2.7% than that before thinning ,being 8.32 g,the germination rate and germination potential increase 25.2% and 32.5%,respectively;thinning age of seed orchard of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica with 4 m × 4 m,4 m × 5 m,5 m × 5 m,6 m × 5 m,6 m × 6 m is 22 years,24 years,26 years,28 years and 31 years.Rouge thinning make the primary clonal seed orchard of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica reach standard for seed orchard;rouge thinning achieve upgrade of seed orchard.%通过对樟子松无性系种子园进行去劣疏伐试验研究,结果表明:30~33年生樟子松初级无性系种子园经过2次总计30%的疏伐,郁闭度由原来的1.0降到0.75~0.79,保留180~250株?hm-2;樟子松母树单株结实量为3.89 kg ?株-1,比疏伐前平均提高2.98倍;种子产量为12.06 kg ?hm-2,比疏伐前平均提高1.00倍;种子千粒质量达8.32 g,比疏伐前提高2.7%,发芽率提高25.2个百分点,发芽势提高32.5个百分点;4 m×4 m、4 m×5 m 、5 m ×5 m、6 m×5 m、6 m×6 m的樟子松种子园疏伐年龄分别为22 a、24 a、26 a、28 a和31 a。去劣疏伐使樟子松初级无性系种子园达到了去劣疏伐种子园的标准,实现了种子园的提档升级。

  9. Artificial Promotion of Natural Regeneration of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica in Zhanggutai Sandy Land%章古台沙地人工促进樟子松天然更新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑玲; 陈江燕

    2015-01-01

    针对樟子松在大部分引种区天然更新困难的问题,在气候恶劣的章古台地区开展人工促进天然更新技术研究,结果显示:对樟子松母树进行浇水施肥,增加了母树结实量;整地有助于樟子松天然更新,提高了樟子松天然更新密度和更新幼苗抗旱能力;不同防寒覆盖措施试验以白沙土覆盖为最好,幼苗越冬保存率和幼苗状况较好,易于操作,是最好的覆盖模式,其次为纱布+覆土、覆土、地被植物+覆土;冬季积雪厚度影响樟子松幼苗越冬保存率,积雪厚度大有利于天然更新樟子松幼苗安全越冬。%Aiming at the difficult problem of natural-regenerated Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica in most introduc-tion area,the research on artificial promotion of natural regeneration technology in bad climate at Zhanggutai Region were carried out.Result shows that watering and fertilizing on Pinussylvestris var.mongolica can increase the seed production;soil preparation improve the regenerated density of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica and drought resist-ance of regenerated seedlings;among different cold proof measures,mulching with the white sand soil,which is easy to operate,is the optimal mode to mulch,and the overwintering preservation rate and conditions of seedlings is opti-mal by using above-mentioned mulching mode;followed by gauze+soil mulching,soil mulching,groundcover plants+soil mulching;winter snow’s thickness affect the overwintering survival rate of seedlings of Pinussylvestris var.mongolica;the big thickness of snow is conducive to safe wintering the seedlings of Pinussylvestris var.mon-golica.

  10. Metabolic Changes of Fat & Protein of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica during Seed Germination%樟子松种子萌发过程中脂肪和蛋白质代谢的变化规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志芬; 王国华; 杨扬

    2011-01-01

    通过测定樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica)种子萌发过程中脂肪和蛋白质的代谢变化,结果表明,在种子萌发过程中,樟子松种胚、胚乳中脂肪含量随发芽时间延长而下降;酶活性的升降不一定与其作用底物含量的增减相一致,作用于贮藏物质的酶并不是在浸种后立即就表现出活性;总蛋白质含量在种子萌发过程中变化不大.

  11. Seed falling and seed bank research on natural Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica individual plant in the Hulun Buir sandy land%呼伦贝尔沙地樟子松落种与种子库特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王妍; 卢琦; 王玉华; 敖文明; 乔殿学

    2012-01-01

    Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica is adaptive to cold, drought and barren environment, with prominent regeneration ability to wind erosion control and shifting sand fixed. The natural regeneration process of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in the sandy land is important to vegetation rehabilitation, degraded ecosystems reconstruction, sustainable sandy ecosystem benefit development, as well as the establishment of green ecological barriers in north of China. In order to explore seed bank and seed falling of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, inoculators (specification: 1.0 m × 1.0 m × 0.1 m) were installed at 4, 8, 12 m in easi/south/west/ north direction from the mature tree and grids (specification; 1 m × 1 m) were arranged around the mature tree, and with the vectoring technology get the spatial distribution graph which X axle is north direction axle is east direction. The results showed that Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seeds disperse mainly in the litter layer with an average seed density of 614 seeds·m-2 and in the 0-5 cm horizon with an average seed density of 469 seeds·m-2. The amount of seeds in different direction respectively is 6.67 (east)>6.07 (north) >5.53(west)> 4.63 (north). The primary dispersal concentration was up to about 3 m from the mature tree. Temperate and spatial characteristics of seed falling showed that most seeds were in a region near the mature tree, especially in the 0-8 m range. Conclusions were drawn that the seeds of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica dispersal density near the observed tree was fan-shaped and composed by winds from the south and west. The horizontal distribution characteristics of seed bank from a nature tree shaped a ring region where seed density was largest from the north to the east with seed density decreasing as the distance increased from the mature tree. [ Ch, 4 fig. 1 tab. 18 ref.]%采用生态学方法对呼伦贝尔沙地樟子松Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica土壤种子库和落种情况进行调

  12. Characteristics and Grafting and Breeding Technology of Pinus.densiflora var.Zhanguensis---A Case in Jiuliangwa Forest Farm in Datong%彰武松的特性及嫁接繁育技术--以大同九梁洼林场为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雁春

    2015-01-01

    彰武松是山西省杨树丰产林实验局于2005年从辽宁省引进的针叶树种。笔者从彰武松的起源、形态特征、生物学特性3个方面介绍了彰武松的特性,并在山西省大同市九梁洼林场以樟子松为砧木、彰武松为接穗进行了嫁接试验,总结了彰武松嫁接繁育的关键技术,为山西省北部地区丘陵风沙区、龙岗火山厚土区彰武松的繁育提供技术指导。%Pinus densiflora var.Zhanguensis was a new variety introduced from Liaoning Province in Shanxi Poplar planta -tion Experiment Bureau.The author introduced characteristics of Pinus densiflora var.Zhanguensis from origin, morpholog-ical characteristics and biological characteristics , studied the experiment of grafting the Pinus densiflora var.Zhanguensis on Pinus sylvestris as stock in Jiuliangwa forest farm in Datong in Shanxi Province , summaried the key technology of grafting and breeding to provide technology guide of grafting and breeding in hilly sandy and Longgang volcano thick soil area in northern region in Shanxi Province .

  13. Influência da queima controlada no pH do solo em povoamentos de Pinus spp, na região de Sacramento, MG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gomes Neto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a influência da queima na variação do pH em solo com povoamento de Pinus caribaea Morolet var. hondurensis e Pinus oocarpa Schiedler. A pesquisa desenvolveu-se na região de Sacramento, Minas Gerais, em latossolo vermelho-amarelo, fase argilosa. Foram selecionados 2 talhões (250 x 600 m para cada espécie, demarcados por aceiros e queimados em dois períodos, às 10 e 16 horas, segundo a técnica de queima contra o vento. As áreas experimentais foram divididas em 8 parcelas, por espécie, em um delineamento completamente ao acaso. A coleta dos dados foi feita antes, imediatamente após, 7 meses e 14 meses após a queima em perfis de solo de 0-50 cm, abertos na interseção entre linhas e filas das árvores. Foram coletadas amostras da serrapilheira e de solo a várias profundidades. Verificou-se que após a queima, o pH em cloreto de potássio teve uma ligeira elevação, estabilizando-se até o final do período, em ambas as espécies estudadas. Para o pH em água, houve também uma ligeira elevação após a queima no Pinus oocarpa e um aumento significativo no final do período, para ambas espécies estudadas.

  14. 不同浓度赤霉素浸种对樟子松种子萌发的影响%EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATION OF GIBBERELLIN ON THE SEED GERMINATION OF Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica Litv

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春智; 何炎红; 田有亮; 白玉娥

    2012-01-01

    Gibberellin is a kind of important regulating substance which plays an important role in the plant growth process and it was used to study the effect of the different concentration soaking on the seed germination of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica Litv.in the programmable illuminated incubator in this experiment.The results indicated that both the germination and the germination potential of the seed increase,seed's activity of the MDA enhanced,while conductivity of the seed extracts decreased after soaking by gibberellin.The different concentrations soaking by Gibberellin is the different effect on the seed germination of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica Litv and under 200mg/L gibberellin the greatest is the seed average germination rate,germination potential in all tested concentrations.The effect of Gibberellin soaking on the seed of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica Litv is in connection with the storage duration.The effect on the old seed collect in 1986 is significantly greater than that on the new seed collect in 2010.The research shows that gibberellin could be the function about repairing the membrane which increases as the concentration of gibberellin increases in the test edconcentrations.%赤霉素是植物生长发育过程中的一种重要调节物质,在植物生长发育中起着重要作用.本实验以贮藏时间不同的樟子松种子为材料,在光照恒温箱内对种子进行发芽实验,研究不同浓度的赤霉素对樟子松种子萌发的影响.结果表明,经过赤霉素浸种催芽后,种子发芽率、发芽势、丙二醛含量提高,种子浸泡液的电导率降低;赤霉素浓度不同对樟子松种子萌发的作用不同,浸种浓度为200mg/L时种子平均发芽率、发芽势最高.赤霉素处理樟子松种子作用大小与种子贮藏时间长短相关,其对1986采集的旧种子作用明显大干2010年采集的新种子.研究表明赤霉素对樟子松种子的膜有一定的修复作用,并且在研究浓度范围

  15. Protection for natural resources of Pinus sylvestris var.Mongolica%樟子松天然林资源的保护措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩东峰; 李颢

    2004-01-01

    樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica)是我国北方珍贵用材、防护、绿化速生针叶树种,其天然林资源已呈渐危状态,因此,建立不同类型的樟子松天然林资源保护区具有重大的经济意义、生态意义和科学研究价值。

  16. 塞罕坝地区樟子松人工林生长规律及经济效益分析%Analysis of Economic Benefits and Growth Law for Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica Litv.Plantations in Saihanba Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓兰

    2014-01-01

    This paper used sampling investigation methods,established the growth law of tree diameter and tree height for different altitude Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica Litv.,and analyzed economic benefits for dif-ferent altitude Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica Litv.plantations based on wood productions.Results show the growth of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica plantations in higher altitude was better than that in lower altitude, at the same time,the economic benefits were higher than that in lower altitude.%通过对塞罕坝不同海拔高度的樟子松人工林取样调查,探讨了不同环境下林木胸径、树高的生长规律,并根据不同地区林分木材生产情况分析了塞罕坝地区不同海拔樟子松人工林生长的经济效益。结果表明,坝下地区樟子松人工林生长好于坝上地区,经济效益也高于坝上地区。

  17. 樟子松碳汇价值的长时间尺度模拟分析%Dynamic Simulation of Carbon Sequestration byPinus sylvestris var.mongolica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴厦; 谢高地; 张昌顺; 刘春兰; 李士美; 张彩霞; 陈龙

    2015-01-01

    Based on the functional process of carbon sequestration of forest, we categorize carbon sequestration in two parts: carbon capture and carbon storage. Here,Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica was used to simulate the dynamic changing process of carbon sequestration of forest in a century using tree growth formula and the cost of carbon capture and sequestration. We found that the total carbon captured and stored by 100-year-oldP. sylvestris var.mongolica are both 966 kg C tree-1. On the assumption that the current year is the planting year, the present total carbon sequestration value (capital value) of 100-year-oldP. sylvesrtis var.mongolica is 54.78 USD tree-1 at the discount rate of 3%, with the present total carbon capture value of 18.92 USD tree-1 and carbon storage value of 35.86 USD tree-1. The dynamic process of the annual value of carbon capture is ilustrated by an upside-down U shape curve, while that of carbon storage service folows an S shape curve. The combination of the dynamic processes of carbon capture value and carbon storage value represent the changing process of carbon sequestration value, which appears to be an S shape curve.%森林生态系统具有重要的碳汇作用。目前,碳汇价格可以通过碳交易、碳税和固碳项目实际成本3种机制实现。本研究从森林植被碳汇功能发挥的过程出发,认为森林植被碳汇价值包括碳固定价值和碳蓄积价值两部分。在此基础上以樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica)为例,采用固碳项目实际成本,模拟了森林植被在100年的生命历程中碳汇价值的动态变化过程。研究表明,单株樟子松碳固定的物理量和价值量动态过程曲线都呈倒“U”型;碳蓄积的物理量和价值量动态过程曲线都近似呈“S”型。在碳固定和碳蓄积价值叠加下,碳汇价值流量过程曲线近似呈“S”型,且逐渐趋近碳蓄积价值流量曲线。100年内,樟子松

  18. 解剖构造对人工林樟子松单板染色效果的影响%Influence of Anatomical Characteristics on Dyeing Effects of Veneer from Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管雪梅; 郭明辉

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the main anatomical factors influencing wood dyeing effects using Pinus syhestris var. mongolica plantations as study objects. Related indexes of wood anatomical structure and dyeing effects were determined, and a multiple regression analysis was made to analyze the correlations between wood anatomical structure and dyeing effects. Results show that there is a high correlation between dyeing effects and wood anatomical factors, and the multiple correlation coefficients between wood anatomical factors and various dyeing effect indexes range from 0.573 to 0.786. The main anatomical factors influencing wood dyeing effects of P. syhestris var. mongolica are tracheid proportion, wood ray proportion, resin canal proportion, and late wood tracheid length, etc.%以人工林樟子松为研究对象,通过测定樟子松单板解剖构造与染色效果的相关指标,对其进行多元回归分析,确定了影响木材染色效果的主要解剖因子.结果表明,解剖因子与其各染色效果指标间的复相关系数在0.573~0.786.影响樟子松木材染色效果的主要解剖因子为管胞比量、木射线比量、树脂道比量和晚材管胞长度等.

  19. Study On single tree volume equations of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica%樟子松人工针叶林一元立木材积方程的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹立辉; 孙亚峰

    2009-01-01

    以吉林省敦化市樟子松人工针叶林为研究对象,随机抽取142株樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica Litv)为编表样木,选用一元材积方程候选模型,利用非线性麦夸特迭代求解法确定各模型参数、剩余标准差、相关指数.根据相关指数和剩余标准差,选出最优一元材积模型和树高曲线方程.以75株樟子松样木资料为验表样本.对样本数据进行处理.适用性检验结果表明,材积表估计的系统误差小于3%,满足林业生产材积估计的精度要求.因此本文所编敦化市樟子松人工针叶林出材率表适用于敦化地区,可以在生产中推广应用.

  20. Inter-relação da produtividade de madeira do pinus com atributos físico-químicos de um latossolo do cerrado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Madureira Barbosa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Com relação aos atributos do solo, a produtividade de madeira do pinus varia substancialmente em função do pH, do teor de matéria orgânica e da resistência à penetração. No ano de 2007, no Município de Selvíria (MS foi analisada a produtividade de madeira do Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis, em função de alguns atributos físico-químicos de um Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico estabelecido num maciço florestal com 21 anos de idade. O objetivo foi selecionar, entre os atributos pesquisados do solo, aquele que melhor se apresentasse para explicar a variabilidade da produtividade de madeira. Para tanto, foi instalado um grid geoestatístico, para a coleta dos dados do solo e da planta, contendo 121 pontos amostrais, numa área de 3 ha do referido maciço. A produtividade de madeira variou diretamente com o pH do solo, tanto linear quanto espacialmente, com valores de 27,0-32,6 m³ ha-1 ano-1 e 3,9-4,4, respectivamente. Nos maiores, 32,6-36,9 m³ ha-1 ano-1 e 4,4-4,9. Dessa forma, o pH revelou ser um apreciável indicador da qualidade química do solo quando o objetivo foi estimar, linear e espacialmente, a produtividade de madeira da essência florestal pesquisada nas condições do Cerrado brasileiro do Sudeste do Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul.

  1. 不同强度林火干扰对红花尔基樟子松天然林更新的影响%Effects of Fire Disturbance with Different Intensities on Regeneration of Natural Forest of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica in Honghuaerj i Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立志; 孙亚娟; 宋银平; 许忠海; 葛玉祥

    2015-01-01

    在依据火烧迹地林木烧伤程度确定林火强度基础上,对内蒙古红花尔基樟子松林国家级自然保护区不同林火强度下的幼苗更新状况进行调查和分析,以期探明自然条件下林火干扰对樟子松天然林更新的影响,为今后开展林火促进更新方面提供科学依据。结果表明:不同火烧强度下更新树种均为樟子松;樟子松天然更新株数介于2500~6500株?hm-2,平均值为4542株?hm-2;樟子松天然更新频度介于50%~100%,平均值为89%;表明林火能够促进樟子松天然更新。随着火烧程度增加,樟子松天然更新株数和频度显著降低,轻度和中度火烧更有利于促进樟子松天然更新,而重度和极重度火烧下樟子松仍能天然更新。%Fire intensity were determined by the degree of burned forest in the burned area.In order to ascertain the effects of fire disturbance on regeneration of natural forest for Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica and provide a scientif-ic basis for the future,the regeneration of young seedlings under different fire intensities in Honghuaerji National Nature Reserve of Inner Mongolia were analyzed.Research shows that the regeneration species are all Pinus sylves-tris var.mongolica under different fire intensities;the regenerated numbers of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica are among 2 500-6 500 trees ?hm-2 ,the average value being 4 542 trees ?hm-2;the frequency of natural regeneration for Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica among 50%-100%,with an average being 89%,which shows forest fire can pro-mote natural regeneration of Pinussylvestris var.mongolica.With the increase of the degree of fire,the number and frequency of natural regeneration for Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica significantly reduced;the frequency of mild and moderate burn are more conducive to the promotion of natural regeneration for Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica;Pi-nus sylvestris var.mongolica can still regenerated under severe & very severe fire.

  2. Altas herdabilidades e ganhos na seleção para caracteres de crescimento em teste de progênies de polinização aberta de Pinus elliottii Engelm var. elliottii, aos 25 anos de idade em Assis−SP. High heritabilities and selection gains for growth traits in openpollinated progênies of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii at 25 years old in Assis−SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Molina MAX

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimarparâmetros genéticos para caracteres de crescimentoem teste de progênies de polinização aberta dePinus elliottii Engelm var. elliottii, aos 25 anos deidade em Assis−SP. O teste foi instalado a partirde 40 progênies de polinização aberta, originadasde árvores selecionadas para alta produção deresina na Floresta Estadual de Assis, utilizandotrês repetições, dez árvores por parcela, e noveprogênies de P. elliottii var. elliottii selecionadaspara produção de resina em Manduri−SP, utilizadascomo testemunhas. Foram detectadas diferençassignificativas entre progênies para DAP (diâmetroà altura do peito, medido a 1,3 m acima do soloe altura total, indicando variação genética entreprogênies e a possibilidade de obter ganhospela seleção das progênies mais produtivas.A média de crescimento em DAP e altura dasprogênies supera a média das testemunhas.A correlação genética entre DAP e altura foi alta esignificativa ( g r = 0,83; P 0,01, mostrando apossibilidade de seleção em um caráter e obtençãode ganho indireto no outro. Os altos coeficientesde variação genética (mínimo g CV = 4,56%,variação genética aditiva (mínimo A CV = 7,97%e de herdabilidades (mínimo 2m h = 0,68; 2d h = 0,36,indicam a possibilidade de obter bons ganhosgenéticos com a seleção entre e dentro deprogênies para DAP (16,7% e altura (8,6%.Esses ganhos são esperados para plantios com 25anos de idade, em ambientes similares ao dopresente ensaio, e originados de sementes doscruzamentos das árvores aqui selecionadas.The aim of this work was to estimategenetic parameters for growth traits in openpollinatedprogenies of Pinus elliottii Engelm var.elliottii at 25 years old, growing in Assis−SP,Brazil. The trial was established using 40 progeniesoriginated from selected trees for high gum resinyield in the Assis State Forest, three repetitions,ten trees per plot and nine progenies of P. elliottiivar

  3. Effects of Different Mixed Modes on Growth of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica Plantation in Zhanggutai Region%不同混交方式对章古台地区樟子松林生长状况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪鹰翔

    2015-01-01

    Pinus sylvestris forest mixed with different modes in Zhanggutai Region of Western Liaoning Province were analyzed.Data of the growth,root volume,the stability of stand were determined.The effects of different mixed modes on growth of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica were studied.Result shows that constructing mixed for-est of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica will prolong the period of trees,accelerate tree growth,delay the decline by as much as 5 years;biomass yield increase by 53.63%,and the disease index decrease by 1 5%;the stability of stand was enhanced;root weight and litter increase obviously.%通过对辽西章古台地区樟子松不同混交方式进行外业调查和室内分析,测定其林木生长量、根系量,林分稳定性等数据并进行统计分析。结果表明:营造樟子松混交林会延长树木生长期,促进林木生长,推迟衰退5年左右;生物量可增产53.63%,感病指数下降了15%,林分稳定性增强;根系量和枯枝落叶量明显增加。

  4. Release Variation of Volatile Compounds from Pinus sylvestnis var.mongolica Litv.and Their Effects on Bacteri-ostasis%樟子松挥发性有机物释放动态及其抑菌作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭阿君; 王志英; 邹丽

    2014-01-01

    利用SUMMA采样罐收集樟子松( Pinus sylvestnis var.mongolica Litv.)挥发物,通过预浓缩仪与气质联用系统对樟子松挥发物进行分析。研究结果表明:春、夏、秋三季樟子松挥发物的主要成分有萜类、烷烃、烯烃类、醇类、呋喃类、醛类、酮类和含氮化合物7大类物质,其中萜类、烃类物质占主体,且随季节变化显著。(+)-2-蒈烯(占挥发物总量36.84%)、(+)-莰烯(占挥发物总量22.28%)是构成春季挥发物的主要成分,夏季则以2-氯-1-丙烯(占挥发物总量34.31%)为主,秋季以(E)-2,7-二甲基-3-辛烯-5-炔(占挥发物总量59.19%)、桧烯(占挥发物总量11.35%)、莰烯(占挥发物总量9.05%)、β-蒎烯(占挥发物总量6.88%)、β-月桂烯(占挥发物总量4.01%)为主。樟子松的挥发物对空气中的细菌具有抑制作用,以夏季抑菌作用最强。%Pre-concentrated system combined with GC-MS was evaluated for determining volatile compounds from Pinus sylvestnis var.mongolica Litv.by SUMMA canister for sampling.In spring, summer and autumn, the main compounds of volatile compounds are terpene, alkenes, alkanes, alcohol, furan, aldehydes, ketone and nitrogenous compounds, and the ter-pene, alkenes and alkanes are major component.The component and content have dynamic varieties in different seasons. (+)-2-caren (36.84%) and (+)-Camphene (22.28%) are major component in spring, 1-Propene, 2-chloro-(34.31%) in summer, and 3-Octen-5-yne,2,7-dimethyl-(E)-(59.19%), sabinene (11.35%), camphene (9.05%) and beta.-Pi-nene (6.88%) inautumn .Volatile compounds from Pinsu sylvestnis var.mongolica Litv.have inhibition against bacteria in air especially in summer.

  5. 思茅松HDR基因全长cDNA克隆与序列分析%Cloning and sequence analysis of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase gene cDNA from Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅; 周旭; 毕玮; 杨宇明; 李江; 王娟

    2015-01-01

    1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase(HDR)catalyzes the last step of the 2C-meth-yl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate(MEP)pathway,1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase plays an important role in regulation of terpenes biosynthesis.To explore the function of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase in Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis,and to study the role of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase in regulation of resin biosynthesis,the transcriptome of bark of Pinus kesiya var.langbianen-sis was sequenced by Next-Generation Sequencing.First,a fragment of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphos-phate reductase gene was obtained from Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis transcriptome after gene assemble and gene function annotation.The special primers were designed according to the fragment of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-bute-nyl-4-diphosphate reductase.RNA of inj ured bark was extracted by Trizol method.The full length gene of PkHDR was cloned from Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE).Bioinformation analysis showed that the obtained full cDNA se-quence of PkHDR had 1 876 bp.It was consisted of 1 464 bp open reading frame (ORF)which encoded 487 amino acid.Homology analysis indicated that the deduced PkHDR protein shared 99% identities with the 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase came from Pinus densiflora.Subcellular localization and structural domain analysis showed that the transit peptide sequence (A1-A61)and multiple conserved functional sites (A143, A234,A288,A371)of plant HDR protein were found in the deduced coding sequence of PKHDR.Phylogenetic anal-ysis revealed that the evolutionary relationship of PkHDR protein was the closest to Pinus densiflora HDR protein. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)detection showed that PkHDR gene expression was up-regulated by wounding

  6. 毛乌素沙地樟子松与紫穗槐混交造林效果研究%Study on Growth Effect of the Mixed Plantation Composed of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica and Amorpha fruticos in the Musu Desert Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶竹林; 刘世举

    2011-01-01

    The silvicultural techniques to plant mixed stands composed of Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica and Amorpha fruticos were studied according to the characteristics of Musu sand land to mitigate the impact of site degradation and insect pest infestation resulted from pure plantation of Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica. The planting effect of mixed stand was analyzed by comparing the growth status of mixed stands with the pure stands. The results showed that planting the two tree species in mixed stands might prevent the plantation from pest damage and significantly increase the growth rate and survival rate of Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica. Compared to the pure stand of Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica, the coverage, species richness and the litter rate of the mixed stands and the formation of forest community environment could be significantly promoted.%针对樟子松纯林地力衰退及虫害可能带来的不良后果,根据毛乌素沙地特点开展樟子松、紫穗槐混交造林技术研究,通过混交林与纯林的比较,分析樟子松与紫穗槐混交的造林效果.结果表明:与正常生长的樟子松相比,受害植株的生长量和生长势均极显著下降;与纯林相比,混交可以显著地提高樟子松的生长量和造林存活率;樟子松与紫穗槐混交具有明显的杀虫和驱虫效果,从而降低了虫害带来的不良后果;混交促进了群落环境的形成,其主要表现是群落郁闭度、物种丰富度以及枯落物和沙结皮积累明显高于樟子松纯林.

  7. 辽宁省沙地樟子松人工纯林地力衰退与持续发展的对策%Countermeasures on fertility degradation and sustainable development of plantation of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica on sandy land in Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张柏习; 孟鹏

    2005-01-01

    人工林的地力衰退已经成为当今林业工作者关注的焦点.在调查总结的基础上分析了辽宁省沙地樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica)人工纯林地力衰退的现状和原因,进而提出了维持地力,实现樟子松人工林持续发展的对策.

  8. Primary insect pest occurrence and tree diversity in stands of Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis%思茅松林的树木多样性与主要害虫发生的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫争亮; 刘云彩; 胡光辉; 刘永刚; 孟梦

    2012-01-01

    对思茅松Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis人工林的不同混交配置模式的树木多样性及其与思茅松主要害虫的发生程度之间的关系进行了连续2 a的研究(2009年和2010年).思茅松与红木荷Schima wallichii,西南桦Betula alnoides或高阿丁枫Altingia chinensis的混交林以及栽松留阔思茅松人工林的多样性指数(Shannon指数)显著高于思茅松纯林,但林地的均匀度指数(Pielou指数)并不和多样性指数的变化一致.思茅松主要害虫思茅松毛虫Dendrolimus kikuchii,微红梢斑螟Dioryctria rubella,松实小卷蛾Retinia crstata的危害情况随林地树木多样性指数的增加而降低.在思茅区清水河乔林层中,思茅松毛虫[y=-29.929x+ 70.61,R2=0.9667(2010年);y=-14.578x+ 34.213,R2=0.9749(2009年)],微红梢斑螟[y=-8.873x+ 20.627,R2=0.9946 (2009年);y=-8.653x+ 20.215,R2=0.9351(2010年)]的受害率与乔木层的Shannon指数呈现更好的线性关系,而松实小卷蛾的受害率则与灌木层的Shannon指数呈较好线性关系[y=-5.6727x+ 14.964,R2=0.8358(2009年);y=-4.476x+ 12.27,R2=0.8381 (2010年).在景谷文朗,思茅松毛虫[y=-55.454x+ 135.16,R2=0.9541(2009年)和微红梢斑螟[y=-23.895x+ 57.907,R2=0.9831(2009年)]的受害率与乔木层的Shannon指数同样呈现较好的线性关系.图5表3参8%In order to understand the impact of increasing woodland plant diversity on degrees of insect pest occurrence, plant diversities of different deposition models for Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantations and the occurrence degrees of the three primary pests: Dendtolimus kikuchii, Retinia cristata and Dioryctria rubella were investigated from 2009 to 2010 in Simao County and Jinggu County, Yunnan Province. Plant diversities in different plantations were denoted by Shannon index, and the species evenness were denoted by Pielou index. Insect occurrence degree were denoted by percentage of insect-infesting trees. Results showed that the Shannon index for

  9. Effect of Different Control Methods on Carbon Sink Function of Artificial Pinus kesiya var langbianensis Plantation%不同防治方法对思茅松人工林碳汇功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳锋; 杨斌

    2011-01-01

    通过调查未经防治、经化学防治、物理机械防治和正常思茅松林分,测算了林木不同组分的生物量、含碳率和含碳量,并估算了4种思茅松林的BEF、生物量、碳储量、碳密度和碳汇功能.结果表明,景谷县思茅松人工林林木生物量、林木碳储量、土壤碳储量、林分总碳储量分别为1.51×10、7.83×10、1.42×10、2.28×10t,表现出巨大的碳汇;4种林分思茅松的BEF在0.94-1.00;思茅松不同组分生物量、碳储量的分配为干>根>枝>叶;林分有机碳的分配为土壤层>林木层>枯落物层>灌木层>草本层.松毛虫危害后,每株总生物量、每株碳储量、林分碳密度、土壤碳密度分别降低15.80 kg、8.10 kg、47.04 t/hm、32.66 t/hm,通过化学/物理机械防治后分别提高9.70 kg/6.90 kg、5.00 kg/3.62 kg、25.93 t/hm/19.50 t/hm、17.93 t/hm/13.09 t/hm.%Through surveying the standing forest of Pinus kesiya var langbianensis under different conditions, namely,without control, chemical control,physical and mechanical control as well as normal one,the biomass,carbon rate and carbon content of different components of P. kesiya varlangbianensis were determined, moreover,BEF,biomass,carbon storage,carbon density and carbon sink function of 4 kinds of forests were estimated. The result showed that the tree biomass,carbon storage of the tree,the soil and the forest in Jinggu County were 1.51 × 107 ,7.83 × l05 ,1.42 × 106 and 2.28 × 106 t,respeetively,these data showed carbon sink function of P. kesiya var langbianensis forest was strong; BEF of the 4 kinds of forests are from 0.410 2 to 1.250 O; the biomass and carbon storage of different components from high to low were:trunk > root >branch >leaf; the organic carbon storage of the forests from high to low were:soil horizon > woodyard > litter layer >bush layer > field stratum. The tree biomass and carbon storage,carbon density of the forest and the soil dropped 15.80 kg,8

  10. 樟子松树皮多酚的成分分析和结构鉴定%Composition analysis and structural identification of polyphenols from Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica barks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉红; 翟亚楠; 王振宇

    2016-01-01

    The composition of polyphenols from Pinus sylvestris L.var.mongolica were analyzed and their structures were identified with UV-VIS,IR,HPLC and LC-MS.The UV-VIS results showed that there are absorption peaks in regions of 240--280 nm and 300--400 nm,indicating that flavonoids exist in the pine polyphenols.Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum analysis showed that a strong and broad absorption peak at 3 400 cm-1 is generated from stretching and vibration of phenolic hydroxyl Ar-OH and absorption peaks at 1 390--1 315 cm-1 due to characteristics of in-plane bending vibration of hydroxylδO—H,which indicated that hydroxyl groups existed in the pine polyphenols.Combined application of HPLC and LC-MS showed that there are seven components in P.sylvestris L.var.mongolica polyphenols,i.e.,catechuic acid,rutin,chlorogenic acid,gallic acid,sinapic acid-dextrose glucoside,peony-3-glucoside or centaurea-3-(6-o-acetyl)-glucose glycoside,and sinapic acid peonidin-3-sophoroside composition.%本文采用紫外吸收光谱、红外光谱、高效液相色谱和液质联用方法对樟子松树皮中多酚化合物进行成分分析和结构鉴定.结果表明:通过UV-VIS分析松多酚在240~280、300~400 nm这2个波长范围内均有吸收峰,推断松多酚中含有黄酮类物质.通过IR分析可以得到松多酚的酚羟基Ar—OH在3 400 cm-1νO—H对称伸缩振动产生强而宽的特征吸收峰以及在1 390~1 315 cm-1的羟基δO—H 面内弯曲振动吸收峰,说明松多酚分子中存在酚羟基,属于酚类物质.经HPLC和LC-MS分析可以推断樟子松多酚中主要有7种组成成分,分别为儿茶素、芦丁、绿原酸、没食子酸、芥子酸-葡糖苷、芍药-3-葡萄糖(半乳糖)糖苷或者矢车菊-3-(6-O-乙酰基)- 葡糖(半乳糖)糖苷、芥子酸芍药色素-3-槐糖苷.

  11. 毛乌素沙地樟子松人工林土壤物理性质的时空变异规律%Spatio-temporal Variabilities of Soil Physical Properties of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica Artificial Forest in Mu Us Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段民福; 廖超英; 孙长忠; 李陆平

    2012-01-01

    以毛乌素沙地榆林沙区樟子松人工林土壤为研究对象,分析不同林龄樟子松人工林土壤质量含水量、土壤体积质量、孔隙度时空变异规律.结果表明,土壤质量含水量在流沙地为丘间地>迎风坡>背风坡>丘顶,在樟子松人工林为丘间地>背风坡>迎风坡>丘顶,并随土层深度增加而增加,0~5 cm土层质量含水量樟子松人工林高于流沙地,5~25 cm和25~50 cm土层低于流沙地.土壤体积质量在流沙地为丘顶>迎风坡>背风坡>丘间地,在樟子松人工林为丘顶>中部(迎风坡、背风坡)>丘间地,随土层深度增加而增加,且樟子松人工林对应各层土壤体积质量均小于流沙地.毛管孔隙度均为丘间地>中部(迎风坡、背风坡)>丘顶,土壤孔隙度(总孔隙度、毛管孔隙度、非毛管孔隙度)随土层深度增加而降低,樟子松人工林对应各层土壤孔隙度均大于流沙地.随樟子松林龄增加,质量含水量和孔隙度分别增加1.32%~21.82%、2.88%~12.00%,土壤体积质量降低1.16%~7.12%.统计分析表明,所测指标总体上存在显著差异.%In this thesis,the soil of Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica artificial forest in Yulin sandy area of Mu Us Desert was researched,and the spatio-temporal variabilities of mass water content,soil bulk density and soil porosity of Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica with different stand ages in Mu Us Desert was analyzed. The results showed as follows: the mass water content of quicksand appeared interdune > windward > leeward > dunt top. The mass water content of Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica artificial forest presented interdune > leeward > windward > dunt top,and the mass water content increased as the soil layer deepened. The mass water contents of 0 - 5 cm soil layer of Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica forest were higher than those of quicksand, and the mass water contents of 5 - 25 cm and 25 - 50 cm soil layers were

  12. 辽西不同区域人工整枝对樟子松中幼龄林生长的影响%Effects of Artificial Pruning on Growth of Middle-Aged Forest of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica in Different Regions of Western Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏; 张日升

    2015-01-01

    通过在辽宁省西部章古台地区与黑水地区的樟子松中幼龄林中开展不同方式人工整枝试验,结果表明:2/3、1/2两种强度能促进中幼林的胸径生长,这种影响可以达到2~3 a。在章古台地区,人工整枝对樟子松的树高生长影响不显著;但在黑水地区,2/3、1/2两种强度的人工整枝能促进樟子松中幼林树高生长。1/3强度的人工整枝会抑制胸径与树高的生长。在辽西的沙区和山地丘陵区的樟子松人工林的培育中,人工整枝强度以冠高比为1/2~2/3最佳,生产中可以采用。%Artificial pruning experiments of middle-aged forest of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica were conducted in Zhanggutai Region and the Heishui areas in western Liaoning Province.Result shows that two kinds of pruning in-tensities (2/3,1/2 )can promote the growth of DBH,this effect can lasts 2-3 years;in Zhanggutai area,artificial pruning has little significance on height growth of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica;in Heishui area,two kinds of pruning intensities (2/3,1/2 )can promote height growth of middle-aged forest of Pinus sylvestris var.mongoli-ca .Artificial pruning at 1/3 of the crown length inhibits DBH and tree height of tree.Therefore,in the cultivation of Pinus sylvestris plantations in western Liaoning sand areas and hilly areas,the optimal artificial pruning intensity crown height ratio is 1/2-2/3,which should be adopted in the production.

  13. 成活时间对移植后樟子松大树蒸腾和光合特性的影响%Effect of Survival Time on the Transpiration and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Pinus Sylvestris var. mongolica After Transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薄一览; 王洪体; 姚庆智; 闫伟

    2013-01-01

    The 15-year-old Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica which have survived 1 a,2 a or 3 a after transplantation were chosen.The net photosynthetic photosynthetic rate,transpiration rate and diurnal variation of stomatal conductance and leaf rate,transpiration rate and diurnal variation of stomatal conductance and leaf water potential changes were measured by the Li-6400.The key ecophysiology factors affecting the survival were used to investigate the status of the trees recovery.The results showed that,firstly,owing to the different transplant survival time,transpiration had different levels of response to environment factors and the peak times were different.The pine transpiration rate of Pinus Sylvestris var.mongolica which survived 2 a and 3 a are increased greatly than the trees survived 1 a in each time.Secondly,photosynthetic rates of the Pinus Sylvestris var.mongolica increased significantly with the increase of the transplant survival time.Moreover,Pinus Sylvestris var.mongolica daily change curve of water use efficiency were bimodal at different transplant survival time.The average daily water use efficiency of the transplanted tree for 1,2 and 3 transplant years were 3.350 6,3.320 3,and 2.297 6 respectively.There is no difference significanly between the average daily water use efficiency of the three treatments.It was demonstrated that the transplanted trees survived after 2 or 3 a was significantly recovered.Therefore,the first year is crucial to the transplanted trees and special conservation measures should be taken to promote their survival and recovery of trees.%选择呼和浩特市城市绿化移植1 a、2 a、3 a后的15龄樟子松(Pinus sylvestris L.var.mongolica Litv.),采用Li-6400光合仪测定净光合速率、蒸腾速率和气孔导度的日变化,研究影响成活的关键因子,调查其树势恢复状态.结果表明:①由于移植成活时间不同,蒸腾作用对环境因子有不同的响应程度,使得峰值类型及出现的

  14. [Temporary abundance variation of Coralliophila abbreviata and Coralliophila caribaea (Mollusca, Coralliophilidae) in a coral reef at Morrocoy National Park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Mónaco, Carlos; Villamizar, Estrella; Narciso, Samuel

    2008-06-01

    The mollusks Coralliophila abbreviata and C. caribaea are coral predators in the Caribbean Sea . We evaluated the temporal variability of abundance and size structure of C. abbreviata and C. caribaea in Cayo Sombrero, Morrocoy National Park, Venezuelar (September 2004 - August 2005). The density of C. abbreviata and C. caribaea was evaluated monthly by means of two 50-meter long transects paralell to the coast line, at 3 m and 6 m deep; aditionally, 30 individuals of C. abbreviata were collected to measure size. The densities of C. abbreviata at the shallow transect fluctuated between 1.78 ind/m2 in September and 6.26 ind/m2 in May. The densities at the deep transect fluctuated between 4.23 ind/m2 in January and 7.66 ind/m2 in May. The densities of C. caribaea at the shallow transect fluctuated between 0 Ind/m2 (except in September) and 0.03 Ind/m2 (September) and the densities at the deep transect fluctuated between 0 Ind/m2 (October to March and July) and 0.1 Ind/m2 (April). Most individuals of C. abbreviata and C. caribaea measured between 12 and 16 mm and between 10 and 15 mm long respectively.

  15. Effects of River-side Urban Plantations of Fraxinus mandshurica and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica on Temperature Reduction and HumidityIncrease in Summer Season%哈尔滨夏季水岸水曲柳和樟子松人工林的降温增湿效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芹芹; 杨立学; 沈海龙

    2012-01-01

    选取位于哈尔滨市马家沟河边的东北林业大学试验林场(开放森林区域)和黑龙江省森林植物园(开放和未开放森林区域)中的水曲柳(Fraxinus mandshurica)和樟子松(Pinus sylvestris vat.mongolica)人工林作研究对象,以城市广场(无林区域)为对照,观测不同区域水平方向上温度和湿度的日变化规律。观察表明,水岸水曲柳和樟子松人工林具有明显的降温增湿效应,并且因树种不同而有差异,人为活动降低了水岸人工林的降温效应。%Urban plantations of Fraxinus mandshurica and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica at the experiment forest farm of Northeast Forestry University and Helongjiang Forest Botanic Garden at Majiagou River side in Harbin City were selected with urban square as the control to measure the daily fluctuation of temperature and humidity at the horizontal direction of different regions. The results showed that the river-side plantations of F. mandshurica and P. sylvestris var. mongolica had obvious effects of reducing temperature and increasing humidity with different intensities for different species, and human activities would reduce the effect of reducing temperature and increasing humidity imposed by riverside plantations.

