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Sample records for pines pinus sylvestris

  1. Foliar fungi of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    OpenAIRE

    Millberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is an ecologically and economically important tree species in Fennoscandia. Scots pine needles host a variety of fungi, some with the potential to profoundly influence their host. These fungi can have beneficial or detrimental effects with important implications for both forest health and primary production. In this thesis, the foliar fungi of Scots pine needles were investigated with the aim of exploring spatial and temporal patterns, and development with needle...

  2. Evaluation of seed production of scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to investigate seed production in a 13 years-old scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clonal seed orchard, including 30 clones. Eight of cone and seed traits as number of fertile and infertile scales, cone volume, cone number, filled and empty seed number, seed efficiency and 1000 seed weight were ...

  3. Growth and Survival Variation among Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Provenances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Gülcü

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tree height, basal diameter, and survival were examined in thirteen-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. at two exotic sites of the species in Southern part of Turkey. Variations within provenance and among provenances and relations among the traits were estimated to compare Scots pine provenance and two other native species. Averages of tree height and basal diameter were 350 cm and 52.7 mm in Aydogmus site and 385 cm and 51.2 mm in Kemer site, respectively. There were large differences within and among provenances for the characters. Sites were similar (p>0.05 for the characters, while there were significant differences (p≤0.05 among provenances within site according to results of variance analysis (ANOVA. Scots pine provenances were higher and had more thickness than that of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich. which were natural species of the region. There were positive and significant (p<0.05 correlations between height and basal diameter in the species. Average survivals were 56% and 35% of the provenances in the sites. They were 71% and 11% in black pine and 53% in Taurus cedar for the sites respectively.

  4. Improved recruitment and early growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings after fire and soil scarification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.; Ouden, den J.

    2004-01-01

    The success of seedling recruitment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is strongly dependent on soil surface properties, such as humus depth and moisture content. In an undisturbed forest floor, seedlings are seldom able to become established due to the high incidence of desiccation in the organic

  5. Determination of Pb and Cd pollution in Pine tree (Pinus Sylvestris) by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudovica, V.; Katkevic, J; Viksna, A.; Nulle, S.; Balcerbule, Z. . E-mai: wita@navigator.lv

    2004-01-01

    Forest is subordinate anthropogenic (carbon, petroleum, wood, waste incineration) and natural (climatic, biological, chemical) factors influencing. In current investigation pine tree as environmental indicator (Pinus Sylvestris L.) is selected. The aim of current investigations are to improve methods, that easy and unerring can establish threshold and critical toxic elements accumulation in the samples, such as pine needles, peels, trunk; the second - to find fact of pine reactions on pollution toxic elements concentrations in the soil, nutrition solutions. The reception efficiency of lead and cadmium from the solution with different concentrations of these toxic elements is estimated. The distribution of lead and cadmium in the different parts of pine trunk is edematous with some selective organic reagents. We find out that these toxic elements accumulate in pine trunk and peels and we cannot wash out from samples with water, so these elements are fixed in live tissue. The pollution of pine seedlings with Cd and Pb through the needles, peels, pulp, roots is connected with nutrition solutions, so with soil pollution

  6. Genetic processes in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchma, Oleksandra

    2010-01-01

    As immobile organisms, plants have to tolerate unfavorable environmental conditions and make use of different adaptive mechanisms to survive and reproduce successfully under stress. It is often difficult to detect the organism s or population s response to stress factors due to slow changes of environmental conditions or delayed reactions of plants. From this point of view, the investigation of reactions under extreme environmental change offer unique opportunities to study adaptation mechanisms. Areas with a strong anthropogenic impact on the environment represent ideal places for research on adaptation or selection processes. For many decades, ionizing radiation is well known as a strong damaging and stress factor. Radiation exposure causes heavy damages of the DNA. This leads to a decrease in fitness in the present generation and inheritable mutations which reveal their effects in later generations. On the other hand, radiation exposure activates adaptation processes to ensure survival. The investigation of the influence of radiation at different levels of life organization from the DNA level to the population level can help to elucidate response mechanisms to changing environments. After the accident in 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, the surrounding territories were contaminated with high amounts of radioactive material. The exclusion zone became a natural laboratory for the investigation of effects of radiation on the biocenosis. Pinus sylvestris is one of the most wildly used species in radiation research due to its very high sensitivity to radiation exposure and dominance in forest ecosystems of the exclusion zone. Nuclear microsatellites (SSRs) and AFLP markers were investigated in order to study mutation rates and selection processes under the influence of radiation in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) of different age and irradiation conditions collected in the Chernobyl exclusion zone and control areas. The results of this study show that a

  7. Radioactive contamination of pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Krasnoyarsk (Russia) following fallout from the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolsunovsky, A.; Dementyev, D.

