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Sample records for pinnipeds carnivora mammalia

  1. Phylogeny and divergence of the pinnipeds (Carnivora: Mammalia assessed using a multigene dataset

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    Beck Robin MD

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic comparative methods are often improved by complete phylogenies with meaningful branch lengths (e.g., divergence dates. This study presents a dated molecular supertree for all 34 world pinniped species derived from a weighted matrix representation with parsimony (MRP supertree analysis of 50 gene trees, each determined under a maximum likelihood (ML framework. Divergence times were determined by mapping the same sequence data (plus two additional genes on to the supertree topology and calibrating the ML branch lengths against a range of fossil calibrations. We assessed the sensitivity of our supertree topology in two ways: 1 a second supertree with all mtDNA genes combined into a single source tree, and 2 likelihood-based supermatrix analyses. Divergence dates were also calculated using a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock with rate autocorrelation to test the sensitivity of our supertree results further. Results The resulting phylogenies all agreed broadly with recent molecular studies, in particular supporting the monophyly of Phocidae, Otariidae, and the two phocid subfamilies, as well as an Odobenidae + Otariidae sister relationship; areas of disagreement were limited to four more poorly supported regions. Neither the supertree nor supermatrix analyses supported the monophyly of the two traditional otariid subfamilies, supporting suggestions for the need for taxonomic revision in this group. Phocid relationships were similar to other recent studies and deeper branches were generally well-resolved. Halichoerus grypus was nested within a paraphyletic Pusa, although relationships within Phocina tend to be poorly supported. Divergence date estimates for the supertree were in good agreement with other studies and the available fossil record; however, the Bayesian relaxed molecular clock divergence date estimates were significantly older. Conclusion Our results join other recent studies and highlight the need for a re

  2. Morphological modularity in the vertebral column of Felidae (Mammalia, Carnivora)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcela Randau; Anjali Goswami

    2017-01-01

    ... (Felidae, Carnivora, Mammalia) with pairwise comparisons of vertebral shape covariation (i.e. integration) and evaluate our results against hypotheses of developmental and functional modularity...

  3. ESTUDIO COMPARARATIVO DE ALGUNOS ELEMENTOS DE LAS EXTREMIDADES DE LAS FAMILIAS FELIDAE Y CANIDAE (MAMMALIA, CARNIVORA

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    Fabiola Montserrat Morales-Mejía

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio osteológico comparativo se describen, de forma general, las diferencias que existen entre algunos elementos de las extremidades del esqueleto postcraneal de dos familias de carnívoros (Mammalia, Carnivora, Canidae y Felidae. Se utilizaron 42 ejemplares pertenecientes a las dos familias, incluyendo individuos jóvenes, adultos y viejos, depositados en varias colecciones osteológicas de México. Las diferencias morfológicas que se encontraron entre las familias son muy evidentes. Las falanges, metacarpianos, metatarsianos y tarsales de los cánidos son largos y delgados a diferencia de los félidos que son cortos y anchos.

  4. Phylogeny of the Procyonidae (Mammalia: Carnivora): molecules, morphology and the Great American Interchange.

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    Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Gompper, Matthew E; Eizirik, Eduardo; Ho, Cheuk-Chung; Linden, Leif; Maldonado, Jesus E; Wayne, Robert K

    2007-06-01

    The Procyonidae (Mammalia: Carnivora) have played a central role in resolving the controversial systematics of the giant and red pandas, but phylogenetic relationships of species within the family itself have received much less attention. Cladistic analyses of morphological characters conducted during the last two decades have resulted in topologies that group ecologically and morphologically similar taxa together. Specifically, the highly arboreal and frugivorous kinkajou (Potos flavus) and olingos (Bassaricyon) define one clade, whereas the more terrestrial and omnivorous coatis (Nasua), raccoons (Procyon), and ringtails (Bassariscus) define another clade, with the similar-sized Nasua and Procyon joined as sister taxa in this latter group. These relationships, however, have not been tested with molecular sequence data. We examined procyonid phylogenetics based on combined data from nine nuclear and two mitochondrial gene segments totaling 6534bp. We were able to fully resolve relationships within the family with strongly supported and congruent results from maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, minimum evolution, and Bayesian analyses. We identified three distinct lineages within the family: a (Nasua, Bassaricyon) clade, a (Bassariscus, Procyon) clade, and a Potos lineage, the last of which is sister to the other two clades. These findings, which are in strong disagreement with prior fossil and morphology-based assessments of procyonid relationships, reemphasize the morphological and ecological flexibility of these taxa. In particular, morphological similarities between unrelated genera possibly reflect convergence associated with similar lifestyles and diets rather than ancestry. Furthermore, incongruence between the molecular supermatrix and a morphological character matrix comprised mostly of dental characters [Baskin, J.A., 2004. Bassariscus and Probassariscus (Mammalia, Carnivora, Procyonidae) from the early Barstovian (Middle Miocene). J. Vert. Paleo. 24

  5. Molecular phylogeny of the carnivora (mammalia): assessing the impact of increased sampling on resolving enigmatic relationships.

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    Flynn, John J; Finarelli, John A; Zehr, Sarah; Hsu, Johnny; Nedbal, Michael A

    2005-04-01

    This study analyzed 76 species of Carnivora using a concatenated sequence of 6243 bp from six genes (nuclear TR-i-I, TBG, and IRBP; mitochondrial ND2, CYTB, and 12S rRNA), representing the most comprehensive sampling yet undertaken for reconstructing the phylogeny of this clade. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian methods were remarkably congruent in topologies observed and in nodal support measures. We recovered all of the higher level carnivoran clades that had been robustly supported in previous analyses (by analyses of morphological and molecular data), including the monophyly of Caniformia, Feliformia, Arctoidea, Pinnipedia, Musteloidea, Procyonidae + Mustelidae sensu stricto, and a clade of (Hyaenidae + (Herpestidae + Malagasy carnivorans)). All of the traditional "families," with the exception of Viverridae and Mustelidae, were robustly supported as monophyletic groups. We further have determined the relative positions of the major lineages within the Caniformia, which previous studies could not resolve, including the first robust support for the phylogenetic position of marine carnivorans (Pinnipedia) within the Arctoidea (as the sister-group to musteloids [sensu lato], with ursids as their sister group). Within the pinnipeds, Odobenidae (walrus) was more closely allied with otariids (sea lions/fur seals) than with phocids ("true" seals). In addition, we recovered a monophyletic clade of skunks and stink badgers (Mephitidae) and resolved the topology of musteloid interrelationships as: Ailurus (Mephitidae (Procyonidae, Mustelidae [sensu stricto])). This pattern of interrelationships of living caniforms suggests a novel inference that large body size may have been the primitive condition for Arctoidea, with secondary size reduction evolving later in some musteloids. Within Mustelidae, Bayesian analyses are unambiguous in supporting otter monophyly (Lutrinae), and in both MP and Bayesian analyses Martes is paraphyletic with respect to Gulo and Eira, as has been

  6. The Ancestral Carnivore Karyotype As Substantiated by Comparative Chromosome Painting of Three Pinnipeds, the Walrus, the Steller Sea Lion and the Baikal Seal (Pinnipedia, Carnivora.

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    Violetta R Beklemisheva

    Full Text Available Karyotype evolution in Carnivora is thoroughly studied by classical and molecular cytogenetics and supplemented by reconstructions of Ancestral Carnivora Karyotype (ACK. However chromosome painting information from two pinniped families (Odobenidae and Otariidae is noticeably missing. We report on the construction of the comparative chromosome map for species from each of the three pinniped families: the walrus (Odobenus rosmarus, Odobenidae-monotypic family, near threatened Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus, Otariidae and the endemic Baikal seal (Pusa sibirica, Phocidae using combination of human, domestic dog and stone marten whole-chromosome painting probes. The earliest karyological studies of Pinnipedia showed that pinnipeds were characterized by a pronounced karyological conservatism that is confirmed here with species from Phocidae, Otariidae and Odobenidae sharing same low number of conserved human autosomal segments (32. Chromosome painting in Pinnipedia and comparison with non-pinniped carnivore karyotypes provide strong support for refined structure of ACK with 2n = 38. Constructed comparative chromosome maps show that pinniped karyotype evolution was characterized by few tandem fusions, seemingly absent inversions and slow rate of genome rearrangements (less then one rearrangement per 10 million years. Integrative comparative analyses with published chromosome painting of Phoca vitulina revealed common cytogenetic signature for Phoca/Pusa branch and supports Phocidae and Otaroidea (Otariidae/Odobenidae as sister groups. We revealed rearrangements specific for walrus karyotype and found the chromosomal signature linking together families Otariidae and Odobenidae. The Steller sea lion karyotype is the most conserved among three studied species and differs from the ACK by single fusion. The study underlined the strikingly slow karyotype evolution of the Pinnipedia in general and the Otariidae in particular.

  7. A mongoose remain (Mammalia: Carnivora) from the Upper Irrawaddy sediments, Myanmar and its significance in evolutionary history of Asian herpestids

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    Egi, Naoko; Thaung-Htike; Zin-Maung-Maung-Thein; Maung-Maung; Nishioka, Yuichiro; Tsubamoto, Takehisa; Ogino, Shintaro; Takai, Masanaru

    2011-11-01

    A tooth of a mongoose (Mammalia: Carnivora: Herpestidae) was discovered from the Upper Irrawaddy sediments in central Myanmar. The age of the fauna is not older than the mid-Pliocene. It is identified as a right first upper molar of a small species of Urva (formally included in the genus Herpestes) based on its size and shape. The present specimen is the first carnivoran from the Upper Irrawaddy sediments and is the first record of mongooses in the Pliocene and early Pleistocene of Asia. It confirms that mongooses had already dispersed into Southeast Asia by the late Pliocene, being consistent with the previous molecular phylogenetic analyses. The fossil may belong to one of the extant species, but an assignment to a specific species is difficult due to the fragmentary nature of the specimen and the small interspecific differences in dental shape among the Asian mongooses. The size of the tooth suggests that the Irrawaddy specimen is within or close to the clade of Urva auropunctata + javanica + edwardsii, and this taxonomic assignment agrees with the geographical distribution.

  8. Late Pleistocene carnivores (Carnivora: Mammalia) from a cave sedimentary deposit in northern Brazil.

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    Rodrigues, Shirlley; Avilla, Leonardo S; Soibelzon, Leopoldo H; Bernardes, Camila

    2014-12-01

    The Brazilian Quaternary terrestrial Carnivora are represented by the following families: Canidae, Felidae, Ursidae, Procyonidae Mephitidae and Mustelidae. Their recent evolutionary history in South America is associated with the uplift of the Panamanian Isthmus, and which enabled the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). Here we present new fossil records of Carnivora found in a cave in Aurora do Tocantins, Tocantins, northern Brazil. A stratigraphical controlled collection in the sedimentary deposit of the studied cave revealed a fossiliferous level where the following Carnivora taxa were present: Panthera onca, Leopardus sp., Galictis cuja, Procyon cancrivorus, Nasua nasua and Arctotherium wingei. Dating by Electron Spinning Resonance indicates that this assemblage was deposited during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), at least, 22.000 YBP. The weasel, G. cuja, is currently reported much further south than the record presented here. This may suggest that the environment around the cave was relatively drier during the LGM, with more open vegetation, and more moderate temperatures than the current Brazilian Cerrado.

  9. Late Pleistocene carnivores (Carnivora: Mammalia from a cave sedimentary deposit in northern Brazil

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    SHIRLLEY RODRIGUES

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Quaternary terrestrial Carnivora are represented by the following families: Canidae, Felidae, Ursidae, Procyonidae Mephitidae and Mustelidae. Their recent evolutionary history in South America is associated with the uplift of the Panamanian Isthmus, and which enabled the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI. Here we present new fossil records of Carnivora found in a cave in Aurora do Tocantins, Tocantins, northern Brazil. A stratigraphical controlled collection in the sedimentary deposit of the studied cave revealed a fossiliferous level where the following Carnivora taxa were present: Panthera onca, Leopardus sp., Galictis cuja, Procyon cancrivorus, Nasua nasua and Arctotherium wingei. Dating by Electron Spinning Resonance indicates that this assemblage was deposited during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, at least, 22.000 YBP. The weasel, G. cuja, is currently reported much further south than the record presented here. This may suggest that the environment around the cave was relatively drier during the LGM, with more open vegetation, and more moderate temperatures than the current Brazilian Cerrado.

  10. Late Pleistocene carnivores (Carnivora: Mammalia) from a cave sedimentary deposit in northern Brazil.

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    Rodrigues, Shirlley; Avilla, Leonardo S; Soibelzon, Leopoldo H; Bernardes, Camila

    2014-11-28

    The Brazilian Quaternary terrestrial Carnivora are represented by the following families: Canidae, Felidae, Ursidae, Procyonidae Mephitidae and Mustelidae. Their recent evolutionary history in South America is associated with the uplift of the Panamanian Isthmus, and which enabled the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). Here we present new fossil records of Carnivora found in a cave in Aurora do Tocantins, Tocantins, northern Brazil. A stratigraphical controlled collection in the sedimentary deposit of the studied cave revealed a fossiliferous level where the following Carnivora taxa were present: Panthera onca, Leopardus sp., Galictis cuja, Procyon cancrivorus, Nasua nasua and Arctotherium wingei. Dating by Electron Spinning Resonance indicates that this assemblage was deposited during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), at least, 22.000 YBP. The weasel, G. cuja, is currently reported much further south than the record presented here. This may suggest that the environment around the cave was relatively drier during the LGM, with more open vegetation, and more moderate temperatures than the current Brazilian Cerrado.

  11. The influence of modularity on cranial morphological disparity in Carnivora and Primates (Mammalia.

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    Anjali Goswami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although variation provides the raw material for natural selection and evolution, few empirical data exist about the factors controlling morphological variation. Because developmental constraints on variation are expected to act by influencing trait correlations, studies of modularity offer promising approaches that quantify and summarize patterns of trait relationships. Modules, highly-correlated and semi-autonomous sets of traits, are observed at many levels of biological organization, from genes to colonies. The evolutionary significance of modularity is considerable, with potential effects including constraining the variation of individual traits, circumventing pleiotropy and canalization, and facilitating the transformation of functional structures. Despite these important consequences, there has been little empirical study of how modularity influences morphological evolution on a macroevolutionary scale. Here, we conduct the first morphometric analysis of modularity and disparity in two clades of placental mammals, Primates and Carnivora, and test if trait integration within modules constrains or facilitates morphological evolution. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used both randomization methods and direct comparisons of landmark variance to compare disparity in the six cranial modules identified in previous studies. The cranial base, a highly-integrated module, showed significantly low disparity in Primates and low landmark variance in both Primates and Carnivora. The vault, zygomatic-pterygoid and orbit modules, characterized by low trait integration, displayed significantly high disparity within Carnivora. 14 of 24 results from analyses of disparity show no significant relationship between module integration and morphological disparity. Of the ten significant or marginally significant results, eight support the hypothesis that integration within modules constrains morphological evolution in the placental skull. Only the molar module

  12. Interpretation of anatomical characters in phylogenetic analysis of Pinnipedia, with emphasis on Otariidae (Mammalia, Carnivora

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    Daniela Sanfelice

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n2p185   The hypothesis that pinnipeds have a common origin gained support during the 1980s in discussions focused on the systematics of the group. However, the limited knowledge of the anatomy of several species and the frequent variation in several character states make it difficult to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of pinnipeds. Our purpose was to review the anatomical characters of the syncranium and dentition used in phylogenetic analyses by studying the otariids Otaria byronia (n=25 and Arctocephalus australis (n=48. Some interpretations of characters presented in the literature were found to be questionable, notably: (1 shape and position of the premaxillary tuberosity; (2 orientation of the maxillary postcanine alveoli; (3 naso-labialis fossa; (4 shape of the jugal contact with the zygomatic process of temporal; (5 relief and length of the tympanic bone; (6 relationship between the height of the condylar process in relation to the lower postcanine teeth alveoli; (7 individualization of the canal of the cochlear aqueduct and round window; (8 separation of the openings for the cranial nerves VII and VIII in the internal auditory meatus; (9 lingual cingulum on the third upper incisor; (10 development of the metaconid of the fifth upper postcanine tooth, and (11 number of roots in the second to fourth upper postcanine teeth and fifth lower postcanine tooth. These observations indicate the relevance and the need for detailed anatomical descriptions of pinnipeds for understanding their phylogenetic relationships and, consequently, their evolutionary relationships.

  13. Phylogenetic autocorrelation and evolutionary diversity of Carnivora (Mammalia in Conservation Units of the New World

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    Natália Mundim Tôrres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns of Conservation Biology is the identification of priority areas for conservation, and the development of quantitative methods is important to achieve this task. Many phylogenetic diversity indexes and higher-taxon approaches have been used in this context. In this study, Faith's phylogenetic indexes and the number of evolutionary independent lineages of Carnivora were calculated at the average patch level based on phylogenetic autocorrelation analysis of phenotypic traits, in 18 conservation units in America (frequently National Parks. Despite controversies about the hierarchical level to be adopted, the characters included in this study suggest that the family level produces independent units for the analysis of phenotypic diversity in Carnivora. A positive correlation between species richness and the number of evolutionary independent lineages appeared (r = 0.67; P < 0.05, showing that this is a valid criterion to priorize conservation areas. Faith's phylogenetic diversity index is also highly correlated with species richness (r = 0.87; P < 0.05, as well as with the number of evolutionary independent lineages (r = 0.89; P < 0.05. Thus, the conservation units with more species have also more evolutionary information to be preserved.

  14. The evolution of orbit orientation and encephalization in the Carnivora (Mammalia).

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    Finarelli, John A; Goswami, Anjali

    2009-05-01

    Evolutionary change in encephalization within and across mammalian clades is well-studied, yet relatively few comparative analyses attempt to quantify the impact of evolutionary change in relative brain size on cranial morphology. Because of the proximity of the braincase to the orbits, and the inter-relationships among ecology, sensory systems and neuroanatomy, a relationship has been hypothesized between orbit orientation and encephalization for mammals. Here, we tested this hypothesis in 68 fossil and living species of the mammalian order Carnivora, comparing orbit orientation angles (convergence and frontation) to skull length and encephalization. No significant correlations were observed between skull length and orbit orientation when all taxa were analysed. Significant correlations were observed between encephalization and orbit orientation; however, these were restricted to the families Felidae and Canidae. Encephalization is positively correlated with frontation in both families and negatively correlated with convergence in canids. These results indicate that no universal relationship exists between encephalization and orbit orientation for Carnivora. Braincase expansion impacts orbit orientation in specific carnivoran clades, the nature of which is idiosyncratic to the clade itself.

  15. On the correct name for some subfamilies of Mustelidae (Mammalia, Carnivora

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    Fabio Oliveira do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mustelids (Mustelidae exhibit a wide morphological and ecological diversity, ranging from aquatic to semi arboreal and fossorial forms. It is the most diversity family in Carnivora, and this has promoted a great number of taxonomic arrangements for subfamilies, which can range from two to 15 depending on the author. The relatively recent use of molecular data has helped to elucidate the classification of mustelids, and eight subfamilies are currently recognized: Mustelinae, Galictinae, Helictidinae, Martinae, Melinae, Mellivorinae, Taxidiinae and Lutrinae. However, some of these subfamilies have nomenclatural problems, not receiving the oldest available name. The subfamily that includes martens (Martes, Charronia and Pekania, tayra (Eira and wolverine (Gulo has received the name of Martinae Wagner, 1841, but the oldest available name is Guloninae Gray, 1825. This problem also occurs for the subfamily that includes the grisons (Galictis, Patagonian weasel (Lyncodon, marbled polecat (Vormela and striped weasels (Ictonyx and Poecilogale, which are known as Grisoninae Pocock, 1921, but the correct name for this group is Ictonychinae, Pocock, 1921. The subfamily that includes ferret badgers (Melogale retains the name Helictidinae Gray, 1865, because its validity is not affected when the type-genus of the subfamily becomes a junior synonym of another genus. Furthermore, a list of the extant subfamilies of Mustelidae and their respective synonyms and included genera is provided.

  16. Comprehensive species set revealing the phylogeny and biogeography of Feliformia (Mammalia, Carnivora) based on mitochondrial DNA

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    Ma, Jian-Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Extant Feliformia species are one of the most diverse radiations of Carnivora (~123 species). Despite substantial recent interest in their conservation, diversification, and systematic study, no previous phylogeny contains a comprehensive species set, and no biogeography of this group is available. Here, we present a phylogenetic estimate for Feliformia with a comprehensive species set and establish a historical biogeography based on mitochondrial DNA. Both the Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogeny for Feliformia are elucidated in our analyses and are strongly consistent with many groups recognized in previous studies. The mitochondrial phylogenetic relationships of Felidae were for the first time successfully reconstructed in our analyses with strong supported. When divergence times and dispersal/vicariance histories were compared with historical sea level changes, four dispersal and six vicariance events were identified. These vicariance events were closely related with global sea level changes. The transgression of sea into the lowland plains between Eurasia and Africa may have caused the vicariance in these regions. A fall in the sea level during late Miocene to Pliocene produced the Bering strait land bridge, which assisted the migration of American Feliformia ancestors from Asia to North America. In contrast with the ‘sweepstakes hypothesis’, our results suggest that the climate cooling during 30–27 Ma assisted Feliformia migration from the African mainland to Madagascar by creating a short-lived ice bridge across the Mozambique Channel. Lineages-through-time plots revealed a large increase in lineages since the Mid-Miocene. During the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, the ecosystems and population of Feliformia rapidly expanded. Subsequent climate cooling catalyzed immigration, speciation, and the extinction of Feliformia. PMID:28358848

  17. Updating the evolutionary history of Carnivora (Mammalia): a new species-level supertree complete with divergence time estimates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nyakatura, Katrin; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P

    2012-01-01

    Although it has proven to be an important foundation for investigations of carnivoran ecology, biology and evolution, the complete species-level supertree for Carnivora of Bininda-Emonds et al. is showing its age...

  18. Updating the evolutionary history of Carnivora (Mammalia: a new species-level supertree complete with divergence time estimates

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    Nyakatura Katrin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although it has proven to be an important foundation for investigations of carnivoran ecology, biology and evolution, the complete species-level supertree for Carnivora of Bininda-Emonds et al. is showing its age. Additional, largely molecular sequence data are now available for many species and the advancement of computer technology means that many of the limitations of the original analysis can now be avoided. We therefore sought to provide an updated estimate of the phylogenetic relationships within all extant Carnivora, again using supertree analysis to be able to analyze as much of the global phylogenetic database for the group as possible. Results In total, 188 source trees were combined, representing 114 trees from the literature together with 74 newly constructed gene trees derived from nearly 45,000 bp of sequence data from GenBank. The greater availability of sequence data means that the new supertree is almost completely resolved and also better reflects current phylogenetic opinion (for example, supporting a monophyletic Mephitidae, Eupleridae and Prionodontidae; placing Nandinia binotata as sister to the remaining Feliformia. Following an initial rapid radiation, diversification rate analyses indicate a downturn in the net speciation rate within the past three million years as well as a possible increase some 18.0 million years ago; numerous diversification rate shifts within the order were also identified. Conclusions Together, the two carnivore supertrees remain the only complete phylogenetic estimates for all extant species and the new supertree, like the old one, will form a key tool in helping us to further understand the biology of this charismatic group of carnivores.

  19. The evolution of the brain in Canidae (Mammalia: Carnivora)

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    Lyras, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Canid brain evolution followed three independent, yet convergent paths. Each of the three canid subfamilies (Hesperocyoninae, Borophaginae and Caninae) started with a simple brain, which gradually became more complicated as the cerebral cortex became larger and more fissured, the cerebellar hemisphe

  20. Músculos mandibulares de Puma concolor (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae

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    Romina Paola Llanos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen los músculos mandibulares del puma (Puma concolor, un mamífero carnívoro de amplia distribución en América. Se disecaron y fotografiaron los músculos izquierdos y derechos de la cabeza de tres individuos, dos machos adultos y una hembra juvenil. Este estudio incrementa nuestro conocimiento de los tejidos blandos mandibulares y por lo tanto, aporta información anatómica valiosa de la escasamente conocida y documentada musculatura de este félido, el más grande de la subfamilia Felinae.

  1. The evolution of the brain in Canidae (Mammalia: Carnivora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyras, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Canid brain evolution followed three independent, yet convergent paths. Each of the three canid subfamilies (Hesperocyoninae, Borophaginae and Caninae) started with a simple brain, which gradually became more complicated as the cerebral cortex became larger and more fissured, the cerebellar

  2. Fossil Phocidae in some Dutch collections (Mammalia, Carnivora)

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    Bree, van P.J.H.; Bosscha Erdbrink, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Three cranial and seventy postcranial fossils are briefly described and identified as remains of Phocidae. Three of these are ascribed to the Bearded Seal Erignathus barbatus (Erxleben, 1777), nineteen to the Grey or Atlantic Seal Halichoerus grypus (Fabricius, 1791), and the remainder to the Common

  3. Fossil Odobenidae in some Dutch collections (Mammalia, Carnivora)

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    Bosscha Erdbrink, D.P.; Bree, van P.J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Eight cranial and five postcranial fossil specimens are described and identified as remains of Odobenidae. Two of these (one, from Rhenen, certainly, and the other tentatively) are ascribed to the fossil, Early Pleistocene Odobenus huxleyi (Lankester, 1865), the others to the recent form, O.

  4. Molecular systematics and biogeography of the Hemigalinae civets (Mammalia, Carnivora

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    Géraldine Veron

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the difficulty in obtaining samples, the systematics of the Hemigalinae civets has not been fully resolved. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships of the species and the intraspecific diversity within this subfamily, and to explore the environmental factors that might have affected its evolution. Using two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers, we confirmed that the Hemigalinae comprises Owston’s civet, the otter civet, Hose’s civet and the banded civet, but also the Sulawesi palm civet (formerly included in the Paradoxurinae. Our study showed that the banded and Owston’s civets are sister species, and suggested that Hose’s civet is sister to these two. Within the banded civet, we observed a high divergence between individuals from the Mentawai Islands and those from Sumatra and Borneo (while the latter two were not strongly divergent, likely due to the deep sea channel between the Mentawai Islands and Sumatra. Unexpectedly, the Sumatran and Peninsular Malaysian individuals were not closely related, despite the fact that these two regions have repeatedly been connected during the last glaciations. No high polymorphism was found within Owston’s civet, although three groups were obtained: southern China, northern Vietnam and central Vietnam, which might be related to Pleistocene climatic fluctuations.

  5. Helminths of Wild Predatory Mammals (Mammalia, Carnivora of Ukraine. Trematodes

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    Korol E. N.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises information on 11 species of trematodes parasitic in 9 species of wild carnivorans of Ukraine. The largest number of trematode species (9 was found in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes. Alaria alata (Diplostomidae appeared to be the most common trematode parasite in the studied group; it was found in 4 host species from 9 administrative regions and Crimea.

  6. THE MANDIBULAR MUSCLES OF Puma concolor (MAMMALIA, CARNIVORA, FELIDAE

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    Romina Paola LLANOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen los músculos mandibulares del puma (Puma concolor, un mamífero carnívoro de amplia distribución en América. Se diseccionaron y fotografiaron los músculos izquierdos y derechos de la cabeza de tres individuos, dos machos adultos y una hembra juvenil. Este estudio incrementa nuestro conocimiento de los tejidos blandos mandibulares y por lo tanto, aporta información anatómica valiosa de la escasamente conocida y documentada musculatura de este félido, el más grande de la subfamilia Felinae.

  7. Morphological modularity in the vertebral column of Felidae (Mammalia, Carnivora)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcela Randau; Anjali Goswami

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that the clear morphological differences among vertebrae across the presacral column are accompanied by heterogeneous functional signals in vertebral shape...

  8. Spatial auditory processing in pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Marla M.

    Given the biological importance of sound for a variety of activities, pinnipeds must be able to obtain spatial information about their surroundings thorough acoustic input in the absence of other sensory cues. The three chapters of this dissertation address spatial auditory processing capabilities of pinnipeds in air given that these amphibious animals use acoustic signals for reproduction and survival on land. Two chapters are comparative lab-based studies that utilized psychophysical approaches conducted in an acoustic chamber. Chapter 1 addressed the frequency-dependent sound localization abilities at azimuth of three pinniped species (the harbor seal, Phoca vitulina, the California sea lion, Zalophus californianus, and the northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris). While performances of the sea lion and harbor seal were consistent with the duplex theory of sound localization, the elephant seal, a low-frequency hearing specialist, showed a decreased ability to localize the highest frequencies tested. In Chapter 2 spatial release from masking (SRM), which occurs when a signal and masker are spatially separated resulting in improvement in signal detectability relative to conditions in which they are co-located, was determined in a harbor seal and sea lion. Absolute and masked thresholds were measured at three frequencies and azimuths to determine the detection advantages afforded by this type of spatial auditory processing. Results showed that hearing sensitivity was enhanced by up to 19 and 12 dB in the harbor seal and sea lion, respectively, when the signal and masker were spatially separated. Chapter 3 was a field-based study that quantified both sender and receiver variables of the directional properties of male northern elephant seal calls produce within communication system that serves to delineate dominance status. This included measuring call directivity patterns, observing male-male vocally-mediated interactions, and an acoustic playback study

  9. Morfología del aparato músculo-esqueletario del postcráneo de los mustélidos (Carnivora, Mammalia) fósiles y vivientes de América del Sur: implicancias funcionales en un contexto filogenético

    OpenAIRE

    Ercoli, Marcos Darío

    2015-01-01

    La familia Mustelidae es la más diversa del Orden Carnivora, representada por 22 géneros vivientes, que presentan una gran variación eco-morfológica. Los mustélidos de América del Sur están representados por 11 especies vivientes: el gulonino Eira barbara; los hurones ictoniquinos lincodontininos Lyncodon patagonicus, Galictis cuja y Ga. vittata; los lutrinos Lontra felina, Lo. longicaudis, Lo. provocax y Pteronura brasiliensis; y los hurones mustelinos Mustela frenata, Mu. felipei y Mu. afri...

  10. Surgical procedures in pinniped and cetacean species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Jennifer L; Hendrickson, Dean A

    2013-12-01

    Significant advances in veterinary diagnostic and surgical techniques have been made over the past several decades. Many of these advances, however, have not reached the field of marine mammal medicine. A number of limitations exist: risks of anesthesia, anatomical challenges, difficulties with wound closure, environmental constraints, equipment limitations, and perceived risks. Despite these limitations, surgical treatments have been successfully utilized in marine mammals. While surgery is performed in pinnipeds more frequently than in cetaceans, studies conducted in the 1960s and 1970s on dolphin sleep and hearing demonstrated that general anesthesia can be successfully induced in cetaceans. Since this pioneering work, a small number of successful surgeries have been performed in dolphins under both general anesthesia and heavy sedation. While these surgical procedures in pinnipeds and cetaceans have typically been limited to wound management, dentistry, ophthalmic procedures, fracture repair, and superficial biopsy, a number of abdominal surgeries have also been performed. Recently there have been pioneering successes in the application of minimally invasive surgery in marine mammals. Many of the anatomical challenges that almost prohibit traditional laparotomies in cetacean species and present challenges in pinnipeds can be overcome through the use of laparoscopic techniques. Due to the limited number of pinnipeds and cetaceans in captivity and, thus, the limited case load for veterinarians serving marine mammal species, it is vital for knowledge of surgical procedures to be shared among those in the field. This paper reviews case reports of surgical procedures, both traditional and laparoscopic, in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Limitations to performing surgical procedures in marine mammals are discussed and surgical case reports analyzed in an effort to determine challenges that must be overcome in order to make surgery a more feasible diagnostic and treatment

  11. Giardiasis in pinnipeds from eastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measures, L N; Olson, M

    1999-10-01

    Cysts of Giardia sp. were detected in feces from the rectum of 20 of 74 pinnipeds examined from the eastern coast of Canada in 1997 and 1998 using a monoclonal antibody technique. Infected pinnipeds included 15 adult harp seals (Phoca groenlandica), four adult grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), and one juvenile harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Cysts were not detected in 15 seal pups St. Lawrence. The overall prevalence of Giardia sp. in grey and harbor seals, excluding pups, from the Gulf and St. Lawrence estuary was 23%. Feces from 11 beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and one northern bottle-nosed whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus) stranded in the St. Lawrence estuary were negative for Giardia sp. cysts. The significance of Giardia sp. in marine mammals, shown here for the first time in eastern coastal Canada, is unknown.

  12. Enamel ultrastructure of fossil and modern pinnipeds: evaluating hypotheses of feeding adaptations in the extinct walrus Pelagiarctos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Carolina; Boessenecker, Robert W.; Churchill, Morgan; Kieser, Jules

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the enamel ultrastructure in modern otariid pinnipeds and in the extinct walrus Pelagiarctos. Teeth of the New Zealand fur seal ( Arctocephalus forsteri), sea lion ( Phocarctos hookeri), and fossil walrus Pelagiarctos thomasi were embedded, sectioned, etched, and analyzed via scanning electron microscopy. The enamel of NZ otariids and Pelagiarctos was prismatic and moderately thick, measuring 150-450 μm on average. It consisted of transversely oriented Hunter-Schreger bands (HSBs) from the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) to near the outer surface, where it faded into prismless enamel less than 10 μm thick. The width of HSB was variable and averaged between 6 and 10 prisms, and they presented an undulating course both in longitudinal and cross sections. The overall organization of the enamel was similar in all teeth sampled; however, the enamel was thicker in canines and postcanines than in incisors. The crowns of all teeth sampled were uniformly covered by enamel; however, the grooved incisors lacked an enamel cover on the posterior side of the buccal face. Large tubules and tuft-like structures were seen at the EDJ. HSB enamel as well as tubules and tufts at the EDJ suggest increased occlusal loads during feeding, a biomechanical adaptation to avoid enamel cracking and failure. Despite overall simplification in tooth morphology and reduced mastication, the fossil and modern pinnipeds analyzed here retained the complex undulating HSB structure of other fossils and living Carnivora, while other marine mammals such as cetaceans developed simplified radial enamel.

  13. Notas para una monografía de potos flavus (mammalia: carnivora) en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Dentro de los estudios acerca de la taxonomía, distribución y ecología de mamíferos colombianos, surgen numerosos problemas debidos a que la información pertinente, a menudo bastante fragmentaria, se halla muy dispersa, y a la necesidad de compilarla, analizarla e interpretarla como paso previo para la identificación de aspectos críticos y el esclarecimiento de losmismos mediante la obtención de material e información adicional. El presente artículo debe tomarse como un ensayo o contribución ...

  14. Morphometric study of phylogenetic and ecologic signals in procyonid (mammalia: carnivora) endocasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Heather E

    2014-12-01

    Endocasts provide a proxy for brain morphology but are rarely incorporated in phylogenetic analyses despite the potential for new suites of characters. The phylogeny of Procyonidae, a carnivoran family with relatively limited taxonomic diversity, is not well resolved because morphological and molecular data yield conflicting topologies. The presence of phylogenetic and ecologic signals in the endocasts of procyonids will be determined using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Endocasts of seven ingroup species and four outgroup species were digitally rendered and 21 landmarks were collected from the endocast surface. Two phylogenetic hypotheses of Procyonidae will be examined using methods testing for phylogenetic signal in morphometric data. In analyses of all taxa, there is significant phylogenetic signal in brain shape for both the morphological and molecular topologies. However, the analyses of ingroup taxa recover a significant phylogenetic signal for the morphological topology only. These results indicate support for the molecular outgroup topology, but not the ingroup topology given the brain shape data. Further examination of brain shape using principal components analysis and wireframe comparisons suggests procyonids possess more developed areas of the brain associated with motor control, spatial perception, and balance relative to the basal musteloid condition. Within Procyonidae, similar patterns of variation are present, and may be associated with increased arboreality in certain taxa. Thus, brain shape derived from endocasts may be used to test for phylogenetic signal and preliminary analyses suggest an association with behavior and ecology.

  15. Fossil cranial walrus material from the North Sea and the estuary of the Schelde (Mammalia, Carnivora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosscha Erdbrink, D.P.; Bree, van P.J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Six cranial odobenid remains in a public collection, which have come to our notice since the publication of two earlier papers, are described and discussed. Identification of several specimens with Odobenus antverpiensis (Rutten, 1907) cannot be ruled out.

  16. A specimen of Canis cf. C. etruscus (Mammalia, Carnivora) from the Middle Villafranchian of the Oosterschelde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reumer, J.W.F.; Piskoulis, P.

    A recent find of a Middle Villafranchian (c. 2.35–2.10 Ma) Canis cf. C. etruscus in the trawlings from the Oosterschelde concerns the oldest dog known from the Netherlands and is the first appearance record of this canid in the North Sea Basin. It shows that the tribe Canini was dispersed beyond

  17. Further observations on fossil and subfossil Odobenid material (Mammalia, Carnivora) from the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosscha Erdbrink, D.P.; Bree, van P.J.H.

    1990-01-01

    Six cranial and two postcranial fossil and subfossil odobenid remains that have come to our notice since our 1986 paper on the same subject are described and discussed. One of these can, with some confidence, be identified as Odobenus antverpiensis (Rutten, 1907). The others either belong to the

  18. New localities of Quaternary fossil Bears (Ursus sp. L. (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ursidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaveya Stoycheva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bear bones were reported for first time in four Bulgarian caves: Mazata (near Hristo Danovo village, Stara Planina Mnt. - Ursus cf ingressus, Ursus sp., Kokalenata (near Bulgarka hut, Stara Planina Mnt. - Ursus cf ingressus, Kiliykite (near Stanchov Han village, Stara Planina Mnt. - Ursus sp. and Vodnata Modarska (near the Lilkovo village, Western Rhodopes Mnt. - Ursus spelaeus species complex.

  19. THE ENDEMIC CANID CYNOTHERIUM (MAMMALIA, CARNIVORA FROM THE PLEISTOCENE DEPOSITS OF MONTE TUTTAVISTA (NUORO, EASTERN SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA ABBAZZI

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main results related to the analysis of fossils of the endemic Sardinian canid Cynotherium, discovered during the past years within the rich fossiliferous karst deposits in the Monte Tuttavista area (Eastern Sardinia, Nuoro.The analysis indicates that the remains from various fissure infillings differ in size and dental characters, which are suggestive of evolutionary phases under endemic conditions. The chronological sequencing of fissures obtained based on the evolutionary stage of the fossil canid is consistent with that emerging from the analysis of the whole mammal assemblages occurring in the same fissures. The possible evolutionary relationships of the Sardinian canid to the Plio-Pleistocene mainland species are also considered; a derivation from a population of late Canis arnensis (or Canis mosbachensis population is supported.

  20. Taxonomic and systematic revisions to the North American Nimravidae (Mammalia, Carnivora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Z. Barrett

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nimravidae is a family of extinct carnivores commonly referred to as “false saber-tooth cats.” Since their initial discovery, they have prompted difficulty in taxonomic assignments and number of valid species. Past revisions have only examined a handful of genera, while recent advances in cladistic and morphometric analyses have granted us additional avenues to answering questions regarding our understanding of valid nimravid taxa and their phylogenetic relationships. To resolve issues of specific validity, the phylogenetic species concept (PSC was utilized to maintain consistency in diagnosing valid species, while simultaneously employing character and linear morphometric analyses for confirming the validity of taxa. Determined valid species and taxonomically informative characters were then employed in two differential cladistic analyses to create competing hypotheses of interspecific relationships. The results suggest the validity of twelve species and six monophyletic genera. The first in depth reviews of Pogonodon and Dinictis returned two valid species (P. platycopis, P. davisi for the former, while only one for the latter (D. felina. The taxonomic validity of Nanosmilus is upheld. Two main clades with substantial support were returned for all cladistic analyses, the Hoplophoneini and Nimravini, with ambiguous positions relative to these main clades for the European taxa: Eofelis, Dinailurictis bonali, and Quercylurus major; and the North American taxa Dinictis and Pogonodon. Eusmilus is determined to represent a non-valid genus for North American taxa, suggesting non-validity for Old World nimravid species as well. Finally, Hoplophoneus mentalis is found to be a junior synonym of Hoplophoneus primaevus, while the validity of Hoplophoneus oharrai is reinstated.

  1. Discovery of the fossil otter Enhydritherium terraenovae (Carnivora, Mammalia) in Mexico reconciles a palaeozoogeographic mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Z Jack; Pacheco-Castro, Adolfo; Carranza-Castañeda, Oscar; Aranda-Gómez, José Jorge; Wang, Xiaoming; Troncoso, Hilda

    2017-06-01

    The North American fossil otter Enhydritherium terraenovae is thought to be partially convergent in ecological niche with the living sea otter Enhydra lutris, both having low-crowned crushing teeth and a close association with marine environments. Fossil records of Enhydritherium are found in mostly marginal marine deposits in California and Florida; despite presence of very rich records of fossil terrestrial mammals in contemporaneous localities inland, no Enhydritherium fossils are hitherto known in interior North America. Here we report the first occurrence of Enhydritherium outside of Florida and California, in a land-locked terrestrial mammal fauna of the upper Miocene deposits of Juchipila Basin, Zacatecas State, Mexico. This new occurrence of Enhydritherium is at least 200 km from the modern Pacific coastline, and nearly 600 km from the Gulf of Mexico. Besides providing further evidence that Enhydritherium was not dependent on coastal marine environments as originally interpreted, this discovery leads us to propose a new east-to-west dispersal route between the Florida and California Enhydritherium populations through central Mexico. The proximity of the fossil locality to nearby populations of modern neotropical otters Lontra longicaudis suggests that trans-Mexican freshwater corridors for vertebrate species in riparian habitats may have persisted for a prolonged period of time, pre-dating the Great American Biotic Interchange. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Sound localization of aerial broadband noise in pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Kastak, David; Southall, Brandon L.

    2003-04-01

    Pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system in order to coordinate their reproductive activities. How well do they localize these types of signals? In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), and a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) were measured in the horizontal plane with a broadband white noise stimulus. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources relative to a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 3.6, 4.2, and 4.7 deg for the harbor seal, California sea lion, and northern elephant seal, respectively. These results demonstrate that these pinniped species had sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaques. The acuity differences between our subjects were small, were not predicted by head size, and therefore likely reflect the relatively acute abilities of other pinniped species to localize aerial broadband signals.

  3. Do White Shark Bites on Surfers Reflect Their Attack Strategies on Pinnipeds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Ritter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of mistaken identity states that sharks, especially white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, mistake surfers for pinnipeds when looking at them from below and thus bite them erroneously. Photographs of surfer wounds and board damage were interpreted with special emphasis on shark size, wound severity, and extent of damage to a board. These were compared with the concurrent literature on attack strategies of white sharks on pinnipeds and their outcomes. The results show that the majority of damage to surfers and their boards is at best superficial-to-moderate in nature and does not reflect the level of damage needed to immobilize or stun a pinniped. It is further shown that the size distribution of sharks biting surfers differs from that in pinnipeds. The results presented show that the theory of mistaken identity, where white sharks erroneously mistake surfers for pinnipeds, does not hold true and should be rejected.

  4. Fused traditional and geometric morphometrics demonstrate pinniped whisker diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, Carly C; DeWitt, Thomas J; Fish, Frank E; Marshall, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    Vibrissae (whiskers) are important components of the mammalian tactile sensory system, and primarily function as detectors of vibrotactile information from the environment. Pinnipeds possess the largest vibrissae among mammals and their vibrissal hair shafts demonstrate a diversity of shapes. The vibrissae of most phocid seals exhibit a beaded morphology with repeating sequences of crests and troughs along their length. However, there are few detailed analyses of pinniped vibrissal morphology, and these are limited to a few species. Therefore, we comparatively characterized differences in vibrissal hair shaft morphologies among phocid species with a beaded profile, phocid species with a smooth profile, and otariids with a smooth profile using traditional and geometric morphometric methods. Traditional morphometric measurements (peak-to-peak distance, crest width, trough width and total length) were collected using digital photographs. Elliptic Fourier analysis (geometric morphometrics) was used to quantify the outlines of whole vibrissae. The traditional and geometric morphometric datasets were subsequently combined by mathematically scaling each to true rank, followed by a single eigendecomposition. Quadratic discriminant function analysis demonstrated that 79.3, 97.8 and 100% of individuals could be correctly classified to their species based on vibrissal shape variables in the traditional, geometric and combined morphometric analyses, respectively. Phocids with beaded vibrissae, phocids with smooth vibrissae, and otariids each occupied distinct morphospace in the geometric morphometric and combined data analyses. Otariids split into two groups in the geometric morphometric analysis and gray seals appeared intermediate between beaded- and smooth-whiskered species in the traditional and combined analyses. Vibrissal hair shafts modulate the transduction of environmental stimuli to the mechanoreceptors in the follicle-sinus complex (F-SC), which results in

  5. Fused Traditional and Geometric Morphometrics Demonstrate Pinniped Whisker Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, Carly C.; DeWitt, Thomas J.; Fish, Frank E.; Marshall, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    Vibrissae (whiskers) are important components of the mammalian tactile sensory system, and primarily function as detectors of vibrotactile information from the environment. Pinnipeds possess the largest vibrissae among mammals and their vibrissal hair shafts demonstrate a diversity of shapes. The vibrissae of most phocid seals exhibit a beaded morphology with repeating sequences of crests and troughs along their length. However, there are few detailed analyses of pinniped vibrissal morphology, and these are limited to a few species. Therefore, we comparatively characterized differences in vibrissal hair shaft morphologies among phocid species with a beaded profile, phocid species with a smooth profile, and otariids with a smooth profile using traditional and geometric morphometric methods. Traditional morphometric measurements (peak-to-peak distance, crest width, trough width and total length) were collected using digital photographs. Elliptic Fourier analysis (geometric morphometrics) was used to quantify the outlines of whole vibrissae. The traditional and geometric morphometric datasets were subsequently combined by mathematically scaling each to true rank, followed by a single eigendecomposition. Quadratic discriminant function analysis demonstrated that 79.3, 97.8 and 100% of individuals could be correctly classified to their species based on vibrissal shape variables in the traditional, geometric and combined morphometric analyses, respectively. Phocids with beaded vibrissae, phocids with smooth vibrissae, and otariids each occupied distinct morphospace in the geometric morphometric and combined data analyses. Otariids split into two groups in the geometric morphometric analysis and gray seals appeared intermediate between beaded- and smooth-whiskered species in the traditional and combined analyses. Vibrissal hair shafts modulate the transduction of environmental stimuli to the mechanoreceptors in the follicle-sinus complex (F-SC), which results in

  6. Fused traditional and geometric morphometrics demonstrate pinniped whisker diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly C Ginter

    Full Text Available Vibrissae (whiskers are important components of the mammalian tactile sensory system, and primarily function as detectors of vibrotactile information from the environment. Pinnipeds possess the largest vibrissae among mammals and their vibrissal hair shafts demonstrate a diversity of shapes. The vibrissae of most phocid seals exhibit a beaded morphology with repeating sequences of crests and troughs along their length. However, there are few detailed analyses of pinniped vibrissal morphology, and these are limited to a few species. Therefore, we comparatively characterized differences in vibrissal hair shaft morphologies among phocid species with a beaded profile, phocid species with a smooth profile, and otariids with a smooth profile using traditional and geometric morphometric methods. Traditional morphometric measurements (peak-to-peak distance, crest width, trough width and total length were collected using digital photographs. Elliptic Fourier analysis (geometric morphometrics was used to quantify the outlines of whole vibrissae. The traditional and geometric morphometric datasets were subsequently combined by mathematically scaling each to true rank, followed by a single eigendecomposition. Quadratic discriminant function analysis demonstrated that 79.3, 97.8 and 100% of individuals could be correctly classified to their species based on vibrissal shape variables in the traditional, geometric and combined morphometric analyses, respectively. Phocids with beaded vibrissae, phocids with smooth vibrissae, and otariids each occupied distinct morphospace in the geometric morphometric and combined data analyses. Otariids split into two groups in the geometric morphometric analysis and gray seals appeared intermediate between beaded- and smooth-whiskered species in the traditional and combined analyses. Vibrissal hair shafts modulate the transduction of environmental stimuli to the mechanoreceptors in the follicle-sinus complex (F-SC, which

  7. Comparative Analysis of the Flexural Stiffness of Pinniped Vibrissae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly C Ginter Summarell

    Full Text Available Vibrissae are important components of the mammalian tactile sensory system and are used to detect vibrotactile stimuli in the environment. Pinnipeds have the largest and most highly innervated vibrissae among mammals, and the hair shafts function as a biomechanical filter spanning the environmental stimuli and the neural mechanoreceptors deep in the follicle-sinus complex. Therefore, the material properties of these structures are critical in transferring vibrotactile information to the peripheral nervous system. Vibrissae were tested as cantilever beams and their flexural stiffness (EI was measured to test the hypotheses that the shape of beaded vibrissae reduces EI and that vibrissae are anisotropic. EI was measured at two locations on each vibrissa, 25% and 50% of the overall length, and at two orientations to the point force. EI differed in orientations that were normal to each other, indicating a functional anisotropy. Since vibrissae taper from base to tip, the second moment of area (I was lower at 50% than 25% of total length. The anterior orientation exhibited greater EI values at both locations compared to the dorsal orientation for all species. Smooth vibrissae were generally stiffer than beaded vibrissae. The profiles of beaded vibrissae are known to decrease the amplitude of vibrations when protruded into a flow field. The lower EI values of beaded vibrissae, along with the reduced vibrations, may function to enhance the sensitivity of mechanoreceptors to detection of small changes in flow from swimming prey by increasing the signal to noise ratio. This study builds upon previous morphological and hydrodynamic analyses of vibrissae and is the first comparative study of the mechanical properties of pinniped vibrissae.

  8. San Francisco Littoral Cell CRSMP Pinniped Haul-Out Sites 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — NMFS does not have a GIS-based database for all of the pinniped haulout sites in California. Much of the information is known through word of mouth or in unpublished...

  9. San Francisco Littoral Cell CRSMP Pinniped Haul-Out Sites 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — NMFS does not have a GIS-based database for all of the pinniped haulout sites in California. Much of the information is known through word of mouth or in unpublished...

  10. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Food Habits of Pinnipeds at San Miguel Island, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collects fecal samples to examine the diet of pinnipeds, including...

  11. Do White Shark Bites on Surfers Reflect Their Attack Strategies on Pinnipeds?

    OpenAIRE

    Erich Ritter; Alexandra Quester

    2016-01-01

    The theory of mistaken identity states that sharks, especially white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, mistake surfers for pinnipeds when looking at them from below and thus bite them erroneously. Photographs of surfer wounds and board damage were interpreted with special emphasis on shark size, wound severity, and extent of damage to a board. These were compared with the concurrent literature on attack strategies of white sharks on pinnipeds and their outcomes. The results show that the majori...

  12. Re-Evaluation of Morphological Characters Questions Current Views of Pinniped Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koretsky I. A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The origin of pinnipeds has been a contentious issue, with opposite sides debating monophyly or diphyly. This review uses evidence from the fossil record, combined with comparative morphology, molecular and cytogenetic investigations to evaluate the evolutionary history and phylogenetic relationships of living and fossil otarioid and phocoid pinnipeds. Molecular investigations support a monophyletic origin of pinnipeds, but disregard vital morphological data. Likewise, morphological studies support diphyly, but overlook molecular analyses. This review will demonstrate that a monophyletic origin of pinnipeds should not be completely accepted, as is the current ideology, and a diphyletic origin remains viable due to morphological and paleobiological analyses. Critical examination of certain characters, used by supporters of pinniped monophyly, reveals different polarities, variability, or simply convergence. The paleontological record and our morphological analysis of important characters supports a diphyletic origin of pinnipeds, with otarioids likely arising in the North Pacific from large, bear-like animals and phocids arising in the North Atlantic from smaller, otter-like ancestors. Although members of both groups are known by Late Oligocene time, each developed and invaded the aquatic environment separately from their much earlier, common arctoid ancestor. Therefore, we treat the superfamily Otarioidea as being monophyletic, including the families Enaliarctidae, Otariidae (fur seals/sea lions, Desmatophocidae, and Odobenidae (walruses and extinct relatives, and the superfamily Phocoidea as monophyletic, including only the family Phocidae, with four subfamilies (Devinophocinae, Phocinae, Monachinae, and Cystophorinae.

  13. Carnivora from the Kanapoi hominin site, northern Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdelin, Lars; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo

    2012-02-01

    The assemblage from Kanapoi represents the most diverse early Pliocene carnivore assemblage from sub-Saharan Africa. Carnivora from Kanapoi were originally described by Werdelin (2003a), but continuing field work has brought to light significant new material from the site, shedding new light on the earliest post-Miocene radiation of Carnivora in Africa. Most importantly, a second species of Enhydriodon has been recovered from the site, including the first specimen to include a large part of the neurocranium. This makes Kanapoi the first site to include two species of this genus. This addition to the fauna will be of prime significance to understanding the ecology and evolutionary radiation of these giant, extinct otters. Other significant new finds include additional material of a wildcat-sized felid. Finds of this group are rare, and the new Kanapoi material adds significantly to our knowledge of the stem lineage of the genus Felis, which is widespread in Africa today.

  14. A preliminary baseline status of the Syrian Brown Bear Ursus arctos syriacus (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ursidae in Golestanak, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Farhadinia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Baseline information is lacking for the Syrian Brown Bear across the sub-species range, making it difficult to assess at any level.  In the present investigation, our goal was to illustrate the population status of the Brown Bear in the Golestanak area, northern Iran, based on field surveys we conducted during the summers of 2011 and 2012.  We counted a total of 30 and 21 bears in two consecutive years, with family groups consisting of more than half of the identified individuals.  Sub-adults had the lowest contribution among the observed individuals, just below 10%, which may be due to their high dispersal behaviour to avoid adults.  Our results provide a foundation for future systematic baseline investigations on the population status of the brown bear in northern Iran, which can be used in management programs.  Aside from improving monitoring efforts within key habitats of the species, enhancing conservation efforts to secure the population is essential to safeguard this female core area. 

  15. A new species of Adelpharctos (Mammalia, Carnivora, Ursidae from the late Oligocene of the “Phosphorites du Quercy” (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bonis, L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Adelpharctos was known until now through the species A. mirus by a unique mandible (p2-m2 from the old collections of the Quercy whose geological age was unknown. New material coming from the locality of Pech-du-Fraysse completes our knowledge of the genus particularly for the maxilla and upper teeth. Adelpharctos belongs to the sub-family Hemicyoninae in the family Ursidae. It differs from the middle Miocene hemicyonines which have more massive molars and from the group Cephalogale-Phoberogale by some morphological characters. It seems to be a branch coming from the ancestral stem group of the sub-family.El género Adelpharctos era solo conocido por una especie A. mirus representada por una única mandibular (p2-m2 procedente de las colecciones antiguas del Quercy, cuya edad geológica es desconocida. Nuevo material procedente de la localidad de Pech-du-Fraysse completa nuestro conocimiento sobre el género, en particular para el maxilar y la dentición superior. Adelpharctos pertenece a la subfamilia Hemicyoninae, familia Ursidae. El género difiere de los hemicioninos del Mioceno medio, que tienen dentición más robusta, y de los del grupo Cephalogae-Phoberogale por algunos caracteres morfológicos. Se interpreta como perteneciente a una línea procedente del grupo ancestral primitivo de la subfamilia Hemicyoninae.

  16. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in free-ranging Red Panda Ailurus fulgens Cuvier, 1825 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ailuridae in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Tashi Lama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Red Panda Ailurus fulgens is a small carnivore that is adapted to a mainly herbivorous diet.  The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of parasitic infections in a free-ranging population of Red Pandas in a community forest in Nepal.  A total of 23 faecal samples were collected and examined.  Protozoa infections were the most common and cestode infections occurred the least.  Our findings suggest that parasites might be a significant problem for the health of the Red Pandas in the study area.  Molecular methods should be used to further investigate the taxonomic position of the parasites and their role in threatening the resilience of Red Panda populations in Nepal.  

  17. A preliminary baseline status of the Syrian Brown Bear Ursus arctos syriacus (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ursidae in Golestanak, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Farhadinia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Baseline information is lacking for the Syrian Brown Bear across the sub-species range, making it difficult to assess at any level.  In the present investigation, our goal was to illustrate the population status of the Brown Bear in the Golestanak area, northern Iran, based on field surveys we conducted during the summers of 2011 and 2012.  We counted a total of 30 and 21 bears in two consecutive years, with family groups consisting of more than half of the identified individuals.  Sub-adults had the lowest contribution among the observed individuals, just below 10%, which may be due to their high dispersal behaviour to avoid adults.  Our results provide a foundation for future systematic baseline investigations on the population status of the brown bear in northern Iran, which can be used in management programs.  Aside from improving monitoring efforts within key habitats of the species, enhancing conservation efforts to secure the population is essential to safeguard this female core area. 

  18. First Asian record of Panthera (Leo) fossilis (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae) in the Early Pleistocene of Western Siberia, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikova, Marina V; Foronova, Irina V

    2014-08-01

    A lion-like pantherine felid is described as Panthera (Leo) fossilis from the late Early Pleistocene sediments of the Kuznetsk Basin (Western Siberia, Russia). The find of P. fossilis first recorded in Asia considerably extends the current notion of the eastward expansion of the most ancient lions. The Siberian lion is geologically the oldest form and is dimensionally among the largest members of the group of fossil lions on the Eurasian continent. Although known by mandibular remains only, it is readily distinguished from Panthera (Leo) spelaea by a heavy built mandibular corpus with rectangular profile in the cheek teeth area, a deep, well-outlined and narrow anterior section of the masseteric fossa, and a large p4 supported by a big unreduced anterior root. The Siberian lion shares these features with the European Middle Pleistocene P. fossilis and the American Late Pleistocene P. (Leo) atrox, which suggests their close relationship. P. atrox originated from P. fossilis and was isolated in North America south of the Late Pleistocene ice sheets. This explains why the American lion has retained more primitive features than the coeval Eurasian cave lion P. (L.) spelaea.

  19. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in neotropical wild carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora: at the top of the T. cruzi transmission chain.

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    Fabiana Lopes Rocha

    Full Text Available Little is known on the role played by Neotropical wild carnivores in the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles. We investigated T. cruzi infection in wild carnivores from three sites in Brazil through parasitological and serological tests. The seven carnivore species examined were infected by T. cruzi, but high parasitemias detectable by hemoculture were found only in two Procyonidae species. Genotyping by Mini-exon gene, PCR-RFLP (1f8/Akw21I and kDNA genomic targets revealed that the raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus harbored TcI and the coatis (Nasua nasua harbored TcI, TcII, TcIII-IV and Trypanosoma rangeli, in single and mixed infections, besides four T. cruzi isolates that displayed odd band patterns in the Mini-exon assay. These findings corroborate the coati can be a bioaccumulator of T. cruzi Discrete Typing Units (DTU and may act as a transmission hub, a connection point joining sylvatic transmission cycles within terrestrial and arboreal mammals and vectors. Also, the odd band patterns observed in coatis' isolates reinforce that T. cruzi diversity might be much higher than currently acknowledged. Additionally, we assembled our data with T. cruzi infection on Neotropical carnivores' literature records to provide a comprehensive analysis of the infection patterns among distinct carnivore species, especially considering their ecological traits and phylogeny. Altogether, fifteen Neotropical carnivore species were found naturally infected by T. cruzi. Species diet was associated with T. cruzi infection rates, supporting the hypothesis that predator-prey links are important mechanisms for T. cruzi maintenance and dispersion in the wild. Distinct T. cruzi infection patterns across carnivore species and study sites were notable. Musteloidea species consistently exhibit high parasitemias in different studies which indicate their high infectivity potential. Mesocarnivores that feed on both invertebrates and mammals, including the coati, a host that can be bioaccumulator of T. cruzi DTU's, seem to take place at the top of the T. cruzi transmission chain.

  20. A badger in Bannerghatta: an opportunistic record of the Ratel Mellivora capensis (Schreber, 1776 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae from Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Krishnan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A single observation of a Ratel Mellivora capensis has been photo-documented in Bannerghatta National Park on 2 November 2015. This record being the first contemporary evidence of badgers in this region of Karnataka, India, the paper also presents a case study of badgers being close to a highly human-dominated landscape which could be due to some ecological factors that may be conducive as a habitat within the Park. Though a resident population and distribution within the BNP could not be ascertained, it can be proposed that the region may be an extension of range of its most recently documented distribution in the Eastern Ghats landscape. 

  1. Fossil appendicular skeletal walrus material from the North Sea and the estuary of the Schelde (Mammalia, Carnivora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosscha Erdbrink, D.P.; Bree, van P.J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Seventeen fossil, and two recent odobenid remains belonging anatomically to the appendicular skeleton, encountered by us in two public and two private collections since the publication of a number of earlier papers, are described and discussed. Most specimens should be identified as Odobenus

  2. Activity pattern of the orphaned Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ursidae cubs during rehabilitation processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dasgupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Five Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus cubs aged between 6.5-15 months were studied for five months using instantaneous scan sampling (n=3049 scans while they were undergoing acclimatization in the rehabilitation areas in Pakke Tiger Reserve, Arunachal Pradesh, India. During the course of the study, feeding, moving, climbing, resting and playing activities were recorded in three consecutive time periods, representing three phases of acclimatization. The frequency of climbing and moving increased considerably towards the third phase, while feeding decreased. These changes can be attributed to a learning process during acclimatization. Time spent on moving and playing differed significantly among the bears, but not climbing or feeding.

  3. BODY SIZE REDUCTION AND TOOTH AGENESIS IN LATE PLEISTOCENE MELES MELES (CARNIVORA, MAMMALIA FROM INGARANO (SOUTHERN ITALY

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    DAWID ADAM IURINO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In mammals combined factors such as body size reduction and loss of peripheral teeth are often associated with endemism phenomena. This condition is particularly evident in insular contexts where is a complete geographic isolation. During the Pleistocene there have been several glacial stages, which changed the physiognomy of the Italian peninsula strongly influencing the distribution and morphology of mammalian faunas. Several genetic studies have shown that some Southern Italian areas have particular endemic species of small and medium size mammals. During Pleistocene these areas have been characterized by particular climatic/environmental conditions, and are generally called "glacial refugia". They represent geographically isolated areas over time, where the origin of faunas with peculiar features is favoured. In this study, the occurrence of Meles meles from the Late Pleistocene site of Ingarano (Apulia, Southern Italy is documented for the first time. This taxon is represented only by a partial skull (splancnocranum that, despite the relative completeness, includes peculiar and well-preserved dental features that could be related to a partial endemic condition. The fossil shows a reduced body size and the agenesis of peripheral teeth, both conditions that are typical of the extant badgers from Crete, Rhodes and Japan. To test this hypothesis, tomographic analysis have been provided to establish the dental agenesis, and, in order to understand the magnitude of the body size reduction, biometric analyses have been carried on. The obtained data have been compared to measures of the extant Eurasian badgers.SHORT NOTE

  4. VIVERRA HOWELLI N. SP., A NEW VIVERRID (CARNIVORA, MAMMALIA FROM THE BACCINELLO-CINIGIANO BASIN (LATEST MIOCENE, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORENZO ROOK

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new viverrid species (Viverra howelli n. sp.. Viverra howelli n. sp. is identified in Late Miocene (Messinian localities in the circum Mediterranean area (Italy and Lybia and in East Africa (Kenya. Morphologically, the new species is characterized by a relatively small size and a lower carnassial with short talonid.

  5. First report of a Mephitidae (Mammalia: Carnivora naturally infected by parasites of the genus Physaloptera (Rudolphi, 1918 (Spirurida: Physalopteridae

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    Gregório Correa Guimarães

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild animals may be regarded as reservoirs of several parasite species. The occurrence of certain parasitic agents may provide significant information on host’s ecology and behavior and its trophic relations. Thus, this study aimed to determine the parasitic fauna of wild animals from southern Minas Gerais within the period from January to December 2011. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample consisting of the dead bodies of two run over animals, which were rescued from highways and transported to the Laboratory of Animal Anatomy of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA. The specimens were inspected to verify the presence of ectoparasites and, then, dissected to resume gastrointestinal content and detect helminths. No ectoparasites were identified in the two animals, both belonging to the species Conepatus semistriatus (striped hog-nosed skunk, but the presence of helminths belonging to the genus Physaloptera was identified in the stomach of one specimen.

  6. The food habits of the Himalayan Brown Bear Ursus arctos (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ursidae in Kugti Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipan C. Rathore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We documented the food habits of the Himalayan Brown Bear Ursus arctos in Kugti Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh, India, between 2002 and 2004 using scat analysis (n=222, direct observation (n=57, and feeding sign observations (n=57.  We concluded that Himalayan Brown Bears lead a predominantly herbivorous life style as plant matter occurred more frequently in scats (79% than animal matter (21%.  During summer, monsoon and fall, the frequency occurrence of plant matter was 72.2%, 77% and 91% respectively.  During early summer, brown bears foraged primarily on green vegetation such as Rumex nepalensis followed by Chaerophyllum reflexum.  Based on direct feeding observations, brown bears were observed to be feeding on 29 species of plants including agricultural crops and one fungi, Morchella esculenta.  The overuse by livestock, decline in local herbs and excessive extraction of high altitudinal medicinal plants in this habitat may pose a threat to the fragmented brown bear population. 

  7. First report of a Mephitidae (Mammalia: Carnivora naturally infected by parasites of the genus Physaloptera (Rudolphi, 1918 (Spirurida: Physalopteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregório Corrêa Guimarães

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Wild animals may be regarded as reservoirs of several parasite species. The occurrence of certain parasitic agents may provide significant information on host’s ecology and behavior and its trophic relations. Thus, this study aimed to determine the parasitic fauna of wild animals from southern Minas Gerais within the period from January to December 2011. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample consisting of the dead bodies of two run over animals, which were rescued from highways and transported to the Laboratory of Animal Anatomy of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA. The specimens were inspected to verify the presence of ectoparasites and, then, dissected to resume gastrointestinal content and detect helminths. No ectoparasites were identified in the two animals, both belonging to the species Conepatus semistriatus (striped hog-nosed skunk, but the presence of helminths belonging to the genus Physaloptera was identified in the stomach of one specimen.

  8. Diet composition of Golden Jackals Canis aureus (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae in Van Vihar National Park, India, a small enclosed area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prerna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Food habits of Golden Jackals were estimated by an analysis of 200 scats in Van Vihar National Park, India, a small park of 4.45km2 with a very high density of jackals and ungulates.  A total of 10 items including fruits (40.74%, vegetative matter (24.38%, Chital (21.61%, Nilgai (9.57%, rodent (1.54%, birds (1.23%, Sambar (0.62% and Wild Pig (0.31% were consumed.  We estimated relative biomass consumption for the top potential ungulate prey and found that for every 100kg of potential prey killed by jackals, 89.4kg came from Chital and 10.6kg came from Nilgai calves.  The impact that predation can have on the ungulate population in an enclosed area is discussed. 

  9. Molecular assessment of the phylogeny and biogeography of a recently diversified endemic group of South American canids (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae

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    Ligia Tchaicka

    Full Text Available Abstract To investigate the evolution and biogeography of an endemic group of South American foxes, we examined mitochondrial DNA control region sequences for 118 individuals belonging to all six extant species of the genus Lycalopex. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses supported the inference that this genus has undergone a very recent and rapid radiation, stemming from a common ancestor that lived ca. 1 million years ago. The Brazilian endemic L. vetulus was supported as the most basal species in this genus, whereas the most internal group is comprised by the recently diverged (ca. 350,000 years ago Andean/Patagonian species L. griseus and L. culpaeus. We discuss the inferred phylogenetic relationships and divergence times in the context of the current geographic distributions of these species, and the likely effects of Pleistocene climatic changes on the biogeography of this group. Furthermore, a remarkable finding was the identification of multiple individuals classified as L. gymnocercus bearing mtDNA haplotypes clearly belonging to L. griseus, sampled in regions where the latter is not known to occur. At a minimum, this result implies the need to clarify the present-day geographic distribution of each of these fox species, while it may also indicate an ongoing hybridization process between them. Future testing of this hypothesis with in-depth analyses of these populations is thus a priority for understanding the history, evolutionary dynamics and present-day composition of this endemic Neotropical genus.