  16. Building mixed effect models of stand biomass for Simao pine (Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis) natural forest%思茅松天然林林分生物量混合效应模型构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧光龙; 胥辉; 王俊峰; 肖义发; 陈科屹; 郑海妹

    2015-01-01

    本研究以云南省普洱市的思茅松天然林为对象,调查了3个位点45块样地的林分地上、根系和总生物量。以幂函数模型为基础构建林分生物量的基本模型;采用混合效应模型技术,考虑区域效应随机效应,选择基本混合效应模型,并分析模型的方差和协方差结构,分别构建3个维量的区域效应随机效应的混合效应模型;考虑林分因子、地形因子和气象因子固定效应,构建含环境因子固定效应和区域效应随机效应的林分生物量混合效应模型。所有模型均采用拟合指标和独立检验指标进行评价。结果表明:1)从模型拟合情况看,考虑区域效应的随机效应模型均能显著提高一般回归模型的精度;在3类含环境因子固定效应模型中,含地形因子固定效应的区域混合效应模型均具有最低的AIC和BIC值,表现最好;2)就模型独立性检验看,除地形因子固定效应的林分根系混合效应模型外,其余模型均优于一般回归模型;考虑环境因子固定效应的混合效应模型与普通区域效应混合模型相比,各个维量模型的独立性检验指标表现不一,但总体上差异不大;3)综合考虑模型拟合和独立性检验结果,除林分根系生物量选择普通区域效应混合模型外,另2个维量均选择含地形因子固定效应和区域效应随机效应的混合效应模型。%In this paper we took natural Simao pine ( Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis) forest as the research object, and investigated the aboveground, root and total biomass of 45 plots of at three typical sites ( Tongguan town of Mojiang County, Yunxian town of Simao District, and Nuofu town of Lancang County) in Pu'er City, Yunnan Province. Firstly, we chose the best power function to the basic model. Secondly, considering random effect of the regional effect we constructed the mixed effects models of the biomass components of stand

  17. 秦岭南坡油松和锐齿栎群落凋落叶碳释放及其与分解的关系%The Relationship between Carbon Release Process and Decomposition Percentages of the Leaf-litter in the Pinus tabulaeformis and Quercus aliena var.acuteserrata Communities in the South Slope of Qinling Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何帆; 王得祥; 张宋智; 彭舜磊; 沈亚洲; 杜彦昌; 张江涛

    2012-01-01

    The carbon release process of leaf-litter in the Pinus tabulaeformis and Quercus aliena var. Acuteserrata and changes of C/N and C/P values was discussed by using litterbag experiments, which lasted 24 month, in the south slope of Qinling region. Results showed: ( 1) Carbon density in Pinus tabulaeformis litter ( 1265. 580kg/hm2) was 3. 7 times greater than that of Quercus aliena var. Acuteserrata litter ( 3047. 313kg/hm2 )(P<0.001);(2)In beginning of the leaf-litter decomposition,carbon content increased first,then decreased in two communities;carbon release rate in Quercus aliena var. Acuteserrata was significantly faster than in Pinus tabulaeformis (P < 0.001); (3) The change of carbon stock over time was accord with Olson's exposition model during leaf-litter's decomposition process; (4) The C residual percentage appeared a binomial regression correlation with residual percentages of leaf-litter, N and P (except P in Quercus aliena var. Acuteserrata) ,a linear correlation with C/N and C/P values. Carbon release exerts a significant influence on decomposition rate of leaf-litter, release of nutrient elements and material cycle of forest ecosystem.%利用野外分解袋法分别对秦岭南坡油松和锐齿栎群落内凋落叶进行了为期24个月的分解试验.研究了凋落叶C释放过程及其与凋落叶分解过程中N、P释放和C/N、C/P比值变化的关系.研究结果表明:(1)油松群落凋落层( 11265.58kg/hm2)C密度显著大于锐齿栎群落凋落层C密度(3047.31 kg/hm2)(P<0.01),达到了3.7倍;(2)在凋落叶分解初期,2个群落凋落叶中碳含量均呈现先增加后下降的趋势,锐齿栎凋落叶C释放速率大于油松凋落叶C释放速率(P<0.01);(3)在两种群落类型凋落叶分解过程中,碳剩余百分率随时间变化规律符合Olson分解指数模型(R>0.81);(4)凋落叶C剩余百分率与凋落叶和N、P剩余百分率之间具有显著的二项式回归关系(锐齿栎凋落叶P剩余百分率

  18. Variation of Carbohydrate Metabolism of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica during Seed Germination%樟子松种子萌发过程中碳水化合物代谢变化规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国华; 时培玲; 石长德

    2011-01-01

    通过测定樟子松(Pinus sylvestris vat.mongolica)种子萌发过程中碳水化合物的代谢变化,结果表明,在种子萌发过程中,樟子松种子的胚乳中还原糖、淀粉和总糖含量及淀粉酶活性变化较为明显,种胚中淀粉含量和酶活性变化不明显.

  19. Identification and Characterization of a 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate Synthase Gene From Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis%思茅松1-脱氧-D-木酮糖-5-磷酸合酶(DXS)基因的克隆及功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅; 周旭; 毕玮; 杨宇明; 李江; 王娟

    2015-01-01

    1-脱氧-D-木酮糖-5-磷酸合酶(DXS)是甲基-D-赤藓醇-4-磷酸(MEP)途径中的第一个酶,也是限速酶.本文根据思茅松(Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis (A.Chev.)Gaussen)树皮转录组数据分析结果,获得思茅松DXS基因片段,然后根据获得的基因片段设计特异引物,运用RT-PCR和RACE技术从思茅松树皮中克隆得到完整的DXS基因(PkDXS1).PkDXS1基因的cDNA全长序列2 888 bp,含有1个2 223 bp的开放阅读框(ORF),编码740个氨基酸,该基因推断的蛋白与赤松(Pinus densiflora Siebold&Zucc)DXS蛋白的相似性为99%,与欧洲云杉(Piceaabies (L.)H.Karst.)DXS的相似性为97%;经氨基酸序列比对,推断思茅松DXS具有高等植物DXS酶特有的叶绿体转运肽,二磷酸硫胺结合位点和转酮醇酶结构域.半定量RT-PCR检测表明树皮的创伤促进DXS基因的表达.

  20. 深色有隔内生真菌对樟子松苗木生长及抗立枯病的影响%Effect of inoculating Phialocephala fortinii D340 on Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica growth and resistant to damping-off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程坤; 邓勋; 宋瑞清

    2016-01-01

    The dark septate endophyte(DSE)fungi is main rhizosphere microorganism groups of coniferous species,and play an im-portant role in growth promote and stress resistance to host.Seedling biomass,physiological index of disease resistance and the inci-dence of damping off were measured to research the growth promotion and disease resistant of Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica inoculat-ed by dark septate endophyte fungi D340. The results indicated that:compared with the control,the seedling height,ground diameter, fresh and dry weight were increased 9.15%,5.81%,12.9%and 23.23%respectively.The seedling CAT,POD and SOD enzyme of Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica inoculated by dark septate endophyte fungi D340 were increased 26.22%,22.74%and 7.31%,the MDA content was decreased 19.51%,and theβ-1,3-glucanase and chitinase activity were increased 27.85%and 8.69%in contrast to control.%深色有隔内生真菌是针叶树种根际微生物的主要类群,在与宿主植物互作过程中可发挥促生抗逆的作用,该文通过测定樟子松苗木生物量、抗逆生理指标及立枯病发生率,探讨深色有隔内生真菌D340 Phialocephala helvetica接种后对樟子松生长及抗病性的影响。结果表明:苗高、地径、鲜重和干重比对照分别提高9.15%、5.81%、12.9%和23.23%。立枯丝核菌诱导处理后,接种深色有隔内生真菌的樟子松苗木保护酶CAT、POD和SOD酶活性分别比对照提高26.22%,22.74%和7.31%,丙二醛含量降低19.51%,β-1,3-葡聚糖酶和几丁质酶活性分别提高27.85%和8.69%。

  1. 大兴安岭山地樟子松径向生长对气候变暖的响应——以满归地区为例%Responses of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica radial growth to climate warming in Great Xing'an Mountins: A case study in Mangui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张先亮; 何兴元; 陈振举; 崔明星; 黎娜

    2011-01-01

    Based on the theory and methodology of dendrochronology, the tree ring width chronology of Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica in Mangui of Great Xing' an Mountains was developed, and the relationships between the standardized tree ring width chronology and local climate factors (temperature and precipitation) as well as the effects of climate factors on the P. Sylvestris var. Mongolica radial growth were analyzed. In this region, the mean monthly temperature in April-August of current year was the main factor limiting the radial growth, and the increasing mean monthly temperature from April to August had negative effects to the radial growth. The simulation of the variations of the radial growth by the mean monthly temperature change in April-August showed that the radial growth of P. Sylvestris var. Mongolica would present a declining trend accompanied with the warmer and drier regional climate condition.%基于树木年代学的理论和方法,建立了大兴安岭满归地区樟子松年轮宽度年表,分析了标准化年表与该区主要气候因子(温度和降水)之间的相关关系,揭示了气候因子对树木径向生长的影响.结果表明:当年4-8月的各月平均温度是研究区樟子松径向生长的主要限制因子;4-8月各月温度的不断升高对樟子松径向生长产生了不利影响.利用4-8月平均温度的变化模拟樟子松径向生长变异(1958 -2008年),发现随着区域气候暖干化趋势的加强,该区樟子松生长将呈现出衰退的特征.

  2. Purification of polyphenols from pinus sylvestris L.var. mongolica barks by macroporous resin%大孔树脂对樟子松树皮多酚的纯化工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘荣; 何娇; 王振宇

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Optimized the purification process of polyphenols from Pinus sylvestris L.bark and made the best use of its polyphenols resource.Method:The adsorption rate and desorption rate were detection indicators.Optimum resin for purification of polyphenols was determined.As the index to recovery and purity of polyphenols,influential factors were successively investigated,and the response surface design was used to optimize this process.Result:The optimum conditions of purification were sample solution concentration 3.0mg/mL,30mL sample solutionin in pH 3.5,feeding speed 5BV/h,eluting speed 4.25BV/h and the concentration of ethanol 53 %.Purity of Pinus sylvestris L.bark polyphenols was 67.91% and the recovery was 68.12 %.Conclusion:Purity of pinus sylvestris L bark polyphenols was from 37.25% to 67.91% according to this purification condition,which indicated that D101 macroporous resin had distinct effect on purification of polyphenols from pinus sylvestris Lvar.mongolica barks.%目的:优化樟子松树皮多酚纯化工艺,提高松多酚资源利用率.方法:以吸附率和解析率为衡量指标,确定纯化樟子松树皮多酚的最佳树脂;以多酚纯度和回收率为衡量指标,研究纯化过程中影响较大的因素,并且利用响应面优化樟子松树皮多酚的纯化工艺.结果:樟子松树皮多酚纯化的最佳工艺条件为:上样浓度3.0mg/mL,上样体积30mL,样液pH3.5,上样流速5BV/h,洗脱流速4.25BV/h,洗脱乙醇浓度53%.在此条件下,樟子松树皮多酚纯度可达67.91%,回收率为68.12%.结论:经D101大孔树脂纯化,樟子松树皮多酚纯度由37.25%升高至67.91%,说明D101大孔树脂对樟子松树皮多酚的纯化具有显著作用.

  3. 红花尔基自然保护区天然樟子松林种内种间竞争分析%Analyses of intraspecific and interspecific competition of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica natural forest in Honghuaerji Nature Reserve of Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛磊; 杨丹青; 王冬梅; 杨晓晖

    2008-01-01

    运用Hegyi单木竞争指数分析了内蒙古红花尔基自然保护区天然樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var.mongolicaLitv.)林内所有胸径大于2 cm的樟子松、山杨(Populus davidiana Dode.)、白桦(Betula platyphylla Suk.)和山荆子(Malus baccata L.)的种内和种间竞争强度.结果表明,样地中主要的竞争木和对象木均为樟子松和白桦;樟子松的种内竞争强度(0.534)远大于种间竞争强度.随径级的增大,樟子松的种内竞争强度逐渐减小,且与胸径存在幂函数关系CI=A·D-B.胸径达到30 cm后,樟子松种内竞争强度变化不明显.作为竞争木,樟子松对其他树种产生了较大的竞争压力.

  4. Comparison of Trap-catch Amount of Dioryctria rubella and Retinia cristata Mothes in Mixed and Pure Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis Stands%思茅松纯林及针阔混交林中松实小卷蛾和微红梢斑螟诱捕量比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯志伟; 闫争亮; 刘云彩; 胡光辉; 李思广

    2012-01-01

    Lure catch teat of Retinia cristata and Dioryctria rubella was conducted in pure and mixed plots of Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis with other broad-leavedtree species. Catch amounts of Retinia cristata by (E, E) -2, 4 -Decadienal in mixed plot and pure pine plot were respectively 6. 30 and 3. 10, and catch amounts of Dioryctria rubella by (Z) -11 - hexadecenylacetate in mixed stand and pure pine stand were respectively 3. 60 and 2. 40. Catch a-mounts of Retinia cristata and Dioryctria rubella in mixed plot were significently less than those in pure pine plot.%在思茅松纯林和针阔混交林中,以(E,E) -2,4-癸二烯醛、(Z)-11-十六碳烯乙酸酯为引诱剂,对松实小卷蛾和微红梢斑螟进行了诱捕试验.结果表明,以(E,E) -2,4-癸二烯醛为引诱剂,在思茅松纯林和混交林内平均每个诱捕器分别诱捕到松实小卷蛾6.30头和3.10头;以(Z)-11-十六碳烯乙酸酯为引诱剂,在思茅松纯林和混交林内平均每个诱捕器分别诱捕到微红梢斑螟3.60头和2.40头;混交林内的松实小卷蛾和微红梢斑螟的诱捕量显著少于纯林.

  5. Study on Variation of Drought-enduring Physiological Characteristics of Pinus sylvestis var. mongolica in Regions from Subhumid to Desert%樟子松耐旱的水分生理特征由亚湿润区至干旱区变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田有亮; 郭连生; 朱美云; 包永红

    2001-01-01

    The drought-enduring physiological characteristics of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica measured and analyzed in the regions from subhumid to desert. The result showed that the bulk osmotic potential at initial turgor loss point (πp) and the bulk osmotic potential at water saturated state (π0), the main drought-enduring physiological indexes, have a significant regional difference (P0.05) and their variation in different regions correlated with the local climatic moisture index (Im), which can be expressed as y=A+Bx in early stage of young branch growth and y=Aexp(-B/x0.1) in last stage of yearly growth (y drought-enduring water physiological index; x climatic moistare index (Im): A, B regression coefficient).%在亚湿润区、半干旱区和干旱区设置样地,对樟子松人工林个体耐旱性水分生理指标测定结果进行统计分析表明,其主要耐旱生理指标初始失膨点渗透势和水饱和状态下的渗透势在地区间存在显著的差异(P<0.05);其变化与各地区气候湿度指标(Im)存在显著的相关性.在嫩枝生长初期可用y=A+Bx关系式表达,在生长季末期可用y=Aexp(-B/x0.1)表达,y为耐旱水分生理指标;x为气候湿度指标Im;A、B为系数.

  6. Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinus spp. Grown in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo P. Vanhanen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine (Pinus armandii Franch, Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L., Mexican pinyon (Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little, Coulter pine (Pinus coulteri D. Don, Johann’s pine (Pinus johannis M.F. Robert, Italian stone pine (Pinus pinea L. and Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière, was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day while they supplied between 39%–89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals.

  7. Needles stable carbon isotope composition and traits of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica in sparse wood grassland in south edge of Keerqin Sandy Land under the conditions of different precipitation%不同降水条件下科尔沁沙地南缘疏林草地樟子松针叶δ13C和叶性状特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋立宁; 朱教君; 李明财; 闫涛; 张金鑫

    2012-01-01

    通过比较不同自然降水年份(极端干旱和极端湿润)19年生疏林草地樟子松的针叶δ13C、比叶面积和干物质含量,结合土壤含水量和地下水埋深,探讨了极端降水对樟子松水分利用的影响.结果表明:干旱年份(2009)樟子松林土壤含水量显著低于湿润年份(2010),但樟子松当年生针叶的δ13C在两年间没有显著差异,且两年相同月份间亦无显著差异;干旱年份当年生针叶的比叶面积显著低于湿润年份,而不同年份间干物质含量的差异不显著.在两种极端降水条件下,樟子松的水分利用效率没有明显变化,主要通过改变当年生针叶的比叶面积来适应降水量的变化.对于地下水埋深高于3.0m的疏林草地樟子松人工林生态系统,极端干旱不会严重影响樟子松的存活和生长.%A comparative study was conducted on the needles stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) , specific leaf area (SLA) , and dry matter content (DMC) of 19-year-old Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica trees in a sparse wood grassland in the south edge of Keerqin Sandy Land under the conditions of extreme drought and extreme wetness, aimed to understand the water use of Pinus sylvestris under the conditions of extreme precipitation. The soil water content and groundwater level were also measured. In the dry year (2009 ) , the soil water content in the grassland was significantly lower than that in the wet year (2010) , but the δ13C values of the current year-old needles had no significant difference between the two years and between the same months of the two years. The SLA of the current year-old needles was significantly lower in the dry year than in the wet year, but the DMC had no significant difference between the two years. Under the conditions of the two extreme precipitations, the water use efficiency of the trees did not vary remarkably, and the trees could change their needles SLA to adapt the variations of precipitation. For

  8. Interspecific pine hybrids II. genotype by environment interactions across Australia, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. S. Dungey; M. J. Dieters; D. P. Gwaze; P. G. Toon; D. G. Nikles

    2000-01-01

    Collaborative research trials of Queensland-bred pine hybrids have been established in many sites outside Australia. These trials enable the estimation of genotype x environment effects, which are important in determining the level of regionalisation needed in any breeding program. Correlations across sites testing hybrids between Pinus caribaea var...

  9. 大兴安岭北部樟子松树轮δ13C的高向变化及其与树轮宽度的关系%Vertical variability of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica tree ring δ13C and its relationship with tree ring width in northern Daxing' an Mountains of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商志远; 王建; 张文; 李彦彦; 崔明星; 陈振举; 赵兴云

    2013-01-01

    A measurement was made on the vertical direction tree ring stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) and tree ring width of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in northern Daxing' an Mountains of Northeast China, with the relationship between the vertical direction variations of the tree ring δ13 C and tree ring width analyzed. In the whole ring of xylem, earlywood ( EW) and bark endodermis, the δ13C all exhibited an increasing trend from the top to the base at first, with the maximum at the bottom of tree crown, and then, decreased rapidly to the minimum downward. The EW and late-wood (LW) had an increasing ratio of average tree ring width from the base to the top. The average annual sequence of the δ13 C in vertical direction had an obvious reverse correspondence with the av-erage annual sequence of tree ring width, and had a trend comparatively in line with the average an-nual sequence of the tree ring width ratio of EW to LW above tree crown. The variance analysis showed that there existed significant differences in the sequences of tree ring δ13C and ring width in vertical direction, and the magnitude of vertical δ13C variability was basically the same as that of the inter-annual δ13C variability. The year-to-year variation trend of the vertical δ13C sequence was approximately identical. For each sample, the δ13C sequence at the same heights was negatively correlated with the ring width sequence, but the statistical significance differed with tree height.%通过对大兴安岭北部樟子松树轮样品高向的年轮宽度和稳定碳同位素比率(δ13C)进行测定,分析了高向上δ13C的变化特征及其与年轮宽度的关系.结果表明:在木质部全轮、早材和树皮内皮3种成分中,样品高向δ13C均呈现由顶部至基部先显著增加,在冠层底部达到最大值,再向下迅速减少至谷值的变化趋势.早晚材平均宽度比由基部至顶部增大.高向上δ13C年均值序列与轮宽年均值序列呈现较为明显的

  10. Selectividad de presas de Coralliophila abbreviata y C. caribaea en arrecifes coralinos del Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela: una aproximación experimental Selectivity of preys of Coralliophila abbreviata and C. caribaea in coral reefs of the National Park Morrocoy, Venezuela: an experimental approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos del Mónaco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la selectividad de presas de Coralliophila abbreviata y C. caribaea en seis arrecifes coralinos del Parque Nacional Morrocoy (PNM, Venezuela, mediante métodos descriptivos y experimentales. Se estimó la abundancia y riqueza coralina, el número de Coralliophila spp. y su presa coralina mediante cuadratas aleatorias de 1 m² en tres sitios por cada arrecife . Se utilizaron ocho jaulas de exclusión de 1 m³ en cuyo interior se colocaron cinco colonias coralinas de diferentes especies, equidistantes a 10 individuos de C. abbreviata. Se observó una estrecha relación depredador-presa entre C. abbreviata y la hexacoralina Montastraea annularis, representando el 56,8% de todas las interacciones en todas las localidades, seguida por Diploria strigosa (19,3%, Agaricia agaricites (12,2%, Colpophyllia natans (4,6% y A. tenuifolia (3,1%. C. caribaea exhibió una mayor afinidad con el octocoral Erythropodium caribaeorum (42,6% y las hexacoralinas C. natans (24,1%, Montastraea faveolata (11,1%, Porites porites (7,4% y D. strigosa (11,1%. De igual forma, el experimento mostró mayor asociación de C. abbreviata con M. annularis 53,3%, seguida por C. natans (17,8%, A. tenuifolia y D. strigosa (11,1% cada una y A. agaricites (6,7%. Según estos resultados, C. abbreviata debería generar un mayor impacto que C. caribaea sobre el PNM debido a que sus presas más frecuentes están entre las principales formadoras de arrecife mientras que C. caribaea depredó mayormente a E. caribaeorum, la cual es competidora de hexacorales.Coralliophila abbreviata and C. caribaea are tropical gastropods of the Caribbean Sea. These gastropods have shown to be important corallivores. The objective of this work was to evaluate in situ the prey selectivity of C. abbreviata and C. caribaea in some coral reefs of Morrocoy National Park by means of experimental and descriptive methods. We used quadrats of 1 m² to estimate coral abundance and richness, number of

  11. dbVar

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — dbVar is a database of genomic structural variation. It accepts data from all species and includes clinical data. It can accept diverse types of events, including...

  12. Fine-scale genetic structure in Pinus clausa (Pinaceae) populations: effects of disturbance history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, K C; Hamrick, J L; Parker, A J; Nason, J D

    2001-07-01

    Spatial autocorrelation analyses of 12 allozyme loci were used to compare genetic structure within populations of two varieties of Pinus clausa. P. clausa var. immuginata populations tend to be uneven-aged, with continuous recruitment in small gaps created by wind damage, whereas P. clausa var. clausa populations are more even-aged, with recruitment postdating periodic canopy fires. Three var. immuginata populations and three matched pairs of var. clausa populations, including both a mature and a nearby recently burned population, were examined. Aggregation of multilocus genotypes at small distances was evident in all young var. clausa populations. Little inbreeding was apparent among juveniles or adults in these populations; their genetic structure is likely to have resulted from limited seed dispersal. Genotypes were not significantly spatially structured in nearby matched mature populations. Genetic structure was less evident in var. immuginata populations. Aggregated genotypes were only apparent in the population where patches included juveniles of similar ages; dense juvenile clumps in the other two var. immuginata populations comprised a variety of ages. Interannual variability in allele frequencies of surviving seedlings may account for the absence of genetic structure in these populations.

  13. Microsporogenesis and meiotic behavior in nine species of the genus Pinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Sheng DENG; Da-Ming ZHANG; De-Yuan HONG; Cheng-Xin FU

    2009-01-01

    The meiotic behavior of 10 taxa (nine species and one variety) of the genus Pinus was investigated using pollen mother cells (PMCs) to reveal the differentiation among karyotypes. Chromosome spreads were prepared by conventional squashing. The meiotic index and the average configuration were higher, whereas the frequency of aberrance (chromosomal bridges, fragments, or micronuclei) was lower, in all l0 taxa compared with other gymnosperms. The meiotic index, average configuration, and frequency of irregularity were found to be uniform among the species. It was shown that the genomes of the Pinus species investigated were highly stable, confirming results of previous mitotic analyses in this genus. However, slight differentiation of homologous chromosomes among genomes was revealed by analysis of meiotic configurations in Pinus nigra var. poiretiana. Quadrivalents were observed in 9.31% of PMCs in this species. This is the first time that quadrivalents have been observed in gynmosperms.

  14. 四种松属植物叶的抗寒抗旱特点研究%Study on Dry Resistance and Cold Resistance of Leaf of Pinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪福太; 李长有; 王占武; 刘强

    2012-01-01

    为了研究松属植物叶片与植物抗寒抗旱特点的关系,以松属(Pinus)两种植物樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica Litvin.)和油松(Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.)为主要实验材料,同时,观察黑松(Pinus thunbergii Parl.)和马尾松(Pinus massoniana Lamb.),研究针叶的表皮特征及叶片不同部位的解剖结构.结果表明,松属植物叶表皮外具有发达的角质层,气孔下陷,具有大的孔下室,树脂道发达.这说明松属植物叶具有旱生和寒性植物的形态结构特征.%In order to study the relationship between leaf of Pinus and drought resistance and cold resistance,epidermis characteristic and anatomy construction of needle leaf of two specices plants(Pinus sylvestrisa var.mongolica Litvin.and Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) in Pinus are observed.The results indicated that the leaf of Pinus plants have some construction of drought resistance and cold resistance.For example:the outside on the surface of leaf is covered with a cuticle and epicuticular waxes,its stomata are stand out of the epidermis with big bore bottom room and so on.

  15. Hvem var morderen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene Vinther

    2014-01-01

    Folkemindesamleren og forfatteren Helene Strange (1874-1943) skrev flere gange om et giftmord på en præst på Nordfalster i 1755. Hun satte spørgsmålstegn ved højesteretsdommen og hævdede, at en uskyldig pige blev dømt, mens den virkelige morder slap fri. Det var folkets uskrevne dom, som i over...

  16. Identification of seeds of Pinus species by Microsatellite Markers%利用微卫星标记(SSR)鉴定松属近缘种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洑香香; 施季森

    2005-01-01

    用从松科7个树种中开发出来的276对SSR引物,利用分群法(bulked segregate analysis, BSA)对引物在黑松组的10个近缘种进行了筛选和鉴定.结果表明:276对引物中有23对在10个松树种中获得了扩增产物,其中有5对引物在种间具有多态性,而在种内具有保守性;用单个引物、2个或多个引物组合可以把10个松树种的8个完全区分开来,但目前还没有有效的SSR引物把高山松和思茅松区分开来. 图2表1参21.%The 276 pair-primers (nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite) developed from seven species of Pinaceae were selected and identified for cross-species transferability to ten Pinus species (P. Massoniana, P. Kesiya, P. Tabulaeformis, P. Densiflora, P. Thunbergii, P. Caribaea, P. Taeda, P. Yunnanensis, P. Densata, P. Sylvestris) belonging to Sect. Pinus by BSA (bulked segregate analysis) method. The results showed that 23 of 276 (8.0%) markers were successful to have amplification product in ten species, and 5 of 23 (21.7%) were polymorphic cross species and lack of polymorphic within species. Eight of 10 Pinus species were identified by using single primer, two and more combination of primers, but there were still no effective SSR primers for identifying other 2 species (P. Kesiya and P. Densata).

  17. Influence of CO2 Doubling on Water Transport Process at Root/Soil Interface of Pinus sylvestris var. sylvestriformis Seedlings%CO2倍增对长白赤松幼苗根-土界面水分 运输过程的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩士杰; 张军辉; 周玉梅; 王琛瑞; 邹春静

    2001-01-01

    Water transport at the root/soil interface of 1 year old Pinussylvestris Linn. var. sylvestriformis (Takenouchi) Cheng et C. D. Chu seedlings under CO2 doubling was studied by measuring soil electric conductance to survey soil water profiles and comparing it with root distribution surveyed by soil coring and root harvesting in Changbai Mountain in 1999. The results were: (1) The profiles of soil water content were adjusted by root activity. The water content of the soil layer with abundant roots was higher. (2) When CO2 concentration was doubled, water transport was more active at the root/soil interface and the roots were distributed into deeper layer. It was shown in this work that the method of measuring electric conductance is an inexpensive, non-destructive and relatively sensitive way for underground water transport process.%用具有非破坏性的电导率方法测定土壤水分的廓线,与挖掘法(或打孔法)获取的根系分布对比,研究CO2倍增条件下一年生的长白赤松(Pinussylvestris Linn. var. sylvestriformis (Takenouchi) Chenget C.D.Chu)幼苗根-土界面的水分运输状态。结果表明:(1)土壤水分廓线由植物的活性所调制,根系分布密集的土层其水分含量也高。(2)CO2倍增,根系-土壤水分运输的活跃层及根系分布都将向土壤深处位移。研究证明,电导率方法能够指示发生于根-土界面上的水分运输状态,方法简单,且对土壤无破坏。

  18. A VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sungwa, Matondo; Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    to make a, post expression, dual antigen conjugate vaccine, comprising two clinically tested antigen candidates (CSP and VAR2CSA).  Methods: The DBL1x-DBL2x-ID2a region of VAR2CSA was genetically fused with SpyTag at N-terminus. The full-length CSP antigen was genetically fused to C-terminal Spy......Catcher peptide. The covalent interaction between SpyTag/SpyCatcher enables the formation of DBL1x-DBL2x-ID2a:CSP conjugate vaccine. Immunogenicity and quality of antibody responses induced by the conjugate vaccine, as well as a control CSP-SpyCatcher vaccine, was tested in BALB/c mice.  Results: Serum samples...... obtained from mice immunized with the conjugate vaccine were able to recognize both untagged DBL1x-DBL2x-ID2a as well as CSP antigen. Moreover, the geometric mean anti-CSP antibody titer was 1.9-fold higher in serum (at day 35 and 55 post-first immunization) from mice immunized with the conjugate vaccine...

  19. Taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann as related to other taxa of Pinus mugo complex

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesław Prus-Głowacki; Ewa Bajus; Halina Ratyńska

    2014-01-01

    Studies on taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann, P. uncinata Ram. and P. mugo Turra, indicate a significant specificity of P. uliginosa population from Wielkie Torfowisko Batorowskie Peat Bog. Pinus uncinata in respect of genetic similarity is close to Pinus mugo Turra populations from the Tatra Mts. The time of divergence of P. uliginosa from the common ancestor, taking into account Nei's genetic distances, is twice as long as in the case of Pinus uncinata. In the view of the result...

  20. Spatial Genetic Structure within and among Seed Stands of Pinus engelmannii Carr. and Pinus leiophylla Schiede ex Schltdl. & Cham, in Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Ortiz-Olivas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of spatial genetic structure (SGS are important because they offer detailed insights into historical demographic and evolutionary processes and provide important information regarding species conservation and management. Pinus engelmannii and P. leiophylla var. leiophylla are two important timber tree species in Mexico, covering about 2.5 and 1.9 million hectares, respectively. However, studies in relation to population genetics are unfortunately scant. The aim of this research was to use amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP analysis to identify potential differences in spatial genetic structure within and among seven Pinus engelmannii and nine P. leiophylla var. leiophylla seed stands in Durango, Mexico. Within the 16 seed stands of the two tested pine species, no significant SGS was detected, although SGS was detected among the seed stands. We concluded that the collection of seed in only some seed stands should not significantly alter the degree of genetic differentiation within the (collected seed. Distances between seed orchards and pollen propagators of more than 24 km for P. engelmannii and 7 km for P. leiophylla may be sufficient to limit contamination. Finally, local seeds should be used for (reforestation.

  1. Enzymatic Characterization of NADP-dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenization inPinus sylvestris var.mongolica Ectomycorrhiza%樟子松外生菌根中NADP-依赖型异柠檬酸脱氢酶的酶学性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一超; 姚庆智; 朱和平; 陈丽霞; 郭欣; 杨倩倩; 闫伟

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the work is to purify the isocitrate dehydrogenase(IDH)in mycorrhizal tissue ofSuillus luteus-Pinus sylvestrisvar. mongolica, root tissue ofP. sylvestrisvar. mongolica and cultured fungal mycelia ofS. luteus, and identify their enzymatic characterizations. The IDHs of 3 sources were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and glucan gel chromatography and tested by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, and enzymatic characterizations were studied. The Km for NADP+ of mycorrhiza, root and cultured fungal mycelia were 10.7μmol/L, 11.4μmol/L and 22.1μmol/L, respectively;the Kmfor isocitrate were 71.7μmol/L, 79.3μmol/L and 87.8μmol/L, respectively. The optimal pH of mycorrhiza, root and cultured fungal mycelia were 8.2, 8.0 and 7.5 respectively;they were all slightly in alkaline. The optimal temperatures of the IDHs were 45℃ for mycorrhiza and root, and 42℃ for the fungus. The activities of 3 IDHs relied on the binding of divalent metal ions, the maximum activities of IDHs were observed when assayed with Mn2+ or Mg2+ as metal cofactor;however, Ca2+, Co2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ dramatically inhibited the activity of IDHs. Conclusively, protein content and enzyme activity of mycorrhizal IDH have been increased.%对褐环乳牛肝菌-樟子松菌根组织、樟子松根组织及褐环乳牛肝菌纯培养菌丝的异柠檬酸脱氢酶(isocitrate dehydrogenase,IDH)进行纯化和酶学性质鉴定。通过硫酸铵分级沉淀及葡聚糖凝胶层析纯化后的IDH进行SDS-PAGE电泳检测,并进行3种来源酶的酶学性质鉴定。菌根组织、根组织及真菌纯培养菌丝NADP-IDH对NADP+的Km值分别为10.7μmol/L、11.4μmol/L和22.1μmol/L;对异柠檬酸的Km值分别为71.7μmol/L、79.3μmol/L和87.8μmol/L。最适pH分别为8.2、8.0和7.5,略偏碱性。菌根IDH和根IDH的最适反应温度为45℃,真菌IDH的最适反应温度为42℃。3种IDH的活性依赖于不同的二价金属阳离子的存在, Mn2+、Mg2+

  2. Avaliação técnica e econômica do corte mecanizado de Pinus sp. com Harvester Technical and economical evaluation of automated cutting of Pinus sp. in with Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Neire da Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi avaliada a operação de corte mecanizado de Pinus caribaea hondurensis em sistema de toras curtas, utilizando-se o Harvester, no Município de Nova Ponte, MG, com base na produtividade e nos custos da atividade durante o estágio inicial de sua implantação (5 meses e considerando-se o uso múltiplo da madeira. Na avaliação técnica foram calculados: rendimento operacional, produtividade, disponibilidade mecânica e eficiência operacional, enquanto na avaliação econômica foram calculados os custos operacionais e os custos de produção. A maior produtividade média foi encontrada no mês 5, com 22,71 m³.he-1, mês que apresentou a segunda maior disponibilidade mecânica (95,59%. A maior eficiência operacional foi encontrada no mês 3, com 83,09%. O custo operacional total do período amostrado foi de R$115,03 por hora efetiva de trabalho. Os custos fixos corresponderam a 28,59% e os variáveis, a 62,31% dos custos totais. O custo de produção foi de R$5,99.m3-1 produzido. Concluiu-se que a produtividade aumentou quando o volume médio por árvore também aumentou, que a máquina possuía potencial de melhoria no seu funcionamento e que seu custo de produção estava dentro dos padrões esperados para este trabalho.The present study evaluated the operation of the automated cutting of Pinus caribaea hondurensis, in system cut-to-length used Harvester, in the municipal district of Nova Ponte, MG, with base in the productivity and costs of the activity during the initial apprenticeship of it's implantation (5 months, considering the multiple use of the wood. In the technical evaluation calculations were made: Operational income, productivity, mechanical readiness and operational efficiency, while in the economical evaluation it the operational cost and the production costs were calculated. The largest medium productivity was found for month 5 with 22.71m³.he-1, the month that presented the second largest mechanical

  3. var. puiggarianum (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Gauna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionó Batrachospermum atrum var. puiggarianum por primera vez en la provincia de Buenos Aires. La identificación de las muestras se basó en el análisis de la morfología microscópica y en el número cromosómico de cada una de las generaciones de su ciclo de vida bajo cultivo. Los talos se estudiaron con microscopio óptico, y la cariología, por medio de la técnica de carmín acético. El ciclo de vida presentó tres generaciones: una gametofítica haploide, una carposporófitica diploide que originó la última fase Chantransia diploide. Los talos gametófitos estuvieron formados por verticilos separados por zonas internodales, cada uno de ellos constituidos por ramas primarias densamente comprimidas. Entre éstas se observaron ramas portadoras de espermatangios y de carpogonios. Las zonas internodales estuvieron constituidas por células corticales y axiales. Los carposporófitos ovoideos estuvieron formados por filamentos gonimoblásticos portadores de carposporangios terminales. El estado Chantransia se caracterizó por presentar filamentos cortos con pocas células. El material estudiado presentó un número haploide n = 4 y diploide 2n = 8.

  4. VAR, SVAR and SVEC Models: Implementation Within R Package vars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Pfaff

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the package vars and its implementation of vector autoregressive, structural vector autoregressive and structural vector error correction models are explained in this paper. In addition to the three cornerstone functions VAR(, SVAR( and SVEC( for estimating such models, functions for diagnostic testing, estimation of a restricted models, prediction, causality analysis, impulse response analysis and forecast error variance decomposition are provided too. It is further possible to convert vector error correction models into their level VAR representation. The different methods and functions are elucidated by employing a macroeconomic data set for Canada. However, the focus in this writing is on the implementation part rather than the usage of the tools at hand.

  5. Exploring Climate Niches of Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) Haplotypes in the Western United States: Implications for Evolutionary History and Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas J. Shinneman; Means, Robert E.; Potter, Kevin M.; Valerie D Hipkins

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa) and Rocky ...

  6. The Effect of Wood Specimen Length on the Proportional Saturation of Preservative Fluid in Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.)Carr.) and Corsican Pine (Pinus nigravar.mantima)

    OpenAIRE

    USTA*, İlker; Arif GÜRAY

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the proportional saturation and the fluid uptake of preservative liquid (that was) applied under the same pressure was investigated comparatively on the various longitudinal length of wood specimens in the two softwood species. Wood specimens of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.)Carr.) and Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var.mantima) representative of two different permeability classifications, cut into five different lengths were treated with tanalith-C using the full-cell p...

  7. The Effect of Wood Specimen Length on the Proportional Saturation of Preservative Fluid in Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.)Carr.) and Corsican Pine (Pinus nigravar.mantima)

    OpenAIRE

    USTA*, İlker; Arif GÜRAY

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the proportional saturation and the fluid uptake of preservative liquid (that was) applied under the same pressure was investigated comparatively on the various longitudinal length of wood specimens in the two softwood species. Wood specimens of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.)Carr.) and Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var.mantima) representative of two different permeability classifications, cut into five different lengths were treated with tanalith-C using the full-cell p...

  8. Nota sobre la densidad y tasa de depredación de Coralliophila abbreviata y Coralliophila caribaea sobre colonias jóvenes de Acropora palmata en un arrecife deteriorado de Cayo Sombrero, Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela Note on density and predation rate of Coralliophila abbreviata and Coralliophila caribaea on juvenile colonies of Acropora palmata in a deteriorated coral reef of Cayo Sombrero, Morrocoy National Park, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos del Mónaco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los arrecifes del Parque Nacional Morrocoy (PNM se encuentran actualmente impactados. Posterior a la mortandad masiva ocurrida en 1996, ha habido indicios de recuperación de Acropora palmata. Este proceso podría ser retrasado por Coralliophila. Se observaron solamente tres colonias de A. palmata en todo un arrecife de Cayo Sombrero. En julio 2005 estas presentaron densidades de Coralliophila abbreviata de 4, 0 y 2 ind/col y de Coralliophila caribaea de 22, 14 y 0 ind/col y, en enero 2006 las densidades fueron: 8, 0 y 4 ind/col de C abbreviata y 22, 14 y 0 ind/col de C caribaea. En las tres colonias se observaron cuatro lesiones (dos de cada depredador. Hubo pérdida de tejido de 66,14 cm a 162,85 cm en las lesiones ocasionadas por C abbreviata, con tasa de depredación de 0,52 cm día-1 en una de ellas, mientras que en otra fue de 37,41 a 72,50 cm con tasa de depredación de 0,19 cm día-1 . Las lesiones generadas por C caribaea no cambiaron. Es probable que el efecto de Coralliophila afecte la recuperación de A. palmata en el PNM, considerando la alta densidad de depredadores y la escasa abundancia de este coral en este parque.The coral reefs of Morrocoy National Park are currently deteriorated. After the massive mortality of 1996, Acropora palmata has shown some signs of recovery, a process that could be hampered by Coralliophila. We observed only three colonies of A. palmata in an entire reef in Cayo Sombrero. In July 2005, these colonies registered Coralliophila abbreviata densities of 4, 0, and 2 ind/col and Coralliophila caribaea densities of 22, 14, and 0 ind/col; in January 2006, said densities were 8, 0, and 4 ind/col (C. abbreviaté and 22, 14, and 0 ind/col (C. caribaea. Four sites of damage (two per predator were observed in the three colonies. In one colony, C abbreviata caused a loss of tissue of 66.14 to 162.85 cm , indicating a predation rate of 0.52 cm² day-1. In the other colony, the damage ranged from 37.41 to 72.50 cm2

  9. COMUNITY OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN CULTIVATED SOIL WITH EUCALYPT, PINUS AND NATIVE FIELD, IN SANDY SOIL, SÃO FRANCISCO DE ASSIS, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores in five areas cultivated with eucalipt (Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, pinus (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii and native field, in arenization process, located in São Francisco de Assis-RS. The study of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spore community was carried out by direct and indirect identification and the diversity index determination. The analyzed areas were native field, 2 and 6 years-old eucalypt field and 2 and 12 years-old pinus field. The obtained results showed that the most frequent genera were Acaulospora, Scutellospora and Glomus. The highest diversity of species was found in area of native field, followed by 2 years-old Eucalyptus area. The Cluster analyses showed a similarity of the minimum 70 % to the species of FMAs identified through spores and 50 % to the areas being studied.

  10. Comunidade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em solo cultivado com eucalipto, pinus e campo nativo em solo arenoso, São Francisco de Assis, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores in five areas cultivated with eucalipt (Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, pinus (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii and native field, in arenization process, located in São Francisco de Assis-RS. The study of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spore community was carried out by direct and indirect identification and the diversity index determination. The analyzed areas were native field, 2 and 6 years-old eucalypt field and 2 and 12 years-old pinus field. The obtained results showed that the most frequent genera were Acaulospora, Scutellospora and Glomus. The highest diversity of species was found in area of native field, followed by 2 years-old Eucalyptus area. The Cluster analyses showed a similarity of the minimum 70 % to the species of FMAs identified through spores and 50 % to the areas being studied.

  11. Wind pollination in Pinus roxburghii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinod Prasad KHANDURI; Chandra Mohan SHARMA

    2007-01-01

    Stigmatic pollen load and pollen concentration in the air were studied in the natural population of Pinus roxburghii at Ashtavakra (900 m asl), in the Pauri forest division of Garhwal Himalaya, India. The results reflect diurnal pollen occurrence in P. roxburghii, with the strong significant correlations between pollen concentrations in the air and wind speed, air temperature and relative air humidity. A significant correlation was also observed between microsporangium dehiscence and pollen occurrence in the air. The maximum concentration of pollen grains in the air and higher rates of pollen deposition onto the megasporophylls were between 12 pm and 16 pm of the day, which conforms the best time for pollination in a day in P. roxburghii. The receptivity of Ovulate strobili varied from 3 to 5days, however, the bagged strobili remained receptive up to 6 days.

  12. Fossil records of subsection Pinus (genus Pinus, Pinaceae) from the Cenozoic in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshihiro; Yamada, Mariko; Tsukagoshi, Minoru

    2014-03-01

    Extant pines of subsection Pinus (section Pinus, genus Pinus, Pinaceae) are predominantly distributed in Eastern Asia. However, the extent of diversification in the section has yet to be fully clarified. We reviewed fossil records of subsection Pinus from Japan and collected permineralized materials, in which anatomical details are preserved for better understanding of the diversification. Our results suggest that this subsection appeared in Japan no earlier than the Middle Eocene, with extant species (i.e., Pinus densiflora and Pinus thunbergii) appearing around the beginning of the Pleistocene. Pinus fujiii (Early Miocene to Early Pleistocene) is inferred to have a close affinity to P. thunbergii based on the medial arrangement of its leaf resin canals. Additionally, P. fujiii has a similar cone morphology to those of extant species living in China, bridging the morphological gap between P. thunbergii and Chinese relatives of P. thunbergii as inferred by molecular phylogenetic analyses. Our results also suggest that taxonomic revisions of Pinus miocenica and Pinus oligolepis are required among the Japanese fossil species reported to date.

  13. Taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann as related to other taxa of Pinus mugo complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Prus-Głowacki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann, P. uncinata Ram. and P. mugo Turra, indicate a significant specificity of P. uliginosa population from Wielkie Torfowisko Batorowskie Peat Bog. Pinus uncinata in respect of genetic similarity is close to Pinus mugo Turra populations from the Tatra Mts. The time of divergence of P. uliginosa from the common ancestor, taking into account Nei's genetic distances, is twice as long as in the case of Pinus uncinata. In the view of the results the supposition that Pinus uliginosa from Wielkie Torfowisko Batorowskie Peat Bog is a marginal population of P. uncinata can be excluded, because of their significant difference in genetic structure. The presumable reasons of specificity of P. uliginosa population are disscused.

  14. 松属近缘种形态和分子鉴定及其亲缘关系探讨%Species Identification and Genetic Relationship Assessment of Pinus (Sect.Pinus) Related Species Based on Morphological and Molecular Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洑香香; 赵虎; 王玉

    2011-01-01

    松属(油松组)树种是我国重要的造林树种,但其种子和幼苗难以区分.通过比较种子的千粒质量、种子形状、颜色、幼苗子叶数、幼苗下胚轴颜色和苗高,结合ISSR和SSR标记技术,鉴定松属(油松组)11个近缘种,并对其亲缘关系进行探讨.研究结果表明:通过种子和幼苗的形态比较鉴定,可准确鉴定油松和加勒比松;ISSR和SSR标记则可把油松组的11个树种中的10个准确鉴定出来,仅有高山松由于遗传背景的复杂性没有发现种特异性引物(位点).利用5对SSR引物获得的41个种间多态性位点构建的10个树种的近缘种亲缘关系与传统的研究结果基本一致.系统聚类分析在相似系数0.60处将10个树种分为3个类群:马尾松和赤松聚为第1个类群;云南松、思茅松、高山松、油松聚成一小类,和另一小类即黑松、樟子松聚成第2个类群;第3类群为火炬松和加勒比松,它与前2个类群亲缘关系较远,相似系数仅为0.42.%Many pine trees of Sect. Pinus are distributed throughout China, and are important species for afforestation in China. Seeds and seedlings of these closely related species are similar in morphological characters. It is difficult to identify them according to their morphology. Seeds and seedlings from 11 pine species were identified by integrating their different morphological characters of seeds (1 000-seeds weight, seeds shape and color) and seedlings (number of cotyledon, color of hypocotyls and seedling height) , with their ISSR and SSR markers. At the same time, genetic relationship between those closely related species was assessed based on information from SSR markers. The results showed that P. Tabulaeformis and P. Caribaea were easily distinguished from 11 pine species according to morphological differences of seeds and seedlings, and 10 of 11 species were identified accurately based on ISSR and SSR markers. However, no species-specific primer (loci) was found

  15. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  16. STIMULATING PASTES ON SYSTEM FOR RESIN FLOW OF Pinus elliottii var. elliottii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Marretto Fusatto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810559The use of stimulating pastes aims to increase the rate of resin flow and its time of duration. In the Forest Experiment Station of Itatinga, São Paulo state, 159 trees of Pinuselliottiivar. elliottiiwere were submitted to the treatments with 5 stimulant pastes, (Red Alchem, Paste with EthephonPlanebrás, Black Resin Brazil, Red Eldorado and Test Paste (Paraquat + Ethephon that was compared to the Control (Black Planebrás. Biweekly chipping and collects every three months were accomplished (from the result of 5 grooves, being determined the resin weight during 2.5 years. The application of stimulating pastes with ethephon did not show significant advantage about application of pastes without ethephon. The stimulant pastes applied were different in the weightings performed. In the treatments applied, the percentage of pitch ranged from 71.33% to 76.56% and the turpentine ranged from 10.37% to 13.78%. The yield of alpha-pinene ranged from 37.70% to 53.31%, and of beta-pinene from 34.34% to 50.41%.

  17. 白藤及益智在加勒比松人工林下的生长适应性研究%Growth Adaptability of the Rattanpalm and Galangal under the Man-made Forest of Pinus caribaea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊明; 林位夫; 谢贵水; 杨礼富; 安锋; 蔡明道; 曾宪海

    2007-01-01

    在海南省中部丘陵地区的加勒比松林下种植白藤和益智,研究了不同的坡向、坡位以及郁闭度对林下白藤和益智生长发育的影响.结果表明:(1)在东坡和南坡对白藤及益智的生长影响不大,但东坡的益智座果多于南坡;(2)坡上、坡中和坡下3种不同的坡位对白藤和益智的生长发育均有显著影响,种植在坡中的生长最好,其次为坡下,坡上最差;(3)在加勒比松林下种植益智,林木的郁闭度以50%以下为宜;白藤较耐阴,林木郁闭度的大小对其生长影响不大.

  18. Pinus taeda AND Pinus oocarpa PLYWOOD MANUFACTURING WITH FENOL-FORMALDHEYDE RESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of the plywood, manufactured from Pinus taeda and Pinus oocarpa, with 20 and 24 years old respectively, using three differentformulations of the fenol-formaldheyde resin. The results of the glue line shearing tests not showed statistical differences between the species and three resin formulations. In the hot water test, all of the boards were classified as “BR” and, the boards of the Pinus oocarpa produced with formulations (1and (3, were classified as “WBP”. The different resin formulations not influenced on the modulus ofelasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR The boards of Pinus taeda with formulations (1 and(2 showed higher values of MOE in comparison of the Pinus oocarpa. The MOR of the Pinus oocarpa withformulation (2 was higher than Pinus taeda. The mechanical properties of the plywood wereprobably influenced by wood variability related to sapwood and hartwood, thickness of growth ringsand, springwood and summerwood.

  19. Recovery Plan for Chamaesyce Skottsbergii var. Skottsbergi and Achranthes Splendens var. Rotundata

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the completed recovery plan for Chamaesyce Skottsbergii var. Skottsbergii and Achymnthes Splendens var. Rotunpata. It delineates reasonable actions that are...

  20. Fertilização de mudas de espécies arbóreas nativas e exóticas Fertilization of native and exotic tree seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Pires de Moraes Neto

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Doses crescentes de fertilizante de liberação controlada (FLC foram comparadas com fertilização convencional e tratamento sem fertilização. Estes tratamentos foram testados em mudas das pioneiras Guazuma ulmifolia (mutambo, Eucalyptus grandis e Pinus caribaea var. caribaea, da secundária inicial Peltophorum dubium (canafístula e da clímax Calycophyllum spruceanum (mulateiro, as quais cresceram em casa de vegetação. As mudas foram cultivadas em tubetes de 50 cm³ de capacidade, tendo como substrato uma mistura contendo 50% de húmus de minhoca, 30% de casca de eucalipto decomposta e 20% de casca de arroz carbonizada, em base volumétrica. Aos 125 dias após a semeadura, as mudas de G. ulmifolia, E. grandis e P. dubium submetidas à fertilização convencional apresentaram maior crescimento em altura e biomassa seca da parte aérea comparados aos dos tratamentos que receberam FLC. Contudo, para estas espécies, a biomassa seca da raiz das mudas submetidas ao tratamento convencional foram semelhantes à das mudas produzidas com as duas maiores doses de FLC (4,28 e 6, 42 kg/m³ de substrato, e a razão entre raiz e parte aérea foi maior para a dose de 6,42 kg/m³ (FLC, comparada à do tratamento convencional para as duas primeiras espécies. O Calycophyllum spruceanum e o Pinus caribaea var. caribaea tiveram pequeno desenvolvimento em todos os tratamentos, aos 125 dias.Increasing doses of resin-coated controlled release fertilizers (CRF were compared with conventional fertilization and treatment without fertilizer. Five species of tree seedlings were used: the pioneers Guazuma ulmifolia (mutambo, Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus caribaea var. caribaea, the early secondary Peltophorum dubium ("canafístula" and the climax Calycophyllum spruceanum ("mulateiro", grown in greenhouse. The seedlings were tilled in plastic tubes of 50 cm³ capacity, receiving as substrate a mixture of 50% earthworm humus, 30% decomposed eucalypt bark, and 20

  1. New cytotypes of Pteris ensiformis var. victoriae from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Efendi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New cytotypes of Pteris ensiformis var. victoriae and one cytotype of var. ensiformis are recorded from Indonesia: var. victoriae with 2n=58 (sexual diploid from Gorontalo, North       Sulawesi, and 2n=87 (triploid from Lombok Island and Bogor, West Java; and var. ensiformis with 2n=116 (sexual tetraploid. The diploid is smaller than the triploid in plant size. Results indicate a cytological variation in var. victoriae, like in var. ensiformis.

  2. Ecophysiological responses of Pinus leucodermis at high elevation in the Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrieri MR

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pinus leucodermis Antoine (= Pinus heldreichii var. leucodermis is a species of the Balkan flora which in Italy grows in a small area between the Regions of Basilicata and Calabria, in the Pollino National Park. A relict of the oro-Mediterranean Tertiary forests, it is found from the lower vegetation belt, where it is mixed with evergreen sclerophyllous vegetation, up to the alpine vegetation belt beyond the closed formations of Fagus sylvatica, where it makes up stands with very old, isolated and big trees growing in open spaces between rocks. The ecophysiological and dendrochronolgy features of the P. leucodermis stands growing on the west slope of Serra di Crispo (Monte Pollino, between 1800 and 2000 m a.s.l., have been studied during recent years and some of the results are presented in this work. Ecophysiological measurements in situ show that reduced atmospheric vapour pressure deficit conditions, due to humid currents from the western Tyrrhenian Sea, allow the trees to escape from summer drought. When day summer weather conditions are optimal P. leucodermis exhibits a remarkable photosynthetic activity and adaptation to high irradiance. The tree ring width chronology documents a marked reduction of radial growth from 1950 to 1985, followed by a strong recovery, still continuing. In the same period differences between the annual minimum and maximum temperatures tend to increase. Anthropic and grazing pressure is reduced markedly after the institution of the National Park of Pollino.

  3. Var der noget kapløb?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Denise; Nielsen, Bent

    2006-01-01

    . Som en af 1900-tallets største sinologer A. C. Graham skriver i sin bog Disputers of the Tao (La Salle, Ill., 1989) var den videnskabelige revolution »en unik og kompleks begivenhed, som var afhængig af en mangfoldighed af sociale og andre betingelser, herunder et sammenfald af opdagelser (græske...

  4. A comparison of estimation methods for fitting Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta functions to Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris stands in northwest Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgoseo, J. J.; Rojo, A.; Camara-Obregon, A.; Dieguez-Aranda, U.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta distributions, fitted with some of the most usual methods and with different fixed values for the location parameters, for describing diameter distributions in even-aged stands of Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris in northwest Spain. A total of 155 permanent plots in Pinus sylvestris stands throughout Galicia, 183 plots in Pinus pinaster stands throughout Galicia and Asturias and 325 plots in Pinus radiata stands in both regions were measured to describe the diameter distributions. Parameters of the Weibull function were estimated by Moments and Maximum Likelihood approaches, those of Johnson's SB function by Conditional Maximum Likelihood and by Knoebel and Burkhart's method, and those of the beta function with the method based on the moments of the distribution. The beta and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to Weibull function for Pinus pinaster stands; the Johnson's SB and beta functions were more accurate in the best fits for Pinus radiata stands, and the best results of the Weibull and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to beta function for Pinus sylvestris stands. However, the three functions are suitable for this stands with an appropriate value of the location parameter and estimation of parameters method. (Author) 44 refs.

  5. Thinning Density about Pinus sylvestris Seed Trees%樟子松母树林疏伐密度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏志刚; 蔡宝明

    2012-01-01

    Fourteen main characters of the 40-year-old Pinus sylvestris vat. mongolica seed trees were analyzed after thinning treatments with different densities in Mengjiagang forest farm. Result shows that: forest thinning cause significant effects on many characters of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seed trees ;different traits have extremely complex correlation. Eight traits which exist significant differences & correlation are divided into three categories (representing a growth, crown and seed traits) by using cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Weighting of scores and comparison of three classes of traits on each principal component show that the optimal thinning tending density of 40-year-old Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seed trees in Mengjiagang forest farm are 150 trees · hm-2.%通过对孟家岗林场40年生樟子松母树林不同密度疏伐处理后14个主要性状的统计分析,结果表明,疏伐处理对樟子松母树多个性状造成了显著影响,而且不同性状之间存在极为复杂的相关性;利用聚类分析和主分量分析法将存在显著差异性和相关性的8个性状分成3类,分别代表了生长、树冠和结实性状;通过这3类性状在各主成分上得分值的加权和比较表明,孟家岗林场40年生樟子松母树林疏伐抚育最佳密度是150株·hm-2。

  6. arXiv Observation of the $\\varXi^{-}_{b}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Baszczyk, Mateusz; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hopchev, P H; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kosmyntseva, Alena; Kozachuk, Anastasiia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Tenglin; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Mussini, Manuel; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Nogay, Alla; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubert, Konstantin; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevens, Holger; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Toriello, Francis; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The observation of the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is reported, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb detector in $pp$ collisions at centre-of-mass energies of $7$ and $8~\\mathrm{TeV}$. The production rate of $\\varXi_{b}^{-}$ baryons detected in the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is measured relative to that of $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}$ baryons using the decay $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda$. Integrated over the $b$-baryon transverse momentum $p_{\\rm T}<25~\\mathrm{GeV/}c $ and rapidity $2.0 < y < 4.5$, the measured ratio is \\begin{equation*} \\frac{f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}}{f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}}\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-})}{\\mathcal{B}(\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda)}=(4.19\\pm 0.29~(\\mathrm{stat})\\pm0.14~(\\mathrm{syst}))\\times 10^{-2}, \\end{equation*}where $f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}$ and $f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}$ are the fragmentation fractions of $b\\to\\varXi_{...

  7. Fire Occurrence Environments in Pinus pumila Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, many serious forest fires occurred in precious Pinus pumila forests in Daxing'anling Mountains of Heilongjiang Province and Inner Mongolia. But up to now, there is still a lack of proper understanding of fire occurrence environments in P. pumila forests. In present paper, we investigated and studied the fire occurrence environments. The results showed that fires in P. pumila forests had their own special fire environments. Abundant fuel, drought weather, dry thunder and high altitude terrai...

  8. Two new antitumor diterpenes from Pinus sylvestris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Wang; Zhang Rong; Jie Teng; Yoshihisa Takaishi; Hong Quan Duan

    2008-01-01

    Two new diterpenes,15-ethyl- 18-methyl pinifolate (1)and 18-hydroxy-labda-8(17),13E-dien-15-acetate (2),were isolated fromthe needles of Pinus sylvestris.Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods,including 2D-NMR spectra.Compound1 exhibited the significant eytotoxic activity against the human carcinoma cell lines Hela,SK-N-SH and BEL-7402 in vitro.

  9. Viabilidad fitoclimática de las repoblaciones de pino silvestre (Pinus sylvestris L.) en la Sierra de los Filabres (Almería)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Cancio, Ángel; Navarro Cerrillo, Rafael María; Sánchez Salguero, Raúl; Fernández Fernández, Rocío; Manrique Menéndez, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    La variabilidad climática actual se caracteriza por provocar cambios bruscos en los cursos fitoclimáticos, lo que está desencadenando procesos de mortalidad de especies forestales. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la adecuación fitoclimática de las masas artificiales de Pinus sylvestris L. en la Sierra de los Filabres (Almería), para lo cual se analizaron 35 variables fitoclimáticas que determinan la estabilidad climática de la especie. El estudio de los valores interanuales de las var...

  10. Independencia y ecología ectomicorrícica en varias especies de los géneros Quercus, Pinus y Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Oria de Rueda Salguero, Juan Andrés

    1991-01-01

    Se estudia la micorrización de varias especies de Quercus y Eucalyptus con hongos micorrícicos de los géneros Pisolithus, Krombholziella y Suillus. Se define el Período de Independencia Micorrícica, muy interesante en viveros forestales y de reproducción vegetal.Este período varía según especies y ecología y es mayor con semillas voluminosas que en las de semillas pequeñas. Mycorrization of some species of Quercus, Pinus and Eucalyptus with some mycorrhizal fungi: Pisolithus,Krombholziella...

  11. Effect of Slope Direction on Wood Quality of Pinus sylvestris Plantation%坡向对樟子松人工林木材材质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海英; 王金满; 王庆成; 郭明辉

    2002-01-01

    对不同坡向的樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica)人工林木材主要的解剖特征、物理力学性质进行测试与分析.结果表明:不同坡向对樟子松人工林的解剖特征、物理力学性能均有一定的影响,管胞长度、管胞直径、长宽比均有显著性差异.

  12. FCH_Enveliopsis_nudicaulis_var_corrugata_19850520

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows sunray (Enceliopsis nudicaulis var. corrugata) occur.

  13. Variable cosmological term \\varLambda(t)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, J.; D'oleire, M.; Pimentel, Luis O.

    2015-11-01

    We present the case of time-varying cosmological term \\varLambda(t). The main idea arises by proposing that as in the cosmological constant case, the scalar potential is identified as V(φ)=2\\varLambda, with \\varLambda a constant, this identification should be kept even when the cosmological term has a temporal dependence, i.e., V(φ(t))=2\\varLambda(t). We use the Lagrangian formalism for a scalar field φ with standard kinetic energy and arbitrary potential V(φ) and apply this model to the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by a special ansatz to solve the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equation and a particular potential for the scalar field and barotropic perfect fluid. We present the evolution on this cosmological term with different scenarios.

  14. Response in water yield to the thinning of Pinus radiata, Pinus patula and Eucalyptus grandis plantations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lesch, W

    1997-12-15

    Full Text Available ELSEVIER Forest Ecology and Management 99 (1997) 295-307 The response in water yield to the thinning of Pinus radiata, Pinus patula and Eucalyptus grandis plantations W. Lesch, David F. Scott * Jonkershoek Forestry Research Centre....304 1.052(p,) 0.96 2nd ?/-= eP?CbE - 3.456 7.134( /3>) 0.95 Cathedral Total streamflow 1 st T= e6c1Clil - 0.727 1.114(/3,) 0.95 Peak Dry season streamflow 1 St Tz e6?C?? -0.871 I .207( p, ) 0.88 W. Lesch, D.F. Scott...

  15. Effects of SO/sub 2/ on the germination of conifer pollen. [Pinus mugo; Pinus nigra; Pinus sylvestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, T.; Beda, H.

    1984-01-01

    Collections on agar of fresh and stored pollen grains of Pinus mugo, P. nigra and P. sylvestris were fumigated with SO/sub 2/ for 16 or 24 h. The ability of pollen of P. mugo and P. sylvestris to germinate was decreased by storage but sensitivities to SO/sub 2/ were not greatly altered. Germination was inhibited consistently by atmospheres with 0.225 ppm SO/sub 2/. At 0.075 ppm - a typical ambient concentration during temperature inversions - P. nigra and P. sylvestris were more sensitive than P. mugo which responded in the same way as pollen of Abies alba.

  16. Spontaneous Hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian Seaside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danusevicius, Darius; Marozas, Vitas; Brazaitis, Gediminas;

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the i...

  17. Technique of Pinus koraiensis with Interneneric Graft in Arid & Semiarid Region%干旱、半干旱地区异砧红松嫁接技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤国春; 杨树军; 安宇宁; 曹宇; 赵国军; 张硕

    2011-01-01

    Effect of rootstock selection,grafting time,grafting methods on survival rate growth of Pinus koraiensis were analyzed.Result shows that: Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica,Pinus tabulaeformis,Pinus densiflora all can be used as rootstock;single-bud appear optimal than multiple-bud;appropriate early grafting received favorable on scion lignification improvement;result of orthogonal experiment shows that :the optimal treatment combination is A1B1C1,namely the the combination of stock being Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica+bud-side wedge grafting being in mid-April can obtain survival rate being over 90%.%试验分析了砧木选择、嫁接时间、嫁接方法等因子对干旱、半干旱地区异砧红松嫁接成活率和生长的影响。结果表明:樟子松、油松、赤松均可作为砧木嫁接红松。采用单芽接穗好于多芽接穗;适时早接有利于接穗木质化程度的提高;正交试验结果显示最佳处理组合为A1B1C1,即砧木为樟子松、4月中旬嫁接、芽端楔接法的组合,成活率达到90%以上。

  18. The Portfolio Decision Under the VaR Constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChunfengWang; XinshuTu

    2004-01-01

    The VaR, a new appearing financial risk-manage tool, have been applied widely. Many financial setups have accustomed to measure the risk of a portfolio with the VaR. So it is very necessary to discuss the portfolio choice problem under the VaR constraint. In this paper, by setting and solving the portfolio choice model under the VaR constraint, we illustrate that the use of the VaR constraint reduces the array of choice to a more manageable range. The probability of traget VaR, therefore, can be thought of as a risk tolerance assessment tool (when coupled with another measure of risk).

  19. Hybrid VAR compensator with improved efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Burlaka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern electrical networks thyristor-switched capacitors (TSC are most used devices for VAR compensation. These devices don’t contain rotating parts and mechanical contacts, provide a stepwise control of reactive power and no generation of harmonics to the network. However, with the help of TSC it’s not possible to ensure smooth control of reactive power and capacitor banks (CB are exposed to the negative impact of higher harmonic components of the network voltage. Hybrid VAR compensator don’t have such drawbacks. It consists of active filter (AF and capacitor bank with discrete regulation. The main drawback of such systems is the necessity of accessing all six terminals of CB, while most of them are manufactured with three terminals, internally delta-connected. In the article, the topology and control system of hybrid VAR compensator free from beforementioned drawback, is proposed. The control system provides operating modes of overcompensation or undercompensation reactive power. VAR distribution regulator performs redistribution of reactive power between active filter and capacitor banks with the condition to minimize active filter’s power. Scheme of the hybrid VAR compensator, which includes a three-phase three-terminal delta-connected capacitor banks, is shown. Proposed approach allows to provide smooth control of reactive power, isolate the capacitor bank from harmonic currents and use a more effective low-voltage power components

  20. 乔松Pinus wallichiana与不丹松Pinus bhutanica之初步辨析%A preliminary analysis of the difference between Pinus wallichiana and Pinus bhutanica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑维列; 徐阿生

    2003-01-01

    根据最新的文献资料,初步分析了乔松Pinus wallichiana与不丹松Pinus bhutanica在一年生小枝、针叶(主要是树脂道)、球果、种鳞、鳞脐和种子等六个方面的性状区别特征,结合以前对藏东南和藏南地区单维管束松树的调查所掌握的材料,认为不丹松是从乔松中分出来的;它们的分布区存在重叠,但各自构成的群落具有较大的生态学差异;通过性状差异性质的辨析,讨论了不丹松种级地位成立所需的关键特征,初步得出不丹松种级地位难以成立的结论.

  1. VaR BASED RISK MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Bohdalová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the Value–at–Risk concept and we analyse the market risk by using EWMA approach. EWMA (exponentially weighted moving average forecasting technique is a popular measure of various risks in financial risk management. We will compare standard EWMA, robust EWMA and skewed EWMA forecast of VaR. JP Morgan standard EWMA is derived from Gaussian distribution. Robust EWMA is based on Laplace distribution and skewed EWMA is a new approach derived from an asymmetric Laplace distribution. Asymmetric Laplace distribution takes into account both skewness and heavy tails in return distribution and the time varying nature of them in practice. Skewed EWMA VaR is a generalization of the standard EWMA method. Using these approaches we will analyse selected financial series (three European market indexes and one exchange rate. We have found andconfirmed that skewed EWMA forecasting of VaR outperforms the standard EWMA method.

  2. Haavelmo's Probability Approach and the Cointegrated VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    Some key econometric concepts and problems addressed by Trygve Haavelmo and Ragnar Frisch are discussed within the general frame- work of a cointegrated VAR. The focus is on problems typical of time- series data such as multicollinearity, spurious correlation and regres- sion results, time......) the plausibility of the multivari- ate normality assumption underlying the VAR, (3) cointegration as a solution to the problem of spurious correlation and multicollinearity when data contain deterministic and stochastic trends, (4) the exis- tence of a universe, (5) the association between Frisch’s con...

  3. Spontaneous Hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian Seaside: A Morphological Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Darius Danusevičius; Vitas Marozas; Gediminas Brazaitis; Raimundas Petrokas; Knud Ib Christensen

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylv...

  4. Genetic Analysis of Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus sylvestris forma turfosa L. Using RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta ÁBRAHÁM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the level of genetic diversity within and among Ciuc basin, Romania (populations from Mohos and Luci raised bogs in Harghita Mountain and Sumuleu in Ciuc Mountain Pinus sylvestris populations using molecular markers. Two of populations (Mohos and Luci seems to be the descendants that survived the continental glaciation. Genetic diversity was analyzed by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Nine primers were selected for analysis, which generated reproducible bands. On base of presence or absence of homologues bands Nei’s gene diversity, the percentage of polymorphic loci and Nei’s unbiased genetic distance were calculated. The level of genetic variation among populations was found to be low. For both populations the variation values among populations were higher than within populations. The fossil records and geological historical data explain the extremely low genetic diversity of this species. Pinus sylvestris experienced strong bottlenecks during its evolutionary history, which caused the loss of genetic variation. Genetic drift and breeding in post-bottlenecked small populations may be the major forces that contribute to low genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of populations. Human activities may have accelerated the loss of genetic diversity in Pinus sylvestris.

  5. A comparison of yield-related traits of Coriandrum sativum var. microcarpum DC. and Coriandrum sativum var. sativum

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolay Dyulgerov; Boryana Dyulgerova

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation we studied how yield-related traits of large-fruited (var. sativum) and small-fruited (var. microcarpum DC.) coriander differ at the Southeastern Bulgaria climatic conditions during 2010-2012. For this purpose, 20 genotypes from var. microcarpum and 20 genotypes from var. sativum were tested using a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat. Plant height, number of primary branches per plant, number of umbels per ...

  6. [Individual biomass of natural Pinus densiflora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Jin, Y; Jin, C; Liu, J; Jin, Y

    2000-02-01

    The aboveground biomass of individuals with different growth potentials in natural Pinus densiflora forest with different stand densities was measured in Yanbian, Jilin Province. The variation of individual biomass affected by densities was in order of dominant tree branch > needle > bark. The biomass components of P. densifliora with different growth potentials varied markedly with the approaching of density class III, and the change of intermediate trees was similar to the whole stand. The vertical distributions of biomass of different trees were different from each other, but all showed that the biomass of trunks and barks was mainly distributed below 6 m high from ground, that of branches was within 6-10 m high, that of needles was uniform in the upper, middle and lower layers, and that of branches and needles in upper layer was least affected by density.

  7. A Structured VAR under Changing Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    The empirical analysis is mainly concerned with the aggregate demand for money relation as part of a small macroeconomic system. Using the theory of cointegrated VAR models for I(2) data the long-run relationships in the data are first investigated, and the ML-estimates of the corresponding coint...

  8. Haavelmo's Probability Approach and the Cointegrated VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    dependent residuals, normalization, reduced rank, model selection, missing variables, simultaneity, autonomy and iden- ti…cation. Speci…cally the paper discusses (1) the conditions under which the VAR model represents a full probability formulation of a sample of time-series observations, (2...

  9. Bacterial endosymbionts of Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, Ma Patricia V; Azanza, Rhodora V; Vargas, Vanessa Mercee D; Hedreyda, Cynthia T

    2006-11-01

    The study presents evidence in support of the bacterial theory associated with the toxicity of Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum. Bacterial endosymbionts from Philippine P. bahamense var. compressum strain Pbc MZRVA 042595 were isolated and identified via 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Taxonomic diversity of the identified culturable intracellular microbiota associated with Philippine P. bahamense var. compressum was established to be limited to the Phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Major endosymbionts identified included Moraxella spp., Erythrobacter spp., and Bacillus spp., whereas Pseudomonas putida, Micrococcus spp., and Dietzia maris were identified as minor isolates. All identified strains except D. maris, P. putida, and Micrococcus spp. were shown to contain either saxitoxin or neo saxitoxin or both at levels < or =73 ng/10(7) bacterial cells based on high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Paralytic shellfish poisoning-like physiologic reactions in test animals used in the mouse assay were recorded for the endosymbionts except for P. putida. The study is the first to elucidate the possible contribution of bacterial endosymbionts in the toxicity of P. bahamense var. compressum isolated in the Philippines.

  10. Is Solanum ferox var. ferox (Solanaceae) extinct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiser, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 I wrote letters to over 50 people (botanists, agricultural scientists, and former students of Indiana University) in south-eastern Asia trying to obtain a few seeds of Solanumferox L. var. ferox (S. involucratum Blume). I had over 25 replies, five of which included seeds, but none of the

  11. Is Solanum ferox var. ferox (Solanaceae) extinct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiser, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 I wrote letters to over 50 people (botanists, agricultural scientists, and former students of Indiana University) in south-eastern Asia trying to obtain a few seeds of Solanumferox L. var. ferox (S. involucratum Blume). I had over 25 replies, five of which included seeds, but none of the see

  12. Volatile constituents of Pinus roxburghii from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Satyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Is one of 3 species of pine found in Nepal, the oil of which is traditionally used to treat cuts, wounds, boils, and blisters. Objective: To obtain, analyze, and examine the anti-microbial and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils of P. roxburghii. Materials and Methods: Three plant parts (cone, needle, and bark of Pinus roxburghii were collected in Biratnagar, Nepal. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the chemical compositions were determined by GC-MS. The needle and cone essential oils were screened for anti-microbial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus niger; brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality; and in-vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. Results: GC-MS analysis for the cone oil revealed 81 compounds with 78 components being identified (95.5% of the oil while 98.3% of needle oil was identified to contain 68 components and 98.6% of the bark oil (38 components was identified. The 3 essential oils were dominated by sesquiterpenes, particularly (E-caryophyllene (26.8%-34.5% and α-humulene (5.0%-7.3% as well as monoterpene alcohols terpinen-4-ol (4.1%-30.1% and α-terpineol(2.8%-5.0%. The monoterpene δ-3-carene was present only in needle and cone essential oils (2.3% and 6.8%, respectively. Bio-activity assays of the cone essential oil of P. roxburghii showed remarkable cytotoxic activity (100% killing of MCF-7 cells at 100 μg/mL along with notable brine shrimp lethality (LC50 =11.8 μg/mL. The cone essential oil did not show anti-bacterial activity, but it did exhibit anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC=39 μg/mL. Conclusion: The bioactivity of P. roxburghii essential oil is consistent with its traditional medicinal use.

  13. RHIZOGENIC RESPONSE OF PINUS MAXIMARTINEZII RZEDOWSKI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Ojeda-Zacaría

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El piñón azul o maxi piñónPinus maximartineziiRzedowski es una especie endémica en peligro de extinción debido a la alteración de sus poblaciones en su hábitat natural y que ha sobrevivido a una restricción genética extrema, además es considerado el más raro de los pinos piñoneros. En este trabajo se evaluó la respuesta rizogénica de brotes dePinus maximartinezii, obtenidos a partir de embriones cigóticos regenerado vía organogénesis, los cuales se sometieron a tratamientos de enraizamientoin vitro. La mayor respuesta de enraizamiento se presentó con pulso de 24 h en presencia de 2.0 mg L-1 de IBA en los medios de cultivo DCR, GD y MS, al 100 y 50% de su concentración original más 0.5% de carbón activado por L-1. Después de ocho semanas se evaluó la variable conforme al número de brotes con raíces, la prueba de X2 mostró que el enraizamiento es independiente de los medios de cultivo así como la concentración de los mismos y dependiente al tiempos de pulso. La formación de raíces obtenidas en los brotes permite proponer esta especie con capacidad para ser propagadain vitro.

  14. Phytochemical analysis of Pinus eldarica bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, S; Zolfaghari, B

    2014-01-01

    Bark extract of Pinus pinaster contains numerous phenolic compounds such as catechins, taxifolin, and phenolic acids. These compounds have received considerable attentions because of their anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antimetastatic and high antioxidant activities. Although P. pinaster bark has been intensely investigated in the past; there is comparably less information available in the literature in regard to P. eldarica bark. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of P. eldarica commonly found in Iran. A reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and taxifolin in P. pinaster and P. eldarica was developed. A mixture of 0.1% formic acid in deionized water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile was used as the mobile phase, and chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nova pack C18 at 280 nm. The two studied Pinus species contained high amounts of polyphenolic compounds. Among four marker compounds, the main substances identified in P. pinaster and P. eldarica were taxifolin and catechin, respectively. Furthermore, the composition of the bark oil of P. eldarica obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Thirty-three compounds accounting for 95.1 % of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of mono- and sesquiterpenoid fractions, especially α-pinene (24.6%), caryophyllene oxide (14.0%), δ-3-carene (10.7%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (7.9%), and myrtenal (3.1%).

  15. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cardil Forradellas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU. PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future.Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012, in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea.Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height.Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume.Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior.Abbreviations used: PU: Pinus uncinata Ram.

  16. Detoxification of Benzoxazolinone Allelochemicals from Wheat by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, G. graminis var. graminis, G. graminis var. avenae, and Fusarium culmorum

    OpenAIRE

    Friebe, A.; Vilich, V.; Hennig, L.; Kluge, M.; Sicker, D.

    1998-01-01

    The ability of phytopathogenic fungi to overcome the chemical defense barriers of their host plants is of great importance for fungal pathogenicity. We studied the role of cyclic hydroxamic acids and their related benzoxazolinones in plant interactions with pathogenic fungi. We identified species-dependent differences in the abilities of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. avenae, and Fusarium culmorum to detoxify these all...

  17. Effects of ozone and climate on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growth in the Colorado Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.L. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)); Arbaugh, M.J.; Robinson, L.J. (United States Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Riverside, CA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Long-term radial growth trends of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum) were studied in second-growth stands in the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains to determine if there has been any impact from oxidant air pollution. Although ozone concentrations are relatively high at some locations, visible pollutant injury was not found in any trees. Time series of basal area increments are generally homogeneous within stands. Concurrent periods of increasing and decreasing growth can be found in stands throughout the Front Range, which indicates that there are temporal growth trends at the regional level. Most of these trends appear to be related to the effects of stand dynamics and climate. Correlation analysis with climatic variables indicates that soil moisture supply is the dominant factor controlling interannual variation of basal area growth. Palmer hydrological drought index is highly correlated (positively) with growth during the summer months; total precipitation in spring is positively correlated with growth, and mean temperature in spring is negatively correlated with growth. There are no recent changes in growth trends that might be associated with elevated levels of ambient ozone in the Front Range. 66 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Biological activity of Pinus nigra terpenes--evaluation of FtsZ inhibition by selected compounds as contribution to their antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarac, Zorica; Matejić, Jelena S; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica Z; Veselinović, Jovana B; Džamić, Ana M; Bojović, Srdjan; Marin, Petar D

    2014-11-01

    In the current work, in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activites of the needle terpenes of three taxa of Pinus nigra from Serbia (ssp. nigra, ssp. pallasiana, and var. banatica) were analyzed. The black pine essential oils showed generally weak antioxidative properties tested by two methods (DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays), where the highest activity was identified in P. nigra var. banatica (IC50=25.08 mg/mL and VitC=0.67 mg (vitamin C)/g when tested with the DPPH and ABTS reagents, respectively). In the antimicrobial assays, one fungal (Aspergilus niger) and two bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) showed sensitivity against essential oils of all three P. nigra taxa. The tested oils have been shown to possess inhibitory action in the range from 20.00 to 0.62 mg/mL, where var. banatica exhibited the highest and ssp. nigra the lowest antimicrobial action. In order to determine potential compounds that are responsible for alternative mode of action, molecular docking simulations inside FtsZ (a prokaryotic homolog of tubulin) were performed. Tested compounds were the most abundant terpenoid (germacrene D-4-ol) and its structurally similar terpene (germacrene D), both present in all three essential oils. It was determined that the oxygenated form of the molecule creates stable bonds with investigated enzyme FtsZ, and that this compound, through this mechanism of action participates in the antimicrobial activity.

  19. Some soil properties and microbial biomass of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea and Eucalyptus camaldulensis from the Eastern Mediterranean coasts

    OpenAIRE

    Nacide Kizildag; Husniye Aka Sagliker; Ahu Kutlay; Sahin Cenkseven; Cengiz Darici

    2012-01-01

    Background: Salt-affected soils occupy wide areas that have ecological importance in semi-arid and arid regions. Excessive amounts of salt have adverse effects on soil physical and chemical properties and also on the microbiological processes. The soils of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis were found to be under salinity stress in the present study area. Thus, the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus contents, microbial biomass, and carbon mineralization were determined in the...

  20. Pinus monophylla establishment in an expanding Pinus-Juniperus woodland: Environmental conditions, facilitation and interacting factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, Jeanne C. [USDA Forest Service, Reno, NV (United States). Rocky Mountain Research Station

    2001-02-01

    The tree species comprising Pinus-Juniperus woodlands are rapidly expanding into shrub-grasslands throughout their range. Observational studies indicate that establishment is facilitated by nurse plants, but little information exists on the mechanisms involved. I examined both abiotic and biotic factors influencing Pinus monophylla establishment in Artemisia tridentata steppe with expanding populations of P. monophylla and Juniperus osteosperma. I also examined the effects of seed burial and predation on seedling establishment. Microhabitats under trees and shrubs had higher extractable P and K, higher organic matter, total nitrogen and cation exchange capacity than interspace microhabitats. Soil water contents (0-15 cm) were lower in interspaces than under shrubs or trees due to dry surface (0-5 cm) soils. Soil temperatures (at 1 and 15 cm) were lowest under trees, intermediate under shrubs, and highest in interspaces. Timing and rate of seedling emergence were temperature dependent with the order of emergence paralleling mean growing season temperatures: tree interspace = shrub interspace > under shrub > under Juniperus {>=} under Pinus. Seed burial was required for rooting and the highest emergence occurred from depths of 1 and 3 cm indicating that caching by birds and rodents is essential and that animals bury seeds at adequate if not optimal depths for emergence. Seedlings required micro-environmental modification for survival; all seedlings, including those that emerged from seeds and transplants, died within the first year in interspace microhabitats. Survival in under-tree or under-shrub microhabitats depended on soil water availability and corresponded closely to soil water contents over the 3-yr study. Under-shrub microhabitats had more favourable soil and micro-environmental characteristics than under-tree microhabitats and had the highest seedling life spans for the first-year seedling cohort. Predation of Pinus seedlings by rodents was a significant

  1. Bolívar y Blanco White

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pons, André

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Este estudio procura poner de manifiesto la influencia de Blanco White, redactor de El Español (Londres, 1810-1814, en el ideario político de Bolívar, comparando el Manifiesto de Cartagena, la Carta de Jamaica y el Discurso de Angostura con los artículos de Blanco. Después de precisar las relaciones personales del periodista con el Libertador en Londres, se cotejan los textos y se muestra cómo Bolívar se inspiró en el periódico y lo utilizó en un doble sentido: subversivo, con objeto de justificar la lucha anticolonialista, y conservador, para analizar las dificultades de la independencia y de la democracia e imaginar el tipo de gobierno de los nacientes estados.

  2. Bioactive constituents of Cirsium japonicum var. australe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wan-Chun; Wu, Yang-Chang; Dankó, Balázs; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Hsieh, Chi-Ting; Tsai, Yu-Chi; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Martins, Ana; Hohmann, Judit; Hunyadi, Attila; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2014-07-25

    Cirsium japonicum var. australe, used as a folk medicine in Taiwan, has been employed traditionally in the treatment of diabetes and inflammatory symptoms. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of its ethanolic extract, utilizing centrifugal partition chromatography monitored by DPPH-TLC analysis, led to the isolation of three new acetylenic phenylacrylic acid esters (1-3) and two new polyacetylenes (4 and 5), together with seven known compounds (6-12). The structures of 1-5 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The absolute configurations of 4 and 7 were determined utilizing Mosher's method and ECD/CD experiments. The DPPH scavenging activity of the constituents isolated from the C. japonicum var. australe ethanolic extract was evaluated. The potential antidiabetic activity of some of the isolates was evaluated using in vitro cellular glucose uptake and oil red staining assays.