  10. People’s attitudes toward Striped Hyaena (Hyaena hyaena Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Hyaenidae conservation in lowland Nepal

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    Shivish Bhandari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore people’s attitudes toward Striped Hyaena conservation in lowland Nepal.  Structured questionnaire sheets were used to collect information on major threats, human casualties, and people’s perception towards Hyaenas and other carnivores.  People’s perceptions toward Hyaenas and conservation were overall positive.  During the study, 400 people were interviewed and questionnaire sheets were filled.  It was discovered that 63% had a positive attitude toward the Hyaenas.  On the other hand, 37% of the people had a negative attitude regarding the species’ conservation.  It was found that local people had understood various aspects of Hyaena ecology.  Sixty-five percent of the people responded that the Hyaena entered human populated areas due to an absence of food in the natural forests and habitat degradation.  A total of 19% of the respondents reported killing carnivores including the Hyaena due to human-carnivore conflicts.  

  11. Carnivora population dynamics are as slow and as fast as those of other mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Kerk, Madelon; de Kroon, Hans; Jongejans, Eelke

    2013-01-01

    Of the 285 species of Carnivora 71 are threatened, while many of these species fulfill important ecological roles in their ecosystems as top or meso-predators. Population transition matrices make it possible to study how age-specific survival and fecundity affect population growth, extinction risks......, and responses to management strategies. Here we review 38 matrix models from 35 studies on 27 Carnivora taxa, covering 11% of the threatened Carnivora species. We show that the elasticity patterns (i.e. distribution over fecundity, juvenile survival and adult survival) in Carnivora cover the same range...... in triangular elasticity plots as those of other mammal species, despite the specific place of Carnivora in the food chain. Furthermore, reproductive loop elasticity analysis shows that the studied species spread out evenly over a slow-fast continuum, but also quantifies the large variation in the duration...

  12. Validation of a commercial canine assay kit to measure pinniped cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Milton; Romano, Tracy; Matassa, Keith; De Guise, Sylvain

    2014-07-15

    The present study was conducted to assess and validate the cross-reactivity of commercially available multiplex human and canine cytokine kits coupled with the Bio-Plex 200 platform to measure cytokines in three pinniped species, harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), gray seals (Halichoerus grypus), and harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus). Cytokines are important small proteins that help direct a proper immune response to pathogens. The human cytokine kit allowed the detection of cytokines in the supernatant of mitogen-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but not in the three pinniped species studied, with the exception of TNFα and GM-CSF. In contrast, the canine cytokine kit appeared to cross-react with the majority of cytokines in the three pinniped species tested, including the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα, the Th1 cytokine INFγ, and the Th2 cytokine IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. In addition, the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 were also measured in all pinniped species. Overall, the Bio-Plex 200 platform and the canine multiplex cytokine kit allowed the successful measurement of potentially clinically important pinniped cytokines. This additional tool may provide veterinarians with additional information to detect sub-clinical signs of inflammation or evidence for immune response, which may not be revealed during regular medical evaluation, e.g. physical examination, hematology, and serum chemistry.

  13. Diet is a major factor governing the fecal butyrate-producing community structure across Mammalia, Aves and Reptilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Marius; Gao, Jiarong; Rizzo, Mike; Harrison, Tara; Tiedje, James M

    2015-03-17

    Butyrate-producing bacteria have an important role in maintaining host health. They are well studied in human and medically associated animal models; however, much less is known for other Vertebrata. We investigated the butyrate-producing community in hindgut-fermenting Mammalia (n = 38), Aves (n = 8) and Reptilia (n = 8) using a gene-targeted pyrosequencing approach of the terminal genes of the main butyrate-synthesis pathways, namely butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk). Most animals exhibit high gene abundances, and clear diet-specific signatures were detected with but genes significantly enriched in omnivores and herbivores compared with carnivores. But dominated the butyrate-producing community in these two groups, whereas buk was more abundant in many carnivorous animals. Clustering of protein sequences (5% cutoff) of the combined communities (but and buk) placed carnivores apart from other diet groups, except for noncarnivorous Carnivora, which clustered together with carnivores. The majority of clusters (but: 5141 and buk: 2924) did not show close relation to any reference sequences from public databases (identity <90%) demonstrating a large 'unknown diversity'. Each diet group had abundant signature taxa, where buk genes linked to Clostridium perfringens dominated in carnivores and but genes associated with Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16 were specific for herbivores and omnivores. Whereas 16S rRNA gene analysis showed similar overall patterns, it was unable to reveal communities at the same depth and resolution as the functional gene-targeted approach. This study demonstrates that butyrate producers are abundant across vertebrates exhibiting great functional redundancy and that diet is the primary determinant governing the composition of the butyrate-producing guild.

  14. Late Miocene Sciuridae (Mammalia, Rodentia) from Anatolia, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, A.A.; de Bruijn, H.; Wessels, W.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated cheek teeth of Sciuridae (Rodentia, Mammalia) from nine late Miocene localities in central Anatolia (Turkey) are described. The teeth represent at least 12 different species, five of which belong to the ground squirrel genus Tamias, two to the ground squirrel genus Spermophilinus, one to th

  15. Late Miocene Sciuridae (Mammalia, Rodentia) from Anatolia, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, A.A.; de Bruijn, H.; Wessels, W.

    Isolated cheek teeth of Sciuridae (Rodentia, Mammalia) from nine late Miocene localities in central Anatolia (Turkey) are described. The teeth represent at least 12 different species, five of which belong to the ground squirrel genus Tamias, two to the ground squirrel genus Spermophilinus, one to

  16. The ancestral karyotype of Carnivora: comparison with that of platyrrhine monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrillaux, B; Couturier, J

    1983-01-01

    The karyotypes of six species of Carnivora (Mungos mungo, Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Potos flavus, Mustela furo, Felis serval, and Halichoerus grypus), representative of five different families, were studied and compared. Correspondence between almost all chromosome segments was found, and a presumed ancestral karyotype of Carnivora is proposed. Analogies to human chromosomes are also given, and the results obtained are in excellent agreement with previously published gene mapping data on man and the domestic cat.

  17. What Pinnipeds Have to Say about Human Speech, Music, and the Evolution of Rhythm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravignani, Andrea; Fitch, W Tecumseh; Hanke, Frederike D; Heinrich, Tamara; Hurgitsch, Bettina; Kotz, Sonja A; Scharff, Constance; Stoeger, Angela S; de Boer, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Research on the evolution of human speech and music benefits from hypotheses and data generated in a number of disciplines. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the high relevance of pinniped research for the study of speech, musical rhythm, and their origins, bridging and complementing curr

  18. Characterization of phocid herpesvirus-1 and -2 as putative alpha- and gamma-herpesviruses of North American and European pinnipeds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. Harder (Timm); M. Harder; H. Vos; K. Kulonen; S. Kennedy-Stoskopf; B. Liess; M.J.G. Appel (Max); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTo study the relationships between herpesvirus recently isolated from different pinniped species, antigenic and genetic analyses were performed. First, herpesviruses isolated from North American harbour seals (Phoca vitulina), a Californian sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and a Europea

  19. On the remains of carnivora from cave deposits in Java and Sumatra, with notes on Recent specimens : I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1941-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to describe and figure the remains of Carnivora collected from cave deposits by Prof. Dr. Eug. Dubois during his paleontological searches in Java and Sumatra (1888—1895). For comparison with these prehistoric remains recent Carnivora from the Malay Archipelago and from

  20. Archaeofaunal insights on pinniped-human interactions in the northeastern Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gifford-Gonzales, D; Newsome, S; Koch, P; Guilderson, T; Snodgrass, J; Burton, R

    2004-02-07

    Human exploitation of pinnipeds has considerable antiquity but shows increasing impacts on population numbers in the Holocene. Pinnipeds are a rich source of fat as well as protein. A few well-documented cases of regional extirpation of seals and sea lions by non-industrial peoples exist. The northeastern Pacific region, from southern California to Alaska, has yielded archaeological evidence for distributions and abundances of eared seals that differs markedly from historically documented biogeography. This is especially true of the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), among the most common pinnipeds in many archaeological sites from the Santa Barbara Channel area through to Kodiak Islands. This chapter reviews contemporary eared seal biogeography, evidence for the earlier timing and extent, of occurrence of northern fur seals along the northeastern Pacific coast, zooarchaeological and isotopic evidence for their foraging and probable maintenance of rookeries in lower latitudes, and for their disappearance from the southernmost part of their ancient distribution well before European contact. It also reviews ongoing debates over the behavioral ecology of ancient fur seals and over humans role in contributing to their disappearance.

  1. 9 CFR 355.29 - Composition of certified products for dogs, cats, and other carnivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... dogs, cats, and other carnivora. 355.29 Section 355.29 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER... Composition of Certified Products § 355.29 Composition of certified products for dogs, cats, and other...

  2. Morphology and biomechanics of the pinniped jaw: mandibular evolution without mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katrina E; Ruff, Christopher B; Goswami, Anjali

    2013-07-01

    Pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) underwent a shift in jaw function away from typical carnivoran mastication to more novel marine behaviors during the terrestrial-aquatic transition. Here we test the effect of aquatic prey capture and male-male combat on the morphological evolution of a mammal jaw that does not masticate. Nine three-dimensional landmarks were taken along the mandible for 25 species (N = 83), and corpus and symphysis external and cortical breadths for a subset of five species (N = 33). Principal components analysis was performed on size-corrected landmark data to assess variation in overall jaw morphology across pinnipeds. Corpus breadths were input to a beam model to calculate strength properties and estimated bite force of specific species with contrasting behaviors (filter feeding, suction feeding, grip-and-tear feeding, and male-male combat). Results indicate that, although phylogenetic signal in jaw shape is strong, function is also important in determining morphology. Filter feeders display an elongate symphysis and a long toothrow that may play a role in filtering krill. Grip-and-tear feeders have a long jaw and large estimated bite force relative to non-biting species. However, the largest estimated bite forces were observed in males of male-male combative species, likely due to the high selection pressure associated with male success in highly polygynous species. The suction feeding jaw is weak in biting but has a different morphology in the two suction feeding taxa. In conclusion, familial patterns of pinniped jaw shape due to phylogenetic relatedness have been modified by adaptations to specialized behavior of individual taxa.

  3. Mammal (Mammalia Fauna of Kapıdağ Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem HIZAL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of studies on mammals of Kapıdag Peninsula is insufficent. The present study is based on mammal species collected and observed in Kapıdag Peninsula. Kapıdag Peninsula was visited as a total of 226 days between 2001-2007. Field collections yielded 32 mammal species from 6 orders: Insectivora (5, Chiroptera (9,Lagomorpha (1, Rodentia (7, Carnivora (7, Artiodactyla (3. Of the species recorded in this study are rare for Kapıdag Peninsula: Lynx lynx and Felis silvestris.

  4. Risk factors associated to the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in captive mammals from Carnivora and Primate Order

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro M., Dennis; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Chávez V., Amanda; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima Perú.; Pinedo V., Rosa; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Muñoz D., Karina; Patronato del Parque de las Leyendas (PATPAL), Lima

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in captive wild animals of the Carnivora and Primates orders and identify the epidemiologic variables involved in its presentation. The study was conducted at the Patronato del Parque de las Leyendas Zoo, Lima, Peru. Blood samples were collected (Carnivora, n=49; Primates, n=52). In addition, samples were collected from 87 urban rodents and 18 domesticcats captured in the zoo. Surveys were done to identify potencial ...

  5. Risk factors associated to the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in captive mammals from Carnivora and Primate Order

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro M., Dennis; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Chávez V., Amanda; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.; Pinedo V., Rosa; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.; Muñoz D., Karina; Patronato del Parque de las Leyendas (PATPAL), Lima

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in captive wild animals of the Carnivora and Primates orders and identify the epidemiologic variables involved in its presentation. The study was conducted at the Patronato del Parque de las Leyendas Zoo, Lima, Peru. Blood samples were collected (Carnivora, n=49; Primates, n=52). In addition, samples were collected from 87 urban rodents and 18 domesticcats captured in the zoo. Surveys were done to identify potencial ...

  6. Male contest competition and the coevolution of weaponry and testes in pinnipeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, John L; Almbro, Maria; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Kolm, Niclas; Simmons, Leigh W

    2012-11-01

    Male reproductive success is influenced by competitive interactions during precopulatory and postcopulatory selective episodes. Consequently, males can gain reproductive advantages during precopulatory contest competition by investing in weaponry and during postcopulatory sperm competition by investing in ejaculates. However, recent theory predicts male expenditure on weaponry and ejaculates should be subject to a trade-off, and should vary under increasing risk and intensity of sperm competition. Here, we provide the first comparative analysis of the prediction that expenditure on weaponry should be negatively associated with expenditure on testes mass. Specifically, we assess how sexual selection influences the evolution of primary and secondary sexual traits among pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses). Using recently developed comparative methods, we demonstrate that sexual selection promotes rapid divergence in body mass, sexual size dimorphism (SSD), and genital morphology. We then show that genital length appears to be positively associated with the strength of postcopulatory sexual selection. However, subsequent analyses reveal that both genital length and testes mass are negatively associated with investment in precopulatory weaponry. Thus, our results are congruent with recent theoretical predictions of contest-based sperm competition models. We discuss the possible role of trade-offs and allometry in influencing patterns of reproductive trait evolution in pinnipeds. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Inflation and deflation pressure-volume loops in anesthetized pinnipeds confirms compliant chest and lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eFahlman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined structural properties of the marine mammal respiratory system, and tested Scholander’s hypothesis that the chest is highly compliant by measuring the mechanical properties of the respiratory system in five species of pinniped under anesthesia (Pacific harbor seal, Phoca vitulina; northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris; northern fur seal Callorhinus ursinus; California sea lion, Zalophus californianus; and Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus. We found that the chest wall compliance (CCW of all five species was greater than lung compliance (airways and alveoli, CL as predicted by Scholander, which suggests that the chest provides little protection against alveolar collapse or lung squeeze. We also found that specific respiratory compliance was significantly greater in wild animals than in animals raised under human care. While differences in ages between the two groups may affect this incidental finding, it is also possible that lung conditioning in free-living animals may increase pulmonary compliance and reduce the risk of lung squeeze during diving. Overall, our data indicate that compliance of excised pinniped lungs provide a good estimate of total respiratory compliance.

  8. Phenomenon in the Evolution of Voles (Mammalia, Rodentia, Arvicolidae

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    Rekovets L. I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents analytical results of the study of adaptatiogenesis within the family Arvicolidae (Mammalia, Rodentia based of morphological changes of the most functional characters of their masticatory apparatus — dental system — through time. The main directions of the morphological differentiation in parallel evolution of the arvicolid tooth type within the Cricetidae and Arvicolidae during late Miocene and Pliocene were identified and substantiated. It is shown that such unique morphological structure as the arvicolid tooth type has provided a relatively high rate of evolution of voles and a wide range of their adaptive radiation, as well as has determined their taxonomic and ecological diversity. The optimality of the current state of this group and evaluation of evolutionary prospects of Arvicolidae were presented and substantiated here as a phenomenon in their evolution.

  9. The Tibetan Wolf Canis lupus chanco Gray (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae in northeastern India with a recent sighting from northern Sikkim, India

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    Anwaruddin Choudhury

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Wolf Canis lupus chanco which is a relatively rarer subspecies of the wolf C. lupus occurs in Sikkim in North-east India with unconfirmed reports from Arunachal Pradesh. Its range in Sikkim is in the high elevation areas. There are very few sighting records from the state. This article reports an observation made recently between Thangu and Gyagong or Gogong in North Sikkim district at 4,250m elevation on 17 April 2014. Presence of feral dogs are threats to the Wolf as well as its prey base.  

  10. A note on the high elevation distribution record of Red Panda Ailurus fulgens (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ailuridae in Tawang District, Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    D. Dorjee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present record provides one of the highest documented presence information of red pandas in India, in remote parts of western Arunachal Pradesh. The record came in the form of carcass of a Red Panda which was accidentally caught in an animal snare in remote sub-alpine mountain slopes at 4325m above sea level inside a Community Conserved Area in Tawang District, discovered during a monitoring trip by the villagers. The record also showcases the rich biodiversity of the area and the local community’s efforts to safeguard it.

  11. Recent records and distribution of the Indian Brown Mongoose Herpestes fuscus Gray, 1837 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Herpestidae from the southern Western Ghats, India

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    R. Sreehari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting four new records of Brown Mongoose Herpestes fuscus Gray, 1837 from four protected areas in Western Ghats including Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary, Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary, Periyar Tiger Reserve and Pampadum Shola National Park and one new site record outside a protected area from Pambanar Tea plantation in Idukki dt. situated in Kerala part of southern Western Ghats. An updated distribution map of Brown Mongoose in Western Ghats is presented here.  

  12. Whence the beardogs? Reappraisal of the Middle to Late Eocene ‘Miacis’ from Texas, USA, and the origin of Amphicyonidae (Mammalia, Carnivora)

    OpenAIRE

    Tomiya, Susumu; Tseng, Zhijie Jack

    2016-01-01

    The Middle to Late Eocene sediments of Texas have yielded a wealth of fossil material that offers a rare window on a diverse and highly endemic mammalian fauna from that time in the southern part of North America. These faunal data are particularly significant because the narrative of mammalian evolution in the Paleogene of North America has traditionally been dominated by taxa that are known from higher latitudes, primarily in the Rocky Mountain and northern Great Plains regions. Here we rep...

  13. [Parasite nematodes from Dusycion griseus (Gray, 1837), D. culpaeus (Molina, 1782) and Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782) (Mammalia:Carnivora) in Neuquén, Argentina. Systematics and ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M; Suriano, D M; Novaro, A J

    1994-01-01

    Four nematode species (Physaloptera clausa Rudolphi, 1819; Ph. maxillaris Molin, 1860; Protospirura numidica criceticola Quentin, Karimi and Rodrigues De Almeida, 1968; Toxascaris leonina (Von Linstow, 1902) were collected from D. griseus, D. culpaeus and C. chinga in Neuquen Province, Argentina. These hosts were captured from April to August in 1990 and 1991. Ph. clausa and Ph. maxillaris ar redescribed. The systematic position of Ph. clausa is discussed and the authors conclude that this species could be considered the type species of the genus. The possibility that D. griseus and D. culpaeus could be the accidental hosts for P. n. criceticola is discussed. Prevalence, mean intensity and frequency of each species are given. These parameters were related with the diets of the hosts and the parasite life cycles. There was no relationship between parasitic burden of each host and their nutritional condition (Kendall Tau Test). Significant differences exist among the diet of each host and among prevalence values of each parasite species (Homogeneity Test SYSTAT Program).

  14. The first record of Stripe-necked Mongoose Herpestes vitticollis Bennett, 1835 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Herpestidae from the Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Kumpatla Balaji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been no records of the Stripe-necked Mongoose from the entire range of the Eastern Ghats. This is the first photographic evidence reported on distribution of Stripe-necked Mongoose from Papikonda National Park and its adjacent reserve forests in the Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh.   

  15. CHASMAPORTHETES MELEI N.SP., AN ENDEMIC HYAENID (CARNIVORA, MAMMALIA FROM THE MONTE TUTTAVISTA FISSURE FILLINGS (LATE PLIOCENE TO EARLY PLEISTOCENE; SARDINIA, ITALY

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    LORENZO ROOK

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of large carnivores in island ecosystems is unusual, especially in the case of top predators. Here, a new endemic hyaenid species, Chasmaporthetes melei, from the late Late Pliocene to earliest Pleistocene fissure fillings of Monte Tuttavista, Orosei, Sardinia, is described. Although smaller, C. melei is morphologically comparable with the Plio-Pleistocene Eurasian hunting-hyena Chasmaporthetes lunensis, a possible ancestor of the Sardinian species. C. melei displays all the characteristic feeding adaptations of Chasmaporthetes, including a derived enamel structure similar to the condition in extant bone-crushing hyaenas. C. melei was an active predator that nonetheless included a relatively large amount of bone in its diet. SHORT NOTES

  16. Fossil axial skeletal walrus material from the North Sea and the estuary of the Schelde, and a fossil Sirenian rib (Mammalia, Carnivora; Sirenia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosscha Erdbrink, D.P.; Bree, van P.J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Ten fossil odobenid remains, and a fossil sirenian rib, encountered by us in a public and in a private collection since the publication of some earlier papers, are described and discussed. All fossils belong, anatomically, to the axial skeleton. Most specimens can be identified as Odobenus rosmarus,

  17. Occurrence of Conepatus chinga (Molina (Mammalia, Carnivora, Mustelidae and other terrestrial mammals in the Serra do Mar, Paraná, Brazil

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    Nilton C. Cáceres

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper 19 additional mammalian species are reported in the Atlantic forest of the Paranean Serra do Mar, southern Brazil, including threatened and rare species. These findings resulted from a one-year field research in the western slope of the Serra do Mar, Piraquara municipality, with additional review of reports about mammal distribution in the region. Preliminarily mammal richness in the region is round 54 species, but this number could be higher with more systematic surveys, particularly with regards to bats. The occurrence of the hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782, is reported for the first time in the eastern portion of Paraná, a State vastly deforested during the last century in Brazil.Neste artigo, 19 espécies adicionais de mamíferos são informadas para a Floresta Atlântica da Serra do Mar paranaense, sul do Brasil, incluindo espécies ameaçadas e raras. Este relato é resultado de uma pesquisa de campo de um ano na vertente oeste da Serra do Mar, município de Piraquara¸ com revisão adicional de relatos sobre a distribuição de mamíferos na região. A riqueza preliminar de mamíferos na Serra do Mar paranaense é de 54 espécies, mas este número poderá aumentar quando mais inventários faunísticos forem realizados, principalmente para morcegos. A ocorrência do cangambá, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782, é relatada pela primeira vez na porção leste do Paraná, um Estado altamente desflorestado neste último século no Brasil.

  18. El orden Carnivora (Mammalia en el Perú: Estado del conocimiento y prioridades de investigación para su conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Daniel Cossíos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available La alta diversidad de especies de carnívoros del Perú puede generar problemas al momento de decidir los taxa y temas sobre los que deben dirigirse los esfuerzos de investigación. En este trabajo se evalúa el esfuerzo de investigación en base al número de publicaciones realizadas para cada familia y especie de carnívoro en el Perú. Asimismo, se señalan los vacíos de información relevantes para la conservación de cada especie y se presenta la primera evaluación de las prioridades de investigación sobre este grupo animal en el Perú. Se registró 145 publicaciones sobre carnívoros peruanos realizadas desde el año 1943. El número de publicaciones presentó grandes diferencias entre taxa, entre temas estudiados y entre las ecorregiones en las que se realizaron las investigaciones. Según la escala de prioridades propuesta, la especie que debe ser estudiada con mayor prioridad es el coatí andino Nasua olivacea y la de menor prioridad es el ocelote Leopardus pardalis. Los resultados de nuestro trabajo resaltan la urgencia de realizar investigaciones sobre ciertas especies de carnívoros de las que existen pocos datos publicados, tanto a nivel local como global, y que se distribuyen en pocas ecorregiones del Perú. Tanto la escala de prioridades de investigación como la lista de vacíos de información serán de utilidad para guiar esfuerzos logísticos y financieros de investigadores particulares, instituciones privadas y gubernamentales.

  19. First record of Rusty-spotted Cat Prionailurus rubiginosus (Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae from Ramgarh-Vishdhari Wildlife Sanctuary in semi-arid landscape of Rajasthan, India

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    Sailaja Nayak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Restricted to India and Sri Lanka in its distribution, the Rusty-spotted Cat Prionailurus rubiginosus is the smallest felid in the world.  The present distribution of this species in India is to a large extent not thoroughly documented and is based on opportunistic sightings and reports.  To date, the northernmost confirmed record of this cat is from Sariska and Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve.  In this communication, we present evidence of this species from further south at Ramgarh-Vishdhari Wildlife Sanctuary from the state of Rajasthan. 

  20. A new machairodont from the Palmetto Fauna (early Pliocene of Florida, with comments on the origin of the Smilodontini (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C Wallace

    Full Text Available South-central Florida's latest Hemphillian Palmetto Fauna includes two machairodontine felids, the lion-sized Machairodus coloradensis and a smaller, jaguar-sized species, initially referred to Megantereon hesperus based on a single, relatively incomplete mandible. This made the latter the oldest record of Megantereon, suggesting a New World origin of the genus. Subsequent workers variously accepted or rejected this identification and biogeographic scenario. Fortunately, new material, which preserves previously unknown characters, is now known for the smaller taxon. The most parsimonious results of a phylogenetic analysis using 37 cranio-mandibular characters from 13 taxa place it in the Smilodontini, like the original study; however, as the sister-taxon to Megantereon and Smilodon. Accordingly, we formally describe Rhizosmilodon fiteae gen. et sp. nov. Rhizosmilodon, Megantereon, and Smilodon ( = Smilodontini share synapomorphies relative to their sister-taxon Machairodontini: serrations smaller and restricted to canines; offset of P3 with P4 and p4 with m1; complete verticalization of mandibular symphysis; m1 shortened and robust with widest point anterior to notch; and extreme posterior "lean" to p3/p4. Rhizosmilodon has small anterior and posterior accessory cusps on p4, a relatively large lower canine, and small, non-procumbent lower incisors; all more primitive states than in Megantereon and Smilodon. The former also differs from Megantereon and Smilodon gracilis by having a very small mandibular flange. Rhizosmilodon is the oldest known member of the Smilodontini, suggesting that the tribe originated in North America. Two more derived, similar-sized species evolved in parallel during the Blancan, Megantereon hesperus and Smilodon gracilis. The former is rarer, known only from the north-central and northwestern US, and presumably dispersed into the Old World. The latter is known from the eastern and southern US, and dispersed into South America.

  1. Sexual selection uncouples the evolution of brain and body size in pinnipeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, J L; Almbro, M; Gonzalez-Voyer, A; Hamada, S; Pennington, C; Scanlan, J; Kolm, N

    2012-07-01

    The size of the vertebrate brain is shaped by a variety of selective forces. Although larger brains (correcting for body size) are thought to confer fitness advantages, energetic limitations of this costly organ may lead to trade-offs, for example as recently suggested between sexual traits and neural tissue. Here, we examine the patterns of selection on male and female brain size in pinnipeds, a group where the strength of sexual selection differs markedly among species and between the sexes. Relative brain size was negatively associated with the intensity of sexual selection in males but not females. However, analyses of the rates of body and brain size evolution showed that this apparent trade-off between sexual selection and brain mass is driven by selection for increasing body mass rather than by an actual reduction in male brain size. Our results suggest that sexual selection has important effects on the allometric relationships of neural development.

  2. Skin histology and its role in heat dissipation in three pinniped species

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    Khamas Wael A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pinnipeds have a thick blubber layer and may have difficulty maintaining their body temperature during hot weather when on land. The skin is the main thermoregulatory conduit which emits excessive body heat. Methods Thorough evaluation of the skin histology in three pinniped species; the California sea lion-Zalophus californianus, the Pacific harbor seal-Phoca vitulina richardsi, and the Northern elephant seal-Mirounga angustirostris, was conducted to identify the presence, location and distribution of skin structures which contribute to thermoregulation. These structures included hair, adipose tissue, sweat glands, vasculature, and arteriovenous anastomoses (AVA. Thermal imaging was performed on live animals of the same species to correlate histological findings with thermal emission of the skin. Results The presence and distribution of skin structures directly relates to emissivity of the skin in all three species. Emissivity of skin in phocids (Pacific harbor and Northern elephant seals follows a different pattern than skin in otariids (California sea lions. The flipper skin in phocids tends to be the most emissive region during hot weather and least emissive during cold weather. On the contrary in otariids, skin of the entire body has a tendency to be emissive during both hot and cold weather. Conclusion Heat dissipation of the skin directly relates to the presence and distribution of skin structures in all three species. Different skin thermal dissipation patterns were observed in phocid versus otariid seals. Observed thermal patterns can be used for proper understanding of optimum thermal needs of seals housed in research facilities, rescue centers and zoo exhibits.

  3. NCCOS Assessment: Predictive Mapping of Seabirds, Pinnipeds and Cetaceans off the Pacific Coast of Washington from 1995-07-21 to 2015-12-08 (NCEI Accession 0148762)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data collection comprises seasonal distribution maps and model outputs of selected seabird, pinniped and cetacean species off the Pacific coast of Washington....

  4. Arrhinolemur scalabrinii Ameghino, 1898, of the late Miocene : a taxonomic journey from the Mammalia to the Anostomidae (Ostariophysi: Characiformes

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    Sergio Bogan

    Full Text Available The fossil species Arrhinolemur scalabrinii, which was described from late Miocene deposits of Entre Ríos, Argentina, is reevaluated. Whereas the species was originally placed in the Primates (Mammalia and later made the unique member of the order Arrhinolemuroidea within the Mammalia, our analysis indicates that the specimen is rather a fish of the genus Leporinus, family Anostomidae (Characiformes. The species is redescribed, and the characters that support its new generic assignment are discussed.

  5. Dogs, cats, and kin: a molecular species-level phylogeny of Carnivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnarsson, Ingi; Kuntner, Matjaz; May-Collado, Laura J

    2010-03-01

    Phylogenies underpin comparative biology as high-utility tools to test evolutionary and biogeographic hypotheses, inform on conservation strategies, and reveal the age and evolutionary histories of traits and lineages. As tools, most powerful are those phylogenies that contain all, or nearly all, of the taxa of a given group. Despite their obvious utility, such phylogenies, other than summary 'supertrees', are currently lacking for most mammalian orders, including the order Carnivora. Carnivora consists of about 270 extant species including most of the world's large terrestrial predators (e.g., the big cats, wolves, bears), as well as many of man's favorite wild (panda, cheetah, tiger) and domesticated animals (dog, cat). Distributed globally, carnivores are highly diverse ecologically, having occupied all major habitat types on the planet and being diverse in traits such as sociality, communication, body/brain size, and foraging ecology. Thus, numerous studies continue to address comparative questions within the order, highlighting the need for a detailed species-level phylogeny. Here we present a phylogeny of Carnivora that increases taxon sampling density from 28% in the most detailed primary-data study to date, to 82% containing 243 taxa (222 extant species, 17 subspecies). In addition to extant species, we sampled four extinct species: American cheetah, saber-toothed cat, cave bear and the giant short-faced bear. Bayesian analysis of cytochrome b sequences data-mined from GenBank results in a phylogenetic hypothesis that is largely congruent with prior studies based on fewer taxa but more characters. We find support for the monophyly of Carnivora, its major division into Caniformia and Feliformia, and for all but one family within the order. The only exception is the placement of the kinkajou outside Procyonidae, however, prior studies have already cast doubt on its family placement. In contrast, at the subfamily and genus level, our results indicate numerous

  6. The use of diagnostic imaging for identifying abnormal gas accumulations in cetaceans and pinnipeds.

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    Sophie eDennison

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent dogma suggested that marine mammals are not at risk of decompression sickness (DCS due to a number of evolutionary adaptations. Several proposed adaptations exist. Lung compression and alveolar collapse that terminate gas exchange before a depth is reached where supersaturation is significant and bradycardia with peripheral vasoconstriction affecting the distribution, and dynamics of blood and tissue nitrogen levels. Published accounts of gas and fat emboli and dysbaric osteonecrosis in marine mammals and theoretical modeling have challenged this view-point, suggesting that decompression-like symptoms may occur under certain circumstances, contrary to common belief. Diagnostic imaging modalities are invaluable tools for the non-invasive examination of animals for evidence of gas and have been used to demonstrate the presence of incidental decompression-related renal gas accumulations in some stranded cetaceans. Diagnostic imaging has also contributed to the recognition of clinically significant gas accumulations in live and dead cetaceans and pinnipeds. Understanding the appropriate application and limitations of the available imaging modalities is important for accurate interpretation of results. The presence of gas may be incidental and must be interpreted cautiously alongside all other available data including clinical examination, clinical laboratory testing, gas analysis, necropsy examination and histology results.

  7. Congruent and synchronic patterns in biogeography and speciation among seabirds, pinnipeds, and cestodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, E P

    1992-08-01

    Congruence in biogeographic patterns among diverse assemblages of taxa indicates uniformity in the historical determinants of biotic distributions. Comparisons of host and parasite phylogenies and the elucidation of distributional area relationships are requisite components of analyses in historical biogeography. Host-parasite associations with broad geographic ranges are often archaic and have been structured largely by coevolutionary processes. In contrast, the origins and radiation of the primary cestode faunas of some seabirds (Alcataenia spp./Alcidae) and pinnipeds (Anophryocephalus spp./Phocidae and Otariidae) are associated with colonization. These young colonizing faunas, in the Holarctic Region, were influenced by a common history during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs. Periodic range contraction, with isolation in refugial centers, and subsequent expansion into postglacial habitats for hosts and parasites coincided with the cyclic pattern of stadials and interstadials. During the past 2-3 million years following colonization, these dramatic climatic fluctuations strongly influenced the continuity of ecological associations in marine habitats and appear to have been the determinants of congruent and synchronic patterns of speciation among these disparate taxa of marine homeotherms and eucestodes.

  8. Monochoroterpes, a replacement name for Monophyllus Kluge, 2012 (Insecta: Ephemeroptera), nec Monophyllus Leach, 1821 (Mammalia: Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Nikita J; Jacobus, Luke M

    2015-04-08

    The genus group name Monophyllus Kluge, 2012 was established to include a single species of the mayfly family Leptophlebiidae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) from Hainan Island, China, Choroterpes (Monophyllus) monophyllus Kluge, 2012. Unfortunately, this name is preoccupied by Monophyllus Leach, 1821, a genus of Phyllostomidae bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from the Antilles (type species: M. redmani Leach, 1821: 76). Therefore, we propose a replacement name for the mayfly genus group as follows.

  9. Carnivora population dynamics are as slow and as fast as those of other mammals: implications for their conservation.

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    Madelon van de Kerk

    Full Text Available Of the 285 species of Carnivora 71 are threatened, while many of these species fulfill important ecological roles in their ecosystems as top or meso-predators. Population transition matrices make it possible to study how age-specific survival and fecundity affect population growth, extinction risks, and responses to management strategies. Here we review 38 matrix models from 35 studies on 27 Carnivora taxa, covering 11% of the threatened Carnivora species. We show that the elasticity patterns (i.e. distribution over fecundity, juvenile survival and adult survival in Carnivora cover the same range in triangular elasticity plots as those of other mammal species, despite the specific place of Carnivora in the food chain. Furthermore, reproductive loop elasticity analysis shows that the studied species spread out evenly over a slow-fast continuum, but also quantifies the large variation in the duration of important life cycles and their contributions to population growth rate. These general elasticity patterns among species, and their correlation with simple life history characteristics like body mass, age of first reproduction and life span, enables the extrapolation of population dynamical properties to unstudied species. With several examples we discuss how this slow-fast continuum, and related patterns of variation in reproductive loop elasticity, can be used in the formulation of tentative management plans for threatened species that cannot wait for the results of thorough demographic studies. We argue, however, that such management programs should explicitly include a plan for learning about the key demographic rates and how these are affected by environmental drivers and threats.

  10. Tooele Army Depot Revised Final Site-Wide Ecological Risk Assessment. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    Cerridae Deer Cervus canadensis Elk 2 Odocoileus hemionus Mule deer X 1 Order: Carnivora Carnivores Family: Canidae Wolves, Foxes, and the Coyote...NA NA Y Cat Mammalia Carnivora Felidae Felis domesticus N Cow Mammalia Artiodactyla Bovidae Bos taurus N Dog Mammalia Carnivore Canidae Canis...fauna Invertebrata Varies Varies No NA Plants Plantae NA NA Yes (Ute ladies’ tresses, Clay phacelia) Yes ♦ This receptor is a Special Status

  11. Evaluating hair as a predictor of blood mercury: the influence of ontogenetic phase and life history in pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah H.; McHuron, Elizabeth A.; Kennedy, Stephanie N.; Ackerman, Josh; Rea, Lorrie D.; Castellini, J. Margaret; O'Hara, Todd M.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) biomonitoring of pinnipeds increasingly utilizes nonlethally collected tissues such as hair and blood. The relationship between total Hg concentrations ([THg]) in these tissues is not well understood for marine mammals, but it can be important for interpretation of tissue concentrations with respect to ecotoxicology and biomonitoring. We examined [THg] in blood and hair in multiple age classes of four pinniped species. For each species, we used paired blood and hair samples to quantify the ability of [THg] in hair to predict [THg] in blood at the time of sampling and examined the influence of varying ontogenetic phases and life history of the sampled animals. Overall, we found that the relationship between [THg] in hair and blood was affected by factors including age class, weaning status, growth, and the time difference between hair growth and sample collection. Hair [THg] was moderately to strongly predictive of current blood [THg] for adult female Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), adult female California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and adult harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), whereas hair [THg] was poorly predictive or not predictive (different times of year) of blood [THg] for adult northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Within species, except for very young pups, hair [THg] was a weaker predictor of blood [THg] for prereproductive animals than for adults likely due to growth, variability in foraging behavior, and transitions between ontogenetic phases. Our results indicate that the relationship between hair [THg] and blood [THg] in pinnipeds is variable and that ontogenetic phase and life history should be considered when interpreting [THg] in these tissues.

  12. Serologic evidence of Brucella infection in pinnipeds along the coast of Hokkaido, the northernmost main island of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Erika; Ohishi, Kazue; Ishinazaka, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Kei; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2017-04-01

    Brucella infection in Hokkaido was serologically surveyed in four species of pinnipeds inhabiting Cape Erimo during 2008-2013 and the Shiretoko Peninsula in 1999 by ELISA using Brucella abortus and B. canis as antigens. Anti-Brucella positive sera showed higher absorbance to B. abortus than B. canis in almost all samples. Anti-B. abortus antibodies were detected in serum samples from 24% (n = 55) of Western Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina stejnegeri) in Cape Erimo and from 66% (n = 41) of spotted seals (P. largha), 15% (n = 20) of ribbon seals (Histriophoca fasciata) and 18% (n = 17) of Western Steller's sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus jubatus) in the Shiretoko Peninsula. Anti-Brucella antibodies were detected at higher absorbance in 1- to 4-year-old harbor seals than in the pups and mature animals, suggesting either that Brucella infection mainly occurs after weaning or that it is maternally transmitted to pups with premature or suppressed immunity. Anti-Brucella antibodies were detected in both immature and mature spotted seals and ribbon seals, with higher absorbance in the former. The antibodies were detected only in mature Western Steller's sea lions. Western blot analysis of the serum samples showed some differences in band appearances, namely discrete versus smeary, and in the number of bands, indicating that multiple different Brucella may be prevalent in pinnipeds in Hokkaido. Alternatively, the Brucella of pinnipeds may have some intra-species diversity. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. On the Challenge of Interpreting Census Data: Insights from a Study of an Endangered Pinniped.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Trillmich

    Full Text Available Population monitoring is vital for conservation and management. However, simple counts of animals can be misleading and this problem is exacerbated in seals (pinnipeds where individuals spend much time foraging away from colonies. We analyzed a 13-year-series of census data of Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki from the colony of Caamaño, an islet in the center of the Galapagos archipelago where a large proportion of animals was individually marked. Based on regular resighting efforts during the cold, reproductive (cold-R; August to January and the warm, non-reproductive (warm-nR; February to May season, we document changes in numbers for different sex and age classes. During the cold-R season the number of adults increased as the number of newborn pups increased. Numbers were larger in the morning and evening than around mid-day and not significantly influenced by tide levels. More adults frequented the colony during the warm-nR season than the cold-R season. Raw counts suggested a decline in numbers over the 13 years, but Lincoln-Petersen (LP- estimates (assuming a closed population did not support that conclusion. Raw counts and LP estimates were not significantly correlated, demonstrating the overwhelming importance of variability in attendance patterns of individuals. The probability of observing a given adult in the colony varied between 16% (mean for cold-R season and 23% (warm-nR season and may be much less for independent 2 to 4 year olds. Dependent juveniles (up to the age of about 2 years are observed much more frequently ashore (35% during the cold-R and 50% during the warm-nR seasons. Simple counts underestimate real population size by a factor of 4-6 and may lead to erroneous conclusions about trends in population size.

  14. Skin biopsy as a nondestructive tool for the toxicological assessment of endangered populations of pinnipeds: preliminary results on mixed function oxidase in Otaria flavescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossi, M C; Savelli, C; Marsili, L; Casini, S; Jimenez, B; Junin, M; Castello, H; Lorenzani, J A

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for assessing the toxicological risk of endangered populations of pinnipeds based on a nondestructive biological tool, the skin biopsy specimen. Skin biopsies can be obtained from pinnipeds by anaesthetising the animals and taking a small amount of skin in the anterior flipper area, or by shooting a biopsy dart with a crossbow. Skin biopsy material is suitable for a wide range of chemical and biomarker analysis. Organochlorines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can be analysed in subcutaneous fat and MFO activity (BPMO), Cyt.P450 isoforms, and DNA damage can be detected in epidermis.

  15. Accuracy of ARGOS locations of Pinnipeds at-sea estimated using Fastloc GPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Costa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: ARGOS satellite telemetry is one of the most widely used methods to track the movements of free-ranging marine and terrestrial animals and is fundamental to studies of foraging ecology, migratory behavior and habitat-use. ARGOS location estimates do not include complete error estimations, and for many marine organisms, the most commonly acquired locations (Location Class 0, A, B, or Z are provided with no declared error estimate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the accuracy of ARGOS Locations to those obtained using Fastloc GPS from the same electronic tags on five species of pinnipeds: 9 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus, 4 Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki, 6 Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus, 3 Australian fur seals (A. p. doriferus and 5 northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris. These species encompass a range of marine habitats (highly pelagic vs coastal, diving behaviors (mean dive durations 2-21 min and range of latitudes (equator to temperate. A total of 7,318 ARGOS positions and 27,046 GPS positions were collected. Of these, 1,105 ARGOS positions were obtained within five minutes of a GPS position and were used for comparison. The 68(th percentile ARGOS location errors as measured in this study were LC-3 0.49 km, LC-2 1.01 km, LC-1 1.20 km, LC-0 4.18 km, LC-A 6.19 km, LC-B 10.28 km. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The ARGOS errors measured here are greater than those provided by ARGOS, but within the range of other studies. The error was non-normally distributed with each LC highly right-skewed. Locations of species that make short duration dives and spend extended periods on the surface (sea lions and fur seals had less error than species like elephant seals that spend more time underwater and have shorter surface intervals. Supplemental data (S1 are provided allowing the creation of density distributions that can be used in a variety of filtering algorithms to improve the

  16. Cytogenetic study of the giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis Zimmermann 1780 (Carnivora, Mustelidae, Lutrinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Felipe Oliveira Franco-de-Sá

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The giant otter, Pteronura brasiliensis Zimmermann 1780 (Carnivora, Mustelidae, Lutrinae, was widely distributed in South America but stable populations are now only found in the Pantanal and Amazon regions and the species is classified as endangered. There is only one recognized species of giant otter, although two subspecies of doubtful value have also been cited in the literature. We present the first karyotype of four captive P. brasiliensis specimens, all of which posses 2n = 38 chromosomes as 14M+8SM+6ST+8A and one pair of sexual chromosomes. An heteromorphic secondary constriction, associated with the nucleolar organizer region (NOR, was seen on the long arms of chromosome pair 17. The C-banding technique revealed heterochromatin in the centromeric region of all the chromosomes and the NOR was C-banding positive. The giant otter presented the same diploid number as most mustelids, although its karyotype is quite species-specific.

  17. Detection of Pathogenic Leptospira Bacteria in Pinniped Populations via PCR and Identification of a Source of Transmission for Zoonotic Leptospirosis in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptospirosis, caused by the spirochete bacterium Leptospira, is a geographically widespread disease that affects a broad range of mammals, including marine mammals. During 2004 an outbreak of leptospirosis occurred among select pinniped populations along the West Coast of North America, with cases...

  18. First report of Diphyllobothrium mansoni (Cestoda, Diphyllobothridae infecting Cerdocyon thous (Mammalia, Canidae in Brazil Ocorrência de Diphyllobothrium mansoni (Cestoda, Diphyllobothridae parasitando Cerdocyon thous (Mammalia, Canidae no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Santos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho descreve a ocorrência de Diphyllobothrium mansoni (Cestoda, Diphyllobothridae no intestino delgado de um exemplar de Cerdocyon thous (Mammalia, Canidae, proveniente da região de Itatinga, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Este é o primeiro relato da presença desse cestódeo em C. thous.

  19. A new metastrongyloidean species (Nematoda) parasitizing pulmonary arteries of Puma (Herpailurus) yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy, 1803) (Carnivora: Felidae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Muniz-Pereira, Luís C; de Souza Lima, Sueli; Neto, Antonio H A Moraes; Guimarães, Erick V; Luque, José L

    2013-04-01

    Angiostrongylus felineus n. sp. (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea), parasitic in Puma (Herpailurus) yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy, 1803) (Carnivora, Felidae) from the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, is described and illustrated herein. Angiostrongylus felineus n. sp. differs from all congeneric species by having the anterior extremity with accentuated cuticular expansion and by smaller size of spicules. This study describes for the first time a species of Angiostrongylus in a wild Felidae in Brazil.

  20. Binturong (Arctictis binturong) and Kinkajou (Potos flavus) Digestive Strategy: Implications for Interpreting Frugivory in Carnivora and Primates

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Exclusive frugivory is rare. As a food resource, fruit is temporally and spatially patchy, low in protein, and variable in terms of energy yield from different carbohydrate types. Here, we evaluate the digestive physiology of two frugivorous Carnivora species (Potos flavus, Arctictis binturong) that converge with primates in a diversity of ecological and anatomical traits related to fruit consumption. We conducted feeding trials to determine mean digestive retention times (MRT) on captive ani...

  1. Binturong (Arctictis binturong) and Kinkajou (Potos flavus) Digestive Strategy: Implications for Interpreting Frugivory in Carnivora and Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Joanna E.; Vivek Fellner; Erin McKenney; Adam Hartstone-Rose

    2014-01-01

    Exclusive frugivory is rare. As a food resource, fruit is temporally and spatially patchy, low in protein, and variable in terms of energy yield from different carbohydrate types. Here, we evaluate the digestive physiology of two frugivorous Carnivora species (Potos flavus, Arctictis binturong) that converge with primates in a diversity of ecological and anatomical traits related to fruit consumption. We conducted feeding trials to determine mean digestive retention times (MRT) on captive ani...

  2. METAXYTHERIUM MEDIUM (MAMMALIA: SIRENIA FROM UPPER MIOCENE SEDIMENTS OF THE ARENARIA DI PONSANO FORMATION (TUSCANY, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANNI BIANUCCI

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Records of Metaxytherium medium (Mammalia: Sirenia from Tononian (Late Miocene sediments from che Arenaria di Ponsano Formation (Tuscany, Italy are described. They consist of fragmentary specimens, including several partial cranial elements representing at least three skulls, two humeri, fragments of venebrae and some incomplete ribs. The new Tuscan records confirm che wide diffusion of Metaxytherium in the Mediterranean during the Miocene. This sirenian's occurrence in the Arenaria di Ponsano sediments is in accordance with the shelf environment indicated by other fossils. The low sea bottom was at least partially covered by segrass meadows, the food source of this dugongid. 

  3. Neoromicia Roberts, 1926 (Mammalia Vespertilionidae: correction of gender and etymology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Riccucci

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Neoromicia Roberts, 1926 (Mammalia, Verspetilionidae: Correzione del genere grammaticale ed etimologia Neoromicia Roberts, 1926, sinora considerato erroneamente di genere maschile, è in realtà femminile. La sua etimologia deriva quasi certamente dal Greco antico "ρóμιζα", corrispondente al latino "Rumex" (sorta di giavellotto, per la presenza di un cospicuo sperone calcaneale in Romicia calcarata, specie tipo del genere.

  4. Molecular systematics of pinniped hookworms (Nematoda: Uncinaria): species delimitation, host associations and host-induced morphometric variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Steven A; Lyons, Eugene T; Pagan, Christopher; Hyman, Derek; Lewis, Edwin E; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Bell, Cameron M; Castinel, Aurelie; Delong, Robert L; Duignan, Padraig J; Farinpour, Cher; Huntington, Kathy Burek; Kuiken, Thijs; Morgades, Diana; Naem, Soraya; Norman, Richard; Parker, Corwin; Ramos, Paul; Spraker, Terry R; Berón-Vera, Bárbara

    2013-12-01

    Hookworms of the genus Uncinaria have been widely reported from juvenile pinnipeds, however investigations of their systematics has been limited, with only two species described, Uncinaria lucasi from northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) and Uncinaria hamiltoni from South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens). Hookworms were sampled from these hosts and seven additional species including Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis), Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus), New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri), southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina), and the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus). One hundred and thirteen individual hookworms, including an outgroup species, were sequenced for four genes representing two loci (nuclear ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial DNA). Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences recovered seven independent evolutionary lineages or species, including the described species and five undescribed species. The molecular evidence shows that U. lucasi parasitises both C. ursinus and E. jubatus, whereas U. hamiltoni parasitises O. flavescens and A. australis. The five undescribed hookworm species were each associated with single host species (Z. californianus, A. pusillus, P. hookeri, M. leonina and M. monachus). For parasites of otarids, patterns of Uncinaria host-sharing and phylogenetic relationships had a strong biogeographic component with separate clades of parasites from northern versus southern hemisphere hosts. Comparison of phylogenies for these hookworms and their hosts suggests that the association of U. lucasi with northern fur seals results from a host-switch from Steller sea lions. Morphometric data for U. lucasi shows marked host-associated size differences for both sexes, with U. lucasi individuals from E. jubatus significantly larger. This result suggests that adult growth of U. lucasi is reduced within the

  5. Food habit studies of pinnipeds conducted at San Miguel Island, California by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 1980-02-01 to 2014-01-31 (NCEI Accession 0145166)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collects fecal samples to examine the diet of pinnipeds, including...

  6. Trophic ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae in lotic and semilotic environments in southeastern Brazil

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    Lívia B. Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora, Mustelidae is a semi-aquatic animal spread through the Central and South America, except in Chile. The implantation of a hydroelectric power plant along a river alters the dynamics of the watercourse, transforming a lotic environment into a lentic or semilotic one, what can damage the otter's feeding. From April 2008 to March 2009 we analysed the otter's food habits in lotic (streamlet and semilotic (hydroelectric reservoir environments of Paranapanema Valley, in southeastern Brazil. Aiming to compare the otter's diet of these two environments, we analyzed statistically the frequency of occurrence of main items in the scats. Fishes represent the base of the diet both in the reservoir and in the streamlet and, despite of the total otter's diet showing up similarities in the two environments, the results evidenced modifications on the fish species consumed between them. In the reservoir the otters ate more exotic fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 probably because it is an easy capture prey in this place. The fact that the otters get established and feed in the reservoir doesn't mean that this structure is benefic to the species because the food supplied for it consists mainly of exotic fish species.

  7. Occurrence and morphometrics of the brachioradialis muscle in wild carnivorans (Carnivora: Caniformia, Feliformia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Souza Junior

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The brachioradialis is an important muscle that acts in the external rotation of the forearm (supination. However, its occurrence is controversial and little studied in the order Carnivora. Thus, this study investigates the occurrence and anatomo-functional arrangement of this muscle in wild carnivorans species. Fifty-eight thoracic limbs of specimens from species of Canidae, Procyonidae, Mustelidae and Felidae were dissected. Measurements of the length of the muscle (ML, the length of the forearm (FL, latero-medial width of the muscle (MW and the lateral-medial diameter of the forearm (FD were obtained to establish the ratios MW/FD and ML/FL in order to investigate the relative proportion of the muscle in relation to the forearm of each species. The brachioradialis muscle was identified in all species, although it was unilaterally or bilaterally absent in some canid individuals. The ratios demonstrated significant differences in the anatomical proportions among the families, with greater functional importance in the mustelids, procyonids, and felids because of a set of elaborate movements in the thoracic limb of representatives of these families when compared to canids.

  8. Occurrence of Can-SINEs and intron sequence evolution supports robust phylogeny of pinniped carnivores and their terrestrial relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Christiane; Bleidorn, Christoph; Hartmann, Stefanie; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2009-12-15

    Investigating the dog genome we found 178965 introns with a moderate length of 200-1000 bp. A screening of these sequences against 23 different repeat libraries to find insertions of short interspersed elements (SINEs) detected 45276 SINEs. Virtually all of these SINEs (98%) belong to the tRNA-derived Can-SINE family. Can-SINEs arose about 55 million years ago before Carnivora split into two basal groups, the Caniformia (dog-like carnivores) and the Feliformia (cat-like carnivores). Genome comparisons of dog and cat recovered 506 putatively informative SINE loci for caniformian phylogeny. In this study we show how to use such genome information of model organisms to research the phylogeny of related non-model species of interest. Investigating a dataset including representatives of all major caniformian lineages, we analysed 24 randomly chosen loci for 22 taxa. All loci were amplifiable and revealed 17 parsimony-informative SINE insertions. The screening for informative SINE insertions yields a large amount of sequence information, in particular of introns, which contain reliable phylogenetic information as well. A phylogenetic analysis of intron- and SINE sequence data provided a statistically robust phylogeny which is congruent with the absence/presence pattern of our SINE markers. This phylogeny strongly supports a sistergroup relationship of Musteloidea and Pinnipedia. Within Pinnipedia, we see strong support from bootstrapping and the presence of a SINE insertion for a sistergroup relationship of the walrus with the Otariidae.

  9. Catalogue of the remains of marine carnivora in the collection of the Institute of Taxonomic Zoology, University of Amsterdam (Zoological Museum Amsterdam)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1988-01-01

    As is usual in university museums, the Zoological Museum of the University of Amsterdam (now Institute of Taxonomic Zoology) had in its collection some representative material of marine Carnivora (Pinnipedia, at the time it was believed that the animals belonged to a monophyletic taxon). Some

  10. Evolution and function of fossoriality in the carnivora: implications for group-living

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    Michael James Noonan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The societies of group-living carnivores that neither hunt nor interact cooperatively may arise due to ecological drivers and/or constraints. In this study we evaluate whether group-living may be intrinsically associated with fossoriality; a link that is well supported in other taxa, but hitherto under-evaluated in the Carnivora. We make two over-arching predictions: i that fossoriality will be associated with carnivoran sociality; and ii that this association will be most evident in those species making extended use of subterranean dens. From a meta-analysis of key behavioural, ecological, ontological, and trophic traits, we demonstrate that three quarters of carnivore species exhibit some reliance on underground dens. Congruence between life-history traits and metrics of fossoriality evidenced that: 1 there are phylogenetic, and morphological constraints on wholly fossorial life-histories; 2 fossoriality correlated positively with the extent of offspring altriciality, linked to the use of natal dens; 3 burrow use increased with latitude; and 4 insectivorous carnivores were more fossorial than predatory carnivores. Corroborating work in the Rodentia, fossorial traits associated strongly with carnivoran group-living tendencies, where species utilising subterranean natal dens are 2.5 times more likely to form groups than those that do not. Furthermore, using comparative analyses, we evidence support for an evolutionary relationship between diet, fossoriality and sociality. We propose that fossorial dens act as a safe haven, promoting fitness benefits, territorial inheritance and cooperative breeding. We conclude that, among smaller (<15kg den-using carnivores, and especially for omnivorous/ insectivorous species for which food resource dispersion is favorable, continued cohabitation at natal dens can promote cohabitation among adults; that is, philopatric benefits leading to (not necessarily cooperative spatial groups.

  11. Winter activity of bat-eared foxes Otocyon megalotis on the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-07-04

    Jul 4, 1988 ... species. In fact, as far as canids are concerned, the only data of this kind available are on time-budgeting by ... expressing the number of individuals in each behaviour ...... certain Carnivora (Mammalia) from the Kalahari.

  12. Hapalemur alaotrensis conservation, one step forward and two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    species survival is highly uncertain because of increased habitat loss caused mainly .... population estimations from 2005 reported numbers below 3,000 individuals ..... status of a new taxon of Salanoia (Mammalia: Carnivora: Eupleridae) from.

  13. Oil and gas exploration in the Southeastern Gulf of St. Lawrence: a review of information on pinnipeds and cetaceans in the area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammill, M.O.; Lesage, V.; Dube, Y.; Measures, L.N. [Maurice Lamontagne Inst., Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    A summary of information concerning pinnipeds (seals) and cetaceans (whales) was summarized for the proposed region of oil and gas exploration, located in the southeastern part of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Marine mammals moving in and out of the Gulf of St. Lawrence utilize Cabot Strait as an important migratory route. A platform for pinnipeds reproduction is available with the seasonal ice cover. This ice cover provides a limit to access, during winter months, to marine mammals, especially cetaceans, to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Important foraging areas for cetaceans are located in the Cape Breton Trough in the vicinity of Cheticamp, as well as the large canyons in the Gulf. The four pinnipeds species most commonly found in the area are: harp, hooded, grey and harbour seals. Data on population abundance, whelping areas, distribution, and diet is generally available. Scientists require specific at sea distribution, relative abundance and local diet data for the area. On the east coast of Prince Edward Island, the seal-watching industry relies mostly on harbour seals. Of the fifteen whale species that transit through the Cabot Strait, six are regular visitors, namely: Fin, Minke, Humpback, Pilot whales, White-sided dolphins, and Harbour porpoise are seen in abundant numbers on a regular basis. Right whales pass through the area in small numbers. The whale-watching activity taking place on the western coast of Cape Breton relies mainly on Pilot Whales, for which this area has great importance. Additional data on species present, abundance, seasonal occupation, seasonal movements, and diet of whales is missing. Damage to hearing could result from seismic activity, leading to distribution changes, and increased strandings due to noise. 108 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF RESPIRATORY AND GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES OF THREE SPECIES OF PINNIPEDS (ARCTOCEPHALUS AUSTRALIS, ARCTOCEPHALUS GAZELLA, AND OTARIA FLAVESCENS) IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Kristy; Marigo, Juliana; Gastal, Silvia Bainy; Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Tseng, Florina

    2016-03-01

    In order to improve understanding of parasitism in South American pinnipeds, respiratory and gastrointestinal samples were collected from 12 Arctocephalus australis (South American fur seal), one Arctocephalus gazella (Antarctic fur seal), and one Otaria flavescens (South American sea lion). Ova and larvae were microscopically identified from fecal samples and respiratory secretions collected from live A. australis undergoing rehabilitation at Centro de Recuperação de Animais Marinhos (CRAM-FURG) in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil during June-July 2012. Adult parasites were collected from the lungs and gastrointestinal tracts of animals that died while undergoing treatment or were found dead along the southern Brazil coast. Parasites were identified by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing, microscopic examination, comparison with keys, and histologic examination of tissues. Lung parasites of the Parafilaroides genus (Metastrongyloidea, Filaroididae) were identified at necropsy in both A. australis and A. gazella and gastrointestinal parasites were found in all three species of pinniped studied. Gastrointestinal parasites identified in A. australis included the nematodes Contracaecum sp. and Pseudoterranova cattani, the cestodes Adenocephalus pacificus (previously Diphyllobothrium pacificum), one from the Tetrabothridae family and one undetermined, and the acanthocephalans Corynosoma sp. and Bolbosoma sp.; from A. gazella the nematode Contracaecum sp. and the acanthocephalan Corynosoma sp.; and from O. flavescens the acanthocephalan Corynosoma sp. Ova from fecal samples from A. australis represent ascarid nematodes, Parafilaroides sp., Adenocephalus pacificus, acanthocephalans, and an egg determined either to be a trematode or pseuophyllidean cestode. With limited information surrounding parasitism, these findings are an important contribution to knowledge of the health of Southern Hemisphere pinnipeds.

  15. Fauna characteristics and ecological distribution of Carnivora and Artiodactyla in Niubeiliang National Nature Reserve,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhigao; SONG Yanling; MA Yingtai; WANG Xifeng; WU Xuntao; XIE Zhenfeng; SHAO Jianbin; LI Chunning

    2007-01-01

    Niubeiliang National Nature Reserve (NNR,108°45'-109°04'E,33°47'-33°56'N)is located on the eastern range of the Qinling Mountains in Shannxi Province,China and spans the southern and northern slopes of Mt.Qiuling.A transect survey and investigation were carried out in NNR to determine the fauna characteristics and ecological distribution of carnivora and artiodactyla from May 2003 to August 2004.The NNR has 18 mammals (carnivore and artiodactyl),two of which belong to the first class and seven to the second class of state key protected wildlife in China.The results of this study indicated that ungulates were abundant in the NNR,as all ungulates that were distributed within bit.Qiuling could be found within the reserve.However,only45.5%of the carnivores distributed within Mt.Qinling were detected within the NNR.Among the mammals,there were 12 oriental species (66.7%),1 palearctic specie (5.5%)and 5 widely-distributed species (27.8%).The NNR is a crossing area of palearctic species and oriental species on the zoogeographical regions,and it is a transitional area from the oriental realm to the palearctic realm.The results of the analysis on the ecological distribution of carnivore and artiodactyl in the area showed that their elevation ranges had large differences.The species whose elevation ranges above 1300 m,about 1000 m,and in 450-700 m occupied one third respectively.The results also indicated that species richness for the mammals in the NNR peaked at a middle elevation (rising at first,then descending with the increase in elevation).Not only on the southern slope,but also on the northern slope of Mt.Qinling,the number of species distributed in the area at 1800-2200 m a.s.l.was the largest (more than 80%),while the number of species distributed in the area above 2 600 m a.s.l.was the smallest (about 50%).Elevation gradients of species richness for the mammals in the NNR also embodied the mammal distributions among the vegetation types.The number of species

  16. Rediscovery of Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) parasitizing the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), with a key to mites of bats in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Mohamed W; Fakeer, Mahmoud M

    2014-04-01

    Faunistic information about bat mites in Egypt is scarce. Collection records of parasitic mites, Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati, 1856) (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae), are reported from the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy, 1810) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Seven species of bat mites are recognized from Egypt to date. A host-parasite checklist and an identification key to these species are presented.

  17. Construction of arboreal nests by brown-nosed coatis, Nasua nasua (Carnivora: Procyonidae in the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Olifiers

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The construction of arboreal nests is rare among mammals in the order Carnivora. However, coatis (Procyonidae: Nasua Storr, 1780 build arboreal nests that are used for resting or birthing. Here we describe Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766 nests located during a telemetry study of coatis in the Brazilian Pantanal. Coati nests were all "bird-like", that is, open nests having a semispherical shape. Nests were constructed of twigs, branches, and lianas sometimes interlaced with leaves. Nest volume was 30-50 cm³ and average nest height was approximately 9.5 m. Nests were found in open "cerrado" vegetation, along forest edges, or in interior "cordilheiras" forest. The reasons why coatis build such nests are unclear, but may relate to inter or intraspecific competition for nesting sites, litter size, thermoregulation, and predation avoidance.

  18. Historia natural del piche llorón Chaetophractus vellerosus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae Natural history of the screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUSTÍN M ABBA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan nuevos aportes sobre la historia natural del piche llorón Chaetophractus vellerosus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae. Los estudios de campo fueron llevados a cabo en 100 ha de un establecimiento ganadero de la localidad de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Durante dos años (2006-2008 se realizó un muestreo estacional de armadillos por captura y recaptura. Se obtuvieron datos de hábitos alimentarios, uso del espacio y del tiempo, comportamiento, termorregulación, datos poblacionales y morfológicos. Se realizaron 237 capturas de un total de 136 individuos. En la dieta el ítem principal registrado fue insectos coleópteros, seguido por material vegetal y pequeños mamíferos; se observó una diferencia estacional en los hábitos alimentarios dada por una marcada caída de la ocurrencia de coleópteros durante la primavera. Durante las estaciones frías concentran su actividad al mediodía y primeras horas de la tarde y durante las estaciones cálidas el horario medio de actividad se da durante la tarde-noche. Seleccionan los suelos calcáreos arenosos y los pastizales de baja altura y alta cobertura de vegetación. El área de acción media registrada fue de 2670 m². Son individuos asociales, con comportamiento diferente entre las estaciones y seleccionan los montes de tala para refugiarse. La temperatura rectal mostró correlaciones positivas con la temperatura ambiente y el peso. La proporción de sexos fue cercana a uno y no se observó dimorfismo sexual. Los resultados obtenidos concuerdan con lo observado para la especie en otras áreas distantes y con diferentes condiciones ambientales. Este trabajo representa un aporte en varios aspectos poco estudiados de una población aislada y bajo importantes presiones de uso y modificación de hábitat que la pueden llevar a la extinción en un mediano plazo.This contribution presents new data about the natural history of the screaming hairy

  19. Linking reproduction and survival can improve model estimates of vital rates derived from limited time-series counts of pinnipeds and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaile, Brian C; Trites, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to model the physiological link between somatic survival and reproductive output that reduces the number of parameters that need to be estimated by models designed to determine combinations of birth and death rates that produce historic counts of animal populations. We applied our Reproduction and Somatic Survival Linked (RSSL) method to the population counts of three species of North Pacific pinnipeds (harbor seals, Phoca vitulina richardii (Gray, 1864); northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus (L., 1758); and Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776))--and found our model outperformed traditional models when fitting vital rates to common types of limited datasets, such as those from counts of pups and adults. However, our model did not perform as well when these basic counts of animals were augmented with additional observations of ratios of juveniles to total non-pups. In this case, the failure of the ratios to improve model performance may indicate that the relationship between survival and reproduction is redefined or disassociated as populations change over time or that the ratio of juveniles to total non-pups is not a meaningful index of vital rates. Overall, our RSSL models show advantages to linking survival and reproduction within models to estimate the vital rates of pinnipeds and other species that have limited time-series of counts.

  20. Linking reproduction and survival can improve model estimates of vital rates derived from limited time-series counts of pinnipeds and other species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C Battaile

    Full Text Available We propose a method to model the physiological link between somatic survival and reproductive output that reduces the number of parameters that need to be estimated by models designed to determine combinations of birth and death rates that produce historic counts of animal populations. We applied our Reproduction and Somatic Survival Linked (RSSL method to the population counts of three species of North Pacific pinnipeds (harbor seals, Phoca vitulina richardii (Gray, 1864; northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus (L., 1758; and Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776--and found our model outperformed traditional models when fitting vital rates to common types of limited datasets, such as those from counts of pups and adults. However, our model did not perform as well when these basic counts of animals were augmented with additional observations of ratios of juveniles to total non-pups. In this case, the failure of the ratios to improve model performance may indicate that the relationship between survival and reproduction is redefined or disassociated as populations change over time or that the ratio of juveniles to total non-pups is not a meaningful index of vital rates. Overall, our RSSL models show advantages to linking survival and reproduction within models to estimate the vital rates of pinnipeds and other species that have limited time-series of counts.

  1. Novel morphological and molecular data for Corynosoma hannae Zdzitowiecki, 1984 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) from teleosts, fish-eating birds and pinnipeds from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orts, Jesús S; Smales, Lesley R; Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos D; García-Varela, Martín; Presswell, Bronwen

    2017-02-01

    The polymorphid acanthocephalan, Corynosoma hannae Zdzitowiecki, 1984 is characterised on the basis of newly collected material from a New Zealand sea lion, Phocarctos hookeri (Gray), and long-nosed fur seal, Arctophoca forsteri (Lesson) (definitive hosts), and from Stewart Island shags, Leucocarbo chalconotus (Gray), spotted shags, Phalacrocorax punctatus (Sparrman) and yellow-eyed penguins, Megadyptes antipodes (Hombron & Jacquinot) (non-definitive hosts) from New Zealand. Specimens are described in detail and scanning electron micrographs for C. hannae are provided. Additionally, cystacanths of C. hannae are reported and described for the first time from the body cavity and mesenteries of New Zealand brill, Colistium guntheri (Hutton) and from New Zealand sole, Peltorhamphus novaezeelandiae Günther from Kaka Point, Otago in New Zealand. Partial sequence data for the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene (cox1) for adults, immature specimens and cystacanths of C. hannae were obtained. Phylogenetic analyses of the newly-generated sequences and for available cox1 sequences of Corynosoma spp. revealed a close relationship between C. hannae and C. australe Johnston, 1937, both species infecting pinnipeds in the Southern Hemisphere. However, a morphological comparison of the species suggests that C. hannae mostly closely resembles C. evae Zdzitowiecki, 1984 and C. semerme (Forssell, 1904), the latter of which occurs in pinnipeds in the Northern Hemisphere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Distribución potencial del jaguar Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae) en Guerrero, México: persistencia de zonas para su conservación

    OpenAIRE

    Cuervo-Robayo, Angela P.; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio

    2012-01-01

    Potential distribution of jaguar, Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae) in Guerrero, Mexico: persistence of areas for its conservation. Studies about the permanence of natural protected areas are important, because they contribute to the promotion of the conservation target and to optimize economical and human resources of specific areas. Although there are no natural protected areas in Guerrero, it has suitable habitat for the jaguar, a common species used for planning and management of ...