  3. Delimitação entre os lenhos juvenil e adulto de Pinus elliottii engelm Delimitation the juvenile and mature wood of Pinus elliottii engelm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Pires de Moura Palermo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Durante o crescimento, as árvores produzem diferentes tipos de tecido lenhoso. O xilema produzido nos primeiros anos até certa idade cambial é denominado lenho juvenil e apresenta propriedades físicas, mecânicas, químicas e anatômicas diferentes do xilema produzido após certa idade cambial, isto é, quando as células do câmbio já amadureceram. Dessa forma, um prévio conhecimento sobre a qualidade da matéria-prima produzida é de fundamental importância para melhor aplicabilidade do material. Com base nesse contexto, este trabalho objetivou, a partir de dados de comprimento de traqueídeos e densidade da madeira, delimitar a idade de transição entre os lenhos juvenil e adulto. Para isso, coletaram-se três árvores de Pinus elliottii var. elliottii Engelm., com 35 anos de idade, provenientes da Estação Experimental de Itapetininga, localizada em São Paulo, Brasil. De cada árvore, retiraram-se discos de aproximadamente 5 cm de espessura, extraídos a 0,05 m do solo, que foram utilizados para determinação radial da densidade pelo método de atenuação da radiação gama e comprimento dos traqueídeos. Os resultados da análise de regressão linear indicaram que o lenho juvenil está limitado aos sete primeiros anos de crescimento da árvore e o lenho adulto é formado após os 20 anos de idade. No lenho adulto há diferenças significativas entre as idades médias obtidas através do comprimento dos traqueídeos e da densidade da madeira.Trees produce different types of woody tissue during growth. The xylem produced in the first years until a certain cambial age is called juvenile wood and has different physical, mechanical, chemical and anatomical characteristics from that produced later, when the cambial cells have matured. Thus, prior knowledge of the quality of the wood is of fundamental importance for choosing the best use of the material. This work aimed at using data from length of the tracheid and wood density to

  4. Mutation studies in Cymbopogon nardus var. Confertiflorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, D.K.; Kak, S.N.; Kaul, B.L. (Regional Research Lab., Jammu (India))

    1981-09-01

    Vegetative slips of Cymbopogon nardus var, confertiflorus after irradiation with various doses of X-rays left a clone among the surviving plants that showed mutation resulting in a higher content of geranyl acetate. From its progeny, raised after selfing a fresh clone, possessing about 60% geranyl acetate in the oil without any effect on the herb yield, has been isolated. This mutant has a significant commercial importance as a new source of geranyl acetate, an important aroma chemical.

  5. by Pinus virginiana in Mine Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenise M. Bauman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of planting sites on the establishment and ectomycorrhizal (ECM colonization of American chestnut (Castanea denetata (Marsh. Borkh. on an abandoned coal mine in an Appalachian region of the United States. Root morphotyping and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS region were used to identify the ECM species associated with the chestnut seedlings. Germination, survival, ECM root colonization, and growth were assessed in three habitats: forest edge, center (plots without vegetation, and pine plots (a 10-year-old planting of Pinus virginiana. Seedlings in pine plots had higher survival (38% than the other plot types (center 9% and forest edge 5%; P=0.007. Chestnuts found colonized by ECM within the pine plots were larger (P=0.02, contributed by a larger root system (P=0.03. Forest edge and pine plots had more ECM roots than seedlings in center plots (P=0.04. ITS fungal sequences and morphotypes found among chestnut and pine matched Scleroderma, Thelephora, and Pisolithus suggesting these two plant species shared ECM symbionts. Results indicated that the presence of P. virginiana had a greater facilitative effect on growth and survival of chestnut seedlings.

  6. Fusariose em Mudas de Pinus taeda Fusarium disease on Pinus taeda seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Grigoletti Júnior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Viveiros comerciais têm apresentado mudas de Pinus taeda com sintomas de murcha e seca de ponteiros e morte, na Região Sul do Brasil. Isolamento em meio BDA e câmara úmida, teste de patogenicidade e microcultivo foram feitos para identificar o patógeno. Uma espécie de Fusarium foi isolada, cuja identificação encontra-se em andamento. Verificou-sepelos postulados de Koch que Fusarium sp. foi o agente causal dessa doença.
    Nurseries has presented Pinus taeda seedling with symptoms of wilt, tip blight and death, in Southern Region of Brazil. Isolation on PDA medium, moist chamber, pathogenicity test and microculture were made to identify the pathogen. A species of Fusarium was isolated, which is under identification. It was verified by Koch postulates that Fusarium sp. was the causal agent of this disease.

  7. Analysis list: Su(var)205 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Su(var)205 Adult,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3.../target/Su(var)205.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/c...olo/Su(var)205.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(v...ar)205.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience

  8. Detoxification of Benzoxazolinone Allelochemicals from Wheat by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, G. graminis var. graminis, G. graminis var. avenae, and Fusarium culmorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebe; Vilich; Hennig; Kluge; Sicker

    1998-07-01

    The ability of phytopathogenic fungi to overcome the chemical defense barriers of their host plants is of great importance for fungal pathogenicity. We studied the role of cyclic hydroxamic acids and their related benzoxazolinones in plant interactions with pathogenic fungi. We identified species-dependent differences in the abilities of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. avenae, and Fusarium culmorum to detoxify these allelochemicals of gramineous plants. The G. graminis var. graminis isolate degraded benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA) and 6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (MBOA) more efficiently than did G. graminis var. tritici and G. graminis var. avenae. F. culmorum degraded BOA but not MBOA. N-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)-malonamic acid and N-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-malonamic acid were the primary G. graminis var. graminis and G. graminis var. tritici metabolites of BOA and MBOA, respectively, as well as of the related cyclic hydroxamic acids. 2-Amino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one was identified as an additional G. graminis var. tritici metabolite of BOA. No metabolite accumulation was detected for G. graminis var. avenae and F. culmorum by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The mycelial growth of the pathogenic fungi was inhibited more by BOA and MBOA than by their related fungal metabolites. The tolerance of Gaeumannomyces spp. for benzoxazolinone compounds is correlated with their detoxification ability. The ability of Gaeumannomyces isolates to cause root rot symptoms in wheat (cultivars Rektor and Astron) parallels their potential to degrade wheat allelochemicals to nontoxic compounds.

  9. Bio-engineering traits of Pinus radiata D.Don

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giadrossich, Filippo; Marden, Michael; Marrosu, Roberto; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Phillips, Chris John; Cohen, Denis; Niedda, Marcello

    2017-04-01

    Pinus radiata is widely cultivated in New Zealand. Due to steep slopes and intense rainfall, the silviculture of Pinus radiata forests is important to control erosion and slope stability. Bio-engineering traits such as root distribution and root tensile strength are fundamental to understand the effectiveness of Pinus radiata. This information is needed to use the state of the art root reinforcement model (the Root Bundle Model) and the physically-based slope stability model SOSlope. Yet, little is known about root distribution and tensile strength for this specie. We measured soil moisture and carried out 30 field tensile tests on roots of Pinus radiata. We also measured root distribution data from 5 plants, digging arc of circles 0.6 radian around the trees in four opposite directions. We fully excavated the root system of two trees. Using the Root Bundle Model, results of our measurements allow estimation of root reinforcement. With the slope stability model SOSlope, information on the intensity and frequency of harvesting and on the development of weak zones that can be supported by a stand of Pinus radiata in relation to slope stability can be calculated. An added value is that the collected data allow us to make inferences between number and sizes of roots, and growth direction.

  10. Transport of Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki Via Fomites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Special Feature: Remediation Transport of Bacillus Thuringiensis var. Kurstaki Via Fomites Sheila Van Cuyk, Lee Ann B. Veal, Beverley Simpson, and...evaluate biodefense concepts of operations using routine spraying of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). Btk is dispersed in large quantities as...used is a water-based slurry containing Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). This bacterium produces a toxin that is lethal to gypsy moth

  11. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardil Forradellas, A.; Molina Terrén, D.M.; Oliveres, J.; Castellnou, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU). PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future. Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012), in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season) in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha) located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea. Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height. Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume. Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior. (Author)

  12. Identification and in vivo functional analysis of a virginiamycin S resistance gene (varS) from Streptomyces virginiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C K; Kamitani, Y; Nihira, T; Yamada, Y

    1999-05-01

    BarA of Streptomyces virginiae is a specific receptor protein for virginiae butanolide (VB), one of the gamma-butyrolactone autoregulators of the Streptomyces species, and acts as a transcriptional regulator controlling both virginiamycin production and VB biosynthesis. The downstream gene barB, the transcription of which is under the tight control of the VB-BarA system, was found to be transcribed as a polycistronic mRNA with its downstream region, and DNA sequencing revealed a 1,554-bp open reading frame (ORF) beginning at 161 bp downstream of the barB termination codon. The ORF product showed high homology (68 to 73%) to drug efflux proteins having 14 transmembrane segments and was named varS (for S. virginiae antibiotic resistance). Heterologous expression of varS with S. lividans as a host resulted in virginiamycin S-specific resistance, suggesting that varS encoded a virginiamycin S-specific transport protein. Northern blot analysis indicated that the bicistronic transcript of barB-varS appeared 1 to 2 h before the onset of virginiamycin M1 and S production, at which time VB was produced, while exogenously added virginiamycin S apparently induced the monocistronic varS transcript.

  13. [Storage proteins from seeds of Pinus pinea L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Nizar; Triki, Saïda

    2007-05-01

    The Mediterranean stone pine Pinus pinea L. (gymnosperm, Pinaceae) is much appreciated for its seed production, widely used in food preparation in the Mediterranean Basin. Seeds contain 25% proteins on a dry-weight basis. Pinus pinea accumulate globulins as major storage proteins in seeds (75% of total storage proteins), composed of several subunits of 10 to 150 kDa, revealed by SDS-PAGE. The albumin fraction (15%) represents three subunits of 14, 24 and 46 kDa. Glutelins, the least soluble fraction, represents a small proportion (10%). Their constitutive units have frequent PM of 43 kDa. Prolamins also represent a very small percentage (1 to 2%).

  14. Spontaneous Hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian Seaside: A Morphological Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Danusevičius

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylvestris and P. mugo were identified. Based on a weighted trait index, the intermediate individuals were grouped into two groups, one morphologically close to P. sylvestris and another close to P. mugo. The needle micromorphological traits of the putative hybrids were of intermediate values between P. mugo and P. sylvestris. The results provide a strong evidence of spontaneous hybridization between P. mugo and P. sylvestris in Lithuanian seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija.

  15. Spontaneous hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian seaside: a morphological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danusevičius, Darius; Marozas, Vitas; Brazaitis, Gediminas; Petrokas, Raimundas; Christensen, Knud Ib

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylvestris and P. mugo were identified. Based on a weighted trait index, the intermediate individuals were grouped into two groups, one morphologically close to P. sylvestris and another close to P. mugo. The needle micromorphological traits of the putative hybrids were of intermediate values between P. mugo and P. sylvestris. The results provide a strong evidence of spontaneous hybridization between P. mugo and P. sylvestris in Lithuanian seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija.

  16. Lignans from Schisandra propinqua var. propinqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chun; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Chen, Ji-Jun; Pu, Jian-Xin; Yang, Li-Bin; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Jin-Ping; Gao, Xue-Mei; Xiao, Wei-Lie; Sun, Han-Dong

    2007-08-01

    Two new dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans angeloyl-(+)-gomisin K(3) (1) and methylisogomisin O (2), together with six known ones, isogomisin O, angeloylisogomisin O, gomisin O, angeloygomisin O, benzoylgomisin O, epigomisin O, and four 1,4-bis(phenyl)-2,3-dimethylbutane type lignans, pregomisin, meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid, isoanwulignan, and sphenanlignan were isolated from the aerial parts of Schisandra propinqua var. propinqua. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques.

  17. Validation of the name Callicarpa bodinieri var.iteophylla (Lamiaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ming PENG; Nan JIANG; Wen-Bin YU

    2011-01-01

    Callicarpa bodinieri H.Léveillé var.iteophylla C.Y.Wu,var.nov.Type:China.Yunnan:Mengla,1953-06-03,Yong-Shu Wang 27 (holotype,KUN 0484466!;isotype,KUN 0484467!).Validating diagnosis:Those ofCallicarpa bodinieri H.Léveillé var.iteophylla C.Y.Wu,Fl.Yunnan.1:406.1977.Callicarpa bodinieri H.Léveillé var.iteophylla C.Y.Wu is endemic to southern Yunnan province of China,and it occurs in mixed forests at altitudes between 600 and 1600 m.This new variety is easily distinguished from var.bodinieri and var.rosthornii (Diels)Rehder in that the leaf blade is lanceolate,oblanceolate,or obovateoblong,and 2-4 cm wide (vs.narrowly elliptic,elliptic,or ovateelliptic,and 4-7 cm wide in var.bodinieri),and subglabrous on both surfaces (vs.abaxially grayish stellate pubescent in var.rosthornii).

  18. Estudio de potenciales alelopáticos originados por Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Pinus pinaster Ait. y Pinus radiata D.

    OpenAIRE

    Ballester, A.; Arias, A. M.; Cobián, B.; López Calvo, E.; Vieitez, E.

    2011-01-01

    Se ha estudiado el potencial alelopático de Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Pinus pinaster Ait. y Pinus radiata D. sobre el crecimiento y la germinación de diferentes especies herbáceas. Extractos acuosos de hojas y acículas recogidas en los meses de enero y abril inhiben fundamentalmente la germinación de las semillas de festuca, siendo la acción más importante en el mes de abril que en el de enero. El contacto directo entre hojas y acículas y las semillas a ensayar produce una inhibición muy f...

  19. VaR Methodology Application for Banking Currency Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Armeanu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available VaR has become the standard measure that financial analysts use to quantify market risk. VaR measures can have many applications, such as in risk management, to evaluate the performance of risk takers and for regulatory requirements, and hence it is very important to develop methodologies that provide accurate estimates. In particular, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision at the Bank for International Settlements imposes to financial institutions such as banks and investment firms to meet capital requirements based on VaR estimates. In this paper we determine VaR for a banking currency portfolio and respect rules of National Bank of Romania regarding VaR report.

  20. A new C-methylated flavonoid glycoside from Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M J; Choi, J H; Chung, H Y; Jung, J H; Choi, J S

    2001-12-01

    A new C-methyl flavonol glycoside, 5,7,8,4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methylflavone 8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), has been isolated from the needles of Pinus densiflora, together with kaempferol 3-O-beta-(6"-acetyl)-galactopyranoside.

  1. Evolution of genome size and complexity in Pinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Morse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome evolution in the gymnosperm lineage of seed plants has given rise to many of the most complex and largest plant genomes, however the elements involved are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gymny is a previously undescribed retrotransposon family in Pinus that is related to Athila elements in Arabidopsis. Gymny elements are dispersed throughout the modern Pinus genome and occupy a physical space at least the size of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. In contrast to previously described retroelements in Pinus, the Gymny family was amplified or introduced after the divergence of pine and spruce (Picea. If retrotransposon expansions are responsible for genome size differences within the Pinaceae, as they are in angiosperms, then they have yet to be identified. In contrast, molecular divergence of Gymny retrotransposons together with other families of retrotransposons can account for the large genome complexity of pines along with protein-coding genic DNA, as revealed by massively parallel DNA sequence analysis of Cot fractionated genomic DNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most of the enormous genome complexity of pines can be explained by divergence of retrotransposons, however the elements responsible for genome size variation are yet to be identified. Genomic resources for Pinus including those reported here should assist in further defining whether and how the roles of retrotransposons differ in the evolution of angiosperm and gymnosperm genomes.

  2. Pathways of stand development in ageing Pinus sylvestris forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kint, Vincent; Mohren, G.M.J.; Geudens, Guy; Wulf, de R.; Lust, Noel

    2004-01-01

    Question: What are the main pathways of long-term stand development in forest ecosystems on oligotrophic and acidic sandy soils? Location: Nine forest reserves at different locations in The Netherlands: all ageing Pinus sylvestris forests that are no longer managed and where massive regeneration of

  3. Rainfall interception and partitioning by pinus monophylla and juniperus osteosperma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated canopy interception of simulated rainfall by singleleaf piñon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) in central Nevada. Research has shown that although piñon and juniper occurred historically throughout the western United States, the infilling of woodlan...

  4. Understory plant biomass dynamics of prescribed burned Pinus palustris stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.A. Gonzalez-Benecke; L.J. Samuelson; T.A. Stokes; W.P. Cropper Jr; T.A. Martin; K.H. Johnsen

    2015-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests are characterized by unusually high understory plant species diversity, but models describing understory ground cover biomass, and hence fuel load dynamics, are scarce for this fire-dependent ecosystem. Only coarse scale estimates, being restricted on accuracy and geographical extrapolation,...

  5. An interesting chemical polymorphism in Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Szweykowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and interpopulational polymorphism in the production of phenolic compounds is described in Polish populations of Pinus sylvestris L. Two mutually exclusive forms of pine trees are present in changing proportions in all populations studied. This allows three groups of populations to be distinguished. The character of this differentiation is discussed.

  6. [Systemic allergic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts, Pinus pinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-11-26

    An in vivo open oral provocation with pine nuts (Pinus pinea) confirmed information about systemic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts. In vitro tests suggested a systemic IgE allergic reaction. Pine nuts are employed in sweets and cakes and, as in the present case, in green salads.

  7. Delimitação entre os lenhos juvenil e adulto de Pinus elliottii engelm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Pires de Moura Palermo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Durante o crescimento, as árvores produzem diferentes tipos de tecido lenhoso. O xilema produzido nos primeiros anos até certa idade cambial é denominado lenho juvenil e apresenta propriedades físicas, mecânicas, químicas e anatômicas diferentes do xilema produzido após certa idade cambial, isto é, quando as células do câmbio já amadureceram. Dessa forma, um prévio conhecimento sobre a qualidade da matéria-prima produzida é de fundamental importância para melhor aplicabilidade do material. Com base nesse contexto, este trabalho objetivou, a partir de dados de comprimento de traqueídeos e densidade da madeira, delimitar a idade de transição entre os lenhos juvenil e adulto. Para isso, coletaram-se três árvores de Pinus elliottii var. elliottii Engelm., com 35 anos de idade, provenientes da Estação Experimental de Itapetininga, localizada em São Paulo, Brasil. De cada árvore, retiraram-se discos de aproximadamente 5 cm de espessura, extraídos a 0,05 m do solo, que foram utilizados para determinação radial da densidade pelo método de atenuação da radiação gama e comprimento dos traqueídeos. Os resultados da análise de regressão linear indicaram que o lenho juvenil está limitado aos sete primeiros anos de crescimento da árvore e o lenho adulto é formado após os 20 anos de idade. No lenho adulto há diferenças significativas entre as idades médias obtidas através do comprimento dos traqueídeos e da densidade da madeira.

  8. Provenance Test on Pinus sylvestris in Nursery in Zhanggutai, Liaoning Province%辽宁章古台欧洲赤松种源苗期试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓东; 徐海涛; 张立英

    2001-01-01

    利用来自欧洲的13个欧洲赤松(Pinus sylvestris)种源,以当地的樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica)作对照开展了试验.结果发现,1a生苗木能否正常越冬成为评价种源好坏的首要因子,比利时、奥地利、法国等西欧种源生长较快,但不能正常越冬;瑞典、芬兰等北欧种源基本能正常越冬,但生长迟缓,潜力不大;波兰、爱沙尼亚种源1 a生苗的越冬保存率在80%以上,2 a生苗生长量与樟子松相仿且均能安全越冬,为适宜种源.

  9. A Preliminary Report on Asexual Propagation of Pinus kesiya vat. langbianensis%思茅松不同无性繁殖试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴云仙; 付玉嫔; 罗娅; 陈娟

    2012-01-01

    通过高枝压接继代培养和扦插苗继代培养等方式对思茅松(Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis)进行了无性繁殖试验,结果表明:对不同母树年龄的思茅松枝条进行高枝压接均能生根,而且生根后定植亦能成活生长,经断顶获得的穗条扦插亦获得了成功。此外扦插苗继代培养成活率较实生苗继代培养扦插成活率低,二者扦插成活率分别为54.2%和80.6%。%An experiment on asexual propagation of Pinus kesiya vat. langbianensis was carried out by the way of subculture of high branch layering and cutting seedlings. The results showed that the branches on the seed trees of Pinus kesiya vat. langbianensis with different ages were used by high branch layering experiment, all of which could induce roots, and all branches cut after rooting could al- so survive and grow. It was successful to cut the scions acquired by broking tops. In addition, com- pared with seedling subculture, the survival rate of cutting seedlings subcultured was lower, which was 54.2 % and 80.6 % respectively.

  10. Chemical diversity of volatiles of Teucrium orientale L. var. orientale, var. puberulens, and var. glabrescens determined by simultaneous GC-FID and GC/MS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozek, Gulmira; Ozek, Temel; Dinç, Muhittin; Doǧu, Süleyman; Başer, Kemal H C

    2012-06-01

    In the present work, three varieties of Teucrium orientale, var. orientale, var. puberulens, and var. glabrescens, were collected and investigated for chemical composition of the oils. Subsequent gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed high abundance of sesquiterpenes in the essential oils analyzed. All the oils contained β-caryophyllene (22.6, 8.5, and 6.3%, resp.) and hexadecanoic acid (7.9, 12.8, and 13.1%). Germacrene D (24.6 and 33.4%) and bicyclogermacrene (6.7 and 8.5%) were found to be the main constituents of var. orientale and var. puberulens, respectively. The high percentages of β-cubebene (26.9%), α-cubebene (9.0%), and α-copaene (7.2%) established the diversity of var. glabrescens. The qualitative difference between the essential oils allowed the differentiation between the varieties in agreement with the morphological observations described in Flora of Turkey for each variety studied. In addition, a cluster analysis of twelve Teucrium taxa based on the essential-oil composition has been carried out. Hovewer, the analysis did not clearly reflect the infrageneric classification of the genus, it largely confirmed the relationships between the infraspecific taxa of Teucrium orientale and T. chamaedrys.

  11. Variations in electrical impedance and phase angle among seedlings of Pinus densata and parental species in Pinus tabuliformis habitat environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinyu Chen; Huwei Yuan; Xiange Hu; Jingxiang Meng; Xianqing Zhou; Xiao-Ru Wang; Yue Li

    2015-01-01

    Electrical impedance (EI) and phase angle (PHI) parameters in AC impedance spectroscopy are important electrical parameters in the study of medical pathology. However, little is known about their application in variation and genetic relationship studies of forest trees. In order to test whether impedance parameters could be used in genetic relationship analysis among conifer species, EI and PHI were measured in a seedling experiment test composed of Pinus tabuliformis, Pinus yunnanensis, and Pinus densata in a habitat of Pinus tabuliformis. The results showed that variations in both EI and PHI among species were sig-nificant in different electric frequencies, and the EI and PHI values measured in the two populations of P. densata were between the two parental species, P. yunnanensis and P. tabuliformis. These results show that these two impedance parameters could reflect the genetic relationship among pine species. This was the first time using the two AC impedance spectroscopy parameters to test the genetic relationship analysis between tree species, and would be a hopeful novel reference methodology for future studies in evolution and genetic variation of tree species.

  12. CooVar: Co-occurring variant analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergara Ismael A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating the impact of genomic variations (GV on protein-coding transcripts is an important step in identifying variants of functional significance. Currently available programs for variant annotation depend on external databases or annotate multiple variants affecting the same transcript independently, which limits program use to organisms available in these databases or results in potentially incorrect or incomplete annotations. Findings We have developed CooVar (Co-occurring Variant Analyzer, a database-independent program for assessing the impact of GVs on protein-coding transcripts. CooVar takes GVs, reference genome sequence, and protein-coding exons as input and provides annotated GVs and transcripts as output. Other than similar programs, CooVar considers the combined impact of all GVs affecting the same transcript, generating biologically more accurate annotations. CooVar is operated from the command-line and supports standard file formats VCF, GFF/GTF, and GVF, which makes it easy to integrate into existing computational pipelines. We have extensively tested CooVar on worm and human data sets and demonstrate that it generates correct annotations in only a short amount of time. Conclusions CooVar is an easy-to-use and lightweight variant annotation tool that considers the combined impact of GVs on protein-coding transcripts. CooVar is freely available at http://genome.sfu.ca/projects/coovar/.

  13. Protetores físicos para semeadura direta de Pinus elliottii Engelm Shelters for direct seeding of Pinus elliottii Engelm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmar Luciano Matteiq

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de protetores físicos tem se revelado uma eficiente técnica para o sucesso da semeadura direta de pinus. O presente trabalho avaliou diferentes tipos e tamanhos de protetores físicos de pontos de semeadura para a implantação de povoamentos de Pinus elliottii por semeadura direta. Como protetores, foram utilizados copos plástico, copos de papel e laminado de madeira. Esses protetores foram colocados sobre os pontos semeados com três sementes cada. Foi avaliada a emergência, sobrevivência, perdas por pássaros, perdas por tombamento e número de pontos com, pelo menos, uma planta viva, seis meses após a semeadura. Os protetores utilizados influenciaram positivamente, nos resultados, para todas as variáveis analisadas, por evitar perdas de sementes causadas por arraste ou soterramento e, principalmente por diminuíram os danos causados por pássaros que juntamente com as formigas, foram os principais problemas encontrados na implantação do povoamento de pinus por semeadura direta.The use of individual shelters has become an efficient method for direct seeding of pine. This work investigated the use of different kinds and sizes of shelters placed at sowing sites to establish new populations of directly seeded Pinus elliottii. Plastic and paper cups with open bottoms, or wood slats were used as protective shields. These were placed at sowing sites, each one containing 3 seeds. Emergencies, survival, losses due to birds or lodging, and number of sites with at least one live plant were analyzed six months after sowing. Shelters had positive effects on all variables analyzed both for avoiding losses resulted from dragging or burying of seeds, and for diminidhing the harm caused by birds which along with ants were the main problems found during the establishment of directly seeded pinus population.

  14. Some tests for parameter constancy in cointegrated VAR-models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Johansen, Søren

    1999-01-01

    Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations, and anot...... be applied to test the constancy of the long-run parameters in the cointegrated VAR-model. All results are illustrated using a model for the term structure of interest rates on US Treasury securities. ...

  15. Influence of seedbed, light environment, and elevated night temperature on growth and carbon allocation in pitch pine (Pinus rigida) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Day; Jessica L. Schedlbauer; William H. Livingston; Michael S. Greenwood; Alan S. White; John C. Brissette

    2005-01-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) are two autecologically similar species that occupy generally disjunct ranges in eastern North America. Jack pine is boreal in distribution, while pitch pine occurs at temperate latitudes. The two species co-occur in a small number of stands along a 'tension...

  16. Exploring Climate Niches of Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson Haplotypes in the Western United States: Implications for Evolutionary History and Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J Shinneman

    Full Text Available Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM, ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated

  17. Exploring Climate Niches of Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) Haplotypes in the Western United States: Implications for Evolutionary History and Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas J; Means, Robert E; Potter, Kevin M; Hipkins, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa) and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum) varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM), ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated with discrete

  18. Exploring climate niches of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) haplotypes in the western United States: Implications for evolutionary history and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas; Means, Robert E.; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa) and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum) varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM), ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated with

  19. CONCENTRACIÓN DE CARBONO EN Pinus cembroides Zucc: FUENTE POTENCIAL DE MITIGACIÓN DEL CALENTAMIENTO GLOBAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín Pompa-García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los bosques de Pinus cembroides Zucc, usualmente, han sido segregados del aprovechamiento forestal comercial dadas sus desventajas maderables. Sin embargo, esta especie desempeña un papel importante en la biodiversidad de México. El objetivo del presente estudio fue deter - minar la concentración de carbono (C en los principales compartimentos de P. cembroides : raíz, corteza, fuste, ramas, yemas y hojas. La concentración de C total expresado como porcentaje de la biomasa fue determinado con el Solids TOC Analyzer. Los resultados se analizaron en un diseño completamente al azar y mediante comparación de medias de Tukey. El análisis indicó que la concen - tración de C var ía entre los componentes ( P < 0.05; la yema tuvo el valor más alto (57.1 %, mientras que el fuste y las ramas registraron los valores más bajos (47.7 y 47.8 %, respectivamente. Los resul - tados contribuyen a mejorar las estimaciones de C y proveen información importante para definir si los bosques de P. cembroides pueden considerarse como una posible fuente con potencial de mitigación ante el cambio climático y así utilizarlos en un programa de secuestro de C.

  20. Needle morphological evidence of the homoploid hybrid origin of Pinus densata based on analysis of artificial hybrids and the putative parents, Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangqian; Mao, Jian-Feng; Meng, Jingxiang; Dai, Jianfeng; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Hao; Xing, Zhen; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Li, Yue

    2014-05-01

    Genetic analyses indicate that Pinus densata is a natural homoploid hybrid originating from Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis. Needle morphological and anatomical features show relative species stability and can be used to identify coniferous species. Comparative analyses of these needle characteristics and phenotypic differences between the artificial hybrids, P. densata, and parental species can be used to determine the genetic and phenotypic evolutionary consequences of natural hybridization. Twelve artificial hybrid families, the two parental species, and P. densata were seeded in a high-altitude habitat in Linzhi, Tibet. The needles of artificial hybrids and the three pine species were collected, and 24 needle morphological and anatomical traits were analyzed. Based on these results, variations in 10 needle traits among artificial hybrid families and 22 traits among species and artificial hybrids were predicted and found to be under moderate genetic control. Nineteen needle traits in artificial hybrids were similar to those in P. densata and between the two parental species, P. tabuliformis and P. yunnanensis. The ratio of plants with three needle clusters in artificial hybrids was 22.92%, which was very similar to P. densata. The eight needle traits (needle length, the mean number of stomata in sections 2 mm in length of the convex and flat sides of the needle, mean stomatal density, mesophyll/vascular bundle area ratio, mesophyll/resin canal area ratio, mesophyll/(resin canals and vascular bundles) area ratio, vascular bundle/resin canal area ratio) relative to physiological adaptability were similar to the artificial hybrids and P. densata. The similar needle features between the artificial hybrids and P. densata could be used to verify the homoploid hybrid origin of P. densata and helps to better understand of the hybridization roles in adaptation and speciation in plants.

  1. Pitfalls in VAR based return decompositions: A clarification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard; Tanggaard, Carsten

    Based on Chen and Zhao's (2009) criticism of VAR based return de- compositions, we explain in detail the various limitations and pitfalls involved in such decompositions. First, we show that Chen and Zhao's interpretation of their excess bond return decomposition is wrong: the residual component...... in their analysis is not "cashflow news" but "inter- est rate news" which should not be zero. Consequently, in contrast to what Chen and Zhao claim, their decomposition does not serve as a valid caution against VAR based decompositions. Second, we point out that in order for VAR based decompositions to be valid....... In a properly specified VAR, it makes no difference whether return news and dividend news are both computed directly or one of them is backed out as a residual....

  2. Recovery plan for Chorizanthe robusta var. robusta (Robust Spineflower)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Current Status: Chorizanthe robusta var. robusta (robust spineflower), which is federally endangered, is restricted to sandy soils along the coast and near-coastal...

  3. VAr reserve concept applied to a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    a VAr management system are proposed and analyzed. Such a reactive power reserve may be provided by the wind power plant since the amount of reactive power installed for most active power working points exceeds the demand required by the grid operator. Basically, this overrated reactive power capacity......Larger percentages of wind power penetration translate into more demanding requirements from the grid codes; for example voltage support at the point of connection has been introduced recently by several grid codes from around the world, making it important to analyze this control when applied...... to wind power plants. This paper proposes two different VAr reserve control strategies for a wind power plant. The amount of dynamic VAr available most of the operation time, makes the wind power plant (WPP) a good candidate to include a VAr reserve management system. Two different ways of implementing...

  4. Puccinia jaceae var.solstitialis teliospore priming on yellow starthistle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the introduction of Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis to California for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, Asteraceae), teliospores, pycnia, and multiple urediniospore generations have been observed in the field. Because urediniospores have a relatively short...

  5. Vermicompost enhances germination of the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lazcano, Cristina; Sampedro, Luis; Zas Arregui, Rafael; Domínguez, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of vermicompost on the germination and early development of six different progenies of the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). We compared the effects of incorporating solid vermicompost into the potting media to those of vermicompost water extract to asses the extent of not physically-mediated positive effects. The incorporation of vermicompost in the growing media of maritime pine increased germination by 16%, and particularly, addition of vermicom...

  6. Cutin fluorescence in early embryos of Pinus and Tsuga

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Szczuka; Irena Gielwanowska

    2014-01-01

    Embryos of Pinus nigra Arnold and Tsuga canadensis Carr. (Pinaceae) at different stages of development were dissected from fresh, unfixed seeds and examined in a fluorescence microscope with 400 nm excitation light. The embryos of the investigated species showed cutin fluorescence after auramine 0 staining. At first the fluorescing cutin layer was formed on the apical part of the embryo with a well developed secondary suspensor, then it extended over the lateral surface of the embryo; the sus...

  7. Two new triterpenoids from the roots of Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaka, Junnosuke; Komatsu, Masabumi; Miyazaki, Yasumasa; Futamura, Yushi; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Chemical investigation of the roots of Pinus densiflora led to the isolation of two new triterpenoids, (24S)-3β-methoxy-24,25-epoxy-lanost-9(11)-ene (1) and 29-acetoxy-3α-methoxyserrat-14-en-21α-ol (2), together with three known serratene-type triterpenoids (3-5) and four known diterpenoids (6-9). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses.

  8. TRYPANOCIDAL ACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM SCOTTISH ABIES NOBILIS AND PINUS SYLVESTRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Seidel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Three active compounds obtained from the aerial parts of Abies nobilis and Pinus sylvestris isolated by different chromatographic techniques. Their structures were identified by NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HMBC spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data and established as catechin, dehydroabietic acid and Dihydroconiferyl alcohol. The isolated compounds were exhibited activity against blood stream form of parasite Trypanosoma brucei brucei (S 427.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF PINUS SYLVESTRIS L. MALE GAMETOPHYTE IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    L.P. Khlebova; O. V. Bychkova

    2016-01-01

    The peculiarities of the development of the male gametophyte of Pinus silvestris L. in the urban environment were studied. Quality of pollen was evaluated by laboratory experiments through germination at the nutrient medium and by histochemical staining to determine the presence of redox enzymes. It was shown that pollen viability is closely linked to climatic and weather conditions during the period of microsporogenesis and mass pollination. Atmospheric pollution affected the pollen signific...

  10. Uptake of trifluoroacetate by Pinus ponderosa via atmospheric pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesch, J. A.; Gustin, M. S.

    Trifluoroacetate (TFA, CF 3COO -), a break down product of hydro(chloro)-fluorocarbons (HFC/HCFCs), has been suggested to contribute to forest decline syndrome. To investigate the possible effects, Pinus ponderosa was exposed to TFA applied as mist (150 and 10,000 ng l -1) to foliar surfaces. Needles accumulated TFA as a function of concentration and time. However, no adverse physiological responses, as plant morphology, photosynthetic and conductance rates, were observed at the TFA concentrations used in this study.

  11. Orientation of the Fiscal Policy in Tunisia: Structural VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Khanfir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to indicate the orientation of fiscal policy in Tunisia, using the structural budget balance, during the period 1972-2014. For this purpose, we estimate a structural VAR model consisting of the fiscal deficit to current GDP ratio and the volume of economic activity represented by the real GDP. We estimate bivariate structural VAR in order to decompose fiscal deficit fluctuations into different disturbances.

  12. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Balu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  13. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  14. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of

  15. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of

  16. Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

    2007-02-10

    One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

  17. Fumonisin production by Gibberella fujikuroi strains from Pinus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirete, S; Patiño, B; Vázquez, C; Jiménez, M; Hinojo, M J; Soldevilla, C; González-Jaén, M T

    2003-12-31

    Fumonisins are important mycotoxins basically produced by strains from the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (with anamorphs in Fusarium genus) which contaminate food and feed products representing a risk to human and animal health. In this work, we report for the first time the fumonisin production of Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon strains associated to edible pine nuts of Pinus pinea. P. pinea is an important and widely distributed Pinus species in the Mediterranean area where their pine nuts are consumed raw or slightly processed in diverse food products. In this work, characterization and further identification of those strains were performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs) of the intergenic spacer region of the rDNA (IGS) with the aid of the eight mating populations (A-H) described for G. fujikuroi species complex. The method was powerful to detect polymorphism, allowing discrimination between individuals and could be used to study the genetic relationships among them and within the G. fujikuroi species complex. Fusarium strains associated to Pinus radiata were also included in the present study. These strains did not produce fumonisins and showed no close relation with the strains isolated from P. pinea. The approach used in this work was rapid and proved to be efficient to assist identification and to characterize and analyse relatedness of new isolates within the G. fujikuroi species complex.

  18. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species.

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF A OIL RESIDUE FROM PETROLEUM ON DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF Pinus sp. (Pinus AND Mimosa scabrella Bentham (Bracatinga WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Florian da Costa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In search for alternative uses of a petroliferous oily residue known as “LCO” (Liquid Cycle Oil, its capacity to improve the dimensional stability of the wood was evaluated using Pinus sp. (pinus and Mimosa scabrella Bentham (bracatinga. The LCO was tested in its original composition and also diluted in different proportions into a commercial kerosene. The dimensional stability in the three anatomic axis, volumetric changes, shrinkage and anisotropy coefficients, basic density and 12% relative humidity density changes were evaluated, in different stages during the investigation process. The results show no significant differences in maximum swelling and shrinkage between treated and untreated wood blocks at 5% probability level for both species. However, a reduction in the shrinkage coefficient was observed with the increase of LCO concentration, for both species. In general, pinus showed lowest values in all parameter evaluated. The shrinkage and anisotropy coefficient were higher for bracatinga than pinus, nevertheless, no significant differences were observed between treated and untreated wood blocks. These results indicated that changes between tangential and radial faces were minimal, possible due to a poor penetration of LCO into the cell walls. This result, as a consequence, could be associated with a weak performance of the tested chemical, which could not improve the dimensional stability of wood for both species. The increasing LCO concentrations increased the density of both species at 12% relative humidity. This result could be associated to the presence of part of the chemical remaining in the walls of the cellular lumen and the resiniferous channels. Besides, the external aspect of the treated wood was also other restrictive factor to the use of LCO.

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF MANGIFERA INDICA L. VAR. THOTAPURI AND MANGIFERA INDICA L. VAR. NEELAM ROOT CRUDE EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Latha, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Pet ether, ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts of Mangifera indica L. Var. Thotapuri and Mangifera indica L. Var. Neelam were taken for anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for evoked response, paralysis and time for death of worms. Piperazine citrate was used as a reference standard and distilled water as a control group. Dose dependent activity was observed in both ...

  1. Resistance to white pine blister rust in Pinus flexilis and P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Richard A. Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Jerry Hill; Kelly S. Burns

    2010-01-01

    The non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, that causes white pine blister rust (WPBR), is impacting or threatening limber pine, Pinus flexilis, and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata. In the Southern Rockies, where the rust invasion is still expanding, we have the opportunity to be proactive and prepare the landscape for invasion. Genetic...

  2. Variabilidad ambiental y productividad en Pinus halepensis Mill.

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    El pino carrasco (Pinus halepensis Mill.) es una especie de gran importancia en restauraciones y repoblaciones en la península Ibérica, capaz de subsistir en zonas secas y ambientes desfavorables, y crucial en el estudio del cambio climático al situarse en un enclave tan representativo como la cuenca mediterránea. A pesar de ello, es muy poca la información que se tiene sobre el comportamiento de esta especie. Por este motivo en el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la productividad del pino...

  3. Pinus pinaster Knot: A Source of Polyphenols against Plasmopara viticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaston, Julien; Richard, Tristan; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Palos Pinto, Antonio; Dufour, Marie-Cécile; Corio-Costet, Marie-France; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

    2017-09-29

    Pine knot extract from Pinus pinaster byproducts was characterized by UHPLC-DAD-MS and NMR. Fourteen polyphenols divided into four classes were identified as follows: lignans (nortrachelogenin, pinoresinol, matairesinol, isolariciresinol, secoisolariciresinol), flavonoids (pinocembrin, pinobanksin, dihydrokaempferol, taxifolin), stilbenes (pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether, pterostilbene), and phenolic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid). The antifungal potential of pine knot extract, as well as the main compounds, was tested in vitro against Plasmopara viticola. The ethanolic extract showed a strong antimildew activity. In addition, pinosylvins and pinocembrin demonstrated significant inhibition of zoospore mobility and mildew development. These findings strongly suggest that pine knot is a potential biomass that could be used as a natural antifungal product.

  4. A mitochondrial DNA minisatellite reveals the postglacial history of jack pine (Pinus banksiana), a broad-range North American conifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, Julie; Jaramillo-Correa, Juan P; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean

    2005-10-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) is a broadly distributed North American conifer and its current range was covered by the Laurentian ice sheet during the last glacial maximum. To infer about the history and postglacial colonization of this boreal species, range-wide genetic variation was assessed using a new and highly variable minisatellite-like marker of the mitochondrial genome. Among the 543 trees analysed, 14 distinct haplotypes were detected, which corresponded to different repeat numbers of the 32-nucleotide minisatellite-like motif. Several haplotypes were rare with limited distribution, suggesting recent mutation events during the Holocene. At the population level, an average of 2.6 haplotypes and a mean haplotype diversity (H) of 0.328 were estimated. Population subdivision of genetic diversity was quite high with G(ST) and R(ST) values of 0.569 and 0.472, respectively. Spatial analyses identified three relatively homogeneous groups of populations presumably representative of genetically distinct glacial populations, one west and one east of the Appalachian Mountains in the United States and a third one presumably on the unglaciated northeastern coastal area in Canada. These results indicate the significant role of the northern part of the US Appalachian Mountains as a factor of vicariance during the ice age. A fourth distinct group of populations was observed in central Québec where the continental glacier retreated last. It included populations harbouring haplotypes present into the three previous groups, and it had higher level of haplotype diversity per population (H = 0.548) and lower population differentiation (G(ST) = 0.265), which indicates a zone of suture or secondary contact between the migration fronts of the three glacial populations. Introgression from Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm. was apparent in one western population from Alberta. Altogether, these results indicate that the mitochondrial DNA variation of jack pine is

  5. Identification of the varR gene as a transcriptional regulator of virginiamycin S resistance in Streptomyces virginiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namwat, W; Lee, C K; Kinoshita, H; Yamada, Y; Nihira, T

    2001-03-01

    A gene designated varR (for virginiae antibiotic resistance regulator) was identified in Streptomyces virginiae 89 bp downstream of a varS gene encoding a virginiamycin S (VS)-specific transporter. The deduced varR product showed high homology to repressors of the TetR family with a conserved helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif. Purified recombinant VarR protein was present as a dimer in vitro and showed clear DNA binding activity toward the varS promoter region. This binding was abolished by the presence of VS, suggesting that VarR regulates transcription of varS in a VS-dependent manner. Northern blot analysis revealed that varR was cotranscribed with upstream varS as a 2.4-kb transcript and that VS acted as an inducer of bicistronic transcription. Deletion analysis of the varS promoter region clarified two adjacent VarR binding sites in the varS promoter.

  6. Bootstrap determination of the cointegration rank in heteroskedastic VAR models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Guiseppe; Rahbæk, Anders; Taylor, A.M. Robert

    2014-01-01

    -integrated VAR model with i.i.d. innovations. In this paper we investigate the properties of their bootstrap procedures, together with analogous procedures based on a wild bootstrap resampling scheme, when time-varying behavior is present in either the conditional or unconditional variance of the innovations. We...... the asymptotic PLR test or an alternative bootstrap method (where the short run dynamics in the VAR model are estimated unrestrictedly) for a variety of conditionally and unconditionally heteroskedastic innovation processes...... of the underlying vector autoregressive (VAR) model which obtain under the reduced rank null hypothesis. They propose methods based on an independent and individual distributed (i.i.d.) bootstrap resampling scheme and establish the validity of their proposed bootstrap procedures in the context of a co...

  7. EFFECTS OF MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA - A VAR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how monetary policy decisions affect inflation and other economic variables is particularly important. In this paper we consider the implications of monetary policy under the inflation targeting regime in Romania, based on an autoregressive vector method including recursive VAR and structural VAR (SVAR. Therefore, we focus on assessing the extent and persistence of monetary policy effects on gross domestic product (GDP, price level, extended monetary aggregate (M3 and exchange rate. The main results of VAR analysis reflect a negative response of consumer price index (CPI, GDP and M3 and positive nominal exchange rate behaviour to a monetary policy shock, and also a limited impact of a short-term interest rate shock in explaining the consumer prices, production and exchange rate fluctuations.

  8. [Trichophyton tonsurans var. sulfureum subvar. perforans in Tinea gladiatorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasch, J; Rüther, T; Harmsen, D

    1999-05-01

    This is the first report on an isolation of Trichophyton tonsurans var.sulfureum subvar.perforans in Germany. In our patient, the strain had caused typical tinea corporis, which was most likely acquired during a wrestling competition. Based on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology and on the physiologic properties occurring under various growth conditions, the identification of Trichophyton tonsurans and the particular characteristics of its var.sulfureum subvar.perforans are described. Partial 18S and 23S nuclear ribosomal RNA sequences and the internal transcribed spacer region I sequences of our strain were completely identical with those of a Trichophyton tonsurans reference strain. The epidemiology of Trichophyton tonsurans var.sulfureum subvar.perforans and a possible association of this variety with tinea in wrestlers (tinea gladiatorum) have not yet been investigated.

  9. Extremum Seeking Control of Smart Inverters for VAR Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Daniel; Negrete-Pincetic, Matias; Stewart, Emma; Auslander, David, M; Callaway, Duncan

    2015-09-04

    Reactive power compensation is used by utilities to ensure customer voltages are within pre-defined tolerances and reduce system resistive losses. While much attention has been paid to model-based control algorithms for reactive power support and Volt Var Optimization (VVO), these strategies typically require relatively large communications capabilities and accurate models. In this work, a non-model-based control strategy for smart inverters is considered for VAR compensation. An Extremum Seeking control algorithm is applied to modulate the reactive power output of inverters based on real power information from the feeder substation, without an explicit feeder model. Simulation results using utility demand information confirm the ability of the control algorithm to inject VARs to minimize feeder head real power consumption. In addition, we show that the algorithm is capable of improving feeder voltage profiles and reducing reactive power supplied by the distribution substation.

  10. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) LETHALITY OF Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    O.T. TÜZÜN, E. GÜRKAN, F. HIRLAK,

    2015-01-01

    This work covers up the bio-activities of the five fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cruciferae).Key Words: Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  11. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  12. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  13. Meiotic chromosome pairing in Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertten, D; Tsang, G K; Manako, K I; McNeilage, M A; Datson, P M

    2012-12-01

    Polyploids are defined as either autopolyploids or allopolyploids, depending on their mode of origin and/or chromosome pairing behaviour. Autopolyploids have chromosome sets that are the result of the duplication or combination of related genomes (e.g., AAAA), while allopolyploids result from the combination of sets of chromosomes from two or more different taxa (e.g., AABB, AABBCC). Allopolyploids are expected to show preferential pairing of homologous chromosomes from within each parental sub-genome, leading to disomic inheritance. In contrast, autopolyploids are expected to show random pairing of chromosomes (non-preferential pairing), potentially leading to polysomic inheritance. The two main cultivated taxa of Actinidia (kiwifruit) are A. chinensis (2x and 4x) and A. chinensis var. deliciosa (6x). There is debate whether A. chinensis var. deliciosa is an autopolyploid derived solely from A. chinensis or whether it is an allopolyploid derived from A. chinensis and one or two other Actinidia taxa. To investigate whether preferential or non-preferential chromosome pairing occurs in A. chinensis var. deliciosa, the inheritance of microsatellite alleles was analysed in the tetraploid progeny of a cross between A. chinensis var. deliciosa and the distantly related Actinidia eriantha Benth. (2x). The frequencies of inherited microsatellite allelic combinations in the hybrids suggested that non-preferential chromosome pairing had occurred in the A. chinensis var. deliciosa parent. Meiotic chromosome analysis showed predominantly bivalent formation in A. chinensis var. deliciosa, but a low frequency of quadrivalent chromosome formations was observed (1 observed in 20 pollen mother cells).

  14. 初植密度对樟子松人工林解剖特征的影响%Effect of Plant Density on Anatomical Characteristics of Pinus sylvestris Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金满; 李海英; 郭明辉; 王庆成

    2002-01-01

    对不同初植密度(1.5 m×1.0 m、1.5 m×2.0 m、1.5 m×2.5 m)的樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var.mongoli-ca)人工林的主要的解剖特征的进行研究.结果表明:不同的初植密度对樟子松人工林的解剖性能有一定的影响,管胞长度、管胞直径有显著性差异,而其他指标无显著差异.

  15. [Iridoid glycosides from buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-qin; Yin, Zhi-feng; Liu, Yu-cui; Li, Hong-bo

    2011-10-01

    The study on the buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum was carried out to look for anti-HBV constituents. The isolation and purification were performed by HPLC and chromatography on silica gel, polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 column. The structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six iridoid glycosides were identified as jasgranoside B (1), 6-O-methy-catalpol (2), deacetyl asperulosidic acid (3), aucubin (4), 8-dehydroxy shanzhiside (5), and loganin (6). Jasgranoside B (1) is a new compound. Compounds 2-6 were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  16. Typification of Blechnum spicant var. fallax Lange (Blechnaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Wąsowicz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Blechnum spicant var. fallax Lange is a fern taxon endemic to Iceland where it occurs in the vicinity of hot springs on geothermally heated soils. The taxon was first described by a Danish botanist Johan Martin Christian Lange in 1880 on the basis of plant material collected by Christian Grønlund in Iceland. Because its holotype was not designated in the protologue, we examined the extant original material including illustrations from Flora Danica and a single plant on sheet C10021769 (deposited in C that was the basis for the respective plate. We select this specimen as the lectotype of Blechnum spicant var. fallax.

  17. 4-D-Var or ensemble Kalman filter?

    OpenAIRE

    Kalnay, Eugenia; LI, HONG; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Yang, Shu-Chih; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim

    2007-01-01

    We consider the relative advantages of two advanced data assimilation systems, 4-D-Var and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), currently in use or under consideration for operational implementation. With the Lorenz model, we explore the impact of tuning assimilation parameters such as the assimilation window length and background error covariance in 4-D-Var, variance inflation in EnKF, and the effect of model errors and reduced observation coverage. For short assimilation windows EnKF gives more a...

  18. ROM Simulation: Applications to Stress Testing and VaR

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Alexander; Daniel Ledermann

    2012-01-01

    Most banks employ historical simulation for Value-at-Risk (VaR) calculations, where VaR is computed from a lower quantile of a forecast distribution for the portfolio’s profit and loss (P&L) that is constructed from a single, multivariate historical sample on the portfolio’s risk factors. The implicit assumption is that history will repeat itself for certain over the forecast horizon. Until now, the only alternative is to assume the historical sample is generated by a multivariate, parametric...

  19. Importancia del control de las dimensiones de la madera aserrada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Álvarez-Lazo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo brindar algunas consideraciones para elevar los niveles de rendimiento de madera de Pinus caribaea var. caribaea mediante el uso de una estrategia para incrementar la calidad dimensional de la madera aserrada a partir del análisis de las dimensiones promedio obtenidas y la variación de corte en el aserrío. Para lo cual se construye un programa denominado “Control” que permite determinar las dimensiones óptimas de aserrío así como la determinación de la variación en grosor. Se observa que en los aserraderos existe un subdimensionamiento generalizado fundamentalmente en los surtidos 50, 75, 100 mm; así como una excesiva variación de aserrío. Para eliminar estas deficiencias es necesario que las acciones correctivas estén dirigidas fundamentalmente a aquellas partes de máquinas responsables de la variación de aserrado controlando los esquemas de corte seleccionados por el aserrador.

  20. Annual shoot growth components related to growth of Pinus brutia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Fikret; Isik, Kani; Yildirim, Tolga; Li, Bailian

    2002-01-01

    Shoot elongation patterns of Pinus brutia Ten. were studied in six natural populations and 10 open-pollinated families within each population. The data were collected from a provenance-progeny trial that was thinned at Ages 13 and 17 years. Annual height increment was partitioned into first flush (spring shoot) and subsequent flushes (summer shoots) and the contribution of each to annual height increment was measured from Ages 7 to 17. Spring shoot elongation patterns were similar in all populations and families for 9 out of 10 years. In contrast, at all ages, populations differed significantly in total summer shoot growth and number of summer flushes. Families within populations differed in number of summer flushes in 7 out of 10 years. Summer shoot growth was the major cause of the differences in annual height growth among the six populations. Significant and high correlations were observed between summer shoot growth at Ages 7 to 12 and height at Age 13. A population from near the middle of the species' altitudinal range had more summer flushes than populations from higher or lower elevations, indicating an opportunistic growth pattern. Compared with mid-elevation populations, low- and high-elevation populations had more conservative growth patterns that depended mainly on growth of spring shoots. We conclude that summer shoot growth can serve as an explanatory variable to predict height growth of populations. Differences in shoot elongation patterns among Pinus brutia populations may be useful for selecting seed sources and for gene conservation programs.

  1. Emerging Needle Blight Diseases in Atlantic Pinus Ecosystems of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Ortíz de Urbina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Red band needle blight caused by Dothistroma septosporum and D. pini, and brown spot needle blight caused by Lecanosticta acicola provoke severe and premature defoliation in Pinus, and subsequent reduction of photosynthetic surfaces, vitality, and growth in young and adult trees. The recurrent damage results in branch and tree death. Until recently, pine needle blight diseases have had only minor impacts on native and exotic forest trees in the North of Spain, but in the past five years, these pathogen species have spread widely and caused severe defoliation and mortality in exotic and native plantations of Pinus in locations where they were not detected before. In an attempt to understand the main causes of this outbreak and to define the effectiveness of owners’ management strategies, four research actions were implemented: a survey of the management activities implemented by the owners to reduce disease impact, the evaluation of specific symptoms and damage associated with infection, and the identification of the causative pathogenic species and their reproductive capacity. Morphological characteristics of the fungus and molecular identification were consistent with those of Lecanosticta acicola and Dothistroma spp., D. septosporum, D. Pini, and both mating types were present for the three identified pathogens. The local silvicultural management performed, mainly pruning and thinning, was not resulting in the expected improvement. The results of this study can be applied to establish guidelines for monitoring and controlling the spread of needle blight pathogens.

  2. Modelagem do crescimento e de biomassa individual de Pinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Schikowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo testar modelos matemáticos para estimativas de biomassa de diferentes compartimentos de Pinus spp., a partir de variáveis de fácil mensuração. Os dados utilizados são provenientes de plantios localizados no centro sul do estado do Paraná. Foram utilizados dados de peso seco total e parcial de 35 árvores de Pinus spp., obtidos por meio do método destrutivo direto. De cada árvore amostrada foram medidos também o CAP (circunferência à altura do peito e a altura total. Os modelos para estimativa de biomassa de folhagem não apresentaram bom desempenho, verificado pelos indicadores de ajuste. Entretanto, para os compartimentos: galhos, raízes, casca, fuste e para biomassa total, os ajustes apresentaram elevados valores de R² e baixos valores de Syx%. O modelo de crescimento de Richards obteve melhor desempenho que os demais testados para a estimativa da biomassa total.

  3. High level of var2csa transcription by Plasmodium falciparum isolated from the placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise G; Salanti, Ali; Bertin, Gwladys;

    2005-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum parasites that bind to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) express unique variant surface antigens that are involved in the placental sequestration that precipitates pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM). Two var gene subfamilies, var1csa and var2csa, have been associated with CSA bin...

  4. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period

  5. Antimicrobial activities of several parts of Pinus brutia, Juniperus oxycedrus, Abies cilicia, Cedrus libani and Pinus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diğrak, M; Ilçim, A; Hakki Alma, M

    1999-11-01

    In this study, the antimicrobial activities of several parts of various trees grown in the Kahramanmaraş region of Turkey were investigated by the disc diffusion method. Chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts of leaves, resins, barks, cones and fruits of Pinus brutia Ten., Juniperus oxycedrus L., Abies cilicia Ant. & Kotschy Carr., Cedrus libani A. Rich. and Pinus nigra Arn. were prepared and tested against Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Bacillus subtilis IMG 22, Bacillus cereus FMC 19, Escherichia coli DM, Klebsiella pneumoniae FMC 3, Enterobacter aerogenes CCM 2531, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1, Mycobacterium smegmatis RUT, Proteus vulgaris FMC 1, Listeria monocytogenes Scoot A, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 5007, Candida albicans CCM 314, Candida tropicalis MDC 86 and Penicillium italicum K. The results showed that antifungal effects were not observed for the whole extracts, E. coli was not inhibited by any of the plant extracts except by the chloroform and acetone extracts of the leaves of A. cilicia, which showed inhibition zones of 16-18 mm, respectively. All the plant extracts used in this study inhibited the development of the other bacteria studied. When the results of this study were compared with an ampicillin standard, it was found that the microorganisms studied were generally susceptible, intermediate or resistant to the extracts of species when compared with the ampicillin standard. On the other hand, the acetone and methanol extracts of Juniperus fruits were found to be quite resistant.

  6. Some soil properties and microbial biomass of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea and Eucalyptus camaldulensis from the Eastern Mediterranean coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacide Kizildag

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salt-affected soils occupy wide areas that have ecological importance in semi-arid and arid regions. Excessive amounts of salt have adverse effects on soil physical and chemical properties and also on the microbiological processes. The soils of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis were found to be under salinity stress in the present study area. Thus, the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus contents, microbial biomass, and carbon mineralization were determined in the soils sampled from the Tarsus-Karabucak Forest of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (Turkey. Method: Carbon mineralization of all samples was measured by the CO2 respiration method over 30 d at 28�C and constant moisture. Results: There were no significant differences in the carbon mineralization among the soils. The average fungi count in 1 g of air dried soils of E. camaldulensis, P. pinea, and P. maritima were found to be a 72000 colony forming unit (cfu/g, 25300 cfu/g, and 28500 cfu/g, respectively. The total bacterial counts were 4x103 cfu/g, 10x103 cfu/g, and 7x103 cfu/g and the counts of anaerobic bacteria were 17800 cfu/g, 42900 cfu/g, and 27300 cfu/g, respectively. Conclusion: It is possible to conclude that salt, as an ecological factor, had no effect on microbial activity. This may be as a result of heavy rains which decreased the salt concentrations of the soil in the sampling region.

  7. A New Cyclohexene Oxide from Uvaria tonkinensis var. subglabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An LIU; Zhong Mei ZOU; Li Zhen XU; Shi Lin YANG

    2003-01-01

    A new compound, subglain B, was isolated from the stems of Uvaria tonkinensis var. subglabra and its structure was identified as 1S, 2R, 3S, 6R-1-benzoyloxymethylene-1,2- dihydroxy-3-benzoyloxy-6-chlorocyclohex-4-ene (1), by spectral evidences.

  8. Indolizidine, Antiinfective and Antiparasitic Compounds from Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosopilosidine, a new potent antiinfective and antiparasitic 2,3-dihydro-1H-indolizinium chloride, (1), was isolated from Prosopis glandulosa Torr. var. glandulosa. Furthermore, three additional new and one known indolizidines, prosopilosine (2), isoprosopilosine (3), isoprosopilosidine (4) and jul...

  9. A Bootstrap Cointegration Rank Test for Panels of VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent

    functions of the individual Cointegrated VARs (CVAR) models. A bootstrap based procedure is used to compute empirical distributions of the trace test statistics for these individual models. From these empirical distributions two panel trace test statistics are constructed. The satisfying small sample...

  10. New diterpenes from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Y H; Chen, C H; Huang, S L

    1998-06-26

    An abietane diterpene, 11,14-dihydroxy-8,11,13-abietatrien-7-one (1); a seco-abietane diterpene, obtuanhydride (2); and an isopimarane diterpene, 18,19-O-isopropylidene-18, 19-dihydroxyisopimara-8(14),15-diene (3) were isolated from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  11. Two New Abietane Quinones from Isodon lophanthoides var. Micranthus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The structures of two new abietane quinones, named micranthins A and B, weredetermined to be 7α-methoxy-14, 16-epoxy-8, 13-abietadiene-11, 12-dione (1) and 16-acetoxy-6,7-dehydroroyleanone (2) respectively, which were isolated from Isodon lophanthoides var.micranthus.

  12. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divan, Deepak [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Moghe, Rohit [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Tholomier, Damien [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  13. Individual Growth Environment Suitable for Naturally Regenerated Young Pinus koraiensis under Secondary Natural Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANShaohui; ZHANGQun; SHENHailong

    2004-01-01

    Impacts on growth of young trees of Pinus Koraiensis of 6 environmental factors of intensity of sunlight, direct sunlight, thickness of soil humus, neighboring trees, upper canopy species, herbs and shrubs were investigated on young tree of Pinus Koraiensis and 4 neighboring trees which are considered the structural unit of the microenvironment. Results indicated that the 6 environmental factors under investigation had effects, to various extents, on growth of the young trees. Based on the findings, suitable growing conditions for regenerated young tree of Pinus Koraiensis under forest were identified and corresponding silvicultural measures were proposed for operational practice.

  14. 火炬松、湿地松和马尾松采穗圃营建技术%Building Techniques of Cuttings Orchard of Pinus taeda,Pinus elliottii and Pinus massoniana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    来端

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,the effect of time and retention hei ght of topping on quantity,length and basal diameter of coppice shoot of Pinus taeda,Pinus elliottii and Pinus massonian a has been studied.The results showed that because of difference of b iological properties among three tree species, suitable time and retention heigh t of topping among three tree species are different.The suitable topping time o f Pinus taeda is August 20 to August 25,the best retention height of topping is 15 cm; The suitable topping time of Pinus masson iana is July 30, the best retention height of topping is 8 cm; The su itable topping time of Pinus elliottii is August 15 to Aug ust 20,the best retention height of topping is 15 cm.%通过不同剪顶时间和剪顶高度对火炬松、湿地松和马尾 松的萌条数量、长度和径粗的影响研究.结果表明:不同树种由于其生物学特性不同,适宜 的截顶时间、截顶高度表现不一致.火炬松适宜的截顶时间为8月20日至8月25日,截顶高度 以15 cm为最宜;马尾松适宜的截顶时间为7月30日,截顶高度为8 cm;湿地松适宜的截顶时 间为8月15日至8月20日,截顶高度为15 cm.

  15. EFEITO FUNGITÓXICO DO ÓLEO DE NIM SOBRE Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum e Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álison Bruno da Silva Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plague control is based almost exclusively on application of chemical substances, however these products are toxic to men and animals and cause odd effects on environment quality. In Plague Integrated Management (PIM, the use of selected insecticides and entomopathogenic fungi should be considered as one viable strategy for plague control in agriculture. This work aimed to evaluate, in laboratory, the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae with the oil of Nim. The addition of the product was made to the potato-dextrose-agar medium still liquid (±45°C, in a way that the final concentration obeyed 50% of the producer's recommendation. After fungi inoculation, the dishes were incubated in a cimatized room at 28°C, photophase of 12 hours and relative humidity of 75±5% for 12 day period. The number of conidia per colonie was counted with a Neubauer chamber. Statistic delineament was entirely in random, with two treatments (PDA with insecticide, and a control group (PDA without insecticide, and 9 repetitions for each treatment. The results showed that the insecticide inhibited conidial production in Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae strains when compared to the control group. The diameter of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum colonies suffered significative reduction in its size, compared to control. The tested insecticide, in the concentration and formulation used, presented compatibility with the tested strains.

  16. Cutin fluorescence in early embryos of Pinus and Tsuga

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    Ewa Szczuka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryos of Pinus nigra Arnold and Tsuga canadensis Carr. (Pinaceae at different stages of development were dissected from fresh, unfixed seeds and examined in a fluorescence microscope with 400 nm excitation light. The embryos of the investigated species showed cutin fluorescence after auramine 0 staining. At first the fluorescing cutin layer was formed on the apical part of the embryo with a well developed secondary suspensor, then it extended over the lateral surface of the embryo; the suspensor remained nonfluorescent. The fluorescing cutin layer occurred on the apical and side surface of the embryo, undergoing differentiation into the shoot axis and root initials. It is assumed that polarization and nutrition of the embryo may be influenced by presence of the cuticle.

  17. Needles of Pinus halepensis as biomonitors of bioaerosol emissions.

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    Amandine Galès

    Full Text Available We propose using the surface of pine trees needles to biomonitor the bioaerosol emissions at a composting plant. Measurements were based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a bioindicator of composting plant emissions. A sampling plan was established based on 29 samples around the emission source. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene copies of S. rectivirgula per gram of Pinus halepensis needles varied from 104 to 102 as a function of the distance. The signal reached the background level at distances around the composting plant ranging from 2 km to more than 5.4 km, depending on the local topography and average wind directions. From these values, the impacted area around the source of bioaerosols was mapped.

  18. Microwave vacuum drying characteristics of Pinus massoniana wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xian-jun; Li Wen-jun; Zhang Bi-guang

    2007-01-01

    Microwave-vacuum (MV) drying characteristics of plantation Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) were studied experimentally for various levels of microwave radiation time, initial moisture content (MC), vacuum level and wood thickness. The results show that the process of MV drying for wood can be significantly divided into a short accelerating rate drying period, a long constant rate drying period and falling rate drying period, and the second drying period can extend to levels of mean MC below the fiber saturation point. With the increase of initial MC and microwave radiation time, the drying rate of wood increases significantly. The vacuum level affects the drying rate in a slightly positive way. Within the range of 2 to 6 cm, the effects of sample thickness on the drying rate can be negligible.

  19. Isolation and characterization of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) convicilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tengchuan; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yu-Wei; Albillos, Silvia M; Kothary, Mahendra H; Fu, Tong-Jen; Tankersley, Boyce; McHugh, Tara H; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2014-07-01

    A vicilin-like globulin seed storage protein, termed convicilin, was isolated for the first time from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis). SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that Korean pine convicilin was post-translationally processed. The N-terminal peptide sequences of its components were determined. These peptides could be mapped to a protein translated from an embryo abundant transcript isolated in this study. Similar to vicilin, native convicilin appeared to be homotrimeric. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses revealed that this protein is less resistant to thermal treatment than Korean pine vicilin. Its transition temperature was 75.57 °C compared with 84.13 °C for vicilin. The urea induced folding-unfolding equilibrium of pine convicilin monitored by intrinsic fluorescence could be interpreted in terms of a two-state model, with a Cm of 4.41 ± 0.15 M.

  20. Quality of Pinus elliottii sawn timber from tapped forests

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    Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the quality of Pinus elliottii sawn timber extracted from tapped forests and processed in a sawmill in São José do Norte (RS. Four butt logs and four upper logs for each of the three existing diameter grades were selected and sawed. The wood pieces were analyzed after sawing and after kiln drying. The presence of knots, which occurred due to the absence of forest management and influenced the qualitative classification of the wood pieces, was observed mainly in the samples from upper logs. The process of resin tapping contributed to a higher incidence of resin pockets in the samples from butt logs, also influencing the qualitative classification of the samples. The appearance of drying defects did not modify the classification of the wood samples from butt and upper logs.

  1. Germinación in vitro de Pinus cubensis Griseb

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    Raima Cantillo Ardebol

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hace alusión a la micropropagación de Pinus cubensis, Griseb, como aspecto que satisface la demanda de semillas para la reforestación en áreas de Pinares de Mayarí, hábitat de esta endémica región, amenazada por minería y explotación maderera. Se utilizaron semillas, determinando el mejor método de desinfección, evaluando su germinación en medio con diferentes composiciones de reguladores del crecimiento, y la influencia de la presencia o ausencia de la cubierta seminal. El mejor resultado se obtuvo con Cloralex al 20% durante 15 minutos e implantando semillas sin testa en medio MS libre de reguladores del crecimiento.

  2. NUTRIENTS CONCENTRATION AND RETRANSLOCATION IN THE Pinus taeda L. NEEDLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at evaluating nutrients concentration and retranslocation in the Pinus taeda L. needles, this study was developed in two stands, in native grass area and in second rotation area, with same species and same age (7.5 years old in Cambará do Sul, RS. The needles were collected in plants in four orthogonal points (South, North, East and West, sampled new needles, mature needles and old needles. The material was dried in a stove, milled and chemically analyzed (macro and micronutrients. The concentrations of N, P, K, B, Cu and Zn had decreased, of Ca, Fe and Mn increased, and the Mg and S have remained constant with the age of the needles. The retranslocation rate (old-new needles was more than 50% for most nutrients, except for Mn and Fe, showed that cumulative effect and the Ca reference element.

  3. Needles of Pinus halepensis as biomonitors of bioaerosol emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galès, Amandine; Latrille, Eric; Wéry, Nathalie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Godon, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    We propose using the surface of pine trees needles to biomonitor the bioaerosol emissions at a composting plant. Measurements were based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a bioindicator of composting plant emissions. A sampling plan was established based on 29 samples around the emission source. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene copies of S. rectivirgula per gram of Pinus halepensis needles varied from 104 to 102 as a function of the distance. The signal reached the background level at distances around the composting plant ranging from 2 km to more than 5.4 km, depending on the local topography and average wind directions. From these values, the impacted area around the source of bioaerosols was mapped.

  4. Variation among matsutake ectomycorrhizae in four clones of Pinus sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaario, Lu-Min; Lu, Jinrong; Koistinen, Arto; Tervahauta, Arja; Aronen, Tuija

    2015-04-01

    Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal fungus that forms commercially important mushrooms in coniferous forests. In this study, we explored the ability of T. matsutake to form mycorrhizae with Pinus sylvestris by inoculating emblings produced through somatic embryogenesis (SE) in an aseptic culture system. Two months after inoculation, clones with less phenolic compounds in the tissue culture phase formed mycorrhizae with T. matsutake, while clones containing more phenols did not. Effects of inoculation on embling growth varied among clones; two of the four tested showed a significant increase in biomass and two had a significant increase in root density. In addition, results suggest that clones forming well-developed mycorrhizae absorbed more Al, Fe, Na, P, and Zn after 8 weeks of inoculation. This study illustrates the value of SE materials in experimental work concerning T. matsutake as well as the role played by phenolic compounds in host plant response to infection by mycorrhizal fungi.

  5. ESTABLISHMENT OF Pinus elliottii Engelm STANDS WITH DIRECT FIELD SOWING

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    César Augusto Guimarães Finger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was undertaken to test the possibility of use of direct field sowing as a method of  forest formation. The soil preparation consisted of mechanic mowing followed by cleaning of small circles of 40 cm of diameter, where four seeds of Pinus elliottii Engelm were sowed, previously stratified, and protected by a bottomless plastic glass fastened to the sowing point. The treatments tested were direct sowing, sowing of seeds involved by paper envelop and seedling plantation as testify treatment. The results were not satisfactory, however, being observed at the most 38.46% of the sowing places with seedlings after 84 days of sowing. The main factor that contribuited to the failure of the method was seedling mortality caused by water deficit and high temperatures.

  6. Anatomic Study of Female Sterility of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Pengjun; Li Fenglan; Zheng Caixia

    2003-01-01

    The anatomic research on the mutant clone of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. in the seed orchard in Xingcheng, LiaoningProvince was carried out. The female cone of the mutant clone looked like normal, but its ovules degenerated in the early stage. Thispaper tries to find out the reason and time of ovule abortion. It seems that the ovule abortion is probably caused by female sterilitybecause the microspores of this mutant clone were normal. Through the serial observations on the one-year-old macrosporangiatesand the ovules of two-year-old female cones of mutant and normal clone, it is found that the reason of ovule abortion in mutant cloneis the failure of the mitosis of free nuclei in the female gametophyte, and the time is about in the early April.

  7. RECONSTRUCCIÓN DE PRECIPITACIÓN INVIERNO-PRIMAVERA CON ANILLOS ANUALES DE Pinus douglasiana EN LA RESERVA DE LA BIOSFERA SIERRA DE MANANTLÁN, JALISCO

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    Julián Cerano-Paredes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se reconstruyó la precipitación invierno-primavera de 219 años (1792-2010 de la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra de Manantlán (RBSM, Jalisco, México, empleando los anillos anuales de Pinus douglasiana (Mtz. como “proxy”. La sequía de mediados del siglo XX (1941-1963 fue la más severa del periodo estudiado. El índice multivariado de El Niño Oscilación del Sur (ENSO; 1959-2010 y el índice de ancho del anillo de P. douglasiana mostraron correlación significativa (r = 0.4542; P < 0.05 de los meses de enero-junio, con mayor correlación en los meses de enero (r = 0.4337; P < 0.0001 y marzo (r = 0.4310; P < 0.0001. Las teleconexiones de ENSO en la región varían a través del tiempo; de enero a junio, los eventos El Niño están asociados con precipitaciones mayores que el promedio, mientras que los eventos La Niña muestran lo contrario.

  8. Genetic relationships among some Pinus, Picea and Abies species revealed by RAPD markers

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    Kovačević Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were undertaken to identify genetic relationships among ten different species of the family Pinaceae through randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. Eighteen arbitrary RAPD primers produced 123 fragments of which 107 were polymorphic (87%. The similarity coefficient values varied from 0.34 to 0.67. The highest similarity coefficient was detected between Pinus wallichiana and P. strobus as well as between Picea abies and P. orientalis, and the lowest was detected between threePinus species (P. heldreichii, P. peuce and P. wallichiana and Picea omorika. The analysis of RAPD markers confirmed the genetic relationships among species. GenusPicea is clearly separated from genus Pinus and is closer to genus Abies (A. concolor than to genus Pinus, what confirms up-to-date numerous comparative-morphological, anatomical, chemotaxonomic and molecular results of these closely related genera. Furthermore, on the basis of our results, pine species from different subgenera -Pinus and Strobus are clearly separated. This statement is in agreement with contemporary intrageneric classification of the genus Pinus. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br.173029

  9. A laboratorial study on influence of alkaline and oxidative environment on preservation of Pinus tabulaeformis pollen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang TIAN; Xianyong CAO; Qinghai XU; Yuecong LI

    2009-01-01

    Different sedimentary settings can influence preservation of pollens, which would lead to mis-interpretation of fossil pollen spectrum. This study investigates the influence on the preservation of Pinus tabulaeformis pollen by simulating alkaline and oxidative environment in the laboratory. There was no obvious change in the content ofPinus tabulaeformis pollen while comparing the original with the ones that were immersed with 10% NaOH liquor for ten days, or boiled for five hours, and or boiled with 20%-30% NaOH for one hour,respectively. However, the pollen fossils were obviously corroded and eroded after being boiled with 40% NaOH for one hour and were seriously corroded after five hours. The result indicates that Pinus tabulaeformis pollen is quite durable in alkaline environment and heating condition within a shorter period of time, although alkaline environment has a disadvantage for its preservation. We also tested the influence of oxidation on Pinus tabulae-formis pollen preservation with KMnO4 as oxidant. The result presents that the number of remaining Pinus tabulaeformis pollen grains decreased quickly after being dipped in KMnO4 along with extending the reaction time and reinforcing oxidant. The rate of remnant pollen grains was less than 1% after being dipped with 2% KMnO4 for one hour. It is suggested that oxidative environment has stronger influence on Pinus tabulaeformis pollen preserva tion than alkaline environment.

  10. Studies on phenolic acids variation in Central European Pinus species 1. Five Polish populations of Pinus mugo Turra and some related forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Krzaczek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic acids were investigated in the needles of eight different pine populations, five of which were Pinus mugo, two -- P. silvestris and one a critical form described by Neumann as P. uliginosa. Twenty different phenolic acids were detected. Six were discovered in pine needles for the first time (salicylic acid, gentisic acid, γ-resorcylic acid, o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, β-resorcylic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. Each of the investigated taxons was shown to exhibit a characteristic spectrum of phenolic acids. The critical form from the locus classicus of Pinus uliginosa is of intermediate character.

  11. Isoenzymatic variability in progeny of Pinus mugo Turra x Pinus sylvestris L. hybrids from Bór na Czerwonem, in experimental culture

    OpenAIRE

    Maria A. Bobowicz; Władysław Danielewicz

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the genetic structure of 12-year old seedlings. They were grown in an experimental culture representing the progeny of natural hybrids of Pinus mugo Turra and Pinus sylvestris L. from the peatbog Bór na Czerwonem. The studies were carried out on seedlings, employing electrophoresis of enzymatic proteins from winter buds. Parallel isoenzymatic analyses were also conducted for trees of P. mugo Turra from Tatra Mountains and for P. sylvestris L. trees from Białowieża in ord...

  12. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field.

  13. VaR: Exchange Rate Risk and Jump Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Ying Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the Poisson jumps and exchange rate risk, this paper provides an analytical VaR to manage market risk of international portfolios over the subprime mortgage crisis. There are some properties in the model. First, different from past studies in portfolios valued only in one currency, this model considers portfolios not only with jumps but also with exchange rate risk, that is vital for investors in highly integrated global financial markets. Second, in general, the analytical VaR solution is more accurate than historical simulations in terms of backtesting and Christoffersen's independence test (1998 for small portfolios and large portfolios. In other words, the proposed model is reliable not only for a portfolio on specific stocks but also for a large portfolio. Third, the model can be regarded as the extension of that of Kupiec (1999 and Chen and Liao (2009.

  14. MANAGEMENT OF Amburana cearensis var. acreana IN ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Muñoz Braz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814586This work has as its objectives: a to assess the geographical distribution and population structure of Amburana cearensis var. acreana; b to calculate sustainable cutting rates, according to stipulated cutting cycles, and c to simulate the projected recovery potential in volume based on the calculated cutting rate. It was used data from sustainable forest management plans, and the results will contribute for future decisions about its endangered condition. The results did not corroborate the information that Amburana cearensis var. acreana is endangered in Acre state. However the management sustainability will only be feasible if considered the ideal remaining population structure and the estimative of the optimal cutting rate according to the cutting cycle.

  15. [Glycosides from flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-qin; Xia, Jing-jing; Dong, Jun-xing

    2007-10-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the flower of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum. The compounds were isolated and purified by re-crystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Seven glycosides were identified as kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->3)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->6)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (I), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (II), 7-ketologanin (III), oleoside-11-methyl ester (IV), 7-glucosyl-l1-methyl oleoside (V), ligstroside (VI), oleuropein (VII). Compound I is a new compound. Compounds III and V were isolated from the family of Jasminum for the first time and compounds II, IV and VI were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  16. Static Var Compensator Project for the SPS Electrical Network

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives a progress report on the Static Var Compensator project BEF2 for the SPS electrical network. Following a market survey and a call for tenders, a contract has been awarded to ABB Sweden and the project is now in the phase of detailed performance studies, system design and ordering of the main electrical components. This progress report describes the electrical design, summarises the results of the harmonic filter design studies, discusses the interfacing of the control- and communication system and explains the mechanical layout of the Static Var Compensator and as well as the project co-ordination with the feeding BE substation renovation project. Finally, the project planning is presented and critical paths are evaluated.

  17. Inflows and their Macroeconomic Impact in India a VAR Analysis

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    Narayan Sethi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. The study also examines the trends and composition of capital inflows into India. Using the Vector Autoregression (VAR method, this paper specifically examines effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. This study is based on the monthly data from 1995:04 to 2011:07 and incorporating the macroeconomic variables such as exchange rate (EXR, inflation, money supply (M3, export (EXPO, import (IMP, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX and economic growth (IIP as proxy of GDP. The important observations emerge from the VAR analysis which shows there is dynamic short and long equilibrium relationship between few macroeconomic variables like exchange rate (EXR, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX, index of industrial production (IIP and money supply (M3 with private foreign capital inflows (FINV during the study period from 1995:04 to 2011:07

  18. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Raman; Lee, Do-Hyung; Park, SeonJoo

    2016-05-01

    The complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicine was reported and characterized. The cpDNA of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is 149,539 bp, with 36.3% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,803 bp is separated by a large single-copy region (LSC, 82,805 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 17,128 bp). It encodes 85 protein-coding genes, 36 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes. Of 129 individual genes, 13 genes encoded one intron and three genes have two introns.

  19. Identification of Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenzig, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    The following chapter describes a PCR method for the identification of the raspberry root rot pathogen Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi. Furthermore, a nested PCR suitable for the detection of the pathogen in infected raspberry roots and validated against the "Duncan bait test" (EPPO Bull 35:87-91, 2005) is explained. Protocols for different DNA extraction methods are given which can be transferred to other fungal pathogens.

  20. A novel cytotoxic neophysalin from Physalis alkekengi var. francheti

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Hang Zhang; Zheng Tao Wang; Yi Ping Yang; Qi Shi Sun

    2009-01-01

    A new neophysalin, named 5α-hydroxy-25,27-dihydro-4,7-didehydro-7-deoxyneophysalin A(1), along with three other known neophysalins (2-4) were isolated from the calyxes of Physalis alkekengi L. var.francheti (Mast.) Makino. The structure of 1 was determined by means of ID and 2D NMR, UV, IR and mass spectra. Compound 1 displayed potent cytotoxicities in vitro against PC-3 and LNCaP cell lines.

  1. VaR without correlations for portfolio of derivative securities

    OpenAIRE

    Barone-Adesi, Giovanni; Giannopoulos, Kostas; Vosper, Les

    2008-01-01

    We propose filtering historical simulation by GARCH processes to model the future distribution of assets and swap values. Options’ price changes are computed by full reevaluation on the changing prices of underlying assets. Our methodology takes implicitly into account assets’ correlations without restricting their values over time or computing them explicitly. VaR values for portfolios of derivative securities are obtained without linearising them. Historical simulation assigns equal probabi...

  2. Probiotic Activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii Against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Rajkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhoea is associated with a modification of the intestinal microflora and colonization of pathogenic bacteria. Tests were performed for seven probiotic yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, designated for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea. To check their possible effectiveness against diarrhoea of different etiologies, the activity against a variety of human pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria was investigated in vitro. In mixed cultures with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii, a statistically significant reduction was observed in the number of cells of Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, by even 55.9 % in the case of L. monocytogenes compared with bacterial monocultures. The influence of yeasts was mostly associated with the shortening of the bacterial lag phase duration, more rapid achievement of the maximum growth rates, and a decrease by 4.4–57.1 % (L. monocytogenes, P. aeruginosa, or an increase by 1.4–70.6 % (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella Typhimurium in the exponential growth rates. Another issue included in the research was the ability of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii to bind pathogenic bacteria to its cell surface. Yeasts have shown binding capacity of E. coli, S. Typhimurium and additionally of S. aureus, Campylobacter jejuni and E. faecalis. However, no adhesion of L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa to the yeast cell wall was noted. The probiotic activity of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii against human pathogens is related to a decrease in the number of viable and active cells of bacteria and the binding capacity of yeasts. These processes may limit bacterial invasiveness and prevent bacterial adherence and translocation in the human intestines.