  3. New Aspidoderidae species parasite of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae): a light and scanning electron microscopy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Moutinho, V A; Sant'anna, V; Oliveira-Menezes, A; De Souza, W

    2014-02-01

    Nematodes of the family Aspidoderidae (Nematoda: Heterakoidea) Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1947, are widely distributed in the Americas. The family Aspidoderidae includes the subfamilies Aspidoderinae Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1947, and Lauroiinae Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1951. These two subfamilies are delineated by the presence or absence of cephalic cordons at the anterior region. The nematodes in the subfamily Aspidoderinae, which includes the genus AspidoderaRailliet and Henry, 1912, are represented by nematodes with anterior cephalic cordons at the anterior end. The nematodes of the genus AspidoderaRailliet and Henry, 1912, are found in the cecum and large intestine of mammals of the orders Edentata, Marsupialia and Rodentia. Species within this genus have many morphological similarities. The use of scanning electron microscopy allows the specific characterization of the species within this genus. In the present work, we describe a new species of Aspidodera parasite of the large intestine of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae) Wied-Neuwied, 1826, collected from Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro. The combination of light and scanning electron microscopy allowed us a detailed analysis of this nematode.

  4. Morphometric variation in the pusillus group of the genus Rhinolophus (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Harada, Masashi; Thong, Vu Dinh; Lin, Liang-Kong; Li, Yu-Chun

    2012-06-01

    Based on 203 specimens belonging to the Rhinolophus "pusillus group" (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae), univariate and multivariate morphometric analyses using 19 characters were performed to assess the confused species taxonomy. The results indicated that R. pusillus (including calidus, parcus, and szechuanus) in the continental region and Hainan Island of China and "R. cornutus" in Japan are morphologically divergent species. Rhinolophus cornutus should be further split into R. cornutus (including orii, pumilus, and miyakonis) in the main islands of Japan, the Amami and Okinawa Group of the central Ryukyu Archipelago, and Miyako Group of the southern Ryukyus; and R. perditus and R. imaizumii from the Yaeyama Group in the southern Ryukyus. Rhinolophus monoceros from Taiwan is morphologically more similar to species in Japan than to R. pusillus. In addition to R. pusillus, another form that is morphologically similar to species in Japan was recognized from Langzhong in Sichuan Province; this may represent an undescribed species, and further examination is necessary to determine its taxonomic status. Specimens from Guang'an in Sichuan Province, China, are also different from the others, and are characterized by the smallest skull size. Although further studies are required, these specimens were tentatively identified as R. subbadius.

  5. A review of bush dog Speothos venaticus (Lund, 1842) (Carnivora, Canidae) occurrences in Paraná state, subtropical Brazil/Revisão dos registros de ocorrência do cachorro-do-mato-vinagre Speothos venaticus (Lund, 1842) (Carnivora, Canidae), no Estado do Paraná, Brasil Subtropical

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L M Tiepolo; J Quadros; M R P L Pitman

    2016-01-01

    ... Brazil, threatened species. Revisão dos registros de ocorrência do cachorro-do-mato-vinagre Speothos venaticus (Lund, 1842) (Carnivora, Canidae), no Estado do Paraná, Brasil Subtropical Resumo Apresentamos seis novos registros de ocorrência do cachorro-do-mato-vinagre Speothos venaticus, um carnívoro sul Americano de ampla distribuição geog...

  6. Anatomical description of arterial branches of thoracic and abdominal aorta in the coati (Nasua nasua (Carnivora, Procyonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Arrais Biihrer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The coati (Nasua nasua is a widely distributed species in South America, also in Brazil. This study aimed to observe and describe the branching morphology of the main arterial branches of thoracic and abdominal aorta in the coati, by comparing the findings with existing literature on the other domestic and wild species. For this study, two adult male specimens were used, collected from highways in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, victims of roadkill. The specimens were fixed in formalin solution and their aortic branches were filled with latex for subsequent dissection and analysis. It was observed that the left subclavian artery is a direct branch of the aortic arch, there is no formation of a bicarotid or celiac-mesenteric trunk, facts similarly described in domestic carnivores. Thus, it was noticed that the arterial branches of aorta in the coati, both in the thoracic and abdominal cavities, show a distribution very similar to that observed in domestic carnivores, something which reflects their evolutionary closeness within the Carnivora order. Thus, this study proves to be relevant by deepening anatomical knowledge on this wild species, enabling that aspects already known in canine veterinary medicine are applied to the coati.

  7. A new species of Atriotaenia (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) from the hog-nosed skunk Conepatus chinga (Carnivora: Mephitidae) in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Ticona, Daniel S; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T; Gonzalez, Armando E

    2012-08-01

    Atriotaenia sanmarci n. sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) is described as a parasite of the Andean hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Carnivora: Mephitidae), from Cusco, Perú. The new species is primarily distinguished from related species by the distribution, and greater number, of testes, i.e., 194-223 versus 40-60 in Atriotaenia sandgroundi (Sandground, 1926) Baer, 1935, 47-73 in Atriotaenia procyonis (Chandler, 1942) Spasskii, 1951, and 21-84 in Atriotaenia incisa Railliet, 1899. Also, there are differences with respect to the larger dimensions of suckers (300-371 µm vs. 140 in A. sandgroundi, 83-134 in A. procyonis, 70-140 in A. incisa, and 155-192 in Atriotaenia hastati Vaucher, 1982) and in the cirrus pouch length (204-732 µm vs. 90 in A. sandgroundi, 200-220 in A. procyonis, 100-180 in A. incisa, and 150-205 in A. hastati). The new species differs from A. sandgroundi and A. hastati in having a larger body size (122-133 mm vs. 10.6 and 10, respectively). This cestode is the fifth species of Atriotaenia Sandground, 1926.

  8. Binturong (Arctictis binturong and Kinkajou (Potos flavus digestive strategy: implications for interpreting frugivory in Carnivora and primates.

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    Joanna E Lambert

    Full Text Available Exclusive frugivory is rare. As a food resource, fruit is temporally and spatially patchy, low in protein, and variable in terms of energy yield from different carbohydrate types. Here, we evaluate the digestive physiology of two frugivorous Carnivora species (Potos flavus, Arctictis binturong that converge with primates in a diversity of ecological and anatomical traits related to fruit consumption. We conducted feeding trials to determine mean digestive retention times (MRT on captive animals at the Carnivore Preservation Trust (now Carolina Tiger Rescue, Pittsboro, NC. Fecal samples were collected on study subjects for in vitro analysis to determine methane, pH, and short chain fatty acid profiles; fiber was assayed using standard neutral detergent (NDF and acid detergent (ADF fiber methods. Results indicate that both carnivoran species have rapid digestive passage for mammals that consume a predominantly plant-based diet: A. binturong MRT = 6.5 hrs (0.3; P. flavus MRT = 2.5 hrs (1.6. In vitro experiments revealed no fermentation of structural polysaccharides--methane levels did not shift from 0 h to either 24 or 48 hours and no short chain fatty acids were detected. In both species, however, pH declined from one incubation period to another suggesting acidification and bacterial activity of microbes using soluble carbohydrates. A comparison with primates indicates that the study species are most similar in digestive retention times to Ateles--the most frugivorous anthropoid primate taxon.

  9. Binturong (Arctictis binturong) and Kinkajou (Potos flavus) digestive strategy: implications for interpreting frugivory in Carnivora and primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Joanna E; Fellner, Vivek; McKenney, Erin; Hartstone-Rose, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Exclusive frugivory is rare. As a food resource, fruit is temporally and spatially patchy, low in protein, and variable in terms of energy yield from different carbohydrate types. Here, we evaluate the digestive physiology of two frugivorous Carnivora species (Potos flavus, Arctictis binturong) that converge with primates in a diversity of ecological and anatomical traits related to fruit consumption. We conducted feeding trials to determine mean digestive retention times (MRT) on captive animals at the Carnivore Preservation Trust (now Carolina Tiger Rescue), Pittsboro, NC. Fecal samples were collected on study subjects for in vitro analysis to determine methane, pH, and short chain fatty acid profiles; fiber was assayed using standard neutral detergent (NDF) and acid detergent (ADF) fiber methods. Results indicate that both carnivoran species have rapid digestive passage for mammals that consume a predominantly plant-based diet: A. binturong MRT = 6.5 hrs (0.3); P. flavus MRT = 2.5 hrs (1.6). In vitro experiments revealed no fermentation of structural polysaccharides--methane levels did not shift from 0 h to either 24 or 48 hours and no short chain fatty acids were detected. In both species, however, pH declined from one incubation period to another suggesting acidification and bacterial activity of microbes using soluble carbohydrates. A comparison with primates indicates that the study species are most similar in digestive retention times to Ateles--the most frugivorous anthropoid primate taxon.

  10. Nuevos aportes a la historia natural de la mulita pampeana Dasypus hybridus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae

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    Agustín M. Abba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan nuevos aportes sobre la historia natural de la mulita pampeana Dasypus hybridus (Desmarest, 1804 (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Dasypodidae. Los estudios de campo fueron llevados a cabo en 100 ha de cuatro establecimientos agropecuarios de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Durante tres años se realizó un muestreo estacional de armadillos por captura y liberación. Se obtuvieron datos de hábitos alimentarios, uso del espacio y del tiempo, comportamiento, termorregulación, datos poblacionales y morfológicos. Se realizaron 71 capturas. En la dieta el ítem principal registrado fue material vegetal, seguido por hormigas e insectos coleópteros; no se observó una diferencia estacional en los hábitos alimentarios. La actividad de las mulitas se concentra durante el día, existió una baja en la frecuencia de observación durante las estaciones frías (otoño e invierno. La mulita pampeana prefiere suelos húmicos, terrenos altos y pastizales densos y altos; asimismo seleccionan los montes para refugiarse. Son individuos asociales. La temperatura rectal mostró correlaciones positivas con la temperatura ambiente. La proporción de sexos fue cercana a uno y no se observó dimorfismo sexual. Los resultados obtenidos concuerdan parcialmente con lo observado para otras especies del género, destacando las tendencias observadas en los hábitos alimentarios y en la estrategia termorregulatoria. Este trabajo representa un aporte en varios aspectos de una especie poco estudiada en una zona bajo importantes presiones de uso y modificación de hábitat.

  11. Mitochondrial cytochrome b of the Lyakhov mammoth (Proboscidea, Mammalia): new data and phylogenetic analyses of Elephantidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debruyne, Régis; Barriel, Véronique; Tassy, Pascal

    2003-03-01

    The phylogenetic relationships between recent Elephantidae (Proboscidea, Mammalia), that is to say extant elephants (Asian and African) and extinct woolly mammoth, have remained unclear to date. The prevailing morphological scheme (mammoth grouped with Asian elephant) is either supported or questioned by the molecular results. Recently, the monophyly of woolly mammoths on mitochondrial grounds has been demonstrated (Thomas, et al., 2000), but it conflicts with previous studies (Barriel et al., 1999; Derenko et al., 1997). Here, we report the partial sequencing of two mitochondrial genes: 128 bp of 12S rDNA and 561 bp of cytochrome b for the Lyakhov mammoth, a 49,000-year-old Siberian individual. We use the most comprehensive sample of mammoth (11 sequences) to determine whether the sequences achieved by former studies were congruent or not. The monophyly of a major subset of mammoths sequences (including ours) is recovered. Such a result is assumed to be a good criterion for ascertaining the origin of ancient DNA. Our sequence is incongruent with that of Yang et al. (1996), though obtained for the same individual. As far as the latter sequence is concerned, a contamination by non-identified exogenous DNA is suspected. The robustness and reliability of the sister group relation between Mammuthus primigenius and Loxodonta africana are examined: down-weighting saturated substitutions has no impact on the topology; analyzing data partitions proves that the support of this clade can be assigned to the most conservative phylogenetic signal; insufficient taxonomic and/or characters sampling contributed to former discordant conclusions. We therefore assume the monophyly of "real mammoth sequences" and the (Mammuthus, Loxodonta) clade.

  12. Feeding mechanics and dietary implications in the fossil sloth Neocnus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Megalonychidae) from Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Robert K

    2011-10-01

    Haitian species of the extinct ground sloth genus Neocnus (Mammalia: Pilosa: Megalonychidae) have previously been hypothesized to have a much reduced jugal bone and a correspondingly reduced masseter musculature but a paucity of specimens has prevented further investigation of this hypothesis. Recent discovery of jugal bones belonging to Haitian specimens of Neocnus within the University of Florida Museum collections enables the element to be more accurately described. The discovery also makes it possible to explore mastication in these sloths. Osteological characters related to feeding were examined, along with comparative estimations of bite force with the extant tree sloths, Bradypus and Choloepus, and their known dietary habits as a means to infer aspects of the paleodiet of Neocnus. There is a significant difference in moment arm calculations for m. masseter between predicted and actual jugals, but the overall significance for bite force is lost and hampered by small sample size. Neocnus demonstrates a variety of characters that are similar to those of Bradypus and not to Choloepus, which is a close phylogenetic relative. The masticatory musculature of Neocnus enabled a chewing cycle emphasizing a grinding combination of mesiodistal and linguobuccal movements of the molariform dentition. The orientations of m. masseter and m. temporalis are estimated to produce relatively high bite force ratios that imply a masticatory system with stronger versus faster components. Because of the similarity of bite forces and jaw mechanics to those of Bradypus, in addition to a number of osteological adaptations indicative of herbivorous grazers (elevated mandibular condyle, large and complex masseter, and robust angular process), the Haitian forms of Neocnus are considered to have been selective feeders with a folivorous diet.

  13. 3D models related to the publication: Neogene sloth assemblages (Mammalia, Pilosa) of the Cocinetas Basin (La Guajira, Colombia): implications for the Great American Biotic Interchange

    OpenAIRE

    Amson, Eli; Carrillo, Juan David; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : We here present the surface models of two specimens of sloths(Mammalia, Tardigrada) coming from the Late Pliocene WareFormation (Cocinetas Basin, La Guajira, Colombia, see Table 1). Along with three additional sloth taxa found in the same Formation, these specimens document the great diversity of this Neotropical locality. Furthermore, they represent a sloth assemblage from a locality just a few hundred thousand years older than the classically recognized first main pulse of th...

  14. Crenosoma brasiliense sp. n. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) parasitic in lesser grison, Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora, Mustelidae) from Brazil, with a key to species of Crenosoma Molin, 1861.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Muniz-Pereira, Luis C; de Souza, Lima Sueli; Neto, Antonio H A Moraes; Gonçalves, Pamela R; Luque, José L

    2012-09-01

    This study describes Crenosoma brasiliense (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea), a new species parasitic in bronchi and bronchioles of Galictis cuja (Molina) (Carnivora, Mustelidae) from Brazil. This species differs from other 11 species of Crenosoma by having a cuticular projection at the distal end of the spicules, forming a prominent blade at the tip of the spicule, a vulval cuticular appendage with a triangular shape and prominent vulval lips. There are no previous records of species of Metastrongyloidea in G. cuja or species of Crenosoma in South America. Therefore, the new species represents the first host record and first geographical record of species of Crenosoma in South America.

  15. New records of non-resident pinnipeds from the Gulf of California, Mexico Registros nuevos de pinnípedos no-residentes en el golfo de California, México

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Pablo Gallo-Reynoso; Martín Octavio Maravilla-Chávez; Navarro-Serment, Carlos J.

    2010-01-01

    Although the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) is the only pinniped resident in the Gulf of California, there are occasional records of 3 additional species; here we report 4 recent records of the Guadalupe fur seal (Artocephalus townsendi), 6 of the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) and 2 of the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Harbor seals have been observed mostly during the winter-spring months of El Niño years, before water temperature warms in the summer. It is po...

  16. Time-Dependent Salinity and Temperature Structure of the Columbia River Salt Wedge and River Plume: Analysis of Conductivity/Temperature/Depth Profiles from Sensors Attached to Pinnipeds and Diving Waterbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Marine mammals and waterbirds have been used in the past to document water column properties in the ocean (Boehlert et al., 2001; Lydersen et al...Columbia River Salt Wedge and River Plume: Analysis of Conductivity/Temperature/Depth Profiles from Sensors Attached to Pinnipeds and Diving...2010; Padman et al., 2010). In this study, we utilize tagged marine animals in regions where water properties exhibit a high degree of variability

  17. Trophic ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae in lotic and semilotic environments in southeastern Brazil Ecologia trófica de Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae em ambientes lótico e semilótico no sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia B. Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora, Mustelidae is a semi-aquatic animal spread through the Central and South America, except in Chile. The implantation of a hydroelectric power plant along a river alters the dynamics of the watercourse, transforming a lotic environment into a lentic or semilotic one, what can damage the otter's feeding. From April 2008 to March 2009 we analysed the otter's food habits in lotic (streamlet and semilotic (hydroelectric reservoir environments of Paranapanema Valley, in southeastern Brazil. Aiming to compare the otter's diet of these two environments, we analyzed statistically the frequency of occurrence of main items in the scats. Fishes represent the base of the diet both in the reservoir and in the streamlet and, despite of the total otter's diet showing up similarities in the two environments, the results evidenced modifications on the fish species consumed between them. In the reservoir the otters ate more exotic fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 probably because it is an easy capture prey in this place. The fact that the otters get established and feed in the reservoir doesn't mean that this structure is benefic to the species because the food supplied for it consists mainly of exotic fish species.Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora: Mustelidae é um animal semi-aquático com distribuição nas Américas Central e do Sul, exceto no Chile. A implantação de uma usina hidrelétrica em um rio altera a dinâmica do curso d'água, transformando um ambiente lótico em um lêntico ou semilótico, o que pode prejudicar a alimentação das lontras. De abril de 2008 a março de 2009 foi analisado o hábito alimentar das lontras em um ambiente lótico (riacho e semilótico (reservatório hidrelétrico no Vale do Paranapanema, sudeste do Brasil. Visando comparar a dieta das lontras nessas duas áreas analisamos estatisticamente a frequência de ocorrência dos principais itens nas fezes. Peixes

  18. This shrew is a jumping mouse (Mammalia, Dipodidae): Sorex dichrurus Rafinesque 1833 is a synonym of Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann 1780)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal; Carleton, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Constantine S. Rafinesque described Sorex dichrurus as a shrew in 1833, based on a specimen he found in a proprietary museum near Niagara Falls on the New York/Ontario border. The name subsequently has been ignored by the scientific community. By describing this specimen as a shrew and ascribing it to the genus Sorex, Rafinesque clearly indicated that his species should be considered a member of the taxonomic family now recognized as the Soricidae (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla). Yet, the description of the animal, and its comparison to ‘‘Gerbillus,’’ clearly identify it as a dipodid rodent, specifically Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann, 1780); S. dichrurus should be treated as a junior subjective synonym of that taxon. Based on its type locality of Goat Island, New York, this name is also a junior synonym of the subspecies Z. hudsonius canadensis (Davies, 1798).

  19. Los Palaeotheriidae (Perissodactyla, Mammalia del Eoceno de la Cuenca del Duero (Castilla y Leon, Espana

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    Cuesta Ruiz-Colmenares, M. A.

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available The systematic study of the Palaeotheriidae (Perissodactyla, Mammalia of the Eocene of the Duero Bassin (Castilla y León, Spain has permited to identify 3 new species: Palaeotherium giganteum nov. sp., Cantabrotherium casanovasae nov. sp. and Franzenium durense nov. sp., all of the Mazaterón bed (middle Eocene-upper Eocene, MP16-17, Almazán subbassin, Soria. Franzenium durense nov. sp. is present also in Caenes (middle Eocene, MP16, southoccidental area, Salamanca. The described forrns display a special combination of primitive characters, mainly in the premolars, with almost void molarization, and derived characters, detaching a strong hipsodonty; such combination is not known in the other species of the Family. In a biogeographical order this fauna shows a strong endemic character, with a almost complete independence of the occidental Europe and subpyrenean area, and only sorne peninsular beds, Llamaquique (Oviedo and Huérmeces del Cerro (Guadalajara have similar forms. In 3 other beds, situates in the southoccidental area, Casaseca de Campeán (middle Eocene, MP13-14, Zamora, Molino del Pico (upper Eocene-Oligocene, Zamora and San Morales (Middle Eocene, MP16, Salamanca the Palaeotheriidae are very rares and the limited material doesn't have to perrnit the identification at the generic level.El estudio sistemático de los Palaeotheriidae (Perissodactyla, Marnmalia del Eoceno de la Cuenca del Duero (Castilla y León, España ha permitido identificar tres nuevas especies: Palaeotherium giganteum nov. sp., Cantabrotherium casanovasae nov. sp. y Franzenium durense nov. sp., todas ellas del yacimiento de Mazaterón (Eoceno medio-Eoceno superior, MP16-17, subcuenca de Almazán, Soria. Franzenium durense nov. sp. está también presente en Caenes (Eoceno medio, MP16, área suroccidental, Salamanca. Las formas descritas presentan una especial combinación de caracteres primitivos, principalmente en los premolares, con molarización pr

  20. ÁREAS DE ENDEMISMO DE LOS MAMÍFEROS (MAMMALIA NEOTROPICALES

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    Elkin Alexi NOGUERA-URBANO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de las áreas de endemismo es un paso fundamental en los análisis de biogeografía evolutiva. Las áreas de endemismo han sido definidas por la congruencia de dos o más áreas de distribución, en donde se asume de manera general que los taxones endémicos tienen una respuesta geográfica similar a factores históricos y ambientales. Los mamíferos tienen alta diversidad en el Neotrópico y muchos de ellos han evolucionado en conjunto con esta región biogeográfica. Sin embargo, hay pocas hipótesis de áreas de endemismo que puedan ser relacionadas con la evolución de los mamíferos en el Neotrópico. En este estudio se identificaron las áreas de endemismo de los mamíferos neotropicales a partir del análisis de una matriz de 2052 taxones (familias, géneros y especies. Para ello se aplicó una búsqueda de áreas de endemismo con el método de Análisis de Endemicidad a una cuadrícula de 2° latitud-longitud. Se identificaron 101 áreas de endemismo y 498 taxones endémicos, las áreas coincidieron parcialmente con 65 patrones biogeográficos identificados por otros autores. La región Neotropical está compuesta por nueve áreas de endemismo y mostró múltiples límites, que sugieren un patrón dinámico. Se identificaron dos áreas complejas de intercambio biótico que coincidieron con las zonas de transición Mexicana y Sudamericana. La congruencia de las áreas de endemismo de mamíferos con otros esquemas biogeográficos sugiere que estas áreas han sido formadas tanto por factores históricos como ecológicos. Por otra parte, las incongruencias de las áreas de endemismo soportan un sistema biogeográfico no jerarquizado.Areas of Endemism of the Neotropical Mammals (Mammalia The identification of areas of endemism is an essential step in analyses of evolutionary biogeography. Areas of endemism have been defined by the congruency of two or more distributional areas, where there is a general assumption that the

  1. Estudio paleopatológico de una hemimandíbula de Tethytragus (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) del Mioceno Medio de Somosaguas (Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid)

    OpenAIRE

    Sala Burgos, Nohemi; Cuevas González, Jaime; López Martínez, Nieves

    2007-01-01

    En este artículo se estudia el origen paleopatológico de una cavidad situada en el talónido del primer molar inferior en una hemimandíbula de Tethytragus (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) hallada en el yacimiento paleontológico del Mioceno Medio (Aragoniense) de Somosaguas Norte (Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid). El molar afectado muestra un desgaste anómalo con una fuerte reducción de la altura del talónido y una gran cavidad, que conecta la superficie oclusal con la cámara pulpar, bordeada de dentina ...

  2. Pinniped ecology in Santa Monica Bay, California%加州Santa Monica海湾鳍足类的生态学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maddalena BEARZI; Charles A.SAYLAN; Celia BARROSO

    2008-01-01

    研究了加州Santa Monica海湾鳍足类的生态学.从1997-2007年乘船调查了277次,发现海狮(Zalophus californianus)是最常见的动物(89%,见到的次数为1393次),其次是港海豹(Phoca vitulina richardsi,8%,n=131)和北象海豹(Mirounga angustirostris,1%,n=15).在29%的遇见次数(观察到瓶海豚205次)中,发现海狮(偶尔也发现港海豹)与瓶鼻海豚集群(Tursiops truncatus);短喙真海豚(Delphinus delphis)与长喙真海豚(D.capensis)在53% 的遇见次数(遇见真海豚次数n=155)中,发现短喙真海豚(Delphinus delphis)与长喙真海豚(D.capensis)集群;一般在沿岸水域(离岸边距离<500 m)见到海狮和港海豹,但在整个海湾也能见到,表现出这两个物种对海底峡谷的偏爱.北象海豹仅见于近海,主要在海底峡谷附近. 经常看到海狮、港海豹和北象海豹游动(50%,n=728)、进行热调节(14%,n=205)、以及取食(3.2%,n=47),但几乎见不到有社会性活动(0.21%,n=3).%We investigated pinniped ecology at sea in Santa Monica Bay, California. Animals were studied during 277 boat-based surveys conducted in 1997-2007 do cumenting that California sea lion Zalophus californianus was the most observed species (89%,n sightings=1393), followed by harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi; 8%,n sightings=131), and northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris; 1%,n sightings=15). Sea lions, and occasionally harbor seals, were found in aggregations with bottlenose dolphinsTursiops truncatus in 29% of the sightings (n bottlenose dolphin sightings=205), short-beaked common dolphinsDelphinus delphis and long-beaked common dolphinsD.capensis in 53% of the sightings (n common dolphins=155). Sea lions and harbor seals were regularly observed in coastal waters (<500 m from shore) but also in the entire bay, with both species showing a preference for submarine canyons. Northern elephant seals were only seen in offshore waters and mostly in proximity of the canyons. The three species were

  3. Association of Acute Interstitial Nephritis with Carnivora, a Venus Flytrap Extract, in a 30-Year-Old Man with Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

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    Susan Ziolkowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN is a common cause of acute kidney injury and has been associated with a variety of medications. This is the case of 30-year-old man with Hodgkin’s lymphoma who on routine labs before chemotherapy was found to have acute nonoliguric renal failure. A kidney biopsy was performed and confirmed the diagnosis of acute interstitial nephritis. The patient had taken several medications including a higher dose of Carnivora, a Venus flytrap extract, composed of numerous amino acids. The medication was discontinued and kidney function improved towards the patient’s baseline indicating that this may be the possible cause of his AIN. Proximal tubular cell uptake of amino acids increasing transcription of nuclear factor-kappaB is a proposed mechanism of AIN from this compound.

  4. Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov., isolated from pinnipeds, comprising Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. and Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Leger, Judy St; Chapman, Mary H; Timmerman, Arjen J; Duim, Birgitta; Foster, Geoffrey; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2017-06-01

    During independent diagnostic screenings of otariid seals in California (USA) and phocid seals in Scotland (UK), Campylobacter-like isolates, which differed from the established taxa of the genus Campylobacter, were cultured from abscesses and internal organs of different seal species. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of these six isolates. The isolates were characterized by 16S rRNA gene and AtpA sequence analysis and by conventional phenotypic testing. The whole-genome sequences were determined for all isolates, and the average nucleotide identity (ANI) was determined. The isolates formed a separate phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other taxa of the genus Campylobacter and most closely related to Campylobactermucosalis. Although all isolates showed 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence homology, AtpA and ANI analyses indicated divergence between the otariid isolates from California and the phocid isolates from Scotland, which warrants subspecies status for each clade. The two subspecies could also be distinguished phenotypically on the basis of catalase activity. This study shows clearly that the isolates obtained from pinnipeds represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov. is proposed. Within this novel species, the Californian isolates represent a separate subspecies, for which the name C. pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain for both this novel species and subspecies is RM17260T (=LMG 29472T=CCUG 69570T). The Scottish isolates represent another subspecies, for which the name C. pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this subspecies is M302/10/6T (=LMG 29473T=CCUG 68650T).

  5. Can they dig it? Functional morphology and semifossoriality among small-eared shrews, genus Cryptotis (Mammalia, Soricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal; Gaffney, Sarah A

    2014-07-01

    Small-eared shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis), exhibit modifications of the forelimb skeleton that have been interpreted as adaptations for semifossoriality. Most species inhabit remote regions, however, and their locomotory and foraging behaviors remain mostly speculative. To better understand the morphological modifications in the absence of direct observations, we quantified variation in these species by measuring 151 individuals representing 18 species and populations of Cryptotis and two species of moles (Talpidae) for comparison. From our measurements, we calculated 22 indices, most of which have been used previously to characterize substrate use among rodents and other taxa. We analyzed the indices using 1) average percentile ranks, 2) principal components analysis, and 3) cluster analysis. From these analyses, we determined that three basic modes of substrate adaptation are present within Cryptotis: 1) a primarily terrestrial mode, with species that are capable of burrowing, but lack adaptations to increase digging efficiency, 2) a semifossorial mode, with species whose forelimbs bones show strong muscle attachment areas and increased mechanical advantage, and 3) an intermediate mode. In addition to identifying new morphological characters and contributing to our understanding of the functional morphology of soricids, these analyses provide additional insight into the ecology of the species of interest.

  6. A new species of Cryptotis (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Soricidae) from the Sierra de Perijá, Venezuelan-Colombian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga-Carmona, Marcial; Woodman, Neal

    2015-01-01

    The Sierra de Perijá is the northern extension of the Cordillera Oriental of the Andes and includes part of the border between Colombia and Venezuela. The population of small-eared shrews (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Soricidae, Cryptotis) inhabiting the Sierra de Perijá previously was known from only a single skull from an individual collected in Colombia in 1989. This specimen had been referred to alternatively as C. thomasi and C. meridensis, but more precise definition of the known Colombian and Venezuelan species of Cryptotis has since excluded the Sierra de Perijá population from any named species. The recent collection of a specimen from the Venezuelan slope of Sierra de Perijá, prompted us to re-evaluate the taxonomic status of this population and determine its relationship with other Andean shrews. Our examination of the available specimens revealed that they possess a unique suite of morphological and morphometrical characters, and we describe the Sierra de Perijá population as a new species in the South American C. thomasi species group. Recognition of this new species adds to our knowledge of this genus in South America and to the biodiversity of the Sierra de Perijá.

  7. Hábitos alimentarios del Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae en el Parque Nacional Natural Puracé, Colombia

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    Andrés Hernández-Guzmán

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La dieta de Puma concolor es ampliamente conocida a lo largo de su distribución, sin embargo, en Colombia no se ha realizado ningún estudio sobre sus hábitos alimentarios. Entre 2007-2009, la dieta de puma fue analizada en el Parque-Nacional-Natural-Puracé, sur occidente de los Andes colombianos. Ítems alimenticios de cinco especies presa fueron identificadas en su dieta; el venado conejo (Pudu mephistophiles es la presa más importante. Como herramienta complementaria para la identificación de huesos y pelos contenidos en heces (n=60, se instalaron seis cámarastrampa en lugares estratégicos, para registrar la presencia de pumas y presas potenciales. El descubrimiento de la dependencia de los pumas con el pudú sugiere una única adaptación de los pumas de paramo a la disponibilidad de presas y resalta su importancia como reguladores de las poblaciones presa. Estos resultados contribuyen a incrementar el poco conocimiento sobre la ecología de pumas de los Andes, de sus presas y de las especies en su conjunto en Colombia. Obtener información sobre el grupo de presas de pumas en diferentes ecosistemas, es esencial para entender los requerimientos regionales para su supervivencia y diseñar acciones de conservación que permitan seguir/evaluar las necesidades particulares de áreas protegidas en toda su distribución.Food habits of Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae in the Parque Nacional Natural Puracé,Colombia. Neotropical puma (Puma concolor diet is scarcely known, in particular that of mountain dwelling individuals from Northern South America. This is the first study on pumas from the paramo and the first puma diet analysis for Colombia. The puma diet was studied from 2007 to 2009 in the Puracé National Park in the South Colombian Andes. Paramos are unique neotropical high altitude ecosystems which store and regulate water, and are currently threatened by agricultural expansion and climate change. Seven latrines were monitored for

  8. New marsupial (Mammalia from the Eocene of Antarctica, and the origins and affinities of the Microbiotheria Nuevo marsupial (Mammalia del Eoceno de la Antártida, y los orígenes y afinidades de los Microbiotheria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Goin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe and comment on an isolated upper molar belonging to Woodburnodon casei gen. et sp. nov. (Mammalia, Marsupialia, Microbiotheria, Woodburnodontidae fam. nov., from the Eocene of the La Meseta Fm (TELM 5 or Cucullaea I Member, Marambio (Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula. With a body mass estimated between 900 to 1,300 g (depending on the type of equation and the possible molar locus of the type specimen, it represents the largest known Microbiotheria, living or extinct. Besides its size, other diagnostic features include a proportionally large metacone, reduced or absent para- and metaconules, and an unusual labial notch between stylar cusps C and D. Woodburnodon casei is an undoubted Microbiotheria; however, its reference to the Microbiotheriidae is discarded: almost all its morphological characters are plesiomorphic when compared with South American microbiotheriids, even with respect to the oldest representatives of this family. This suggests (a a quite ancient and southern origin for Woodburnodon and its ancestors, and (b that the origins and initial radiation of the Microbiotheria may have occurred from a generalized peradectoid. The new taxon, here referred to the new family Woodburnodontidae, constitutes the second microbiotherian known from these Antarctic levels and age; this confirms the association of representatives of this order within a common, Andean-Patagonian-Antarctic biogeographic region, already present since the Late Cretaceous. Microbiotherians stand as the plesiomorphic sister-group of Bonapartheriiform marsupials, the latter including Glasbius and allied taxa.Se describe y comenta un molar superior aislado perteneciente a Woodburnodon casei gen. et sp. nov. (Mammalia, Marsupialia, Microbiotheria, Woodburnodontidae fam. nov., procedente de niveles eocénicos de la Fm. La Meseta (Miembro TELM 5 o Cucullaea I, Isla Marambio (Seymour, Península Antártica. Con una masa corporal estimada entre 900 y 1.300 g

  9. 内蒙古中新世通古尔组 Tungurictis(Carnivora:Hyaenidae)的新材料%NEW MATERIALS OF TUNGURICTIS (HYAENIDAE,CARNIVORA)FROM TUNGGUR FORMATION,NEI MONGOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓鸣

    2004-01-01

    New materials of Tungurictis spocki, a basal hyaenid (Hyaenidae, Carnivora), from the Tai rum Nor locality in Tunggur Formation is described. For the first time, associated upper and lower teeth are available for this species, which is previously established on a single skull. The newly available lower molars corroborate current believes that Tungurictis is a primitive hyaenid. A relatively low metaconid and an equal height for m1 hypoconid and entoconid further establish its difference from hypocarnivorous forms such as Plioviverrops. Tungurictis spocki is probably closely related to European and western Asian Pro tictitherium gaillardi.%斯氏通古尔鼬(Tungurictis spocki)是1939年Colbert描述的一个采自内蒙古中中新世通古尔组的小型食肉类的新属、新种.他最初认为通古尔鼬属于灵猫科,但最近Hunt(1989)及Hunt和Solounias(1991)提出通古尔鼬具有一些鬣狗科耳区的特征(如水平方向的听泡隔板等)但缺少典型鬣狗科强壮的用来咬碎骨骼的前臼齿.Werdelin和Solounias(1991)对鬣狗科分支系统的研究也进一步证实通古尔鼬实际上是一种鬣狗科较为原始的成员.因此通古尔鼬成为研究鬣狗科初期演化关系的重要一环.Tungurictis spocki的正型标本(AMNH 26600)是一件相当完整的头骨,但这是美国自然历史博物馆第三次中亚考查团在狼营地点(Wolf Camp)获得的惟一标本.缺少下颌骨和非常关键的下裂齿对于研究鬣狗科关系总是一件憾事.因此在通古尔台地南缘首次发现的出自同一个体的斯氏通古尔鼬上、下颌骨,对加深该种形态特征的认识和对鬣狗科系统关系的研究都具有一定意义.新发现的材料(IVPP V 13784)包括很可能属同一个体头骨的前半部分以及下颌骨,并保存了P3~M2及m1~m2.V 13784采自内蒙古苏尼特左旗IVPP 346地点西1.5 km(美国自然历史博物馆中亚考查团推饶木诺尔地点Tairum Nor locality

  10. Cetaceans and pinnipeds, Alaskan waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A tentative checklist of those species known or likely to occur in the inside waters of Southeastern Alaska or Prince William Sound and adjacent Gulf of Alaska.

  11. Jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) (Geoffroy, 1803) (Carnivora, Felidae) food habits in a mosaic of Atlantic Rainforest and eucalypt plantations of southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tófoli, C F; Rohe, F; Setz, E Z F

    2009-08-01

    Food habits of jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) (Geoffroy, 1803) (Carnivora, Felidae) were studied between November 2000 and November 2001, in a 24.9 km(2) area of secondary Atlantic Rainforest and eucalypt plantation, in the Serra de Paranapiacaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Analyses of 26 fecal and regurgitate samples, obtained over a stretch of 570.1 km, showed the consumption of 19 prey items and 74 prey occurrences. Small mammals were the most frequent food item (42.5%), followed by birds (21%), reptiles (14%) and medium-sized mammals (3%). The percent occurrence (PO) suggests that the diet consisted mainly of small rodents (30%) and birds (21%). We recorded for the first time the predation of Viperidae snakes by P. yagouaroundi. Although having a large list of items and range of dietary niche breadths (Bsta = 0.76), our data show that jaguarundi prey mainly on small vertebrates (mammals, birds or reptiles), and even in tall tropical forests or eucalypt plantations, it preys mostly on animals that come to, or live on, the ground.

  12. Jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi (Geoffroy, 1803 (Carnivora, Felidae food habits in a mosaic of Atlantic Rainforest and eucalypt plantations of southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CF. Tófoli

    Full Text Available Food habits of jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi (Geoffroy, 1803 (Carnivora, Felidae were studied between November 2000 and November 2001, in a 24.9 km² area of secondary Atlantic Rainforest and eucalypt plantation, in the Serra de Paranapiacaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Analyses of 26 fecal and regurgitate samples, obtained over a stretch of 570.1 km, showed the consumption of 19 prey items and 74 prey occurrences. Small mammals were the most frequent food item (42.5%, followed by birds (21%, reptiles (14% and medium-sized mammals (3%. The percent occurrence (PO suggests that the diet consisted mainly of small rodents (30% and birds (21%. We recorded for the first time the predation of Viperidae snakes by P. yagouaroundi. Although having a large list of items and range of dietary niche breadths (Bsta = 0.76, our data show that jaguarundi prey mainly on small vertebrates (mammals, birds or reptiles, and even in tall tropical forests or eucalypt plantations, it preys mostly on animals that come to, or live on, the ground.

  13. A record of Horned viper Vipera ammodytes (L. in the diet of the Stone marten Martes foina (Erxl. (Mammalia: Mustelidae in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilian Georgiev

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Among undigested prey remains in Stone marten’s Martes foina (Erxl. faeces (n=47, collected in Sakar Mountain (near Sladun Village a single lower jaw from a Horned viper (Vipera ammodytes was found. The rest of taxa registered in the Rock marten’s diet among the faecas were: Insceta indet., Lacerta sp., Pseudopus apodus, Aves indet., Dryomis nitedula, Sylvaemus sp., Arvicola terrestris, Microtus sp., and fruits of Rosa sp., Rubus sp., and Pyrus sp. The percent frequency of the main prey groups in the faeces were as follows: Mammalia (n=35, 74.5%, Aves (n=16, 34.0%, Reptilia (n=4, 8.5%, Insecta (n=4, 8.5%, and fruits (n=5, 10.6%.

  14. Limb Morphometrics in Camivora: Locomotion, Phylogeny and Size = Análisis morfométrico del esqueleto apendicular en Carnivora: Locomoción, filogenia y alometría

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    [spa] La morfología del esqueleto apendicular en Carnivora se estudió desde un punto de vista funcional, filogenético y alométrico. En primer lugar se determinó la estrategia locomotora empleada por los mamíferos no arborícolas sobre soportes estrechos, que se comparó con la de los mamíferos arborícolas. Para ello, se estudiaron múltiples variables cinemáticas y de coordinación en el gato (trepador) y el perro (terrestre). Las especies arborícolas, trepadoras y terrestres usan estrategias di...

  15. Biological Assessment of the Effects of Military Associated Activities on Endangered Species at Fort Hood, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    food), accidental (a species washed, fallen, or carried into caves and not part of the cave ecosystem). CECKLIST OF SPECIES KINGDOM PLANTAE DIVISION...MAMMALIA Order Chiroptera (bats) Undetermin~d material ’trogloxene) RCeords.--CORYELZ COUNTY: Egypt Cave; Shell Mountain Bat Cave. Order Carnivora Family

  16. Distribución geográfica, historia natural y conservación del hurón menor Galictis cuja (Carnivora: Mustelidae en la Patagonia central, Argentina Geographic distribution, natural history and conservation of the lesser grison Galictis cuja (Carnivora: Mustelidae from Central Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carrera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El hurón menor, Galictis cuja, tiene una amplia distribución en el territorio patagónico extraandino, aunque sus registros puntuales son escasos. Este trabajo se desarrolló en la provincia del Chubut, Patagonia Central, Argentina. Aquí se aportan nuevas localidades de registro de G. cuja para esta región; se discuten aspectos de su distribución geográfica y conservación en el Área Natural Protegida Península Valdés (ANP-PV; Patrimonio Natural de la Humanidad y brevemente se explora la representación de G. cuja en los ensambles de carnívoros del ANP-PV desde el Holoceno tardío hasta la actualidad. Se adicionaron 18 nuevos registros de G. cuja en Patagonia central. Se detectó un conflicto entre los pobladores y hurones, que motiva la caza de estos últimos. Se verificó un aparente incremento de abundancia de G. cuja en los últimos miles de años, concomitante con la extinción regional o dramática disminución de Lyncodon patagonicus (Carnivora, Mustelidae.The Lesser Grison, Galictis cuja, is a species widely distributed in extra-Andean Patagonia, although its records are scarce. This work was carried out in Chubut province, Central Patagonia, Argentina. Here we report new occurrence localities of G. cuja for this region; we discuss aspects of their geographical distribution and conservation in the Área Natural Protegida Península Valdés (ANP-PV; World Heritage Site and briefly explores the representation of G. cuja in carnivore assemblages of ANP-PV, since the late Holocene to the present. We added 18 new records of G. cuja in Central Patagonia. We detected a conflict between the rural residents and the Lesser Grison, which motivates the hunting of the latter. There was an apparent increase in abundance of G. cuja in the last thousands of years, concomitant with regional extinction or dramatic reduction of Lyncodon patagonicus (Carnivora, Mustelidae.

  17. Perros ferales en la isla de Cedros, Baja California, México: una posible amenaza para los pinnípedos Feral dogs at Isla de Cedros, Baja California, Mexico: a possible threat for pinnipeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Concepción García-Aguilar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de perros ferales (Canis lupus familiaris en la isla de Cedros, Baja California, México, fue documentada hace más de 15 años. En el verano de 2009 e invierno 2009/2010, se realizaron 2 campañas de muestreo en la costa noreste de la isla para evaluar los hábitos alimentarios de los perros en las cercanías de las zonas de reproducción y descanso del lobo marino de California (Zalophus californianus y del elefante marino del norte (Mirounga angustirostris. Los mamíferos constituyeron el grupo consumido más importante en la alimentación de los perros (85.4%. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que en la costa noreste de la isla de Cedros los perros se alimentan de pinnípedos: el elefante marino fue la especie que más se consumió, con el mayor porcentaje en ambas temporadas (43.3% en verano y 51.9% en invierno; el lobo marino, fue la segunda durante el verano (23.3%, aunque su porcentaje disminuyó en el invierno (5.8%. Además del potencial impacto que el consumo por los perros pueda tener sobre las poblaciones de los pinnípedos, una amenaza adicional es la posible transmisión de los patógenos caninos, con serias consecuencias epizoóticas.The presence of feral dogs (Canis lupus familiaris in Isla de Cedros, Baja California, Mexico, has been documented for over 15 years. In the summer of2009 and the winter of 2009/2010, 2 sampling surveys were conducted in the northeast coastal portion of the island to assess the diet of feral dogs in the vicinity of hauled out California sea lions (Zalophus californianus and northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris. Mammals were the most important prey group in the diet of dogs (85.4%. Our results show that in the northeast coast of Isla de Cedros, feral dogs feed on pinnipeds: the elephant seal was the most important prey in both seasons (43.3% in summer and 51.9% in winter, followed by the sea lion as the second most important prey during the summer (23.3%, while its

  18. Los Plagiolophinae (Remy, 1976 nuevo rango (Perissodactyla, Mammalia del Eoceno de la Cuenca del Duero (Castilla y Leon, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta Ruiz-Colmenares, M. A.

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The systematic study of the Plagiolophinae (Remy, 1976 nov. rank (Perissodactyla, Mammalia from the Eocene of the Duero Basin (Castilla y León, Spain has permitted the identification of two new species: Plagiolophus casasecaensis nov. sp. of the Casaseca site (middle Eocene, MP 13-14, Zamora province that is a very primitive species; and Plagiolophus mazateronensis nov. sp. of the Mazaterón (middle-upper Eocene, MP 16-17, Almazán subbasin, Soria province and Caenes sites (middle Eocene, MP 16, Salamanca province which are described by a special combination of primitive and derivative characteristics unknown in other species of the genus. Other forms poorly documented and attributable to genus Plagiolophus occur in Jambrina and El Viso-Sanzoles (MP 13-14, Zamora province, San Morales (MP 16, Salamanca province, Deza (upper Eocene, Soria province, Molino del Pico (upper Eocene-Oligocene, Zamora province, and Mazaterón. The genus Leptolophus that has been determined in Mazaterón, had only been known before in sorne French localities. This Plagiolophinae assemblage is clearly biogeographically different from the already known findings in occidental Europe and subpirenaic area.El estudio de los Plagiolophinae (Remy, 1976 nuevo rango (Perissodactyla, Mammalia del Eoceno de la Cuenca del Duero (Castilla y León, España ha permitido identificar dos nuevas especies: Plagiolophus casasecaensis nov. sp. del yacimiento de Casaseca (Eoceno medio, parte media, MP 13-14, provincia de Zamora caracterizada por un marcado primitivismo, y Plagiolophus mazateronensis nov. sp., del yacimiento de Mazaterón (Eoceno medio-superior, MP 16-17, subcuenca de Almazán, provincia de Soria y de Caenes (Eoceno medio, parte superior, MP 16, provincia de Salamanca, caracterizada por una peculiar combinación de caracteres primitivos y evolucionados, desconocida en el resto de especies del género. Otras formas escasamente documentadas atribuibles al género Plagiolophus

  19. Catalog of type specimens of recent mammals: Orders Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Cetacea in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert D.; Ludwig, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    The type collection of Recent mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 612 specimens bearing names of 604 species-group taxa of Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Cetacea as of May 2016. This catalog presents an annotated list of these holdings comprising 582 holotypes; 16 lectotypes, two of which are newly designated herein; 7 syntypes (15 specimens); and 1 neotype. Included are several specimens that should be in the collection but cannot be found or are now known to be in other collections and therefore are not in the database. Thirty-seven of the names are new since the last type catalog covering these orders, Arthur J. Poole and Viola S. Schantz’s 1942 “Catalog of the Type Specimens of Mammals in the United States National Museum, Including the Biological Surveys Collection” (Bulletin of the United States National Museum, 178). One of these, Lutra iowa Goldman, 1941, was transferred to the National Museum’s Paleobiology Department collection and is mentioned only briefly in this work. Orders and families are arranged systematically following D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder’s 2005 Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, third edition, volume 1; within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically, and within each currently recognized genus, species and subspecies accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon, type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, date of collection and collector, original collector number, type locality, and remarks as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen will serve as a condition report and will be attached to each electronic specimen record. An addendum

  20. Identificación de individuos de jaguares (Panthera onca y pumas (Puma concolor a partir de morfometría de sus huellas (Carnivora: Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Isasi-Catalá

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimar la abundancia de felinos resulta particular-mente difícil o, incluso imposible, debido a su comportamiento críptico y sus amplios requerimiento espaciales. Las técnicas disponibles para estimar abundancia son costosas y poco eficientes, por lo que es necesario proponer métodos alternativos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad de identificación de individuos utilizando el análisis morfométrico de huellas en yaguares y pumas. Para ello, se dibujaron huellas de cinco yaguares y cuatro pumas, registrándose el tipo de pata que dio origen a la huella y el sustrato. Para cada huella se tomaron 16 mediciones morfológicas de ángulos, largos, anchos y áreas. Las variables de largos, anchos y áreas fueron analizadas con un Análisis de Componentes Principales (ACP y sustituidas por el primer componente principal (más del 70 % de la varianza en todos los casos. Se evaluó el efecto del sustrato y del tipo de pata a partir de pruebas t-pareadas, encontrándose diferencias entre huellas del mismo individuo dibujadas a partir de arena o tierra (t-pareadas p Identification of individual jaguars (Panthera onca and pumas (Puma concolor based on footprint morphometry (Carnivora: Felidae. Estimating feline abundance becomes particularly difficult, sometimes impossible, due to their elusive behavior and extensive space requirements. Available techniques are expensive and/or poorly efficient, therefore alternative methods are needed. The objective of this study was to assess the possibility of identifying individual jaguars and pumas based on morphometric analyses of their tracks. The footprints of five jaguars and four pumas were drawn and the foot (hind or fore foot, left or right foot and the substrate were recorded. We took 16 measures from each footprint including lengths, widths, areas and angles. Variables were analyzed by using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and substituted by the first Principal Component (PC (> 70

  1. Use of the space by the opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Newied (Mammalia, Marsupialia in a mixed forest fragment of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáceres Nilton Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the space by the opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Newied, 1826 (Mammalia, Marsupialia in a mixed forest fragment of southern Brazil. The space use of the marsupial Didelphis aurita was studied in a forest fragment of southern Brazil from February 1995 to January 1996. The method used was the 'distribution utilization' in which each trap was set in 38 x 38 m quadrats. Captures of each marked individual in each point give information on its habitat use. Food availability was searched and compared to the habitat utilization and to the food consumption of opossums. Distribution patterns of captures (aggregated to random and spatial overlap between individuals were searched. Results showed aggregated distributions of individuals, particularly females, in the fragment. Females used exclusively the fragment during the drier season. Opossums tend to not choose the sites with highest food availability to establish home ranges. Spatial overlap was usually low between forest resident and neighbouring resident females, but much lower during the breeding season (only forest resident females in an apparently pattern of territoriality. Hence, core areas of females decreased in size during the breeding season. Males probably searched primarily for mates during the breeding season being less opportunistic than females in feeding habits, yet their space use did not correlate to food consumption.

  2. New records of non-resident pinnipeds from the Gulf of California, Mexico Registros nuevos de pinnípedos no-residentes en el golfo de California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Gallo-Reynoso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus is the only pinniped resident in the Gulf of California, there are occasional records of 3 additional species; here we report 4 recent records of the Guadalupe fur seal (Artocephalus townsendi, 6 of the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris and 2 of the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina. Harbor seals have been observed mostly during the winter-spring months of El Niño years, before water temperature warms in the summer. It is possible that juveniles and subadult and adult males of A. townsendi and M. angustirostris are using the Gulf as an alternative feeding area during the season of intensive feeding as individuals disperse more and more widely as their populations grow.Aunque en el golfo de California, el único pinnípedo residente es el lobo marino de California (Zalophus californianus, existen registros ocasionales de otras 3 especies; en la presente nota se proporcionan 4 registros recientes de lobo fino de Guadalupe (Arctocephalus townsendi, 6 de elefante marino del norte (Mirounga angustirostris y 2 de foca común (Phoca vitulina. La foca común se ha observado principalmente durante los meses de invierno-primavera en años de El Niño, antes del calentamiento anual del agua en verano. Es posible que los juveniles y los machos sub-adultos y adultos tanto de A. townsendi como de M. angustirostris hagan uso del golfo como un sitio alternativo durante la temporada de alimentación intensiva como de su expansión geográfica debido a su incremento poblacional.

  3. 影响食肉目动物能量学的生态因子%Ecological factors influence energetics in the Order Carnivora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian K. McNAB

    2005-01-01

    The variation of body mass in 62 species of mammals belonging to the Order Carnivora accounts for 86.8% of the variation in their basal rates of metabolism. When four other factors, substrate, food habits, habitat, and latitude, are combined with mass in the analysis, then 98.7% of the total variation in basal rate is accounted for, I.e., these ecological/behavioral factors accounted for 81.1% of the residual variation. Variation in body composition may be another factor influencing basal rate, which may account for the very low basal rates in large arboreal species. The principal mass-independent cause for variation in the basal rate of eutherian mammals is that high rates of energy expenditure, when ecologically feasible, facilitate high reproductive outputs, whereas some habits and environments require low energy expenditures, which lead to low rates of reproduction. Bringing family affiliation into the analysis contributes little to the analysis. Most correlations of physiological parameters with taxonomic affiliation represent crude correlations of ecological and behavioral characteristics with taxonomy. Phylogeny does not determine the states of malleable characters, except as it reflects ecology and behavior%在食肉目的62种动物中,体重的变异可以解释基础代谢率86.8%的变化.当栖息基底、食性、生境和纬度等4个因素与体重合起来一起分析,则可以解释基础代谢率98.7% 的变化, 即这些生态和行为因子可以解释代谢率残差变异的81.1%.身体成分也是影响基础代谢率的另一个因素,可以解释一些大型树栖种类的较低的代谢率.除体重因素外,导致真兽类基础代谢率变异的主要原因是:当生态因素适合时,高水平的能量消耗可以促进动物的高繁殖输出,而动物的某些习性和生存环境则会要求低能量消耗,从而使繁殖率降低.当以科为单元进行分析时,对结果没有影响.生理参数与分类单元之间大多数的

  4. Limb preference in the gallop of dogs and the half-bound of pikas on flat ground

    CERN Document Server

    Hackert, Rémi; Herbin, Marc; Abourachid, Anick; Libourel, P A

    2008-01-01

    During fast locomotion - gallop, half bound - of quadruped mammals, the ground contact of the limbs in each pair do not alternate symmetrically. Animals using such asymmetrical gait thus choose whether the left or the right limb will contact the ground first, and this gives rise to limb preference. Here, we report that dogs (Mammalia, Carnivora) and pikas (Mammalia, Lagomorpha) prefer one forelimb as trailing limb and use it as such almost twice as often as the other. We also show that this choice depends on the individual and is not a characteristic of the species, and that the strength of the preference was not dependent on the animal's running speed.

  5. On the origin, homologies and evolution of primate facial muscles, with a particular focus on hominoids and a suggested unifying nomenclature for the facial muscles of the Mammalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, R; Wood, B A; Aziz, M A; Burrows, A

    2009-09-01

    The mammalian facial muscles are a subgroup of hyoid muscles (i.e. muscles innervated by cranial nerve VII). They are usually attached to freely movable skin and are responsible for facial expressions. In this study we provide an account of the origin, homologies and evolution of the primate facial muscles, based on dissections of various primate and non-primate taxa and a review of the literature. We provide data not previously reported, including photographs showing in detail the facial muscles of primates such as gibbons and orangutans. We show that the facial muscles usually present in strepsirhines are basically the same muscles that are present in non-primate mammals such as tree-shrews. The exceptions are that strepsirhines often have a muscle that is usually not differentiated in tree-shrews, the depressor supercilii, and lack two muscles that are usually differentiated in these mammals, the zygomatico-orbicularis and sphincter colli superficialis. Monkeys such as macaques usually lack two muscles that are often present in strepsirhines, the sphincter colli profundus and mandibulo-auricularis, but have some muscles that are usually absent as distinct structures in non-anthropoid primates, e.g. the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, levator labii superioris, nasalis, depressor septi nasi, depressor anguli oris and depressor labii inferioris. In turn, macaques typically lack a risorius, auricularis anterior and temporoparietalis, which are found in hominoids such as humans, but have muscles that are usually not differentiated in members of some hominoid taxa, e.g. the platysma cervicale (usually not differentiated in orangutans, panins and humans) and auricularis posterior (usually not differentiated in orangutans). Based on our observations, comparisons and review of the literature, we propose a unifying, coherent nomenclature for the facial muscles of the Mammalia as a whole and provide a list of more than 300 synonyms that have been used in the

  6. Pinniped Hearing in Complex Acoustic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    channels to aid in detection in noisy environments, consistent with similar findings in human and cetacean subjects (e.g. Hall et al. 1984...how signal structure and noise environments interact to constrain auditory performance, and develop weighting functions that can be used for species

  7. Application of Pinniped Vibrissae to Aeropropulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali; Poinsatte, Philip; Thurman, Douglas; Wroblewski, Adam; Snyder, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Vibrissae of Phoca Vitulina (Harbor Seal) and Mirounga Angustirostris (Elephant Seal) possessundulations along their length. Harbor Seal Vibrissae were shown to reduce vortex induced vibrations and reduce dragcompared to appropriately scaled cylinders and ellipses. Samples of Harbor Seal vibrissae, Elephant Seal vibrissae andCalifornia Sea Lion vibrissae were collected from the Marine Mammal Center in California. CT scanning, microscopy and3D scanning techniques were utilized to characterize the whiskers. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of thewhiskers were carried out to compare them to an ellipse and a cylinder. Leading edge parameters from the whiskerswere used to create a 3D profile based on a modern power turbine blade. The NASA SW-2 facility was used to performwind tunnel cascade testing on the 'Seal Blades'. Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations were used to studyincidence angles from -37 to +10 degrees on the aerodynamic performance of the Seal Blade. The tests and simulationswere conducted at a Reynolds number of 100,000. The Seal Blades showed consistent performance improvements overthe baseline configuration. It was determined that a fuel burn reduction of approximately 5 could be achieved for a fixedwing aircraft. Noise reduction potential is also explored

  8. 新疆东北部晚侏罗世一新的柱齿兽%A NEW LATE JURASSIC DOCODONT (MAMMALIA) FROM NORTHEASTERN XINJIANG,CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡耀明; 孟津; 詹姆斯 M.克拉克

    2007-01-01

    A new genus and species of docodontid(Docodonta,Mammalia),Acuodulodon sunae,represented by a partial left lower jaw and dentition,is described.It is from the upper part of the Shishugou Formation in the Wucaiwan area of the Junggar Basin in northeastern Xinjiang,China,with an estimated age of 159~161 Ma(Oxfordian,early Late Jurassic).The new mammal is typical of docodonts in having a cusp b in front of cusp a,a cusp c distolingual to cusp a and a cusp g mesiolingual to cusp a on lower molariforms.Differing from other docodonts,it has no cusp e or crest b-e developed on lower molariforms.Unique among docodonts.cusps a and c of the new animal maintained their sharpness while cusp g and crest b-g wore away fast,indicating that both shearing and crushing/grinding occurred in the chewing cycle and probably last for most of the life span of the animal.Phylogenetic analysis of a data matrix with 24 lower molariform characters across 15 taxa recovers a monophyletic Docodonta,which has distinct diagnostic characters in lower molariforms.Within docodonts,Docodon and Borealestes are successively basal to other docodonts;Acuodulodon and Itatodon +(Simpsonodon,Castorocauda+(Tegotherium+Sibirotherium))form a monophyletic clade.Tegotheriid genera are nested within Docodontidae,but a monophyletic tegotheriid clade composed of Tegotherium,Sibirotherium,hatodon,and Tashkumyrodon is not recovered.The dentary of Acuodulodon is typical of docodonts.It has a shallow postdentary trough and a wide and sharp medial ridge,both of which do not extend onto the medial side of the condylar peduncle,indicating looser contact between postdentary bones and the dentary than in morganucodontids,a more derived condition in the evolution toward the definitive mammalian middle ear.%描述了哺乳纲柱齿兽目柱齿兽科(Docodontidae,Docodonta,Mammalia)一新属种--孙氏尖钝齿兽(Acuodulodon sunae gen.et sp.nov.).标本产于新疆东北部准噶尔盆地五彩湾地区上侏罗

  9. p-i-n/n-i-p type planar hybrid structure of highly efficient perovskite solar cells towards improved air stability: synthetic strategies and the role of p-type hole transport layer (HTL) and n-type electron transport layer (ETL) metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Sawanta S; Hong, Chang Kook

    2016-05-19

    There has been fast recent progress in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) towards low cost photovoltaic technology. Organometal mixed halide (MAPbX or FAPbX) perovskites are the most promising light absorbing material sandwiched between the electron transport layer (ETL) and hole transport layer (HTL). These two layers play a critical role in boosting the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and maintaining air stability. However, the device stability is a serious issue in regular as well as p-i-n inverted type perovskite solar cells. This mini-review briefly outlines the state-of-art of p-i-n/n-i-p type planar hybrid perovskite solar cells using MAPbX/FAPbX perovskite absorbing layers. Later, we will focus on recent trends, progress and further opportunities in exploring the air stable hybrid planar structure PSCs.

  10. p-i-n/n-i-p type planar hybrid structure of highly efficient perovskite solar cells towards improved air stability: synthetic strategies and the role of p-type hole transport layer (HTL) and n-type electron transport layer (ETL) metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Sawanta S.; Hong, Chang Kook

    2016-05-01

    There has been fast recent progress in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) towards low cost photovoltaic technology. Organometal mixed halide (MAPbX or FAPbX) perovskites are the most promising light absorbing material sandwiched between the electron transport layer (ETL) and hole transport layer (HTL). These two layers play a critical role in boosting the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and maintaining air stability. However, the device stability is a serious issue in regular as well as p-i-n inverted type perovskite solar cells. This mini-review briefly outlines the state-of-art of p-i-n/n-i-p type planar hybrid perovskite solar cells using MAPbX/FAPbX perovskite absorbing layers. Later, we will focus on recent trends, progress and further opportunities in exploring the air stable hybrid planar structure PSCs.

  11. The origin of the lower fourth molar in canids, inferred by individual variation

    OpenAIRE

    Masakazu Asahara

    2016-01-01

    Background An increase in tooth number is an exception during mammalian evolution. The acquisition of the lower fourth molar in the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis, Canidae, Carnivora, Mammalia) is one example; however, its developmental origin is not clear. In some canids (Canidae), individual variation exist as supernumerary molar M4. This study focuses on the acquisition of the lower fourth molar in canids and proposes that the inhibitory cascade model can explain its origin. Methods Occl...

  12. A three-dimensional analysis of the morphological evolution and locomotor behaviour of the carnivoran hind limb

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background The shape of the appendicular bones in mammals usually reflects adaptations towards different locomotor abilities. However, other aspects such as body size and phylogeny also play an important role in shaping bone design. We used 3D landmark-based geometric morphometrics to analyse the shape of the hind limb bones (i.e., femur, tibia, and pelvic girdle bones) of living and extinct terrestrial carnivorans (Mammalia, Carnivora) to quantitatively investigate the influence of body size...

  13. Variación geográfica del zorro Lycalopex culpaeus (Mammalia, Canidae en Chile: implicaciones taxonómicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Guzmán

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediante análisis cualitativos y cuantitativos, se estudió la variación geográfica del cráneo de Lycalopex culpaeus en Chile (desde Tarapacá a la islas australes, y de algunas poblaciones argentinas. En dicha distribución se reconocen cinco de las seis subespecies del culpeo. Los resultados muestran dos grupos morfológicos geográficamente segregados; los mismos se diferencian principalmente por atributos morfométricos, y secundariamente por caracteres cualitativos. individuos del norte chileno (Tarapacá y Antofagasta presentan cráneos pequeños, poco desarrollados, hocico levemente corto, ausencia de cresta interparietal y una tenue zona sagital "liriforme". Por otra parte, los individuos del noroeste y centro argentino, centro sur chileno, Patagonia e islas australes (islas de Tierra del Fuego y Hoste (grupo B, no muestran diferencias significativas en su morfometría dento-craneal. En el grupo B destacó una fuerte cresta interparietal y zona sagital, hocicos prolongados y cráneos de mayor tamaño que los del norte chileno. Nuestros resultados coinciden con estudios de patrones de variación en el ADN mitocondrial de cánidos de Chile. Por lo tanto, se propone mantener el nombre L. c. andinus para las poblaciones del norte de Chile y sinonimizar los taxones L. c. magellanicus, L. c. lycoides y L. c. smithersi bajo la forma L. c. culpaeus.Geographic variation of the fox Lycalopex culpaeus (Mammalia, Canidae in Chile: taxonomic implications. We studied the geographic variation of skulls of Lycalopex culpaeus using qualitative and quantative analyses. The sampling area covered Chile, from its northern portion, to Tierra del Fuego and the neighbouring Hoste island, as well as part of Argentina. Five subespecies are currently recognized from this large area. We found two morphotypes that are segregated geographically. Both groups mostly differ by morphometric attributes, followed by qualitative features. Specimens from northern Chile

  14. Murciélagos (Chiroptera: Mammalia del Parque Nacional Yurubí, Venezuela: listado taxonómico y estudio comunitario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Delgado-Jaramillo

    2011-12-01

    virtud de su importancia como reservorio de la diversidad biológica que tipifica los ecosistemas boscosos de la Cordillera de la Costa, una bio-región altamente amenazada como consecuencia de un elevado crecimiento socio-económico.Bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia from Yurubí National Park, Venezuela: taxonomic list and community study. Bats represent a key component in the dynamics of many terrestrial ecosystems, and one of the groups of mammals with the highest levels of diversification in the Neotropics. Here we describe the results of a study of the bat fauna from Yurubí National Park (mountain area in Northern Venezuela, that includes a taxonomic list and the characterization of some community attributes in forested areas. Data was collected from zoological collections and diversified sampling methods from February to July of 2009 in an altitudinal gradient (100-1 500m, with three principal ecological units: semideciduous, evergreen and cloud forests. We recorded 64 species grouped in five families (63% of the bats known from La Cordillera de la Costa, of which Phyllostomidae was the dominant taxa (42 species; 66% of total, followed by Vespertilionidae, Molossidae, Emballonuridae and Mormoopidae. The community with the highest taxonomic diversification was found in the lowest elevation range, while the lowest number of species was found at the highest range. Eleven trophic guilds were identified; the insectivorous guild was the richest, whereas the frugivorous was the most abundant. Our results allow us to indicate these forest ecosystems have an appropriate conservation status, taking into account the presence of a relatively high proportion of species from the subfamily Phyllostominae, as well as the presence of other species with conservation priorities. All these aspects, and the fact that this represents a reservoir of the biological diversity of the forest ecosystems of La Cordillera de la Costa, make this protected area of an essential conservation value, in a

  15. Anembryonic Gestation in Wild South American Sea Lion, Otaria flavescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, M F; Crespo, E A; Dans, S L

    2016-10-01

    We present the first record and description of an anembryonic gestation in a wild South America sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Carnivora, Pinniped). This is the first report of an anembryonic gestation in a wild marine mammal species. This description furthers the knowledge of general aspects of the reproduction of an otariid species, which presents the particularities of delayed implantation and polygynic breeding system, and adds information on a reproductive abnormality in marine mammals.