  3. Potential Endophytic Bacteria for Increasing Paddy Var Rojolele Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desriani Desriani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Paddy var Rojoleleis asuperior paddy come from Klaten that released by Department of Agriculture in 2003. Its superior properties are resistant to pests leaf hoppers, fluffier, and fragrant. To increase the productivity of paddy that are of ten used by farmers is to use chemical-based fertilizers. The use of these chemicals will effect to adisruption of ecosystem balancing, reduction the amount of soil microflora which essential forplants. Endophytic bacteria are symbiotic microorganisms living within plant tissues, and does not cause negative effects on the host plant. Endophytic bacteria have a capability increasing crop productivity by producing growth hormone, contributes to plant health, and as bio-control agents. Some endophytic bacteria which contribute to plant growth are: Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp., Staphylococcus sp., Azotobacter sp., And Azospirilum sp., Whereas endophytic bacteria that contribute to the health and plant protection several of them are: Pseudomonas sp., Serratia sp. ,Clavibacter sp., and Bacillus sp. This study was conducted to investigate potential of endophytic bacteria to increase Paddy var Rojolele productivity based on its ability to produce extracellular enzymes and resistance to multiple types of antibiotics. The method were endophytic bacteria isolation from three Paddy varRojolele plants, extracellular enzymes detection and antibiotic resistance testing to chloramfinekol, ampicillin and kanamycin. As the result, 43isolateswere isolated from Paddy var Rojolele. Four isolatesamong them havethe ability to produce extra cellular enzym esandresistant toampicillin, kanamycin, and chloramfinekol. Extra cellular enzyme production capability and resistance to antibiotics makes endophytic bacteria are potentialto improveplant health and also asbio-control agentwhich then willaffect to the productivity of rice. To further ensure its potential to plant, more research is needed.

  4. REDESCUBRIMIENTO DE MYRRHINIUM ATROPURPUREUM VAR. OCTANDRUM (MYRTACEAE: MYRTINAE EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARRA-O. CARLOS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se documenta el redescubrimiento de Myrrhinium atropurpureum var. octandrum(Myrteae DC., Myrtaceae, taxón prácticamente desconocido en Colombia. Se presentala descripción del taxón, así como notas sobre su distribución en Colombia, elhábitat en que se desarrolla y su posible estatus dentro de las categorías de la ListaRoja de la UICN.

  5. A Structural VAR Approach to Estimating Budget Balance Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Robert A Buckle; Kunhong Kim; Julie Tam

    2001-01-01

    The Fiscal Responsibility Act 1994 states that, as a principle of responsible fiscal management, a New Zealand government should ensure total Crown debt is at a prudent level by ensuring total operating expenses do not exceed total operating revenues. In this paper a structural VAR model is estimated to evaluate the impact on the government's cash operating surplus (or budget balance) of four independent disturbances: supply, fiscal, real private demand, and nominal disturbances. Based on the...

  6. On the way of tobacco quitting: A VAR approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Gérard Vaillant; Christian Ben lakhdar; Thérèse Lebrun

    2011-01-01

    In order to describe the process of tobacco quitting, we perform a VAR model and causality tests both on the monthly sales of tobacco products and nicotine dependence drugs in France, for the period going from February 2004 to April 2009. According to the path of tobacco quitting found out, it results that an upward harmonization of tax policy on the different tobacco products could accelerate the tobacco quitting process.

  7. New lignans from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chen, Chia-Hsien; Lin, Yun-Lian

    2002-07-01

    Four new lignans, 3',4'-O,O-demethylenehinokinin (1), chamalignolide (2), 8'beta-hydroxyhinokinin (3) and 7beta,8beta-epoxyzuonin A (4), as well as (-)-hinokinin (5), and (-)-zuonin A (6), were isolated from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana. The structures of these lignans were unambiguously determined by spectroscopic methods. And the absolute configuration of 1 was elucidated with a circular dichroism (CD) spectrum.

  8. Analysis of 4D Var Data Assimilation Application Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trailovic, L.; Etherton, B.; Harrop, C.; Govett, M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper summarizes the challenges encountered with our ongoing development and use of a software system designed to facilitate exploration of computational optimizations and strategies for Data Assimilation (DA). The software system is designed and constructed from scratch using modern software development methods and tools, though it incorporates components of pre-existing systems where appropriate. We present results of experiments that employ this system to test approaches for assimilation of observations using a four-dimensional variational (4D Var) scheme. We propose a modular DA system software architecture and demonstrate its utility using a set of models of varying realism and complexity. The software system design and implementation was initially tested and validated using a simple chaotic atmospheric model. A Quasi-Geostrophic (QG) atmospheric model was used to conduct DA experiments of increased difficulty and to validate the software design at larger scales of model complexity. Our QG DA study focused on 2016 winter weather data where a Nature run was used to represent the "true" state of the atmosphere and observations, whereas observation error covariance and observation operator were adapted from pre-existing DA systems. To increase performance, a parallel-in-time algorithm was applied to solve the proposed 4D Var data assimilation problem. That is, the assimilation window was divided into multiple sub-intervals, which allowed for parallelization of the cost function and gradient computations. Continuity equations of the solution were added as constraints across interval boundaries. This approach produced a different formulation of the variational data assimilation problem than weakly constrained 4D Var. We explored a combination of serial and parallel 4D Var algorithms to increase performance.

  9. Analysis list: Su(var)3-7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Su(var)3-7 Adult,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3.../target/Su(var)3-7.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)3-7.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)3-7.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/c...olo/Su(var)3-7.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(v...ar)3-7.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)3-7.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience

  10. Mosquito Passage Dramatically Changes var Gene Expression in Controlled Human Plasmodium falciparum Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Anna; Petter, Michaela; Krumkamp, Ralf; Esen, Meral; Held, Jana; Scholz, Judith A M; Li, Tao; Sim, B Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Duffy, Michael F; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-04-01

    Virulence of the most deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the variant surface antigen PfEMP1, which is encoded by about 60 var genes per parasite genome. Although the expression of particular variants has been associated with different clinical outcomes, little is known about var gene expression at the onset of infection. By analyzing controlled human malaria infections via quantitative real-time PCR, we show that parasite populations from 18 volunteers expressed virtually identical transcript patterns that were dominated by the subtelomeric var gene group B and, to a lesser extent, group A. Furthermore, major changes in composition and frequency of var gene transcripts were detected between the parental parasite culture that was used to infect mosquitoes and Plasmodia recovered from infected volunteers, suggesting that P. falciparum resets its var gene expression during mosquito passage and starts with the broad expression of a specific subset of var genes when entering the human blood phase.

  11. Tree Mortality following Prescribed Fire and a Storm Surge Event in Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii var. densa Forests in the Florida Keys, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay P. Sah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In fire-dependent forests, managers are interested in predicting the consequences of prescribed burning on postfire tree mortality. We examined the effects of prescribed fire on tree mortality in Florida Keys pine forests, using a factorial design with understory type, season, and year of burn as factors. We also used logistic regression to model the effects of burn season, fire severity, and tree dimensions on individual tree mortality. Despite limited statistical power due to problems in carrying out the full suite of planned experimental burns, associations with tree and fire variables were observed. Post-fire pine tree mortality was negatively correlated with tree size and positively correlated with char height and percent crown scorch. Unlike post-fire mortality, tree mortality associated with storm surge from Hurricane Wilma was greater in the large size classes. Due to their influence on population structure and fuel dynamics, the size-selective mortality patterns following fire and storm surge have practical importance for using fire as a management tool in Florida Keys pinelands in the future, particularly when the threats to their continued existence from tropical storms and sea level rise are expected to increase.

  12. Tree mortality following prescribed fire and a storm surge event in Slash Pine (pinus elliottii var. densa) forests in the Florida Keys, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Jay P.; Ross, Michael S.; Snyder, James R.; Ogurcak, Danielle E.

    2010-01-01

    In fire-dependent forests, managers are interested in predicting the consequences of prescribed burning on postfire tree mortality. We examined the effects of prescribed fire on tree mortality in Florida Keys pine forests, using a factorial design with understory type, season, and year of burn as factors. We also used logistic regression to model the effects of burn season, fire severity, and tree dimensions on individual tree mortality. Despite limited statistical power due to problems in carrying out the full suite of planned experimental burns, associations with tree and fire variables were observed. Post-fire pine tree mortality was negatively correlated with tree size and positively correlated with char height and percent crown scorch. Unlike post-fire mortality, tree mortality associated with storm surge from Hurricane Wilma was greater in the large size classes. Due to their influence on population structure and fuel dynamics, the size-selective mortality patterns following fire and storm surge have practical importance for using fire as a management tool in Florida Keys pinelands in the future, particularly when the threats to their continued existence from tropical storms and sea level rise are expected to increase.

  13. A Study on Rules of the Transpiration Rates of Pinus densiflora var.zhangwuensis%彰武松蒸腾速率规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟鹏; 雷泽勇; 韩辉

    2005-01-01

    彰武松和樟子松生长季各月蒸腾速率与当月的平均气温、平均风速和地面温度有关,一般来说,平均气温高、地面温度值高、平均风速大的月份,彰武松和樟子松的月平均蒸腾速率也大.降水量大的月份,彰武松和樟子松的月平均蒸腾速率较小.彰武松每个季节的蒸腾速率日变化明显不同,6月份呈双峰型,8月份的蒸腾速率日变化也呈双峰型,10月份呈现单峰型;彰武松的年蒸腾速率的走势呈现单峰型,全年蒸腾速率的最高值出现在7月份;与樟子松进行比较研究发现,在同样生态条件下,彰武松比樟子松有较小的蒸腾强度.

  14. Study on the Shoot Cutting Techniques of Pinus densiflora var zhangwuensis%彰武松扦插繁殖技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷泽勇; 孟鹏; 周凤艳

    2005-01-01

    系统研究了彰武松扦插基质、扦插时间、扦插过程的生根特点、插穗生根与温度的关系,结果表明:河沙作为扦插基质生根率达到50%,蛭石达到38%,珍珠岩+草炭(1:1)达到35%,细沙作为基质扦插生根率只有11%.用生根促进剂处理插穗,是提高难生根树种扦插成活率的重要措施,彰武松扦插用100μg·g-1生根促进剂L1处理插穗4h最适宜.彰武松属于愈伤组织生根型.生根长达2~4个月之久,扦插时的地表温度过低(低于20℃)不利于生根;彰武松扦插的最好时间为6月上中旬,在北方地区不要进行秋季扦插.

  15. Soil Characteristics and Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Performance Two Decades after Disk Trenching of Unburned and Broadcast-Burned Plots in Subboreal British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob O. Boateng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of low-impact broadcast-burning and disk-trenching planting position (control, hinge, trench on soil characteristics and lodgepole pine foliar nutrition and growth over two decades at a subboreal site in British Columbia, Canada. Broadcast burning had virtually no effect on either the bulk density or chemical properties of soil. In contrast, significant reductions in soil bulk density and increases in soil nutrient availability persisted for 20 years in hinge position soils relative to undisturbed (control soil between trenches. These effects on bulk density and nutrient availability are associated with significant differences in pine size by year 6. Burning and planting positions interacted significantly in their effect on pine height, diameter, and stem volume for at least 19 years. Pine survival was high regardless of burning or planting position. Neither broadcast burning nor planting position significantly affected lodgepole pine foliar nutrient status in this study.

  16. PROPRIEDADES FÍSICAS DOS LENHOS JUVENIL E ADULTO DE PINUS ELLIOTTII ENGELM VAR. ELLIOTTII E DE EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS HILL EX MAIDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melany Maria Alonso Pelozzi

    2012-01-01

    and swelling coefficient of the juvenile and mature wood. The results of the species showed that the mature compared with the juvenile wood presented: (1 an increase in the values of the basic density, at 0% and at 12% of moisture content and of the volumetric, radial and tangential swelling at 12% moisture content and maximum coefficient of radial and tangential swelling; (2 a reduction in the values of longitudinal swelling at 12% and maximum and of the longitudinal swelling coefficient.

  17. Differential expression of genes involved in entomopathogenicity of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae and M. anisopliae var. acridum (Clavicipitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro-Leão, M P; Andreote, F D; Araújo, W L; Oliveira, N T

    2011-05-03

    Expression analysis of the genes involved in germination, conidiogenisis and pathogenesis of Metarhizium anisopliae during its saprophytic and pathogenic life stages can help plan strategies to increase its efficacy as a biological control agent. We quantified relative expression levels of the nitrogen response regulator gene (nrr1) and a G-protein regulator of genes involved in conidiogenesis (cag8), using an RT-qPCR assay. Comparisons were made between M. anisopliae var. anisopliae and M. anisopliae var. acridum during germination and conidiogenesis and at different stages of pathogenesis. The cag8 gene was repressed during germination and induced during conidial development and the pathogenic phase, and the nrr1 gene was induced during germination, conidiogenesis and the pathogenic phase. Both genes were more expressed in M. anisopliae var. anisopliae, demonstrating that different varieties of M. anisopliae differ in activation of genes linked to virulence for certain environments and hosts. This suggests that differences among these varieties in the ability to adapt could be attributed not only to specific genomic regions and genes, but also to differential gene expression in this fungus, modulating its ability to respond to environmental stimuli.

  18. VT-1161 Protects Immunosuppressed Mice from Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Fothergill, Annette W; Garvey, Edward P; Hoekstra, William J; Schotzinger, Robert J; Patterson, Thomas F; Filler, Scott G; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2015-12-01

    We studied the efficacy of the investigational drug VT-1161 against mucormycosis. VT-1161 had more potent in vitro activity against Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus than against R. arrhizus var. delemar. VT-1161 treatment demonstrated dose-dependent plasma drug levels with prolonged survival time and lowered tissue fungal burden in immunosuppressed mice infected with R. arrhizus var. arrhizus and was as effective as high-dose liposomal amphotericin B treatment. These results support further development of VT-1161 against mucormycosis.

  19. Investigation on Effect of Forestation by Mixing Pinus massoniana with Schima superba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGWenchao; HUANGLili

    2004-01-01

    Since forestation of pure forest of Pinus massoniana is liable to suffer from pest calamity, soil erosion, decrease of soil fertility, and difficulty in wood production in the hilly areas of southern China, we conducted an investigation on the three types of forests in Gao'an County of Jiangxi Province, namely, the pure forest of Pinus massoniana, the pure forest of Schima superba, and the mixed forest consisting of the two species, setting up standard stand, measuring and studying the growing stock, biomass, leaf area, roots,soil, vegetation, pests, litters, soil erosion, microclimate, etc., with the following results. ① The average height, diameter at chest height, and volume of the mixed forest are higher than those of the pure forest of Pinus massoniana by 30.9%, 31.7% and 10.6%, respectively. ② The biomass of the mixed forest is 2.24 times as much as that of the pure forest of Pinus massoniana. ③ The litters of the mixed forest is 3.37 times and 1.96 times as much as the litters of the pure forest of Pinus massoniana and the pure forest of Schima superba respectively. ③ The occurrence of pest calamity per tree is lower and the conditions of soil erosion and microclimate are better than those of the pure forest ofPinus massoniana. ④ The mixed forest of the two species is an excellent mixed type of needle-leaf and deciduous forest worth being popularized in China's subtropical areas, especially in the low hilly areas. It is recommended in plantation that the mixed patterns be between trees, lines, small blocks, or scattered-dots, the ratio of mixture of Pinus massoniana and Schima superba be 5 to 1, or 3 to 1, and the initial space between trees be 1.2, 1.5, or 2.0 m while the initial density be 6 944 to 4 440 trees per square hectare.

  20. Antioxidative properties of the essential oil from Pinus mugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassmann, Johanna; Hippeli, Susanne; Vollmann, Renate; Elstner, Erich F

    2003-12-17

    The essential oil from Pinus mugo (PMEO) was tested on its antioxidative capacity. For this purpose, several biochemical test systems were chosen (e.g., the Fenton System, the xanthine oxidase assay, or the copper-induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)). The results show that there is moderate or weak antioxidative activity when tested in aqueous environments, like in the Fenton system, xanthine oxidase induced superoxide radical formation, or in the HOCl driven fragmentation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). In contrast, when tested in more lipophilic environments (e.g., the ACC-cleavage by activated neutrophils in whole blood) the PMEO exhibits good antioxidative activity. PMEO does also show good antioxidative capacity in another lipophilic test system (i.e., the copper induced oxidation of LDL). Some components of PMEO (i.e., Delta(3)-carene, camphene, alpha-pinene, (+)-limonene and terpinolene) were also tested. As the PMEO, they showed weak or no antioxidant activity in aqueous environments, but some of them were effective antioxidants regarding ACC-cleavage by activated neutrophils in whole blood or copper-induced LDL-oxidation. Terpinolene, a minor component of PMEO, exhibited remarkable protection against LDL-oxidation.

  1. MICROBIOTA OF PINUS POLLEN AS ADJUVANT FACTOR OF ALLERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Shevtsova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria, their endotoxin and mold found on pollen can be a reason of respiratory symptoms in sensitized individuals. This question concerns an anemophilous pollen more acute. In this work quantitative by dilution plating method and qualitative microbial analysis by MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper of pollen and other plants organs of Pinus sylvestris L., P. nigra Arnold, P. mugo Turra, P. armandii Franch., P. wallichiana A.B. Jacks from Nitra, Slovakia are performed which shows quantitative and species differences in mesophilic aerobic (0.00-6.27 log cfu/g and anaerobic bacteria (0.00-3.70 log cfu/g, enterococci (0.00 log cfu/g, coliform bacteria (0.00-5.29 log cfu/g, lactobacilli (0.00-4.20 log cfu/g, microscopic fungi and yeasts (2.60-5.29 log cfu/g content. Representatives of Pseudomonas (14, Bacillus (2, Acinetobacter (1, Arthrobacter (1, Pantoea (1, Klebsiella (1, Penicillium (6, Aspergillus (4, Cladosporium (1, Debaryomyces (1 genera were revealed on pine trees. The allergenic potential of the identified association of microorganisms on pollen has been evaluated based on published data. The results may be useful for aerobiologists, allergists and microbiologists, at least at the local level.

  2. Aboveground Tree Biomass for Pinus ponderosa in Northeastern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A. Hamilton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest managers need accurate biomass equations to plan thinning for fuel reduction or energy production. Estimates of carbon sequestration also rely upon such equations. The current allometric equations for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa commonly employed for California forests were developed elsewhere, and are often applied without consideration potential for spatial or temporal variability. Individual-tree aboveground biomass allometric equations are presented from an analysis of 79 felled trees from four separate management units at Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest: one unthinned and three separate thinned units. A simultaneous set of allometric equations for foliage, branch and bole biomass were developed as well as branch-level equations for wood and foliage. Foliage biomass relationships varied substantially between units while branch and bole biomass estimates were more stable across a range of stand conditions. Trees of a given breast height diameter and crown ratio in thinned stands had more foliage biomass, but slightly less branch biomass than those in an unthinned stand. The observed variability in biomass relationships within Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest suggests that users should consider how well the data used to develop a selected model relate to the conditions in any given application.

  3. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment.

  4. Effects of "short" photoperiods on seedling growth of Pinus brutia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovoglou, V; Radoglou, K; Kostopoulou, P; Dini-Papanastasi, O

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated how nurseries could benefit by inducing "short" photoperiods as low as 4 hr to produce "better" seedlings characterized by more vigorous roots; a substantial feature to overcome transplanting stress. The carryover effect of the photoperiod was also investigated on seedlings that grew for 30 days more underthe consistent 14 hr photoperiod. Seedlings of Pinus brutia were subjected to 4, 6, 8 and 14 hr photoperiod for 3 week. Fifteen seedlings were used to evaluate the leaf area, the root and shoot dry weight and their ratio. Six and sixteen seedlings were used to evaluate the shoot electrolyte leakage and the root growth potential, respectively. Based on the results, the 6 and 8 hr photoperiod indicated greater root allocation (4.8 and 4.9 mg, respectively) and chlorophyll content (3.7 and 4.4, respectively). They also indicated greater leaf area values (3.3 and 3.5 cm2, respectively) along with the 14 hr (3.4 cm2). The photoperiod effect continued even after seedlings were subjected at consistent photoperiod. Overall, "short" photoperiods could provide "better" P. brutia seedlings to accommodate immediate massive reforestation and afforestation needs.

  5. Asexual propagation of Pinus leiophylla Schiede ex Schltdl. et Cham.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Cuevas-Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El efecto del sustrato, tipo de estaca y concentración de ácido indolbutírico (AIB se evaluó en el enraizado de estacas de Pinus leiophylla con el propósito de multiplicar progenies de familias de medios hermanos con crecimiento sobresaliente. Para ello se utilizaron dos tipos de sustratos (agrolita y una mezcla de turba-agrolita-vermiculita 1:1:1, dos tipos de estacas (apicales y basales y dos concentraciones de AIB (0 y 10,000 ppm. La probabilidad y porcentaje de enraizado, crecimiento de la estaca y características de las raíces formadas de P. leiophylla se evaluaron. Los resultados indican que usando estacas basales es 3.5 veces más probable que el enraizamiento de P. leiophylla sea exitoso que utilizando estacas apicales. El tratamiento formado por la mezcla de turba-agrolita-vermiculita, estaca basal y 10,000 ppm de AIB produjo 45.3 % de enraizamiento (mayor porcentaje, mientras que con el testigo solo se obtuvo 8.6 % de enraizamiento (agrolita, estaca basal y sin AIB. Las interacciones que incluyeron el tipo de sustrato mostraron diferencias significativas (P ≤ 0.05 en el crecimiento de la estaca. El uso de agrolita y la aplicación de AIB favorecieron un mayor número de raíces, particularmente en las estacas tipo basal de P. leiophylla.

  6. Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor effects of pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Moon, Sung Chae; Lee, Mee Sook

    2006-01-01

    Pine needles (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini) have long been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. To investigate their potential anticancer effects, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor activities were assessed in vitro and/or in vivo. Pine needle ethanol extract (PNE) significantly inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl radical in vitro. PNE markedly inhibited mutagenicity of 2-anthramine, 2-nitrofluorene, or sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 or TA100 in Ames tests. PNE exposure effectively inhibited the growth of cancer cells (MCF-7, SNU-638, and HL-60) compared with normal cell (HDF) in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In in vivo antitumor studies, freeze-dried pine needle powder supplemented (5%, wt/wt) diet was fed to mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 cells or rats treated with mammary carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 50 mg/kg body weight). Tumorigenesis was suppressed by pine needle supplementation in the two model systems. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in pine needle-supplemented rats in the DMBA-induced mammary tumor model. These results demonstrate that pine needles exhibit strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and also antitumor effects in vivo and point to their potential usefulness in cancer prevention.

  7. Antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities of pine (Pinus densiflora) pollen extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Mi

    2007-05-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activity of pine (Pinus densiflora) pollen in mice. The antinociceptive activity was determined using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-induced licking, and the hot plate test. Antiinflammatory effects were evaluated using carrageenan- and formalin-induced paw edema, and arachidonic acid-induced ear edema in mice. The ethanol extract of pine pollen (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a significant inhibition of both phases of the formalin pain test in mice, a reduction in mouse writhing induced by acetic acid and an elevation of the pain threshold in the hot plate test in mice. The pine pollen extract also produced a significant inhibition of carrageenan- and formalin-induced paw edema as well as arachidonic acid-induced ear edema in mice. The inhibitions were similar to those produced by aminopyrine and indomethacin, p.o. The different polyphenols found in pine pollen could account for the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory actions. The results obtained indicate that the extract possesses analgesic and antiinflammatory effects.

  8. An allelopathic substance in red pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Fushimi, Yoshiko; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2009-03-01

    Aqueous methanol extracts of red pine (Pinus densiflora) needles inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), timothy (Pheleum pratense), Digitaria sanguinalis and Echinochloa crus-galli. Increasing the extract concentration increased inhibition, suggesting that the pine needles may have growth inhibitory substances and possess allelopathic potential. The aqueous methanol extract of the pine needles was purified, and a main inhibitory substance was isolated and determined by spectral data as 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid. This substance inhibited root and shoot growth of cress and Echinochloa crus-galli seedlings at concentrations greater than 0.1 mM. The endogenous concentration of the substance was 0.13 mmol/kg pine needle. These results suggest that 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid may contribute to the growth inhibitory effect of the pine needles and may play an important role in the allelopathy of red pine.

  9. Biocontrol of Fusarium circinatum Infection of Young Pinus radiata Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Iturritxa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pitch canker, caused by the fungus Fusarium circinatum, is a major disease of Pinus radiata currently controlled to some extent in nurseries by good hygiene and application of synthetic fungicides. The aim of this study was to evaluate alternative strategies to control fungal infections in nurseries and young pine plantations. The antagonistic effects of biocontrol bacteria and essential oils against F. circinatum in vitro and in young P. radiata trees were assessed. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Erwinia billingiae, and Bacillus simplex reduced the growth of the fungus in vitro by 17%–29%, and decreased the density of the mycelial mat. In young P. radiata trees, the length of F. circinatum lesions was reduced by 22%–25% by the same bacterial strains. Direct application of cinnamon and/or clove essential oils to wounds in stems of two-year-old P. radiata trees also limited the damage caused by F. circinatum. Lesion length was reduced by 51% following treatment with cinnamon oil (10% v/v, and by 45% following treatment with clove oil (15% v/v or a combination of both oils. However, the oils were toxic to younger trees. The biocontrol bacteria and essential oils show promise as prophylactic treatments to reduce the devastating effects of F. circinatum on P. radiata.

  10. Molecular Characterization of a Dehydroascorbate Reductase from Pinus bungeana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Ling Yang; Ying-Ru Zhao; Cai-Ling Wang; Zhi-Ling Yang; Qing-Yin Zeng; Hai Lu

    2009-01-01

    Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) plays a critical role in the ascorbate-glutathione recycling reaction for most higher plants. To date, studies on DHAR in higher plants have focused largely on Arabidopsis and agricultural plants, and there is virtually no information on the molecular characteristics of DHAR in gymnosperms. The present study reports the cloning and characteristics of a DHAR (PbDHAR) from a pine, Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl. The PbDHAR gene encodes a protein of 215 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 24.26 kDa. The predicted 3-D structure of PbDHAR showed a typical glutathione S-transferase fold. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the PbDHAR was a constitutive expression gene in P. bungeana. The expression level of PbDHAR mRNA in P. bungeana seedlings did not show significant change under high temperature stress. The recombinant PbDHAR was overexpressed in Escherichia coll following purification with affinity chromatography. The recombinant PbDHAR exhibited enzymatic activity (19.84μmol/min per mg) and high affinity (a K_m of 0.08 mM) towards the substrates dehydroascorbate (DHA). Moreover, the recombinant PbDHAR was a thermostable enzyme, and retained 77% of its initial activity at 55 ℃. The present study is the first to provide a detailed molecular characterization of the DHAR in P. bungeana.

  11. Bending of Pinus jeffreyi in response to wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H. Bullock

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To evaluate the degree of trunk sway in relation to wind velocity, with varying temporal integration and to compare this relation among seasons.Area of study: Sierra de Juárez, Baja California, MéxicoMaterials and Methods: Displacements of a 19 m tall Jeffrey pine tree were recorded at 6 m from a three dimensional digital compass during one year, at c. 4 Hz. Adjacent wind speed at 6 m was recorded at 1 Hz.Main results: Sway was essentially unaffected by wind in the same second  but increasing dependence of cumulative displacement on average sustained wind speed was found for intervals of 1 to 60 minutes (r2 up to 0.89.  The relation is generally log-linear but apparently differs in parameters between seasons.Research highlights: Wind-sway relations are clear from integration of several-to-many minutes. However, to estimate cumulative stress, sub-second data on sway are essential.  Sub-second, precision measurements of sway can be registered from small, inexpensive sensors.Keywords: biomechanics; Pinus jeffreyi; seasonality; stress accumulation; time series; tree bending.

  12. [Soil microbial functional diversity of different altitude Pinus koraiensis forests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong-xue; Wang, Ning; Wang, Nan-nan; Sun, Xue; Feng, Fu-juan

    2015-12-01

    In order to comprehensively understand the soil microbial carbon utilization characteristics of Pinus koraiensis forests, we took the topsoil (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm) along the 700-1100 m altitude in Changbai Mountains and analyzed the vertical distributed characteristics and variation of microbial functional diversity along the elevation gradient by Biolog microplate method. The results showed that there were significant differences in functional diversity of microbial communities at different elevations. AWCD increased with the extension of incubation time and AWCD at the same soil depth gradually decreased along with increasing altitude; Shannon, Simpson and McIntosh diversity index also showed the same trend with AWCD and three different diversity indices were significantly different along the elevation gradient; Species diversity and functional diversity showed the same variation. The utilization intensities of six categories carbon sources had differences while amino acids were constantly the most dominant carbon source. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified that soil microbial carbon utilization at different altitudes had obvious spatial differentiation, as reflected in the use of carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids. In addition, the cluster of the microbial diversity indexes and AWCD values of different altitudes showed that the composition of vegetation had a significant impact on soil microbial composition and functional activity.

  13. Nitrogen metabolism in Lignifying Pinus taeda cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerden, P. S.; Towers, G. H.; Lewis, N. G.

    1996-01-01

    The primary metabolic fate of phyenylalanine, following its deamination in plants, is conscription of its carbon skeleton for lignin, suberin, flavonoid, and related metabolite formation. Since this accounts for approximately 30-40% of all organic carbon, an effective means of recycling the liberated ammonium ion must be operative. In order to establish how this occurs, the uptake and metabolism of various 15N-labeled precursors (15N-Phe, 15NH4Cl, 15N-Gln, and 15N-Glu) in lignifying Pinus taeda cell cultures was investigated, using a combination of high performance liquid chromatography, 15N NMR, and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry analyses. It was found that the ammonium ion released during active phenylpropanoid metabolism was not made available for general amino acid/protein synthesis. Rather it was rapidly recycled back to regenerate phenylalanine, thereby providing an effective means of maintaining active phenylpropanoid metabolism with no additional nitrogen requirement. These results strongly suggest that, in lignifying cells, ammonium ion reassimilation is tightly compartmentalized.

  14. Genetic transformation of Pinus taeda by particle bombardment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A protocol is presented for genetically engineering loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using particle bombardment. This protocol enabled the routine transformation of loblolly pine plants that were previously difficult to transform. Mature zygotic embryos were used to be bombarded and to generate organogenic callus and transgenic regenerated plants. Plasmid pB48.215 DNA contained a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) cryIAc coding sequence flanked by the double cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and nopaline synthase (Nos) terminator sequences, and the selectable marker gene, neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) controlled by the promoter of the nopaline synthase gene was introduced into loblolly pine tissues by particle bombardment. The transformed tissues were proliferated and selected by kanamycin resistance conferred by the introduced NPTII gene. Shoot regeneration was induced from the kanamycin-resistant callus, and transgenic plantlets were then produced. The presence of the introduced genes in the transgenic loblolly pine plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) analysis, by Southern blot analysis, and insect feeding assays. The recovered transgenic plants were acclimatized and then established in soil.

  15. Dynamics of monoterpene emissions in Pinus sylvestris during early spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeck, J.; Hari, P.; Juurola, E. [Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Hakola, H. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Research and Development, Helsinki (Finland); Kulmala, M. [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    The seasonal dynamics of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, which can be related to the formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols, represent an important but at the present poorly understood linkage between vegetation activity and climate. Although a close relationship between photosynthesis and terpenoid emissions has been proposed, high monoterpene emission rates for Scots pine shoots (Pinus sylvestris) are frequently recorded during spring, in times when photosynthetic activity is strongly inhibited due to inherent seasonal restrictions. We suggest that terpenoid emissions are related to either photosynthesis or photorespiration for precursors for terpenoid biosynthesis. We developed two dynamic models describing temporal fluctuations in Scots pine monoterpene emissions, calculating the emissions by using CO{sub 2} exchange and ambient climate data. The models accurately predicted the measured monoterpene flux, and especially in March-April, during the time when photosynthesis was negligible and ambient temperatures were between -5 and +15 C, a good agreement was found with measured emissions and the model involving photorespiration. (orig.)

  16. Effect of trace elements on growth of Pinus tabulaeformis seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The stimulative effect of trace elements on seed germination and seedling growth of Pinus tabulaeformis was tested. The experiments were carried out on seed soak and topdressing with different trace elements and varied concentrat ions at the nursery of Gardens Research Institute, Harbin, in 2000-2001. The experimental results showed that soaking seed with 1% and 0.2% concentrations of Mn element produced best result for seed germination, and the germination rate was increased by 9%~19% for the seeds treated with 1% concentration and 12%~14% for the seeds treated with 0.2% concentration compared with the control group. The seeds treated with boron element had lowest germination rate. For trace element topdressing, Mn and Mo elements presented good result for seedling growth and th e treatment with low concentration was even better. The height or chlorophyll co ntent of the seedlings with spray of low-concentration Mn and Mo element was muc h higher than that of untreated ones. In the contrast to the treating method of seed soak, topdressing (application of spraying on foliage) had evident effect o n seedling growth.

  17. Utilizing nanobody technology to target non-immunodominant domains of VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev, Sisse B; Florea, Raluca; Nielsen, Morten A

    2014-01-01

    and maternal anemia. IE accumulation is supported by the binding of the parasite-expressed protein VAR2CSA to placental chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). Defining specific CSA-binding epitopes of VAR2CSA, against which to target the immune response, is essential for the development of a vaccine aimed at blocking IE...... adhesion. However, the development of a VAR2CSA adhesion-blocking vaccine remains challenging due to (i) the large size of VAR2CSA and (ii) the extensive immune selection for polymorphisms and thereby non-neutralizing B-cell epitopes. Camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (HcAbs) are known to target epitopes...

  18. Antisense long noncoding RNAs regulate var gene activation in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit-Avraham, Inbar; Pozner, Guy; Eshar, Shiri; Fastman, Yair; Kolevzon, Netanel; Yavin, Eylon; Dzikowski, Ron

    2015-03-03

    The virulence of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of human malaria, is attributed to its ability to evade human immunity through antigenic variation. These parasites alternate between expression of variable antigens, encoded by members of a multicopy gene family named var. Immune evasion through antigenic variation depends on tight regulation of var gene expression, ensuring that only a single var gene is expressed at a time while the rest of the family is maintained transcriptionally silent. Understanding how a single gene is chosen for activation is critical for understanding mutually exclusive expression but remains a mystery. Here, we show that antisense long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) initiating from var introns are associated with the single active var gene at the time in the cell cycle when the single var upstream promoter is active. We demonstrate that these antisense transcripts are incorporated into chromatin, and that expression of these antisense lncRNAs in trans triggers activation of a silent var gene in a sequence- and dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, interference with these lncRNAs using complement peptide nucleic acid molecules down-regulated the active var gene, erased the epigenetic memory, and induced expression switching. Altogether, our data provide evidence that these antisense lncRNAs play a key role in regulating var gene activation and mutually exclusive expression.

  19. Incremental 4D-VAR assimilation scheme based on Lorenz model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xidong; XU Dongfeng; XU Xiaohua

    2008-01-01

    Four-dimensional variational(4D-VAR) data assimilation method is a perfect data assimilation solution in theory, but the compu- tational issue is quite difficult in operational implementation. The incremental 4D-VAR assimilation scheme is set up in order to re- duce the computational cost. It is shown that the accuracy of the observations, the length of the assimilation window and the choice of the first guess have an important influence on the assimilation outcome through the contrast experiment. Compared with the standard 4D-VAR assimilation scheme, the incremental 4D-VAR assimilation scheme shows its advantage in the computation speed through an assimilation experiment.

  20. Dynamics of anti-VAR2CSA immunoglobulin G response in a cohort of senegalese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuikue Ndam, N G; Salanti, A; Le-Hesran, J-Y;

    2006-01-01

    (VSAPAM). Several studies have shown that 1 var gene, var2csa, is transcribed at high levels and expressed in CSA-binding Plasmodium falciparum parasites. METHODS: Plasma levels of anti-VAR2CSA immunoglobulin G (IgG) in Senegalese women were measured during pregnancy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...... demonstrated that a single P. falciparum infection was able to trigger a VAR2CSA-specific antibody response. Among women with infected placentas, women with high anti-VAR2CSA IgG levels at enrollment were more likely to present with a past infection than with an acute/chronic infection. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-VAR2...

  1. Comparison between 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation methods for the simulation of a heavy rainfall case in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Vincenzo; Maiello, Ida; Capozzi, Vincenzo; Budillon, Giorgio; Ferretti, Rossella

    2017-08-01

    This work aims to provide a comparison between three dimensional and four dimensional variational data assimilation methods (3D-Var and 4D-Var) for a heavy rainfall case in central Italy. To evaluate the impact of the assimilation of reflectivity and radial velocity acquired from Monte Midia Doppler radar into the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model, the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) is used.The two methods are compared for a heavy rainfall event that occurred in central Italy on 14 September 2012 during the first Special Observation Period (SOP1) of the HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment) campaign. This event, characterized by a deep low pressure system over the Tyrrhenian Sea, produced flash floods over the Marche and Abruzzo regions, where rainfall maxima reached more than 150 mm 24 h-1.To identify the best QPF, nine experiments are performed using 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation techniques. All simulations are compared in terms of rainfall forecast and precipitation measured by the gauges through three statistical indicators: probability of detection (POD), critical success index (CSI) and false alarm ratio (FAR). The assimilation of conventional observations with 4D-Var method improves the QPF compared to 3D-Var. In addition, the use of radar measurements in 4D-Var simulations enhances the performances of statistical scores for higher rainfall thresholds.

  2. Isolation of the Endophytic Fungi of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis and Their Effects on the Embryo Development of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun CHENG; Yanqiong YANG; Changling ZHAO; Li WANG; Shuying CHEN; Yuhan SHEN; Jing CHAI; Key words Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis; Endophytic fungus; P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seed; Embryo development; Embryo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract [Objective] This study aimed to isolate the endophytic fungi of Paris poly- phylla var. yunnanensis and investigate their effects on the embryo development of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seeds. [Method] The endophytic fungi of P. poly- phylla were isolated and identified morphologically, and their effects on the embryo development of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seeds were studied by using paraffin sectioning and microphotography. [Result] Nine endophytic fungi, Le. P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis endophytic fungi PPYEF-1, PPYEF-2, PPYEF-3, PPYEF-4, PPYEF- 5, PPYEF-6, PPYEF-7, PPYEF-8 and PPYEF-9 belonging to seven genera in five families, three orders were isolated from the rhizomes. Except PPYEF-4 (Cladospori- um sp.), other fungi could promote the embryo development of the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seeds, mostly reaching the extremely significant or significant level. PPYEF-9 (Trichoderma sp.) resulted in the highest embryo length and embryo-e- merging ratio. [Conclusion] This paper could provide a reference for the applica- tion of the endophytic fungi of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis in the dormancy- breaking of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seeds.

  3. Tree mortality patterns following prescribed fire for Pinus and Abies across the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Brooks, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The reintroduction of fire to historically fire-prone forests has been repeatedly shown to reduce understory fuels and promote resistance to high severity fire. However, there is concern that prescribed fire may also have unintended consequences, such as high rates of mortality for large trees and fire-tolerant Pinus species. To test this possibility we evaluated mortality patterns for two common genera in the western US, Pinus and Abies, using observations from a national-scale prescribed fire effects monitoring program. Our results show that mortality rates of trees >50 DBH were similar for Pinus (4.6% yr-1) and Abies (4.0% yr-1) 5 years following prescribed fires across seven sites in the southwestern US. In contrast, mortality rates of trees >50 cm DBH differed between Pinus (5.7% yr-1) and Abies (9.0% yr-1). Models of post-fire mortality probabilities suggested statistically significant differences between the genera (after including differences in bark thickness), but accounting for these differences resulted in only small improvements in model classification. Our results do not suggest unusually high post-fire mortality for large trees or for Pinus relative to the other common co-occurring genus, Abies, following prescribed fire in the southwestern US.

  4. Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Patricia M.; Lozhkin, Anatoly V.; Solomatkina, Tatiana B.; Brown, Thomas A.

    2010-03-01

    Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least ˜ 19,000 14C yr BP in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after ˜ 19,000 14C yr BP. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until ˜ 8100 14C yr BP, despite the local presence ˜ 9800 14C yr BP of Larixdahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia ˜ 11,000-9000 14C yr BP) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last ˜ 21,000 14C yr BP.

  5. Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P M; Lozhkin, A V; Solomatkina, T B; Brown, T A

    2010-02-05

    Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until {approx}8100 14C yr B.P., despite the local presence {approx}9800 14C yr B.P. of Larix dahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia {approx}11,000-9000 14C yr B.P.) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last {approx}21,000 14C yr B.P.

  6. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN.

  7. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Judy A.; Ariss, Jennifer J.; Kousik, Chandrasekar S.; Hassell, Richard L.; Levi, Amnon

    2016-01-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN. PMID:27168648

  8. The impact of global change on Bosnian pine (P. heldreichii and P. heldreichii var. leucodermis) from SE-Europe as inferred from stable carbon and oxygen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Gerhard; Wieloch, Thomas; Grunewald, Karsten; Todaro, Luigi; Saracino, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    Pinus heldreichii (var. leucodermis) is widespread in the Balkan peninsula and has some scattered and isolated populations in Southern Italy (Todaro et al. 2007). We selected two sites at the western (Italy) and the eastern (Bulgaria) limit of its geographical range distribution, respectively. The Italian site (39° 56'N, 16° 12'E) is located at the timberline (2054m a.s.l.) of Monte Pollino in the Serra di Crispo mountain range. The Bulgarian study site (41° 46'N, 23° 25'E) is situated slightly below the timberline (1900m a.s.l.) of the northern Pirin mountain range, near Mount Vihren. Both sites are characterized by shallow rocky soil and carbonate bedrock (limestone and marble). The Italian site is influenced by humid Mediterranean climate with mean annual temperature at 4° C and 1500mm mean annual precipitation. In contrast, the Bulgarian site is located at in the transition zone between Mediterranean and temperate climate with a mean annual temperature of 1° C and mean annual precipitation of ca. 800mm. We have compared the site chronologies of δ13C and δ18O between AD1600 and AD2003. We will present and discuss common variance in year-to-year variations and long-term variations, as well as response to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate.