  16. Summary of Laurasiatheria (Mammalia) Phylogeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingyang HU; Yaping ZHANG; Li YU

    2012-01-01

    Laurasiatheria is one of the richest and most diverse superorders of placental mammals.Because this group had a rapid evolutionary radiation,the phylogenetic relationships among the six orders of Laurasiatheria remain a subject of heated debate and several issues related to its phylogeny remain open.Reconstructing the true phylogenetic relationships of Laurasiatheria is a significant case study in evolutionary biology due to the diversity of this suborder and such research will have significant implications for biodiversity conservation.We review the higher-level (inter-ordinal) phylogenies of Laurasiatheria based on previous cytogenetic,morphological and molecular data,and discuss the controversies of its phylogenetic relationship.This review aims to outline future researches on Laurasiatheria phylogeny and adaptive evolution.

  17. Morphological and molecular characteristics of Malayfilaria sofiani Uni, Mat Udin & Takaoka n. g., n. sp. (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from the common treeshrew Tupaia glis Diard & Duvaucel (Mammalia: Scandentia) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uni, Shigehiko; Mat Udin, Ahmad Syihan; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Saijuntha, Weerachai; Junker, Kerstin; Ramli, Rosli; Omar, Hasmahzaiti; Lim, Yvonne Ai-Lian; Sivanandam, Sinnadurai; Lefoulon, Emilie; Martin, Coralie; Belabut, Daicus Martin; Kasim, Saharul; Abdullah Halim, Muhammad Rasul; Zainuri, Nur Afiqah; Bhassu, Subha; Fukuda, Masako; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Harada, Masashi; Low, Van Lun; Chen, Chee Dhang; Suganuma, Narifumi; Hashim, Rosli; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Azirun, Mohd Sofian

    2017-04-20

    The filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti (Cobbold, 1877), Brugia malayi (Brug, 1927) and B. timori Partono, Purnomo, Dennis, Atmosoedjono, Oemijati & Cross, 1977 cause lymphatic diseases in humans in the tropics, while B. pahangi (Buckley & Edeson, 1956) infects carnivores and causes zoonotic diseases in humans in Malaysia. Wuchereria bancrofti, W. kalimantani Palmieri, Pulnomo, Dennis & Marwoto, 1980 and six out of ten Brugia spp. have been described from Australia, Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka and India. However, the origin and evolution of the species in the Wuchereria-Brugia clade remain unclear. While investigating the diversity of filarial parasites in Malaysia, we discovered an undescribed species in the common treeshrew Tupaia glis Diard & Duvaucel (Mammalia: Scandentia). We examined 81 common treeshrews from 14 areas in nine states and the Federal Territory of Peninsular Malaysia for filarial parasites. Once any filariae that were found had been isolated, we examined their morphological characteristics and determined the partial sequences of their mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and 12S rRNA genes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region were then cloned into the pGEM-T vector, and the recombinant plasmids were used as templates for sequencing. Malayfilaria sofiani Uni, Mat Udin & Takaoka, n. g., n. sp. is described based on the morphological characteristics of adults and microfilariae found in common treeshrews from Jeram Pasu, Kelantan, Malaysia. The Kimura 2-parameter distance between the cox1 gene sequences of the new species and W. bancrofti was 11.8%. Based on the three gene sequences, the new species forms a monophyletic clade with W. bancrofti and Brugia spp. The adult parasites were found in tissues surrounding the lymph nodes of the neck of common treeshrews. The newly described species appears most closely related to Wuchereria spp. and Brugia spp., but differs from these in

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: giant panda [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Ailuropoda..._melanoleuca_L.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_NL.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_S.png Ailuropoda_me...lanoleuca_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=L http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=NL http://biosciencedb...c.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=NS ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: California sea lion [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available California sea lion Zalophus californianus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Euth...eria/Carnivora Zalophus_californianus_L.png Zalophus_californianus_NL.png Zalophus_californianus_S.png Zalophus_california...nus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=L http://...biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=NL http://bios...ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=NS ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: dog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available dog Canis lupus familiaris Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Canis_lupus_familia...ris_L.png Canis_lupus_familiaris_NL.png Canis_lupus_familiaris_S.png Canis_lupus_familiari...s_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp.../taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=NS ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Southern elephant seal [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Mirounga_leon...ina_L.png Mirounga_leonina_NL.png Mirounga_leonina_S.png Mirounga_leonina_NS.png ht...tp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mirounga+leonina&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mirounga+leon...ina&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mirounga+leon...ina&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mirounga+leonina&t=NS ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: lion [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lion Panthera leo Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Panthera_leo_L.png Panthera..._leo_NL.png Panthera_leo_S.png Panthera_leo_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Panthera...+leo&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Panthera+leo&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Panthera+leo&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Panthera+leo&t=NS ...

  3. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Channel Islands Pinniped Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated and maintains census programs for California sea lions (Zalophus...

  4. 76 FR 56167 - Marine Mammals; Pinniped Removal Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... public record and will generally be posted to http://www.regulations.gov without change. All Personal... and the states seek authorization to manage predation as part of a larger comprehensive fish recovery.... Given its success at obtaining prey in the area and its resistance to non-lethal deterrence efforts...

  5. Individual foraging strategies reveal niche overlap between endangered galapagos pinnipeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Villegas-Amtmann

    Full Text Available Most competition studies between species are conducted from a population-level approach. Few studies have examined inter-specific competition in conjunction with intra-specific competition, with an individual-based approach. To our knowledge, none has been conducted on marine top predators. Sympatric Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis and sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki share similar geographic habitats and potentially compete. We studied their foraging niche overlap at Cabo Douglas, Fernandina Island from simultaneously collected dive and movement data to examine spatial and temporal inter- and intra-specific competition. Sea lions exhibited 3 foraging strategies (shallow, intermediate and deep indicating intra-specific competition. Fur seals exhibited one foraging strategy, diving predominantly at night, between 0-80 m depth and mostly at 19-22 h. Most sea lion dives also occurred at night (63%, between 0-40 m, within fur seals' diving depth range. 34% of sea lions night dives occurred at 19-22 h, when fur seals dived the most, but most of them occurred at dawn and dusk, when fur seals exhibited the least amount of dives. Fur seals and sea lions foraging behavior overlapped at 19 and 21 h between 0-30 m depths. Sea lions from the deep diving strategy exhibited the greatest foraging overlap with fur seals, in time (19 h, depth during overlapping time (21-24 m, and foraging range (37.7%. Fur seals foraging range was larger. Cabo Douglas northwest coastal area, region of highest diving density, is a foraging "hot spot" for both species. Fur seals and sea lions foraging niche overlap occurred, but segregation also occurred; fur seals primarily dived at night, while sea lions exhibited night and day diving. Both species exploited depths and areas exclusive to their species. Niche breadth generally increases with environmental uncertainty and decreased productivity. Potential competition between these species could be greater during warmer periods when prey availability is reduced.

  6. Le genre Sivanasua (Lophocyoninae, Hyaenodontidae, Creodonta, Mammalia)

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsburg, L.; Morales, Jorge

    1999-01-01

    Two upper teeth from the lower Miocene of Le Chêne de Navère (Gers, France) are interpreted as M1 and M2 of Sivanasua viverroides. The genus is known in Europe by two species. The origin of the Lophocyoninae is re-evaluated. We consider the group as rooted in some African hyaenodontoid Creodonta.

  7. The lamina cribrosa of Ornithorhynchus (Monotremata, Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, U

    1988-01-01

    A vestigial and transitory lamina cribrosa was found in nestling platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). The heads of two nest-young (180 and 333 mm length), one subadult and one adult Ornithorhynchus were serially sectioned and studied with special reference to the development of the nasal region. In nest-young Ornithorhynchus an irregularly shaped bar of cartilage develops at the foramen olfactorium advehens. In the subadult it is largely resorbed, and in the osseous skull of the adult it is completely lacking. Ontogeny and topographical relationships of this bar of cartilage indicate that it is part of a lamina cribrosa. It embraces the ramus medialis of the nervus ethmoidalis and the arteria ethmoidalis, as do the corresponding parts of the lamina cribrosa of Tachyglossus. Compared to other parts of the chondrocranium this bar develops late in ontogeny, as does the lamina cribrosa of other mammals. Therefore, it can be concluded that part of the lamina cribrosa is present for a short period during the ontogeny of Ornithorhynchus, contrary to earlier reports. As in many other water-adapted mammals, the olfactory system of Ornithorhynchus is reduced. This suggests that the rest of the lamina cribrosa of Ornithorhynchus is secondarily reduced. The common ancestor of Ornithorhynchus and Tachyglossidae most probably possessed a lamina cribrosa which can be traced back to the common mammalian stock. The lamina cribrosa developed only once in the phylogeny of mammals. Its lack in the adult Ornithorhynchus is not a "reptilian" character.

  8. Le genre Sivanasua (Lophocyoninae, Hyaenodontidae, Creodonta, Mammalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, J.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Two upper teeth from the lower Miocene of Le Chêne de Navere (Gers, France are interpreted as MI and M2 of Sivanasua viverroides. The genus is known in Europe by two species. The origin of the Lophocyoninae is re-evaluated. We consider the group as rooted in some African Hyaenodontoid Creodonta.Dos dientes del yacimiento mioceno (MN4b de Chêne de Navere (Gers, Francia se interpretan como MI y M2 de Sivanasua viverroides. El género Sivanasua está representado en Europa por dos especies. El origen de los Lophocyoninae se reconsidera, primero atribuidos a los Ailuridae y después relacionados con los Viverridae, aquí son considerados como emparentados a los Creodontos Hyaenodontidae africanos.

  9. The snout of Paulocnus petrifactus (Mammalia, Edentata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1964-01-01

    A specimen of the ground sloth discovered by Mr. P. Stuiver in Curaçao, Paulocnus petrifactus Hooijer (1962), recently dressed from the matrix by Mr. P. H. de Buisonjé, comprises the front part of the mandible and the left half of the rostrum of the skull. It holds the left upper and right lower can

  10. Bat records from Malawi (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Wim; Jachmann, Hugo

    1983-01-01

    Five species of bats are recorded from Kasungu National Park, Malawi: Eidolon helvum (Kerr, 1792); Epomophorus anurus Heuglin, 1864; Epomophorus minor Dobson, 1880; Epomops dobsonii (Bocage, 1889); and Scotoecus hindei Thomas, 1901. Some other Malawian records of these species, based on literature a

  11. A new servaline genet (Carnivora, Viverridae) from Zanzibar Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-09-23

    Sep 23, 1997 ... of the brain after the effect of body size has been removed, and has been shown to ... three rodent species (excluding T Icucogaster) with positive relative brain sizes ... size and ecological or behavioural features of these myo-.

  12. Comparative macroanatomical study of the neurocranium in some carnivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, M; Timurkaan, S; Ozdemir, D; Unsaldi, E

    2006-02-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the specific anatomical features of the neurocranium of the skull of the dog, cat, badger, marten and otter. Twenty-five animals (five from each species) were used without sexual distinction. The neurocranium consists of os occipitale, os sphenoidale, os pterygoideum, os ethmoidale, vomer, os temporale, os parietale and os frontale. The processus paracondylaris is projected ventrally in the cat, dog, marten and badger, and caudally in the otter. Two foramina were found laterally on each side of the protuberantia occipitalis externa in the otter, and one foramen was found near the protuberantia occipitalis externa in the badger. Foramen was not seen in other species. Paired ossa parietalia joined each other at the midline, forming the sutura sagittalis in the badger, dog, otter and cat while it was separated by the linea temporalis in the marten. The os frontale was small in otters, narrow and long in martens, and quite wide in cats and dogs. The bulla tympanica was rounded in the marten, dog, cat and badger, dorsoventral compressed in otter, and it was very large in all species examined. These observations represented interspecies differences in the neurocranium of marten, otter, badger, cat and dog.

  13. Evolution of skull and mandible shape in cats (Carnivora: Felidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Christiansen

    Full Text Available The felid family consists of two major subgroups, the sabretoothed and the feline cats, to which all extant species belong, and are the most anatomically derived of all carnivores for predation on large prey with a precision killing bite. There has been much controversy and uncertainty about why the skulls and mandibles of sabretoothed and feline cats evolved to become so anatomically divergent, but previous models have focused on single characters and no unifying hypothesis of evolutionary shape changes has been formulated. Here I show that the shape of the skull and mandible in derived sabrecats occupy entirely different positions within overall morphospace from feline cats, and that the evolution of skull and mandible shape has followed very different paths in the two subgroups. When normalised for body-size differences, evolution of bite forces differ markedly in the two groups, and are much lower in derived sabrecats, and they show a significant relationship with size and cranial shape, whereas no such relationship is present in feline cats. Evolution of skull and mandible shape in modern cats has been governed by the need for uniform powerful biting irrespective of body size, whereas in sabrecats, shape evolution was governed by selective pressures for efficient predation with hypertrophied upper canines at high gape angles, and bite forces were secondary and became progressively weaker during sabrecat evolution. The current study emphasises combinations of new techniques for morphological shape analysis and biomechanical studies to formulate evolutionary hypotheses for difficult groups.

  14. CORYPHODONTIDS ( MAMMALIA: PANTODONTA ) FROM THE ERLIAN BASIN OF NEI MONGOL, CHINA, AND THEIR BIOSTRATIGRAPHIC IMPLICATIONS%内蒙古二连盆地冠齿兽科(哺乳纲:全齿目)化石及其生物地层学意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛方园; 王元青

    2012-01-01

    描述了在内蒙古二连盆地新采集的保存较完好的冠齿兽类化石.基于牙齿特征的比较认为:Eudinoceras kholobolchiensis Osborn & Granger,1931、E.obailiensis Gabunia,1961、Metacoryphodon luminis Chow & Qi,1982和M.?minor Qi,1987的个体大小、上前臼齿前尖V形脊角度、原尖前后棱发育程度、上下臼齿脊形化程度和尖脊形状及位置等特征与E.mongoliensis Osborn,1924一致,应视为后者的次主观异名;M.xintaiensis Chow & Qi,1982应归入Eudinoceras属,变更为E.xintaiensis;Metacoryphodon为无效命名,应予废除.厘定后的Eudinoceras属共含有6个有效种:E.zhichengensis Lei et al.,1987、E.youngi Xu,1980、E.xintaiensis Chow & Qi,1982、E.mongoliensis Osborn,1924、E.crassum Tong & Tang,1977和E.sishuiensis Wang,1994.修订了Eudinoceras属和E.mongoliensis种的齿列特征.将二连盆地冠齿兽类化石的产出层位对应至该盆地重新厘定的地层框架中,E.mongoliensis集中在阿山头组,能确定的最早出现层位为阿山头组底部的AS-1层,最晚出现层位为阿山头组上部的AS-5层,其时代为早始新世中期,约为53~49 Ma.%Coryphodontids ( Mammalia: Pantodonta) , as the most geographically widespread major group of extinct large herbivorous mammals, are among the most useful mammalian index fossils for drawing stratigraphic correlations in North America (Lucas, 1984, 1998; Uhen and Gin-gerich, 1995). In Asia, however, confusion regarding their taxonomy and misinterpretations of the lithostratigraphy of the fossil-bearing units have made it difficult to use coryphodontids for this purpose. Given improved understanding of intraspecific variation and sexual dimorphism within this highly variable taxon (Uhen and Gingerich, 1995; McGee, 2001, 2002; McGee and Turnbull, 2010), and the availability of newly clarified lithostratigraphic correlations (Meng,1990; Meng et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2010)and a recently established framework for Asian mammalian

  15. Evolução e diversidade de retrovírus endógenos em felídeos neotropicais

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Mata

    2012-01-01

    Retrovírus endógenos (ERVs) são vírus altamente difundidos no genoma de vertebrados. ERVs surgem quando retrovírus exógenos infectam células germinativas e se disseminam no genoma de seus hospedeiros, transmitindo seu material genético através das gerações por meio de herança mendeliana. ERVs são fundamentais na evolução dos genomas, sendo eles responsáveis por uma parte da diversidade genética de seus hospedeiros. O conhecimento sobre ERVs na família Felidae (Mammalia, Carnivora) estava prat...

  16. Sobre uma população de ixodídeos colhida em troféus de caça na província de “EASTERN CAPE” (República da África do Sul)

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo, Maria Virgínia; Rosa,Fernanda; Oliveira, Bernardo

    2008-01-01

    Apresentação em painel Durante o mês de Maio de 2008 foram observados nove troféus de caça obtidos em reservas de caça privadas na Província de “Eastern Cape” (República da África do Sul), tendo-se recolhido ixodídeos em vertebrados pertencentes à Classe MAMMALIA (ARTIODACTYLA e CARNIVORA). A identificação baseou-se na chave adoptada por Travassos Dias (1989), nas descrições do género Rhipicephalus efectuadas por Walker et al. (2000) e na morfologia das genitálias. Dos 21 exemplares ...

  17. 78 FR 66686 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Seabird and Pinniped Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... full species, separated from the Galapagos sea lion (Z. wollebaeki) and the extinct Japanese sea lion... permanent effects on the habitats used by the marine mammals in the proposed area, including the food...

  18. 77 FR 59377 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Seabird and Pinniped Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... Japanese sea lion (Z. japonicus) (Brunner 2003, Wolf et al., 2007, Schramm et al., 2009). The estimated... the proposed area, including the food sources they use (i.e., fish and invertebrates). While it is...

  19. 76 FR 46724 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Seabird and Pinniped Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... have the potential to cause California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), Pacific harbor seals (Phoca... the surrounding water or to cause a short-term behavioral disturbance for marine mammals in the areas... Wildlife Refuge. The islands are located near the edge of the continental shelf 28 miles (mi) (45.1 km...

  20. Quantifying Stress in Marine Mammals: Measuring Biologically Active Cortisol in Cetaceans and Pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Quantifying Stress in Marine Mammals : Measuring...boonstra/ LONG-TERM GOALS This research will improve our ability to measure stress in marine mammals . Stress hormones (glucocorticoids... mammal researchers to measure free glucocorticoid levels. OBJECTIVES This project has two main objectives, both related to improving our

  1. 77 FR 73989 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Seabird and Pinniped Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... IHA (77 FR 59377, September 27, 2012), as behavioral modification. Mitigation In order to issue an... species may exhibit behavioral modifications, including temporarily vacating the area during the seabird... causing disruption of behavioral patterns, including, but not limited to, migration, breathing,...

  2. Molecular Indicators of Chronic Stress in a Model Pinniped - The Northern Elephant Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    experienced recent acute stress, and chronically stressed animals can offer substantial information relevant to management and conservation of marine...Overview of Experimental Design The proposed work will be conducted in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), a tractable marine mammal system...fall. This life- history stage represents a baseline state in this species with no additional confounding features such as breeding or molting. In

  3. 75 FR 8677 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Seabird and Pinniped Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... required mitigation measures and monitoring are carried out (e.g., researchers speaking in hushed voices... must not be disturbed until the area is free of predators. (7) Keep voices hushed and bodies low in the...

  4. 76 FR 30311 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Seabird and Pinniped Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... breed from late November to March. Females typically give birth to a single pup and attend the pup for... low numbers there currently (S. Allen, unpubl. data). Steller sea lions give birth in May through July.... The potential for incidental take related to the mark/recapture studies is very low as...

  5. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  6. Morphology and environment in some fossil Hominoids and Pedetids (Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senut, Brigitte

    2016-04-01

    Linking the environment to functional anatomy is not an easy exercise, especially when dealing with fossils, which are often fragmentary and represent animals that are extinct. A holistic approach permits us to fill the gaps in reconstructing the evolutionary patterns in fossil groups. Identifying the environment where animals lived can help to interpret some anatomical structures and, vice versa, the functional morphological pattern can help to refine some fossil environments. Two examples focusing on locomotor behaviours in fossil mammals are considered in this paper: the hominoids and the origins of hominid bipedalism and the springing adaptations in fossil rodents (Pedetidae) in connection with different habitats. In the first case, the limits of the chimp-based models and the necessity to take into account detailed environmental reconstructions will be addressed. The famous 'savannah hypothesis' is no longer tenable because the palaeontological data support a more vegetated environment for the origins of bipedal hominids. Data from the environment will be considered. The earliest putative hominid fossils which preserve skeletal remains of the locomotor apparatus show mixed adaptations to terrestrial bipedalism and arboreal activities. The second example focuses on the variation in springing adaptations in Pedetidae in the Lower Miocene of East Africa and Southern Africa. In the East, the sites where Pedetidae were preserved were mainly forested, whereas in the South the region was more open and drier, with extensive grassy patches. In the first case, pedetids were robust and heavy jumpers, whereas in the South they were smaller, their skeleton more gracile and their springing was lighter. During the desertification of the southern part of Africa, the large pedetid species became extinct, but a smaller species developed. In the case of primates, as in the case of rodents, the skeletal morphology was adapted to its environment.

  7. Food Plants Eaten by Amazonian Manatees (Trichechus inunguis, Mammalia : Sirenia

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    Colares Ioni G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the feeding habits of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis in some Central Amazonian rivers and lakes, we compared plant epidermis found in the stomach contents and/or faeces of animals with a reference collection of plants present in the studied areas. Twenty five samples from digestive tracts of animals found dead and 25 faeces samples found floating were analyzed. From these samples, 24 aquatic macrophytes were identified. The Gramineae family was identified in 96% of the samples, Paspalum repens and Echinochloa polystachya being the most abundant in the samples. The second most frequent family was the Pontederiaceae primarily Eichhornia crassipes. During the high water period, the animals showed a more selective diet (eight identified species. In the low water period, when food was more scarce, the animals showed a larger diversity of species in their diet (21 species of plants. Differences in the diet among the two studied areas reflected the physiographics characteristics of the region. Amazonian manatees fed mostly on emergent plants.

  8. Wild carnivores (Mammalia) as hosts for ticks (Ixodida) in Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermudez, S.E.; Esser, H.J.; Miranda, R.; Moreno, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports ticks collected from wild carnivores from different habitat types in Panama. We examined 94 individual wild carnivores and we found 87 parasitized by ticks: seven coyotes, six crab-eating foxes, 54 coatis, four raccoons, five ocelots, two pumas, two gray foxes, two skunks, and one

  9. A phylogenetic estimate for golden moles (Mammalia, Afrotheria, Chrysochloridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Robert J; Maree, Sarita; Bronner, Gary; Bennett, Nigel C; Bloomer, Paulette; Czechowski, Paul; Meyer, Matthias; Hofreiter, Michael

    2010-03-09

    Golden moles (Chrysochloridae) are small, subterranean, afrotherian mammals from South Africa and neighboring regions. Of the 21 species now recognized, some (e.g., Chrysochloris asiatica, Amblysomus hottentotus) are relatively common, whereas others (e.g., species of Chrysospalax, Cryptochloris, Neamblysomus) are rare and endangered. Here, we use a combined analysis of partial sequences of the nuclear GHR gene and morphological characters to derive a phylogeny of species in the family Chrysochloridae. Although not all nodes of the combined analysis have high support values, the overall pattern of relationships obtained from different methods of phylogeny reconstruction allow us to make several recommendations regarding the current taxonomy of golden moles. We elevate Huetia to generic status to include the species leucorhinus and confirm the use of the Linnean binomial Carpitalpa arendsi, which belongs within Amblysominae along with Amblysomus and Neamblysomus. A second group, Chrysochlorinae, includes Chrysochloris, Cryptochloris, Huetia, Eremitalpa, Chrysospalax, and Calcochloris. Bayesian methods make chrysochlorines paraphyletic by placing the root within them, coinciding with root positions favored by a majority of randomly-generated outgroup taxa. Maximum Parsimony (MP) places the root either between chrysochlorines and amblysomines (with Chlorotalpa as sister taxon to amblysomines), or at Chlorotalpa, with the former two groups reconstructed as monophyletic in all optimal MP trees. The inclusion of additional genetic loci for this clade is important to confirm our taxonomic results and resolve the chrysochlorid root. Nevertheless, our optimal topologies support a division of chrysochlorids into amblysomines and chrysochlorines, with Chlorotalpa intermediate between the two. Furthermore, evolution of the chrysochlorid malleus exhibits homoplasy. The elongate malleus has evolved just once in the Cryptochloris-Chrysochloris group; other changes in shape have occurred at multiple nodes, regardless of how the root is resolved.

  10. A phylogenetic estimate for golden moles (Mammalia, Afrotheria, Chrysochloridae

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    Bloomer Paulette

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Golden moles (Chrysochloridae are small, subterranean, afrotherian mammals from South Africa and neighboring regions. Of the 21 species now recognized, some (e.g., Chrysochloris asiatica, Amblysomus hottentotus are relatively common, whereas others (e.g., species of Chrysospalax, Cryptochloris, Neamblysomus are rare and endangered. Here, we use a combined analysis of partial sequences of the nuclear GHR gene and morphological characters to derive a phylogeny of species in the family Chrysochloridae. Results Although not all nodes of the combined analysis have high support values, the overall pattern of relationships obtained from different methods of phylogeny reconstruction allow us to make several recommendations regarding the current taxonomy of golden moles. We elevate Huetia to generic status to include the species leucorhinus and confirm the use of the Linnean binomial Carpitalpa arendsi, which belongs within Amblysominae along with Amblysomus and Neamblysomus. A second group, Chrysochlorinae, includes Chrysochloris, Cryptochloris, Huetia, Eremitalpa, Chrysospalax, and Calcochloris. Bayesian methods make chrysochlorines paraphyletic by placing the root within them, coinciding with root positions favored by a majority of randomly-generated outgroup taxa. Maximum Parsimony (MP places the root either between chrysochlorines and amblysomines (with Chlorotalpa as sister taxon to amblysomines, or at Chlorotalpa, with the former two groups reconstructed as monophyletic in all optimal MP trees. Conclusions The inclusion of additional genetic loci for this clade is important to confirm our taxonomic results and resolve the chrysochlorid root. Nevertheless, our optimal topologies support a division of chrysochlorids into amblysomines and chrysochlorines, with Chlorotalpa intermediate between the two. Furthermore, evolution of the chrysochlorid malleus exhibits homoplasy. The elongate malleus has evolved just once in the Cryptochloris-Chrysochloris group; other changes in shape have occurred at multiple nodes, regardless of how the root is resolved.

  11. Wild carnivores (Mammalia) as hosts for ticks (Ixodida) in Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermudez, S.E.; Esser, H.J.; Miranda, R.; Moreno, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports ticks collected from wild carnivores from different habitat types in Panama. We examined 94 individual wild carnivores and we found 87 parasitized by ticks: seven coyotes, six crab-eating foxes, 54 coatis, four raccoons, five ocelots, two pumas, two gray foxes, two skunks, and one

  12. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the Suidae (Mammalia) in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardjasasmita, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    Fossil and extant suids from Indonesia, ranging in age from Pliocene? to Recent, are revised. All material is ascribed to the genus Sus, except two species found on Sulawesi (Celebes) which belong to Babyrousa and Celebochoerus, respectively. From the ten Recent species and subspecies recognised, on

  13. Ticks parasitizing bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Caatinga Biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Almeida, Juliana Cardoso de; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report ticks parasitizing bats from the Serra das Almas Natural Reserve (RPPN) located in the municipality of Crateús, state of Ceará, in the semiarid Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out during nine nights in the dry season (July 2012) and 10 nights in the rainy season (February 2013). Only bats of the Phyllostomidae and Mormoopidae families were parasitized by ticks. The species Artibeus planirostris and Carolia perspicillata were the most parasitized. A total of 409 larvae were collected and classified into three genera: Antricola (n = 1), Nothoaspis (n = 1) and Ornithodoros (n = 407). Four species were morphologically identified as Nothoaspis amazoniensis, Ornithodoros cavernicolous, Ornithodoros fonsecai, Ornithodoros hasei, and Ornithodoros marinkellei. Ornithodoros hasei was the most common tick associated with bats in the current study. The present study expand the distributional ranges of at least three soft ticks into the Caatinga biome, and highlight an unexpected richness of argasid ticks inhabiting this arid ecosystem.

  14. Convergence vs. Specialization in the ear region of moles (Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpton, Nick; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Asher, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    We investigated if and how the inner ear region undergoes similar adaptations in small, fossorial, insectivoran-grade mammals, and found a variety of inner ear phenotypes. In our sample, afrotherian moles (Chrysochloridae) and the marsupial Notoryctes differ from most other burrowing mammals in their relatively short radii of semicircular canal curvature; chrysochlorids and fossorial talpids share a relatively long interampullar width. Chrysochlorids are unique in showing a highly coiled cochlea with nearly four turns. Extensive cochlear coiling may reflect their greater ecological dependence on low frequency auditory cues compared to talpids, tenrecids, and the marsupial Notoryctes. Correspondingly, the lack of such extensive coiling in the inner ear of other fossorial species may indicate a greater reliance on other senses to enable their fossorial lifestyle, such as tactile sensation from vibrissae and Eimer's organs. The reliance of chrysochlorids on sound is evident in the high degree of coiling and in the diversity of its mallear types, and may help explain the lack of any semiaquatic members of that group. The simplest mallear types among chrysochlorids are not present in the basal-most members of that clade, but all extant chrysochlorids investigated to date exhibit extensive cochlear coiling. The chrysochlorid ear region thus exhibits mosaic evolution; our data suggest that extensive coiling evolved in chrysochlorids prior to and independently of diversification in middle ear ossicle size and shape.

  15. Sensory Hairs in the Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus (Cetacea, Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Summer E; Crish, Samuel D; George, John C; Stimmelmayr, Raphaella; Thewissen, J G M

    2015-07-01

    We studied the histology and morphometrics of the hairs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). These whales are hairless except for two patches of more than 300 hairs on the rostral tip of the lower lip and chin, the rostral tip of the upper lip, and a bilateral row of approximately ten hairs caudal to the blowhole. Histological data indicate that hairs in all three of these areas are vibrissae: they show an outermost connective tissue capsule, a circumferential blood sinus system surrounding the hair shaft, and dense innervation to the follicle. Morphometric data were collected on hair diameters, epidermal recess diameters, hair follicle length, and external hair lengths. The main difference between the hairs in the different regions is that blowhole hairs have larger diameters than the hairs in the chin and rostrum regions. We speculate that the hair shaft thickness patterns in bowheads reflect functional specializations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Ticks parasitizing bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in the Caatinga Biome, Brazil

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    Hermes Ribeiro Luz

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the authors report ticks parasitizing bats from the Serra das Almas Natural Reserve (RPPN located in the municipality of Crateús, state of Ceará, in the semiarid Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out during nine nights in the dry season (July 2012 and 10 nights in the rainy season (February 2013. Only bats of the Phyllostomidae and Mormoopidae families were parasitized by ticks. The species Artibeus planirostris and Carolia perspicillata were the most parasitized. A total of 409 larvae were collected and classified into three genera: Antricola (n = 1, Nothoaspis (n = 1 and Ornithodoros (n = 407. Four species were morphologically identified as Nothoaspis amazoniensis, Ornithodoros cavernicolous, Ornithodoros fonsecai, Ornithodoros hasei, and Ornithodoros marinkellei. Ornithodoros hasei was the most common tick associated with bats in the current study. The present study expand the distributional ranges of at least three soft ticks into the Caatinga biome, and highlight an unexpected richness of argasid ticks inhabiting this arid ecosystem.

  17. Enamel microstructure in Lemuridae (Mammalia, Primates): assessment of variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, M C

    1994-10-01

    This study describes the molar enamel microstructure of seven lemurid primates: Hapalemur griseus, Varecia variegata, Lemur catta, Lemur macaco, Lemur fulvus rufus, Lemur fulvus fulvus, and Lemur fulvus albifrons. Contrary to earlier accounts, which reported little or no prism decussation in lemurid enamel, both Lemur and Varecia molars contain a prominent inner layer of decussating prisms (Hunter-Schreger bands), in addition to an outer radial prism layer, and a thin, nonprismatic enamel surface layer. In contrast, Hapalemur enamel consists entirely of radial and, near the surface, nonprismatic enamel. In addition, for all species, prism packing patterns differ according to depth from the tooth surface, and for all species but Varecia (which also has the thinnest enamel of any lemurid), average prism area increases from the enamel-dentine junction to the surface; this may be a developmental solution to the problem of accommodating a larger outer surface area with enamel deposited from a fixed number of cells. Finally, contradicting some previous reports, Pattern 1 prisms predominate only in the most superficial prismatic enamel. In the deeper enamel, prism cross-sections include both closed (Pattern 1) and arc-shaped (Pattern 2 or, most commonly, Pattern 3). This sequence of depth-related pattern change is repeated in all taxa. It should also be emphasized that all taxa can exhibit all three prism patterns in their mature enamel. The high degree of quantitative and qualitative variation in prism size, shape, and packing suggests that these features should be used cautiously in phylogenetic studies. Hapalemur is distinguished from the other lemurids by unique, medially constricted or rectangular prism cross-sections at an intermediate depth and the absence of prism decussation, but, without further assessment of character polarity, these differences do not clarify lemurid phylogenetic relations. Some characters of enamel microstructure may represent synapomorphies of Lemuridae, or of clades within Lemuridae, but homoplasty is likely to be common. Homoplasy of enamel characters may reflect functional constraints.

  18. Heterochromatin heterogeneity and chromosome heteromorphism in Cerdocyon thous (Mammalia, Canidae

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    Terumi Hatanaka

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Few cytogenetic studies have been conducted on South American canids. Cerdocyon thous is a representative of the Canidae, living in the forests, open wooded areas and savannahs of South America. Compared to other canid species, C. thous has a large proportion of metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes as well as a large amount of constitutive heterochromatin, especially along the short arm of submetacentric chromosomes. In the present study, different chromosome banding methods were used to characterize the heterogeneous nature of the large heterochromatic segments and to propose an organizational model for this segment that occupies the entire short arm of most two-armed chromosomes. Furthermore, chromosome heteromorphism related to the short arm of large submetacentric chromosome corresponding to no. 3 in male and female karyotypes is described.Os estudos citogenéticos em canídeos sul-americanos, de uma forma geral, são raros. Cerdocyon thous é um representante da família Canidae e habita florestas, matas abertas e savanas da américa do Sul. O seu cariótipo é formado por uma grande proporção de cromossomos metacêntricos e submetacêntricos quando comparado com outras espécies desta família e possui também uma grande quantidade de heterocromatina constitutiva, especialmente ao longo do braço curto dos cromossomos submetacêntricos. No presente estudo, diferentes métodos de bandamentos cromossômicos permitiram verificar o caráter heterogêneo dos grandes segmentos heterocromáticos e a proposição de um modelo de organização deste segmento que ocupa todo o braço curto da maioria dos cromossomos de dois braços. Além disso, é descrito um heteromorfismo cromossômico relacionado ao braço curto de um grande cromossomo submetacêntrico, equivalente ao no. 3 do cariótipo de animais de ambos os sexos.

  19. Plio-Pleistocene aardvarks (Mammalia, Tubulidentata from East Africa

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    T. Lehmann

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Tubulidentata are unique among mammals for being the only order represented nowadays by a single living species, Orycteropus afer: the aardvark. Nevertheless, it is one of the least studied mammalian orders. Aardvarks are currently distributed all over sub-Saharan Africa, but the fossil record extends their spatial range to Europe and Asia. The earliest known Tubulidentata are ca. 20 million years old. About 14 species and three to four genera have been recognised so far, but since the late Pliocene, aardvarks have only been represented by a single genus and are restricted to Africa. The extant aardvark is the only species of Tubulidentata with a large distribution area, i.e. the African continent. There are three known Plio-Pleistocene African species of aardvark: Orycteropus afer (Pallas, 1766, O. crassidens MacInnes, 1956, and O. djourabensis Lehmann et al., 2004. Fossils of these species have been discovered in North-Africa, Kenya, and Chad respectively. The present study is focused on the aardvark material found in the Plio-Pleistocene of East Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya. New specimens from Asa Issie (Ethiopia and East Turkana (Kenya are described, and published ones are re-examined in the light of the latest discoveries. This study demonstrates that Kenyan specimens identified as O. crassidens are in fact representatives of the Chadian O. djourabensis. Moreover, additional material from Ethiopia and Kenya shows a close relationship with the latter species too. The presence of specimens of O. djourabensis in Chad and in Kenya during the Plio-Pleistocene implies that this taxon is the oldest-known species of aardvark to have experienced a continental dispersal. It also shows that Tubulidentates were able to cross Africa from east-west during Plio-Pleistocene times, despite the presence of the Rift Valley. It is however not possible to infer the centre of origin of O. djourabensis. Finally, this study suggests that two species of aardvark might have co-existed in Kenya during the early Pleistocene. doi:10.1002/mmng.200800003

  20. Proboscidea (Mammalia) from the Upper Miocene of Crevillente (Alicante, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazo, A.V.; Montoya, P.

    2003-01-01

    The fossil Proboscidea from the Spanish Turolian (Upper Miocene) sites of Crevillente 2 (MN11) and Crevillente 15 and 16 (MN12) are described. The mastodont from Crevillente 2 is assigned to Tetralophodon cf. longirostris ‘grandincisivoid form’, recognised for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula

  1. Numerical anomalies in the dentition of southern fur seals and sea lions (Pinnipedia: Otariidae

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    Carolina Loch

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cases of dental agenesis, supernumerary teeth and dental losses are presented in three species of South American Otariids: Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1783, A. tropicalis (Gray, 1872 and Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800. For the first time, congenital and acquired dental anomalies were comparatively diagnosed in skull samples from southern Brazil and nearby areas. The skulls and mandibles were accessed in the scientific collection of mammals of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Agenesis was found only among maxillary post-canine teeth, especially the distal ones (PC/6, due to an evolutionary trend towards reduction of the number of post-canine teeth in this family. Maxillary and mandibular supernumerary teeth were found in A. australis and A. tropicalis, but their positioning is unrelated to cases regarding phylogenetic and evolutionary implications. Dental losses were found in all species and different stages of alveolar obliteration suggest that this process is common in Otariids and does not affect their survival. The investigation of congenital and acquired dental anomalies in pinnipeds can provide information on dental formula evolution in Pinnipeds and in the phylogenetic relationships among Carnivora.

  2. [Food habits of Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae) in the Parque Nacional Natural Puracé, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Guzmán, Andrés; Payán, Esteban; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio

    2011-09-01

    Neotropical puma (Puma concolor) diet is scarcely known, in particular that of mountain dwelling individuals from Northern South America. This is the first study on pumas from the paramo and the first puma diet analysis for Colombia. The puma diet was studied from 2007 to 2009 in the Puracé National Park in the South Colombian Andes. Paramos are unique neotropical high altitude ecosystems which store and regulate water, and are currently threatened by agricultural expansion and climate change. Seven latrines were monitored for three years and scat collected, washed and dried. Items in scat such as hair, bones, claws and others were separated. Hairs were inspected by microscopy and compared to voucher hair museum specimens. Bone fragments, claws and teeth were also compared to museum collections and identified wherever possible. Additionally, six cameras were set along game trails to document puma and potential prey presence in the area. Food items from five species were identified in 60 puma scats; Northern Pudu (Pudu mephistophiles) was the most important prey in their diet. A total of 354 camera trap-nights photographed a male and female puma, Northern pudu and Spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus). The main conclusion suggests a strong dependence of puma on the threatened and mysterious Northern Pudu in paramo habitats. This behavior might reflect restricted prey availability in the high Andes mountains of Colombia, and highlights the plasticity in the puma diet. Conservation actions in the paramo should thus, focus on focal wild species, and in particularly those that show a relationship, such as the one evidenced here with the dependence of puma on Northern Pudu. These findings contribute to increase the little known ecology of Andean puma populations and the species as a whole in Colombia. Baseline data on puma prey populations in different ecosystems throughout their range, is critical to understand the regional requirements for survival, and design conservation actions, to follow and evaluate the need for particular protected areas along their geographical gradients.

  3. Diet of margay, Leopardus wiedii, and jaguarundi, Puma yagouaroundi, (Carnivora: Felidae in Atlantic Rainforest, Brazil

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    Rita de Cassia Bianchi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the food habits of the margay, Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821, and the jaguarundi, Puma yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilare, 1803, in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve and in the Sooretama Biological Reserve, Espírito Santo, Brazil. We determined the diet of both species by the analysis of scats. Fecal samples were collected from April 1995 to September 2000 and identified based on the presence of hairs that were ingested during self-grooming. Scats were oven-dried and washed on a sieve, and the screened material was identified using a reference collection. Of the 59 fecal samples examined, 30 were confirmed to be from the margay and nine of them from the jaguarundi. Mammals were the most consumed items in the diet of the margay, occurring in 77% of the fecal samples, followed by birds (53% and reptiles (20%. Among the mammals consumed, marsupials (Didelphimorphia were the most common item (66%. In the diet of the jaguarundi, birds were the most consumed items and occurred in 55% of the fecal samples; mammals and reptiles occurred in 41% and in 17% of the fecal samples, respectively. From this work we conclude that the margay and jaguarundi fed mainly upon small vertebrates in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve and in the Sooretama Biological Reserve. Although sample sizes are therefore insufficient for quantitative comparisons, margays prey more frequently upon arboricolous mammals than jaguarundis, which in turn prey more frequently upon birds and reptiles than margays. This seems to reflect a larger pattern throughout their geographic range

  4. Dental Anomalies in Lontra Longicaudis (Carnivora: Mustelidae collected in Southern Brazil

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    Felipe Bortolotto Peters

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the occurrence of dental anomalies in a specimen of Lontra longicaudis from the extreme south of Brazil. The specimen examined (MCNU-1584 underwent radiographic and macroscopic analysis of the dental number, shape and structure. Anomalies were observed in the alveoli of the right PM1 and PM2, which were obstructed by bone tissue and tooth loss was possibly due to trauma or pathogenesis. The presence of a supernumerary tooth, not erupted, inclined and incisiform, was also observed on the midline of the palate. Its position and null functionality suggest that it originated because of the hyper development of the dental lamina.

  5. Dental Anomalies in Lontra Longicaudis (Carnivora: Mustelidae) collected in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Bortolotto Peters; Eduardo de Lima Coelhoff; Belmiro Cavalcanti do Egito Vasconcelos; Paulo Ricardo de Oliveira Roth; Alexandre Uarth Christoff

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the occurrence of dental anomalies in a specimen of Lontra longicaudis from the extreme south of Brazil. The specimen examined (MCNU-1584) underwent radiographic and macroscopic analysis of the dental number, shape and structure. Anomalies were observed in the alveoli of the right PM1 and PM2, which were obstructed by bone tissue and tooth loss was possibly due to trauma or pathogenesis. The presence of a supernumerary tooth, not erupted, inclined and incisiform, was also...

  6. The influence of feeding enrichment on the behavior of small felids (Carnivora: Felidae in captivity

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    Letícia S. Resende

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals in captivity are frequently exposed to environmental deprivation resulting in abnormal behaviors that indicate distress. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the "surprise pack" environmental enrichment technique in improving the welfare of small neotropical felids in captivity. In order to accomplish this, we used five individuals from the Rio de Janeiro Zoo. The experiment was divided into three steps corresponding to: I period prior to the enrichment, II period in which the animals were being submitted to enrichment stimuli, and III period after the enrichment. In phase II, we observed a significant reduction in abnormal behavior compared to phases I and III. Only in phase II did the animals demonstrate the following behaviors: predation, social interaction and territory demarcation. However, in this same phase, the mean time spent interacting with the enrichment throughout the day showed a decrease.

  7. Diet of Procyon cancrivorus (Carnivora, Procyonidae in restinga and estuarine environments of southern Brazil

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    Fernando M. Quintela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite its wide range and abundance on certain habitats, the crab-eating raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (G. Cuvier, 1798 is considered one of the less known Neotropical carnivore species. In the present study we analyzed the diet of P. cancrivorus in a peat forest and in an estuarine island in southernmost Brazil. Fruits of the gerivá palm tree Syagrus romanzoffiana were the most consumed item in the peat forest, followed by insects and mollusks. Small mammals, followed by Bromelia antiacantha (Bromeliaceae fruits and brachyuran crustaceans were the most frequent items in the estuarine island. Other items found in lower frequencies were Solanum sp., Psidium sp., Smilax sp. and Dyospiros sp. fruits, diplopods, scorpions, fishes, anuran amphibians, reptiles (black tegu lizard and snakes, birds and medium-sized mammals (white-eared opossum, armadillo and coypu. Levin’s index values (peat forest: 0.38; estuarine island: 0.45 indicate an approximation to a median position between a specialist and a well distributed diet. Pianka’s index (0.80 showed a considerable diet similarity between the two systems. Procyon cancrivorus presented a varied diet in the studied areas and may play an important role as seed disperser on coastal environments in southernmost Brazil.

  8. Molecular detection of Trypanosoma evansi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae in procyonids (Carnivora: Procyonidae in Eastern Amazon, Brazil

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    Paulo Cesar Magalhães-Matos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to diagnose the natural infection of captive and free-living procyonids with Trypanosoma evansi in the states of Amapá and Pará, Brazil. From February 2012 to August 2013, whole blood samples and blood smears were obtained from 45 free-living procyonids and from nine procyonids kept in captivity in wild life refuges and zoobotanical parks in the states of Amapá and Pará. Whole blood samples were collected and kept at -20ºC for the detection of T. evansi DNA by PCR using the RoTat 1.2 forward and RoTat 1.2 reverse primers. In addition, the blood smears were processed and examined for the presence of trypomastigote forms of T. evansi. T. evansi DNA was detected in 18.52% (10/54 of the procyonids, namely, in captive crab-eating raccoons and captive and free-living coatis in Pará State. No trypomastigote forms were observed in the blood smears. DNA from T. evansi was detected in P. cancrivorus and N. nasua in Pará State, being this the first such report in P. cancrivorus.

  9. Ancylostoma genettae, A. protelesis, A. somaliense: three new species from wild Carnivora in the Somali Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchioni, G

    1995-12-01

    Ancylostoma braziliense was found in Somalia in Acinonyx jubatus, Canis familiaris, C. mesomelas, Crocuta crocuta, Felis catus, F. libyca, Genetta genetta, Otocyon megalotis, Proteles cristatus; A. caninum in A. jubatus, C. familiaris, C. mesomelas, C. crocuta; A. duodenale in C. crocuta; A. iperodontatum in Lynx caracal; A. paraduodenale in Felis serval; A. tubaeforme in A. jubatus, F. catus, F. libyca; Arthrocephalus gambiense in Ichneumia albicauda; Uncinaria parvibursata in Mellivora capensis. In addition, three new species of Ancylostoma were collected: A. genettae in Genetta genetta, A. protelesis in Proteles cristatus, A. somaliense in Canis mesomelas. These new species are described and illustrated.

  10. Habitat features influencing jaguar Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae) occupancy in Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Arce, Stephanny; Guilder, James; Salom-Pérez, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    Habitat characteristics and human activities are known to play a major role in the occupancy of jaguars Panthera onca across their range, however the key variables influencing jaguar distribution in Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica, have yet to be identified. This study evaluated jaguar occupancy in Tortuguero National Park and the surrounding area. Jaguar detection/non-detection data was collected using digital camera traps distributed within the boundaries of the protected area. Local community members were also interviewed to determine jaguar occurrence in the Park's buffer zone. Occupancy models were then applied to identify the habitat characteristics that may better explain jaguar distribution across the study area. From June 2012 to June 2013, a total of 4,339 camera trap days were used to identify 18 individual jaguars inside the protected area; 17 of these jaguars were exclusively detected within the coastal habitat, whilst the remaining individual was detected solely within the interior of the Park. Interviewees reported 61 occasions of jaguar presence inside the buffer zone, between 1995 and 2013, with 80% of these described by the communities of Lomas de Sierpe, Barra de Parismina and La Aurora. These communities also reported the highest levels of livestock predation by jaguars (85% of attacks). In the study area, jaguar occurrence was positively correlated with the seasonal presence of nesting green turtles Chelonia mydas, and negatively correlated with distance to the Park boundary. Our findings suggested that the current occupancy of the jaguar in the study area may be a response to: 1) the vast availability of prey (marine turtles) on Tortuguero beach, 2) the decline of its primary prey species as a result of illegal hunting inside the Park, and 3) the increase in anthropogenic pressures in the Park boundaries.

  11. A New species of Agriarctos (Ailuropodinae, Ursidae, Carnivora in the locality of Nombrevilla 2 (Zaragoza, Spain

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    Morales, J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study documents a new primitive ursid species, Agriarctosbeatrix from the Spanish locality of Nombrevilla 2 (Calatayud-Daroca basin, province of Zaragoza. The new fossils of Nombrevilla 2 are closely related to those of A. depereti of Soblay (France, Late vallesian, but in the Spanish form the shared derived characters are more primitive. Agriarctos beatrix is the oldest occurrence of a member of the subfamily Ailuropodinae in the fossil record.Una nueva especie de úrsido primitivo, Agriarctos beatrix procedente de la localidad de Nombrevilla 2 (Zaragoza, cuenca de Calatayud-Daroca es descrita en este trabajo. Los nuevos fósiles de Nombrevilla 2 se relacionan estrechamente con Agriarctos depereti de la localidad de Soblay (Vallesiense superior, Francia, pero en la forma española los caracteres derivados compartidos son más primitivos. Agriarctos beatrix es la primera aparición conocida hasta el presente de un miembro de la subfamilia Ailuropodinae en el registro fossil.

  12. Neogene tectonics and climate forcing of carnivora dispersals between Asia and North America

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Exchange records of terrestrial mammals can be combined with available tectonic and climatic documents to evaluate major biological and environmental events. Previous studies identified four carnivoran dispersals between Eurasia and North America in the Neogene, namely, at ∼ 20, 13–11, 8–7, and ∼ 4 Ma. In order to evaluate driving mechanism of these biological events, we collected, compared and analyzed a large number of published records. The result...

  13. Neogene tectonics and climate forcing of carnivora dispersals between Asia and North America

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    H. Jiang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Exchange records of terrestrial mammals can be combined with available tectonic and climatic documents to evaluate major biological and environmental events. Previous studies identified four carnivoran dispersals between Eurasia and North America in the Neogene, namely, at ∼ 20, 13–11, 8–7, and ∼ 4 Ma. In order to evaluate driving mechanism of these biological events, we collected, compared and analyzed a large number of published records. The results indicate that the carnivoran dispersal from Eurasia to North America at ∼ 20 Ma was probably caused by intense tectonic movements in Asia. During 13–11 Ma, global cooling possibly drove the mammal exchanges between Eurasia and North America. By comparison, the carnivoran dispersal from Eurasia to North America at 8–7 Ma was probably caused by the combination of global cooling and tectonic movements of the Tibetan Plateau. Similar to during 13–11 Ma, the carnivoran exchanges between Eurasia and North America at ∼ 4 Ma were possibly driven by global cooling.

  14. Neogene tectonics and climate forcing of carnivora dispersals between Asia and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H.; Deng, T.; Li, Y.; Xu, H.

    2015-08-01

    Exchange records of terrestrial mammals can be combined with available tectonic and climatic documents to evaluate major biological and environmental events. Previous studies identified four carnivoran dispersals between Eurasia and North America in the Neogene, namely, at ∼ 20, 13-11, 8-7, and ∼ 4 Ma. In order to evaluate driving mechanism of these biological events, we collected, compared and analyzed a large number of published records. The results indicate that the carnivoran dispersal from Eurasia to North America at ∼ 20 Ma was probably caused by intense tectonic movements in Asia. During 13-11 Ma, global cooling possibly drove the mammal exchanges between Eurasia and North America. By comparison, the carnivoran dispersal from Eurasia to North America at 8-7 Ma was probably caused by the combination of global cooling and tectonic movements of the Tibetan Plateau. Similar to during 13-11 Ma, the carnivoran exchanges between Eurasia and North America at ∼ 4 Ma were possibly driven by global cooling.

  15. Status of Asiatic Golden Cat Catopuma temminckii Vigors & Horsfield, 1827 (Carnivora: Felidae in Bhutan

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    Tashi Dhendup

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Asiatic Golden Cat is a Near Threatened wild cat species as listed by the IUCN. Being a lesser studied species, there is a general paucity of data and hence, global assessment of its true status has been very difficult. In Bhutan, available information on this species is mainly from biodiversity surveys on big mammals such as Tiger and Snow Leopard. A modest attempt has been made to review all available literature on Asiatic Golden Cat in Bhutan and abroad to describe the current status of the species in the country and the need for further studies. 

  16. Inferring palaeoecology in extinct tremarctine bears (Carnivora, Ursidae) using geometric morphometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Figueirido, Borja; Soibelzon, Leopoldo Héctor

    2009-01-01

    In this study we explore the ecomorphological patterns of extinct tremarctine bears in South America during the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). These patterns are used to derive palaeoautoecological inferences in extinct tremarctines and their palaeosinecological relationships within Plio-Pleistocene ecosystems. We used geometric morphometrics of landmark data to recover the shape of the craniomandibular skeleton of bears. The results reveal different ecomorphological specialization...

  17. Predispersal home range shift of an ocelot Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

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    Rafael Mares

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Home range shifts prior to natal dispersal have been rarely documented, yet the events that lead a subadult to abandon a portion of its home range and venture into unfamiliar territories, before eventually setting off to look for a site to reproduce, are probably related to the causes of dispersal itself. Here, we used a combination of manual radio-tracking and an Automated Radio Telemetry System to continuously study the movements of a subadult male ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, a solitary carnivore with sex-biased dispersal, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, for 18 months from May 2003 through October 2004. The subadult ocelot’s parents were also radio-tracked to record possible parent-offspring interactions within their home ranges. At the age of ca. 21 months the subadult gradually began to shift its natal home range, establishing a new one used until the end of the study, in an area that had previously been used by another dispersing subadult male. Only three parent-offspring interactions were recorded during the four months around the time the range-shift occurred. The apparent peaceful nature of these encounters, along with the slow transition out of a portion of his natal home range, suggest the subadult was not evicted from his natal area by his parents. The timing of the shift, along with the subadult’s increase in weight into the weight range of adult ocelots four months after establishing the new territory, suggests that predispersal home range shifts could act as a low risk and opportunistic strategy for reaching adult size, while minimizing competition with parents and siblings, in preparation for an eventual dispersal into a new breeding territory. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 779-787. Epub 2008 June 30.Los desplazamientos del ámbito hogareño de mamíferos subadultos previos a la dispersión natal rara vez han sido documentados. Sin embargo, los eventos que llevan a un animal subadulto a abandonar una parte de su ámbito natal, antes de buscar un sitio definitivo donde reproducirse, pueden estar relacionados con las causas de la dispersión en si. En este estudio, utilizamos una combinación de radio-telemetría manual y un Sistema de Radio-Telemetría Automatizado para estudiar de manera continua los movimientos de un ocelote (Leopardus pardalis macho subadulto, un carnívoro solitario con dispersión sesgada sexualmente, en la Isla de Barro Colorado, Panamá, durante 18 meses (mayo 2003 hasta octubre 2004. Los padres del ocelote subadulto también fueron monitoreados por radio-telemetría para registrar posibles interacciones entre padres e hijo en sus ámbitos hogareños. A la edad aproximada de 21 meses, el ocelote subadulto comenzó a desplazar gradualmente su ámbito hogareño natal, estableciendo uno nuevo que fue ocupado hasta el final del estudio, en un área que había sido ocupada previamente por otro macho subadulto en dispersión. Se registraron solamente tres interacciones entre padres e hijo en los cuatro meses del desplazamiento. La aparente naturaleza pacífica de estos encuentros, junto con el lento abandono de una parte de su ámbito hogareño natal, sugieren que el subadulto no fue expulsado de su área natal por sus padres. El momento del desplazamiento, junto con el incremento en peso del subadulto (al peso propio de un adulto cuatro meses después de haber establecido su nuevo territorio, sugiere que los desplazamientos del ámbito hogareño previos a la dispersión natal podrían actuar como una estrategia oportunista y de bajo riesgo para alcanzar el tamaño adulto, minimizando la competencia con padres y hermanos, en preparación para una dispersión final a un nuevo territorio para reproducirse.

  18. Summer diet composition of the Common Leopard Panthera pardus (Carnivora: Felidae in Nepal

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    A. Achyut

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Common Leopard Panthera pardus is one of the most widely distributed of all big cats. It is a threatened species throughout its range due to the degradation of natural habitat, poaching and persecution as a killer of humans and livestock. The purpose of this study was to determine the composition of the Common Leopard diet in the Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve (DHR of Nepal. Among prey species Barking Deer (Muntiacus muntjak were observed most frequently (18% in leopard scats, while Blue Sheep (Pseudois nayaur were observed less frequently (6%.

  19. Supermatrix and species tree methods resolve phylogenetic relationships within the big cats, Panthera (Carnivora: Felidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian W; Li, Gang; Murphy, William J

    2010-07-01

    The pantherine lineage of cats diverged from the remainder of modern Felidae less than 11 million years ago and consists of the five big cats of the genus Panthera, the lion, tiger, jaguar, leopard, and snow leopard, as well as the closely related clouded leopard. A significant problem exists with respect to the precise phylogeny of these highly threatened great cats. Despite multiple publications on the subject, no two molecular studies have reconstructed Panthera with the same topology. These evolutionary relationships remain unresolved partially due to the recent and rapid radiation of pantherines in the Pliocene, individual speciation events occurring within less than 1 million years, and probable introgression between lineages following their divergence. We provide an alternative, highly supported interpretation of the evolutionary history of the pantherine lineage using novel and published DNA sequence data from the autosomes, both sex chromosomes and the mitochondrial genome. New sequences were generated for 39 single-copy regions of the felid Y chromosome, as well as four mitochondrial and four autosomal gene segments, totaling 28.7 kb. Phylogenetic analysis of these new data, combined with all published data in GenBank, highlighted the prevalence of phylogenetic disparities stemming either from the amplification of a mitochondrial to nuclear translocation event (numt), or errors in species identification. Our 47.6 kb combined dataset was analyzed as a supermatrix and with respect to individual partitions using maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference, in conjunction with Bayesian Estimation of Species Trees (BEST) which accounts for heterogeneous gene histories. Our results yield a robust consensus topology supporting the monophyly of lion and leopard, with jaguar sister to these species, as well as a sister species relationship of tiger and snow leopard. These results highlight new avenues for the study of speciation genomics and understanding the historical events surrounding the origin of the members of this lineage.

  20. On the remains of some Carnivora found in a prehistoric site at Vlaardingen, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.

    1961-01-01

    The excavation of a prehistoric site at Vlaardingen, about 10 km W. of Rotterdam, yielded among ceramics and other man-made objects, many remains of zoological origin (GLASBERGEN, 1960). Mr. P. J. VAN DER FEEN and Miss M. R. WALVIUS, who were in charge of the zoological material found at

  1. First Record of Postcranial Bones in Devinophoca emryi (Carnivora, Phocidae, Devinophocinae

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    Rahmat S. J.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Devinophoca emryi material from the early Badenian, early Middle Miocene (16.26–14.89 Ma presents mixed cranial and especially postcranial characters with the three extant phocid subfamilies (Cystophorinae, Monachinae and Phocinae, as well as unique postcranial characters not seen in any taxa. These distinguishing characters (i. e. well-outlined, large oval facet on greater tubercle of humerus; broader width between the head and lesser tubercle of humerus; femoral proximal epiphysis larger than distal; thin innominate ilium that is excavated on ventral surface demonstrate that this material belongs to a recently described species (D. emryi. During ecomorphotype analyses, fossil humerus and femur bones were directly associated with their corresponding mandible to reveal associations based on Recent morphological analogues. Strong correlation between ecomorphotypes and postcranial morphology supports placement of this material to D. emryi and not its sister taxon, D. claytoni. The previously described skull, mandible and teeth and postcranial bones described herein were discovered at the same locality during excavations at the base of the Malé Karpaty Mountains (Slovakia, at the junction of the Morava and Danube rivers. The geological age of D. emryi and the presence of mixed characters strongly suggest that this species was an early relative to the ancestor of seals, possibly being a terminal branch of the phocid tree. This material allows for emended diagnoses of the species, updated assessments of geographical distribution and provides further material for clarification of controversial phylogenetic relationships in Phocidae.

  2. Multiparasitism in a wild cat (Leopardus colocolo (Carnivora: Felidae in southern Brazil

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    Lucas Trevisan Gressler

    Full Text Available Abstract Parasitic diseases reflect the health and balance of ecosystems, affecting not only individuals but also entire populations or communities. The aim of this study was to report on the diversity of parasitic helminths detected in the feces of a wild feline in southern Brazil. Parasites were obtained from fecal samples, and four techniques were used for parasitological examination: direct examination, centrifugal flotation with zinc sulfate (Faust technique, simple sedimentation (Hoffman technique and Baermann-Moraes. The parasites were identified through micrometry and morphology, as follows: Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara sp., Trichuridae, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Alaria sp., and Spirometra sp. We recorded the genus Ancylostoma parasitizing L. colocolo for the first time.

  3. Endemic Marsh Mongoose Herpestes palustris (Carnivora: Herpestidae of East Kolkata Wetlands, India: a status report

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    J.K. Mallick

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Marsh Mongoose Herpestes palustris is the only extant endemic mammal of the East Kolkata wetlands, which has been declared a RAMSAR site in 2002. Since its first description by the scientists of the Zoological Survey of India, the population of this species has dwindled to an alarming state due to reclamation of the Salt Lake City and Rajarhat expansion, as well as from other anthropogenic causes. Recently, during a field survey only a small population of this endangered mongoose was found in a single location. Immediate conservation measures are required to be taken by the concerned authorities to stop its probable extinction in the near future.

  4. Conservation genetics of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmerman, 1780 (Carnivora, Mustelidae

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    DM. Garcia

    Full Text Available The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis is an aquatic mammal of the Mustelidae family, endemic to South America. Its original distribution corresponds to the region from the Guyanas to Central-North Argentina, but it is extinct or on the verge of extinction in most of its historical range. Currently, the species is considered endangered by the World Conservation Union (IUCN. Based on its geographic distribution in the South American continent and on some morphological characters, two subspecies were suggested: P. brasiliensis brasiliensis, occurring in the Amazon and Orinoco River Basins, and P. brasiliensis paranensis, in the Paraná and Paraguai River Basins. However, there is no consensus on assuming this subspecies division and no detailed studies have been carried out to elucidate this question. This study aims to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of Pteronura brasiliensis along its range in Brazil to check the possibility of the existence of two distinct subspecies using also a reciprocal monophyly criterion. We analyzed the control region, and the Cytochrome b and Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I genes of the mitochondrial DNA in several giant otter populations from the Amazon and Paraguai River Basins. Analyses have indicated some degree of geographic correlation and a high level of inter-population divergence, although the subspecies division is not highly supported. As we observed strong population structure, we cannot rule out the existence of further divisions shaping the species distribution. The results suggest that a more complex population structure occurs in P. brasiliensis, and the conservation practice should concentrate on preserving all remaining local populations.

  5. Habitat features influencing jaguar Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae occupancy in Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica

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    Stephanny Arroyo-Arce

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Habitat characteristics and human activities are known to play a major role in the occupancy of jaguars Panthera onca across their range, however the key variables influencing jaguar distribution in Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica, have yet to be identified. This study evaluated jaguar occupancy in Tortuguero National Park and the surrounding area. Jaguar detection/non-detection data was collected using digital camera traps distributed within the boundaries of the protected area. Local community members were also interviewed to determine jaguar occurrence in the Park’s buffer zone. Occupancy models were then applied to identify the habitat characteristics that may better explain jaguar distribution across the study area. From June 2012 to June 2013, a total of 4 339 camera trap days were used to identify 18 individual jaguars inside the protected area; 17 of these jaguars were exclusively detected within the coastal habitat, whilst the remaining individual was detected solely within the interior of the Park. Interviewees reported 61 occasions of jaguar presence inside the buffer zone, between 1995 and 2013, with 80% of these described by the communities of Lomas de Sierpe, Barra de Parismina and La Aurora. These communities also reported the highest levels of livestock predation by jaguars (85% of attacks. In the study area, jaguar occurrence was positively correlated with the seasonal presence of nesting green turtles Chelonia mydas, and negatively correlated with distance to the Park boundary. Our findings suggested that the current occupancy of the jaguar in the study area may be a response to: 1 the vast availability of prey (marine turtles on Tortuguero beach, 2 the decline of its primary prey species as a result of illegal hunting inside the Park, and 3 the increase in anthropogenic pressures in the Park boundaries. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (4: 1449-1458. Epub 2014 December 01.

  6. Summer diet composition of the Common Leopard Panthera pardus (Carnivora: Felidae in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Achyut

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Common Leopard Panthera pardus is one of the most widely distributed of all big cats. It is a threatened species throughout its range due to the degradation of natural habitat, poaching and persecution as a killer of humans and livestock. The purpose of this study was to determine the composition of the Common Leopard diet in the Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve (DHR of Nepal. Among prey species Barking Deer (Muntiacus muntjak were observed most frequently (18% in leopard scats, while Blue Sheep (Pseudois nayaur were observed less frequently (6%.

  7. Notes on the coati, Nasua nasua (Carnivora: Procyonidae in an Atlantic Forest area

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    B. M. BEISIEGEL

    Full Text Available Although Nasua nasua is broadly distributed geographically and relatively common, it is still little studied. This paper reports observations of coatis in an Atlantic Forest area, the Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho (PECB in São Paulo State, Brazil. The social structure of coatis at PECB seems to be the same related in the literature. The mating season appears to be August-September and the pups are born in October-November. Coatis are mainly arboreal at the PECB, contrasting with habits reported in the data from other areas. This preference for the arboreal stratum no doubt is related to their foraging in epiphytic bromeliads, which occurred in 90.6% of the instances in which they were observed feeding. Bromeliads are a rich food source much more common in the Atlantic Forest than in other areas where coatis have been observed. This result suggests that this species is able to adjust its foraging and strata preferences to different environments without changing its basic social structure.

  8. Prospective thinking in a mustelid? Eira barbara (Carnivora) cache unripe fruits to consume them once ripened

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley, Fernando G.; Alvarado-Díaz, Isaías

    2011-08-01

    The ability of nonhuman animals to project individual actions into the future is a hotly debated topic. We describe the caching behaviour of tayras ( Eira barbara) based on direct observations in the field, pictures from camera traps and radio telemetry, providing evidence that these mustelids pick and cache unripe fruit for future consumption. This is the first reported case of harvesting of unripe fruits by a nonhuman animal. Ripe fruits are readily taken by a variety of animals, and tayras might benefit by securing a food source before strong competition takes place. Unripe climacteric fruits need to be harvested when mature to ensure that they continue their ripening process, and tayras accurately choose mature stages of these fruits for caching. Tayras cache both native (sapote) and non-native (plantain) fruits that differ in morphology and developmental timeframes, showing sophisticated cognitive ability that might involve highly developed learning abilities and/or prospective thinking.

  9. First larval record of Mesocestoides in carnivora of Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Pilar; Pérez Rivero, Alfredo; Santana Morales, María A; Kabdur, Alicia; González, Ana C; Quispe Ricalde, M Antonieta; Feliu, Carlos; Valladares, Basilio

    2007-02-01

    Larvae of Mesocestoides sp. were recovered in Tenerife (Canary Islands) in 2004 from the peritoneal cavities of 2 domestic dogs and a domestic cat. Morphological and molecular identification were carried out. Mesocestoides litteratus from Vulpes vulpes was sequenced for the first time using the ITS-2 region (18S rDNA), and was included in the phylogenetic analysis to compare the sequence variability among these and other Mesocestoides spp. belonging to different carnivores. Phylogenetic studies were carried out based on maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining analysis. The results showed the relationships between these and other previously published Mesocestoides species. Moreover, it is demonstrated that Mesocestoides sp. from Tenerife comprises a previously unreported sequence. This is the first larval record of Mesocestoides sp. in domestic animals from Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

  10. Density, distribution, and activity of the ocelot Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae in Southeast Mexican rainforests

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    Gabriela Pérez-Irineo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ocelot Leopardus pardalis is of particular significance in terrestrial communities due to its ecological role within the group of small-sized felids and as a mesopredator. However, despite the reduction of ocelot habitat in Southeast Mexico, there are still very few ecological studies. This research aimed to contribute with some ecological aspects of the species in this region. For this, 29 camera trap stations were established in a rain forest in Los Chimalapas (an area of 22km2 during a two years period (March 2011-June, 2013, in Oaxaca state, Southeast Mexico. Data allowed the estimation of the population density, activity pattern, sex ratio, residence time, and spatial distribution. Population density was calculated using Capture-Recapture Models for demographically open populations; besides, circular techniques were used to determine if nocturnal and diurnal activity varied significantly over the seasons, and Multiple Discriminant Analysis was used to determine which of the selected environmental variables best explained ocelot abundance in the region. A total of 103 ocelot records were obtained, with a total sampling effort of 8 529 trap-days. Density of 22-38individuals/100km2 was estimated. Ocelot population had a high proportion of transient individuals in the zone (55%, and the sex ratio was statistically equal to 1:1. Ocelot activity was more frequent at night (1:00-6:00h, but it also exhibited diurnal activity throughout the study period. Ocelot spatial distribution was positively affected by the proximity to the village as well as by the amount of prey. The ocelot population here appears to be stable, with a density similar to other regions in Central and South America, which could be attributed to the diversity of prey species and a low degree of disturbance in Los Chimalapas. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (4: 1421-1432. Epub 2014 December 01.

  11. Feeding ecology and morphology of the upper canines in bears (carnivora: Ursidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Per

    2008-07-01

    The morphology and mechanical strength of the upper canines in all eight extant species of ursids is analyzed, and the findings are discussed in relation to feeding ecology. Ursids have proportionally smaller canines than other large carnivores with a specialized feeding ecology, such as large felids, and the upper canine morphology is both canid-like and felid-like. The giant panda is the most divergent species, and its short, blunt, and cone-like canines appear well adapted for tearing into bamboo. The almost equally herbivorous spectacled bear has a less derived canine morphology. The large canines of the sun bear are divergent from other ursine ursids, and may be an adaptation for tearing open tree trunks in search of insects. Discriminant Analysis is successful in separating ursid species on the basis of canine morphology, but the canines of ursine ursids, and also of the spectacled bear, show greater resemblance among the species than the marked differences in feeding ecology would suggest. This could be in part due to a short evolutionary history, and in part due to canines not having been subjected to much evolutionary selection as has been the case among other large carnivores, such as large felids. Ursids are probably evolutionarily and ecologically successful due to physical size and strength rather than a derived craniodental anatomy.

  12. Sex differences in spatial ability: a test of the range size hypothesis in the order Carnivora

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial cognition have been reported for many species ranging from voles to humans. The range size hypothesis predicts that sex differences in spatial ability will only occur in species in which the mating system selects for differential range size. Consistent with this prediction, we observed sex differences in spatial ability in giant pandas, a promiscuous species in which males inhabit larger ranges than females, but did not observe sex differences in Asian small-clawed ...

  13. [Population estimates and conservation of felids (Carnivora: Felidae) in Northern Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Nájera, Dulce María; Chávez, Cuauhtémoc; Lazcano-Barrero, Marco A; Pérez-Elizalde, Sergio; Alcántara-Carbajal, José Luis

    2015-09-01

    Wildlife density estimates provide an idea of the current state of populations, and in some cases, reflect the conservation status of ecosystems, essential aspects for effective management actions. In Mexico, several regions have been identified as high priority areas for the conservation of species that have some level of risk, like the Yucatan Peninsula (YP), where the country has the largest population of jaguars. However, little is known about the current status of threatened and endangered felids, which coexist in the Northeastern portion of the Peninsula. Our objective was to estimate the wild cats' density population over time at El Eden Ecological Reserve (EEER) and its surrounding areas. Camera trap surveys over four years (2008, 2010, 2011 and 2012) were conducted, and data were obtained with the use of capture-recapture models for closed populations (CAPTURE + MMDM or 1/2 MMDM), and the spatially explicit capture-recapture model (SPACECAP). The species studied were jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), jaguarundi (Puma yaguaroundi) and margay (Leopardus wiedii). Capture frequency was obtained for all five species and the density for three (individuals/100km2). The density estimated with The Mean Maximum Distance Moved (MMDM), CAPTURE, ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 for jaguars, from 1.7 to 4.3 for pumas and from 1.4 to 13.8 for ocelots. The density estimates in SPACECAP ranged from 0.7 to 3.6 for jaguars, from 1.8 to 5.2 for pumas and 2.1 to 5.1 for ocelots. Spatially explicit capture recapture (SECR) methods in SPACECAP were less likely to overestimate densities, making it a useful tool in the planning and decision making process for the conservation of these species. The Northeastern portion of the Yucatan Peninsula maintains high populations of cats, the EEER and its surrounding areas are valuable sites for the conservation of this group of predators. Rev. Biol.

  14. [Identification of individual jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor) based on footprint morphometry (Carnivora: Felidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi-Catalá, Emiliana; Barreto, Guillermo R

    2008-12-01

    Estimating feline abundance becomes particularly difficult, sometimes impossible, due to their elusive behavior and extensive space requirements. Available techniques are expensive and/or poorly efficient, therefore alternative methods are needed. The objective of this study was to assess the possibility of identifying individual jaguars and pumas based on morphometric analyses of their tracks. The footprints of five jaguars and four pumas were drawn and the foot (hind or fore foot, left or right foot) and the substrate were recorded. We took 16 measures from each footprint including lengths, widths, areas and angles. Variables were analyzed by using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and substituted by the first Principal Component (PC) (> 70% variance). We assessed the effect of the substrate and type of foot by means of paired t-student tests, and found differences between fore and hind feet and footprints from the same individual when made on soil or sand. No differences were found between right or left feet. The footprints changed over time as revealed by Multiple ANOVA. Different individuals could be identifyied based on discriminant analyses with more than 70% confidence. We conclude that this method is feasible and can be useful when studying endangered felines.

  15. Distribution of ectoparasites of Canis lupus familiaris L. (Carnivora: Canidae from Panama

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    Roberto Miranda C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. To determine the distribution of ectoparasites in dogs in Panama. Materials and methods. There were surveyed 720 canines belonging to 57 communities. Results. The results showed that 84% of the dogs were infested with at least one species of ectoparasite. Dogs from lowlands showed a higher percentage of parasitism and a greater biodiversity of parasites than dogs from highlands. There were found seven species of ticks, four species of fleas, two species of lice, and one specie of botfly. The ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense, A. ovale and the flea Ctenocephalides felis were widespread; however Ixodes boliviensis and Pulex simulans showed a much narrower geographic distribution and they were found only in dogs from highlands. The flea species Rhopalopsyllus cacicus and the tick Haemaphysalis juxtakochi were found for the first time in panamanian dogs. Conclusions. The environmental situation in Panama, can encourage that wildlife ectoparasites parasitized dogs in absence of their native hosts. This condition may increase transmission risk of some diseases where the ticks and fleas are vectors.

  16. ANATOMY OF BONE AND MUSCLE OF SCAPULA AND ARM OF Chrysocyon Brachyurus (CARNIVORA, CANIDAE

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    Saulo Gonçalves Pereira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus - Illiger, 1815, is the largest canid of South America     and its found in the central region of the continent, preferably in open field biomes. It may reach between 20 and 33 kg and up to 125 cm. It is under threat of extinction. Anatomical knowledge is  of great importance to the completion of information about wild species and clinical, surgical, and conservationist implications. This study aimed to describe the bones and the bone accidents of the cingulate forelimb of brachial region and their respective muscles in maned wolf, through dissection procedures of animals preserved in 10% formalin solution. The animals belong to the didactic collection of the Laboratory of Education and Research on Wild Animals of UFU, and are the result of roadkill. The bones are scapula and humerus. There was no clavicula. The muscles are: M. deltoideus; M. supraspinatus; M. infraspinatus; M. teres major; M. teres minor; M. triceps brachii caput: laterale, accessorium, longum and mediale; M. anconeus; M. biceps; M. subscapularis; M.  coracobrachialis; M. tensor fasciae antebrachii; M. brachial. The scapula and arm have specific accidents; however, they are similar to domestic dogs. The humerus is straight. The muscles have some peculiarities. Keywords: anatomy; canids; maned wolf; muscles; osteology.

  17. Occurrence (new record of maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 (Carnivora, Canidae in southern Brazil

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    Leandro Chisté Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study presents the record of occurrence of Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 in an area of wet grasslands which is adjacent to the riparian forest along Ibicui river, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The species was found through the use of camera traps and search of vestiges in pre-established transections in the area, as part of a environmental monitoring program of a forestation project.

  18. Disease, food and reproduction of the maned wolf: Chrysocyon Brachyurus (Illiger (Carnivora, Canidae in southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory T. de Carvalho

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent endoparasite of the Maned wolf - Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 is the giant kidney-worm. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782. It has heen responsible for the majority of deaths of captive animals. Twenty-six marked wolves have been followed in the field with ear-tags and radio-collar tagged (Tab. II to investigate their interactions with the environment, their diurnal shelters, movements and habits, and their delivery sites. Ten years of life history data have heen gathered. They are territorial and monogamous, and give birth to two or three young once a year, after a 63 days gestation, on average. Maned wolves inhabit the open areas and have omnivorous feeding habits.

  19. Reproductive Biology Including Evidence for Superfetation in the European Badger Meles meles (Carnivora: Mustelidae.

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    Leigh A L Corner

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of the European badger (Meles meles is of wide interest because it is one of the few mammal species that show delayed implantation and one of only five which are suggested to show superfetation as a reproductive strategy. This study aimed to describe the reproductive biology of female Irish badgers with a view to increasing our understanding of the process of delayed implantation and superfetation. We carried out a detailed histological examination of the reproductive tract of 264 female badgers taken from sites across 20 of the 26 counties in the Republic of Ireland. The key results show evidence of multiple blastocysts at different stages of development present simultaneously in the same female, supporting the view that superfetation is relatively common in this population of badgers. In addition we present strong evidence that the breeding rate in Irish badgers is limited by failure to conceive, rather than failure at any other stages of the breeding cycle. We show few effects of age on breeding success, suggesting no breeding suppression by adult females in this population. The study sheds new light on this unusual breeding strategy of delayed implantation and superfetation, and highlights a number of significant differences between the reproductive biology of female Irish badgers and those of Great Britain and Swedish populations.

  20. New Information About The Behavior Of Lontra Longicaudis (Carnivora: Mustelidae By Radio-Telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakano-Oliveira E.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Nakano-Oliveira, Roberto Fusco, Etiene A. V. Dos Santos, Emygdio L. A. CDuring the development of a study about a community of carnivorous mammals, an otter was captured and equiped with a radio transmitter in an area of mangrove in the south coast of the State of São Paulo, southeast of Brazil. This study verified that: 1 - the animal used at least three burrows without communication between them. 2 – the most used burrow was at a distance of 2,6 km from the capture place; 3 - this individual usually moved between two islands that were separated by an estuary whose medium width was of approximately 1 km; 4 – it spent a long period on a small island of approximately 0,06 Km2 where a muddy substratum prevailed, not allowing the construction of a burrow. In spite of the little time that the otter stayed with the radio-transmitter, the data obtained are of relevant importance as they show an unknown activity pattern, besides showing in a short period some patterns of burrow use. Even though the otter removed its radio-collar, it didn’t cause any damage to the individual and it allowed the registration of behaviour patterns that had not been described before. Based upon the radio-transmitter as adapted, new perspectives open up for the effective study of this species, increasing the possibilities of obtaining data about activity patterns and home range for Lontra longicaudis.

  1. Otariodibacter oris and Bisgaardia genomospecies 1 isolated from infections in pinnipeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie Johanne; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Delaney, Martha Ann;

    2013-01-01

    in pure culture from four abscesses, an affected lymph node, and a bone lesion consistent with osteomyelitis. Otariodibacter oris was also cultured with Arcanobacterium phocae and β-hemolytic streptococci. A pure culture of Bisgaardia genomospecies 1 was obtained from an abscess in a harbor seal....... This is the first time, to our knowledge, that O. oris has been associated with infection. Isolation of these bacteria in pure culture from abscesses and osteomyelitis strongly indicates a pathogenic potential of this organism. Likewise, the isolation of Bisgaardia genomospecies 1 in pure culture from an abscess...

  2. Comparative immunological characterization of type-specific and conserved B-cell epitopes of pinniped, felid and canid herpesviruses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Lebich; T.C. Harder (Timm); H.R. Frey; I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B. Liess

    1994-01-01

    textabstractMurine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were generated against phocid herpesviruses (PhHV 2557/Han88 and 7848/Han90) isolated from European harbour seals (Phoca vitulina), and against strains of both felid (FHV strain FVR 605) and canid herpesviruses (CHV isolate 5105/Han89). MAbs were chara

  3. Applicability of single-camera photogrammetry to determine body dimensions of pinnipeds: Galapagos sea lions as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meise, Kristine; Mueller, Birte; Zein, Beate; Trillmich, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    Morphological features correlate with many life history traits and are therefore of high interest to behavioral and evolutionary biologists. Photogrammetry provides a useful tool to collect morphological data from species for which measurements are otherwise difficult to obtain. This method reduces disturbance and avoids capture stress. Using the Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) as a model system, we tested the applicability of single-camera photogrammetry in combination with laser distance measurement to estimate morphological traits which may vary with an animal's body position. We assessed whether linear morphological traits estimated by photogrammetry can be used to estimate body length and mass. We show that accurate estimates of body length (males: ±2.0%, females: ±2.6%) and reliable estimates of body mass are possible (males: ±6.8%, females: 14.5%). Furthermore, we developed correction factors that allow the use of animal photos that diverge somewhat from a flat-out position. The product of estimated body length and girth produced sufficiently reliable estimates of mass to categorize individuals into 10 kg-classes of body mass. Data of individuals repeatedly photographed within one season suggested relatively low measurement errors (body length: 2.9%, body mass: 8.1%). In order to develop accurate sex- and age-specific correction factors, a sufficient number of individuals from both sexes and from all desired age classes have to be captured for baseline measurements. Given proper validation, this method provides an excellent opportunity to collect morphological data for large numbers of individuals with minimal disturbance.

  4. Applicability of single-camera photogrammetry to determine body dimensions of pinnipeds: Galapagos sea lions as an example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Meise

    Full Text Available Morphological features correlate with many life history traits and are therefore of high interest to behavioral and evolutionary biologists. Photogrammetry provides a useful tool to collect morphological data from species for which measurements are otherwise difficult to obtain. This method reduces disturbance and avoids capture stress. Using the Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki as a model system, we tested the applicability of single-camera photogrammetry in combination with laser distance measurement to estimate morphological traits which may vary with an animal's body position. We assessed whether linear morphological traits estimated by photogrammetry can be used to estimate body length and mass. We show that accurate estimates of body length (males: ±2.0%, females: ±2.6% and reliable estimates of body mass are possible (males: ±6.8%, females: 14.5%. Furthermore, we developed correction factors that allow the use of animal photos that diverge somewhat from a flat-out position. The product of estimated body length and girth produced sufficiently reliable estimates of mass to categorize individuals into 10 kg-classes of body mass. Data of individuals repeatedly photographed within one season suggested relatively low measurement errors (body length: 2.9%, body mass: 8.1%. In order to develop accurate sex- and age-specific correction factors, a sufficient number of individuals from both sexes and from all desired age classes have to be captured for baseline measurements. Given proper validation, this method provides an excellent opportunity to collect morphological data for large numbers of individuals with minimal disturbance.

  5. Morphology of the muscles of the shoulder, arms and forearms of the coati (Nasua nasua

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    Amilton Cesar dos Santos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The coati is an animal that belongs to the Phylum Chordata, the Class Mammalia, the Order Carnivora and the Procyonidae family. The striking feature of the family Procyonidae is the presence of five digits on the paws. These animals are classified as plantigrades and can do hand movements in different directions. It has habits of climbing trees to procreate, fleeing from danger, and sleeping at night. It feeds on fruits, small vertebrates, insects, nectar, eggs and vegetables. For this work were used three euthanized animals, from the Scientific Breeding Center (CECRIMPAS – UNIFEOB authorized by IBAMA (Process nº 02027.003731/04-76, fixed in formaldehyde solution 10%. This work describes the morphology of the muscles of the forelimb of the coati, through dissection and photographic documentation. In the studied species, we found anatomical adaptations of thoracic limb muscles which had a mass volume much greater than in other species (puma, alpaca, dog, cat, lhama and Cebus apella monkeys, and this fact was found to be directly related to their abilities in climbing and handicraft.

  6. The origin of the lower fourth molar in canids, inferred by individual variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Asahara

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background An increase in tooth number is an exception during mammalian evolution. The acquisition of the lower fourth molar in the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis, Canidae, Carnivora, Mammalia is one example; however, its developmental origin is not clear. In some canids (Canidae, individual variation exist as supernumerary molar M4. This study focuses on the acquisition of the lower fourth molar in canids and proposes that the inhibitory cascade model can explain its origin. Methods Occlusal view projected area of lower molars was determined from 740 mandibles obtained from Canis latrans, Nyctereutes procyonoides, and Urocyon cinereoargenteus museum specimens. For each molar, relative sizes of molars (M2/M1 and M3/M1 scores affected by inhibition/activation dynamics during development, were compared between individuals with and without supernumerary molar (M4. Results Possession of a supernumerary molar was associated with significantly larger M2/M1 score in Canis latrans, M3/M1 score in Nyctereutes procyonoides, and M2/M1 and M3/M1 scores in Urocyon cinereoargenteus compared to individuals of these species that lacked supernumerary molars. Discussion We propose that, in canids, the supernumerary fourth molar is attributable to reduced inhibition and greater activation during molar development. In the bat-eared fox, altered inhibition and activation dynamics of dental development during omnivorous-insectivorous adaptation may be a contributing factor in the origin of the lower fourth molar.

  7. Quirópteros do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Bats from Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dias

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856; Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842; Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856; Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838; Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767; Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823; Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903; Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818; Glosso-phaga soricina (Pallas, 1766; Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758; Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838; Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Artibeus obscuras Schinz, 1821; Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901; Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843; Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Diphylla ecaudata Von Spix, 1823; Eptesicus brasiliensis (DesMarest, 1819; Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Molossus molossus (Palas, 1766. One external (forearm length and 13 cranial meansurements were studied for 23 species. The meansurements of male and female specimens were treated separately. Comments about some taxonomic respects for some species studied are also included.

  8. Frugivoria em morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera no Parque Estadual Intervales, sudeste do Brasil Frugivory in bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera at the Intervales State Park, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Passos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at the Intervales State Park, an Atlantic Rain Forest area in Southeastern Brazil. Bats were monthly mist netted over a full year, and fecal samples were collected for dietary analysis. The seeds found in each sample were identified in the laboratory under a stereoscopic microscope by comparison with seeds taken from ripe fruits collected in the study area. Three hundred and seventy one bats were collected, of which 316 (85.2% were frugivorous. The total number of fecal samples with seeds and/or pulp was 121. Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 was the most abundant species in the study area (n = 157 captures and Solanaceae fruits accounted for 78.5% of the fecal samples with seeds (n = 56. Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (n = 21 samples fed mostly on Cecropiaceae (38% and Moraceae fruits (24%, and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (n = 7 samples on Cecropiaceae (57% and Moraceae (29%. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (n = 16 samples fed mostly on Piperaceae fruits (56,3%, but Solanaceae (31,3% and Rosaceae seeds (12,5% were also found in feces. Overall, seeds found in bat feces belong to eight plant families: Solanaceae (n = 67 samples; Cecropiaceae (n = 14; Piperaceae (n = 14; Moraceae (n = 8; Rosaceae (n = 3; Cucurbitaceae (n = 3; Cluseaceae (n = 1, and Araceae (n = 1. The close association of different bat species with fruits of certain plant families and genus may be related to a possible mechanism of resource partitioning that shapes the structure of the community.

  9. Quirópteros de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Chiropterus of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

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    Nélio Roberto dos Reis

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of information concerning mammals in the North of Paraná State, Brazil. a preliminary survey of bat species of the region of Londrina is presented. Three hundred and thirty four individuais of 18 species belonging to Phyllostomidae, Desmodontidae, Vespertilionidae and Molossidae families were collected. Data were gathered related to threir feeding habits, reproduction and time of achvity.

  10. Trophic ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae) in lotic and semilotic environments in southeastern Brazil Ecologia trófica de Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae) em ambientes lótico e semilótico no sudeste do Brasil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lívia B. Santos; Nelio R. dos Reis; Mário L. Orsi

    2012-01-01

    ...) environments of Paranapanema Valley, in southeastern Brazil. Aiming to compare the otter's diet of these two environments, we analyzed statistically the frequency of occurrence of main items in the scats...

  11. Estudo preliminar sobre a ecologia de Lontra longicaudis (Olfers (Carnivora, Mustelidae no Vale do Taquari, Sul do Brasil Preliminary study by the ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Olfers (Carnivora, Mustelidae in Taquari Valley, South Brazil

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    Carlos Benhur Kasper

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado em duas áreas no Vale do Taquari, região central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Sul do Brasil. Entre agosto de 2000 e dezembro de 2001 foi realizado um estudo sobre a dieta e o uso de abrigos e marcas odoríferas por Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818. Coletaram-se 275 marcas odoríferas, das quais 261 foram analisadas para determinação da dieta. O uso de marcas odoríferas ocorreu por deposição de fezes, sobretudo sobre locais conspícuos das margens dos rios ou no interior dos abrigos. Os abrigos foram formados principalmente por escavação paralela a margem dos rios. Estes abrigos foram altamente reutilizados. Ocorreu predação sobre três grupos de presas: peixes, mamíferos e insetos. Os peixes formam a base da dieta, e as famílias Loricariidae/Callichthyidae, Cichlidae, Pimelodidae/Auchenipteridae e Erythrinidae foram as mais freqüentes nas análises fecais. A ocorrência destes grupos de peixes na dieta é maior do que sua disponibilidade relativa no ambiente.The study was carried out in two areas of Taquari Valley, central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. Between August 2000 and December 2001 a study about diet and use of shelters and scent marks by Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 was performed. 275 spraints were colleted, of which 261 were analised for diet determination. The use of scent marks occured by the deposition of feaces mainly under conspicuous sites of the river margin or inside the shelters. The shelters were often formed by parallel excavation of river margin. The shelters were highly reused. Predation occurred on 3 groups of preys: Fish, Mammals and Insects. The fish, formed the diet base, and the families Loricariidae/Callichthyidae, Cichlidae, Pimelodidae/ Auchenipteridae and Erythrinidae were the most frequently identified ones in fecal analysis. The occurrence of these fish groups in the diet was higher then the relative availability in environment.

  12. New evidence of the sabertooth cat Smilodon (Carnivora: Machairodontinae in the late Pleistocene of southern Chilean Patagonia Nueva evidencia del gato dientes de sable Smilodon (Carnivora: Machairodontinae en el Pleistoceno tardío de Patagonia meridional chilena

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    ALFREDO PRIETO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Southern Patagonia is rich in late Pleistocene mammals, especially herbivores such as Camelids, Equids and Xenarthrans. Carnivores, on the other hand, are not commonly found in the paleontological record. One genus, Smilodon, is of particular interest because its presence in the region has not been demonstrated. In this paper, we present new fossil dental evidence that supports the presence of Smilodon populator (Lund in the region. This evidence corresponds to the most southern record of the genus in the world, and the final step in the colonization of South America after the Great American Biotic Interchange. An AMS radiocarbon date on teeth indicates that the remains from Southern Chilean Patagonia are the most recent record for the genus in South America.Surpatagonia es particularmente rica en mamíferos finiplesitocenos, particularmente camélidos, équidos y xenartros. Los carnívoros, por su parte, se encuentran representados en menor número en el registro paleontológico. Dentro de estos, el género Smilodon, es de particular interés debido a que su presencia en la región no ha sido convincentemente demostrada. En este trabajo presentamos evidencia dental que permite confirmar la presencia de Smilodon populator (Lund en la región. Esta evidencia corresponde al registro más sureño de este taxón y al paso final en la colonización de América del Sur después del Gran Intercambio Biótico Americano. Un fechado radiocarbónico directo AMS indica que los restos de Patagonia del Sur corresponden a los registros más tardíos para este género en el subcontinente.

  13. Pathologies of Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae in Southern Brazil Patologias de Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae em Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae no sul do Brasil

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    Moisés Gallas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821 Schmidt, 1972 has been observed in five species of wild felines. In the present study, five roadkilled oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775 were collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Chronic lesions caused by O. pardalis were observed in the small intestine of one of the specimens. Histological examination identified a well-defined leukocyte infiltration and an area of collagenous fibrosis. Only males parasites (n = 5 were found, with a prevalence of 20%. The life cycle of Oligacanthorhynchus species is poorly known, although arthropods may be their intermediate hosts. The low prevalence encountered may be related to the small number of hosts examined, and the reduced ingestion of arthropods infected by larvae of O. pardalis. This is the first report of O. pardalis parasitizing L. tigrinus in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.Para o Brasil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821 Schmidt, 1972 foi registrada em cinco espécies de felídeos silvestres. No presente estudo, cinco gatos-do-mato-pequenos (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775, vítimas de atropelamento, foram coletados no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Lesões crônicas causadas por O. pardalis foram observadas no intestino delgado de um dos espécimes. Cortes histológicos permitiram a identificação de um infiltrado leucocitário bem definido e uma área de fibrose do colágeno. Somente machos (n = 5 de O. pardalis foram encontrados, com prevalência de 20%. O ciclo biológico das espécies de Oligacanthorhynchus é pouco conhecido, no entanto, artrópodes foram considerados como hospedeiros intermediários. A baixa prevalência encontrada pode estar relacionada ao número de hospedeiros examinados, bem como, com a ingestão de poucos artrópodes infectados por larvas de O. pardalis. Este é o primeiro registro de O. pardalis parasitando L. tigrinus para o Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.

  14. Ocorrência de Puma concolor (Linnaeus (Felidae, Carnivora em áreas de vegetação remanescente de Santa Catarina, Brasil Presence of Puma concolor (Linnaeus (Felidae, Carnivora on remnant habitats in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mazzolli

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Several reports on puma (Puma concolor have been made in the State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, most of them in remnant original habitats above 800 meters. These records show a thight relationship between the puma with altitude and mainly with habitat quality. The eastern boundary of the puma range isset by the mountain chains of Serra do Mar and Serra Geral. The definite implementation of National Parks and Reserves, studies of movements, and polimorfism analyses are suggested, in order to provide protected habitats and assure the genetic flow amongst puma populations.

  15. Predation on Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae by Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae Predação em Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae por Leopardus pordalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae

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    João M. D. Miranda

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a few studies about predation on primates. Howler monkeys, being relatively large animals, were believed to be preyed on successfully only by medium to large-sized carnivores and large birds of prey. Our study took place at Chácara Payquerê, which is situated in the municipality of Balsa Nova, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Fingers and nails from Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 were founded in two faecal samples from Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758. With our documentation large howler monkey remains in faeces, the possibility of ocelot being a potential predator of all Neotropical primates should be taken into consideration.São poucos os estudos sobre a predação de primatas. Sendo os bugios animais relativamente grandes, acredita-se que somente médios e grandes carnívoros e grandes rapineiros possam lograr sucesso em sua predação. O estudo foi realizado na Chácara Payquerê, situada no município de Balsa Nova, Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Dedos e unhas de Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 foram encontradas em duas amostras fecais de Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 que foram coletadas. Com este registro de grande primata em fezes, a possibilidade de a jaguatirica ser um potencial predador de todos os primatas neotropicais pode ser levada em consideração.

  16. Diet of crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, in a suburban area of southern Brazil Dieta de graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, em uma região suburbana do sul do Brasil

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    Ezequiel Pedó

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, is a small canid with twilight and nocturnal habits from savannas and forests of South America. In this study, we seasonally determined and quantified the diet of C. thous in Lami Biological Reserve, a conservation unit with 179.78ha situated in a suburban area in the municipality of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. During the year 2000, we collected 80 fecal samples - 20 for each season - in two or three week sampling intervals, along trails inside the Reserve. Samples were dried in an oven for 24h at 60ºC, immersed in 70% alcohol, and prey items were identified using a stereomicroscope. The diet of the crab-eating fox was essentially carnivorous (87.62% composed by vertebrates, with seasonal variation (p = 0.0009 and absence of fruits. Small non-flying mammals and birds were the most frequent prey, being proportionally more preyed in autumn and summer, respectively. Arthropods were more preyed in winter and spring and bird/reptile eggs only in summer and spring, in the reproduction period of these groups.O graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, é um canídeo de pequeno porte de hábito crepuscular e noturno que ocorre nas savanas e florestas da América do Sul. Neste estudo foi avaliada a sazonalidade e a dieta de C. thous na Reserva Biológica do Lami, uma unidade de conservação com 179,78ha, situada na região suburbana do município de Porto Alegre, no sul do Brasil. Durante o ano de 2000 foram coletadas 80 amostras fecais - 20 por estação do ano - em coletas realizadas a cada duas ou três semanas, percorrendo as trilhas existentes na Reserva. As amostras foram desidratadas em estufa por 24h a 60ºC, imersas em álcool a 70%, e as presas foram identificadas com auxílio de estereomicroscópio. A dieta do graxaim-do-mato apresentou-se essencialmente carnívora (87,62% composta por vertebrados, com variação sazonal (p = 0,0009 e ausência de frutos. Pequenos mamíferos não-voadores e aves foram os itens mais freqüentes, sendo proporcionalmente mais predados no outono e no verão, respectivamente. Artrópodos foram mais predados no inverno e na primavera e ovos de aves e/ou répteis somente no verão e na primavera, período de reprodução nestes dois grupos.

  17. Mandibular and dental characteristics of Late Triassic mammaliaform Haramiyavia and their ramifications for basal mammal evolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhe-Xi Luo; Stephen M. Gatesy; Farish A. Jenkins Jr; William W. Amaral; Neil H. Shubin

    2015-01-01

    ... of the predecessors to crown Mammalia. Our tests of competing phylogenetic hypotheses with these new data show that Late Triassic haramiyids are a separate clade from multituberculate mammals and are excluded from the Mammalia...

  18. Population structure of the gomphothere Stegomastodon waringi (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Gomphotheriidae from the Pleistocene of Brazil

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    Dimila Mothé

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Quaternary fossil record of Águas de Araxá (Q AA is represented mainly by an accumulation of skeletal elements of several sizes, which are assigned to a population of Stegomastodon waringi. We analyzed 97 molars according to the ear stages of Sipson and Paula-Couto (1957, and developed a orphoetric ear index. The population structure (proportion of immature, subadult, adult, mature adult and senile adult individuals was identified, and these five age classes were compared to those of extant elephant populations and defined with social implications. The analysis made possible to establish that the population is largely composed of adults: 14.89% are immature individuals, 23.04% subadults, 27.65% adults, 17.21% mature adults and another 17.21% senile adults. Based on population structure, we do not discard the possibility that the fossil population was stable or in recovery, and/or was experiencing a high-predation period on younger individuals. The number of individuals composing the past population studied here could suggest that the occupied environment was open due to comparisons to populations of extant elephants. We consider this population as an aggregation of family units, which suggests a time of low environmental humidity. Based on literature and our findings, their extinction appears to be regional and probably related to a catastrophic event.O registro fossilífero do Quaternário de Águas de Araxá (QAA é representado principalmente pelo acúmulo de restos dentários e de esqueleto de diversos tamanhos, atribuídos a uma população pretérita do mastodonte Stegomastodon waringi. Foram analisados 97 molares de acordo com os estágios de desgaste propostos por Simpson e Paula-Couto 1957, e desenvolveu-se um índice morfométrico de desgaste. A estrutura populacional (proporção entre indivíduos imaturos, subadultos, adultos, adultos maduros e adultos senis foi identificada e comparada com populações de elefantes atuais. Foi possível estabelecer que esta população era amplamente composta por adultos: 14,89% eram indivíduos imaturos; 23,04% eram subadultos; 27,65% eram adultos; 17,21% eram adultos maduros e outros 17,21% eram adultos senis. Baseados na estrutura populacional observada, não se descartou a possibilidade desta população estar estável ou em recuperação e/ou de ter passado por um período de predação dos indivíduos mais jovens. O número de indivíduos encontrados nesta população sugere que esta ocupava um ambiente aberto, de acordo com comparações com populações de elefantes atuais. Considerou-se a assembléia de mastodontes do Quaternário de Águas de Araxá como uma agregação de unidades familiares, o que sugere um momento de baixa umidade ambiental. Baseados em literatura e nos resultados encontrados, a sua extinção parece ser regional e possivelmente relacionada a um evento catastrófico.

  19. Age Variations in Microtus guentheri Danford and Alston, 1880 (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SÖZEN, Mustafa; ÇOLAK, Ercüment; Nuri YİĞİT

    1999-01-01

    The skull, teeth, phallus and bacula of Microtus guentheri specimens raised in the laboratory were investigated at different stages of postnatal development. The most of the cranial measurements attained those of adults on day 60. There were determined to be some morphological differences between the skulls of young and adult voles. The incisors and the molars began to erupt at 3 and 6 days, respectively. It was shown that there was no difference in respect to the phallic and bacular morpholo...

  20. Behavioural sampling techniques and activity pattern of Indian Pangolin Manis crassicaudata (Mammalia: Manidae in captivity

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    R.K. Mohapatra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on six Indian Pangolins Manis crassicaudata observed in captivity at the Pangolin Conservation Breeding Centre, Nandankanan, Odisha, India over 1377 hours of video recordings for each pangolin between 1500hr and 0800hr on 81 consecutive observational days. Video recordings were made through digital systems assisted by infrared enabled CCTV cameras. The data highlights patterns relate to 12 different behaviour and enclosure utilization. Different interval periods for sampling of instantaneous behaviour from video recordings have been evaluated to develop optimal study methods for the future. The activity budgets of pangolins displayed natural patterns of nocturnal activity with a peak between 20:00-21:00 hr. When out of their burrow, they spent about 59% of the time walking in the enclosure, and 14% of the time feeding. The repeatability of the behaviours has a significant negative correlation with the mean time spent in that behaviour. Focal behavioural samples significantly correlated with instantaneous samples up to 15 minutes interval. The correlation values gradually decreased with the increase in sampling interval. The results indicate that results obtained from focal sampling and instantaneous sampling with relatively shorter intervals (=5 minutes are about equally reliable. The study suggests use of focal sampling, instead of instantaneous sampling to record behaviour relating to social interactions.

  1. New Pedetidae (Rodentia: Mammalia from the Mio-Pliocene of Africa

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    Pickford, M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pedetidae, or springhares, are represented by a single extant genus (Pedetes and five extinct ones (Parapedetes, Megapedetes, Propedetes, Rusingapedetes and Oldrichpedetes of which the latter two are new. The fossil record of pedetids tends to be scanty, but remains have been found in Southern Africa, East Africa, the Maghreb, the Arabian Peninsula, Turkey and Greece. Most of the localities have yielded only a few isolated teeth. We here describe some of the abundant fossil material from Namibia and Kenya, which throws a great deal of light onthe family.

    Los Pedetidae o liebres saltadoras están representados por un solo género actual (Pedetes y 5 extintos (Parapedetes, Megapedetes, Propedetes, Rusigapedetes y Oldrichpedetes, estos dos últimos son nuevos. El registro fósil de los pedétidos es escaso, pero restos fósiles han sido encontrados en Sudáfrica, África del Este, Magreb, Península Arábiga, Turquía y Grecia. La mayoría de las localidades sólo han suministrado unos pocos dientes aislados. En el presente trabajo describimos parte del abundante material fósil procedente de Namibia y Kenia, que arroja nueva luz al conocimiento de la familia.

  2. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in native and reforested areas in Rancho Alegre, Paraná, Brazil

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    Patrícia Helena Gallo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Generally, natural environments have been transformed into small forest remnants, with the consequent habitat loss and species extinction. The North Paraná State is not an exception, since only 2 to 4% of the original ecosystem occurs in small fragments of Stational Semidecidual Forest. We studied the species richness and abundance of bats in two forest fragments from the Fazenda Congonhas, in Rancho Alegre city, Paraná State, Brazil. Four samplings were undertaken in a legally protected native area (107.8ha and in a reforested area (11.8ha between April 2007 and March 2008. Samplings began at nightfall and lasted six hours, during two consecutive nights in each location. The individuals were captured using eight mist nets, with the same capture effort in both environments. A total of 397 individuals, 14 species and 10 genera were captured in the native area; while in the reforested area, 105 individuals, six species and four genera. Artibeus lituratus was the most common species in both fragments (n=328, 65.3%, followed by Artibeus fimbriatus (n=44, 8.8% and Artibeus jamaicensis (n=30, 6.0%. Other species including Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspicillata, Sturnira lilium, Chrotopterus auritus, Desmodus rotundus, Michronycteris megalotis, Phyllostomus hastatus, Phyllostomus discolor, Myoti levis, Myotis nigricans and Lasiurus blossevillii, accounted for 19.9% of the captures. The native area presented higher values of species richness (S=14 and diversity (H’=1.4802 in comparison to the reforested area (S=6, H’=0.57015. The t-test evidenced a significant difference between diversity among the sites (t=7.1075. Chao 1 index indicated that the sampling effort recorded approximately 78% from the total species richness for the native area and 75% for the reforested area. Therefore, the preservation of the forest fragment is essential since it provides habitat for a diverse community of bats. Forest management and reforestation actions may prevent drastic changes in the microclimate of neighboring areas within the forest fragment, and could allow the occupation of available niches in the area, by opportunistic and generalist species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1311-1322. Epub 2010 December 01.

  3. MORCEGOS (MAMMALIA, CHIROPTERA EM CAVERNAS NO MUNICÍPIO DE URUARÁ, PARÁ, NORTE DO BRASIL

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    Reinaldo Lucas Cajaiba

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudos em ambientes cavernícolas são fundamentais para o conhecimento de sua fauna e funcionamento. São ambientes essenciais para a conservação da biodiversidade, servindo de abrigo para grande número de espécies, entre elas, os morcegos. No estado do Pará, estudos sobre quirópteros em ambientes cavernícolas ainda são escassos, sendo necessário ampliar as pesquisas com esses animais. Sendo assim, o presente estudo teve como objetivo inventariar as espécies de quirópteros em cinco cavernas no município de Uruará-PA.O estudo foirealizado entre os meses de outubro e novembro de 2013. Para capturade morcegos foram utilizadas redes de neblina (mist nest. Foram capturados166 indivíduos pertencentes a nove espécies, três famílias e cinco guildas tróficas. As espécies mais abundantes foramDesmodus rotundus(N=63, seguido por Carollia perspicillata(N=43e Pteronotus parnellii(N=27. Os resultados demonstram a importância da continuidadedos inventários com maior número de levantamentos, não apenas nestas cavernas estudadas, mas em outras existentes na região. Palavras-chave: Amazônia, biodiversidade, Chiroptera, conservação. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n1p81-86

  4. The effect of daytime rain on the Indian Flying Fox (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Pteropodidae Pteropus giganteus

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    S. Baskaran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Excessive water loss during the day due to heat stress in bats of the genus Pteropus appears to be inevitable, because these bats are exposed to direct sunlight.  Rain also affects the rest pattern of the Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus during the day.  When rain occurred during the day, most of the bats hung in a slanting position and did not exhibit any movements.  After rain, they licked both ventral and dorsal surfaces of the wing membrane and scratched their body with their thumb claws.  They also licked the water droplets that remained on the leaves and branches of the tree.  Even though their rest had been affected by the rain the bats utilized the water droplets to quench their thirst, cool their body and clean their fur.  The construction of water reservoirs near Pteropus roosts will help to assure their long-term conservation. 

  5. Spatial use of rodents (Rodentia: Mammalia host body surface by ectoparasites

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    E. B. BITTENCOURT

    Full Text Available We studied the ectoparasite and the Amblyopinini beetle fauna associated with four small mammal species of the Atlantic Rainforest of Ilha Grande, an island located off the southern Rio de Janeiro State Coast, Southeastern Brazil, analyzing to what extent the parasites were specific to each region of the host body. During the study, a total of 90 individual rodents were captured: 61 Proechimys iheringi Thomas, 1911 (Echymyidae, 22 Sciurus aestuans (Thomas, 1901 (Sciuridae, 4 Oxymycterus sp. (Waterhouse, 1837, and 2 Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827 (Sigmodontinae. The data showed that the ectoparasites and Amblyopinini on some rodent hosts in Ilha Grande tend to prefer particular host body sites, and that some ectoparasite species sites may overlap owing to their inaccessibility to the host.

  6. LATE PLEISTOCENE RODENTS (MAMMALIA: RODENTIA FROM THE BARANICA CAVE NEAR KNJAZEVAC (EASTERN SERBIA: SYSTEMATICS AND PALAEOECOLOGY

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    KATARINA BOGICEVIC

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Baranica is a cave in the Balkan mountain range in the eastern part of Serbia. It contains four layers of sediments of Quaternary age. The Upper Pleistocene deposits (layers 2-4 have yielded a rich and diverse assemblage of vertebrate fauna, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small and large mammals. In this work, preliminary results of a study of the rodent fauna from the Upper Pleistocene deposits of the Baranica Cave (Knjazevac, eastern Serbia are presented. The fossil material comes from the 1995 archaeological excavation. The remains of 10 rodent species are described herein: Spermophilus cf. citelloides, Castor fiber, Sicista subtilis, Cricetulus migratorius, Cricetus cricetus, Mesocricetus newtoni, Apodemus ex gr. sylvaticus-flavicollis, Spalax leucodon, Dryomys nitedula, and Muscardinus avellanarius. Along with eight vole species, this makes altogether 18 species of rodents found in this locality. Both layers 2 and 4 (layer 3 is very poor in fossils have yielded a rodent fauna typical for the cold periods of the Late Pleistocene on the Balkan Peninsula, with a prevalence of open and steppe inhabitants, but some forest dwellers were also present. The assemblages from these layers are similar, but there are some differences in the composition of the fauna, which may indicate a slight shift towards drier conditions. They have also been compared to rodent associations from some Serbian and Bulgarian localities of the same age and their similarities and differences are discussed. SHORT NOTE-NOTA BREVE

  7. Macroscopic study of the digestive tract of Gracilinanus microtarsus (Wagner, 1842 (Mammalia: Didelphidae

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    Luis Miguel Lobo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gracilinanus microtarsus is a small marsupial species belonging to the Didelphidae family. It has an omnivorous/frugivorous feeding habit and, therefore, it has a great ecological importance, because it is a seed-dispersing species. This article aims to describe the macroscopic morphology of the digestive tract in G. microtarsus. We used 4 animals fixed in 10% formaldehyde. The organs were dissected, measured, and photographed. The animals under study had the dental formula 2x I 5/4 C 1/1 P 3/3 M 4/4. This is the dental formula of the whole Didelphidae family. The dorsum of the tongue had vallate, fungiform, and filiform papillae. Tubular esophagus evidenced the cervical, thoracic, and abdominal portions. The unicavitary stomach consisted of glandular and aglandular region and gastric folds. Small intestine had 3 portions: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Large intestine consisted of: cecum, colon, and rectum. Parotid salivary gland was the largest and it had a flattened shape. The sublingual salivary gland, whi h was the smallest, had a flattened and elongated shape. Mandibular salivary gland had an oval shape. Pancreas had a dispersed shape and lobulated aspect. Liver had a dome shape and it consisted of the lobes right medial, square, right side, left medial, left side, and caudate. The digestive tract of the animals under study is similar to the marsupial species described in the literature.

  8. Cave-dwelling bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera and conservation concerns in South central Mindanao, Philippines

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    Krizler C. Tanalgo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stable microclimate in caves provides a relatively constant habitat for many bat species in the Philippines, but human encroachment continues to disrupt this habitat and imperil many of the species roosting in the caves.  In South central Mindanao, the diversity and conservation status of cave bats remain undocumented and unexplored.  We employed mist-netting to capture bats from five different caves within the town of Kabacan, northern Cotabato, Philippines.  A total of 14 bat species were identified including the Philippine endemics Hipposideros pygmaeus and Ptenochirus jagori and the threatened Megaerops wetmorei. However, despite the declining conservation status of the bats, local disturbance such as bat hunting for bush meat and unregulated tourism are currently taking place in the caves.  Large species such as Eonycteris spelaea and Rousettus amplexicaudatus are killed almost every day for food and trade.  Therefore, the high species richness, and the presence of endemic and threatened species coupled with the occurrence of anthropogenic disturbances in caves suggests the need for an urgent and effective conservation intervention involving the local government and public community. 

  9. Remarks on the biology and zoogeography of Solenodon (Atopogale) cubanus Peters, 1861 (Mammalia, Insectivora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varona, Luis S.

    1983-01-01

    The biology of Solenodon cubanus Peters, 1861, is poorly known. Recently, a male and two females were studied in the Havana Zoo and observations on this species were made in the field as well. The animals were docile unless startled or handled roughly. Previously unpublished information on their

  10. A new species of Gobiconodon (Triconodonta, Mammalia) and its implication for the age of Jehol Biota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new species of Gobiconodon is found from the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, China. The new taxa, G. zofiae sp. nov., has a confluent opening for branches Ⅱ and Ⅲ of the trigeminal nerve on the anterior lamina of the petrosal. G. zofiae sp. nov. is similar to Repenomamus in having an ossified Meckel's cartilage connecting the lower jaws and ear region. The new species, with enlarged I1/I1, posteriorly located infraorbital foramen and four mental foramina, distinctly differs from the other species of Gobiconodon. The new material indicates that Gobiconodon has four, not five, upper molariforms. The presence of Gobiconodon in Jehol Biota makes it possible to correlate Jehol Biota with faunas in eastern Asia and North America, and suggests the age of the Yixian Formation to be Early Cretaceous.

  11. Sexual dimorphism of the internal mandibular chamber in Fayum Pliohyracidae (Mammalia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blieux, D.D.; Baumrind, M.R.; Simons, E.L.; Chatrath, P.S.; Meyer, G.E.; Attia, Y.S.

    2006-01-01

    An internal mandibular fenestra and chamber are found in many fossil hyracoids. The internal mandibular fenestra is located on the lingual surface of the mandibular corpus and opens into a chamber within the mandible. The mandibular chamber is maximally developed in late Eocene Thyrohyrax meyeri and early Oligocene Thyrohyrax domorictus from the Fayum Province of Egypt. The function of this chamber is unknown as it is not found in extant hyraxes, nor is it known to occur in any other mammal. In Thyrohyrax, this feature appears to be sexually dimorphic because it is confined to roughly one half of the specimens that otherwise cannot be separated by dental characteristics or measurements. It has been suggested that the chamber is found in females based on the presumed distribution of this character in other fossil hyracoids. Fossils from Fayum Quarry L-41, preserving the sexually dimorphic anterior dentition, show that, in Thyrohyrax meyeri and Thyrohyrax domorictus, the internal mandibular chamber is found in males. In Thyrohyrax litholagus, an internal mandibular fenestra and inflated mandibular chamber occurs in males whereas females show the variable presence of an internal mandibular fossa or fenestra but lack an expanded chamber. Other genera show differing patterns of sexual variation in which some Fayum hyracoids have an internal mandibular fenestra in both sexes but with the greatest development of the mandibular chamber occurring in males. We review functions proposed for the internal mandibular chamber and suggest that it housed a laryngeal air sac that may have had a vocal function by acting as a resonating chamber. ?? 2006 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.

  12. Identification of Bacterial Specialists in Hosts belonging to Aves, Mammalia, and Pisces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Only a portion of bacteria found in animal guts are able to establish specific associations within animal hosts. Taxa that have formed these specialized relationships may have played a prominent role in host evolution and may also contribute significantly to current host physiolo...

  13. Identification of specialists and abundance-occupancy relationships among intestinal bacteria of Aves, Mammalia, and Actinopterygii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coalescence of next generation DNA sequencing methods, ecological perspectives, and bioinformatics analysis tools is rapidly advancing our understanding of the evolution and function of vertebrate-associated bacterial communities. Delineating host-microbial associations has a...

  14. Crocidura sicula Miller, 1900 (Mammalia, Soricidae: a possible new record from Comino island (Maltese Islands

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    Giovanni Amori

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Crocidura sicula Miller, 1900 is reported for the first time from the Comino island. Two specimenswere obtained from the analysis of Long-eared Owl Asio otus (Linnaeus, 1758 pellets.

  15. Note on the Giant Woolly Gliding Squirrel Eupetaurus cinereus (Mammalia: Rodentia: Sciuridae in northern Pakistan

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    Jaffar Ud Din

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Woolly Gliding Squirrel Eupetaurus cinereus is an extremely rare, localized, and endangered mammal and may constitute one of the endemic species of Pakistan. The species was rediscovered in northern Pakistan in the mid-1990s after a 70-year absence of records. All the previous information regarding this giant squirrel was limited to museum specimens, collected mostly from areas presently in northern Pakistan in the late 1800s. Sighting of the species is extremely challenging owing to its nocturnal behavior, low densities and the inhospitable terrain it is reported from. Here we report detailed information about the species collected during the rescue of a young male individual from Gilgit City followed by its successful release in its natural habitat. We report that the species is still facing human-induced threats and may disappear from the mountains of northern Pakistan if informed management measures are not taken. Moreover, the occurrence of the species outside its core distribution range, i.e., districts Gilgit and Diamer, still remains questionable; therefore, it is recommended that further in-depth research studies be undertaken to determine the status of the species across the entire reported range. 

  16. On the relationship between enamel band complexity and occlusal surface area in Equids (Mammalia, Perissodactyla

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    Nicholas A. Famoso

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Enamel patterns on the occlusal surfaces of equid teeth are asserted to have tribal-level differences. The most notable example compares the Equini and Hipparionini, where Equini have higher crowned teeth with less enamel-band complexity and less total occlusal enamel than Hipparionini. Whereas previous work has successfully quantified differences in enamel band shape by dividing the length of enamel band by the square root of the occlusal surface area (Occlusal Enamel Index, OEI, it was clear that OEI only partially removes the effect of body size. Because enamel band length scales allometrically, body size still has an influence on OEI, with larger individuals having relatively longer enamel bands than smaller individuals. Fractal dimensionality (D can be scaled to any level, so we have used it to quantify occlusal enamel complexity in a way that allows us to get at an accurate representation of the relationship between complexity and body size. To test the hypothesis of tribal-level complexity differences between Equini and Hipparionini, we digitally traced a sample of 98 teeth, one tooth per individual; 31 Hipparionini and 67 Equini. We restricted our sampling to the P3-M2 to reduce the effect of tooth position. After calculating the D of these teeth with the fractal box method which uses the number of boxes of various sizes to calculate the D of a line, we performed a t-test on the individual values of D for each specimen, comparing the means between the two tribes, and a phylogenetically informed generalized least squares regression (PGLS for each tribe with occlusal surface area as the independent variable and D as the dependent variable. The slopes of both PGLS analyses were compared using a t-test to determine if the same linear relationship existed between the two tribes. The t-test between tribes was significant (p < 0.0001, suggesting different D populations for each lineage. The PGLS for Hipparionini was a positive but not significant (p = 0.4912 relationship between D and occlusal surface area, but the relationship for Equini was significantly negative (p = 0.0177. λ was 0 for both tests, indicating no important phylogenetic signal is present in the relationship between these two characters, thus the PGLS collapses down to a non-phylogenetic generalized least squares (GLS model. The t-test comparing the slopes of the regressions was not significant, indicating that the two lineages could have the same relationship between D and occlusal surface area. Our results suggest that the two tribes have the same negative relationship between D and occlusal surface area but the Hipparionini are offset to higher values than the Equini. This offset reflects the divergence between the two lineages since their last common ancestor and may have constrained their ability to respond to environmental change over the Neogene, leading to the differential survival of the Equini.

  17. The bats (Chiroptera; Mammalia of Mordovia: specific structure and features of distribution

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    Oleg N. Artaev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the specific structure and distribution of the bats made in the territory of the Republic of Mordovia (Central Russia from the first half of the 20th century to the present. Occurence, relative abundance and patterns of distribution are briefly assessed for rare species. On this base, recommendations for inclusion these bats in the regional Red Data Book are presented. .In Mordovia twelve species of bats have been observed. There are widespread and numerous species: Pipistrellus nathusii, Myotis daubentonii, M. dasycneme, Nyctalus noctula and Vespertilio murinus. Widespread but less numerous species are: Myotis brandtii and Plecotus auritus. Finally, rare species are: Myotis nattereri, Nyctalus lasiopterus, N. leisleri, Pipistrellus pygmaeus and P. kuhlii.

  18. Leucism in Mexican small-eared shrew Cryptotis mexicana (Mammalia : Soricomorpha), endemic to Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guevara, Lazaro; Ramirez-Chaves, Hector E.; Cervantes, Fernando A.

    2011-01-01

    Leucism is the partial or complete reduction of the fur pigmentation where eyes and skin maintain their normal coloration. In this paper, we report the record of an individual of the endemic Mexican shrew Cryptotis mexicana from Veracruz, Mexico, that displays leucism. This lack of pigmentation, unc

  19. Galictis cuja (Mammalia: an update of current knowledge and geographic distribution

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    Daniela A. Poo-Muñoz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The lesser grison (Galictis cuja is one of the least-known mustelids in the Neotropics, despite its broad range across South America. This study aimed to explore current knowledge of the distribution of the species to identify gaps in knowledge and anticipate its full geographic distribution. Eighty-nine articles have mentioned G. cuja since 1969, but only 13 focused on the species. We generated a detailed model of the species' potential distribution that validated previous maps, but with improved detail, supporting previous southernmost records, and providing a means of identifying priority sites for conservation and management of the species.

  20. Phenotypic convergence in genetically distinct lineages of a Rhinolophus species complex (Mammalia, Chiroptera.

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    David S Jacobs

    Full Text Available Phenotypes of distantly related species may converge through adaptation to similar habitats and/or because they share biological constraints that limit the phenotypic variants produced. A common theme in bats is the sympatric occurrence of cryptic species that are convergent in morphology but divergent in echolocation frequency, suggesting that echolocation may facilitate niche partitioning, reducing competition. If so, allopatric populations freed from competition, could converge in both morphology and echolocation provided they occupy similar niches or share biological constraints. We investigated the evolutionary history of a widely distributed African horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus darlingi, in the context of phenotypic convergence. We used phylogenetic inference to identify and date lineage divergence together with phenotypic comparisons and ecological niche modelling to identify morphological and geographical correlates of those lineages. Our results indicate that R. darlingi is paraphyletic, the eastern and western parts of its distribution forming two distinct non-sister lineages that diverged ~9.7 Mya. We retain R. darlingi for the eastern lineage and argue that the western lineage, currently the sub-species R. d. damarensis, should be elevated to full species status. R. damarensis comprises two lineages that diverged ~5 Mya. Our findings concur with patterns of divergence of other co-distributed taxa which are associated with increased regional aridification between 7-5 Mya suggesting possible vicariant evolution. The morphology and echolocation calls of R. darlingi and R. damarensis are convergent despite occupying different biomes. This suggests that adaptation to similar habitats is not responsible for the convergence. Furthermore, R. darlingi forms part of a clade comprising species that are bigger and echolocate at lower frequencies than R. darlingi, suggesting that biological constraints are unlikely to have influenced the convergence. Instead, the striking similarity in morphology and sensory biology are probably the result of neutral evolutionary processes, resulting in the independent evolution of similar phenotypes.

  1. Phenotypic convergence in genetically distinct lineages of a Rhinolophus species complex (Mammalia, Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David S; Babiker, Hassan; Bastian, Anna; Kearney, Teresa; van Eeden, Rowen; Bishop, Jacqueline M

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypes of distantly related species may converge through adaptation to similar habitats and/or because they share biological constraints that limit the phenotypic variants produced. A common theme in bats is the sympatric occurrence of cryptic species that are convergent in morphology but divergent in echolocation frequency, suggesting that echolocation may facilitate niche partitioning, reducing competition. If so, allopatric populations freed from competition, could converge in both morphology and echolocation provided they occupy similar niches or share biological constraints. We investigated the evolutionary history of a widely distributed African horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus darlingi, in the context of phenotypic convergence. We used phylogenetic inference to identify and date lineage divergence together with phenotypic comparisons and ecological niche modelling to identify morphological and geographical correlates of those lineages. Our results indicate that R. darlingi is paraphyletic, the eastern and western parts of its distribution forming two distinct non-sister lineages that diverged ~9.7 Mya. We retain R. darlingi for the eastern lineage and argue that the western lineage, currently the sub-species R. d. damarensis, should be elevated to full species status. R. damarensis comprises two lineages that diverged ~5 Mya. Our findings concur with patterns of divergence of other co-distributed taxa which are associated with increased regional aridification between 7-5 Mya suggesting possible vicariant evolution. The morphology and echolocation calls of R. darlingi and R. damarensis are convergent despite occupying different biomes. This suggests that adaptation to similar habitats is not responsible for the convergence. Furthermore, R. darlingi forms part of a clade comprising species that are bigger and echolocate at lower frequencies than R. darlingi, suggesting that biological constraints are unlikely to have influenced the convergence. Instead, the striking similarity in morphology and sensory biology are probably the result of neutral evolutionary processes, resulting in the independent evolution of similar phenotypes.

  2. A structural intermediate between triisodontids and mesonychians (Mammalia, Acreodi) from the earliest Eocene of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuce, Rodolphe; Clavel, Julien; Antunes, Miguel Telles

    2011-02-01

    A new mammal, Mondegodon eutrigonus gen. et sp. nov., is described from the earliest Eocene locality of Silveirinha, Portugal. This species shows dental adaptations indicative of a carnivorous diet. M. eutrigonus is referred to the order Acreodi and considered, along with the early Paleocene North American species Oxyclaenus cuspidatus, as a morphological intermediate between two groups of ungulate-like mammals, namely, the triisodontids and mesonychians. Considering that triisodontids are early to early-late Paleocene North American taxa, Mondegodon probably belongs to a group that migrated from North America towards Europe during the first part of the Paleocene. Mondegodon could represent thus a relict genus, belonging to the ante-Eocene European mammalian fauna. The occurrence of such a taxon in Southern Europe may reflect a period of isolation of this continental area during the Paleocene/Eocene transition. In this context, the non-occurrence of closely allied forms of Mondegodon in the Eocene North European mammalian faunas is significant. This strengthens the hypothesis that the mammalian fauna from Southern Europe is characterized by a certain degree of endemism during the earliest Eocene. Mondegodon also presents some striking similarities with an unnamed genus from the early Eocene of India which could represent the first Asian known transitional form between the triisodontids and mesonychians.

  3. Description of males of Parabronema pecariae Ivaschkin, 1960 (Nematoda, Habronematoidea parasitizing peccaries (Mammalia, Tayassuidae in Brazil

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    Vicente J Júlio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes studied herein and identified as Parabronema pecariae were collected in 1936 in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Pará and in 1940 in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. This species was proposed, with basis on female specimens that had been described earlier as Parabronema sp. Although the presence of males of P. pecariae was previously reported in Brazil, their description was not provided. The present paper deals with the first complete morphometric data on male specimens of P. pecariae recovered from peccaries (Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari.

  4. Description of males of Parabronema pecariae Ivaschkin, 1960 (Nematoda, Habronematoidea) parasitizing peccaries (Mammalia, Tayassuidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, J J; Muniz-Pereira, L C; Noronha, D; Pinto, R M

    2000-01-01

    Nematodes studied herein and identified as Parabronema pecariae were collected in 1936 in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Pará and in 1940 in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. This species was proposed, with basis on female specimens that had been described earlier as Parabronema sp. Although the presence of males of P. pecariae was previously reported in Brazil, their description was not provided. The present paper deals with the first complete morphometric data on male specimens of P. pecariae recovered from peccaries (Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari).

  5. Cutaneous eccrine glands of the foot pads of the rock hyrax (Procavia capensis, Hyracoidea, mammalia)

    OpenAIRE

    Stumpf, P; Welsch, U

    2002-01-01

    In order to find correlations between skin gland morphology and specific ethological features, the cutaneous glands of the foot pads of Procavia capensis were studied by histological and various histochemical methods and by electron microscopy. In the foot pads, abundant specific eccrine skin glands occur, which consist of coiled tubular secretory portions and coiled ducts. The wall of the secretory part is composed of cuboidal glandular cells and myoepithelial cells. Among the glandular cell...

  6. Cutaneous eccrine glands of the foot pads of the rock hyrax (Procavia capensis, Hyracoidea, Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, P; Welsch, U

    2002-01-01

    In order to find correlations between skin gland morphology and specific ethological features, the cutaneous glands of the foot pads of Procavia capensis were studied by histological and various histochemical methods and by electron microscopy. In the foot pads, abundant specific eccrine skin glands occur, which consist of coiled tubular secretory portions and coiled ducts. The wall of the secretory part is composed of cuboidal glandular cells and myoepithelial cells. Among the glandular cells two types occur: clear and dark cells. Clear cells have numerous mitochondria and form a basal labyrinth, indicating fluid transport. Dark cells, which stain strongly with periodic acid-Schiff, contain a highly developed perinuclear Golgi apparatus, large amounts of rough endoplasmic reticulum and many secretory granules indicating production of glycoproteins. Cytokeratin (CK) 19 was found in secretory compartments and ducts, CK14 only in duct cells. Single cells of the secretory coils and ducts may be stained with antibodies against antimicrobial peptides. Some glandular cells contain proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive nuclei especially in the ducts indicating an increased cell proliferation. Terminal transferase (TdT)-mediated d-UTP nick-end labeling-positive nuclei can be detected predominantly in the secretory coils and rarely in the transitional portions between ducts and end pieces. We suppose that proliferating cells migrate from the ducts to the secretory coils. The secretory product of the eccrine cutaneous glands seems to improve the traction between the foot pads of these animals and the steep and smooth rock formations among which they live.

  7. Functional anatomy of the calcaneum and talus in Cercopithecinae (Mammalia, Primates, Cercopithecidae

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    Pina, M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the species of the order Primates exist a huge variety of forms and habitats. This heterogeneity has encouraged the evolution and development of a great number of locomotor adaptations to different environments. Thus, nowadays there are both arboreal and terrestrial groups within the order. The subfamily Cercopithecinae present taxa with both kinds of locomotor behaviours, although the most of them are adapted to a ground life-style. This group probably has an arboreal ancestor and its radiation is relatively recent. Consequently, species belonged to this group present mixed features or sometimes not too much derived ones. Likewise, it is important the fact that the evolutionary history and phylogeny of the group could influence in some characteristics. Both the calcaneum and the talus are two of the largest bones of the foot and are good for inferring the kind of locomotion. For this reason, it has been used these two tarsal bones to study the morphology of eight species of cercopithecines and then deduce functional implications of the kind of locomotion.

    Dentro del orden Primates existe una gran variedad de especies distribuidas a lo largo de hábitats muy diversos. Dicha heterogeneidad ha fomentado la evolución y desarrollo de un gran número de adaptaciones locomotoras a los diferentes ambientes en los que habitan. Así, existen en la actualidad tanto grupos arborícolas como terrestres. La subfamilia Cercopithecinae agrupa una serie de taxones que representan ambos comportamientos locomotores, aunque la mayoría de las especies están adaptadas a una vida en el suelo. Se supone que este grupo desciende de un ancestro arborícola y que su radiación es relativamente reciente. En consecuencia, las especies de este grupo presentan características mixtas o poco derivadas en algunas ocasiones. Asimismo, es importante tener en cuenta la influencia que la herencia filogenética puede tener sobre alguno de estos rasgos. El calcáneo y el astrágalo son dos de los huesos más grandes del pie y ambos son buenos indicadores del tipo de locomoción. Por este motivo, se han utilizado estos dos tarsales para llevar a cabo el estudio de la morfología de ocho especies de cercopitecoideos, de tal manera que luego se ha podido hacer una serie de inferencias funcionales en cuanto al tipo de locomocón de las mismas.

  8. Camera trapping the Palawan Pangolin Manis culionensis (Mammalia: Pholidota: Manidae in the wild

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    Paris N. Marler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Palawan Pangolin Manis culionensis is restricted to the Palawan faunal region in the Philippines.  The species’ distribution and natural history are poorly known due, in part, to it only recently being recognized as a distinct species.  Pangolin species around the world are threatened due to habitat loss and the illegal wildlife trade.  Understanding the conservation requirements of the Palawan Pangolin will inform efforts to avert its extinction.  Presently, information on the status, distribution, and natural history of pangolins is largely derived from interviews with local people, radio-telemetry, transect surveys for pangolin sign, and camera trapping.  Here we test the ability of fish oil- and pig blood-baited camera traps to document the presence of Palawan Pangolin.  We obtained three photos at two localities in Palawan in mangrove, lowland forest, and riverine forest.  

  9. Leucism in Mexican small-eared shrew Cryptotis mexicana (Mammalia : Soricomorpha), endemic to Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guevara, Lazaro; Ramirez-Chaves, Hector E.; Cervantes, Fernando A.

    Leucism is the partial or complete reduction of the fur pigmentation where eyes and skin maintain their normal coloration. In this paper, we report the record of an individual of the endemic Mexican shrew Cryptotis mexicana from Veracruz, Mexico, that displays leucism. This lack of pigmentation,

  10. Dental anomalies in Didelphis albiventris (Mammalia, Marsupialia, Didelphidae from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay

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    M. Amelia Chemisquy

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dental anomalies have been investigated and reported for most orders of mammals, including marsupials. Previous works in Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840 only described one kind of malformation or just a few observations from some collections, thus the type and presence of anomalies for this species was underestimated. The aim of this contribution is to describe and analyze several dental anomalies found in specimens of Didelphis albiventris from Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil. Dental anomalies were classified in three categories: supernumerary or missing teeth, morphological anomalies in size and shape, and teeth in unusual positions. We found 32 individuals of D. albiventris with anomalies out of 393 analyzed specimens (8.14%, some specimens with more than one anomaly. A similar proportion of specimens from Argentina and Uruguay presented anomalies, while in specimens from Brazil anomalies were less common. Anomalies were more commonly found in the upper toothrow and in molars, being supernumerary teeth and molars with unusual crown-shape the most common ones. The percentage of specimens with anomalies found for D. albiventris is higher than previously reported for the species, and other Didelphimorphia. Inbreeding and limited gene flow do not appear as possible explanations for the elevated percentage of anomalies, especially due to the ecological characteristics of Didelphis albiventris. Developmental instability and fluctuating asymmetry could be some of the causes for the anomalies found in this species, mostly since the habitat used by D. albiventris tends to be unstable and disturbed. Dental anomalies were mostly found in areas of the toothrow where occlusion is relaxed or does not prevent teeth from interlocking during mastication, and consequently have no functional value.

  11. Morphological analysis of teeth in Bradypus variegates Schinz, 1825 (Mammalia, Bradypodidae

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    Priscilla Virgínio de Albuquerque

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the sloth species, we may highlight the Bradypus variegatus, found especially in northeastern Brazil. Given the importance and scarcity of information about the digestive tract of wild animals, this article aims to describe dental morphology in this sloth species. To do this, four adult specimens, belonging to the anatomy collection of the Academic Center in Vitória de Santo Antão of the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE, were used. The sloth teeth were analyzed, removed from the arch, and they underwent two techniques for hard tissue histological preparation, wear, and decalcification. The blades obtained were analyzed using optical microscopes. Sloths have 18 molariform teeth, with cusps and interdental spaces. According to histological analysis, it was noticed that teeth have no enamel, they consist of 1 thick layer of cementum and 2 layers of dentin, one outside and another inside. The pulp looks like that of human beings. The presence of a thick and vascularized periodontal ligament was also noticed between the tooth and the alveolar bone, the latter with easily identified osteons.

  12. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 9. Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.