  9. Alkaloid content of the seeds from Erythroxylum Coca var. Coca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, John F; Toske, Steven G; Colley, Valerie L

    2005-11-01

    Alkaloid extracts from the seeds of Erythroxylum Coca var. Coca grown in the Chapare Valley of Bolivia were subjected to gas and liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. Several alkaloids from these seeds were detected and characterized, including methylecgonidine, tropine, 3alpha-acetoxytropane, ecgonine methyl ester, cuscohygrine, N-norbenzoyltropine, benzoyltropine, hexanoylecgonine methyl ester, cocaine, cis-cinnamoylcocaine, and trans-cinnamoylcocaine. Methylecgonidine was determined to be the primary constituent and not an analytical artifact. Additionally, two significant new uncharacterized alkaloids were established as present. Recent evidence suggests that some cocaine processors are adding this seed extraction material to cocaine extracted from coca leaf and may impact cocaine impurity signature profiles.

  10. [Chemical constituents from roots of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai-Jiang; He, Lan-Yun

    2014-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the roots of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao. The methanol extract was isolated and purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by MS and spectral data (1H, 13C-NMR). Seven compounds were isolated and identified as plantainoside A (1), plantainoside B (2), calcedarioside C (3), calcedarioside D (4), platyphylloside (5), hirsutanonol (6), and hirsutanonol-5-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7). Compounds 5-7 were isolated for the first time from the family Gesneriaceae.

  11. Novel diterpenes from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chen, Chia-Hsien; Chien, Shih-Chang; Lin, Hsiu-Chuan

    2004-06-01

    Two novel diterpenes, obtusanal B (1) and obtusadione (2), along with obtusanal A (3), obtunone (4), 12-hydroxy-6,7-secoabieta-8,11,13-triene-6,7-dial, 8,12-dihydroxydielmentha-5,9-diene-7,11-dione and myrcene, isolated from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana, were characterized by spectroscopic means, including 2D-NMR techniques. Compounds 1 and 2 are 7(6-->2)abeoabietane and 14(8-->9)abeoabietane type diterpenes, respectively. Their biosyntheses were proposed.

  12. A New Languidulane Diterpenoid from Salvia mexicana var. mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cárdenas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Salvia mexicana var. mexicana, two C-10 epimers (α and β of salvimexicanolide were isolated. Our interpretation of the data, especially the 13C NMR, led us to conclude that the previously described 13C-NMR spectrum of the α-epimer was not accurately assigned and it actually corresponds to the β-epimer. The structures proposed for the salvimexicanolides were verified by means of NOESY experiments. Dugesin B, arbutin, naringenin and the mixture of oleanolic and ursolic acids were also isolated from this Salvia spp.

  13. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the dynamic association between labor costs and FDI. Further, results suggest that labor market policies should focus on productivity-enhancing tools in addition to price hindering tools.

  14. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhoujun3264@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: zhaoyouxing@itbb.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops. Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology. Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences (China)

    2013-09-15

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  15. Paternity and gene dispersal in limber pine (Pinus flexilis James).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, W S; Mitton, J B

    2000-03-01

    This study provides empirical information on intrapopulation gene dispersal via pollen, the size of genetic 'neighbourhoods', and interpopulation gene flow in a long-lived conifer, limber pine (Pinus flexilis). We used allozyme loci for a paternity analysis of 518 seeds produced in an isolated population of limber pine located in north-eastern Colorado, U.S.A., separated by 2 km from the nearest conspecific trees and nearly 100 km from populations in the Rocky Mountains. We also used indirect techniques (FST analyses) to estimate gene flow rates among subdivisions of the study population and among five widely separated populations. Within the main study population limber pine exhibited a polymorphism level of 50%, observed heterozygosity of 0.159, and 2.36 alleles per polymorphic locus. Mountain populations were slightly more variable. The main study population showed significant differentiation in allozymes among neighbouring subpopulations. The mean FST was 0.031 and the gene flow rate among subpopulations was estimated as 7.8 migrants per generation. Among widely separated populations the mean FST was 0.035 and the gene flow rate was estimated as 6.9 migrants per generation. The paternity analysis indicated a best estimate of 6.5% pollen immigration (minimum 1.1%) from populations 2 km to 100+ km away. For 4% of the seeds examined, paternity could be ascribed to a single tree in the study population. Fractional paternity and likelihood methods were used to estimate pollen dispersal distances for the remainder of the seeds. Mean pollen dispersal distance was estimated at 140 m using the fractional method, similar to results from the other techniques. This compares with a mean distance of 172 m between potential mates. These results suggest near-panmictic pollen dispersal over this population, which covers about 15 ha. The observed allozyme differences and surprisingly low estimates of among-subpopulation gene flow are ascribed to a probable restriction of gene

  16. DENSITY MANAGEMENT DIAGRAM OF Pinus taeda L. UNTHINNED STAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Pigatto Schneider

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was developed with the purpose of studying the efficiency of the models which express the density-diameter relationship in stands of Pinus taeda L., implanted in several spacing and handled in unthinning density, and were measured every year until the of 18 age. Results indicated that all of the size-density relationship of Tang model presented good statistical precision, was more efficient than the others, presenting excellent coefficient of determination (0.99, low standard error of estimate (0.0948, low coefficient of variation (1.17%, low bias (0.0086 and high efficiency (0.8976. The slope of the size-density didn’t allow proving the universality of the self-tinning law, with value of this slope is equal -3/2. With help of the size-density model, 6 Indexes of Density of the Stands (IDPs were generated, with variation from the maximum 1400 to the minimum 600, with interval of class of IDP equal to 200, having as reference the standard diameter of 25 cm. The population’s Density Management Diagram (DMD, elaborated for the dendrometric variables – average diameter, basal area and volume for hectare (by IDP – presented good efficiency with low mistake in the estimate of the values of these variables. Real volume and estimate volume per hectare in DMD presented an absolute difference of just -7.39 m3ha-1 and a relative difference of -1.79 %, showing a great precision of the DMD model. The estimates volume of DMD per hectare, in relation to the real values, presented a value of efficiency equal to 0.99, what indicates a high precision, and an  value equal to 0.00034, not significant to 0.01% of probability, demonstrating that the real and the estimate values don't differ statistical amongst themselves. 

  17. Modeling seed dispersal distances: implications for transgenic Pinus taeda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Claire G; LaDeau, Shannon L; Oren, Ram; Katul, Gabriel G

    2006-02-01

    Predicting forest-tree seed dispersal across a landscape is useful for estimating gene flow from genetically engineered (GE) or transgenic trees. The question of biocontainment has yet to be resolved, although field-trial permits for transgenic forest trees are on the rise. Most current field trials in the United States occur in the Southeast where Pinus taeda L., an indigenous species, is the major timber commodity. Seed dispersal distances were simulated using a model where the major determinants were: (1) forest canopy height at seed release, (2) terminal velocity of the seeds, (3) absolute seed release, and (4) turbulent-flow statistics, all of which were measured or determined within a P. taeda plantation established from seeds collected from wild forest-tree stands at the Duke Forest near Durham, North Carolina, USA. In plantations aged 16 and 25 years our model results showed that most of the seeds fell within local-neighborhood dispersal distances, with estimates ranging from 0.05 to 0.14 km from the source. A fraction of seeds was uplifted above the forest canopy and moved via the long-distance dispersal (LDD) process as far as 11.9-33.7 km. Out of 10(5) seeds produced per hectare per year, roughly 440 seeds were predicted to be uplifted by vertical eddies above the forest canopy and transported via LDD. Of these, 70 seeds/ha traveled distances in excess of 1 km from the source, a distance too great to serve as a biocontainment zone. The probability of LDD occurrence of transgenic conifer seeds at distances exceeding 1 km approached 100%.

  18. Rapid changes of induced volatile organic compounds in Pinus massoniana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Qin; JIN Youju; HU Yongiian; CHEN Huajun; LI Zhenyu

    2007-01-01

    Using the thermal-desorption cold trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometer(TCT-GC-MS)technique,the composition and relative contents of volatile compounds were analyzed in undamaged(control),insect-damaged(ID)and artificially-damaged(AD)leaves ofPinus massoniana in field at different times and levels of damage.Results showed that although volatile substances were highly released earlier in AD leaves plants,they were significantly less abundant in AD than in ID leaves treatments.Also,the damage level considerably influenced the changes of induced volatile products from leaves.Compared with the control,the emission rate of camphene,β-pinene,phellandrene,caryophyllene and(E)farnesene was high after 1 h in 25%-40% ID-affected leaves,whereas that of tricyclene,myrcene,camphene,β-Pinene,phellandrene and caryophyllene reached its maximum after 24 h in 60%-75% D-affected leaves.In the same manner,some volatile compounds in the AD leaves treatment displayed their peaks just after 1 h,but others after 24 h.The AD and ID leaves at the damage level of 25%-40% did not exhibit an obvious regularity with time;however,in 60%- 75% AD leaves,peaks of volatile substances were attained after 1 or 2 h.Our results also showed that the relative content ofβ-pinene increased and was higher in damaged than control plants,β-pinene plays an important role in inducing the insect resistance of P.massoniana trees.

  19. Cytogenetic variability in pinus sylvestris L. populations experiencing anthropogenic influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, A.; Geras' kin, S.; Vasiliev, D.; Dikarev, V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Techno-genic pollution has become one of the most significant ecological factors determining biosphere existence and development. An analysis of genetic consequences of the radiation accidents in the South Urals and Chernobyl has shown that mutation and recombination processes are considerably accelerated in plant and animal's populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This implies that there are complicated adaptation processes leading to changes in genetic structure of populations and increasing genetic load. Pinus sylvestris L. populations growing at the territory of the 'radon' Leningrad regional radioactive waste reprocessing enterprise and Sosnovy Bor town were monitored 6 years (1997-2002) by a set of cyto-genetical and morphological tests. Cytogenetic damage levels within intercalary meristem of needle as well as in root meristem of seedlings were found to significantly exceed corresponding controls. A higher radioresistance of the Scots pine seeds analyzed was demonstrated with an acute {gamma}-radiation that also revealed a selection process directed at an enhancement of repair efficiency and resulting in a shift of mean values of radioresistance in populations towards higher values. An enlargement of variance of studied cytogenetic parameters was found in the populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This indicates, with an account of phenomenon of the enhanced radioresistance, that there are processes of cyto-genetical adaptation in the investigated regions. An analysis of the structure of ecological-genetical variability was carried out with the purpose of separating two components in the inter-population variability - the first is engaged to the genetically determined variability of biological characteristics intrinsic for this species, and the second is responsible for the variability originating from anthropogenic contamination of the natural habitat. Changes of these two types of variability were studied in dependence on

  20. Stem compression reversibly reduces phloem transport in Pinus sylvestris trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Nils; Tarvainen, Lasse; Lim, Hyungwoo; Tor-Ngern, Pantana; Palmroth, Sari; Oren, Ram; Marshall, John; Näsholm, Torgny

    2015-10-01

    Manipulating tree belowground carbon (C) transport enables investigation of the ecological and physiological roles of tree roots and their associated mycorrhizal fungi, as well as a range of other soil organisms and processes. Girdling remains the most reliable method for manipulating this flux and it has been used in numerous studies. However, girdling is destructive and irreversible. Belowground C transport is mediated by phloem tissue, pressurized through the high osmotic potential resulting from its high content of soluble sugars. We speculated that phloem transport may be reversibly blocked through the application of an external pressure on tree stems. Thus, we here introduce a technique based on compression of the phloem, which interrupts belowground flow of assimilates, but allows trees to recover when the external pressure is removed. Metal clamps were wrapped around the stems and tightened to achieve a pressure theoretically sufficient to collapse the phloem tissue, thereby aiming to block transport. The compression's performance was tested in two field experiments: a (13)C canopy labelling study conducted on small Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees [2-3 m tall, 3-7 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)] and a larger study involving mature pines (∼15 m tall, 15-25 cm DBH) where stem respiration, phloem and root carbohydrate contents, and soil CO2 efflux were measured. The compression's effectiveness was demonstrated by the successful blockage of (13)C transport. Stem compression doubled stem respiration above treatment, reduced soil CO2 efflux by 34% and reduced phloem sucrose content by 50% compared with control trees. Stem respiration and soil CO2 efflux returned to normal within 3 weeks after pressure release, and (13)C labelling revealed recovery of phloem function the following year. Thus, we show that belowground phloem C transport can be reduced by compression, and we also demonstrate that trees recover after treatment, resuming C

  1. Mutagénesis y antimutagénesis en extractos acuosos, clorofórmicos y acetónicos de Ilex paraguariensis var. paraguariensis e Ilex dumosa var. dumosa

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo tuvo por finalidad investigar los posibles efectos mutagénicos y antimutagénicos de dos variedades de Ilex (Ilex paraguariensis var. paraguariensis e Ilex dumosa var. dumosa) empleadas corrientemente en la elaboración de infusiones utilizando ensayos de mutagenicidad in vitro (Ensayo de Salmonella microsoma) e in vivo (Test de Micronúcleo). Se trabajó con Ilex paraguariensis St Hil. var. paraguariensis e Ilex dumosa Reissek var. dumosa, ejemplares frescos proveni...

  2. Chemical properties of tannic extracts from bark of Pinus oocarpa and their use as adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Cardoso Vieira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the properties of aqueous extracts obtained from the bark of Pinus oocarpa under addition of sodium sulfite and sodium bisulfite and the possibility of employment of tannins from the bark as an adhesive for bonding wood. After evaluation of the chemical properties of tannic extracts it was decided to employ the extraction with distilled water under addition of / 5% sodium sulfite to prepare for the tannin-formaldehyde adhesive. Adhesive phenol formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde were modified with 10% tannin Pinus oocarpa and the effect of this addition on the quality of the adhesive was evaluated. The addition from the bark of Pinus oocarpa showed that it is possible to use pure tannin as an adhesive because of its good gluing characteristics. The addition of tannic extract to synthetic adhesives contributed to increase viscosity values. Thus the substitution of synthetic adhesives by tannins is possible only up to 10%.

  3. Antioxidant, free radical scavenging and invitro cytotoxic studies of ethanolic extract of Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramalingam Ramani; Sushruthi Sudini; Bindu Madhavi Boddupalli; Ravinder Nath Anisetti

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main focus of the study is to determine antioxidant, free radical scavenging and cytotoxic effect of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana using various in vitro assay methods as well as to estimate the amount of total phenol and flavonoid contents. Methods: Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana were collected in February 2008 from Thirumala hills and standard procedure from the literature were used to estimate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. Results: The results suggest that both the extracts can be considered as a valuable source of antioxidants products as the obtained values are more or less near to the used standard compound. Conclusions: The characterization of leucas for antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities are new to literature in this context this extensive in vitro study of the selected two species of leucas for antioxidant activity will be a valuable study for further in vivo activities.

  4. The characteristics of soil and water loss in Pinus Massoniana forest in Quaternary red soil area of south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuejun; Huang, Yanhe; Jie, Yang

    2017-08-01

    The soil and water loss in Pinus massoniana forests is an urgent environmental problem in the red soil region of southern China.Using the method of field monitoring, by analogy and statistical analysis, The characteristics of soil and water loss of Pinus massoniana forests in Quaternary red soil region under 30 rainfall were analyzed,the results show that the relationship models of rainfall,runoff and sediment of pure Pinus massoniana plot were slightly different from the naked control plot,were all the univariate quadratic linear regression models.the contribution of runoff and sediment in different rain types were different, and the water and soil loss in Pinus massoniana forest was most prominent under moderate rain.The merging effect of sparse Pinus massoniana forest on raindrop, aggravated the degree of soil and water loss to some extent.

  5. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  6. Primulina beiliuensis var. fimbribracteata (Gesneriaceae, a New Variety in A Limestone Cave from Northern Guangdong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-Dan Lai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Primulina beiliuensis var. fimbribracteata F. Wen & B.D. Lai, a new variety of Gesneriaceae from a limestone cave in Shaoguan, Guangdong, China, is described and illustrated in this report. This new species is similar to P. beiliuensis B. Pan & S.X. Huang var. beiliuensis, but easily differs from the type variety in several morphological characters, both vegetative and reproductive.

  7. Primulina beiliuensis var. fimbribracteata (Gesneriaceae), a New Variety in A Limestone Cave from Northern Guangdong, China

    OpenAIRE

    Bi-Dan Lai; Fang Wen

    2015-01-01

    Primulina beiliuensis var. fimbribracteata F. Wen & B.D. Lai, a new variety of Gesneriaceae from a limestone cave in Shaoguan, Guangdong, China, is described and illustrated in this report. This new species is similar to P. beiliuensis B. Pan & S.X. Huang var. beiliuensis, but easily differs from the type variety in several morphological characters, both vegetative and reproductive.

  8. A Stochastic Dominance Approach to the Basel III Dilemma: Expected Shortfall or VaR?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); E. Maasoumi (Esfandiar); M.J. McAleer (Michael); T. Pérez-Amaral (Teodosio)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) (2013) recently proposed shifting the quantitative risk metrics system from Value-at-Risk (VaR) to Expected Shortfall (ES). The BCBS (2013) noted that “a number of weaknesses have been identified with using VaR for deter

  9. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Claessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4% yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  10. Scleria neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis (Cyperaceae, a New Variety from Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind M. Sardesai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new variety of Scleria P. J. Bergius (Cyperaceae S. neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis from Central India is described here with description, line-drawing, photographic illustration and notes. It resembles with S. neesii Kunth var. neesii in overall morphology but differs in having milky white nuts covered with ribbon like hairs on distinct stalk.

  11. Coumarins from Murraya paniculata var. zollingeri endemic to the Timor Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Naoko; Yamada, Hiromi; Ju-ichi, Motoharu; Uji, Tahan; Kinoshita, Takeshi; Ito, Chihiro

    2015-02-01

    Four new coumarins, murrangatin-1'-senecioate (1), 5-methoxypanial (2), mexoticin-2'-senecioate (3) and murralongic acid (4), were isolated from the leaves of Murraya paniculata var. zollingeri, together with 23 known coumarins. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic data. The taxonomic status of M. paniculata var. zollingeri is briefly discussed, along with its similarity to M. paniculata.

  12. Dendroclimatic analysis of Pinus pseudostrobus and Pinus devoniana in the municipalities of Áporo and Zitácuaro (Michoacán, Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Marlès Magre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first study on dendroclimatology of Pinus pseudostrobus and Pinus devoniana in the state of Michoacán (Mexico, specifically in the municipalities of Áporo and Zitácuaro, both municipalities within the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (MBBR. The sampling in Áporo, northwest of the MBBR, was held in Los Ejidos del Rincón del Soto and Arroyo Seco, in Sierra Chincúa (May 2011. In Zitácuaro, southwest of the reserve, a sampling was performed in the Ejido de San Juan de Zitácuaro, in the area of Ocotal and Palma, and Meso Sedano (June 2011. There were a total of 38 Pinus pseudostrobus and 12 Pinus devoniana sampled in both areas of the study and distributed in 28 trees in the municipality of Áporo and 22 in Zitácuaro. Two samples per tree were taken at 1.3 m height, resulting in a total of 100 tree cores. The dendrochronological series in Áporo for the species Pinus pseudostrobus were extended to 62 years (1949-2010 and for Pinus devoniana 86 years (1925-2010; and the series in Zitácuaro for Pinus pseudostrobus and Pinus devoniana were extended to 47 years (1964-2010 and 44 years (1967-2010, respectively. The ring chronologies were validated using the program COFECHA, which calculates the cross correlations between individual series of the tree-growth, five series were eliminated due to very low or negative correlations. The climate data from Zitácuaro were obtained from two weather stations located in the same municipality. And, in the case of Áporo, the data was obtained from stations located in Senguio. The growth rates related to the climate were obtained by removing the growth trend of each tree due to the age, size and other factors such as the competition, using the program ARSTAN. The following statistics were used to evaluate the quality of the residual chronologies and to determine the potential dendrochronology of species for the different populations: the average correlation between series (Rbar

  13. Bacillus cereus var. toyoi enhanced systemic immune response in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierack, Peter; Wieler, Lothar H; Taras, David; Herwig, Volker; Tachu, Babila; Hlinak, Andreas; Schmidt, Michael F G; Scharek, Lydia

    2007-07-15

    Probiotic bacteria have been suggested to stimulate the host immune system. In this study we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of probiotic Bacillus cereus var. toyoi on the systemic immunity of piglets. A pool of 70 piglets was divided into a probiotic or control group. We determined the ratios of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subsets and measured proliferative responses and cytokine production of PBMCs and effects on vaccination responses. Blood samples of probiotic-treated piglets showed a significantly lower frequency of CD8(high)/CD3+ T cells and CD8(low)/CD3+ T cells and a significant higher CD4+/CD8+ ratio. IL-4 and IFN-gamma production of polyclonally stimulated PBMCs was on average higher in the probiotic group. Specific proliferative responses of PBMCs to Influenza vaccination antigens were significantly higher and antibody titers against H3N2 Influenza and Mycoplasma vaccination antigens were on average higher in the probiotic group. In conclusion, B. cereus var. toyoi therefore alters the immune status of piglets as indicated by changes in the ratios as well as functionalities of systemic immune cell populations.

  14. The Development and Application of an Integrated VAR Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    2016-07-01

    The VAR ingot has been the focus of several modelling efforts over the years with the result that the thermal regime in the ingot can be simulated quite realistically. Such models provide important insight into solidification of the ingot but present some significant challenges to the casual user such as a process engineer. To provide the process engineer with a tool to assist in the development of a melt practice, a comprehensive model of the complete VAR process has been developed. A radiation heat transfer simulation of the arc has been combined with electrode and ingot models to develop a platform which accepts typical operating variables (voltage, current, and gap) together with process parameters (electrode size, crucible size, orientation, water flow, etc.) as input data. The output consists of heat flow distributions and solidification parameters in the form of text, comma-separated value, and visual toolkit files. The resulting model has been used to examine the relationship between the assumed energy distribution in the arc and the actual energy flux which arrives at the ingot top surface. Utilizing heat balance information generated by the model, the effects of electrode-crucible orientation and arc gap have been explored with regard to the formation of ingot segregation defects.

  15. Genetic Relationships among Prunus mume var. pendula Using AFLP Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Jun; Zhang Qixiang; Ru Guangxin; Mao Qingshan; Yan Xiaolan; Lan Yanping

    2003-01-01

    Genetic relationships among Prunus mume var. pendula were studied by using AFLP markers. 18 accessions representing 14 cultivars ofPrunus murne var. pendula were selected from the germplasm collection at the Research Center of China Mci Flower. Seven Mse I-EcoR I AFLP primer combinations revealed 450 legible bands, and 269 of which were polymorphic markers. A similarity matrix was prepared using the simple matching coefficient of similarity and Nei's (72) distance coefficient. A UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated the genetic relationships of the cultivars. The information given by AFLP markers was basically consistent with the morphological classification and the evolutionary history of the morphotypes, and roughly supported the new revised classification system for Chinese Mci Cultivars. But there were still several exceptions: 1) the 'Guhong Chuizhi' inserted between the 'Tiaoxue Chuizhi' and the 'Danfen Chuizhi'; 2) the 'Wufu Chuizhi' kept off the Pink Pendant Form, and the 'Moshan Chuizhi' was removed from Viridiflora Pendant Form; 3) the 'Danbi Chuizhi' and the 'Shuangbi Chuizhi' of Viridiflora Pendant Form got together well but fell within the Pink Pendant Form.

  16. Molecular structures of fructans from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mercedes G; Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; Mendoza-Diaz, Guillermo

    2003-12-31

    Agave plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for CO(2) fixation. Fructans are the principal photosynthetic products generated by agave plants. These carbohydrates are fructose-bound polymers frequently with a single glucose moiety. Agave tequilana Weber var. azul is an economically important CAM species not only because it is the sole plant allowed for tequila production but because it is a potential source of prebiotics. Because of the large amounts of carbohydrates in A. tequilana, in this study the molecular structures of its fructans were determined by fructan derivatization for linkage analysis coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Fructans were extracted from 8-year-old A. tequilana plants. The linkage types present in fructans from A. tequilana were determined by permethylation followed by reductive cleavage, acetylation, and finally GC-MS analysis. Analysis of the degree of polymerization (DP) estimated by (1)H NMR integration and (13)C NMR and confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS showed a wide DP ranging from 3 to 29 units. All of the analyses performed demonstrated that fructans from A. tequilana consist of a complex mixture of fructooligosaccharides containing principally beta(2 --> 1) linkages, but also beta(2 --> 6) and branch moieties were observed. Finally, it can be stated that fructans from A. tequilana Weber var. azul are not an inulin type as previously thought.

  17. Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyla var. tridactyla – new hosts of Ampelomyces quisqualis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Czerniawska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the occurrence of fungi of the order Erysiphales on plants of the Słowiański Park located in Goorzów Wielkopolski was investigated. Plant samples were collected once a month, from August to November. The samples examined were above ground plant parts colonized by powdery mildew fungi. A total of 78 samples were collected. Apart from 14 species of the order Erysiphales, Ampelomyces quisqualis parasitizing on Erysiphe cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyl var. tridactyla was found. Ampelomyces quisqualis affected hyphae, oidia, and young cleistothecia of P. mali. In contrast, in E. cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Po. tridactyle var. tridactyla, this hyperparasite colonized only hyphae and oidia. This paper for the first trime informs of A. quisqualis parasitizing on P. mali and Po. tridactyla var. tridactyla.

  18. Empirical analysis on future-cash arbitrage risk with portfolio VaR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongda; Li, Cong; Wang, Weijin; Wang, Ze

    2014-03-01

    This paper constructs the positive arbitrage position by alternating the spot index with Chinese Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) portfolio and estimating the arbitrage-free interval of futures with the latest trade data. Then, an improved Delta-normal method was used, which replaces the simple linear correlation coefficient with tail dependence correlation coefficient, to measure VaR (Value-at-risk) of the arbitrage position. Analysis of VaR implies that the risk of future-cash arbitrage is less than that of investing completely in either futures or spot market. Then according to the compositional VaR and the marginal VaR, we should increase the futures position and decrease the spot position appropriately to minimize the VaR, which can minimize risk subject to certain revenues.

  19. Characterization of a Peruvian isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, a pathogen of grasshoppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Bonifácio Peixoto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the Peruvian isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, CG 863, obtained from the grasshopper Schistocerca interrita, a crop pest in Peru. The characterization was done by comparing this isolate with two other ones of M. anisopliae var. acridum, from Brazil and Australia, and with an isolate of M. anisopliae var. anisopliae. The three M. anisopliae var. acridum isolates had similar growth profiles in agar plates at 25°C and 37°C, and similar RAPD patterns according to the analysis of three primers. However, regarding these parameters and conidial size, these isolates were very distinct when compared to M. anisopliae var. anisopliae isolate. Bioassays indicated that the Peruvian isolate is as pathogenic as the Brazilian isolate against nymphs of Rhammatocerus schistocercoides.

  20. MODEL NON LINIER GARCH (NGARCH UNTUK MENGESTIMASI NILAI VALUE at RISK (VaR PADA IHSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I KOMANG TRY BAYU MAHENDRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In investment, risk measurement is important. One of risk measure is Value at Risk (VaR. There are many methods that can be used to estimate risk based on VaR framework. One of them Non Linier GARCH (NGARCH model. In this research, determination of VaR used NGARCH model. NGARCH model allowed for asymetric behaviour in the volatility such that “good news” or positive return and “bad news” or negative return. Based on calculations of VaR, the higher of the confidence level and the longer the investment period, the risk was greater. Determination of VaR using NGARCH model was less than GARCH model.

  1. Growth decline assessment in Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus nigra Arnold. forest by using 3-PG model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro-Cerrillo, R.M.; Beira, J.; Suarez, J.; Xenakis, G.; Sánchez-Salguero, R.; Hernández-Clemente, R.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: We assessed the ability of the 3-PG process-based model to accurately predict growth of Pinus sylvestris and P. nigra plantations across a range of sites, showing declining growth trends, in southern Spain. Area of study: The study area is located in “Sierra de Los Filabres” (Almería). Material and methods: The model was modified in fifteen parameters to predict diameter (DBH, cm), basal area increment (BAI, cm2 yr-1) and leaf area index (LAI, m2 m-2) in healthy trees and trees showing declining growth. We assumed that a set of specific physiological parameters (stem partitioning ratio-pFS20, maximum litterfall rate-γFx, maximum canopy conductance-gCx, specific leaf area for mature aged stands-σ1, age at which specific leaf area = ½ (σ0 + σ1), age at full canopy cover-tc, and canopy boundary layer conductance-gB) included in 3-PG would be suitable for predicting growth decline related to climate conditions. The calibrated model was evaluated using dendrochronological and LAI data obtained from plots. Main results: Observed and simulated DBH showed a high correlation (R2 > 0.99) between modelled and measured values for both species. In contrast, modelled and observed BAI showed lower correlation (R2 < 0.68). Sensitivity analysis on 3-PG outputs showed that the foliage parameters - maximum litterfall rate, maximum canopy conductance, specific leaf area for mature aged stands, age at which specific leaf area, and age at full canopy cover - were important for DBH and BAI predictions under drought stress. Research highlights: Our overall results indicated that the 3-PG model could predict growth response of pine plantations to climatic stress with desirable accuracy in southern Spain by using readily available soil and climatic data with physiological parameters derived from experiments. (Author)

  2. Insight into Antigenic Diversity of VAR2CSA-DBL5 epsilon Domain from Multiple Plasmodium falciparum Placental Isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnidehou, Sedami; Jessen, Leon Ivar; Gangnard, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    Background: Protection against pregnancy associated malaria (PAM) is associated with high levels of anti-VAR2CSA antibodies. This protection is obtained by the parity dependent acquisition of anti-VAR2CSA antibodies. Distinct parity-associated molecular signatures have been identified in VAR2CSA ...

  3. Comparison of the specificity of antibodies to VAR2CSA in Cameroonian multigravidae with and without placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Fang, Rui; Wey, Andrew;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies (Ab) to VAR2CSA prevent Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes from sequestrating in the placenta, i.e., prevent placental malaria (PM). The specificity of Ab to VAR2CSA associated with absence of PM is unknown. Accordingly, differences in the specificity of Ab to VAR2...

  4. Optimizing expression of the pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate, VAR2CSA in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narum David L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background VAR2CSA is the main candidate for a vaccine against pregnancy-associated malaria, but vaccine development is complicated by the large size and complex disulfide bonding pattern of the protein. Recent X-ray crystallographic information suggests that domain boundaries of VAR2CSA Duffy binding-like (DBL domains may be larger than previously predicted and include two additional cysteine residues. This study investigated whether longer constructs would improve VAR2CSA recombinant protein secretion from Pichia pastoris and if domain boundaries were applicable across different VAR2CSA alleles. Methods VAR2CSA sequences were bioinformatically analysed to identify the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues at the C-termini of DBL domains and revised N- and C-termimal domain boundaries were predicted in VAR2CSA. Multiple construct boundaries were systematically evaluated for protein secretion in P. pastoris and secreted proteins were tested as immunogens. Results From a total of 42 different VAR2CSA constructs, 15 proteins (36% were secreted. Longer construct boundaries, including the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues, generally improved expression of poorly or non-secreted domains and permitted expression of all six VAR2CSA DBL domains. However, protein secretion was still highly empiric and affected by subtle differences in domain boundaries and allelic variation between VAR2CSA sequences. Eleven of the secreted proteins were used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies reacted with CSA-binding infected erythrocytes, indicating that P. pastoris recombinant proteins possessed native protein epitopes. Conclusion These findings strengthen emerging data for a revision of DBL domain boundaries in var-encoded proteins and may facilitate pregnancy malaria vaccine development.

  5. Acute larvicidal toxicity of five essential oils (Pinus nigra, Hyssopus officinalis, Satureja montana, Aloysia citrodora and Pelargonium graveolens) against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: Synergistic and antagonistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Pavela, Roman; Canale, Angelo; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Ciaschetti, Giampiero; Conti, Fabio; Nicoletti, Marcello; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-04-01

    Mosquito vector control is facing a number of important and timely challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance and environmental concerns. In this scenario, screening of botanical resources for their mosquitocidal activity may offer effective and eco-friendly tools against Culicidae vectors. Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of lymphatic filariasis and of dangerous arboviral diseases, such as West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis. In this study, the chemical composition of five essential oils obtained from different plants, namely Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold var. italica (Pinaceae), Hyssopus officinalis L. subsp. aristatus (Lamiaceae), Satureja montana L. subsp. montana (Lamiaceae), Aloysia citriodora Palau (Verbenaceae) and Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér (Geraniaceae), was investigated by GC-MS analysis. Furthermore, it was evaluated their acute toxicity on larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. Then, the most effective oils were selected, in order to focus on the potential synergistic and antagonistic effects, testing them in binary mixtures on C. quinquefasciatus larvae. Results showed that the higher effectiveness was obtained by S. montana subsp. montana essential oil (LC50=25.6μL·L(-1)), followed by P. nigra var. italica (LC50=49.8μL·L(-1)) and A. citriodora (LC50=65.6μL·L(-1)), while the other essential oils showed LC50 values higher than 90μL·L(-1). The larvicidal effectiveness can be enhanced by preparing simple binary mixtures of essential oils, such as S. montana+A. citriodora (ratio 1:1), which showed higher larvicidal toxicity (LC50=18.3μL·L(-1)). On the other hand, testing S. montana+P. nigra (1:1) an antagonistic effect was detected, leading to a LC50 (72.5μL·L(-1)) higher than the LC50 values calculated for the two oils tested separately. Overall, our results add useful knowledge to allow the employ of synergistic essential oil blends as effective, cheap and eco-friendly mosquito larvicides.

  6. Variability of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils between Myrtus communis var. Leucocarpa DC and var. Melanocarpa DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Maldini, Mariateresa; Addis, Roberta; Chessa, Mario; Foddai, Marzia; Rourke, Jonathan P; Pintore, Giorgio

    2016-04-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from several individuals of Myrtus communis L. (M. communis) growing in different habitats in Sardinia have been studied. The analyses were focused on four groups of samples, namely cultivated and wild M. communis var. melanocarpa DC, characterized by red/purple berries, and cultivated and wild M. communis var. leucocarpa DC, characterized by white berries. Qualitative and quantitative analyses demonstrated different EO fingerprints among the studied samples: cultivated and wild leucocarpa variety differs mainly from the melanocarpa variety by a high amount of myrtenyl acetate (>200 mg/mL and 0.4 mg/mL in leucocarpa and melanocarpa varieties respectively). Conversely, the wild group is characterized by a higher amount, compared with the cultivated species, of linalool (about 110 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL respectively), linalyl acetate (about 24 mg/mL and about 6 mg/mL respectively) whereas EOs of the cultivated plants were rich in pinocarveol-cis compared with wild plants (about 2 mg/mL and about 0.5 mg/mL respectively). Principal component analysis applied to the chromatographic data confirm a differentiation and classification of EOs from the four groups of M. communis plants. Finally, antioxidant activity of the studied EOs shows differences between the various categories of samples.

  7. Seed source variation and conservation of Pinus wallichiana in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thapliyal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jacks is an important component of the middleand high altitude Himalayan forests having large natural distribution ranging between 260 to 360 N latitude and 690 to 750 E longitudes. It is commonly known as Himalayan blue pine or blue pine, being indigenous to Himalayan Mountain regions and because of its bluish or grayish-green leaves. It is a five needle pine which gained world-wide attention for its resistance to blister rust among white pines. This species has been crossed successfully with other white pines and vigorous hybrids have been obtained. Considerable variation in morphological and anatomical characteristics of needles, cones and seeds in natural stands exists across the natural distribution of the species, especially in mesic and xeric habitats. These variationssuggested the differentiation of this species in ecotypes or varieties as reported by various authors. However, the level of genetic diversity was found to be relatively high and the degree of genetic differentiation was low compared to other pines. Thewide range of climatic conditions in the natural distribution of this pine is expected to result in high genetic variation within different populations of the species. The study aims to determine the nature and extent of variation present in the populations of the species in respect to cone and seed characteristics across its natural distribution. Seed of 17 seed sources from the states of Uttaranchal and Himachal Pradesh was collected and analyzed for cone characters (fresh weight of cones, cone length, cone width, specific gravity and seed characters (seed weight, moisture content, germination percent, cotyledon number. Significant variations have beenobserved in these traits among different seed sources of the species. The cone weight varied from 44.4 to114g and the higher cone weight was recorded at higher altitudes.The germination percent varied from 40 to 85 whereas cotyledon number varied from 7

  8. Seed source variation and conservation of Pinus wallichiana in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Thapliyal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jacks is an important component of the middle and high altitude Himalayan forests having large natural distribution ranging between 260 to 360 N latitude and 690 to 750 E longitudes. It is commonly known as Himalayan blue pine or blue pine, being indigenous to Himalayan Mountain regions and because of its bluish or grayish-green leaves. It is a five needle pine which gained world-wide attention for its resistance to blister rust among white pines. This species has been crossed successfully with other white pines and vigorous hybrids have been obtained. Considerable variation in morphological and anatomical characteristics of needles, cones and seeds in natural stands exists across the natural distribution of the species, especially in mesic and xeric habitats. These variations suggested the differentiation of this species in ecotypes or varieties as reported by various authors. However, the level of genetic diversity was found to be relatively high and the degree of genetic differentiation was low compared to other pines. The wide range of climatic conditions in the natural distribution of this pine is expected to result in high genetic variation within different populations of the species. The study aims to determine the nature and extent of variation present in the populations of the species in respect to cone and seed characteristics across its natural distribution. Seed of 17 seed sources from the states of Uttaranchal and Himachal Pradesh was collected and analyzed for cone characters (fresh weight of cones, cone length, cone width, specific gravity and seed characters (seed weight, moisture content, germination percent, cotyledon number. Significant variations have been observed in these traits among different seed sources of the species. The cone weight varied from 44.4 to114g and the higher cone weight was recorded at higher altitudes. The germination percent varied from 40 to 85 whereas cotyledon number varied

  9. Organization of the endoplasmic reticulum in dividing cells of the gymnosperms Pinus brutia and Pinus nigra, and of the pterophyte Asplenium nidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariadis, M; Quader, H; Galatis, B; Apostolakos, P

    2003-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) organization in the dividing cells of the pterophyte Asplenium nidus and of the gymnosperms Pinus brutia and Pinus nigra has been studied by immunolocalization techniques using the monoclonal antibody 2E7, which recognizes luminar ER resident proteins containing C-terminal HDEL sequences. In the pterophyte, the ER reorganization during cell cycle is similar to that in angiosperms. Among others, prominent ER gatherings were found at the mitotic spindle poles and in the phragmoplast during cytokinesis. However, in the gymnosperms examined, the ER displays a unique pattern of reorganization not described so far. In both the Pinus species, well-defined ER patterns are successively formed during cell cycle. They are the preprophase ER-band, the prophase- metaphase- and anaphase ER-spindle, the interzonal ER-system, the ER-phragmoplast and an ER-system lining the daughter cell wall. The ER patterns are closely similar to that of the correspondent microtubule (MT) arrangements with which they are co-organized. Observations made on P. nigra root-cells affected by oryzalin, colchicine and cytochalasin D favour the conclusion that the pattern of ER organization is controlled during mitosis and cytokinesis by the MT cytoskeleton.

  10. Growth and physiological responses to varied environments among populations of Pinus ponderosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianwei Zhang; Bert M. Cregg

    2005-01-01

    We investigated population responses in physiology, morphology, and growth of mature Pinus ponderosa trees to an environmental gradient across Nebraska, USA. Ten populations from western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming were grown in three 26-year-old provenance tests from the warmest and wettest site in the east (Plattsmouth) to the intermediate site in...

  11. Modeling contemporary climate profiles of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) and predicting responses to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus V. Warwell; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Nicholas L. Crookston

    2006-01-01

    The Random Forests multiple regression tree was used to develop an empirically-based bioclimate model for the distribution of Pinus albicaulis (whitebark pine) in western North America, latitudes 31° to 51° N and longitudes 102° to 125° W. Independent variables included 35 simple expressions of temperature and precipitation and their interactions....

  12. Soil enzyme activities in Pinus tabuliformis (Carriere) plantations in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiwei Wang; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Ruiheng Lv; Chen Xiao; Guolei Li; Yong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Changes in forest stand structure may alter the activity of invertase, urease, catalase and phenol oxidase after thinning Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére) plantations in Yanqing County of Beijing, China. We examined changes in these soil enzymes as influenced by time since thinning (24, 32, and 40 years since thinning) for 3 seasons (spring, summer and autumn)...

  13. EFFECT OF ATMOSPHERIC AMMONIA ON THE NITROGEN-METABOLISM OF SCOTS PINE (PINUS-SYLVESTRIS) NEEDLES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PEREZSOBA, M; STULEN, [No Value; VANDEREERDEN, LJM

    1994-01-01

    Four-year-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were exposed to filtered air (FA), and to FA supplemented with NH3 (60 and 240 mu g m(-3)) in controlled-environment chambers for 14 weeks. Exposure to the higher NH, concentration resulted in an increased activity of glutamine synthetase (

  14. Fungal endophytes in woody roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Hoff; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald; Jonalea R. Tonn; Mee-Sook Kim; Paul J. Zambino; Paul F. Hessburg; J. D. Rodgers; T. L. Peever; L. M. Carris

    2004-01-01

    The fungal community inhabiting large woody roots of healthy conifers has not been well documented. To provide more information about such communities, a survey was conducted using increment cores from the woody roots of symptomless Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growing in dry forests...

  15. Two new sesquiterpene glycosides isolated from the fresh needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yun-Chuan; Ye, Liang; Zhao, Man-Xi; Yan, Cui-Qi; Wang, Wei; Huang, Quan-Shu; Liang, Kai; Meng, Bao-Hua; Ke, Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Two new sesquiterpene glycosides, namely massonside A (1) and massonside B (2), were isolated from the n-Bu extract of the fresh needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb. Their structures were established by 1D, 2D nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Their biological activities were profiled by the anti-HBV and anti-HCV assays.

  16. Restoration planting options for limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) in the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. M. A. Casper; W. R. Jacobi; Anna Schoettle; K. S. Burns

    2016-01-01

    Limber pine Pinus flexilis James populations in the southern Rocky Mountains are threatened by the combined impacts of mountain pine beetles and white pine blister rust. To develop restoration planting methods, six P. flexilis seedling planting trial sites were installed along a geographic gradient from southern Wyoming to southern Colorado. Experimental...