  13. A late-surviving apatemyid (Mammalia: Apatotheria from the latest Oligocene of Florida, USA

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    Nicholas J. Czaplewski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Apatemyidae, Sinclairella simplicidens, is based on four isolated teeth that were screenwashed from fissure fillings at the late Oligocene Buda locality, Alachua County, Florida. Compared to its only congener Sinclairella dakotensis, the new species is characterized by upper molars with more simplified crowns, with the near absence of labial shelves and stylar cusps except for a strong parastyle on M1, loss of paracrista and paraconule on M2 (paraconule retained but weak on M1, lack of anterior cingulum on M1–M3, straighter centrocristae, smaller hypocone on M1 and M2, larger hypocone on M3, distal edge of M2 continuous from hypocone to postmetacrista supporting a large posterior basin, and with different tooth proportions in which M2 is the smallest rather than the largest molar in the toothrow. The relatively rare and poorly-known family Apatemyidae has a long temporal range in North America from the late Paleocene (early Tiffanian to early Oligocene (early Arikareean. The new species from Florida significantly extends this temporal range by roughly 5 Ma to the end of the Paleogene near the Oligocene-Miocene boundary (from early Arikareean, Ar1, to late Arikareean, Ar3, and greatly extends the geographic range of the family into eastern North America some 10° of latitude farther south and 20° of longitude farther east (about 2,200 km farther southeast than previously known. This late occurrence probably represents a retreat of this subtropically adapted family into the Gulf Coastal Plain subtropical province at the end of the Paleogene and perhaps the end of the apatemyid lineage in North America.

  14. Identification of specialists and abundance-occupancy relationships among intestinal bacteria of Aves, Mammalia, and Actinopterygii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coalescence of next generation DNA sequencing methods, ecological perspectives, and bioinformatics analysis tools is rapidly advancing our understanding of the evolution and function of vertebrate-associated bacterial communities. Delineating host-microbial associations has a...

  15. Identification of Bacterial Specialists in Hosts belonging to Aves, Mammalia, and Pisces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Only a portion of bacteria found in animal guts are able to establish specific associations within animal hosts. Taxa that have formed these specialized relationships may have played a prominent role in host evolution and may also contribute significantly to current host physiolo...

  16. A record from Surinam of the bat Chiroderma trinitatum Goodwin, 1958 (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, W.

    1979-01-01

    Re-examination of a collection of bats from Surinam in the Zoölogisch Museum, Amsterdam, uncovered a specimen representing the Phyllostomatid bat Chiroderma trinitatum Goodwin, 1958. This species does not appear in the monograph of the Chiroptera of Surinam by Husson (1962), nor in his more recent

  17. A new rabbit species (sylvilagus, Mammalia: leporidae from the lowlands of venezuela

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    Pedro Durant

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Venezuelan rabbit of the genus Sylvilagus from Fundo Millano (08º 46'N and 69º 56'W and Chorrosco Bajo (08º 05'N and 69º 18'W, between 190 and 120 masl, state of Barinas, is described based on: 1. Body and skull measurements. 2. Coloration patterns of the pelage. 3. Arrangement and length of the color hair bands of dorsal, lateral, ventral nuchal, and gular patches. Body and cranial measurements, and some color patterns of the new species, Sylvilagus varynaensis, were compared with those of the closest relative groups such as S. brasiliensis (from Venezuela and Brazil, S. b. meridensis from the Venezuelan paramos, and three of the most representative groups of S. floridanus (S. f. continentis, S. f. orinoci, and S. f. valenciae. Most of the values recorded for these parameters were significally higher for the new species (P Se describe una especie nueva de conejo silvestre de Venezuela procedente del Fundo Millano (08º 46’ N y 69º 56’ W entre 120 y 180 m de altitud y Chorrosco Bajo (08º 05'N and 69º 18'W, entre 190 y 120 de altitud, en el estado Barinas. La descripción se basó en: 1. Medidas corporales y craneales. 2. Patrones de coloración del pelaje. 3. Organización y longitud de las bandas de color del pelo de las regiones dorsal, lateral, ventral, nucal y mancha gular. Las medidas corporales, craneales y algunos de los patrones de coloración de la nueva especie, Sylvilagus varynaensis, fueron comparados con las de los grupos más cercanos, como S. brasiliensis (de Venezuela y de Brasil, S. b. meridensis de los páramos venezolanos y tres de los grupos más representativos de S. floridanus (S. f. continentis, S. f. orinoci, S. f. valenciae. La mayoría de los valores registrados en estas medidas fueron significativamente más altos (P < 0.005; "t" de Student en la nueva especie de conejo. El Análisis de Componentes Principales y de Agrupación de los datos registrados para las características craneales indicaron que S. varynaensis es el conejo silvestre de mayor tamaño de Venezuela, de coloración más oscura, de cráneo más alargado y con arreglo diferente de las bandas de color del pelo en varias regiones corporales.

  18. Revision of bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780 (Mammalia, Rodentia distribution in Serbia and Montenegro

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    Paunović M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article represents a complete review of all published data (with corrections on bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus distribution in Serbia and Montenegro. On the other hand, data of 63 unpublished records stored in the period from 1956 to 1983 in the Mammal Study Collection of the Natural History Museum, Belgrade had not been processed until now. In the period from 1992 to 2004, 29 new findings were recorded, 12 of them outside the currently known area of distribution. New data reveal a wider distribution of bank vole than was known until now, completing and partly modifying previous knowledge about this rodent's bionomy and ecology in Serbia and Montenegro. The occurrence of bank vole in the Prokletije Mountains, Kosovo and Metohija represents its highest known altitude in Europe (2500 m. On the basis of these new data and observations, we can conclude that bank vole is continuously present in small and linear fragments of autochthonous woodlands on plains and hills, and that there are no large discontinuities in its distribution in Serbia and Montenegro, as was assumed earlier. In efforts to preserve overall biological diversity, the example of the bank vole underlines the need to intensify protection and management of woodlands especially remaining fragments of forests on plains and in hills.

  19. Observations on the North African serotine bat, Eptesicus serotinus isabellinus (Temminck, 1840) (Mammalia: Chiroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, D.L.

    1963-01-01

    Eptesicus isabellinus was originally described as Vespertilio isabellinus by Temminck (1840, p. 205, pl. 52 figs. 1, 2) from a series of specimens obtained by J. F. H. Clifford Cocq van Breugel in the vicinity of Tripoli, Libya. Unfortunately Temminck's original description did not include any crani

  20. Historical Review and Notes on Small Mammals (Mammalia: Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Rodentia in Korea

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    Lee, Jeong-Boon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic study of small mammals (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha and Rodentia was conducted in order to find out the scientific names which have been used in Korea. The synonymy of each species and taxonomical research was reviewed and confirmed in this study. The species names are rearranged based on recent studies. Among the various confused names, available names were adopted such as follows: C. shantungensis shantungensis known as Crocidura suaveolens; C. shantungensis quelpartis known as C. dsinezumi; Rattus tanezumi known as R. rattus, called black rat, roof rat and ship rat, respectively. Apodemus sylvaticus (Muridae, wood mouse is excluded in the checklist based on indistinct previous records and ambiguous habitation on the Korean Peninsula, and neighbors. In addition, we provide a new Korean vernacular name for Myocastor coypus, called the "Nutria" in Korea. We reflect that several species are repositioned to other genera. A checklist of Korean small mammals and synonym list for each species is provided to avoid confusion of scientific names in Korea. In this study, the list of small mammals in Korea is arranged to 33 species, 20 genera, 8 families, and 3 orders.

  1. Insectivores (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha; Mammalia) from Karydia and Komotini (Thrace, Greece; MN 4/5)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doukas, C.S.; Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.

    2006-01-01

    The insectivores from the Thrace locality of Karydia (MN 4) are described, as well as an erinaceid molar from thenearby locality of Komotini (MN 5). The Karydia assemblagecontains the same genera of the Greek MN 4 localityAliveri, with the addition of a shrew and of Plesiosorex. An M2 of the latter

  2. Species composition and conservation of small mammals (Mammalia: Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Lagomorpha, Rodentia in Vrachanska Planina Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEDKO NEDYALKOV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A review on the composition of the small mammals in Vrachanska Planina Mts. was completed using published and author’s data. A total of 27 species occur within the territory. All of the species found are typical for the region. The species with the highest conservation status, the European ground squirrel Spermophilus citellus, disappeared from the region in the early 1950s. In the last years activities on its recovery were carried out. We analyze the threats for the small mammals and propose conservation activities to improve their conservation status.

  3. The mammary glands of the Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia: Sirenia): morphological characteristics and microscopic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernanda Rosa; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Barcellos, José Fernando Marques

    2014-08-01

    The mammaries from carcasses of two female Amazonian manatees were examined. Trichechus inunguis possesses two axillary mammaries beneath the pectoral fins, one on each side of the body. Each papilla mammae has a small hole on its apex--the ostium papillare. The mammaries are covered by a stratified squamous keratinized epithelium. The epithelium of the mammary ducts became thinner more deeply in the tissue and varied from stratified to simple cuboidal. There was no evidence of glandular activity or secretion into the ducts of the mammary glands.

  4. Urinary parameters of Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia, Sirenia): reference values for the Amazonian Manatee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, T M A; Da Rosas, F C W; Dos Silva, V M F; Santos, A M F

    2010-08-01

    The Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis (Natterer 1883) is endemic to the Amazon Basin and is currently considered a vulnerable species. In order to establish normality ranges of urinary parameters to help monitor the health of this species in captivity, chemical urinalyses were performed on twelve males and nine females of various age groups. Urine was collected once a month for twelve months in the tanks just after being drained, by placing stainless steel containers under the genital slit of females and applying abdominal massages to males in order to stimulate urination. Quantitative data of glucose, urea, creatinine, uric acid and amylase levels were obtained using colorimetric spectrophotometry. Dip strips were also useful for routine analyses, despite only providing qualitative results. Normal range to glucose levels, regardless of sex or age class, was 3.0 to 3.6 mgxdL-1, coinciding with qualitative values of glucose measured by dip strips. Statistical differences observed in some parameter levels suggest that some urine parameters analysed must take into consideration the sex and the age class of the animal studied, being these differences less remarkable in creatinine and amylase levels. To this last one, statistical difference was detected only in the calve's urine (7.0 to 11.5 mgxdL-1) compared to other age classes samples (4.1 to 5.3 mgxdL-1). The results presented here may be used as comparative data in future research on urinalysis in related species.

  5. Diet of Monodelphis glirina (Mammalia: Didelphidae in forest fragments in southern Amazon

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    Welvis Felipe Fernandes Castilheiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to evaluate the diet of Monodelphis glirina (Wagner, 1842 in forest fragments of Alta Floresta, located in the south of the Amazon, state of Mato Grosso. The diet was determined by the analysis of the stomach contents from 57 subjects sampled between May and September 2009. Nine food categories were present: Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Hymenoptera, Diplopoda, Nematoda, seeds, miscellaneous, hair and bait leftovers (banana and peanut butter. Coleoptera was the category eaten most frequently, rating 50% of abundance and 91.22% of occurrence. "Seeds" were the least abundant (0.11% and rated 1.75% in occurrence, probably because seeds are easy to digest. The size of the fragments negatively and significantly influenced the amount of Coleoptera in the diet. The rainy season seemed to have significant influence over the abundance of arthropods in the diet. The items in the diet suggest that M. glirina is opportunistic and has a generalist diet, tending to be insectivore when living in the forest and exploring the food resources according to their availability.

  6. Chromosome painting among Proboscidea, Hyracoidea and Sirenia: Support for Paenungulata (Afrotheria, Mammalia) but not Tethytheria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, A.T.; O'Brien, P. C. M.; Fu, B.; Bonde, R.K.; Elder, F.F.B.; Ferguson-Smith, M. A.; Yang, F.; Robinson, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Despite marked improvements in the interpretation of systematic relationships within Eutheria, particular nodes, including Paenungulata (Hyracoidea, Sirenia and Proboscidea), remain ambiguous. The combination of a rapid radiation, a deep divergence and an extensive morphological diversification has resulted in a limited phylogenetic signal confounding resolution within this clade both at the morphological and nucleotide levels. Cross-species chromosome painting was used to delineate regions of homology between Loxodonta africana (2n = 56), Procavia capensis (2n=54), Trichechus manatus latirostris (2n = 48) and an outgroup taxon, the aardvark (Orycteropus afer, 2n = 20). Changes specific to each lineage were identified and although the presence of a minimum of 11 synapomorphies confirmed the monophyly of Paenungulata, no change characterizing intrapaenungulate relationships was evident. The reconstruction of an ancestral paenungulate karyotype and the estimation of rates of chromosomal evolution indicate a reduced rate of genomic repatterning following the paenungulate radiation. In comparison to data available for other mammalian taxa, the paenungulate rate of chromosomal evolution is slow to moderate. As a consequence, the absence of a chromosomal character uniting two paenungulates (at the level of resolution characterized in this study) may be due to a reduced rate of chromosomal change relative to the length of time separating successive divergence events. ?? 2007 The Royal Society.

  7. Chromosome painting among Proboscidea, Hyracoidea and Sirenia: support for Paenungulata (Afrotheria, Mammalia) but not Tethytheria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, A T; O'Brien, P C M; Fu, B; Bonde, R K; Elder, F F B; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Yang, F; Robinson, T J

    2007-05-22

    Despite marked improvements in the interpretation of systematic relationships within Eutheria, particular nodes, including Paenungulata (Hyracoidea, Sirenia and Proboscidea), remain ambiguous. The combination of a rapid radiation, a deep divergence and an extensive morphological diversification has resulted in a limited phylogenetic signal confounding resolution within this clade both at the morphological and nucleotide levels. Cross-species chromosome painting was used to delineate regions of homology between Loxodonta africana (2n=56), Procavia capensis (2n=54), Trichechus manatus latirostris (2n=48) and an outgroup taxon, the aardvark (Orycteropus afer, 2n=20). Changes specific to each lineage were identified and although the presence of a minimum of 11 synapomorphies confirmed the monophyly of Paenungulata, no change characterizing intrapaenungulate relationships was evident. The reconstruction of an ancestral paenungulate karyotype and the estimation of rates of chromosomal evolution indicate a reduced rate of genomic repatterning following the paenungulate radiation. In comparison to data available for other mammalian taxa, the paenungulate rate of chromosomal evolution is slow to moderate. As a consequence, the absence of a chromosomal character uniting two paenungulates (at the level of resolution characterized in this study) may be due to a reduced rate of chromosomal change relative to the length of time separating successive divergence events.

  8. Chromosome painting among Proboscidea, Hyracoidea and Sirenia: support for Paenungulata (Afrotheria, Mammalia) but not Tethytheria

    OpenAIRE

    Pardini, A.T; O'Brien, P. C. M.; Fu, B; Bonde, R. K.; Elder, F.F.B.; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Yang, F.; Robinson, T J

    2007-01-01

    Despite marked improvements in the interpretation of systematic relationships within Eutheria, particular nodes, including Paenungulata (Hyracoidea, Sirenia and Proboscidea), remain ambiguous. The combination of a rapid radiation, a deep divergence and an extensive morphological diversification has resulted in a limited phylogenetic signal confounding resolution within this clade both at the morphological and nucleotide levels. Cross-species chromosome painting was used to delineate regions o...

  9. Note on the Giant Woolly Gliding Squirrel Eupetaurus cinereus (Mammalia: Rodentia: Sciuridae in northern Pakistan

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    Jaffar Ud Din

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Woolly Gliding Squirrel Eupetaurus cinereus is an extremely rare, localized, and endangered mammal and may constitute one of the endemic species of Pakistan. The species was rediscovered in northern Pakistan in the mid-1990s after a 70-year absence of records. All the previous information regarding this giant squirrel was limited to museum specimens, collected mostly from areas presently in northern Pakistan in the late 1800s. Sighting of the species is extremely challenging owing to its nocturnal behavior, low densities and the inhospitable terrain it is reported from. Here we report detailed information about the species collected during the rescue of a young male individual from Gilgit City followed by its successful release in its natural habitat. We report that the species is still facing human-induced threats and may disappear from the mountains of northern Pakistan if informed management measures are not taken. Moreover, the occurrence of the species outside its core distribution range, i.e., districts Gilgit and Diamer, still remains questionable; therefore, it is recommended that further in-depth research studies be undertaken to determine the status of the species across the entire reported range. 

  10. A reassessment of the taxonomic status of Paraglyptodon Castellanos, 1932 (Mammalia, Cingulata, Glyptodontia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Laura E.; Fernicola, Juan C.; Taglioretti, Matias; Toledo, Nestor

    2016-03-01

    Castellanos described and published about new genera of glyptodonts, according to a phylogenetic scheme mainly based on the evolution of the external surface of the dorsal carapace. Among these new genera, Castellanos proposed Paraglyptodon as the predecessor of Glyptodon, and included within Paraglyptodon all known species of Glyptodontinae recovered from "horizontes pre-Ensenadenses", and within Glyptodon all known species from "Horizontes pampeanos", restricting the latter to the Quaternary. All the species that belong to Paraglyptodon, that is Paraglyptodon chapalmalensis, Paraglyptodon uquiensis, Paraglyptodon dubius, and Paraglyptodon paranensis were established based on one, two or few osteoderms, mostly from the dorsal carapace. Regarding P. paranensis and P. dubius, Oliva and collaborators consider the first as a nomen vanum, representing an indeterminate Glyptodontinae, and the second as a synonym of P. chapalmalensis. Upon re-examination of the holotypes of P. chapalmalensis and P. uquiensis together with their comparison with other well-known specimens of glyptodonts, mainly with Glyptodon (of both juvenile and adult stages), we found the same ornamentation in different sections of the dorsal carapaces, particularly in P. chapalmalensis and in juvenile stages of Glyptodon spp. We could not identify features that would allow us to make a distinction between the holotype of P. uquiensis and Glyptodon spp. Therefore, we consider that a new taxon guide for naming the Upper Chapadmalalan biozone is necessary. The biostratigraphic range of Glyptodon could possibly be extended to the late Pliocene. However, new records and studies are needed to verify the existence of this taxon in the Chapadmalalan Stage/Age in its type locality.

  11. Evolution of nectarivory in phyllostomid bats (Phyllostomidae Gray, 1825, Chiroptera: Mammalia

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    von Helversen Otto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bats of the family Phyllostomidae show a unique diversity in feeding specializations. This taxon includes species that are highly specialized on insects, blood, small vertebrates, fruits or nectar, and pollen. Feeding specialization is accompanied by morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations. Several attempts were made to resolve the phylogenetic relationships within this family in order to reconstruct the evolutionary transitions accompanied by nutritional specialization. Nevertheless, the evolution of nectarivory remained equivocal. Results Phylogenetic reconstructions, based on a concatenated nuclear-and mitochondrial data set, revealed a paraphyletic relationship of nectarivorous phyllostomid bats. Our phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that the nectarivorous genera Lonchophylla and Lionycteris are closer related to mainly frugivorous phyllostomids of the subfamilies Rhinophyllinae, Stenodermatinae, Carolliinae, and the insectivorous Glyphonycterinae rather than to nectarivorous bats of the Glossophaginae. This suggests an independent origin of morphological adaptations to a nectarivorous lifestyle within Lonchophyllinae and Glossophaginae. Molecular clock analysis revealed a relatively short time frame of about ten million years for the divergence of subfamilies. Conclusions Our study provides strong support for diphyly of nectarivorous phyllostomids. This is remarkable, since their morphological adaptations to nutrition, like elongated rostrums and tongues, reduced teeth and the ability to use hovering flight while ingestion, closely resemble each other. However, more precise examinations of their tongues (e.g. type and structure of papillae and muscular innervation revealed levels of difference in line with an independent evolution of nectarivory in these bats.

  12. Peltephilidae and Mesotheriidae (Mammalia) from late Miocene strata of Northern Chilean Andes, Caragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Sanhueza, Germán; Moreno, Karen; Bobe, René; Carrano, Matthew T.; García, Marcelo; Corgne, Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    Until now, only one Cenozoic fossil mammal from the Chilean Precordillera (Arica and Parinacota Region) has been reported, Caraguatypotherium munozi (Mesotheriidae: Notoungulata). In this study, we describe a fourth specimen of C. munozi and a new armadillo species, Epipeltephilus caraguensis (Peltephilidae: Cingulata), both collected from a new site closer to the fossiliferous outcrops of the Caragua area (Serravallian - Tortonian). E. caraguensis differs from other members of the family in having: two sulci in the articular surface of the mobile osteoderm; having a tubular, rough and raised anterior edge; a conspicuous transverse depression; and four widely spaced foramina. This taxon represents the youngest known peltephilid from intermediate latitudes and indicates a wide geographic distribution (Patagonia to Central Andes) of the family just prior to its extinction. The new mesothere specimen is 19% larger than previous records. The revision of the dental features of C. munozi allowed the identification of an ambiguous trait in its original diagnosis, i.e. an enamel fracture was misinterpreted with the presence of a posterior sulcus on the talonid of the m3, suggesting that further taxonomic and systematic revision for the Caragua mesothere is necessary. Although the fossil record from the Caragua area is still scarce, mesotheriines seem to be abundant at this latitude, just as has been observed at several early to late Miocene sites such as Chucal (Chile), Cerdas and Nazareno (Bolivia), as well as in southern regions such as Arroyo Chasicó and Mendoza (Argentina). The presence of a new peltephilid species in Caragua sustains the hypothesis of provincialism during the Miocene in intermediate latitudes. Our findings also provide further support for probable faunal movements between intermediate and higher latitudes rather than to lower ones.

  13. On the comparative anatomy and function of the nasal tract in odontocetes (Mammalia, Cetacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenkkan, E.J.

    1973-01-01

    In the study of phonation in odontocete cetaceans and particularly that of echolocation by means of sonar, a great number of conflicting hypotheses have been advanced regarding the correlation of sound production with the many anatomical features that are to be found in the upper respiratory tract.

  14. La liebre europea, Lepus europaeus (Mammalia, Leporidae, especie invasora en el sur del Perú

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    Daniel Cossíos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La liebre europea fue introducida entre finales del siglo XIX y comienzos del siglo XX a Argentina y Chile, y desde entonces ha avanzado a través de América del Sur. En 1983 la liebre había alcanzado el sur de Brasil, el departamento de Tarija en el sur de Bolivia y el río Copiapó en Chile, encontrándose ausente en el Perú. En los años 2002 y 2004 se observó varios ejemplares de liebre en estado silvestre en los departamentos peruanos de Tacna y Arequipa, hasta una altitud de 4300 m. Según entrevistas hechas a pobladores de esas zonas, la liebre habría llegado al Perú entre los años 1995 y 1998, lo que significa una velocidad de dispersión mínima de 44,34 km/año partiendo de Tarija. Los entrevistados dijeron no dar uso a la liebre y que ésta les trae problemas al consumir la vegetación. La presente nota es una alerta sobre la llegada de la liebre europea al Perú y los posibles efectos de su presencia.

  15. Urinary parameters of Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia, Sirenia: reference values for the Amazonian Manatee

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    TMA. Pantoja

    Full Text Available The Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis (Natterer 1883 is endemic to the Amazon Basin and is currently considered a vulnerable species. In order to establish normality ranges of urinary parameters to help monitor the health of this species in captivity, chemical urinalyses were performed on twelve males and nine females of various age groups. Urine was collected once a month for twelve months in the tanks just after being drained, by placing stainless steel containers under the genital slit of females and applying abdominal massages to males in order to stimulate urination. Quantitative data of glucose, urea, creatinine, uric acid and amylase levels were obtained using colorimetric spectrophotometry. Dip strips were also useful for routine analyses, despite only providing qualitative results. Normal range to glucose levels, regardless of sex or age class, was 3.0 to 3.6 mg.dL-1, coinciding with qualitative values of glucose measured by dip strips. Statistical differences observed in some parameter levels suggest that some urine parameters analysed must take into consideration the sex and the age class of the animal studied, being these differences less remarkable in creatinine and amylase levels. To this last one, statistical difference was detected only in the calve's urine (7.0 to 11.5 mg.dL-1 compared to other age classes samples (4.1 to 5.3 mg.dL-1. The results presented here may be used as comparative data in future research on urinalysis in related species.

  16. Molecular evidence for a recent demographic expansion in the puma (Puma concolor (Mammalia, Felidae

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    Eunice M. Matte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The puma is an iconic predator that ranges throughout the Americas, occupying diverse habitats. Previous phylogeographic analyses have revealed that it exhibits moderate levels of genetic structure across its range, with few of the classically recognized subspecies being supported as distinct demographic units. Moreover, most of the species' molecular diversity was found to be in South America. To further investigate the phylogeographic structure and demographic history of pumas we analyzed mtDNA sequences from 186 individuals sampled throughout their range, with emphasis on South America. Our objectives were to refine the phylogeographic assessment within South America and to investigate the demographic history of pumas using a coalescent approach. Our results extend previous phylogeographic findings, reassessing the delimitation of historical population units in South America and demonstrating that this species experienced a considerable demographic expansion in the Holocene, ca. 8,000 years ago. Our analyses indicate that this expansion occurred in South America, prior to the hypothesized re-colonization of North America, which was therefore inferred to be even more recent. The estimated demographic history supports the interpretation that pumas suffered a severe demographic decline in the Late Pleistocene throughout their distribution, followed by population expansion and re-colonization of the range, initiating from South America.

  17. Morphometric variations of laelapine mite (Acari: Mesostigmata populations infesting small mammals (Mammalia in Brazil

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    F. Martins-Hatano

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphometric variation of laelapine populations (Acari, Mesostigmata associated with neotropical oryzomyine rodents at different geographic localities in Brazil. Three nominal mite species were selected for study, all infesting the pelage of small mammals at different localities in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, and the Federal District, Brazil. To analyse morphometric characteristics, thirty-seven morphological characters distributed across the whole body of each specimen were measured. We use the Analysis of Principal Components, extracting the three first axes and projecting each mite in these axes. Major species level changes in the taxonomy of the host mammals allows an independent examination of morphometric variation of mites infesting a set of distinctly different host species at different geographic localities. Gigantolaelaps vitzthumi and Laelaps differens are associated with oryzomyine rodents of the genus Cerradomys, and consistently showed a tendency to cluster by host phylogeny. Laelaps manguinhosi associated with Nectomys rattus in central Brazil is morphometrically distinct from mites infesting N. squamipes in the coastal restingas of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. The results obtained here indicate that laelapine mite populations can vary among geographic areas and among phylogenetically related host species. Clearly, the study of these mites at the population level can be an important tool for clarifying the taxonomy of both mites and hosts.

  18. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in native and reforested areas in Rancho Alegre, Paraná, Brazil

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    Patrícia Helena Gallo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Generally, natural environments have been transformed into small forest remnants, with the consequent habitat loss and species extinction. The North Paraná State is not an exception, since only 2 to 4% of the original ecosystem occurs in small fragments of Stational Semidecidual Forest. We studied the species richness and abundance of bats in two forest fragments from the Fazenda Congonhas, in Rancho Alegre city, Paraná State, Brazil. Four samplings were undertaken in a legally protected native area (107.8ha and in a reforested area (11.8ha between April 2007 and March 2008. Samplings began at nightfall and lasted six hours, during two consecutive nights in each location. The individuals were captured using eight mist nets, with the same capture effort in both environments. A total of 397 individuals, 14 species and 10 genera were captured in the native area; while in the reforested area, 105 individuals, six species and four genera. Artibeus lituratus was the most common species in both fragments (n=328, 65.3%, followed by Artibeus fimbriatus (n=44, 8.8% and Artibeus jamaicensis (n=30, 6.0%. Other species including Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspicillata, Sturnira lilium, Chrotopterus auritus, Desmodus rotundus, Michronycteris megalotis, Phyllostomus hastatus, Phyllostomus discolor, Myoti levis, Myotis nigricans and Lasiurus blossevillii, accounted for 19.9% of the captures. The native area presented higher values of species richness (S=14 and diversity (H’=1.4802 in comparison to the reforested area (S=6, H’=0.57015. The t-test evidenced a significant difference between diversity among the sites (t=7.1075. Chao 1 index indicated that the sampling effort recorded approximately 78% from the total species richness for the native area and 75% for the reforested area. Therefore, the preservation of the forest fragment is essential since it provides habitat for a diverse community of bats. Forest management and reforestation actions may prevent drastic changes in the microclimate of neighboring areas within the forest fragment, and could allow the occupation of available niches in the area, by opportunistic and generalist species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1311-1322. Epub 2010 December 01.Por lo general, los entornos naturales se han transformado en pequeños remanentes de bosque, con la consecuente pérdida de hábitat y la extinción de especies. El Norte del Estado de Paraná no es una excepción, ya que sólo 2 a 4% del ecosistema original se presenta en pequeños fragmentos de bosque estacional semideciduo. En este estudio observamos la riqueza de especies y abundancia de murciélagos en dos fragmentos de bosque de Fazenda Congonhas, en Rancho Alegre, de Paraná, Brasil. Se realizaron cuatro muestreos en cada área, una nativa legalmente protegida (107.8ha y una reforestada (11.8ha entre abril 2007 y marzo 2008. Al caer la noche en cada sitio se colocaron ocho redes de niebla por seis horas durante dos noches consecutivas. Se capturaron 397 individuos, 14 especies y 10 géneros en la zona nativa y 105 individuos, seis especies y cuatro géneros en la reforestada. Artibeus lituratus fue la especie más común en ambos fragmentos (n=328, 65.3%, seguido por Artibeus fimbriatus (n=44, 8.8% y Artibeus jamaicensis (n=30, 6.0%. Otras especies incluyendo Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspicillata, Sturnira lilium, Chrotopterus auritus, Desmodus rotundus, Michronycteris megalotis, Phyllostomus hastatus, Phyllostomus discolor, Myoti levis, Myotis nigricans and Lasiurus blossevillii, constituyeron el 19.9% de las capturas. El área nativa presentó mayores valores de riqueza de especies (S=14 y diversidad (H’=1.4802 en comparación con la reforestada (S=6, H’=0.57015. El t-test evidenció una diferencia significativa en la diversidad de los sitios (t=7.1075. El índice Chao 1 indicó que el esfuerzo de muestreo registró el 78% de la riqueza total de especies en la zona nativa y 75% en la reforestada. Por lo tanto, la preservación del fragmento de bosque es esencial, ya que proporciona un hábitat para una diversa comunidad de murciélagos. Las acciones de manejo forestal y la reforestación pueden evitar cambios drásticos en el microclima de las áreas vecinas al fragmento de bosque y podría permitir la ocupación de nichos disponibles en la zona, por especies generalistas y oportunistas.

  19. Ectoparasites of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Atlantic forest fragments in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Rayanna Hellem Santos; de Vasconcelos, Pedro Fonseca; Bocchiglieri, Adriana

    2016-10-01

    In Brazil, most studies involving parasites of bats (bat flies) treat the mid-west, south-east, and south of the country. This work aimed to characterize the ectoparasites community associated with bats in the Atlantic forest in the state of Sergipe, north-eastern Brazil. Sampling was conducted between January and June 2013 in the Serra de Itabaiana National Park (PNSI) and between November 2013 and June 2015 in the Wildlife Refuge Mata do Junco (RVSMJ). Parasitological indexes were determined, and the influence of host sex and the seasonality in prevalence rates and mean intensity for the most abundant parasites was evaluated. Some 129 parasites were collected in PNSI and 296 in RVSMJ, and 100 and 70.6 %, respectively, belong to the family Streblidae. The differences in parasitological rates in Sergipe in relation to other studies may be associated with the environmental characteristics and the composition of the host community. The influence of sex and the seasonal prevalence of Speiseria ambigua and Trichobius joblingi, associated with Carollia perspicillata, may be associated with a lower rate of female captures and low sampling in the dry season. This is a pioneer study in Sergipe that reveals the occurrence of 16 species of streblids and representatives of Acari and Basilia spp., highlighting the need for more studies to increase the wealth and understanding of host-parasite associations in the state.

  20. First isolation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, A D; Gama, A R; Sodré, M M; Savani, E S M M; Galvão-Dias, M A; Jordão, L R; Maeda, M M; Yai, L E O; Gennari, S M; Pena, H F J

    2013-03-31

    There are currently no reports on the isolation and molecular examination of Toxoplasma gondii from bats. Here, we report the isolation and genotypic characterisation of two T. gondii isolates from bats. A total of 369 bats from different municipalities in São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, were captured and euthanised, and collected tissues (heart and pectoral muscle) were processed for each bat or in pools of two or three bats and bioassayed in mice (a total of 283 bioassays). Eleven PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers were used to genotype positive samples: SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2 and alt. SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, c22-8, c29-2, PK1, CS3 and Apico. The parasite was isolated from two bats from São Paulo city: an insectivorous bat, the velvety free-tailed bat Molossus molossus, and a hematophagous bat, the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Isolates were designated TgBatBr1 and TgBatBr2, respectively. The genotype of the isolate from M. molossus (TgBatBr1) has been previously described in an isolate from a capybara from São Paulo state, and the genotype from the D. rotundus isolate (TgBatBr2) has already been identified in isolates from cats, chickens, capybaras, sheep, a rodent and a common rabbit from different Brazilian states, suggesting that this may be a common T. gondii lineage circulating in some Brazilian regions. Isolation of T. gondii from a hematophagous species is striking. This study reveals that bats can share the same isolates that are found in domesticated and wild terrestrial animals. This is the first report of the isolation and genotyping of T. gondii in chiropterans.

  1. Methods and insights from the characterization of osteoprogenitor cells of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, H C; Moussa, F M; Mbimba, T; Orman, R; Safadi, F F; Cooper, L N

    2016-07-01

    Osteoprogenitor cells contribute to the development and maintenance of skeletal tissues. Bats are unique model taxa whose cellular processes are poorly understood, especially in regards to skeletal biology. Forelimb bones of bats, unlike those of terrestrial mammals, bend during flight and function in controlled deformation. As a first step towards understanding the molecular processes governing deposition of this flexible bone matrix, we provide the first method for isolation and differentiation of cell populations derived from the bone marrow and cortical bone of bats, and compare results with those harvested from C57BL/6J mice. Osteogenic capacity of these cells was assessed via absolute quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and through quantification of in vitro mineral deposition. Results indicate the differentiated bone cells of bats display significantly lower gene expression of known osteogenic markers (Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX2), osteocalcin (BGLAP) and osterix (SP7)), and deposit a less-mineralized matrix compared with murine controls. By characterizing the in vitro performance of osteoprogenitor cells throughout differentiation and matrix production, this study lays the ground work for in vitro manipulations of bat stem and osteoprogenitor cells and extends our understanding of the cellular diversity across mammals that occupy different habitats.

  2. Leucism in Mexican small-eared shrew Cryptotis mexicana (Mammalia : Soricomorpha), endemic to Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guevara, Lazaro; Ramirez-Chaves, Hector E.; Cervantes, Fernando A.

    2011-01-01

    Leucism is the partial or complete reduction of the fur pigmentation where eyes and skin maintain their normal coloration. In this paper, we report the record of an individual of the endemic Mexican shrew Cryptotis mexicana from Veracruz, Mexico, that displays leucism. This lack of pigmentation, unc

  3. Habitat use and seasonal activity of insectivorous bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in the grasslands of southern Brazil

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    Marília A. S. Barros

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In temperate zones, insectivorous bats use some types of habitat more frequently than others, and are more active in the warmest periods of the year. We assessed the spatial and seasonal activity patterns of bats in open areas of the southernmost region of Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that bat activity differs among habitat types, among seasons, and is influenced by weather variables. We monitored four 1,500-m transects monthly, from April 2009 to March 2010. Transects corresponded to the five habitat types that predominate in the region. In each sampling session, we detected and counted bat passes with an ultrasound detector (Pettersson D230 and measured climatic variables at the transects. We recorded 1,183 bat passes, and observed the highest activity at the edge of a eucalyptus stand (0.64 bat passes/min and along an irrigation channel (0.54 bat passes/min. The second highest activity values (0.31 and 0.20 bat passes/min, respectively were obtained at the edge of a riparian forest and at the margin of a wetland. The grasslands were used significantly less (0.05 bat passes/min. Bat activity was significantly lower in the winter (0.21 bat passes/min and showed similar values in the autumn (0.33 bat passes/min, spring (0.26 bat passes/min, and summer (0.29 bat passes/min. Bat activity was correlated with temperature, but it was not correlated with wind speed and relative humidity of the air. Our data suggest that, in the study area, insectivorous bats are active throughout the year, and use mostly forest and watercourses areas. These habitat types should be considered prioritary for the conservation of bats in the southernmost region of Brazil.

  4. Filling phylogenetic gaps and the biogeographic relationships of the Octodontidae (Mammalia: Hystricognathi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Villota, Elkin Y; González-Wevar, Claudio A; Gallardo, Milton H; Vásquez, Rodrigo A; Poulin, Elie

    2016-12-01

    Endemic to South America, octodontid rodents are remarkable by being the only mammal taxa where allotetraploidy has been documented. The taxon's extensive morpho-physiological radiation associated to niche shifts has allowed testing phylogeographic hypotheses. Using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses, applied to all nominal species of octodontids, phylogenetic reconstructions based on sequences of 12S rRNA and growth hormone receptor gene are presented. Species boundaries were determined by coalescent analyses and divergence times among taxa were estimated based on mutation rates. Two main clades associated to the Andean orogenesis were recognized. The essentially western clade comprises genera Aconaemys, Octodon, Spalacopus, and Octodontomys whereas the eastern one included genera Octomys, Pipanacoctomys, Salinoctomys, and Tympanoctomys. Genetic relationships, coalescent analyses, and genetic distance supported the specific status given to Octodon pacificus and that given to Pipanacoctomys aureus as a species of Tympanoctomys. However, these analyses failed to recognize Salinoctomys loschalchalerosorum as a valid taxon considering its position within the diversity of Tympanoctomys barrerae. Although the origin of genome duplication remains contentious, the coincidence of the basal clade split with distinctive modes of karyotypic evolution across the Andes emphasizes the role of physiographic barriers and westerlies in shaping different edaphological conditions, selective grounds, and concomitantly distinct adaptations within the octodontids.

  5. Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae, a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra

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    Marques Sandro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-preguiça" (sloth's giant tick is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae, Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae. Based on the material examined, the states of Rondônia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil.

  6. Activity pattern of Sloth Bear Melursus ursinus (Mammalia: Ursidae in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats, India

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    T. Ramesh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We used information from systematic camera trapping surveys to study activity patterns of sloth bear (Melursus ursinus in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats during November 2009 to April 2010.Overall 61 independent photographs were obtained from 2600 trap nights. Sloth Bears showed bimodal peaks activities; late evening to midnight and small peak during sunrise. The mean activity time was 21:54 plus or minus 00:46 hrs. Although sloth bears were active throughout the day they exhibited reduced activity during the hottest hours of the day. Sloth Bears might have reduced their activity during the day to avoid the intense heat.Our data demonstrate that use of camera traps in documenting activity patterns can be an effective tool for identifying biological questions of sloth bear ecology for future studies.

  7. Bone inner structure suggests increasing aquatic adaptations in Desmostylia (Mammalia, Afrotheria.

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    Shoji Hayashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The paleoecology of desmostylians has been discussed controversially with a general consensus that desmostylians were aquatic or semi-aquatic to some extent. Bone microanatomy can be used as a powerful tool to infer habitat preference of extinct animals. However, bone microanatomical studies of desmostylians are extremely scarce. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the histology and microanatomy of several desmostylians using thin-sections and CT scans of ribs, humeri, femora and vertebrae. Comparisons with extant mammals allowed us to better understand the mode of life and evolutionary history of these taxa. Desmostylian ribs and long bones generally lack a medullary cavity. This trait has been interpreted as an aquatic adaptation among amniotes. Behemotops and Paleoparadoxia show osteosclerosis (i.e. increase in bone compactness, and Ashoroa pachyosteosclerosis (i.e. combined increase in bone volume and compactness. Conversely, Desmostylus differs from these desmostylians in displaying an osteoporotic-like pattern. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In living taxa, bone mass increase provides hydrostatic buoyancy and body trim control suitable for poorly efficient swimmers, while wholly spongy bones are associated with hydrodynamic buoyancy control in active swimmers. Our study suggests that all desmostylians had achieved an essentially, if not exclusively, aquatic lifestyle. Behemotops, Paleoparadoxia and Ashoroa are interpreted as shallow water swimmers, either hovering slowly at a preferred depth, or walking on the bottom, and Desmostylus as a more active swimmer with a peculiar habitat and feeding strategy within Desmostylia. Therefore, desmostylians are, with cetaceans, the second mammal group showing a shift from bone mass increase to a spongy inner organization of bones in their evolutionary history.

  8. Macro y Microparásitos Descritos para la Familia Tayassuidae (Mammalia: Artiodactyla) -resumen-

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro E Navas-Suárez; Diego Soler-Tovar; Olga Montenegro; Nestor Roncancio; Jimena Cortés; Contreras, J.

    2014-01-01

    Los pecaríes pertenecen a la familia Tayassuidae‚ aunque por sus características morfológicas suelen ser confundidos con porcinos (Familia: Suidae); son conocidas tres especies: el pecarí del Chaco (Catagonus wagneri) en peligro de extinción según la lista roja de la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (UICN)‚ distribuido en Bolivia‚ Paraguay y Argentina; pecarí de collar (Pecari tajacu) de preocupación menor (UICN) y distribución desde el sur de Estados Unidos hasta el ...

  9. Notes on collections of fruit bats from Sulawesi and some off-lying islands (Mammalia, Megachiroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, W.; Rozendaal, F.G.

    1988-01-01

    Notes are given on the taxonomy, reproductive biology, ecology and ectoparasites of 20 species of - mostly recently collected - Megachiroptera from Sulawesi, Indonesia. The occurrence of one species on Sulawesi is considered doubtful and a further three species are deleted from the Sulawesian faunal

  10. THE MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE LARGE FELIDS (MAMMALIA FROM BRECCE DI SOAVE (VERONA, N-E ITALY

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    FABIO BONA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The fossils of large felids collected, in the so called "Brecce di Soave", by Angelo Pasa during the first half of XX century and stored at Museo di Storia Naturale di Verona are revised. Pasa referred these fossils to different taxa such as Panthera pardus, Panthera leo spelaea, Panthera sp. coming from different localities near Soave: Viatelle, Monte Zoppega, Sentiero, Castello, Monte Tenda. The term "Brecce di Soave" is used to define a karst filling deposits occurring on the Eocene limestones exposed near the village of Soave (Verona, NE Italy. The Brecce di Soave chronology is not homogeneous and includes different Pleistocene phases. The sites located in the Soave area can be referred at least to 2 different depositional phases: 1 around 1 Ma, as suggested by the occurrence of Mimomys, Allophaiomys, Beremendia, etc.; 2 around 0.5 Ma, characterized by the presence of Arvicola, Microtus (Terricola, Chionomys etc. Most of the fossils can be classified as Felidae indet. because of their fragmentary condition. All the other more complete remains can be referred to Panthera cf. P. fossilis with the exception of a partial M1 which has to be ascribed to Homotherium latidens (Viatelle and a partial P4 referable to Canis cf. C. mosbachensis. 

  11. Differential detectability of rodents and birds in scats of ocelots, Leopardus pardalis (Mammalia: Felidae

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    Mathias M. Pires

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Scat analysis is a valuable tool for the description and quantification of mammal diets. However, estimating the number of prey eaten using prey remains found in feces is difficult mainly due to differential digestibility of prey. In this context, we performed feeding trials with captive ocelots, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1785, to evaluate the time needed until complete elimination in feces of different prey such as rodents and birds. Rodents took up to five days and birds two days until complete elimination. Our results are consistent in showing that elimination time differs for different prey and some prey may take a long time to be expelled, inducing errors in dietary studies.

  12. Los Rumiantes (Artiodactyla, Mammalia del Mioceno inferior de La Encinilla (Colmenar Viejo, Madrid

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    Morales, J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a preliminary study of the fossil ruminants found in the Early Miocene site of La Encinilla (Colmenar Viejo, Madrid. The morphological description of dentition and postcranial bones, along with the metrical and comparative study with material from localities of similar age in France and Spain has allowed us to confirm the presence of two Pecoran ruminants in La Encinilla: Andegameryx sp. and a larger species related to Teruelia Moyá-Solá, 1987. Although the identification in one of the cases should be confirmed with more material, the record in the Madrid Bassin would represent new information regarding the known biogeographical distribution of both taxa. The systematic position of Andegameryx and Teruelia is still under discussion, but both forms are clearly distinct from the Cervoidea ruminants found in Europe and the Iberian Peninsula at the same age, such as Amphitragulus, Oriomeryx, Bedenomeryx or Dremotherium.Este trabajo constituye un estudio preliminar de los restos de rumiantes fósiles hallados en el yacimiento del Mioceno inferior de La Encinilla (Colmenar Viejo, Madrid. La descripción morfológica de la dentición y del esqueleto postcraneal, así como el estudio métrico y comparativo con material procedente de localidades francesas y españolas de edad similar ha permitido constatar hasta el momento la presencia de dos formas de rumiantes Pecora en La Encinilla: Andegameryx sp. y un rumiante de mayor talla relacionado con Teruelia Moyá-Solá, 1987. Aunque la identificación en uno de los casos necesitaría confirmarse con más material, la presencia de estas dos formas en la Cuenca de Madrid ampliaría la distribución biogeográfica conocida para ambos taxones. La posición sistemática de Andegameryx y Teruelia permanece abierta a discusión, pero ambos géneros se diferencian de los Cervoidea del Mioceno inferior encontrados en Europa y la Península Ibérica, tales como Amphitragulus, Oriomeryx, Bedenomeryx o Dremotherium.

  13. Mandible shape and dwarfism in squirrels (Mammalia, Rodentia): interaction of allometry and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautier, Lionel; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Michaux, Jacques

    2009-06-01

    Squirrels include several independent lineages of dwarf forms distributed into two ecological groups: the dwarf tree and flying squirrels. The mandible of dwarf tree squirrels share a highly reduced coronoid process and a condylar process drawn backwards. Dwarf flying squirrels on the other hand, have an elongated coronoid process and a well-differentiated condylar process. To interpret such a difference, Elliptic Fourier Transform was used to evaluate how mandible shape varies with dwarfism in sciurids. The results obtained show that this clear-cut difference cannot be explained by a simple allometric relationship in relation with size decrease. We concluded that the retention of anteriorly positioned eye sockets, in relation with distance estimation, allowed the conservation of a well-differentiated coronoid process in all flying species, despite the trend towards its reduction observed among sciurids as their size decreases.

  14. Taxonomy and biogeography of African fruit bats (Mammalia, Megachiroptera). 4. The genus Rousettus Gray, 1821

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Wim

    1994-01-01

    The concept of the genus Rousettus Gray, 1821 as established by Andersen (1912) is revised to accommodate R. madagascariensis Grandidier, 1929, R. obliviosus Kock, 1978 and R. spinalatus Bergmans & Hill, 1980, and to reflect the following mutations. Following Bergmans et al. (1988), the genus Boneia

  15. Phylogeography, population history and conservation genetics of jaguars (Panthera onca, Mammalia, Felidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizirik, E; Kim, J H; Menotti-Raymond, M; Crawshaw, P G; O'Brien, S J; Johnson, W E

    2001-01-01

    The jaguar (Panthera onca), the largest felid in the American Continent, is currently threatened by habitat loss, fragmentation and human persecution. We have investigated the genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history of jaguars across their geographical range by analysing 715 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and 29 microsatellite loci in approximately 40 individuals sampled from Mexico to southern Brazil. Jaguars display low to moderate levels of mtDNA diversity and medium to high levels of microsatellite size variation, and show evidence of a recent demographic expansion. We estimate that extant jaguar mtDNA lineages arose 280 000-510 000 years ago (95% CI 137 000-830 000 years ago), a younger date than suggested by available fossil data. No strong geographical structure was observed, in contrast to previously proposed subspecific partitions. However, major geographical barriers such as the Amazon river and the Darien straits between northern South America and Central America appear to have restricted historical gene flow in this species, producing measurable genetic differentiation. Jaguars could be divided into four incompletely isolated phylogeographic groups, and further sampling may reveal a finer pattern of subdivision or isolation by distance on a regional level. Operational conservation units for this species can be defined on a biome or ecosystem scale, but should take into account the historical barriers to dispersal identified here. Conservation strategies for jaguars should aim to maintain high levels of gene flow over broad geographical areas, possibly through active management of disconnected populations on a regional scale.

  16. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam

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    Nguyen Truong Son

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bat communities of mainland Southeast Asia can be highly diverse. Many are under threat. Despite this, regional faunal composition is not well documented for many areas, including regions of Vietnam.  We assessed the biodiversity of bats in a watershed protection forest in the southeastern Truong Son (Annamite Mountains, southwestern Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam in 2011–2013.  Twenty species of insectivorous bats were documented including a high diversity of Murina species Tube-nosed Bats.  Diversity and abundance indices were compared with that recorded previously in two nature reserves and one national park in Vietnam, and were higher or comparable in several measures despite the lack of a karst substrate for roosts.  Reproduction in the insectivorous bat fauna coincided with the early rainy season.  In the late dry season, pregnant females of several species were observed but volant juveniles were not present, whereas in the early wet season adult females were lactating or post-lactating and volant juveniles of nine species were detected.  We recorded echolocation calls of 14 bat species; for each species, we compared features of calls with those reported previously in other Asian localities.  For some species we found discrepancies in call metrics among studies, perhaps suggesting a greater hidden biodiversity of bats in Southeast Asia.

  17. New fauna of archaeocete whales (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Bartonian middle Eocene of southern Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Philip D.; Zouhri, Samir

    2015-11-01

    Six genera and species of archaic whales are present in a new fauna from the Aridal Formation at Gueran in the Sahara Desert of southwestern Morocco. Three of the archaeocete species represent semiaquatic Protocetidae and three species are fully aquatic Basilosauridae. Protocetids are characteristic of Lutetian lower middle Eocene strata, and basilosaurids are characteristic of Priabonian late Eocene beds. Similar representation of both families is restricted to intervening Bartonian strata and indicative of a late middle Eocene age. Archaeocetes from Gueran include (1) a small protocetid represented by a partial humerus, teeth, and vertebrae; (2) a middle-sized protocetid represented by a partial innominate and proximal femur; (3) the very large protocetid Pappocetus lugardi represented by teeth, a partial innominate, and two partial femora; (4) a new species of the small basilosaurid Chrysocetus represented by a dentary, teeth, humeri, and many vertebrae; (5) a new species of the larger basilosaurid Platyosphys (resurrected as a distinct genus) represented by a partial braincase, tympanic bulla, and many vertebrae; and (6) the large basilosaurid Eocetus schweinfurthi represented by teeth, a tympanic bulla, and lumbar vertebrae. The Gueran locality is important geologically because it constrains the age of a part of the Aridal Formation, and biologically because it includes a diversity of archaic whales represented by partial skeletons with vertebrae in sequence and by forelimb and hind limb remains. With further collecting, Gueran archaeocete skeletons promise to clarify the important evolutionary transition from foot-powered swimming in Protocetidae to the tail-powered swimming of Basilosauridae and all later Cetacea.

  18. Molecular evolution of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA in Ungulata (mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douzery, E; Catzeflis, F M

    1995-11-01

    The complete 12S rRNA gene has been sequenced in 4 Ungulata (hoofed eutherians) and 1 marsupial and compared to 38 available mammalian sequences in order to investigate the molecular evolution of the mitochondrial small-subunit ribosomal RNA molecule. Ungulata were represented by one artiodactyl (the collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu, suborder Suiformes), two perissodactyls (the Grevy's zebra, Equus grevyi, suborder Hippomorpha; the white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum, suborder Ceratomorpha), and one hyracoid (the tree hyrax, Dendrohyrax dorsalis). The fifth species was a marsupial, the eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). Several transition/transversion biases characterized the pattern of changes between mammalian 12S rRNA molecules. A bias toward transitions was found among 12S rRNA sequences of Ungulata, illustrating the general bias exhibited by ribosomal and protein-encoding genes of the mitochondrial genome. The derivation of a mammalian 12S rRNA secondary structure model from the comparison of 43 eutherian and marsupial sequences evidenced a pronounced bias against transversions in stems. Moreover, transversional compensatory changes were rare events within double-stranded regions of the ribosomal RNA. Evolutionary characteristics of the 12S rRNA were compared with those of the nuclear 18S and 28S rRNAs. From a phylogenetic point of view, transitions, transversions and indels in stems as well as transversional and indels events in loops gave congruent results for comparisons within orders. Some compensatory changes in double-stranded regions and some indels in single-stranded regions also constituted diagnostic events. The 12S rRNA molecule confirmed the monophyly of infraorder Pecora and order Cetacea and demonstrated the monophyly of the suborder Ruminantia was not supported and the branching pattern between Cetacea and the artiodacytyl suborders Ruminantia and Suiformes was not established. The monophyly of the order Perissodactyla was evidenced, but the relationships between Artiodactyla, Cetacea, and Perissodactyla remained unresolved. Nevertheless, we found no support for a Perissodactyla + Hyracoidea clade, neither with distance approach, nor with parsimony reconstruction. The 12S rRNA was useful to solve intraordinal relationships among Ungulata, but it seemed to harbor too few informative positions to decipher the bushlike radiation of some Ungulata orders, an event which has most probably occurred in a short span of time between 55 and 70 MYA.

  19. A New Species of Living Peccary (Mammalia: Tayassuidae) from the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosmalen, M.G.M.; Frenz, L.; Hooft, van W.F.; Iongh, de H.H.; Leirs, H.

    2007-01-01

    Here we report on the existence of a new species of even-toed ungulate in the Brazilian Amazon, which we name Pecari maximus, the giant peccary. It represents the largest of living peccary species. One complete mitochondrial D-loop and two nuclear SINE PRE-1 DNA sequences of giant peccary compared w

  20. Volatile components in dorsal gland secretions of the collared peccary,Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae, mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, J S; Ke, J; Pickett, J A; Weldon, P J

    1996-07-01

    Secretions of the dorsal gland of free-ranging adult male and female collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both sexes contain (2E,6E,10E)-geranylgeraniol; squalene (allE isomer); and the following isomers of springene, a diterpene homolog of β-farnesene: (3E,6E,10E)-α-springene, (3Z,6E,10E)-α-springene, and (6E,10E)-β-springene. A diterpene alcohol and an additional isomer each of squalene and springene also were observed. Straight- and branched-chain esters abound in the secretions of females, but they were not detected in males.

  1. Sobre o Hábito Locomotor de Carodnia vieirai Paula-Couto, 1952 (Mammalia: Xenungulata)

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo S Avilla; Lílian Paglarelli Bergqvist

    2005-01-01

    Carodnia vieirai Paula-Couto, 1952 é a espécie melhor conhecida da ordem Xenungulata, um grupo bastante peculiar de ungulados do Cenozóico sul-americano. Esse grupo foi proposto com base em um esqueleto quase completo descoberto na Bacia de São José de Itaboraí (Iataboraiense, Paleoceno Superior), Rio de Janeiro. Os xenungulados compreendem dois gêneros, Carodnia e Etayoa, ambos registrados apenas em sedimentos paleocênicos. Em aspectos gerais, C. vieirai caracteriza-se por seu grande t...

  2. Sobre o Hábito Locomotor de Carodnia vieirai Paula-Couto, 1952 (Mammalia: Xenungulata

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    Leonardo S. Avilla

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Carodnia vieirai Paula-Couto, 1952 é a espécie melhor conhecida da ordem Xenungulata, um grupo bastante peculiar de ungulados do Cenozóico sul-americano. Esse grupo foi proposto com base em um esqueleto quase completo descoberto na Bacia de São José de Itaboraí (Iataboraiense, Paleoceno Superior, Rio de Janeiro. Os xenungulados compreendem dois gêneros, Carodnia e Etayoa, ambos registrados apenas em sedimentos paleocênicos. Em aspectos gerais, C. vieirai caracteriza-se por seu grande tamanho (em relação aos outros ungulados registrados para a Bacia de Itaboraí, por apresentar os membros anteriores mais longos que os posteriores e apoio digitígrado. Pretende-se aqui caracterizar o hábito locomotor do táxon em questão, com base em índices ecomorfológicos (usuais em estudos dessa natureza dos segmentos proximais (úmero e fêmur e médios (ulna e tíbia do esqueleto apendicular. Esses índices independem da massa corpórea. Os índices são: "Sholder moment" (ISM, indica a vantagem mecânica do músculo deltóide posterior em relação à articulação do ombro; Braquial (IBr, representa a adaptação do membro anterior a movimentos rápidos; e Habilidade fossorial (IFA, representa a capacidade fossorial do animal; e nos membros posteriores -Crural (IC, que sugere a capacidade de cursorialidade. Os membros anteriores de C. vieirai apresentam valores de ISM e IFA relativamente baixos (57.83 e 37.81, respectivamente, indicando um investimento menor em força no membro em questão, com valor de IBr relativamente alto (71.86 que também corrobora esse padrão, sugerindo um investimento em rapidez no movimento do membro anterior. Já, o IC do membro posterior sugere uma menor cursorialidade (50.11. Comparando esses resultados com índices registrados para diversos mamíferos de grande porte (massa: 80kg , o único a possuir valores similares seria o elefante africano Loxodonta africana (IBr=70.93; IFA=31.14; e IC=55.14. Apesar do tamanho, o elefante africano é bastante ágil, e ocupa diversos tipos de ambientes, desde florestas fechadas, savanas, pântanos, "thornbush" (tipo de caatinga africana e semi-desertos. O tipo de locomoção realizado por L. africana (homolateral, onde os membros anteriores e posteriores são sincrônicos na passada e com três patas sempre apoiadas no solo parece ter sido a solução encontrada em diversos grupos de vertebrados para otimizar valores de massa altos e habilidade de locomoção Apesar das diferenças anatômicas gerais dos membros de L. africana e C. vieirai, os índices suportam uma similaridade de hábitos locomotores (cursoriais homolaterais.

  3. Osteology and Functional Morphology of the Hind Limb of the Marine Sloth Thalassocnus (Mammalia, Tardigrada)

    OpenAIRE

    Amson, Eli; Argot, Christine; McDonald, H. Gregory; de Muizon, Christian

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The anatomy of the skeletal elements of the hind limb of Thalassocnus is described. This genus of “ground sloth” comprises five species represented by Neogene specimens from the coast of Peru and Chile, mostly found in the Pisco Formation. The hind limb of the genus Thalassocnus as a whole is characterized by a small iliac wing, a gracile femur with well-formed femoral neck, teardrop shaped patella, long and slender tibia, triangular tuber calcis, and proximal developm...

  4. Frugivory by phyllostomid bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in a restored area in Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Maurício; Trevelin, Leonardo; Port-Carvalho, Marcio; Godoi, Simone; Mandetta, Elizabeth Neuenhaus; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the potential contribution of frugivorous bats to the reestablishment of vegetational diversity in a restored area. We analysed the diets of the bat species and the differences between them in the consumption of fruits of autochtonous and allochthonous species. Planted (autochtonous) species were the basis of diets, especially Solanum mauritianum and Cecropia pachystachya, whereas for allochthonous species we found that Piperaceae to be of particular importance. Carollia perspicillata was the main seed disperser for allochthonous species, and potentially the most important bat in the promotion of vegetation diversity in the study area. Our results suggest that frugivorous bats are especially important in the reestablishment of vegetation in disturbed areas, and that restorarion efforts should focus on the planting of different zoochorous species that would guarantee a high year-round fruit production, thereby facilitating natural plant reestablishment by frugivorous bats in regenerating areas.

  5. A new species of Murina (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from peninsular Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soisook, Pipat; Karapan, Sunate; Satasook, Chutamas; Bates, Paul J J

    2013-12-13

    A new species of Murina belonging to 'suilla-group' is described based on two specimens collected with harp traps in lowland evergreen forest in the southernmost part of peninsular Thailand. Morphology and molecular (mitochondrial COI) data suggest that the new species is most closely related to M. eleryi, which is currently known from Indochina. The new species, however, can be distinguished by the size and shape of the upper canine, the shape of the upper and lower premolars, and the colour of the ventral pelage. Additional data on bacular morphology, echolocation, ecology, and distribution are included.

  6. Phylogenetic relations between microbats, megabats and primates (Mammalia: Chiroptera and Primates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, J D; Jamieson, B G; Robson, S K; Hall, L S; McAnally, K I; Cooper, H M

    1989-11-30

    We examine the paraphylectic hypothesis of bat origins, both in the light of previous discussions, and in the light of new evidence from our analyses of neurological traits and wing morphology. Megabats share with primates a variety of complex details in the organization of neural pathways that have not been found in any other mammalian group, particularly not in microbats. The features previously used to link microbats and megabats have been examined and found to be questionable bases for support of a monophyletic origin. In particular, morphological analyses of the musculoskeletal adaptations associated with the flight apparatus are consistent with two separate origins of the mammalian wing. Taken together, these analyses suggest that megabats evolved from an early branch of the primate lineage. This branch was comprised of moderate-sized, phytophagous gliders, of which the other living descendants are the dermopterans. Microbats, in contrast, probably evolved much earlier from small, agile insectivores whose forelimbs had long metacarpals in relation to their phalanges.

  7. Bony labyrinth morphometry indicates locomotor adaptations in the squirrel-related clade (Rodentia, Mammalia)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The semicircular canals (SCs) of the inner ear detect angular acceleration and are located in the bony labyrinth of the petrosal bone. Based on high-resolution computed tomography, we created a size-independent database of the bony labyrinth of 50 mammalian species especially rodents of the squirrel-related clade comprising taxa with fossorial, arboreal and gliding adaptations. Our sampling also includes gliding marsupials, actively flying bats, the arboreal tree shrew and subterranean specie...

  8. Bony labyrinth morphometry indicates locomotor adaptations in the squirrel-related clade (Rodentia, Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Cathrin; Martin, Thomas; Ruf, Irina

    2015-06-22

    The semicircular canals (SCs) of the inner ear detect angular acceleration and are located in the bony labyrinth of the petrosal bone. Based on high-resolution computed tomography, we created a size-independent database of the bony labyrinth of 50 mammalian species especially rodents of the squirrel-related clade comprising taxa with fossorial, arboreal and gliding adaptations. Our sampling also includes gliding marsupials, actively flying bats, the arboreal tree shrew and subterranean species. The morphometric anatomy of the SCs was correlated to the locomotion mode. Even if the phylogenetic signal cannot entirely be excluded, the main significance for functional morphological studies has been found in the diameter of the SCs, whereas the radius of curvature is of minor interest. Additionally, we found clear differences in the bias angle of the canals between subterranean and gliding taxa, but also between sciurids and glirids. The sensitivity of the inner ear correlates with the locomotion mode, with a higher sensitivity of the SCs in fossorial species than in flying taxa. We conclude that the inner ear of flying and gliding mammals is less sensitive due to the large information flow into this sense organ during locomotion.

  9. Flexibility in the social behavior of captive female capybaras (Mammalia, Rodentia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio L G; Lopes, Pauliene C; Ferreira, Djalma N; Nogueira, Selene S C

    2017-09-01

    Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) lives in stable groups composed of adult males and females with their young. The species shows flexibility in social organization in response to short-term environmental changes, but apparently does not show flexibility in social behavior. To gain insights into mechanisms underlying changes in social relationships, we analyzed the social dominance hierarchy of five captive capybara groups, composed of four to 13 adult females kept in outdoor paddocks ranging from 400 to 4500m(2). In addition, we evaluated the effects of group size and space allowance on two complementary properties of social structure: linearity and steepness. Captive female capybaras exhibit a linear social dominance hierarchy. There was also more predictability in the dominance success- hierarchical steepness - in the dominance hierarchy with a decrease in the space per individual. This variability in response to changing circumstances shows flexibility in capybara's social behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reconsideration of the systematics of the Early Pleistocene Cervavitus (Cervidae, Artiodactyla, Mammalia

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    Dong, W.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervavitus were usually found from the Late Miocene and Pliocene deposits in East Europe, Middle Asia and North China, but they were found recently in many Early Pleistocene localities in southern China. The latter resulted in the discussion of their systematic status between Cervavitus and Cervus. Here we show the Early Pleistocene forms from southern China are morphometrically more similar to northern China Cervavitus species, and the cladistic analysis shows that the southern China forms are closer to classic Cervavitus species than Cervus and that also proves their systematic status in Cervavitus rather than in Cervus. Cervavitus originated in Moldovan forests of East Europe in the late Vallesian (MN10 from a brachyodont and holometacarpal ancestor with two/three-tined antlers and Palaeomeryx fold and evolved into C. novorossiae. It dispersed into West Europe forests in the earliest Turolian and further west to France in the Ruscinian. It dispersed into northern China forests in the early Turolian and represented by C. shanxius. The great quantity of C. shanxius specimens with brachyodont teeth and complete lateral metacarpals implies the arid Loess Plateau of today was a humid forested region in the Late Miocene. C. shanxius migrated southwards in the Plio-Pleistocene probably due to the drying environment in northern China with uplifting of Himalayas and evolved into C. ultimus and C. fenqii, which survived in southern China until the Early Pleistocene (MNQ18.La revisión sistemática de Cervivatus sugiere que deriva del principal clado de los cérvidos posteriores a los muntiacinos, e implica que Procervulinae, Dicrocerinae y la primeras formas de Munticiacinae serían holometacarpales, como también lo es Cervivatus, originario en los bosques de Moldavia (Europa del Este durante el Vallesiense final (MN 10, a partir de un antecesor braquiodonto y holometacarpal, con astas con dos o tres candiles y pliegue paleomerícido, y que da lugar a C. novorossiae. Este se dispersó a Europa occidental durante el comienzo del Turoliense, y más al oeste a Francia durante el Rusciniense. Su dispersión en los bosques del norte de China se produjo también a comienzos del Turoliense, estando representado por C. shanxius. Existe una gran cantidad de ejemplares de C. shanxius con metápodos laterales completos, que debían ser útiles para equilibrar el cuerpo en las ramas de los árboles. Las áridas mesetas loésicas actuales fueron bosques húmedos durante el Mioceno final. C. shanxius emigró hacia el sur durante el Plio-Pleistoceno probablemente debido al ambiente más seco del norte de China, como consecuencia de la elevación de los Himalayas, dando lugar a C. ultimus y C. fenqii, que sobrevivieron en el sur de China hasta el Pleistoceno inicial (MNQ18.

  11. Stephanorhinus etruscus (Perissodactyla, Mammalia en el Villafranquiense inferior de Las Higueruelas, Alcolea de Calatrava (Ciudad Real

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    Mazo, A. V.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available An incomplete skull and semi-mandible of a rhinoceros found in Las Higueruelas (Alcolea de Calatrava, Ciudad Real is described. It is identified as a Stephanorhinus etruscus (Falconer. Las Higueruelas pertains to the Lower Villafranchian and its age can be estimated to be about 3 Ma, being this craneal remains the oldest known in Spain and Europe in this momento.Un cráneo incompleto y una hemimandíbula de rinoceronte procedentes de Las Higueruelas, Alcolea de Calatrava (Ciudad Real son identificados como Stephanorhinus etruscus (Falconer. Puesto que la edad de Las Higueruelas puede establecerse en unos 3 Ma, la presencia de este taxón es la más antigua conocida por el momento no sólo en España sino también en Europa.

  12. Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Sandro; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho

    2002-12-01

    Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-pregui a" (sloth's giant tick) is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae), Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae). Based on the material examined, the states of Rond nia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil.

  13. Icnitas de artiodactilos (Mammalia del Paleogeno de Olcoz (Depresion del Ebro, Navarra

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    Murelaga, X.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A group of fossil mammal ichnites from the proximity of the town of Olcoz (Navarra, Ebro Basin is described herein. The tracks occur on sandstone beds of the Mués Formation of Suevian (Early Oligocene age. Owing to their morphology these ichnites have been assigned to artiodactyl mammals and can be compared to Entelodontipus forms. Moreover, this represents the second known finding of this ichnogenus. Among the tracks of this deposit there is a significant heterogeneity which is due to the variable penetration and displacement of the autopodes on the substrate. On Olcoz the presence of abundant ichnites that follow subparallel tracks allows the establishment of the gregarious behaviour of the producers of such tracks.Se describe un conjunto de icnitas fósiles de mamíferos ubicado en los alrededores de la localidad navarra de Olcoz (Depresión del Ebro. Las huellas se localizan en niveles areniscosos de la «Formación de Mués», de posible edad Sueviense (Oligoceno inferior. Por su morfología pueden asignarse a mamíferos artiodáctilos y resultan comparables a Entelodontipus, constituyendo este hallazgo una segunda cita para dicho icnogénero. En este yacimiento se constata una notable variabilidad morfológica de las huellas, resultado de la distinta penetración y desplazamiento de los autópodos en el sustrato. La presencia en Olcoz de numerosas icnitas formando rastros subparalelos permite inferir el comportamiento gregario de sus productores.

  14. Entwicklungsstufen der miozänen Cricetodontinae (Mammalia, Rodentia) Mittelspaniens und ihre stratigraphische Bedeutung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.

    1963-01-01

    During the summer holidays of 1960 to 1963 a great many localities of Miocene and Pliocene mammals were discovered in the Southern part of Zaragoza province (Spain). Remains of both large and small mammals were found, the latter by sieving clays and marls. This small fauna consists mainly of Criceto

  15. Karyotypes of two rare rodents, Hapalomys delacouri and Typhlomys cinereus (Mammalia, Rodentia, from Vietnam

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    Alexei Abramov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyotypes of Hapalomys delacouri (Rodentia, Muridae and Typhlomys cinereus (Rodentia, Platacanthomyidae from Vietnam are described for the first time. The diploid karyotype of H. delacouri is 38 (NFa=48, consisting of six pairs of bi-armed and 12 pairs of acrocentric autosomes decreasing in size; plus a large metacentric X chromosome and Y chromosome, also metacentric, that is equal in size to the largest pair of acrocentric autosomes. The newly described karyotype differs significantly from that reported for H. delacouri from northern Thailand. The latter record very likely represents a different species of Hapalomys, possibly the taxon H. pasquieri described from north-central Laos. The diploid karyotype of Typhlomys cinereus is 38 (NF=48, consisting of five pairs of meta- to submetacentric and 14 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes varying in size from large to small; sex chromosomes were not defined.

  16. White-toothed shrews (Mammalia, Soricomorpha, Crocidura of coastal islands of Vietnam

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    Alexei Abramov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available New findings of the white-toothed shrews (Crocidura spp. from offshore islands of Vietnam are reported. The species identifications have been confirmed by the analysis of complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 bp. Crocidura phuquocensis is the only species found in the Phu Quoc Island. Crocidura fuliginosa has been recorded from two islands of the Con Dao Archipelago (Con Son and Bai Canh. The occurrence of C. fuliginosa in Vietnam has been genetically confirmed for the first time. Crocidura attenuata has been collected from the Cat Ba Island for the first time, and this finding corresponds well with the proposal that the species’ distribution is confined to the north and east of the Red River only.

  17. On the systematic position of the Western Hamster, Cricetus cricetus canescens Nehring (Mammalia: Rodentia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, A.M.

    1959-01-01

    The systematic position of the western hamster, Cricetus cricetus canescens, has been a subject of discussion and criticism ever since NEHRING (1899, pp. 1—2) described the hamster occurring in Belgium west of the Meuse as a separate variety. The present paper is a new effort to throw more light on

  18. Estado del zorro gris Lycalopex griseus (Gray, 1837 (Mammalia: Canidae en el Perú

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    Elena Vivar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Se sustenta la presencia del zorro gris Lycalopex griseus (Gray, 1837 en la costa sur del Perú en base a información morfológica externa y craneal. Esta especie es de similar tamaño a L. sechurae (Thomas, 1900 pero diferenciable en una mayor longitud del hocico y menor amplitud del cráneo; esta diferencia es respaldada en un Análisis de Componentes Principales. Se sugiere que la población del zorro gris en el Perú podría constituir una subespecie nueva de L. griseus por encontrarse más al norte de su distribución tradicionalmente conocida y separada de otras subespecies por el Desierto de Atacama en el norte de Chile, notable barrera biogeográfica.

  19. CANIS LUPUS (MAMMALIA, CANIDAE FROM THE LATE PLEISTOCENE DEPOSIT OF AVETRANA (TARANTO, SOUTHERN ITALY

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    DAVIDE F.BERTÈ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we described the remains of Canis lupus from the bed 8 of Avetrana karst filling (Late Pleistocene; Taranto, Southern Italy. The studied specimens are larger than those collected from the early Late Pleistocene Apulian localities and those referred to the recent Italian wolf. Moreover, the remains from Avetrana are morphometrically close to Canis lupus maximus from France and to C. lupus collected from Central and Northern Italian localities, chronologically related to MIS 2 and MIS 3. Morphologically, the studied specimens slightly differ from both C. l. maximus and other Pleistocene Apulian wolves. The dimensional differences between the Avetrana wolves and those collected from the other early Late Pleistocene Apulian localities could be explained through a spread of a large-sized morphotype from the Northern Italy.

  20. Rodents and lagomorphs (Mammalia) from the Hemphillian (late Miocene) of Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, W.W.; De Blieux, D. D.

    2010-01-01

    Four species of rodents (two heteromyids and two cricetids) and one lagomorph are identified from the late Tertiary Sevier River Formation of Utah. The heteromyids include a new genus and species of heteromyine, Metaliomys sevierensis, which is intermediate in morphology between the Clarendonian and early Hemphillian Diprionomys Kellogg and the extant genera Liomys and Heteromys. A single specimen is referred to Diprionomys sp., cf. D. minimus (Kellogg). The cricetid Paronychomys lemredfieldi Jacobs is known from the Hemphillian of Arizona. The second cricetid is referred to a new genus Basirepomys. Peromyscus pliocenicus Wilson from the Hemphillian of California is designated as the type species of the new genus, to which the new species B. robertsi from Utah is referred. Basirepomys is viewed as intermediate between Peromyscus and the basal neotomyine Repomys May from the late Hemphillian and Blancan. The only lagomorph in the fauna is Hypolagus vetus (Kellogg). Four of the taxa recognized from the Sevier River Formation (Diprionomys, Paronychomys lemredfieldi, Basirepomys, and Hypolagus vetus) are elsewhere known from the Hemphillian of North America. However, it is not possible at this time to determine whether the fauna is early or late Hemphillian. ?? 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.

  1. Karyotypes of two rare rodents, Hapalomys delacouri and Typhlomys cinereus (Mammalia, Rodentia), from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Alexei V; Aniskin, Vladimir M; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V

    2012-01-01

    Karyotypes of Hapalomys delacouri (Rodentia, Muridae) and Typhlomys cinereus (Rodentia, Platacanthomyidae) from Vietnam are described for the first time. The diploid karyotype of Hapalomys delacouri is 38 (NFa=48), consisting of six pairs of bi-armed and 12 pairs of acrocentric autosomes decreasing in size; plus a large metacentric X chromosome and Y chromosome, also metacentric, that is equal in size to the largest pair of acrocentric autosomes. The newly described karyotype differs significantly from that reported for Hapalomys delacouri from northern Thailand. The latter record very likely represents a different species of Hapalomys, possibly the taxon Hapalomys pasquieri described from north-central Laos.The diploid karyotype of Typhlomys cinereus is 38 (NF=48), consisting of five pairs of meta- to submetacentric and 14 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes varying in size from large to small; sex chromosomes were not defined.

  2. PROPOTAMOCHOERUS SP. (SUIDAE, MAMMALIA FROM THE LATE MIOCENE OF GRAVITELLI (MESSINA, SICILY, ITALY REDISCOVERED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIANNI GALLAI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two casts of a suid from the Late Miocene of Gravitelli (Messina, Sicily, originally described by Seguenza in 1902. The entire Gravitelli faunal collection was lost in the early 1900¡¦s. The recent rediscovery of two casts in the collections of the Museo di Storia Naturale of the University of Florence represent the only available material from this locality (in addition to the original description and illustration by Seguenza. The study of these casts allow a revision of the Gravitelli suid and its attribution to the genus Propotamochoerus. Although a specific determination is not possible, we suggest probable affinities with the species P. hysudricus or P. provincialis.

  3. Systematics and Evolution of the Miocene Three-Horned Palaeomerycid Ruminants (Mammalia, Cetartiodactyla.

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    Israel M Sánchez

    Full Text Available Palaeomerycids were strange three-horned Eurasian Miocene ruminants known through fossils from Spain to China. We here study their systematics, offering the first cladistic phylogeny of the best-known species of the group, and also reassess their phylogenetic position among ruminants, which is currently disputed. The beautifully preserved remains of a new palaeomerycid from middle Miocene deposits of Spain, Xenokeryx amidalae gen. et sp. nov., helps us to better understand palaeomerycid anatomy, especially that of the nuchal region in the skull, significantly improving our current knowledge on these enigmatic ruminants. Our results show two main lineages of palaeomerycids, one containing the genus Ampelomeryx diagnosed by a characteristic type of cranium / cranial appendages and some dental derived traits, and another one that clusters those forms more closely related to Triceromeryx than to Ampelomeryx, characterized by a more derived dentition and a set of apomorphic cranial features. Xenokeryx branches as a basal offshoot of this clade. Also, we find that Eurasian palaeomerycids are not closely related to North American dromomerycids, thus rejecting the currently more accepted view of palaeomerycids as the Eurasian part of the dromomerycid lineage. Instead of this, palaeomerycids are nested with the African Miocene pecoran Propalaeoryx and with giraffoids. On the other hand, dromomerycids are closely related to cervids. We define a clade Giraffomorpha that includes palaeomerycids and giraffids, and propose an emended diagnosis of the Palaeomerycidae based on cranial and postcranial characters, including several features of the cranium not described so far. We also define the Palaeomerycidae as the least inclusive clade of pecorans containing Triceromeryx and Ampelomeryx. Finally, we reassess the taxonomy of several palaeomerycid taxa.

  4. The extinct genus Hexaprotodon Falconer & Cautley, 1836 (Mammalia, Artiodactyla, Hippopotamidae) in Asia: Paleoecology and Taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    A remarkable aspect, in which the Asian Hexaprotodon (hippopotamus) differs from other fossil mammal taxa, is that in some localities they are abundant, while in other localities, which are fairly similar in faunal composition, their fossils are lacking completely or are very scarce. During

  5. The first record of Deinotherium (Proboscidea, Mammalia) in the Miocene of Adygea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, K K; Lopatin, A V; Maschenko, E N

    2015-01-01

    The data on an isolated upper tooth (P4) of Deinotherium sp. from the Late Miocene beds of the Maikop 1 locality (Maikop, Republic of Adygea) are reported. This is the first record of Deinotherium from the Upper Miocene of Russia. The tooth crown of P4 is similar in size to D. proavum Eichwald, 1831 (= D. gigantissimum Stefanescu, 1892).

  6. A new Mammutidae (Proboscidea, Mammalia) from the Late Miocene of Gansu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothé, Dimila; Avilla, Leonardo S; Zhao, Desi; Xie, Guangpu; Sun, Boyang

    2016-03-01

    The "Yanghecun specimen", a proboscidean specimen represented by a mandible from Miocene of China and previously described as Gomphotheriidae, is here reviewed and described as a new genus and species of Mammutidae: Sinomammut tobieni. This taxon is a longirostrine mastodon, lacking lower tusks, and bearing a wide last molar with oblique and non-inflated lophids, broad transverse interlophids, and yoke-like wear figures. Phylogenetic analysis of Mammutidae based on dental and mandibular features recovered S. tobieni as sister group of the mastodon Mammut. The longirostrine condition and the well-developed lower incisors seem to be primitive for Mammutidae, while the brevirostry is the derived condition, probably emerged during the middle Miocene (12-11 Mya). However, two derived conditions are recognized to the lower tusks: the absence of lower tusks (S. tobieni) and the occasional presence of vestigial lower tusks (Mammut).

  7. A new Mammutidae (Proboscidea, Mammalia from the Late Miocene of Gansu Province, China

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    DIMILA MOTHÉ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The "Yanghecun specimen", a proboscidean specimen represented by a mandible from Miocene of China and previously described as Gomphotheriidae, is here reviewed and described as a new genus and species of Mammutidae: Sinomammut tobieni. This taxon is a longirostrine mastodon, lacking lower tusks, and bearing a wide last molar with oblique and non-inflated lophids, broad transverse interlophids, and yoke-like wear figures. Phylogenetic analysis of Mammutidae based on dental and mandibular features recovered S. tobieni as sister group of the mastodon Mammut. The longirostrine condition and the well-developed lower incisors seem to be primitive for Mammutidae, while the brevirostry is the derived condition, probably emerged during the middle Miocene (12-11 Mya. However, two derived conditions are recognized to the lower tusks: the absence of lower tusks (S. tobieni and the occasional presence of vestigial lower tusks (Mammut.

  8. Population structure of the gomphothere Stegomastodon waringi (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Gomphotheriidae) from the Pleistocene of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothé, Dimila; Avilla, Leonardo S; Winck, Gisele R

    2010-12-01

    The Quaternary fossil record of Águas de Araxá (Q AA) is represented mainly by an accumulation of skeletal elements of several sizes, which are assigned to a population of Stegomastodon waringi. We analyzed 97 molars according to the ear stages of Simpson and Paula-Couto (1957), and developed a morphometric ear index. The population structure (proportion of immature, subadult, adult, mature adult and senile adult individuals) was identified, and these five age classes were compared to those of extant elephant populations and defined with social implications. The analysis made possible to establish that the population is largely composed of adults: 14.89% are immature individuals, 23.04% subadults, 27.65% adults, 17.21% mature adults and another 17.21% senile adults. Based on population structure, we do not discard the possibility that the fossil population was stable or in recovery, and/or was experiencing a high-predation period on younger individuals. The number of individuals composing the past population studied here could suggest that the occupied environment was open due to comparisons to populations of extant elephants. We consider this population as an aggregation of family units, which suggests a time of low environmental humidity. Based on literature and our findings, their extinction appears to be regional and probably related to a catastrophic event.

  9. Morphological variation in the ear region of pleistocene elephantimorpha (Mammalia, Proboscidea) from central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdale, Eric G

    2011-04-01

    A large sample of isolated elephantimorph petrosal bones was recovered from Pleistocene deposits in Friesenhahn Cave, Bexar County, Texas. Morphology of the middle and inner ear of the elephantimorphs is described and variation within the sample is identified. Observed variations occur in the stapedial ratio, morphology of the aquaeductus Fallopii, and connection of the crista interfenestralis to the tympanohyal on the posterior portion of the petrosal to form a foramen for passage of the stapedius muscle. The morphology of the aquaeductus Fallopii supports an ontogenetic explanation for some variation, and a sequence of ossification surrounding the aquaeductus Fallopii, from the anterior end of the canal to the posterior, is hypothesized. The stapedial ratio varies to a high degree across the sample, and such variation should be considered when the ratio is used in phylogenetic analyses. Within the inner ear, the absence of the secondary lamina suggests evolution of low-frequency hearing in extinct proboscideans, which is known for extant elephants. The morphology of the petrosals from Friesenhahn Cave is compared to published descriptions of the ear regions of other extinct proboscideans, and the distribution and evolution of morphologic characters are discussed. J. Morphol., 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Elephas antiquus (Proboscidea, Mammalia en el Pleistoceno medio de Ciempozuelos (Madrid

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    Mazo, A. V.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available A mandible of a young elephant found at Ciempozuelos (Madrid is identified as Elephas antiquus. Correlation with other paleontological sites of the Madrid basin were this taxa has been recorded allow us to assing the new locality to the middle-Iate Pleistocene (Riss-Würn.Se identifica como Elephas antiquus una mandíbula juvenil de elefante encontrada en Ciempozuelos (Madrid. Las correlaciones con otros yacimientos de la cuenca de Madrid que han proporcionado el mismo taxón permiten precisar que la nueva localidad pertenece al Pleistoceno medio final (Riss-Würm.

  11. [Feeding habits of raccoon (Procyon lotor) (Carnivora: Procyonidae) in a coastal, tropical wet forest of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, E; Wong, G; Rodríguez, M A

    2001-01-01

    Raccoon (Procyon lotor) food habits were studied at Manuel Antonio National Park, a tropical rain forest in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica from May to December 1987, from September to December 1989 and from January to April 1990. A 134 feces sample size was used to assess the most important items in raccoon diet: two crab species (Gecarcinus quadratus and Cardisoma crassum) with a relative frequency of 0.94 in the rainy season of 1987, 0.76 in the rainy season of 1989 and 0.65 in the dry season of 1990. Fruits were the second category in importance, with relative frequencies of 0.09 for 1987, 0.32 for 1989 and 0.44 for 1990.

  12. Survival of feral cats, Felis catus (Carnivora: Felidae), on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i, based on tooth cementum lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Raymond M.; Farmer, Chris; Hess, Steven C.; Stephens, Robert M.; Banko, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Feral cats (Felis catus) have spread throughout anthropogenic and insular environments of the world. They now threaten many species of native wildlife with chronic depredation. Knowledge of feral cat population dynamics is necessary to understand their ecological effects and to develop effective control strategies. However, there are few studies worldwide regarding annual or lifetime survival rates in remote systems, and none on Pacific islands. We constructed the age distribution and estimated survival of feral cats in a remote area of Hawai'i Island using cementum lines present in lower canine teeth. Our data suggest annual cementum line formation. A log-linear model estimated annual survival ≥ 1 yr of age to be 0.647. Relatively high survival coupled with high reproductive output allows individual cats to affect native wildlife for many years and cat populations to rebound quickly after control efforts.

  13. Constraining the time of extinction of the South American fox Dusicyon avus (Carnivora, Canidae) during the late Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevosti, Francisco; Santiago, Fernando; Prates, Luciano; Salemme, Mónica; Martin, Fabiana

    2010-05-01

    The mass extinction at the end of the Pleistocene affected South America during the Late Pleistocene and the Early Holocene, when megamammals and large mammals disappeared. Several carnivores became extinct, like the sabretooth Smilodon, the short face bear (Arctotherium) and some large canids (i.e. Protocyon, Canis dirus). After this mass event virtually no carnivores became extinct in South America. The only exception is the fox Dusicyon avus, a middle sized canid (estimated body mass between 10-15 kg) with a more carnivore diet than the living South American foxes (i.e. Lycalopex culpaeus). The last record of the species comes from middle-late Holocene archaeological sites in the Pampean Region (Argentina) and Patagonia (Argentina and Chile). During the Late Pleistocene D. avus had a wide distribution, that covered part of Uruguay, Argentina (Buenos Aires province) and the southernmost Chile. Albeit some remains from late Holocene sites have been published, these remains lack of isotopic dates that could (allow?) constraint (to determine) the date of extinction of this fox. In this contribution we present several new records from the Pampean Region and Patagonia, and several taxon dates. The new records indicate that D. avus disappeared in the late Holocene at least ≈ 3000 years BP in the island of Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia) and ≈ 1600 BP in the continent. Since at this time humans were occupying most of the Pampas and Patagonia a revision of the causes behind the extinction of this fox is required.

  14. [Potential distribution of jaguar, Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae) in Guerrero, Mexico: persistence of areas for its conservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo-Robayo, Angela P; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio

    2012-09-01

    Studies about the permanence of natural protected areas are important, because they contribute to the promotion of the conservation target and to optimize economical and human resources of specific areas. Although there are no natural protected areas in Guerrero, it has suitable habitat for the jaguar, a common species used for planning and management of conservation areas. Since, there is actual evidence that environmental and anthropogenic variables may modify vertebrate species distribution with time, in this study we predicted the potential distribution of Panthera onca using MaxEnt for this Southeastern region. In addition, we made a projection considering the effect of a moderate climate change scenario, to evaluate the stability of the conservation area for a period of 24 years. Furthermore, we applied three threat scenarios for the actual prediction to define conservation priorities areas. In our results, we have found that 18 361Km2 (29%) of this state has a permanent suitable habitat for jaguar conservation in the Sierra Madre del Sur and Pacific coast, with a possible loss of 2 000km2 in 24 years. This habitat is characterized by a 56% of temperate forest (mainly conifers and hardwoods 34%), and 35% of tropical deciduous forest. With the projections, the Southeastern region resulted with the higher anthropogenic impacts, while at the same time, an area of 7 900km2 in the Central-Western state was determined as a priority for conservation. To assure jaguar conservation, we propose the inclusion of this new conservation area, which is located in the Sierra Madre del Sur, with which we may potentially preserve other 250 species of threatened vertebrates. This way, the suggested habitat conservation may represent a local effort in Guerrero and will strengthen the biological corridor network for P. onca protection in Latin America.

  15. Impact of jaguar Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae) predation on marine turtle populations in Tortuguero, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Arce, Stephanny; Salom-Pérez, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the effects of jaguars on the population of marine turtles nesting in Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica. This study assessed jaguar predation impact on three species of marine turtles (Chelonia mydas, Dermochelys coriacea and Eretmochelys imbricata) that nest in Tortuguero beach. Jaguar predation data was obtained by using two methodologies, literature review (historical records prior the year 2005) and weekly surveys along the 29 km stretch of beach during the period 2005-2013. Our results indicated that jaguar predation has increased from one marine turtle in 1981 to 198 in 2013. Jaguars consumed annually an average of 120 (SD = 45) and 2 (SD = 3) green turtles and leatherbacks in Tortuguero beach, respectively. Based on our results we concluded that jaguars do not represent a threat to the population of green turtles that nest in Tortuguero beach, and it is not the main cause for population decline for leatherbacks and hawksbills. Future research should focus on continuing to monitor this predator-prey relationship as well as the factors that influence it so the proper management decisions can be taken.

  16. Observations on the mating behavior of the eastern lowland olingo Bassaricyon alleni (Carnivora: Procyonidae in the Peruvian Amazon

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    Sean M. Williams

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The behavior of wild olingos is poorly known. From May-Jul 2015, I surveyed nocturnal mammals in southeast Peru and recorded the behavior of olingos. Multiple olingos were observed in close proximity on four occasions: two occasions in which multiple olingos were feeding on the inflorescences of a Parkia pendula tree; an adult and immature olingo traveling together; and a pair of olingos copulating. The copulation lasted at least 142 minutes, and was characterized by the male biting the hind neck and back of the female, constant female vocalizations, and rapid head turning by the female toward the male. Olingos and kinkajous were similarly abundant. These observations offer insight into the behavior of the wild olingo.

  17. Abundance of Conepatus chinga (Carnivora, Mephitidae and other medium-sized mammals in grasslands of southern Brazil

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    Carlos B. Kasper

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Between January 2007 and December 2010, the abundance of medium-sized mammals was studied, with special focus on the Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782, at four locations in southern Brazil. In this study, transect line methodology was used to obtain data for Distance Analyses. Transects were traveled by car at night, searching with spotlights along the edges of secondary roads in agricultural landscapes. Along 1,811 km, we obtained 620 observations of 20 mammal species. The most common species was the exotic European hare, Lepus europaeus (Pallas, 1778; the highest abundance estimated for South America was observed in one of the study areas, where its density was estimated as 32 individuals/km². Carnivores were the most commonly recorded mammals, represented by 10 species and comprising 51% of all observations. Molina's hog-nosed skunk occurred in all study areas, but occurred in sufficient numbers to obtain density estimates in only two of the areas. We estimated 1.4 to 3.8 individuals/km², in the first density estimate made by the transect method for a member of Conepatus in the Neotropics. These values are similar to those estimated for North American species of Mephitidae. In Brazil, C. chinga is apparently more abundant in the Pampa biome than in the grasslands of the Atlantic Forest. For two other carnivores, Lycalopex gymnocercus (Fisher, 1814 and Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, we estimated preliminary densities that were similar to those previously cited for different regions.

  18. Anatomy of the “false thumb” of Tremarctos ornatus (Carnivora, Ursidae, Tremarctinae: phylogenetic and functional implications

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    Salesa, M. J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe for the first time the radial sesamoid or “false thumb” of the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus, showing its great morphological similarities with that of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca and the differences with that of the rest of the Ursidae. This points to the existence of a common origin for this structure in both species, but considering the accepted phylogenies of ursids, the sharing of a “false thumb” in T. ornatus and A. melanoleuca would be a plesiomorphy for these groups, whereas in the rest of the ursids the radial sesamoid was probably reduced, lacking the specialised function that this bone has in Tremarctinae and Ailuropodinae.Se describe por primera vez el sesamoideo radial o “falso pulgar” del oso de anteojos (Tremarctos ornatus, mostrando la gran similitud morfológica con el del panda gigante (Ailuropoda melanoleuca y las diferencias que presenta con el resto de los Ursidae. Esto apunta a la existencia de un origen común para esta estructura en ambas especies, pero considerando las filogenias aceptadas de Ursidae, la presencia de falso pulgar en T. ornatus y A. melanoleuca sería una simplesiomorfía respecto al resto de úrsidos, en los cuales el sesamoideo radial nunca aumentó de tamaño, careciendo de la especializada función que posee en Tremarctinae y Ailuropodinae.

  19. Habitat use and home range of brown-nosed coati, Nasua nasua (Carnivora: Procyonidae) in the Brazilian Cerrado biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovati, Roberto Guilherme; Brito, Bernardo Alves de; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti

    2010-09-01

    The brown-nosed coati (Nasua nasua) is a carnivorous species found in all the Brazilian biomes, some of which are endangered areas. The aim of this work was to determine the habitat use and selection, home range and core area of N. nasua in the Cerrado biome, central region of Tocantins, Brazil. The study was carried out in an area of approximately 20 000ha from May 2000 to July 2002. A total of seven box traps were placed in the area for 13 months, three of 11 captured animals were followed and monitored by radio-tracking during 13 months. The monitoring was conducted once a day, three times a week using a car and walking through the study area (radio-tracking and visual contact). The results demonstrate that these three males used more frequently the gallery forest formation, followed by cerrado and wetlands. The use of gallery forest by these animals indicated an habitat selection (Proportion test, z=12.98, pcerrado percentage of habitat use. Besides, results also showed a gallery forest selection by adult (Proportion test z=13.62, pCerrado, that may support conservation efforts.

  20. Megalictis, the Bone-Crushing Giant Mustelid (Carnivora, Mustelidae, Oligobuninae) from the Early Miocene of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenciano, Alberto; Baskin, Jon A.; Abella, Juan; Pérez-Ramos, Alejandro; Álvarez-Sierra, M. Ángeles; Morales, Jorge; Hartstone-Rose, Adam

    2016-01-01

    We describe cranial and mandibular remains of three undescribed individuals of the giant mustelid Megalictis ferox Matthew, 1907 from the latest Arikareean (Ar4), Early Miocene mammal fauna of Nebraska, and Wyoming (USA) housed at the American Museum of Natural History (New York, USA). Our phylogenetic hypothesis indicates that Ar4 specimens assigned to M. ferox constitute a monophyletic group. We assign three additional species previously referred to Paroligobunis to Megalictis: M. simplicidens, M. frazieri, and “M.” petersoni. The node containing these four species of Megalictis and Oligobunis forms the Oligobuninae. We test the hypothesis that Oligobuninae (Megalictis and Oligobunis) is a stem mustelid taxon. Our results indicate that the Oligobuninae form the sister clade to the crown extant mustelids. Based on the cranium, M. ferox is a jaguar-size mustelid and the largest terrestrial mustelid known to have existed. This new material also sheds light on a new ecomorphological interpretation of M. ferox as a bone-crushing durophage (similar to hyenas), rather than a cat-like hypercarnivore, as had been previously described. The relative large size of M. ferox, together with a stout rostrum and mandible made it one of the more powerful predators of the Early Miocene of the Great Plains of North America. PMID:27054570

  1. Tick and flea infestation in a captive Margay Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821 (Carnivora: Felidae: Felinae in Peru

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    M. Quevedo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between wild and domestic animals can increase the risk for transmission of parasites in both directions, and thus, affects the ecology of diseases. Wild felids have been proven to be sensitive to infectious agents commonly found in domestic animals, and those agents have had detrimental effects on wildlife conservation. A margay Leopardus wiedii which had been kept captive as a pet for about fifteen days, was found moderately infested with the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis. Considering that the captive Margay lived close to domestic dogs and cats, this interaction might be the source of that infestation. Based on this finding, careful attention should be paid to wildlife and domestic animals interactions as ectoparasites can be easily transmitted and new host-pathogen interactions are possible.

  2. Abundance changes and activity flexibility of the oncilla, Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora: Felidae, appear to reflect avoidance of conflict

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    Luiz Gustavo R. Oliveira-Santos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the density and activity of the oncilla, Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775, a threatened small cat, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, using camera-trap data. We described differences in the activity of individuals occurring alone or in sympatry with larger cats. Oncilla presented low densities (7-13 ind./100 km² and high flexibility in its activity. The oncillas were primarily nocturnal in the absence of other larger cat species - margay, ocelot and puma - but became more diurnal, with a cathemeral activity pattern, when the other cats were present. Oncilla is likely to be in a subordinate position in interactions with larger cats and changes its activity to decrease the chances for interspecific encounters. In this study, however, the presence of other cat species covaries with habitat changes (from coastal forest patches to dense evergreen forests. We also verified the highest oncilla relative abundance in an area with no sympatric larger cats, with abundance decreasing when it was in sympatry with margay, ocelot and puma. Our results, together with recent records of oncilla in other degraded landscapes of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, provide evidence that oncillas may thrive even in harsh environments where other cats have already been extinct. This raise interesting conservation insights, as in the absence of other cats, L. tigrinus may assume a top predator role of these impoverished vertebrate communities.

  3. Population and prey of the Bengal Tiger Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758 (Carnivora: Felidae in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh

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    M.M.H. Khan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The results from intensive small scale surveys are often difficult to extrapolate to wider spatial scales, yet an understanding at such scales is critical for assessing the minimum densities and populations of rare and wide ranging species. In this paper, the minimum size of population and minimum density estimates of Bengal Tigers Panthera tigris tigris and its prey were conducted from 2005 to 2007 using camera traps for 90 days and using distance sampling surveys for over 200 days, respectively. The results were extrapolated from the core study area in Katka-Kochikhali, southeastern Sundarbans, to five additional sites using indices of abundance. With the use of 10 camera-traps at 15 trap-points, field data provided a total of 829 photos, including seven photos of five individual tigers. A total of 5.0 (SE = 0.98 tigers (adults and sub-adults are thus estimated in the core area with an estimated density of 4.8 tigers/100km2. Distance sampling surveys conducted on large mammalian prey species obtained an overall density estimate of 27.9 individuals/km2 and a biomass density of 1,037kg/km2. Indices of abundance were obtained by using tiger track sighting rates (number of tracks/km of riverbank and the sighting rates of the prey species (number of prey/km of riverbank in the core area and in five additional sites across the region. The densities of tiger tracks and sighting rates of prey were strongly correlated suggesting a wide scale relationship between predator and prey in the region. By combining the estimates of absolute density with indices of abundance, an average of 3.7 tigers/100km2 across the region is estimated, which given an area of 5,770km2, predicts a minimum of approximately 200 tigers in the Bangladesh Sundarbans.

  4. The Role of Anthropogenic Influence on Biological Signal Field (BSF Characteristics of the Wolf, Canis lupus lupus (Canidae, Carnivora

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    Shkvyria M. G.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the current research includes studying the biological signal field (BSF characteristics of the wolf (Canis lupus lupus Linnaeus, 1758 at different values of anthropogenic load on territories with conservation (Białowieża National park (Poland and hunting status of the species (Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (Ukraine. The research in Białowieża Primeval Forest was conducted in two stages: study of the BSF characteristics of the wolf and finding correlation between data acquired from Ukraine (the first stage, and over-time study of intensity of the biological signal field (the second stage. In result of the first stage, there was no significant dependence on the characteristics of the territory and the differences between the behavior of wolves in the Białowieża Primeval Forest (conservation status of the species and the Exclusion Zone (game status. During the second stage it was determined that provided variance of the intensity between territory groups was insufficient, the degree of significance to animals of area categories varied with the stages of the pack’s life. It was found that the main factors which govern the character of wolf activity are not the level of the anthropic load and hunting pressure, but periods of the life cycle and spatial structure of groups.

  5. Feeding habits of Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Carnivora: Mephitidae in the extreme south of Brazil

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    Felipe Bortolotto Peters

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782 in the extreme south of Brazil. We analyzed 60 stomachs of road-kills of C. chinga in the extreme south of Brazil. The contents revealed 808 prey parts, including invertebrates (frequency of occurrence - FO = 96.7% and relative abundance - RA = 94.7%, vertebrates (FO = 18.3% and RA = 2.8% and plants (FO = 31.7% and RA = 2.3%. We identified 18 kinds of food, including the invertebrate order Coleoptera which showed the highest FO (86.7% and RA (75.2%. Other important orders were Orthoptera (FO = 35% and RA = 10.4% and Araneae (FO = 41.7% and RA = 4%. The combination of occurrence and abundance of the preys consumed allowed classifying C. chinga as an omnivorous with a predominance of insects, especially Coleoptera, consuming other invertebrates, vertebrates and plants in smaller numbers. Behavioral and morphological adaptations of C. chinga favor the predation of insects, which are preys that offer low physical resistance and are available in all terrestrial environments.

  6. Evaluation of biological control of rattus population by mongoose (Herpestidae, Carnivora in AbuMusa Island, Iran

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    Mehdi Khoobdel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the rattus biological control program in Iranian Persian Gulf Island, Abu-Musa. Methods: This study was conducted on the Iranian island of Abu-Musa during April 2012 to March 2013. The rattus trapping was done using commercial live and baited rat trap, in different parts of the island. Also the island of Qeshm, with a similar weather and climatic conditions in the Persian Gulf was considered as a control area, which any comprehensive rattus control plan has not been implemented during the implementation of rattus biological control program on Abu-Musa Island. All ectoparasites were collected and stored at 70% ethanol. Ectoparasites, including fleas, lice and mites were identified using identification keys. In addition, a number of released mongooses were captured and identified. Results: Despite a year of trapping on the island, no rattus were caught in the traps. While on the island of Qeshm, as a control location, rate of rat trappings was estimated 33.3%. Among the 27 captured rodents in two islands, a total of 89 ectoparasites including fleas, Xenopsylla astia (32 females, 18 males and Cetenocephalides felis (9 females, 7 males, louse, Polyplax spinulosa (8 females, 2 males and mite, Laelaps nuttalli (13 females and males were collected. In this study, the introduced mongoose on the island of Abu-Musa, which has established and increased their population and been distributed in all parts of the island, was identified as Indian gray mongoose, Herpestes edwardsii. Conclusions: The introduced Indian gray mongoosehas successfully eradicated the rattus population in island of Abu-Musa, but we have no information about its direct and indirect impacts on other native faunal elements of this island.

  7. Population and prey of the Bengal Tiger Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758 (Carnivora: Felidae in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh

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    M.M.H. Khan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The results from intensive small scale surveys are often difficult to extrapolate to wider spatial scales, yet an understanding at such scales is critical for assessing the minimum densities and populations of rare and wide ranging species. In this paper, the minimum size of population and minimum density estimates of Bengal Tigers Panthera tigris tigris and its prey were conducted from 2005 to 2007 using camera traps for 90 days and using distance sampling surveys for over 200 days, respectively. The results were extrapolated from the core study area in Katka-Kochikhali, southeastern Sundarbans, to five additional sites using indices of abundance. With the use of 10 camera-traps at 15 trap-points, field data provided a total of 829 photos, including seven photos of five individual tigers. A total of 5.0 (SE = 0.98 tigers (adults and sub-adults are thus estimated in the core area with an estimated density of 4.8 tigers/100km2. Distance sampling surveys conducted on large mammalian prey species obtained an overall density estimate of 27.9 individuals/km2 and a biomass density of 1,037kg/km2. Indices of abundance were obtained by using tiger track sighting rates (number of tracks/km of riverbank and the sighting rates of the prey species (number of prey/km of riverbank in the core area and in five additional sites across the region. The densities of tiger tracks and sighting rates of prey were strongly correlated suggesting a wide scale relationship between predator and prey in the region. By combining the estimates of absolute density with indices of abundance, an average of 3.7 tigers/100km2 across the region is estimated, which given an area of 5,770km2, predicts a minimum of approximately 200 tigers in the Bangladesh Sundarbans.

  8. On the morphological variation and taxonomy of the Geoffroy's cat Leopardus geoffroyi (d'Orbigny & Gervais, 1844 (Carnivora, Felidae

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    Fabio Oliveira do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Geoffroy's cat Leopardus geoffroyi (d'Orbigny & Gervais, 1844 is a small cat found in the Southern Cone of South America and, depending on the author, four or five subspecies have been usually recognized (L. g. geoffroyi, L. g. paraguae, L. g. euxanthus, L. g. salinarum and L. g. leucobaptus, mainly based on external morphological characters, such as color pattern of the pelage. In order to clarify the taxonomy of L. geoffroyi, I analyzed approximately 200 specimens housed in museums. I have examined the external and craniodental morphology in quantitative and qualitative terms in the search for patterns of congruent characters that would indicate the existence of taxonomic units. Twenty craniodental measurements were taken and tested by univariate and multivariate (MANOVA, PCA and DFA procedures. In this study I detected a great variation in the morphological characters, and thus it was not possible to determine whether any of these were geographically consistent and could be used to determine any taxonomic unit. Based on this, I do not recognize any subspecific division for L. geoffroyi. Along its geographic range, a gradual and subtle change from one color pattern to the next along the latitude was detected, but the morphological characters that were used to define the putative subspecies were also detected in a same population. Furthermore, the present study is congruent with the results obtained by previous molecular data, suggesting that L. geoffroyi has a high level of genetic diversity with no geographic structure. This indicates the existence of a large panmictic population with no significant barriers to gene flow and, as a consequence, no subspecies should be recognized.

  9. Selection of habitat by the jaguar, Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae, in the upper Paraná River, Brazil

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    Laury Cullen Junior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We used data from VHF and GPS radio-tagged jaguars, Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758 to quantify jaguar habitat selection and how adult individuals in the Upper Paraná River region selected among the available habitat types. We followed the framework in which animals make decisions about resource use at hierarchical stages, namely selection of home range within a study area (second-order selection and selection of patches within a home range (third-order selection. We quantified habitat preferences at two orders of selection with respect to habitat types and to test the null hypothesis that habitat utilization by jaguars was random at both study sites. Using compositional analysis, we assessed habitat selection by jaguars at second- and third-orders of selection. Jaguars consistently preferred dense marshes and primary forests, and avoided human-dominated areas such as intensively managed open pastures. Although the avoidance of disturbed and developed habitat types by jaguars is not surprising, this is the first study to document it. If small protected areas, such as the ones already existing in the Upper Paraná region, are to sustain jaguar populations they, must include and protect as many primary forests and marshlands as possible, so that jaguars can disperse, hunt wild prey and take care of their cubs without being disturbed. What is urgently needed in these jaguar-protected areas is the creation of larger protected areas that can sustain jaguars in their favored habitat.

  10. Anomalous colour in Neotropical mammals: a review with new records for Didelphis sp. (Didelphidae, Didelphimorphia and Arctocephalus australis (Otariidae, Carnivora

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    MSL. Abreu

    Full Text Available Anomalous colourations occur in many tropical vertebrates. However, they are considered rare in wild populations, with very few records for the majority of animal taxa. We report two new cases of anomalous colouration in mammals. Additionally, we compiled all published cases about anomalous pigmentation registered in Neotropical mammals, throughout a comprehensive review of peer reviewed articles between 1950 and 2010. Every record was classified as albinism, leucism, piebaldism or eventually as undetermined pigmentation. As results, we report the new record of a leucistic specimen of opossum (Didelphis sp. in southern Brazil, as well as a specimen of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis with piebaldism in Uruguay. We also found 31 scientific articles resulting in 23 records of albinism, 12 of leucism, 71 of piebaldism and 92 records classified as undetermined pigmentation. Anomalous colouration is apparently rare in small terrestrial mammals, but it is much more common in cetaceans and michrochiropterans. Out of these 198 records, 149 occurred in cetaceans and 30 in bats. The results related to cetaceans suggest that males and females with anomolous pigmentation are reproductively successful and as a consequence their frequencies are becoming higher in natural populations. In bats, this result can be related to the fact these animals orient themselves primarily through echolocation, and their refuges provide protection against light and predation. It is possible that anomalous colouration occurs more frequently in other Neotropical mammal orders, which were not formally reported. Therefore, we encourage researchers to publish these events in order to better understand this phenomenon that has a significant influence on animal survival.

  11. Diet of Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora: Mustelidae in three limnic systems in Southern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Fernando Marques Quintela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the diet of Lontra longicaudis in three limnic systems (anthropogenic shallow lakes, pluvial channel and coastal stream in Rio Grande do Sul State coastal plain, southern Brazil. Fishes were the most consumed item in all the three systems, being Mugilidae the most representative family in the pluvial channel and coastal stream and Cichlidae in the shallow lakes. Other identified items were mollusks, insects, crustaceans, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals and vegetal fragments. The high frequency of birds in the shallow lakes was remarkable, considering the lower frequencies of this item in previous investigations on the species diet. There was a high frequency of swamp eels (Synbranchidae, Synbranchus marmoratus in the pluvial channel and shallow lakes, which were usually absent or found in low frequencies in previous studies.

  12. Feeding of small Neotropical felids (Felidae: Carnivora and trophic niche overlap in anthropized mosaic landscape of South Brazil

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    Alcides Ricieri Rinaldi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n4p155 Understanding the diversity of a community and its dynamics is especially important in altered habitats such as agricultural fields, where this information can help biodiversity conservation programs. In an altered landscape of the interior Atlantic Forest, western Paraná State, Brazil (25º41’ to 25º20’S and 53º56’ to 54º35’W, samples (310 were collected and a total of 110 samples could be determined for some small Neotropical felids, including 39 Leopardus guttulus (oncilla, 38 L. wiedii (margay and 33 Puma yagouaroundi (jaguarondi. The diets of these felids contained typical synanthropic prey such as Mus musculus in 44% (L. guttulus, 32% (L. wiedii and 15% (P. yagouaroundi of the total samples. This observation and the sample collection in agricultural places demonstrate that felids can use this anthropized landscape. The small mammals (<100 g were more common in the diet of these species. Nevertheless, the correction factor was shown to have significant efficiency in correcting estimates of biomass ingested for two of the three species of felids, and we therefore recommend that these species be used in future studies. Even with this observed coexistence, the food niche of the three species showed a large overlap.

  13. Survey of the Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus Bennett, 1833 (Carnivora: Felidae and some aspects impacting its conservation in India

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    S. Mukherjee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus is a medium sized cat that is widely but patchily distributed across Asia and strongly associated with wetlands. It is among the 15 felid species that inhabit India and like other smaller cat species it is very poorly understood. Apart from a few recent surveys in specific locations, no concerted effort has been made to assess its current distribution and threats to its persistence within India. In this study we collected scats from natural habitats, through six states including five protected areas throughout India and performed informal interviews with locals to get a better overview of the current distribution and threats for Fishing Cats in India. Of the 114 scats used for molecular analysis, 37% were assigned to felids, including 19 Fishing Cats. We confirmed that Fishing Cat populations persisted in all locations where they were recorded before, including Keoladeo Ghana, from where it was reported in recent years that fishing cats are possibly extinct. Most populations face imminent threats with the worst being in the Howrah District of West Bengal where 27 dead individuals were traced during the study period of only one year. The major threats across populations include ecologically unbalanced land policies and land uses, direct persecution due to human-Fishing Cat conflicts as well as ritual hunts. To address these threats we recommend a stronger dialogue among scientists, policy makers, administrators, locals and other stake holders such as commercial fish and prawn cultivators. Further awareness campaigns for stakeholders, and surveys for monitoring fishing cat populations, studying their ecology and estimating economic losses to local people due to the Fishing Cat predation on livestock and poultry, is needed in order to design effective conservation strategies.

  14. Megalictis, the Bone-Crushing Giant Mustelid (Carnivora, Mustelidae, Oligobuninae from the Early Miocene of North America.

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    Alberto Valenciano

    Full Text Available We describe cranial and mandibular remains of three undescribed individuals of the giant mustelid Megalictis ferox Matthew, 1907 from the latest Arikareean (Ar4, Early Miocene mammal fauna of Nebraska, and Wyoming (USA housed at the American Museum of Natural History (New York, USA. Our phylogenetic hypothesis indicates that Ar4 specimens assigned to M. ferox constitute a monophyletic group. We assign three additional species previously referred to Paroligobunis to Megalictis: M. simplicidens, M. frazieri, and "M." petersoni. The node containing these four species of Megalictis and Oligobunis forms the Oligobuninae. We test the hypothesis that Oligobuninae (Megalictis and Oligobunis is a stem mustelid taxon. Our results indicate that the Oligobuninae form the sister clade to the crown extant mustelids. Based on the cranium, M. ferox is a jaguar-size mustelid and the largest terrestrial mustelid known to have existed. This new material also sheds light on a new ecomorphological interpretation of M. ferox as a bone-crushing durophage (similar to hyenas, rather than a cat-like hypercarnivore, as had been previously described. The relative large size of M. ferox, together with a stout rostrum and mandible made it one of the more powerful predators of the Early Miocene of the Great Plains of North America.

  15. Disposition and external morphology of hair on a female of the species otter Lutra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora, Mustelidae

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    Arani Nanci Bonfim Mariano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze aspects of the otter’s hair (Lutra longicaudis. Size, shape and number of hairs, as well as their layers and distribution on the skin were observed. To accomplish this purpose, 1mm2 of skin with its respective hair was removed from 44 points of the body surface and was examined under a stereoscopic microscope in order to be measured, counted and morphologically analyzed. The results were registered in histograms and schematic drawings and compared to the descriptions for other species. The covering hair reached a maximum height of 18mm and a minimum of 3.5mm, while wholly hair showed a maximum height of 11mm and a minimum of 1.5mm. The cuticle flake hairs of the covering coat modified, along the connecting rod according to its bore, shape, number and architecture. The cortex was thick in the portion where the covering coat took the form of a flattened spindle. The wholly coat was practically constituted by the cortex. The results obtained in this study suggest that the otter has a complex fur, different to the other animals. This is probably due mainly to its semi-aquatic habit.

  16. Habitat use and home range of brown-nosed coati, Nasua nasua (Carnivora: Procyonidae in the Brazilian Cerrado biome

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    Roberto Guilherme Trovati

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The brown-nosed coati (Nasua nasua is a carnivorous species found in all the Brazilian biomes, some of which are endangered areas. The aim of this work was to determine the habitat use and selection, home range and core area of N. nasua in the Cerrado biome, central region of Tocantins, Brazil. The study was carried out in an area of approximately 20 000ha from May 2000 to July 2002. A total of seven box traps were placed in the area for 13 months, three of 11 captured animals were followed and monitored by radio-tracking during 13 months. The monitoring was conducted once a day, three times a week using a car and walking through the study area (radio-tracking and visual contact. The results demonstrate that these three males used more frequently the gallery forest formation, followed by cerrado and wetlands. The use of gallery forest by these animals indicated an habitat selection (Proportion test, z=12.98, p< 0.01. Besides, adult males used the gallery forest more frequently (Fisher’s exact test, p<0.01 and wetlands less frequently (Fisher’s exact test, p<0.01 than juvenile males, without significant differences between animal ages for cerrado percentage of habitat use. Besides, results also showed a gallery forest selection by adult (Proportion test z= 13.62, p<0.01 and juvenile (Proportion test z=2.68, p<0.01 males, and a wetland selection by the juvenile male (Proportion test z=3.90, p<0.01. The home ranges varied from 2.20 to 7.55km² for the Minimum Convex Polygon 100% (MCP 100% and from 4.38 to 13.32km² for the Harmonic Mean 95% (HM 95%. The smallest home range overlap occurred between the adult males (Nm1 and Nm3, and the greatest between the juvenile Njm2 and the adult Nm1. The average of the core area (HM 75% for the three monitored animals represented 21.29% of the home range calculated with HM 95%. No overlap between core areas was observed for adult males, but, it was an overlap between the core area of the juvenile male and its band with that of the two adult males. The present study provides new data on core area size and frequency habitat use by adult and juvenile males of N. nasua in the Brazilian Cerrado, that may support conservation efforts. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 1069-1077. Epub 2010 September 01.

  17. Notes to Mesocestoides Vaillant, 1863 (Cestoda and findings of Mesocestoides sp. parasitizing Canis familiaris (Carnivora in the Czech Republic

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    František Tenora

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The partial critical analysis of the situation in systematic-taxonomic arrangement of tapeworms from the genus Mesocestoides Vaillant, 1863 was performed. The attention is drawn to a number of problems preventing the uniform opinion on the species value within the genus Mesocestoides. The own material of that genus from Canis familiaris (gravid segments of cestodes from dog faeces, locality of Jílmoví, southern Moravia is presented. The study is an appropriate complement to the abstract published by Borkovcová and Tenora (2003.

  18. Taxonomic revision of the genus Galictis (Carnivora: Mustelidae): species delimitation, morphological diagnosis, and refined mapping of geographical distribution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bornholdt, Renata; Helgen, Kristofer; Koepfli, Klaus‐Peter; Oliveira, Larissa; Lucherini, Mauro; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    .... To address this issue, we performed a comprehensive assessment of morphological and molecular characters to test the number of species within Galictis , and to characterize their distinctiveness...

  19. A study on karyotype of Small-toothed palm civet, Arctogalidia trivirgata (Carnivora, Viverridae by using conventional staining method

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    Dumnui, S.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was the first karyotypic study of Small-toothed palm civet (Arctogalidia trivirgata. Blood samples were taken from two males and two females kept in Dusit Zoo, Bangkok. After the standard whole blood lymphocyte culture at 37ºC for 72 hr. in presence of Colchicine, the metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and air-dried. Conventional Giemsa's staining were applied to stain the chromosome. The results showed that the number of diploid chromosome of Small-toothed palm civet was 2n = 40, the fundamental number (NF was 66 in both male and female. The type of autosomes were 2 large metacentric, 2 large submetacentric, 8 large acrocentric, 4 large telocentric, 4 medium submetacentric, 4 medium telocentric, 4 small metacentric, 2 small submetacentric, 2 small acrocentric and 6 small telocentric chromosomes. In addition, chromosome 17 showed a clearly observable satellite. X-chromosome was the large metacentric and Y chromosome was the smallest acrocentric chromosome.The karyotype formula for the male Small-toothed palm civet (Arctogalidia trivirgata is as follows:2n (40 = Lm 2+Lsm 2+La 8+Lt 4+Msm 4+Mt 4+Sm 4+Ssm 2+Sa 2+St 6+X+Y = Lm 3+Lsm 2+La 8+Lt 4+Msm 4+Mt 4+Sm 4+Ssm 2+Sa 3+St 6The karyotype formula for the female Small-toothed palm civet (Arctogalidia trivirgata is as follows:2n (40 = Lm 2+Lsm 2+La 8+Lt 4+Msm 4+Mt 4+Sm 4+Ssm 2+Sa 2+St 6+X+X = Lm 4+Lsm 2+La 8+Lt 4+Msm 4+Mt 4+Sm 4+Ssm 2+Sa 2+St 6

  20. No need to replace an “anomalous” primate (Primates with an “anomalous” bear (Carnivora, Ursidae

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    Eliécer Gutiérrez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available By means of mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequencing of putative “yeti”, “bigfoot”, and other “anomalous primate” hair samples, a recent study concluded that two samples, presented as from the Himalayas, do not belong to an “anomalous primate”, but to an unknown, anomalous type of ursid. That is, that they match 12S rRNA sequences of a fossil Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus, but neither of modern Polar Bears, nor of Brown Bears (Ursus arctos, the closest relative of Polar Bears, and one that occurs today in the Himalayas. We have undertaken direct comparison of sequences; replication of the original comparative study; inference of phylogenetic relationships of the two samples with respect to those from all extant species of Ursidae (except for the Giant Panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca and two extinct Pleistocene species; and application of a non-tree-based population aggregation approach for species diagnosis and identification. Our results demonstrate that the very short fragment of the 12S rRNA gene sequenced by Sykes et al. is not sufficiently informative to support the hypotheses provided by these authors with respect to the taxonomic identity of the individuals from which these sequences were obtained. We have concluded that there is no reason to believe that the two samples came from anything other than Brown Bears. These analyses afforded an opportunity to test the monophyly of morphologically defined species and to comment on both their phylogenetic relationships and future efforts necessary to advance our understanding of ursid systematics.

  1. Feeding habits of giant otters Pteronura brasiliensis (Carnivora: Mustelidae in the Balbina hydroelectric reservoir, Central Brazilian Amazon

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    Márcia M. M. Cabral

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the diet of giant otters, Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmermann, 1780 in the Balbina reservoir (01º55'S, 59º29'W, to compare it with literature data on the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas, and to verify the effects of the seasonal changes in water levels on the feeding habits of Balbina otters. A total of 254 feces samples were collected and identified according to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Teleostei fish were present in 100% of the samples; two samples also presented monkey fur (n = 1 and sloth fur (n = 1, suggesting that the diet of P. brasiliensis, in the reservoir, is almost exclusively based on fish. Ten fish families were identified in our samples, six of which were exclusive to the Balbina Lake (not present in the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas. These six fish families, however, were present in less than 3% of the samples. The fish families with highest representation in the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas also appeared with higher frequencies in the Balbina Lake, suggesting that the otters have not changed their diet substantially after the implementation of the reservoir. During the high-water period, when the fish are dispersed into the flooded forest and are not very easy to catch, the otters seem to have an opportunistic feeding habit. By contrast, during the low-water period, when prey items are widely available and easier to catch in the reservoir, their feeding habits are more selective.

  2. On the occurrence of the Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus Bennet, 1833 (Carnivora: Felidae in coastal Kerala, India

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    R. Janardhanan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus is classified as Endangered in the IUCN Red List and yet its distribution range within India is not resolved. In spite of its potential habitat being present in coastal Kerala, there are only a few, unsubstantiated records of the cat. Moreover, its occurrence in Sri Lanka strengthens the possibility of its presence (historical or current population in southern India, including Kerala. This survey was conducted to assess the occurrence of the Fishing Cat in coastal Kerala through personal informal interviews with local people and molecular analysis of scats. The study failed to find any evidence of the occurrence of Fishing Cat in the coastal areas of Kerala. We discuss two possibilities - one, of the species existing earlier but driven to extinction in recent decades, due to high levels of land conversion through anthropogenic activities in these areas and the other of the Fishing Cat having never occurred in coastal Kerala. A speculative reasoning for its absence from the region could be related to the difference in salinity levels between the eastern and western coasts of India which has already been documented. Moreover, fewer freshwater sources merge into the sea in coastal areas of Kerala as compared to the eastern coast of India. This could limit the distribution of the Fishing Cat. The argument was also supported by the lack of any authentic report till date or of local names for the Fishing Cat in the region.

  3. Feeding of small Neotropical felids (Felidae: Carnivora and trophic niche overlap in anthropized mosaic landscape of South Brazil

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    Alcides Ricieri Rinaldi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the diversity of a community and its dynamics is especially important in altered habitats such as agricultural fields, where this information can help biodiversity conservation programs. In an altered landscape of the interior Atlantic Forest, western Paraná State, Brazil (25º41’ to 25º20’S and 53º56’ to 54º35’W, samples (310 were collected and a total of 110 samples could be determined for some small Neotropical felids, including 39 Leopardus guttulus (oncilla, 38 L. wiedii (margay and 33 Puma yagouaroundi (jaguarondi. The diets of these felids contained typical synanthropic prey such as Mus musculus in 44% (L. guttulus, 32% (L. wiedii and 15% (P. yagouaroundi of the total samples. This observation and the sample collection in agricultural places demonstrate that felids can use this anthropized landscape. The small mammals (<100 g were more common in the diet of these species. Nevertheless, the correction factor was shown to have significant efficiency in correcting estimates of biomass ingested for two of the three species of felids, and we therefore recommend that these species be used in future studies. Even with this observed coexistence, the food niche of the three species showed a large overlap.

  4. The primary structure of the hemoglobin of Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus, Carnivora) and structural comparison to other hemoglobin sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, O; Braunitzer, G; Göltenboth, R

    1987-05-01

    The complete primary structure of the alpha- and beta-chains of the hemoglobin of Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus) is presented. After cleavage of the heme-protein link and chain separation by RP-HPLC, amino-acid sequences were determined by Edman degradation in liquid- and gas-phase sequenators. An interesting result of this work is the demonstration that the hemoglobin of Malayan Sun Bear is identical to the hemoglobins of Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) and Asiatic Black Bear (Ursus tibetanus). The paper gives an updated table of identical hemoglobin chains from different species. This paper may be considered as a compilation of work on the genetic relationship of Pandas.

  5. Morfo-histologia dos pulmões e árvore bronquial de Procyon cancrivorus (Carnivora: Procyonidae

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    J.F.F.S. Paranaíba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nenhuma característica dos seres vivos é tão primordial quanto a respiração, e os pulmões são os principais órgãos do sistema respiratório. Este estudo tem por objetivo descrever os aspectos macroscópicos da traqueia, dos brônquios e dos lobos pulmonares bem como os aspectos microscópicos dos brônquios pulmonares do mão-pelada e compará-los com dados da literatura de estudos realizados com mamíferos silvestres e domésticos. Utilizaram-se três exemplares de Procyon cancrivorus, que foram fixados em solução aquosa de formaldeído a 10%. Os pulmões e a traqueia foram dissecados e fotografados com câmera fotográfica digital (Câmera Sony a200, 10.2mpx. Para a identificação das características microscópicas, foram coletados fragmentos de cada brônquio seguindo as técnicas de rotina histológica. O pulmão do Procyon cancrivorus se divide em quatro lobos direito e dois lobos esquerdo e a traqueia apresenta cerca de 31 a 34 anéis. Os brônquios extrapulmonares se dividem em direito e esquerdo; o direito se subdivide em brônquios lobares cranial, médio, acessório e caudal, e o esquerdo em lobares cranial e caudal, com seus respectivos brônquios segmentares. Microscopicamente, os brônquios apresentam um epitélio prismático pseudoestratificado ciliado com células caliciformes e feixes de fibras de musculatura lisa, placas de cartilagem hialina e fibras elásticas. O conhecimento da morfologia desses órgãos nas espécies silvestres auxilia em estudos descritivos e/ou comparativos entre espécies.

  6. A complete skull of Chasmaporthetes lunensis (Carnivora, Hyaenidae from the Spanish Pliocene site of La Puebla de Valverde (Teruel

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    Morales, J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A remarkably complete, well-preserved skull of the Pliocene hunting hyaena Chasmaporthetes lunensis from La Puebla de Valverde (Teruel is described. This exceptional find allows us to define more clearly the cranial morphology of this taxon, and to put its morphological features into evolutionary and functional perspective. Compared with the sympatric hyaenid Pliocrocuta perrieri, C. lunensis has a higher and wider rostrum, cheek teeth placed more anteriorly in relation to the orbits, a lower zygoma and a dorsally concave saggital crest, all pointing to a lesser development of the muscle temporalis and a greater emphasis on canine bite over premolar crushing bite. Horizontal wear on the premolars, caudal extension of the frontal sinus and other features indicate that scavenging or at least complete utilization of carcasses was a behavioural trait of the hunting hyaena. Overall, the available evidence suggests that C. lunensis was an active, group hunting predator of medium-sized ungulates, able to fully utilize carcasses but less dedicated to scavenging than the contemporary species P. perrieri.Describimos un cráneo prácticamente completo y bien preservado de la hiena cazadora del Plioceno, Chasmaporthetes lunensis, proveniente de La Puebla de Valverde (Teruel. Este hallazgo excepcional nos permite definir más claramente la morfología craneal de este taxón, y poner sus rasgos morfológicos en perspectiva funcional y evolutiva. Comparado con el hiénido simpátrico Pliocrocuta perrieri, C. lunenis muestra un hocico más alto y ancho, dientes post-caninos situados en posición más anterior respecto a las órbitas, arcos zigomáticos más bajos y una cresta sagital con un perfil dorsal cóncavo, todo lo cual apunta a un desarrollo menor del músculo temporal y un mayor énfasis en la mordida a nivel de los caninos respecto a la mordida trituradora de los premolares. El desgaste horizontal en los premolares, la extensión caudal de los senos frontales y otros rasgos indican que el carroñeo, o al menos la utilización a fondo de los cuerpos de las presas, sería un rasgo del comportamiento de las hienas cazadoras. En conjunto, la evidencia disponible sugiere que C. lunensis era una cazadora activa y grupal de ungulados medianos, capaz de utilizar a fondo las presas pero menos estrictamente carroñera que P. perrieri.

  7. A review of bush dog Speothos venaticus (Lund, 1842 (Carnivora, Canidae occurrences in Paraná state, subtropical Brazil

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    L. M. Tiepolo

    Full Text Available Abstract We report six new occurrence records of the bush dog Speothos venaticus, a widely distributed South American carnivore that is threatened with extinction. These records are accompanied by notes on the places where the records were made, such as vegetation type, date and information about the protection of areas. The records, obtained over the last 17 years in Paraná state, southern Brazil, offer an improved understanding of the species geographic range and the threats it faces and can enable better assessments of the conservation status of the species in southern Brazil.

  8. Evaluation of abiotic factors on the activity period of crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous – Carnivora: Canidae

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    Fernando Rodrigo Tortato

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The activity period of the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous was studied in the Itajaí valley, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil, through camera traps during a 15-month survey. The existence of relationships between this behavior and abiotic factors was also investigated. We found that the crab-eating fox’s activity is basically nocturnal (54% and crepuscular (25%. It has been classified as cathemeral. However, there were no relationships among the abiotic factors estimated (rainfall, temperature and lunar phases.

  9. Ocorrência (novo registro de lobo-guará chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 (carnivora, canidae no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Chisté Pinto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050988459No presente estudo é apresentado o registro da ocorrência de Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger 1815 em uma área de campo úmido adjacente a faixa de mata ciliar do rio Ibicuí, estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A espécie foi encontrada através do uso de armadilhas fotográficas e da procura de vestígios em transecções pré-estabelecidas na área, como parte de um programa de monitoramento ambiental de um projeto silvicultural.

  10. Asynchrony in craniomandibular development and growth in Enhydra lutris nereis (Carnivora: Mustelidae): are southern sea otters born to bite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Chris J; Baliga, Vikram B.; Tinker, M. Tim; Mehta, Rita S.

    2017-01-01

    Weaning represents a major ontogenetic dietary shift in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis), as juveniles must transition from depending on mother’s milk to independently processing hard-shelled invertebrates. When the skulls of juveniles have reached sufficient maturity to transition to a durophagous diet remains to be investigated. Here, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of skull development and growth and sexual dimorphism using geometric morphometric approaches in 204 southern sea otter skulls. We found that southern sea otters of both sexes exhibit dramatic changes in cranial and mandibular shape and size over ontogeny. Although the majority of these changes occur in the pup stage, full development and growth of the skull does not occur until well after weaning. We hypothesize that the slower maturation of the crania of newly weaned juveniles serves as a handicap by constraining jaw adductor muscle size, biting ability and feeding on hard-shelled prey. In our analysis of sexual dimorphism, we found significant sexual shape and size dimorphism in adult craniomandibular morphology that arose through differences in developmental and growth rates and duration. We postulate that males are selected to attain mature crania faster to presumably reach adult biting ability sooner, gaining a competitive advantage in obtaining food and in male–male agonistic interactions.

  11. Latest Early Pleistocene remains of Lynx pardinus (Carnivora, Felidae) from the Iberian Peninsula: Taxonomy and evolutionary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscaini, Alberto; Alba, David M.; Beltrán, Juan F.; Moyà-Solà, Salvador; Madurell-Malapeira, Joan

    2016-07-01

    The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is a critically endangered felid that, during the last fifty years, has been subject to an intensive conservation program in an attempt to save it from extinction. This species is first recorded at ca. 1.7-1.6 Ma (late Villafranchian, late Early Pleistocene) in NE Iberian Peninsula, roughly coinciding with the large faunal turnover that occurred around the middle to late Villafranchian boundary. Here we describe the largest collection of L. pardinus remains available to date from the Iberian late Early Pleistocene (Epivillafranchian), including localities from the Vallparadís Section (Vallès-Penedès Basin, NE Iberian Peninsula) and Cueva Victoria (Cartagena, SE Iberian Peninsula). The morphology and biometry of the studied material attests to the widespread occurrence of L. pardinus in the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula since the latest Early Pleistocene, i.e., about 0.5 million years earlier than it was generally accepted (i.e., at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene). Based on the features observed in the large sample studied in this paper, we conclude that Lynx spelaeus is a junior synonym of L. pardinus and further propose to assign all the Epivillafranchian and younger fossil lynxes from SW Europe to the extant species L. pardinus. Due to the arrival of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) into Europe at the beginning of the Late Pleistocene, the attribution of specimens younger than MIS 5e to either this species or L. pardinus solely on morphological grounds has proven equivocal. Here we discuss the main diagnostic features of both species of European lynxes and further review their evolutionary history and paleobiogeography throughout the Pleistocene.

  12. The conservation status of the Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus Bennett, 1833 (Carnivora: Felidae In Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Rothie Taylor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The status of the Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal was assessed by camera trapping and pugmark searches from 2011 to 2014.  The reserve is a highly dynamic and unstable snow-fed braided river system with many anabranches and islands.  Evidence of Fishing Cats was found throughout most of the reserve.  They were probably more abundant on the eastern side, among the islands of the main river channel, and in the adjacent buffer zone where there was a chain of fishponds and marsh areas fed by seepage from the main river channel.  Evidence of Fishing Cats was found up to 6km north of the reserve on the Koshi River but not beyond this.  The population is probably small and may be isolated but given the endangered status of the species, is significant.  The main likely threats identified are wetland and riparian habitat deterioration caused by over exploitation and illegal grazing by villagers, overfishing of wetlands and rivers within the reserve, and direct persecution arising from perceived conflicts with fish farming and poultry husbandry.  Required conservation actions are discussed. 

  13. Otariodibacter oris gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Pasteurellaceae isolated from the oral cavity of pinnipeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie Johanne; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Christensen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    from existing genera of the Pasteurellaceae by the following tests: positive reactions for catalase, oxidase, Voges-Proskauer and indole; no X- or V-factor dependency; and acid production from L-arabinose (slow), L-fucose, maltose and trehalose, but not from dulcitol, D-mannitol, D-mannose or sucrose...

  14. Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov., isolated from pinnipeds, comprising Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. and Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During independent diagnostic screenings of otariid seals in California (US) and phocid seals in Scotland (UK), Campylobacter-like isolates, which differed from the established Campylobacter taxa, were cultured from abscesses and internal organs of different seal species. A polyphasic study was unde...

  15. Volume 9 No. 9 December 2009 POTENTIAL IMPACT ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-09

    Dec 9, 2009 ... mammalian species than any other forest vegetation belt in Nigeria [2]. This is attributed to its ... a larger number of threatened and endangered species, particularly mammals that are economically and .... Carnivora. Carnivora.

  16. A colostrum trypsin inhibitor gene expressed in the Cape fur seal mammary gland during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharo, Elizabeth A; Cane, Kylie N; McCoey, Julia; Buckle, Ashley M; Oosthuizen, W H; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-03-01

    The colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) gene and transcript were cloned from the Cape fur seal mammary gland and CTI identified by in silico analysis of the Pacific walrus and polar bear genomes (Order Carnivora), and in marine and terrestrial mammals of the Orders Cetartiodactyla (yak, whales, camel) and Perissodactyla (white rhinoceros). Unexpectedly, Weddell seal CTI was predicted to be a pseudogene. Cape fur seal CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of a pregnant multiparous seal, but not in a seal in its first pregnancy. While bovine CTI is expressed for 24-48 h postpartum (pp) and secreted in colostrum only, Cape fur seal CTI was detected for at least 2-3 months pp while the mother was suckling its young on-shore. Furthermore, CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of only one of the lactating seals that was foraging at-sea. The expression of β-casein (CSN2) and β-lactoglobulin II (LGB2), but not CTI in the second lactating seal foraging at-sea suggested that CTI may be intermittently expressed during lactation. Cape fur seal and walrus CTI encode putative small, secreted, N-glycosylated proteins with a single Kunitz/bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) domain indicative of serine protease inhibition. Mature Cape fur seal CTI shares 92% sequence identity with Pacific walrus CTI, but only 35% identity with BPTI. Structural homology modelling of Cape fur seal CTI and Pacific walrus trypsin based on the model of the second Kunitz domain of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and porcine trypsin (Protein Data Bank: 1TFX) confirmed that CTI inhibits trypsin in a canonical fashion. Therefore, pinniped CTI may be critical for preventing the proteolytic degradation of immunoglobulins that are passively transferred from mother to young via colostrum and milk.