  17. Biomass and nutrients of Pinus massoniana plantations in southern China: simulations for different management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huixia Yang; Silong Wang; Jianwei Zhang; Bing Fan; Weidong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    We measured the dynamics of both biomass and nutrient pools on 7-, 17-, 31- and 51-year-old Pinus massoniana plantations in southern China. Using a chronosequence approach, we found that biomass of each component increased with aging while its proportion decreased except stem-wood. Nutrient pools varied with biomass pools except for foliage. For all harvest intensities...

  18. A Comparison of Fire Intensity levels for stand replacement of table mountain pine (Pinus pungens Lamb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Patrick H. Brose

    1999-01-01

    Stand-replacement prescribed fire has been recommended to regenerate stands of table mountain pine (Pinus pungens Lamb.) in the Southern Appalachian Mountains because the species has serotinous cones and is shade intolerant. A 350 ha prescribed fire in northeast Georgia provided an opportunity to observe overstory mortality and regeneration of table...

  19. Strength reduction in slash pine (Pinus elliotii) wood caused by decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong Yang; Zhehui Jiang; Chung Y. Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    Small wood specimens selected from slash pine (Pinus elliotii )trees at three growth rates (fast, medium, and slow) were inoculated with brown-rot and white-rot fungi and then evaluated for work to maximum load (WML), modulus of rupture (MOR), and modulus of elasticity (MOE). The experimental variables studied included a brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum...

  20. Fertility variation and status number in clonal seed orchards of Pinus sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Nebi; Temiraga, Halime

    2012-11-15

    The present study was carried out to evaluate fertility variation, status number and gene diversity based on strobili productions in two clonal seed orchards of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). There were large differences among clones for the female and male strobili productions in the orchards. Positive and significant (pseed equally from clones or genetinc thinning.

  1. Reproduction ecology of Pinus halepensis : a monoecious, wind-pollinated and partially serotinous Mediterranean pine tree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goubitz, Shirrinka

    2002-01-01

    Fire is an important factor in the evolution and ecology of Mediterranean plant species. The fire frequency has increased in the 20st century. Pines are the most important tree species in the area. Pinus halepensis is the only natural pine in parts of the east Mediterranean basin, such as Israel and

  2. A range-wide restoration strategy for whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; D. F. Tomback; C. A. Aubry; A. D. Bower; E. M. Campbell; C. L. Cripps; M. B. Jenkins; M. F. Mahalovich; M. Manning; S. T. McKinney; M. P. Murray; D. L. Perkins; D. P. Reinhart; C. Ryan; A. W. Schoettle; C. M. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), an important component of western high-elevation forests, has been declining in both the United States and Canada since the early Twentieth Century from the combined effects of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks, fire exclusion policies, and the spread of the exotic disease white pine blister rust (caused by the...

  3. Penafsiran Volume Pohon Pinus merkusii melalui Foto Udara (Studi Kasus BKPH Majenang, KPH Banyumas Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahid -

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of  Stock Volume of Pinus merkusii  using Aerial Photographs (Case Study in BKPH Majenang, West Banyumas FMU The study aims to compile and analyse the growing stock volume of Pinus merkusii by using stand parameter measured through aerial photographs. The study was conducted by using black-white panchromatic aerial photographs produced in 2005 and the scale was 1 : 20,000. The study was conducted in Pinus merkusii taping plots in the Majenang BKPH, under the forest districts of west Banyumas, Perum Perhutani using tree height, crown diameter and number of trees per hectare as parameters. Data analysis was done to define the relationship among these parameters in regression equation. The steps of the study were defining measurement plots in aerial photographs, measurement of stand parameters in the aerial photographs and field observation. Data analysis was performed using micro computer. As a result, the regression equation for each location as follows: V = 72,415 – 0,231 N + 35,242 H – 24,454D – 0,923 (N x D, with the determination coefficient was 0,789 and the significance of 95%. Where: V = growing stock volume (m3, N = the number of trees per hectare, H = tree height (m and D = crown diameter (m. It was concluded that number of tree per hectare, tree height and crown diameter were good predictors for standing stock volume of Pinus merkusii.

  4. [Genetic control of the isoenzymes in Cembra pine (Pinus cembra L.) in the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirko, Ia V; Korshikov, I I

    2001-01-01

    Genetic control of GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP, and LAP enzymes was studied in the seed megagametophytes of cembra pine (Pinus cembra L.) from the natural population of the Ukrainian Carpa-thian mountains. Efficient electrophoretic separation was obtained for 21 loci products. The analysis of allele segregation in heterozygous trees confirms monogenic inheritance of the revealed variants.

  5. Multi-Season Monoterpene and Sesquiterpene Analysis of Pinus taeda Needle Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine) is one of the worlds most important timber crop and accounts for a significant portion of the southeastern U.S. landcover. Biogenic voltile organic compound (BVOC) content was extracted from the tissue material of P. taeda needles and analyzed over a m...

  6. Regeneration Methods Affect Genetic Variation and Structure in Shortleaf Pine (Pinus Echinata Mill.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiv G. Raja; Charles G. Tauer; Robert F. Wittwer; Yinghua Huang

    1998-01-01

    The effects of regene ration methods on genetic diversity and structure in shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) were examined by quantifying the changes in genetic composition of shortleaf pine stands following harvest by monitoring changes in allele number and frequency at heterozygous loci over time. The results were also compared to the genetic...

  7. Viability of litter-stored Pinus taeda L. seeds after simulated prescribed winter burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Cain; Michael G. Shelton

    1998-01-01

    Stratified loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seeds were placed at three depths in a reconstructed forest floor and subjected to simulated prescribed winter burns. Within the forest floor, pine seeds were placed at the L/upper-F interface, upper-F/lower-F interface, and lower-F/mineral-soil interface. Wind was generated by electric box-fans. Seeds that...

  8. Fungal species-specific responses of ectomycorrhizal Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris to elevated (CO2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, A.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) inoculated with the nitrotolerant Laccaria bicolor and the nitrophobic Suillus bovinus were exposed to ambient (350 l l1) and elevated (700 l l1) [CO2]. After 79 d the seedlings were labelled for 28 d with 14CO2, after which they were harves

  9. Studies on Ectomycorrhizae—XV. Mycorrhizae formed by Rhizopogon luteolus on Pinus silvestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhl, M.

    1988-01-01

    The mycorrhizae of Rhizopogon luteolus on Pinus silvestris are comprehensively described. They are characterized by a coralloid habit, ochre to yellow colour, highly differentiated rhizomorphs, a two-layered mantle and a differentiated autofluorescence in mantle, Hartig net and rhizomorphs. The lite

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Phytopathogenic Fungus Fusarium fujikuroi CF-295141, Isolated from Pinus sylvestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni-Mann, Michele; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; González-Menéndez, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a new strain of Fusarium fujikuroi, isolated from Pinus sylvestris, which was also found to produce the mycotoxin beauvericin. The Illumina-based sequence analysis revealed an approximate genome size of 44.2 Mbp, containing 164 secondary metabolite biosynthetic clusters. PMID:27795279

  11. Reproduction ecology of Pinus halepensis : a monoecious, wind-pollinated and partially serotinous Mediterranean pine tree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goubitz, Shirrinka

    2001-01-01

    Fire is an important factor in the evolution and ecology of Mediterranean plant species. The fire frequency has increased in the 20st century. Pines are the most important tree species in the area. Pinus halepensis is the only natural pine in parts of the east Mediterranean basin, such as Israel and

  12. WATER-USE ALONG A HYDROLOGICAL GRADIENT IN CENTRAL FLORIDA: A TALE OF TWO PINUS SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although central Florida is relatively flat, the distribution of species on the landscape is controlled by subtle changes in elevation. Along a four-meter elevation gradient, xeric sandhill vegetation dominated by Pinus palustris (Longleaf pine) gives way to mesic pine flatwoods...

  13. A hybrid PSO technique for procuring VAR ancillary service in the deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Suez Canal University (Egypt); Yorino, Naoto [Department of Artificial Complex Systems Engineering, Hiroshima University (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    This paper develops a new market-based technique for acquiring VAR ancillary service in the electricity market. The main objective of the developed market is to enable transmission operator ''TO'' to procure VAR service in a long term contract from the critical VAR providers that satisfy minimum VAR service payment while maintaining system security. Reactive power control problem for voltage stability is introduced into the VAR market problem in an explicit manner for normal and emergency states. An integration of particle swarm optimization ''PSO'' is presented with successive linear programming ''SLP'' for dealing with the VAR ancillary service problem. The problem is formulated as a large-scale nonlinear constrained optimization problem with a non-differentiable objective function representing VAR payment and operational costs. This type of problem is hard to be treated straightforwardly by the classical optimization methods. Therefore, we propose here a two-layer hybrid PSO/SLP approach, which is suited for carrying out the difficulties associated with non-differentiable and discontinuous objective functions. The proposed method has been examined on the standard IEEE 57 bus-system and compared with GA/SLP method to demonstrate its capability. (author)

  14. Phosphorylation of SU(VAR3-9 by the chromosomal kinase JIL-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern Boeke

    Full Text Available The histone methyltransferase SU(VAR3-9 plays an important role in the formation of heterochromatin within the eukaryotic nucleus. Several studies have shown that the formation of condensed chromatin is highly regulated during development, suggesting that SU(VAR3-9's activity is regulated as well. However, no mechanism by which this may be achieved has been reported so far. As we and others had shown previously that the N-terminus of SU(VAR3-9 plays an important role for its activity, we purified interaction partners from Drosophila embryo nuclear extract using as bait a GST fusion protein containing the SU(VAR3-9 N-terminus. Among several other proteins known to bind Su(VAR3-9 we isolated the chromosomal kinase JIL-1 as a strong interactor. We show that SU(VAR3-9 is a substrate for JIL-1 in vitro as well as in vivo and map the site of phosphorylation. These findings may provide a molecular explanation for the observed genetic interaction between SU(VAR3-9 and JIL-1.

  15. VAR Analysis of the Monetary Transmission Mechanism in Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlan ATABAEV

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the effects of monetary transmission on real output and price level in Kyrgyzstan which is very important issue for central banks. We analyzed the relationships between the money supply, real output, price level, interest rate, credit and real exchange rate by using the vector autoregression approach (VAR and monthly data for 2003-2011. As a result the interest rate channel remains weak, on the other hand it have been revealed that the credit channel has some affects to real output, the exchange rate channel affects the prices. Exchange rate channel remains still the most effective channel. Based on these results, it can be argued that government can use credit and interest rate channel in increasing real output, and the exchange rate channel in achieving price stability in Kyrgyzstan.

  16. Tillers induction in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Augusto Ochekoski Mossanek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bactris gasipaes produces heart-of-palm. Peach palm is a perennial crop that has a tillering capacity, being an alternative to illegal extraction. There is a lack of studies about vegetative propagation technics for this species. The present study aimed to analyze different tillering induction methods in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings in four different seasons. The treatments were: 1 stem bending; 2 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of benzylaminopurine; 3 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of gibberellic acid and; 4 stem girdling. The experimental design was random with 4 replicates of 20 plants per treatment. Anatomical analyses were conducted at the stem, and the tillering and mortality of the treated plants were evaluated. It was possible to identify the stem tissues and the meristematic apex site by anatomical analysis. The stem bending treatments were inefficient; but girdling presented potential as tillers inducer.

  17. Forecasting Macedonian Business Cycle Turning Points Using Qual Var Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovska Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at assessing the usefulness of leading indicators in business cycle research and forecast. Initially we test the predictive power of the economic sentiment indicator (ESI within a static probit model as a leading indicator, commonly perceived to be able to provide a reliable summary of the current economic conditions. We further proceed analyzing how well an extended set of indicators performs in forecasting turning points of the Macedonian business cycle by employing the Qual VAR approach of Dueker (2005. In continuation, we evaluate the quality of the selected indicators in pseudo-out-of-sample context. The results show that the use of survey-based indicators as a complement to macroeconomic data work satisfactory well in capturing the business cycle developments in Macedonia.

  18. Chromosome doubling in Paspalum notatum var. saure (cultivar Pensacola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Weiler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Paspalum notatum is one of the most important native grassland species of southern Brazil, and the main forage source for livestock. The native ecotypes are tetraploid and have apomictic reproduction, which prevents the registration and protection of plant varieties. However, the cultivated variety Paspalum notatum var. saurae (cultivar Pensacola is diploid and sexual. The objective of this study was to artificially produce polyploid cv. Pensacola plants, to be used as female parents in crosses with male tetraploid and apomictic parents. Seedlings and seeds were immersed in colchicine solutions for different periods. A tetraploid chromosome number was confirmed in three plants. The reproduction mode of the resulting polyploid plants will be assessed; if confirmed to be sexual, they can be used in crosses with native apomictic plants to breed new intraspecific hybrids.

  19. Citogenética de Guazuma ulmifolia var. Ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Tapia-Pastrana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizó una metodología de extendido en superficie y secado al aire para obtener por vez primera el cariotipo somático de una población de Guazuma ulmifolia var. ulmifolia. El número cromosómico diploide 2n = 16 obtenido a partir de meristemos radiculares confirma recuentos anteriores. La fórmula cariotípica fue 14m + 2st con una ligera asimetría (T.F.% = 42,19. La longitud cromosómica total haploide fue de 11,65 µm con un intervalo cromosómico de 1,11 - 2,05 µm. Los organizadores nucleolares asociados a constricciones secundarias ubicados en el par 3 (m y el polimorfismo que exhibe el par 8 (st pueden ser empleados como marcadores citogenéticos en futuros estudios de otras especies y variedades del género.

  20. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale.

  1. Hot air convective dehydration characteristics of Daucus carota var. Nantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raees-ul Haq

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on experimental and theoretical study of air dehydration kinetics of Daucus carota var. Nantes in laboratory scale drying chamber. Steam blanching as a pretreatment was applied prior to dehydration of shreds and the results indicated a gradual decrease in drying time from 2.9 to 5.5% in temperature range of 50–70°C, for steam blanched samples in comparison to untreated carrots. Four different mathematical drying models (Newton, Page, Modified Page and Henderson and Pabis were evaluated for goodness of fit by comparing their respective R2, χ2, and RMSE parameters. Comparison of the statistical parameters led to conclusion that Page model showed a better quality of fit and presents dehydration characteristics in better way to obtain drying curves than any other model.

  2. Controlling pool depth during VAR of Alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, F.; Beaman, J.; Williamson, R.; Evans, D.

    2016-07-01

    A longtime goal of superalloy producers has been to control the geometry of the liquid pool in solidifying ingots. Accurate pool depth control at appropriate values is expected to result in ingots free of segregation defects. This article describes an industrial VAR experiment in which a 430mm (17 in) diameter Alloy 718 electrode was melted into a 510mm (20 in) ingot. In the experiment, the depth of the liquid pool at the mid-radius was controlled to three different set-points: 137 mm (nominal), 193 mm (deep) and 118 mm (shallow). At each level, the pool depth was marked by a power cutback of several minutes. The ingot was sectioned and longitudinal slices were cut out. Analysis of the photographed ingot revealed that accurate control was obtained for both the nominal and deep pool cases, while the third one was not conclusive.

  3. Corruption Effects on Nigeria: Aggregate and Sectoral Estimates Using VAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Osi Alenoghena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research study investigates the impact of corruption on some key activity sectors of the Nigerian economy between 1996 and 2013 using VAR technique. The empirical estimates demonstrate that corruption affects most significantly agriculture, services, wholesale and retail sectors in Nigeria. As well, the study shows that the control of corruption has significant effect in the reduction of corruption. The study recommends that Nigeria can use an amalgamation of ethics hotlines for reporting corruption, open-door policies to embolden subordinates to consult with bosses for guidance, a “zero-tolerance” policy for breaches, anticorruption training sessions, and complete transparency in governmental operations to minimalize infractions. Nigeria will require strong political will and vision, credibility, frontal assault, new staff, deregulation, unconventional methods, close coordination, harnessing technology and tailoring international experience to local conditions.

  4. ent-Kaurane Diterpenoids from Isodon eriocalyx var. laxiflorat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伟光; 吴海燕; 杜雪; 晋建新; 孙汉董

    2012-01-01

    Four new ent-kaurane diterpenoids, 6fl,13ct,15fl-trihydroxy-16-ene-3a,20-epoxy-ent-kaur- 1,7-dione (1), 6-hydroxy-3a,20-epoxy-5(6)-ene-ent-kaur-l,7,15-trione (2), 6-hydroxy-15fl-acetoxy-3a,20-epoxy-16]3,17-epoxy- 5(6)-ene-ent-kaur-l,7-dione (3), 3ct,17-dihydroxy-15(16)-ene-ent-kaur-7-one (4), along with four known com- pounds 5--8 were isolated from the leaves oflsodon eriocalyx var. laxiflora. The structures were elucidated by ex- tensive spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, MS and NMR). The cytotoxic activities of these compounds were evaluated by MTT assay. Compound 8 showed moderate inhibitory effects on HL-60, SMMC-7721, MCF-7 and SW-480 cell lines.

  5. Deterioration of expanded polystyrene caused by Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglia, Valeria C; Kuhar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    An expanded-polystyrene factory located in northern Buenos Aires reported unusual dark spots causing esthetic damage in their production. A fungal strain forming black-olive colonies on extract malt agar medium was isolated from the damaged material and identified as Aureobasidium pullullans var. melanogenum. This fungus is particularly known for its capacity to produce hydrolytic enzymes and a biodegradable extracellular polysaccharide known as pullulan, which is used in the manufacture of packaging material for food and medicine. Laboratory tests were conducted to characterize its growth parameters. It was found that the organism was resistant to a wide range of pHs but did not survive at temperatures over 65°C. The proposed action plan includes drying of the material prior to packaging and disinfection of the machinery used in the manufacturing process and of the silos used for raw material storage.

  6. Subsynchronous torsional interactions with static VAR compensators; Influence of HVDC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostamkolai, N.; Piwko, R.J.; Larsen, E.V. (General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (USA)); Fisher, D.A. (New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (USA)); Mobarak, M.A. (New Brunswick Electric Power Commission, Fredericton, NB (Canada)); Poitras, A.E. (Maine Electric Power Co., Augusta, ME (US))

    1991-02-01

    Planning for installation of a static var compensator (SVC) in Chester, Maine, was initiated in 1987. The pre-specification subsynchronous torsional interaction (SSTI) studies showed the SVC might have a negative influence on stability of torsional modes of vibration of the nearby turbine-generators. In a previous paper, the parameters influencing the level of SSTI were identified with the use of a simple system. This paper extends the work to power systems containing an HVDC transmission system. The combined effect of SVC and HVDC on turbine-generator SSTI is investigated with the use of a hypothetical system. Simulation plots for the large machines of New Brunswick and Maine are included to quantify the level of interaction with the Chester SVC. Filtering as a mitigation measure is proposed to eliminate the small level of SSTI attributed to the Chester SVC.

  7. Origin of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans Diploid Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogliati, Massimo; Esposto, Maria C.; Clarke, David L.; Wickes, Brian L.; Viviani, Maria A.

    2001-01-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is an important human fungal pathogen. Two varieties, C. neoformans var. neoformans and C. neoformans var. gattii, have been identified. Both are heterothallic with two mating types, MATa and MATα. Some rare isolates are self-fertile and are considered occasional diploid or aneuploid strains. In the present study, 133 isolates, mostly from Italian patients, were investigated to detect the presence of diploid strains in the Igiene Università Milano culture collection. All of the diploid isolates were further investigated by different methods to elucidate their origins. Forty-nine diploid strains were identified by flow cytometry. PCR fingerprinting using the (GACA)4 primer showed that the diploid state was associated with two specific genotypes identified as VN3 and VN4. Determination of mating type on V8 juice medium confirmed that the majority of the strains were sterile. PCR and dot blotting using the two pheromone genes (MFa and MFα) as probes identified 36 of the 49 diploid isolates as MATa/α. The results of pheromone gene sequencing showed that two allelic MFα genes exist and are distinct for serotypes A and D. In contrast, the MFa gene sequence was conserved in both serotype alleles. Amplification of serotype-specific STE20 alleles demonstrated that the diploid strains contained one mating locus inherited from a serotype A parent and one inherited from a serotype D parent. The present results suggest that diploid isolates may be common among the C. neoformans population and that in Italy and other European countries serotype A and D populations are not genetically isolated but are able to recombine by sexual reproduction. PMID:11682503

  8. Experimental poisoning by Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Oliveira-Filho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Five male 6-8 month-old Murrah buffalo calves were orally dosed with the fresh aerial parts of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii at doses of 1, 3, 4, 5 and 10g/kg body weight (bw (~1-10mg macrocyclic trichothecenes/kg/bw. The B. megapotamica used for the experiment was harvested on a farm where a recent spontaneous outbreak of poisoning caused by such plant had occurred. Clinical signs appeared 4-20 hours and 4 buffaloes died 18-49 hours after the ingestion of the plant. Clinical signs were apathy, anorexia, and watery diarrhea, fever, colic, drooling, muscle tremors, restlessness, laborious breathing and ruminal atony, and dehydration. The most consistent gross findings were restricted to the gastrointestinal (GI tract consisted of varying degrees of edema and reddening of the mucosa of the forestomach. Histopathological findings consisted of varying degrees of necrosis of the epithelial lining of the forestomach and of lymphocytes within lymphoid organs and aggregates. Fibrin thrombi were consistently found in sub-mucosal vessels of the forestomach and in the lumen of hepatic sinusoids. It is suggested that dehydration, septicemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation participate in the pathogenesis of the intoxication and play a role as a cause of death. A subsample of B. megapotamica var. weirii was frozen-dried and ground and analyzed using UHPLC (Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography with high resolution Time of Flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry, it was shown that the plant material contained at least 51 different macrocyclic trichothecenes at a total level of 1.1-1.2mg/g. About 15-20% of the total trichothecenes contents was found to be monosaccharide conjugates, with two thirds of these being glucose conjugates and one third constituted by six aldopentose conjugates (probably xylose, which has never been reported in the literature.

  9. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Garay Benjamin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB; 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00% and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  10. Fossils matter: improved estimates of divergence times in Pinus reveal older diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Bianca; Leslie, Andrew B; Wüest, Rafael O; Litsios, Glenn; Conti, Elena; Salamin, Nicolas; Zimmermann, Niklaus E

    2017-04-04

    The taxonomy of pines (genus Pinus) is widely accepted and a robust gene tree based on entire plastome sequences exists. However, there is a large discrepancy in estimated divergence times of major pine clades among existing studies, mainly due to differences in fossil placement and dating methods used. We currently lack a dated molecular phylogeny that makes use of the rich pine fossil record, and this study is the first to estimate the divergence dates of pines based on a large number of fossils (21) evenly distributed across all major clades, in combination with applying both node and tip dating methods. We present a range of molecular phylogenetic trees of Pinus generated within a Bayesian framework. We find the origin of crown Pinus is likely up to 30 Myr older (Early Cretaceous) than inferred in most previous studies (Late Cretaceous) and propose generally older divergence times for major clades within Pinus than previously thought. Our age estimates vary significantly between the different dating approaches, but the results generally agree on older divergence times. We present a revised list of 21 fossils that are suitable to use in dating or comparative analyses of pines. Reliable estimates of divergence times in pines are essential if we are to link diversification processes and functional adaptation of this genus to geological events or to changing climates. In addition to older divergence times in Pinus, our results also indicate that node age estimates in pines depend on dating approaches and the specific fossil sets used, reflecting inherent differences in various dating approaches. The sets of dated phylogenetic trees of pines presented here provide a way to account for uncertainties in age estimations when applying comparative phylogenetic methods.

  11. PCR-RFLP analysis of chitinase genes enables efficient genotyping of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkerli, Jürg; Ghormade, Vandana; Oulevey, Catherine; Widmer, Franco

    2009-10-01

    A new genotyping tool has been developed and evaluated for Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae. The tool is based on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of three chitinase genes that are functionally linked to insect-pathogenicity of this fungus. It allowed for discrimination of 14 genotypes among 22 M. anisopliae var. anisopliae strains of a world wide collection. Analyses revealed that the approach may also be applicable to other Metarhizium varieties. The new tool will be useful for genetic characterization of M. anisopliae var. anisopliae strains, and it is applicable for laboratories with limited access to molecular diagnostic equipment.

  12. Mimosa diversiplla var. subglabriseta (MimosoIdeae, Leguminosae, a new record for the flora of Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A Luna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Mimosa diversipila M. Micheli var. subglabriseta Barneby & Fortunato is now reported for first time in Paraguay. A revision of Barneby's initial description of the variety and photographs of one of the Paraguayan specimens are given in this paper.Mimosa diversipila var. subglabriseta (Mimosoideae, Leguminosae, una nueva cita para la flora de Paraguay. Reportamos por primera vez la presencia de Mimosa diversipila M. Micheli var. subglabriseta Barneby & Fortunato en Paraguay. Una revisión de la descripción inicial de Barneby y fotografías de uno de los ejemplares de Paraguay se incluyen en este documento.

  13. Return predictability and intertemporal asset allocation: Evidence from a bias-adjusted VAR model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    We extend the VAR based intertemporal asset allocation approach from Campbell et al. (2003) to the case where the VAR parameter estimates are adjusted for small- sample bias. We apply the analytical bias formula from Pope (1990) using both Campbell et al.'s dataset, and an extended dataset...... with quarterly data from 1952 to 2006. The results show that correcting the VAR parameters for small-sample bias has both quantitatively and qualitatively important e¤ects on the strategic intertemporal part of optimal portfolio choice, especially for bonds: for intermediate values of risk...

  14. Refusion of zircaloy scraps by VAR (vacuum arc remelting): preliminary results; Fusao de cavacos de zircaloy por VAR: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.A.T.; Mucsi, C.S.; Sato, I.M.; Rossi, J.L.; Martinez, L.G., E-mail: lgallego@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Correa, H.P.S. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Orlando, M.T.D. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Fuel elements and structural components of the core of PWR nuclear reactors are made in zirconium alloys known as Zircaloy. Machining chips and shavings resulting from the manufacturing of these components can not be discarded as scrap, once these alloys are strategic materials for the nuclear area, have high costs and are not produced in Brazil on an industrial bases and, consequently, are imported for the manufacture of nuclear fuel. The reuse of Zircaloy chips has economic, strategic and environmental aspects. In this work is proposed a process for recycling Zircaloy scraps using a VAR (vacuum arc remelting) furnace in order to obtain ingots suitable for the manufacture of components of the reactors. The ingots obtained are being studied in order to verify the influence of processing on composition and microstructure of the remelted material. In this work are presented preliminary results of the composition of obtained ingots compared to start material and the resulting microstructure. (author)

  15. Several domains from VAR2CSA can induce Plasmodium falciparum adhesion-blocking antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanti, Ali; Resende, Mafalda; Ditlev, Sisse B

    2010-01-01

    against a unique P. falciparum membrane protein, named VAR2CSA. This antigen is not expressed in childhood infections, since it binds chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) expressed on the intervillous space in the placenta. A vaccine appears possible because women acquire protective antibodies hindering...... sequestration in the placenta as a function of parity. A challenge for vaccine development is to design small constructs of this large antigen, which can induce broadly protective antibodies. It has previously been shown that one domain of VAR2CSA, DBL4-FCR3, induces parasite adhesion-blocking antibodies....... In this study, it is demonstrated that other domains of VAR2CSA also can induce antibodies with inhibitory activity. METHODS: All VAR2CSA domains from the 3D7 and HB3 parasites were produced in Baculovirus-transfected insect cells. Groups of three rats per protein were immunized and anti-sera were tested...

  16. Final Critical Habitat for the Kincaid's lupine (Lupinus sulphureus (=oreganus) ssp. kincaidii (=var. kincaidii))

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Kincaid's lupine (Lupinus sulphureus (=oreganus) ssp. kincaidii (=var. kincaidii))...

  17. Final Critical Habitat for the Willamette daisy (Erigeron decumbens var. decumbens)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Willamette daisy (Erigeron decumbens var. decumbens) occur.

  18. A Vector AutoRegressive (VAR) Approach to the Credit Channel for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    significance of monetary policy and the bank lending view of the credit channel for Mauritius, which is particularly relevant at these times. A vector autoregressive (VAR) ..... with ∆ the difference operator and B the lag operator. 2.2 Causality.

  19. modeling and analysis of a three-phase solid-state var compensator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several methods of var compensation have been applied in solv- ing these problems. ... quires costly and complex external circuits that reduce circuit reliability. One of ..... control is realized without computation of the re- quired reactive power.

  20. Final Critical Habitat for the Kincaid's lupine (Lupinus sulphureus (=oreganus) ssp. kincaidii (=var. kincaidii))

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Kincaid's lupine (Lupinus sulphureus (=oreganus) ssp. kincaidii (=var. kincaidii))...

  1. Bahiensol, a new glycerolipid from a cultured myxomycete Didymium bahiense var. bahiense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misono, Yuka; Ishibashi, Masami; Ito, Akira

    2003-05-01

    Bahiensol (1), a new glycerolipid with antimicrobial activity has been isolated from a cultured plasmodium of myxomycete Didymium bahiense var. bahiense and its planar structure was elucidated by spectral data.

  2. Three new C19-diterpenoid alkaloids from Delphinium laxicymosum var. Pilostachyum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Tang; Dong Lin Chen; Qiao Hong Chen; Xi Xian Jian; Feng Peng Wang

    2007-01-01

    Three new lycoctonine-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloids, laxicymine 1, laxicymisine 2, and laxicyminine 3 have been isolated from the whole herb of Delphinium laxicymosum var.pilostachyum W.T.Wang.Their structures were established by spectra data.

  3. Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx Flavonoids Fraction Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Chun-Jun; Xu, Nai-Yu; Li, Xian-Lun; Xia, Long; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Zhi-Tao; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Chen, Dao-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim.) Hara, belonging to the Labiatae family, is widely used as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor drug for the treatment of different inflammations and cancers. Aim of the Study...

  4. Final Critical Habitat for the Wenatchee Mountains Checkermallow (Sidalcea oregana var. calva)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Wenatchee Mountains checker-mallow (Sidalcea oregana var. calva) occur based on the...

  5. Sobre la validez taxonómica de Epithemia Zebra var. Elongata (Epithemiaceae, Bacillariophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Gorritti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorritti, G., Sala, S. E. & Guerrero, J. M. 2000. Sobre la validez taxonómica de Epithemiazebra var. elongata (Epithemiaceae, Bacillariophyceae. Darwiniana 38(3-4: 285-289.Se revisaron materiales de Epithemia zebra var. elongata Grunow ex Frenguelli para establecer lavalidez de este taxón. Se estudiaron con microscopio óptico y electrónico de barrido, ejemplares de lacolección Frenguelli y otros recientemente coleccionados en Tierra del Fuego . El análisis de la variaciónpoblacional de los caracteres morfológicos y morfométricos, y la comparación con los taxones afines:Epithemia adnata (Kützing Brébisson y E. adnata var. minor (Peragallo & Héribaud Patrick, demostróque no existen diferencias entre ellos por lo que E. zebra var. elongata debe ser considerada sinónimo deE. adnata

  6. A New 6,7-Seco-Ent-Kaurane Diterpenoid from Isodon eriocalyx Var. laxiflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new 6,7-seco-ent-kaurane diterpenoid, together with two known ones, was isolated from the leaves of Isodon eriocalyx var. laxiflora C. Y. Wu & H. W. Li. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods.

  7. Final Critical Habitat for the Huachuca water umbel (Lilaeopsis schaffneriana var. recurva)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Huachuca water umbel (Lilaeopsis schaffneriana var. recurva) occur based on the...

  8. 75 FR 42033 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Pinus albicaulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... beetle (Logan and Powell 2001, pp. 165-170; Williams and Liebhold 2002, p. 95 ) and white pine blister... 100 percent, with the highest Pinus albicaulis mortality from white pine blister rust occurring in Mt...

  9. Tree species versus regional controls on ecosystem properties and processes: an example using introduced pinus contorta in Swedish boreal forests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McIntosh, Anne C.S; Macdonald, Ellen S; Gundale, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    .... Dans cette etude, nous examinons si l'introduction de Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon en Suede a modifie les processus et les proprietes de la couverture morte, ou si ces proprietes sont plus...

  10. Cytoprotective effects of essential oil of Pinus halepensis L. against aspirin-induced toxicity in IEC-6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Hfaiedh, Najla; Bouaziz, Mouhamed; Giroux-Metges, Marie-Agnès; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Talarmin, Hélène

    2017-07-18

    Essential oils from Pinus species have been reported to have various therapeutic properties. This study was undertaken to identify the chemical composition and cytoprotective effects of the essential oil of Pinus halepensis L. against aspirin-induced damage in cells in vitro. The cytoprotection of the oil against toxicity of aspirin on the small intestine epithelial cells IEC-6 was tested. The obtained results have shown that 35 different compounds were identified. Aspirin induced a decrease in cell viability, and exhibited significant damage to their morphology and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. However, the co-treatment of aspirin with the essential oil of Pinus induced a significant increase in cell viability and a decrease in SOD and CAT activities. Overall, these finding suggest that the essential oil of Pinus halepensis L. has potent cytoprotective effect against aspirin-induced toxicity in IEC-6 cells.

  11. Volume de madeira de Pinus taeda L. em diferentes espaços vitais de crescimento. Wood volume of Pinus taeda L. at different growing spacings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo LIMA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pinus taeda L. é uma das espécies do gênero Pinus mais plantadas na região Sul do Brasil por apresentar excelente crescimento e ótima adaptação às condições climáticas e de solo. Essa espécie é utilizada em larga escala, principalmente para a produção de celulose, construção civil, laminação, produção de móveis, particulados e serraria. Objetivou-se avaliar a produção volumétrica de Pinus taeda L. em diferentes espaços vitais de crescimento (entre 1 m2 e 16 m2 por planta propiciados por nove diferentes espaçamentos entre árvores de um ensaio em cinco blocos ao acaso. O trabalho baseou-se nas medidas de altura e DAP em 25 árvores internas da parcela, aos sete anos após plantio das mudas oriundas de pomar de sementes clonal. Valores estimados de volume por hectare foram inversamente proporcionais ao aumento do espaço vital, alcançando entre 74,2 e 274,8 m3 /ha. Os incrementos médios em volume atingiram entre 10,60 e 39,25 m3 /ha/ano. Concluiu-se que, se o objetivo é a produção volumétrica mesmo com diâmetros pequenos, deve-se optar por espaços vitais menores. Quando se deseja maiores diâmetros, a opção é por espaços maiores. No presente caso, o melhor compromisso entre produção volumétrica e diâmetros grandes pode estar nos espaços vitais intermediários, entre 5 e 8 m2 para cada árvore. Pinus taeda L. is one of the most Pinus species planted in southern Brazil, because it presents excellent growth and optimum adaptation to climatic and soil condition. The species is used in large scale, mainly for cellulose production, construction, laminating, production of furniture, particulates and sawmill. It was aimed to evaluate the Pinus taeda L. volumetric production at different growth vital spaces (ranging 1 m² and 16 m² per plant provided by nine different spacings between plants, the trial was installed in a randomized blocks with five replications. The study was based on height and DBH measurements

  12. Stratospheric age of air computed with trajectories based on various 3D-Var and 4D-Var data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Scheele

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The age of stratospheric air is computed with a trajectory model, using ECMWF ERA-40 3D-Var and operational 4D-Var winds. Analysis as well as forecast data are used. In the latter case successive forecast segments are put together to get a time series of the wind fields. This is done for different forecast segment lengths. The sensitivity of the computed age to the forecast segment length and assimilation method are studied, and the results are compared with observations and with results from a chemistry transport model that uses the same data sets. A large number of backward trajectories are started in the stratosphere, and from the fraction of these trajectories that has passed the tropopause the age of air is computed. First, for ten different data sets 50-day backward trajectories starting in the tropical lower stratosphere are computed. The results show that in this region the computed cross-tropopause transport decreases with increasing forecast segment length. Next, for three selected data sets (3D-Var 24-h and 4D-Var 72-h forecast segments, and 4D-Var analyses 5-year backward trajectories are computed that start all over the globe at an altitude of 20km. For all data sets the computed ages of air in the extratropics are smaller than the observation-based age. For 4D-Var forecast series they are closest to the observation-based values, but still 0.5-1.5 year too small. Compared to the difference in age between the results for the different data sets, the difference in age between the trajectory and the chemistry transport model results is small.

  13. Evidence for the involvement of VAR2CSA in pregnancy-associated malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanti, Ali; Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Turner, Louise;

    2004-01-01

    by endemic plasma in a sex-specific and parity-dependent manner; (c) that high anti-VAR2CSA IgG levels can be found in pregnant women from both West and East Africa; and (d) that women with high plasma levels of anti-VAR2CSA IgG give birth to markedly heavier babies and have a much lower risk of delivering...

  14. [Content and distribution of active components in cultivated and wild Taxus chinensis var. mairei plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shao-Shuai; Sun, Qi-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Tian, Sheng-Ni; Bo, Pei-Lei

    2012-10-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is an endemic and endangered plant species in China. The resources of T. chinensis var. mairei have been excessively exploited due to its anti-cancer potential, accordingly, the extant T. chinensis var. mairei population is decreasing. In this paper, ultrasonic extraction and HPLC were adopted to determine the contents of active components paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine in cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants, with the content distribution of these components in different parts of the plants having grown for different years and at different slope aspects investigated. There existed obvious differences in the contents of these active components between cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants. The paclitaxel content in the wild plants was about 0.78 times more than that in the cultivated plants, whereas the 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine contents were slishtly higher in the cultivated plants. The differences in the three active components contents between different parts and tree canopies of the plants were notable, being higher in barks and upper tree canopies. Four-year old plants had comparatively higher contents of paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine (0.08, 0.91 and 0.32 mg x g(-1), respectively), and the plants growing at sunny slope had higher contents of the three active components, with significant differences in the paclitaxel and 7-xylosyltaxol contents and unapparent difference in the cephalomannine content of the plants at shady slope. It was suggested that the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants were closely related to the sunshine conditions. To appropriately increase the sunshine during the artificial cultivation of T. chinensis var. mairei would be beneficial to the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants.

  15. Myte: Var Danmark det første land, der ophævede slaveriet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Helle

    2014-01-01

    Danskere har tit travlt med at vaske hænder i forbindelse med slavehandlen, for vi var jo det første land, der lovgav mod slaveriet. Men er det nu også sandt?......Danskere har tit travlt med at vaske hænder i forbindelse med slavehandlen, for vi var jo det første land, der lovgav mod slaveriet. Men er det nu også sandt?...

  16. 3-Hydroxy Fatty Acids from the Flowers of Hypericum lysimachioides var. lysimachioides

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZEN, Hasan Çetin; BAŞHAN, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Fatty acid methyl esters in the leaves and flowers of Hypericum lysimachioides var. lysimachioides (Guttiferae) were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The flowers of H. lysimachioides var. lysimachioides produced unusual 3-hydroxy fatty acids [3-hydroxy- tetradecanoic acid (3-OH-C14:0) and 3-hydroxy-octadecanoic acid (3-OH-C18:0)], along with other normal fatty acids. Major components were linolenic and palmitic acids for both leaves and flowers.

  17. Isolation and structure elucidation of a new prenylcoumarin from Murraya paniculata var. omphalocarpa (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Takeshi; Shimada, Motoko

    2002-01-01

    A new C-8 prenylated 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin named omphamurrayin was isolated from the leaves of Murraya paniculata var. omphalocarpa, and its structure was established as 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(1-oxo-2-senecioyl-3-methyl-3-butenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one on the basis of the spectroscopic evidence. The taxonomic status of M. paniculata var. omphalocarpa is briefly discussed, along with its synonymity to M. paniculata from the chemosystematic viewpoint.

  18. 568 Prevalence of Sensitization to Parietaria, Pinus, Cupressus and Morus Pollens in Patients from Craic

    OpenAIRE

    Leal-Garcia, Liborio Rafael; González-Díaz, Sandra; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; del Carmen Zarate, Maria; Garcia-Calderin, Diego; Gallego, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Background The pollens of Cupressus, Parietaria, Pinus and Morus are important causes of allergic respiratory diseases. In a study of pollen concentration in Monterrey in 2004, these pollens occupied the first places in frequency. The objective was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to Parietaria, Pinus, Cupressus and Morus in patients from CRAIC (Regional Center of allergy and clinical immunology, Monterrey, México) Methods Is an observational, cross-comparative, double-blind study...

  19. Evaluación de Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl. y Pinus greggii Engelm. con dos densidades de plantación en Michoacán, México

    OpenAIRE

    H. Jesús Muñoz Flores; Gabriela Orozco Gutierrez; Víctor M. Coria Avalos; J. Jesús García Sánchez; Yadira Yolanda Muñoz Vega; Gabriel Salvador Cruz

    2011-01-01

    En la región Purhépecha, del estado de Michoacán, los problemas ambientales son la deforestación, disminución de la biodiversidad, erosión de suelos, agotamiento de manantiales, contaminación por agroquímicos, cambio de uso de suelo y fragmentación de bosques; y para contrarrestar estos efectos se han establecido plantaciones desde 1960 a la fecha. El objetivo fue evaluar el desarrollo en altura, diámetro, supervivencia y el estado fitosanitario de la plantación de Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl.,...

  20. Valor nutricional e potencial nutracêutico de inflorescências de couve-nabo (Brassica napus var napus) e couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleraceae var costata).

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Batista, Cátia Emanuela Oliveira; Carvalho, Ana Maria; FERREIRA, ISABEL C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Na Península Ibérica as verduras (silvestres ou tradicionalmente cultivadas) têm sido alimentos importantes na dieta humana. O valor nutricional de verduras e os seus benefícios para a saúde têm sido reconhecidos como importantes alvos de investigação. Os grelos, inflorescências da couve-nabo (Brassica napus L. var. napus) e os espigos, inflorescências da couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC.) são exemplos de espécies tradicionalmente cultivadas e amplamente consumidas nas re...