  17. MYOCASTOR COYPUS (“COIPO”, RODENTIA, MAMMALIA COMO RECURSO EN LOS HUMEDALES DE LA PAMPA BOANERENSE: PATRONES DE EXPLOTACIÓN/Myocastor coypus (“coipo”, Rodentia, Mammalia as an archaeological resource in the wetlands of Buenos Aires Pampas: exploitation

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    Paula Escosteguy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Myocastor coypus es una de las especies más abundantes en los humedales de la región pampeana, particularmente en las cuencas de los ríos Salado y Paraná. Distintas líneas de evidencia permiten sostener que fue un recurso ampliamente aprovechado siendo central en las estrategias económicas de los cazadores-recolectores-pescadores durante el Holoceno tardío. Se presentan los resultados obtenidos del análisis de restos arqueofaunísticos de esta presa mediano-pequeña, a partir de: análisis cuantitativos, estimación de clases de edad, análisis de huellas, termoalteraciones y fracturas. El objetivo es analizar los patrones de explotación del coipo utilizando información proveniente de los sitios de la localidad La Guillerma (LG1, LG4 y LG5 y San Ramón 7 (SR7 ubicados en el curso inferior del río Salado y del sitio Río Luján (RL y la localidad Cañada Honda (CH localizados en el NE bonaerense. Los resultados permiten sostener que la presión de captura se dio sobre presas adultas, que ingresaron completas a los sitios. Las huellas evidencian la ejecución de una serie de acciones para su aprovechamiento (cuereo, desarticulación y descarne. Abstract Myocastor coypus is one of the most abundant species found in archaeological sites in the Pampean Region wetlands, especially in the Salado and Paraná river basins. On the basis of different lines of evidence, it may be suggested that this animal was an extensively exploited resource, proving to be central in the strategies of hunter-gatherer-fishers that inhabited these regions during the Late Holocene. In this study, data obtained from archaeofaunal analysis are described: quantitative, age-class and butchering evidence analysis (cut marks, burning features and fracture patterns. We aim at analyzing the exploitation patterns of coypu using data found in La Guillerma (LG1, LG4 and LG5 and San Ramón 7 (SR7, pertaining to the lower Río Salado basin, and in Río Luján (RL and Cañada Honda (CH situated in the northeastern province of Buenos Aires. Results show that adult prey capture was practised, where the entire animal bodies had been introduced in the sites. Cut marks also evidence a series of tasks associated to exploitation (skinning, disarticulation and defleshing.

  18. Hippidion saldiasi Roth, 1899 (Mammalia, Perissodactyla en el Pleistoceno tardío de Calama, norte de Chile Late Pleistocene Hippidion saldiasi Roth, 1899 (Mammalia, Perissodactyla from Calama, northern Chile

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    MARÍA TERESA ALBERDI

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen restos del género Hippidion procedentes de la zona del desierto de Atacama (Calama, Segunda Región de Chile. El conjunto analizado corresponde a un esqueleto bastante completo proveniente del yacimiento Betecsa 1, así como escasas unidades del yacimiento Kamac Mayu. En ambos sitios se identifica H. saldiasi. A partir de dos dataciones radiométricas por AMS del ejemplar estudiado, los restos se sitúan estratigráficamente en el Pleistoceno Superior (21.070 ± 100 AP y 21.380 ± 100 14C AP. Se infieren datos ambientales y de dieta a partir de análisis de isótopos estables en los restos de Hippidion saldiasi del sitio Betecsa 1 cuyo valor de δ13C en hueso fue de -15,45 y el valor en esmalte de dientes fue de -16,68, sugiriendo una alimentación con pastos C3. El cráneo recuperado es el primero conocido de esta especieThis paper describes the Hippidion bones recovered from the Atacama Desert (Calama, Second Region of Chile. The analyzed assemblage corresponds to a nearly complete skeleton from Betecsa 1 site and more poorly preserved remains from Kamac Mayu site. In both H. saldiasi is identified. Two 14C radiometric determinations indicate late Pleistocene age for these remains (21,070 ± 100 BP and 21,380 ± 100 BP. Environmental and diet inferences from stable isotope analysis are also presented. The δ13C value from Betecsa 1 horses (-15.45 from bone sample and -16.68 from enamel sample suggest a dietary adaptation exclusively C3 feeders. This is the first skull and associated skeleton recovered of this species

  19. Movements of bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera in Atlantic Forest remnants in southern Brazil Deslocamentos de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera em remanescentes de Floresta Atlântica no sul do Brasil

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    Gledson V. Bianconi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We used mark and recapture techniques to evaluate movements of bats within and between three brazilian forest remnants. We captured bats with mist-nets in four 1 ha plots representing different degrees of isolation of riparian (two plots and submontane (two plots forests between July 2002 and June 2003. Using numbered aluminium tags, we marked 635 bats of seven species and 54 individuals of six species were recaptured. Overall, we recaptured Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (short-tailed fruit bat most frequently, especially in plots where they were banded in the riparian forest plots. These results suggest that this bat has restricted feeding areas, which are probably determined by the abundance of Piper Linnaeus (Piperaceae, its preferred food item. In contrast, species of the genus Artibeus Leach, 1821 exhibited few recaptures, suggesting high mobility and larger feeding areas. In fact Artibeus seems to use more of the forest remnants in their search for food, especially Ficus Linnaeus (Moraceae, the preferred food of this bat. Our results suggest that even small forest isolates are valuable for the maintenance of some bat species because they offer many of the resources they need or because they are spatially distributed in a pattern that allows use of the entire landscape.Nós utilizamos a técnica de marcação-recaptura para avaliar os deslocamentos de morcegos dentro e entre três fragmentos florestais do sul do Brasil. Entre julho de 2002 e junho de 2003, os animais foram capturados com redes-de-neblina instaladas em quatro parcelas de 1 ha, que representavam diferentes graus de isolamento das subformações florestais, aluvial (duas parcelas e submontana (duas parcelas. Utilizando anilhas metálicas numeradas, nós marcamos 635 morcegos de sete espécies e recapturamos 54 indivíduos de seis espécies. A maior freqüência de recaptura foi obtida para Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, especialmente nas parcelas de origem representadas pela floresta aluvial. Os resultados sugerem que este frugívoro apresenta uma área restrita de forrageio, determinada provavelmente pela abundância de Piper L. (Piperaceae, planta reconhecida como seu alimento preferencial. Em contraste, espécies do gênero Artibeus Leach, 1821 exibiram uma baixa freqüência de recaptura, sugerindo alta mobilidade e grande área de forrageio, provavelmente relacionada à exploração conjunta dos fragmentos da região na busca por recursos, em especial Ficus L. (Moraceae, seu alimento preferencial. Nossos resultados sugerem que mesmo pequenos fragmentos florestais são valiosos para a manutenção de algumas espécies de morcegos, seja por oferecerem muitos dos recursos que eles necessitam ou por estarem espacialmente dispostos de forma a facilitar a utilização conjunta da paisagem.

  20. Morcegos cavernícolas da região do Distrito Federal, centro-oeste do Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Cave bats from the Distrito Federal area in Mid-Western Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

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    Angelika Bredt

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1989 and 1995, twenty caves in the Distrito Federal area in mid-western Brazil were assessed for bat species richness, frequency, spatial distribution, behavior, reproduction and inter-specific cohabitation. The general state of conservation of the caves was also assessed. Of the 20 caves studied, 12 were less than 100 m long, five between 100 m and 300 m, and three were longerthan 300 m. Twenty-two species of six different families were observed: 16 species belonged to Phyllostomidae, two to Vespertilionidae and Mormoopidae and one to Furipteridae and Emballonuridae. In this study, 17 species were characterized as Distrito Federal cave dwellers. The most prevalent were Desmodus rotundus, Glossophaga soricina and Carollia perspicillata. The least prevalent were Lonchorhina aurita, Pteronotus gymnonotus and Phylloderma stenops. Since some Anoura caudifer, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Myotis nigricans, Micronycteris minuta, and Eptesicus brasiliensis individuals were captured only while going into the caves early in the night, they were not considered cave dwellers. Even though, they probably use the caves as a daytime roosting place. Surprisingly, Lonchophylla dekeyseri, considered to be the only endemic bat species in the Cerrado ecosystem, was observed in three of the surveyed caves. Further biological studies are necessary to determine the biology of L. dekeyseri and the necessity of its conservation. The bat colonies observed were usually of a small size. Few colonies of D. rotundus and Anoura geoffroyi contained more than 300 individuals of both sexes. Only a inale group of L. aurita was observed in the Distrito Federal area. Twelve of the surveyed caves were hard to access and therefore well protected. Four of the caves received some public visitation, two were located near limestone mines, one was located near an urban area. and one had both public visitation and deforestation near its entrance. In this latter cave, no bats were observed after november 1994, probably due to the urbanization process. Special attention should be given to eight of the surveyed caves in any plan made for the conservation of cave bats in the Distrito Federal area. These caves host a high bat diversity (six or more species and also shelter two rare and one endemic bat species.

  1. Estrutura de comunidade da quiropterofauna (Mammalia, Chiroptera do Parque Estadual de Campinhos, Paraná, Brasil Community structure of chiropterofauna (Mammalia, Chiroptera of Campinhos State Park, Paraná, Brazil

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    Ives S. Arnone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo apresenta informações sobre a quiropterofauna do Parque Estadual de Campinhos (PEC (25º02’S, 49º05’W, 890 m altitude, Paraná. Esta Unidade de Conservação possui 336,97 ha. Seu maior atrativo turístico são as cavernas Jesuítas/Fada. O PEC situa-se a 63 km ao norte de Curitiba. A vegetação é marcada por diferentes estágios sucessionais da Floresta Ombrófila Mista. Doze saídas mensais foram realizadas entre setembro de 2003 e agosto de 2004, utilizando-se 10 redes-de-neblina. Nesse período, 423 morcegos foram capturados, dos quais 274 foram Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (64,8% e 50 foram Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 (11,8% ambos representando 76,6% da amostragem. Além dessas espécies, outras 12 foram identificadas como Anoura caudifer (E. Geoffroy, 1818; Anoura geoffroyi Gray, 1838; Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758; Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856; Diphylla ecaudata Spix, 1823; Eptesicus furinalis (d’Orbigny, 1847; Eptesicus taddeii (Miranda etal., 2006; Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766; Lasiurus blossevillii (Lesson & Garnot, 1826; Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838; Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843 e Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810. Algumas das espécies consideradas vulneráveis no Estado do Paraná como C. auritus, D. ecaudatae M. bennettii foram capturadas nas grutas.This study presents information about a survey of bats made in Campinhos State Park (PEC (25º02’S, 49º05’W, 890 m altitude, Paraná, Brazil. This Conservation Unit encompasses 336.97 ha. The main tourist attractions are the caves known as Jesuítas/Fada. PEC is located at 63 km north of Curitiba. Different stages of Araucaria Pine Forest characterize the park vegetation. Twelve field trips had been carried monthly from September 2003 to August 2004 using 10 mist nets. In this period, 423 bats were captured, 274 Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (64.8% and 50 Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 (11.8%, both representing 76.6% of the survey. Other 12 species were identified, like Anoura caudifer (E. Geoffroy, 1818; Anoura geoffroyi Gray, 1838; Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758; Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856; Diphylla ecaudata Spix, 1823; Eptesicus furinalis (d’Orbigny, 1847; Eptesicus taddeii (Miranda etal., 2006; Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766; Lasiurus blossevillii (Lesson & Garnot, 1826; Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838; Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843 and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810. Some of the species considered threatened in Paraná State, such as C. auritus, D. ecaudata and M. bennettii, were all captured in grottos.

  2. Diversidade de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera em remanescentes florestais do município de Fênix, noroeste do Paraná, Brasil Bat (Mammalia, Chiroptera diversity in forest remnants of Fênix, State of Paraná, southern Brazil

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    Gledson Vigiano Bianconi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A riqueza de espécies e a abundância relativa de morcegos foram avaliadas em três fragmentos de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual localizados no município de Fênix, noroeste do Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Entre julho de 2002 e junho de 2003 os morcegos foram amostrados com redes-de-neblina instaladas em quatro parcelas de 1 ha cada, representando diferentes graus de isolamento das subformações florestais: aluvial e submontana. Foram capturados 752 exemplares pertencentes a 14 espécies de duas famílias, Phyllostomidae (n = 10 e Vespertilionidae (n = 4. No que se refere a capturas com redes a área foi considerada bem inventariada (estimador ICE. Entretanto, se comparada a estudos similares em Floresta Estacional, a riqueza de espécies foi pouco expressiva, havendo a suspeita que tenham ocorrido perdas de espécies em níveis locais. Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 foram numericamente dominantes nos três remanescentes amostrados, seguidas por outros três frugívoros: A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838, A. jamaicensis Leach, 1821 e Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810. O índice de Shannon demonstrou diferenças sutis entre as parcelas amostrais e o índice de Sorensen apresentou alta similaridade entre a maioria delas. Já a análise de agrupamento revelou uma maior afinidade entre parcelas da mesma subformação, exibindo dois grupamentos distintos, um representado pela subformação aluvial e outro pela submontana, sugerindo particularidades no uso do hábitat pelos morcegos. Os resultados indicaram ainda que os remanescentes florestais aqui estudados, apesar de pequenos, abrigam uma parcela significativa das espécies de morcegos esperadas para o bioma e, por essa razão, são importantes para a conservação da diversidade biológica.The richness and the relative abundance of bats were evaluated in three Semideciduous Seasonal Forest fragments located in the municipal district of Fênix, northwest of the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. Between July 2002 and June 2003 bats were sampled with mist-nets set in four 1 ha plots representing different degrees of isolation of riparian and lowland forest. A total of 752 individuals of 14 species of Phyllostomidae (n = 10 and Vespertilionidae (n = 4, were captured. Considering the limitations of mist-net sampling, the study area was satisfactorily inventoried based on the ICE estimator. Nevertheless, if compared with similar studies conducted in other Semideciduous Seasonal Forest remnants, the obtained richness is less expressive, suggesting that local extinctions have taken place. Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 were dominant in the three studied forest fragments, followed by other three frugivores: A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838, A. jamaicensis Leach, 1821 and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810. The Shannon's index showed subtle differences among the four studied plots and the Sorensen's index presented high similarities among most of them. However, the grouping analysis revealed higher similarities only between plots representing the same type of vegetation and exhibited two separate groups, one represented by riparian forests and the other by lowland forests, which could be related to particularities in habitat use by bat species. This study also indicated that the forest remnants sampled, in spite of being small, shelter a significant number of bat species and, for that reason, are important for biological conservation.

  3. Diversidade de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera do Complexo Aporé-Sucuriú, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Bat Diversity (Mammalia, Chiroptera from Aporé-Sucuriú's complex, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um inventário da fauna de morcegos entre abril e novembro de 2004 no norte de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil (Projeto Jauru/MMA. Oito pontos de coleta foram amostrados com redes-neblina em um ambiente de cerrado, sendo capturados 146 indivíduos de 28 espécies, distribuídos em seis famílias. O total de espécies neste estudo, representa apenas 30% da fauna de morcegos do cerrado. A família mais capturada foi a Phyllostomidae, representada por Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766 e Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818. Algumas espécies raras foram capturadas: Lophostoma brasiliense (Peters, 1866, Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903 e Lionycteris spurrelli Thomas, 1913. O local de maior abundância (0,032 indivíduos/m²/h mostrou um índice de Simpson de D = 3.86 e o de menor abundância (0,003 indivíduos/m²/h um índice de Simpson de D = 3.03. A preservação dos mananciais de água e a cobertura florestal nestes pontos são discutidas.From April to November 2004 was made a bat fauna inventory in Northern of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (Jauru's Project/MMA. Eight points was sampled with mist-nets in a cerrado's ecosystem and was caught 146 individuals de 28 species, distributed into six bat families. The total of species in this study just represents 30% of cerrado's bat fauna. The more caught family was Phyllostomidae represented by Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766 and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818. Some rare species were caught: Lophostoma brasiliense (Peters, 1866, Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903 and Lionycteris spurrelli Thomas, 1913. The more abundant point sampled (0.032 bat/m²/h shown a Simpson index of D = 3.86 and the low abundant point sampled (0.003 bat/m²/h was D = 3.03. The preservation of water springs and forest cover in study sites are discussed.

  4. A new record of Equus (Mammalia: Equidae from the Late Pleistocene of central-south Chile Un nuevo registro de Equus (Mammalia: Equidae para el Pleistoceno Superior de Osorno, Chile

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    OMAR P RECABARREN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen dental and bone parts of a horse excavated from the Pilauco paleontological site, Osorno (40°39' S-73°07' W are analysed and interpreted. This site was formed in association with a peat bog located on the banks of the old Damas River and has conserved abundant late Pleistocene mammalian fauna and flora materials. A date of 11457 ± 140 14C yrs B.P. was obtained from a molar and agrees with our stratigraphic age model. We have identified the fossils as pertaining to the species Equus (Amerhippus andium, which confirms its presence in central-south Chile. Furthermore, the recorded geographic location indicate that the metapodial adaptations of the specimens previously described agree with the reconstructed late Pleistocene landscape of Pilauco, dominated by soft volcanic soils and isolated forest patches over large extensions of grasslands.Se analizan e interpretan 14 fósiles correspondientes a dientes y huesos de caballo registrados en el sitio Pilauco, Osorno (40°39' S-73°07' W. El sitio se formó asociado a un pantano en un borde del antiguo río Damas; en él se ha conservado abundante material de mastofauna y flora pleistocénica. Una fecha radiocarbónica de 11457 ± 140 A.P obtenida de un molar, es concordante con el modelo de edad del sitio. La identificación taxonómica permite asociar a los fósiles a la especie Equus (Amerhippus andium, lo que confirma la presencia de la especie en el centro-sur de Chile. Por otra parte, la posición geográfica de los hallazgos y la reconstrucción del paisaje indicarían que se trata de ejemplares cuyas adaptaciones en los metapodios son concordantes para el paisaje pleistocénico de Pilauco dominado por suelos volcánicos blandos, con presencia de bosquetes dispersos en grandes extensiones de praderas de gramíneas.

  5. Diet of the fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera in a mangrove area of southern Brazil Dieta do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera em uma área de manguezal do sul do Brasil

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    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to December 1999, the diet of Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 was determined in a salt-water ecosystem, by analysing the feces of bats captured in mist nets. Of the 61 samples analyzed, most contained remains of fish (90.2%, followed by insects (70.5% and crustaceous (29.5%. The most frequent fishes species were: silversides Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, anchovies Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 and scaly sardines Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. The most frequent insects were moths (Saturniidae and beetles (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae and Coccinellidae, as well as two species of bat ectoparasites (Streblidae. Among the crustaceous the shrimp (Palaemonidae and crabs (Gecarcinidae are was present. The consumption of fish, insects and crustaceans was different for the males and females throughout the year.De janeiro a dezembro de 1999, foi estudada a dieta de Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 em um ecossistema de manguezal, através da análise das fezes de morcegos capturados com redes-neblina. Das 61 amostras analisadas, a maioria continha fragmentos de peixes (90.2%, seguido de insetos (70.5% e crustáceos (29,5%. As espécies de peixes mais freqüentes foram: peixe-rei Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, manjuba Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 e sardinha Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. Os insetos mais freqüentes foram mariposas (Saturniidae e besouros (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae e Coccinellidae, além de duas espécies de ectoparasitas (Streblidae. Entre os crustáceos, houve a presença apenas de camarões (Palaemonidae e siris (Gecarcinidae. O consumo de peixes, insetos e crustáceos foi diferente para machos e fêmeas ao longo do ano.

  6. Ultraestructura de los acinos sudoríparos de las glándulas pelvianas de Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae Ultrastructure of sudoriparous acini of pelvian glands of Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae

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    Silvia Estecondo

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The acini of pelvian glands of Chaetophractus villosus (Desmarest, 1804 consisted of an inner layer of secretory cells and an outer layer of myoepithelial cells. Secretory cells have numerous secretory vacuoles. The secretion is released by exocytosis. Myoepithelial cells have numerous myofilaments that occupy much of the cytoplasm. There is a third cell type with an extremely electron-lucent cytoplasm.

  7. Samotragus pilgrimi n. sp., a new species of Oiocerini (Bovidae, Mammalia) from the Middle Miocene of SpainSamotragus pilgrimi n. sp., un nouvel Oicerini (Bovidae, Mammalia) du Miocène moyen d'Espagne

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    Azanza, Beatriz; Nieto, Manuel; Morales, Jorge

    1998-03-01

    A new Oiocerini, Samotragus pilgrimi n. sp., from the Middle Miocene of Spain is described. This medium sized bovid is characterized by large, massive, inverse-twisted horn cores with an abrupt narrowing of the section at mid-length. These features allow the inclusion of this form within the genus Samotragus. To date, this form is the earliest and westernmost record of this tribe.

  8. Metazoarios parásitos de Tlacuatzin canescens y Marmosa mexicana (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia de México Metazoan parasites of Tlacuatzin canescens and Marmosa mexicana (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia from Mexico

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    Carmen Guzmán-Cornejo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de un estudio sobre los metazoarios parásitos de mamíferos de México se recolectaron 4 ejemplares de ratones tlacuache: 2 de Tlacuatzin canescens (Allen, 1893 procedentes de Oaxaca y 2 de Marmosa mexicana Merriam, 1897 de Veracruz. Se presentan 5 registros nuevos de hospedero y localidad para ácaros de las especies Ixodes luciae Sénevet, 1940, Ixodes sinaloa Kohls y Clifford, 1966, las pulgas Plusaetis mathesoni (Traub 1950 y Polygenis martinezbaezi Vargas 1951, así como para el cestodo Hymenolepis sp. y por primera vez en México se registra el nematodo Hoineffia simplicispicula Navone, Suriano y Pujol, 1991.As a part of an ongoing project to inventory the metazoan parasites of Mexican mammals, 4 specimens of 2 species of mouse opossums (2 Tlacuatzin canescens [Allen, 1893] and 2 Marmosa mexicana Merriam, 1897, were collected from Oaxaca and Veracuz states, Mexico, respectively. Five new locality and host records are presented for the acari Ixodes luciae Sénevet, 1940, Ixodes sinaloa Kohls and Clifford, 1966, of fleas Plusaetis mathesoni (Traub 1950, and Polygenis martinezbaezi Vargas 1951, as well as the cestode Hymenolepis sp., while the nematode Hoineffia simplicispicula Navone, Suriano and Pujol, 1991, is recorded for the first time in Mexico.

  9. Leucismo en la musaraña de orejas cortas Cryptotis mexicana (Mammalia: Soricomorpha, endémica de México Leucism in Mexican small-eared shrew Cryptotis mexicana (Mammalia: Soricomorpha, endemic to Mexico

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    Lázaro Guevara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El leucismo es la reducción de la pigmentación parcial o total del pelaje, pero que mantiene la coloración normal de los ojos y la piel. Aquí se presenta el registro de un individuo de la musaraña endémica de México Cryptotis mexicana recolectado en Veracruz, México, que presenta esta condición. Esta coloración, considerada anormal en estado silvestre, puede incrementar la presión de selección sobre esos individuos. Además, es un reflejo indirecto de la baja variabilidad genética en las poblaciones naturales.Leucism is the partial or complete reduction of the fur pigmentation where eyes and skin maintain their normal coloration. In this paper, we report the record of an individual of the endemic Mexican shrew Cryptotis mexicana from Veracruz, México, that displays leucism. This lack of pigmentation, uncommon in the wild, may result in negative selective pressure on these mammals. Moreover, this genetic-based condition reflects on the low levels of genetic variability within natural populations.

  10. Características morfológicas da distribuição vascular cerebral de Sus scrofa Linnaeus (Mammalia, Artiodactyla Morphological characteristics of the cerebral vascular distribution of Sus scrofa Linnaeus (Mammalia, Artiodactyla

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    Jurandyr de A. Câmara Filho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a vascularização arterial do encéfalo do javali, Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758, Suidae, e comparar com outras espécies. Cinco machos e cinco fêmeas foram injetados com látex colorido. O suprimento arterial do encéfalo foi descrito e análises morfológicas foram feitas. Nesta espécie o circuito arterial do encéfalo é formado por ramos da artéria carótida interna, como: as artérias comunicantes caudais, o ramo rostral, as artérias cerebrais rostrais, e artérias comunicantes rostrais.The aim this study was to verify the arterial vascularization of the wild boar brain, Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758, Suidae, and compare with other species. Five male and five female were injected with colored latex. The arterial supply of the brain was described and were done morphological analyses. In this species the arterial circuit of the brain is formed by the internal carotid artery branches, such as: the caudal communicant arteries, rostral branch, rostral cerebral arteries and rostral communicant arteries.

  11. Occurrence of white-winged vampire bat, Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera, in the Cerrado of Distrito Federal, Brazil Ocorrência de Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera no Cerrado do Distrito Federal

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    Ludmilla M. de S. Aguiar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Authors cite Diaemus youngi (Jentik, 1893 as occurring in all the Brazilian territory. In spite of that, there are no reports of capture sites for D. youngi in the literature for Distrito Federal or Cerrado of Central Brazil. Here we report the first precise record of this species for Central Brazil, rural area of Distrito Federal, and provide information on its biology, conservation and distribution in Brazil, according to our data and information from the literature.A espécie Diaemus youngi (Jentik, 1893 é considerada por alguns autores como ocorrendo para todo o Brasil incluindo o bioma Cerrado e área rural do Distrito Federal. No entanto não há na literatura nenhum registro do local de coleta dessa espécie para essas regiões. Reportamos aqui o primeiro registro no Cerrado do Brasil Central, área rural do Distrito Federal, e alguns dados sobre a biologia, conservação e distribuição geográfica da espécie no Brasil, de acordo com dados desse trabalho e da literatura.

  12. Las especies del género Gyropus Nitzsch, 1818 (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae parásitas de Octodontidae (Mammalia: Rodentia The species of the genus Gyropus Nitzch, 1818 (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae parasitic on the Octodontidae (Mammalia: Rodentia

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    DOLORES DEL CARMEN CASTRO

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene por finalidad otorgar status específico pleno a la subespecie Gyropus parvus elongatus Castro, Cicchino & Torres-Mura, 1987, describir la nueva especie Gyropus distinctus a partir de materiales recolectados sobre Octodon degus (Molina, 1782 y Octodon lunatus Osgood, 1943 procedentes del centro de Chile y, finalmente, ofrecer un análisis de las posibles razones de la distribución geográfica y del rango de hospedadores conocidos para estas tres especiesThe purpose of this paper is to give full specific status to the subspecies Gyropus parvus elongatus Castro, Cicchino & Torres-Mura, 1987, to describe the new species Gyropus distinctus collected in Octodon degus and O. lunatus from central Chile, along with an analysis of the possible causes than could explain their geographic and host range distributions known to date for these three species

  13. Phylogenetic position of Mexican jackrabbits within the genus Lepus (Mammalia: Lagomorpha: a molecular perspective Posición filogenética de las liebres mexicanas dentro del género Lepus (Mammalia: Lagomorpha: una perspectiva molecular

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    Juan Pablo Ramírez-Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although phylogenetic affinities of Mexican jackrabbits within the genus Lepus have been evaluated for a few species, no study has included all 5 species occurring in Mexico. In this study we assess the phylogenetic position of the Mexican species relative to other forms within the genus and evaluate evolutionary affinities among the Mexican forms. To do so, we analyzed 57 complete cytochrome b sequences belonging to the 5 Mexican jackrabbits and 18 species of Lepus distributed across Asia, Africa, Europe and America. We performed phylogenetic tree reconstruction with the neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood approaches. We also used a minimum spanning network to evaluate relationships among Mexican species. We found 5 main phylogenetic groups within Lepus, 4 of which corresponded to geographically well defined lineages. One group included L. americanus, 3 others corresponded to Mexican, African and European species, respectively. A fifth group included Asiatic, European and American forms. Our results suggest that Mexican species constitute a monophyletic entity that evolved independently of the other American species of Lepus. Within the Mexican forms, 2 main clades are apparent; 1 that includes L. alleni, L. callotis, and L. flavigularis, previously referred to as the white-sided jackrabbits, and a second one that groups together L. californicus and L. insularis, although L. californicus is a paraphyletic relative of L. insularis.Aunque la afinidad filogenética de las liebres mexicanas, dentro del género Lepus, ha sido evaluada para algunas especies, ningún estudio ha incluido las 5 especies que se presentan en México. En este trabajo estimamos la posición filogenética de las especies mexicanas de liebres en relación con otras formas dentro del género, y evaluamos las afinidades evolutivas entre ellas. Para ello analizamos 57 secuencias completas del citocromo b pertenecientes a las 5 especies mexicanas y 18 especies de Lepus distribuidas en Asia, África, Europa y América. La reconstrucción filogenética se realizó mediante los procedimientos de neighbor-joining, máxima parsimonia y máxima verosimilitud. También se empleó el enfoque de redes de haplotipos para evaluar las relaciones entre las especies mexicanas. Observamos 5 grupos filogenéticos principales dentro de Lepus, de los cuales 4 corresponden a grupos geográficamente bien definidos: 1 grupo está constituido por L. americanus, otros 3 están formados por especies mexicanas, africanas y europeas, respectivamente. Un quinto grupo incluyó de manera conjunta a especies asiáticas, europeas y americanas. Nuestros resultados sugieren que las especies de liebres mexicanas forman un grupo monofilético que evolucionó independientemente de otras formas americanas. Dentro de las formas mexicanas existen aparentemente 2 clados principales; 1 que incluye L. alleni, L. callotis y L. flavigularis, previamente reconocidas como liebres de costados blancos, y un segundo que agrupa a L. californicus y L. insularis, aunque L. californicus tiene una relación parafilética con L. insularis.

  14. Predação de morcegos por Chrotopterus auritus (Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera no pantanal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Bat predation by Chrotopterus auritus (Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera in pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Marcelo Oscar Bordignon

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi registrada a predação de Carollia perspiscillata (Linnaeus, 1758 e Peropterix macrotis (Wagner, 1843 por Chrotopterus autitus (Peters, 1856 em uma caverna na morraria do Urucum em Corumbá, centro-oeste do Brasil. Os fragmentos de asas e um crânio encontrados sob o local de pouso de C. auritus junto às fezes, após comparados com material de coleção, mostraram que este morcego alimenta-se oportunamente de outras espécies de morcegos ocupantes do mesmo abrigo.The predation of Carollia perspiscillata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Peropterix macrotis (Wagner, 1843 by Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856 was registered in a cave at Urucum's mountains of Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The wing fragments and cranium finded under feces deposites, in replace point of C. auritus, were comparated with colection reference material and revealed that C. auritus can eat occasionaly other bat species that inhabit in same roost.

  15. A Systematic Study on Tooth Enamel Microstructures of Lambdopsalis bulla (Multituberculate, Mammalia--Implications for Multituberculate Biology and Phylogeny.

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    Fangyuan Mao

    Full Text Available Tooth enamel microstructure is a reliable and widely used indicator of dietary interpretations and data for phylogenetic reconstruction, if all levels of variability are investigated. It is usually difficult to have a thorough examination at all levels of enamel structures for any mammals, especially for the early mammals, which are commonly represented by sparse specimens. Because of the random preservation of specimens, enamel microstructures from different teeth in various species are often compared. There are few examples that convincingly show intraspecific variation of tooth enamel microstructure in full dentition of a species, including multituberculates. Here we present a systematic survey of tooth enamel microstructures of Lambdopsalis bulla, a taeniolabidoid multituberculate from the Late Paleocene Nomogen Formation, Inner Mongolia. We examined enamel structures at all hierarchical levels. The samples are treated differently in section orientations and acid preparation and examined using different imaging methods. The results show that, except for preparation artifacts, the crystallites, enamel types, Schmelzmuster and dentition types of Lambdopsalis are relatively consistent in all permanent teeth, but the prism type, including the prism shape, size and density, may vary in different portions of a single tooth or among different teeth of an individual animal. The most common Schmelzmuster of the permanent teeth in Lambdopsalis is a combination of radial enamel in the inner and middle layers, aprismatic enamel in the outer layer, and irregular decussations in tooth crown area with great curvature. The prism seam is another comparably stable characteristic that may be a useful feature for multituberculate taxonomy. The systematic documentation of enamel structures in Lambdopsalis may be generalized for the enamel microstructure study, and thus for taxonomy and phylogenetic reconstruction, of multituberculates and even informative for the enamel study of other early mammals.

  16. New records of Staffia aenigmatica (Mammalia, Allotheria, Haramiyida from the Upper Jurassic of Tendaguru in southeastern Tanzania, East Africa

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    W.-D. Heinrich

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Two non-multituberculate allotherian cheek teeth are described from the Upper Jurassic of Tendaguru in southeastern Tanzania, East Africa, Both specimens were collected from dinosaur-bearing matrix of bone bed Wj of the Middle Saurian Bed at Tendaguru Site dy by the German Tendaguru Expedition (1909–1913. Bone Bed Wj represents limnic to brackish deposits of Kimmeridgian-Tithonian age. The cheek teeth, considered as lower posterior molar and upper molar, represent a single taxon of the Haramiyida and are referred to Staffia aenigmatica, known only from the Upper Jurassic of Tendaguru. This assignment reinforces evidence for the palaeogeographic dispersal of haramiyids to Gondwana and the temporal persistence of these non-multituberculate allotherians into the Late Jurassic. Characters that distinguish Staffia aenigmatica from other haramiyids include the medial position of main cusp a1 at the front of the tooth crown and the presence of a large, anterolingual main notch between cusps a1 and a2 in lower cheek teeth, as well as the development of a strong anterolabial cingular ridge in the only known upper cheek tooth. Staffia shows the closest resemblance to Thomasia from the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic of Europe, although these genera are disdinctly different. Retention of the basic tooth crown pattern of haramiyids and traces of wear in the Tendaguru teeth suggest that the masticatory movements in Staffia were essentially restricted to a longitudinal direction, as in Thomasia. It is suggested that owing to its central position at the front of the tooth crown the lower main cusp a1 could have occluded in the central basin of the opposing upper molar during masticatory movements. Aus dem Oberjura von Tendaguru in Tansania, Ostafrika, werden zwei Backenzähne eines Haramiyiden beschrieben. Beide Zähne stammen aus knochenführenden Gesteinsproben, die von der Deutschen Tendaguru Expedition (1909–1913 in der Fundstelle dy gesammelt wurden. Fundschicht der Haramiyiden-Zähne ist eine knochenführende Lage (Wj der Mittleren Saurierschicht, die im Zeitraum Kimmeridge-Tithon in einem küstennahen Ablagerungsraum entstand. Beide Backenzähne, ein hinterer unterer Molar und ein oberer Molar, werden zu Staffia aenigmatica gestellt, die bisher nur aus dem Oberjura von Tendaguru bekannt ist. Beide Nachweise bestätigen erneut, daß Haramiaiden einst in Gondwana verbreitet waren und dort noch in der späten Jura-Zeit vorkamen. Merkmale, die Staffia aenigmatica von anderen Haramiyiden unterscheiden, sind die zentrale Position des a1-Höckers im Vorderabschnitt der Zahnkrone und die tiefe, breite anterolinguale Furche zwischen dem a1- und a2-Höcker der unteren Backenzähne sowie die starke labiale Cingulumleiste am einzigen bisher bekannten oberen Molaren. Zwischen Staffia aus dem Oberjura Ostafrikas und Thomasia aus der oberen Trias und dem unteren Jura Europas bestehen Gemeinsamkeiten, aber auch wesentliche Unterschiede. Die Beibehaltung des Backenzahn-Grundmusters der Haramiyiden und Abkauungsspuren an den Zähnen aus Tendaguru zeigen, daß die Kaubewegung bei Staffia im wesentlichen in longitudinaler Richtung erfolgte, wie bei Thomasia. Für Staffia wird vermutet, daß der a1-Haupthöcker auf Grund seiner zentralen Lage im vorderen Abschnitt der Zahnkrone in das zentrale Becken des entsprechenden oberen Backenzahnes paßte und dort bei der Zerkleinerung von Nahrungspartikeln mitwirkte. doi:10.1002/mmng.20010040114

  17. O conhecimento sobre morcegos (Chiroptera: Mammalia do estado do Espírito Santo, sudeste do Brasil

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    Poliana Mendes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Ordem Chiroptera apresenta importância relevante na dinâmica dos ecossistemas, sendo a ordem de mamíferos com maior diversidade de hábitos de vida. Dentre os estados da região Sudeste do Brasil, o Espírito Santo é um dos mais carentes em relação ao conhecimento de morcegos. Este estudo sintetizou o estado do conhecimento sobre quirópteros gerado no Espírito Santo. Para isso, foram catalogados os morcegos depositados no Museu de Biologia Prof. Mello Leitão (MBML, no Laboratório de Estudos de Quirópteros da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (LABEQ, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ, Royal Ontario Museum (ROM, American Museum of Natural History (AMNH e University of Michigan Museum Zoology (UMMZ. Além disso, foi realizada uma busca por artigos publicados sobre morcegos do Espírito Santo. Foram revistos 49 artigos científicos, realizadas três teses de mestrado e 11 monografias. Considerando as coleções amostradas e artigos publicados totalizam-se 63 espécies de morcegos para o estado, provenientes de 37 dos 78 municípios do Espírito Santo. A maior riqueza de espécies de morcegos foi encontrada nos municípios de Linhares e Santa Teresa, o que é provavelmente reflexo da maior parte dos espécimes depositados nos museus também serem desses municípios. O Espírito Santo apresenta um grande potencial para se encontrar novas ocorrências de espécies, enfatizando a importância da realização de futuros estudos sobre morcegos no estado.The Order Chiroptera plays a vital role in ecosystem dynamics. Among the states of Southeastern Brazil, Espírito Santo State is the one with the least known bat fauna. This study reports on the current state of knowledge on Espírito Santo bats generating this data bank. We have catalogued the bats deposited in the Biology Museum Prof. Mello Leitão (MBML, Laboratory of Bat Studies of the Federal University of Espírito Santo (LABEQ, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ, Royal Ontario Museum (ROM, American Museum of Natural History (AMNH, and University of Michigan Museum of Zoology (UMMZ. In addition, we have investigated the literature seeking articles about bats exclusively for the State. About bats were published in the state 42 papers, three thesis and 11 monographs. There are recognized 63 bat species in the State, if considering the museum collections and published papers, from 37 of the 78 municipalities of Espírito Santo. The highest species richness was found in the municipalities of Linhares and Santa Teresa. This was probably occasioned by bias on sampling. The great potential for new bat occurrences in Espírito Santo is due to the lack of knowledge about bats in this State. This emphasizes the importance for new future studies about bats in that area.

  18. Miíase por Lucilia eximia (Diptera: Calliphoridae em Didelphis albiventris (Mammalia: Didelphidae no Brasil Central

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    Edison Cansi

    2011-12-01

    Abstract. In May 2009 were collected 18 larvae of Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, a fly responsible for primary and secondary myiasis in livestock and humans. The larvae were taken from the myiasis on anal and auricular regions of an opossum Didelphis albiventris (Lund, in Brasília Zoo, and later identified in the laboratory. After 15 days, 15 adults emerged from L. eximia. This is the first record of this blowfly causing a primary myiasis in a marsupial species in the Brasília Cerrado.

  19. Contribution to the knowledge of the genera Muntiacus and Arctogalidia in the Indo-Australian Archipelago (Mammalia, Cervidae & Viverridae)

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    Bemmel, van A.C.V.

    1952-01-01

    As I have pointed out before, big game animals are very scarce in Museum collections. Many treatises are based on material from Zoological gardens, changed by captivity and often from unknown origin, from collections of frontlets, skulls and other trophies, bought haphazardly during expeditions whic

  20. Homeotic evolution in the mammalia: diversification of therian axial seriation and the morphogenetic basis of human origins.

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    Aaron G Filler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the rising interest in homeotic genes, little has been known about the course and pattern of evolution of homeotic traits across the mammalian radiation. An array of emerging and diversifying homeotic gradients revealed by this study appear to generate new body plans and drive evolution at a large scale. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study identifies and evaluates a set of homeotic gradients across 250 extant and fossil mammalian species and their antecedents over a period of 220 million years. These traits are generally expressed as co-linear gradients along the body axis rather than as distinct segmental identities. Relative position or occurrence sequence vary independently and are subject to polarity reversal and mirroring. Five major gradient modification sets are identified: (1--quantitative changes of primary segmental identity pattern that appeared at the origin of the tetrapods ; (2--frame shift relation of costal and vertebral identity which diversifies from the time of amniote origins; (3--duplication, mirroring, splitting and diversification of the neomorphic laminar process first commencing at the dawn of mammals; (4--emergence of homologically variable lumbar lateral processes upon commencement of the radiation of therian mammals and ; (5--inflexions and transpositions of the relative position of the horizontal septum of the body and the neuraxis at the emergence of various orders of therian mammals. Convergent functional changes under homeotic control include laminar articular engagement with septo-neural transposition and ventrally arrayed lumbar transverse process support systems. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Clusters of homeotic transformations mark the emergence point of mammals in the Triassic and the radiation of therians in the Cretaceous. A cluster of homeotic changes in the Miocene hominoid Morotopithecus that are still seen in humans supports establishment of a new "hominiform" clade and suggests a homeotic origin for the human upright body plan.

  1. MURCIÉLAGOS (MAMMALIA: CHIROPTERA ASOCIADOS CON UNA CUEVA EN EL PARQUE NACIONAL YURUBÍ, SIERRA DE AROA, ESTADO YARACUY, VENEZUELA

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    FRANGER J. GARCÍA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las cuevas constituyen un recurso importante para murciélagos en los bosques, ya que ofrecen protección y condiciones climáticas que favorecen la reproducción, especialmente para aquellas especies con hábitos cavernícolas. Durante 12 meses (2013-2014, se llevó a cabo un estudio sobre el uso de una cueva por parte de murciélagos en el Parque Nacional Yurubí-Sierra de Aroa, Estado Yaracuy, Venezuela. Se colocó una trampa de arpa una vez por mes y estuvo activa antes de que los murciélagos emergieran del refugio. Después de tomar datos sobre abundancia, los individuos se marcaron y se liberaron en el sitio. Se registraron seis especies pertenecientes a las familias Mormoopidae y Phyllostomidae. Pteronotus parnellii, Anoura geoffroyi y Carollia perspicillata fueron capturados todos los meses y en los tres se observó indicios reproductivos. Pteronotus parnellii y Anoura geoffroyi fueron los más abundantes con una mayor presencia para el primero. Por otro lado, Phyllostomus hastatus, Lonchorhina aurita y Desmodus rotundus usaron el refugio temporalmente, sin evidenciar alguna condición reproductiva. Se observaron cambios en el tamaño de las colonias y la composición de especies, evidencia de que el refugio es usado permanentemente por algunas especies durante la reproducción y de forma temporal por otras, que aparentemente se estarían favoreciendo sólo del resguardo que ofrece.

  2. Cranial and mandibular shape variation in the genus Carollia (Mammalia: Chiroptera from Colombia: biogeographic patterns and morphological modularity

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    Camilo López-Aguirre

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neotropical bats of the genus Carollia are widely studied due to their abundance, distribution and relevance for ecosystems. However, the ecomorphological boundaries of these species are poorly differentiated, and consequently correspondence between their geographic distribution, ecological plasticity and morphological variation remains unclear. In this study, patterns of cranial and mandibular morphological variation were assessed for Carollia brevicauda, C. castanea and C. perspicillata from Colombia. Using geometric morphometrics, morphological variation was examined with respect to: differences in intraspecific variation, morphological modularity and integration, and biogeographic patterns. Patterns of intraspecific variation were different for each species in both cranial and mandibular morphology, with functional differences apparent according to diet. Cranial modularity varied between species whereas mandibular modularity did not. High cranial and mandibular correlation reflects Cranium-Mandible integration as a functional unit. Similarity between the biogeographic patterns in C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata indicates that the Andes do not act as a barrier but rather as an independent region, isolating the morphology of Andean populations of larger-bodied species. The biogeographic pattern for C. castanea was not associated with the physiography of the Andes, suggesting that large body size does not benefit C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata in maintaining homogeneous morphologies among populations.

  3. Phyllostomidae assemblage (Chiroptera: Mammalia in altitudinal forests at the Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Southeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Rodrigo M. Mello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Many studies have demonstrated the ecological relevance and great biodiversity of bats in Brazil. However, mountainous areas have been disproportionately less sampled, mainly in the Southeast. The aim of this study was to identify and compare the richness and diversity of Phyllostomidae, the most diverse bat family, in different forest types in Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, trying to understand the causes of possible differences. The Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca is inserted in the Serra da Mantiqueira's domain, in an Atlantic Forest region known as "Zona da Mata", state of Minas Gerais, with an altitudinal range between 1200-1784 meters. The study was conducted in two forest types, classified as "Nanofloresta Nebular" and "Floresta Nebular", whose respective data on richness and diversity were compared. The bats were captured with 8-10 mist nets for 14 months (April 2011 to May 2012 and four nights per month totaling 62,171.25 m2h of capture effort. A total of 392 captures (12 species belonging to the Phyllostomidae family were obtained. The most abundant species were Sturnira lilium (59.9%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (11.3%, Artibeus lituratus (8.7% and Carollia perspicillata (7.6%. The two sampled areas presented differences in bat richness, diversity and species composition, and this difference was predominantly influenced by S. lilium. It is likely that the observed difference in the assembly of bats between the two study sites depends on the variation in floristic composition. The records of A. lituratus and P. lineatus in a few months of the year and close to Ficus mexiae bearing ripe fruits suggests that at least these species move to the park for a few periods of the year in search of food resources, possibly moving through the altitudinal landscapes.

  4. Sensitivity of populations of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in relation to human development in northern Paraná, southern Brazil

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    NR. Reis

    Full Text Available Most natural forests have been converted for human use, restricting biological life to small forest fragments. Many animals, including some species of bats are disappearing and the list of these species grows every day. It seems that the destruction of the habitat is one of its major causes. This study aimed to analyze how this community of bats was made up in environments with different sizes and quality of habitat. Data from studies conducted in the region of Londrina, Parana, Brazil, from 1982 to 2000 were used. Originally, this area was covered by a semi deciduous forest, especially Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae, Ficus insipida (Moraceae, Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae, Croton floribundus (Euforbiaceae, and currently, only small remnants of the original vegetation still exist. The results showed a decline in the number of species caught in smaller areas compared to the largest remnant. In about 18 years of sampling, 42 species of bats were found in the region, representing 67% of the species that occur in Paraná and 24.4% in Brazil. There were two species of Noctilionidae; 21 of Phyllostoma; 11 Vespertilionidae and eight Molossidae. Eight of these were captured only in the largest fragment, Mata dos Godoy State Park (680 ha. Ten species had a low capture rate in the smaller areas with less than three individuals. Of the total sampled, 14 species were found in human buildings, and were able to tolerate modified environments, foraging and even using them as shelter. As the size of the forest area increases, there is a greater variety of ecological opportunities and their physical conditions become more stable, i.e., conditions favorable for growth and survival of a greater number of species. Forest fragmentation limits and creates subpopulations, preserving only long-lived K-strategist animals for some time, where the supporting capacity of the environment is a limiting factor. The reduction of habitats, species and genetic diversity resulting from human activities are endangering the future adaptability in natural ecosystems, which promotes the disappearance of low adaptive potential species.

  5. Pattern and timing of diversification of Cetartiodactyla (Mammalia, Laurasiatheria), as revealed by a comprehensive analysis of mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanin, Alexandre; Delsuc, Frédéric; Ropiquet, Anne; Hammer, Catrin; Jansen van Vuuren, Bettine; Matthee, Conrad; Ruiz-Garcia, Manuel; Catzeflis, François; Areskoug, Veronika; Nguyen, Trung Thanh; Couloux, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    The order Cetartiodactyla includes cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises) that are found in all oceans and seas, as well as in some rivers, and artiodactyls (ruminants, pigs, peccaries, hippos, camels and llamas) that are present on all continents, except Antarctica and until recent invasions, Australia. There are currently 332 recognized cetartiodactyl species, which are classified into 132 genera and 22 families. Most phylogenetic studies have focused on deep relationships, and no comprehensive time-calibrated tree for the group has been published yet. In this study, 128 new complete mitochondrial genomes of Cetartiodactyla were sequenced and aligned with those extracted from nucleotide databases. Our alignment includes 14,902 unambiguously aligned nucleotide characters for 210 taxa, representing 183 species, 107 genera, and all cetartiodactyl families. Our mtDNA data produced a statistically robust tree, which is largely consistent with previous classifications. However, a few taxa were found to be para- or polyphyletic, including the family Balaenopteridae, as well as several genera and species. Accordingly, we propose several taxonomic changes in order to render the classification compatible with our molecular phylogeny. In some cases, the results can be interpreted as possible taxonomic misidentification or evidence for mtDNA introgression. The existence of three new cryptic species of Ruminantia should therefore be confirmed by further analyses using nuclear data. We estimate divergence times using Bayesian relaxed molecular clock models. The deepest nodes appeared very sensitive to prior assumptions leading to unreliable estimates, primarily because of the misleading effects of rate heterogeneity, saturation and divergent outgroups. In addition, we detected that Whippomorpha contains slow-evolving taxa, such as large whales and hippos, as well as fast-evolving taxa, such as river dolphins. Our results nevertheless indicate that the evolutionary history of cetartiodactyls was punctuated by four main phases of rapid radiation during the Cenozoic era: the sudden occurrence of the three extant lineages within Cetartiodactyla (Cetruminantia, Suina and Tylopoda); the basal diversification of Cetacea during the Early Oligocene; and two radiations that involve Cetacea and Pecora, one at the Oligocene/Miocene boundary and the other in the Middle Miocene. In addition, we show that the high species diversity now observed in the families Bovidae and Cervidae accumulated mainly during the Late Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene.

  6. A memory already like an elephant's? The advanced brain morphology of the last common ancestor of Afrotheria (Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Julien; Crumpton, Nick; Mérigeaud, Samuel; Tabuce, Rodolphe

    2013-01-01

    Virtually reconstructed and natural endocranial casts are used in the study of brain evolution through geological time. We here present work investigating the paleoneurological evolution of afrotherian mammals. Using microCT-generated endocasts we show that, with the exception of the subfamilies Macroscelidinae and Tenrecoidea, most Afroinsectiphilia display a more or less gyrencephalic and ventrally expanded neopallium, two derived features that are unexpected for these insectivore-grade afrotherians. This implies that the endocranial cast morphology at the root of the afrotherian clade may have been more advanced than previously thought. The reconstructed endocranial morphology of the Afrotheria's last common ancestor reaches the level of complexity of some early Cenozoic archaic ungulates. Our result gives support to the hypothesis of an ungulate-like ancestral body plan for Afrotheria. It also implies that the a priori 'primitive' suite of traits evident in the brain of Afroinsectivora, especially in the tenrecs, may have been secondarily acquired. Implications on the overestimation of the divergence age of Afrotheria are discussed. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. A Systematic Study on Tooth Enamel Microstructures of Lambdopsalis bulla (Multituberculate, Mammalia) - Implications for Multituberculate Biology and Phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Fangyuan; Wang, Yuanqing; Meng, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Tooth enamel microstructure is a reliable and widely used indicator of dietary interpretations and data for phylogenetic reconstruction, if all levels of variability are investigated. It is usually difficult to have a thorough examination at all levels of enamel structures for any mammals, especially for the early mammals, which are commonly represented by sparse specimens. Because of the random preservation of specimens, enamel microstructures from different teeth in various species are often compared. There are few examples that convincingly show intraspecific variation of tooth enamel microstructure in full dentition of a species, including multituberculates. Here we present a systematic survey of tooth enamel microstructures of Lambdopsalis bulla, a taeniolabidoid multituberculate from the Late Paleocene Nomogen Formation, Inner Mongolia. We examined enamel structures at all hierarchical levels. The samples are treated differently in section orientations and acid preparation and examined using different imaging methods. The results show that, except for preparation artifacts, the crystallites, enamel types, Schmelzmuster and dentition types of Lambdopsalis are relatively consistent in all permanent teeth, but the prism type, including the prism shape, size and density, may vary in different portions of a single tooth or among different teeth of an individual animal. The most common Schmelzmuster of the permanent teeth in Lambdopsalis is a combination of radial enamel in the inner and middle layers, aprismatic enamel in the outer layer, and irregular decussations in tooth crown area with great curvature. The prism seam is another comparably stable characteristic that may be a useful feature for multituberculate taxonomy. The systematic documentation of enamel structures in Lambdopsalis may be generalized for the enamel microstructure study, and thus for taxonomy and phylogenetic reconstruction, of multituberculates and even informative for the enamel study of other early mammals. PMID:26020958

  8. An ecological assessment of Hispid Hare Caprolagus hispidus (Mammalia: Lagomorpha: Leporidae in Manas National Park, Assam, India

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    Naba K. Nath

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study of the Hispid Hare Caprolagus hispidus in the tall grassland habitat of Manas National Park, Assam during 2009–2010 is the first detailed assessment in northeastern India.  We assessed the status, distribution, habitat use and key threats to this rare and little studied lagomorph species.  After interviewing local forest staff, 20 grassland patches within a survey area of 2.65ha were selected and transects (50x2 m laid randomly to determine the presence/absence of Hispid Hare by recording pellets and other indirect evidence.  Hare presence was recorded in 17 grassland patches within transects dominated by Imperata cylindrica and Saccharum narenga.  Hispid Hare preferred dry savannah grasslands to wet alluvial grasslands during winter and avoided recently burned patches due to lack of cover and food.  The distribution pattern observed was clumped (s2/a = 6.2, with more evidence of Hispid Hare presence in areas where ground cover was dense, dry and away from water sources. Population density was estimated at 381.55 individuals/km2, which in comparison with other studies indicates that Manas National Park currently holds the highest density of Hispid Hare.  Habitat loss due to overgrazing, unsustainable thatch harvesting, burning of grassland, weed invasion, encroachment and hunting were identified as key threats which must be addressed to ensure survival of this threatened species in the Park.  

  9. Structure of a bat assemblage (Mammalia, Chiroptera in Serra do Caraça Reserve, South-east Brazil

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    Falcão Fábio de C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Serra do Caraça Reserve is situated in the southern portion of the Espinhaço Mountain Range, and contains areas of "campos de altitude", "cerrado" and atlantic forest. This study had as its objective the registering of the bats species that occur in the reserve. The data collection was carried out in one year through monthly samplings, using mist nets set on trails, and also through hand capture. A total of 246 individuals were collected (0.72 bats/net-hour, distributed across 15 species, belonging to the families Phyllostomidae (83.0%; nine species, Vespertilionidae (12.5%; three species and Molossidae (4.5%; three species. The most abundant species were Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 121, 60.5%, Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 (n = 21, 10.5% and Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 10, 5.0%, and less represented were Lasiurus blossevilli (Lesson y Garnot, 1826 (n = 2, 1.0%, Eumops perotis (Schinz, 1821 (n = 2, 1.0% e Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843 (n = 1, 0.5%. The richness of species found and the non-occurrence of phyllostomines in the reserve could be indicative of some level of forest disturbance.

  10. A new species of small-eared shrew in the Cryptotis thomasi species group from Costa Rica (Mammalia: Eulipotyphla: Soricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal; Timm, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new species of small-eared shrew, genus Cryptotis Pomel, 1848 (Eulipotyphla: Soricidae), from near the community of Monteverde in the Tilarán highlands of northwestern Costa Rica. The new species is immediately distinguished from all other Costa Rican shrews its large size and long tail. Morphologically, it belongs to the Cryptotis thomasi group of small-eared shrews, a clade that is more typically distributed in the Andes Cordillera and other highland regions of northern South America. The new Costa Rican species and the Panamanian endemic Cryptotis endersi Setzer, 1950 are the only two members of this species group known to occur in Central America. Like most other members of the C. thomasi group for which the postcranial skeleton has been studied, the new species tends be more ambulatory (rather than semi-fossorial) when compared with other members of the genus. Our survey efforts over several decades failed to locate a population of the new species, and we discuss its conservation status in light of its limited potential distribution in the Tilarán highlands and the significant climatic change that has been documented in the Monteverde region during the past four decades.

  11. Cranial remain from Tunisia provides new clues for the origin and evolution of Sirenia (Mammalia, Afrotheria in Africa.

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    Julien Benoit

    Full Text Available Sea cows (manatees, dugongs are the only living marine mammals to feed solely on aquatic plants. Unlike whales or dolphins (Cetacea, the earliest evolutionary history of sirenians is poorly documented, and limited to a few fossils including skulls and skeletons of two genera composing the stem family of Prorastomidae (Prorastomus and Pezosiren. Surprisingly, these fossils come from the Eocene of Jamaica, while stem Hyracoidea and Proboscidea--the putative sister-groups to Sirenia--are recorded in Africa as early as the Late Paleocene. So far, the historical biogeography of early Sirenia has remained obscure given this paradox between phylogeny and fossil record. Here we use X-ray microtomography to investigate a newly discovered sirenian petrosal from the Eocene of Tunisia. This fossil represents the oldest occurrence of sirenians in Africa. The morphology of this petrosal is more primitive than the Jamaican prorastomids' one, which emphasizes the basal position of this new African taxon within the Sirenia clade. This discovery testifies to the great antiquity of Sirenia in Africa, and therefore supports their African origin. While isotopic analyses previously suggested sirenians had adapted directly to the marine environment, new paleoenvironmental evidence suggests that basal-most sea cows were likely restricted to fresh waters.

  12. A new fossil dolphin Dilophodelphis fordycei provides insight into the evolution of supraorbital crests in Platanistoidea (Mammalia, Cetacea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Alexandra T.; McCurry, Matthew R.; Pyenson, Nicholas D.

    2017-05-01

    Many odontocete groups have developed enlarged facial crests, although these crests differ in topography, composition and function. The most elaborate crests occur in the South Asian river dolphin (Platanista gangetica), in which they rise dorsally as delicate, pneumatized wings anterior of the facial bones. Their position wrapping around the melon suggests their involvement in sound propagation for echolocation. To better understand the origin of crests in this lineage, we examined facial crests among fossil and living Platanistoidea, including a new taxon, Dilophodelphis fordycei, nov. gen. and sp., described herein, from the Early Miocene Astoria Formation of Oregon, USA. We measured the physical extent and thickness of platanistoid crests, categorized their relative position and used computed tomography scans to examine their internal morphology and relative bone density. Integrating these traits in a phylogenetic context, we determined that the onset of crest elaboration or enlargement and the evolution of crest pneumatization among the platanistoids were separate events, with crest enlargement beginning in the Oligocene. However, we find no evidence for pneumatization until possibly the Early Miocene, although certainly by the Middle Miocene. Such an evolutionary context, including data from the fossil record, should inform modelling efforts that seek to understand the diversity of sound generation morphology in Odontoceti.

  13. FIRST RECORD OF DUGONGIDAE (MAMMALIA: SIRENIA FROM THE FLORESTA CALCARENITES FORMATION (LATE BURDIGALIAN – EARLY LANGHIAN, REGGIO CALABRIA, SOUTHERN ITALY

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    GIUSEPPE CARONE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A sirenian rib has been recovered at Motta San Giovanni (Reggio Calabria in the “Floresta Calcarenites”, a Formation cropping out in Sicily and Calabria and dated late Burdigalian-Langhian. Although the rib is not a diagnostic bone for taxonomy, its presence in southern Calabria extends the knowledge about the paleobiogeography of the Family Dugongidae in the Mediterranean basin. The find is hitherto the only record of sirenians in the Floresta calcarenites. Moreover, the specimen extends back to the Early-Middle Miocene (late Burdigalian-Langhian the occurrence of sirenians in Calabria, previously determined thanks to substantial material from the Late Miocene (Tortonian of the Monte Poro area (Vibo Valentia.  The paleoenvironment of the Floresta calcarenites was a warm and shallow sea, consistent with the paleoecology of Dugongidae.

  14. A Histopathology Study of Caspian Seal (Pusa caspica (Phocidae, Mammalia Liver Infected with Trematode, Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Rudolphi, 1819 (Opisthorchidae, Trematoda.

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    Richard Heckmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of this study was to investigate the invasive activity of the liver fluke, Pseudamphistomom truncatum against the Caspian seal (Pusa caspica and was exemplified at the gross, light microscopy (LM and electron microscopy (EM levels.The study was done on a freshly dead Caspian Seal in the southern coast of Caspian Sea. The checked Caspian seal probably being died of canine distemper virus and was found host to numerous parasites of four helminth species.P. truncatum caused edematous foci on the surface of the liver with prominent fluid accumulation. Sections of the liver viewed with LM had multiple necrotic areas with extensive hemorrhaging and disorganized hepatic lobules. Granulocytes and invasion of connective tissue were prominent. Whole worms were visible with invasive pathways through the host tissue. Damage to both hepatic ducts and blood vessels were prominent. At the EM level, organelles within the impacted hepatocytes were disorganized as exemplified by the cristae of the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum. Parasite eggs were scattered throughout the tissue.It was shown that this trematode can be very pathogenic to Caspian Seal and as this only mammal of Caspian Sea is an endangered species; this needs more investigation toward control or possible treatment of this helminth.

  15. A comparison of the chromosome G-banding pattern in two Sorex species, S. satunini and S. araneus (Mammalia, Insectivora

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    Yuri Borisov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The G-banded karyotype of S. satunini was compared with the karyotype of Sorex araneus. Extensive homology was revealed. The major chromosomal rearrangements involved in the evolutionary divergence of these species have been identified as centric fusions and centromeric shifts. From the known palaeontological age of S. satunini it is obvious that the vast chromosomal polymorphism of the S. araneus group originated during the middle Pleistocene.

  16. Germinação de sementes após a passagem pelo trato gastrointestinal de morcegos (Mammalia: Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Karla Rossaneis

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a germinação de sementes espécies vegetais dos gêneros Piper, Solanum, Cecropia e Ficusapós sua passagem pelo trato gastrointes-tinal dos morcegos frugívoros Artibeus lituratus, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspi-cillata e Sturnira lilium. Os morcegos foram capturados no Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy, na cidade de Londrina (PR). Para cada espécie vegetal foram considerados o controle e quatro tratamentos, formados pelas sementes obtidas das fezes ...

  17. Cranial Remain from Tunisia Provides New Clues for the Origin and Evolution of Sirenia (Mammalia, Afrotheria) in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Julien; Adnet, Sylvain; El Mabrouk, Essid; Khayati, Hayet; Ben Haj Ali, Mustapha; Marivaux, Laurent; Merzeraud, Gilles; Merigeaud, Samuel; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Tabuce, Rodolphe

    2013-01-01

    Sea cows (manatees, dugongs) are the only living marine mammals to feed solely on aquatic plants. Unlike whales or dolphins (Cetacea), the earliest evolutionary history of sirenians is poorly documented, and limited to a few fossils including skulls and skeletons of two genera composing the stem family of Prorastomidae (Prorastomus and Pezosiren). Surprisingly, these fossils come from the Eocene of Jamaica, while stem Hyracoidea and Proboscidea - the putative sister-groups to Sirenia - are recorded in Africa as early as the Late Paleocene. So far, the historical biogeography of early Sirenia has remained obscure given this paradox between phylogeny and fossil record. Here we use X-ray microtomography to investigate a newly discovered sirenian petrosal from the Eocene of Tunisia. This fossil represents the oldest occurrence of sirenians in Africa. The morphology of this petrosal is more primitive than the Jamaican prorastomids’ one, which emphasizes the basal position of this new African taxon within the Sirenia clade. This discovery testifies to the great antiquity of Sirenia in Africa, and therefore supports their African origin. While isotopic analyses previously suggested sirenians had adapted directly to the marine environment, new paleoenvironmental evidence suggests that basal-most sea cows were likely restricted to fresh waters. PMID:23342128

  18. Evolutionary and Biological Implications of Dental Mesial Drift in Rodents: The Case of the Ctenodactylidae (Rodentia, Mammalia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Solé, Floréal; Charles, Cyril; Tafforeau, Paul; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Viriot, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Dental characters are importantly used for reconstructing the evolutionary history of mammals, because teeth represent the most abundant material available for the fossil species. However, the characteristics of dental renewal are presently poorly used, probably because dental formulae are frequently not properly established, whereas they could be of high interest for evolutionary and developmental issues. One of the oldest rodent families, the Ctenodactylidae, is intriguing in having longstanding disputed dental formulae. Here, we investigated 70 skulls among all extant ctenodactylid genera (Ctenodactylus, Felovia, Massoutiera and Pectinator) by using X-ray conventional and synchrotron microtomography in order to solve and discuss these dental issues. Our study clearly indicates that Massoutiera, Felovia and Ctenodactylus differ from Pectinator not only by a more derived dentition, but also by a more derived eruptive sequence. In addition to molars, their dentition only includes the fourth deciduous premolars, and no longer bears permanent premolars, conversely to Pectinator. Moreover, we found that these premolars are lost during adulthood, because of mesial drift of molars. Mesial drift is a striking mechanism involving migration of teeth allowed by both bone remodeling and dental resorption. This dental innovation is to date poorly known in rodents, since it is only the second report described. Interestingly, we noted that dental drift in rodents is always associated with high-crowned teeth favoring molar size enlargement. It can thus represent another adaptation to withstand high wear, inasmuch as these rodents inhabit desert environments where dust is abundant. A more accurate study of mesial drift in rodents would be very promising from evolutionary, biological and orthodontic points of view. PMID:23185576

  19. Evolutionary and biological implications of dental mesial drift in rodents: the case of the Ctenodactylidae (Rodentia, Mammalia.

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    Helder Gomes Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Dental characters are importantly used for reconstructing the evolutionary history of mammals, because teeth represent the most abundant material available for the fossil species. However, the characteristics of dental renewal are presently poorly used, probably because dental formulae are frequently not properly established, whereas they could be of high interest for evolutionary and developmental issues. One of the oldest rodent families, the Ctenodactylidae, is intriguing in having longstanding disputed dental formulae. Here, we investigated 70 skulls among all extant ctenodactylid genera (Ctenodactylus, Felovia, Massoutiera and Pectinator by using X-ray conventional and synchrotron microtomography in order to solve and discuss these dental issues. Our study clearly indicates that Massoutiera, Felovia and Ctenodactylus differ from Pectinator not only by a more derived dentition, but also by a more derived eruptive sequence. In addition to molars, their dentition only includes the fourth deciduous premolars, and no longer bears permanent premolars, conversely to Pectinator. Moreover, we found that these premolars are lost during adulthood, because of mesial drift of molars. Mesial drift is a striking mechanism involving migration of teeth allowed by both bone remodeling and dental resorption. This dental innovation is to date poorly known in rodents, since it is only the second report described. Interestingly, we noted that dental drift in rodents is always associated with high-crowned teeth favoring molar size enlargement. It can thus represent another adaptation to withstand high wear, inasmuch as these rodents inhabit desert environments where dust is abundant. A more accurate study of mesial drift in rodents would be very promising from evolutionary, biological and orthodontic points of view.

  20. Genetic variability of Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Puma concolor and Panthera onca (Mammalia, Felidae studied using Felis catus microsatellites

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    Vanessa Roma Moreno

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We used four microsatellite loci (Fca08, Fca45, Fca77 and Fca96 from the domestic cat, Felis catus, to investigate genetic variability in specimens of Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi, otter cat, eyra, Puma concolor (cougar, mountain lion, puma and Panthera onca (jaguar held in various Brazilian zoos. Samples of DNA from the cats were PCR amplified and then sequenced before being analyzed using the CERVUS program. Our results show a mean polymorphic information content (PIC of 0.83 for H. yagouaroundi, 0.66 for P. concolor and 0.69 for P. onca and a mean of 10.3 alleles for the Fca08 locus, 5.3 for Fca 45, 9 for Fca 77 and 14 for Fca 96. These results indicate a relatively high level of genetic diversity for the specimens studied.