    2014-01-01

    Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, samples of pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) were collected from three sites near the city of Krasnoyarsk (Siberia, Russia) during 2011–2012 and analyzed for artificial radionuclides. Concentrations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the samples of pine needles in April 2011 reached 5.51 ± 0.52 Bq kg −1131 I, 0.92 ± 0.04 Bq kg −1134 Cs, and 1.51 ± 0.07 Bq kg −1137 Cs. An important finding was the detection of 134 Cs from the Fukushima accident not only in the pine needles and branches but also in the new shoots in 2012, which suggested a transfer of Fukushima cesium isotopes from branches to shoots. In 2011 and 2012, the 137 Cs/ 134 Cs ratio for pine needles and branches collected in sampling areas Krasnoyarsk-1 and Krasnoyarsk-2 was greater than 1 (varying within a range of 1.2–2.6), suggesting the presence of “older”, pre-Fukushima accident 137 Cs. Calculations showed that for pine samples growing in areas of the Krasnoyarskii Krai unaffected by contamination from the nuclear facility, the activity of the Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes was two–three times higher than the activity of the pre-accident 137 Cs. - Highlights: • 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 131 I were detected in samples of pine trees near Krasnoyarsk (Russia). • 134 Cs was transferred from old tree parts to the new (2012) shoots of pine trees. • The 137 Cs total / 134 Cs activity ratio for pine samples was greater than 1 due to the presence of pre-accident 137 Cs. • The accident 137 Cs activity in pine samples was higher than the pre-accident 137 Cs activity

  8. Early field performance of drought-stressed scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulac, S.; Clcek, E.; Tasdemir, U.

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) has a large natural distribution throughout the world, including semi-arid areas of Turkey, where it is being used for afforestation. Determining the drought resistance of Scots pine provenances can increase the success of afforestation efforts in semi-arid regions. In the first stage of this study, water-stress treatments were applied to ten provenances of one-year-old Scots pine seedlings in their second vegetation period (between April and November). The diameter and height of the seedlings were evaluated in the nursery in order to determine their morphology. The four drought-stress treatments consisted of once-weekly irrigation (IR1), twice-weekly irrigation (IR2-Control), biweekly irrigation (IR3) and open field conditions (IR4). Later, the water-stressed seedlings were planted in a semi-arid district in Bayburt, Turkey, and their survival and growth performances were evaluated over a five-year period. The nursery study showed that drought stress and provenance as well as the interaction of the two significantly affected the morphological characteristics of the seedlings. Under water-stress conditions, the best growth performance was found in the Dokurcun, Degirmendere and Dirgine provenance seedlings. Water-stress and provenance factors and their interaction also affected the open field performance of the seedlings, where the Degirmendere, Dirgine and Dokurcun provenances again exhibited the best performance. Consequently, these Scots pine provenances can be recommended for afforestation sites having conditions similar to those of the study site. (author)

  9. Environmental pollution changes in membrane lipids, antioxidants and vitality of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł M. Pukacki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out on pollen grains of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. collected from trees at 1.5, 3, 4 km and control, 20 km from the Luboń factory producing mineral fertilisers. The percentage of germination of pollen formed close to the pollution source was ca 20% lower compared to the control pollen. Lowered vitality of the pollen was effected in changes of the structure of cytoplasmic membranes. Pollen from the polluted area contained ca 15% less total phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine and phosphatytidylinositol and had a lower content of soluble proteins and less of low molecular antioxidants, such as thiols and ascorbic acid. Composition of total fatty acid in phospholipids fractions showed a significant reduction in the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids. Pollen originating from the polluted area and stored at -30°C showed considerably stronger degradation of cytoplasmic membranes than control.

  10. Higher-than-present Medieval pine (Pinus sylvestris treeline along the Swedish Scandes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Kullman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The upper treeline of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. is renowned as a sensitive indicator of climate change and variability. By use of megafossil tree remains, preserved exposed on the ground surface, treeline shift over the past millennium was investigated at multiple sites along the Scandes in northern Sweden. Difference in thermal level between the present and the Medieval period, about AD 1000-1200, is a central, although controversial, aspect concerning the detection and attribution of anthropogenic climate warming. Radiocarbon-dated megafossil pines revealed that the treeline was consistently positioned as much as 115 m higher during the Medieval period than today (AD 2000-2010, after a century of warming and substantial treeline upshift. Drawing on the last-mentioned figure, and a lapse rate of 0.6 °C/100 m, it may be inferred that Medieval summer temperatures were about 0.7 °C warmer than much of the past 100 years. Extensive pine mortality and treeline descent after the Medieval warming peak reflect substantially depressed temperatures during the Little Ice Age. Warmer-than-present conditions during the Medieval period concur with temperature reconstructions from different parts of northern Fennoscandia, northwestern Russia and Greenland. Modern warming has not been sufficient to restore Medieval treelines. Against this background, there is little reason to view further modest warming as unnatural.

  11. Provenance variations of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the Southern PART of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulcu, S.; Bilir, N.

    2015-01-01

    Tree height, basal diameter, stem form, number, angle and diameter of branches were assessed in eight-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at Aydogmus and Kemer experimental sites of Southern part of Turkey. Growth of the provenances was also compared to two native species (Taurus cedar- Cedrus libani A. Rich and Black pine-Pinus nigra Arnold.) of the region. Variations within provenance and among provenances, and relations among the traits were estimated. There were large differences (p <= 0.05) within provenance and among provenances for the traits, while sites showed similar (0.05 <= p) performance for tree height and stem form. For instance, average of tree height was 181 cm and varied between 138.3 cm and 229.8 cm in provenances of Aydogmus site, it was 184 cm and ranged from 130 cm to 246.1 cm in that of Kemer site. Averages of tree height of a provenance were 144.4 cm in Aydogmus and 194.5 cm in Kemer. Individual tree height of the provenance varied between 69 cm and 267 cm, and ranged from 51 cm to 280 cm in sites. Averages of tree height were 143.2 cm in Black pine 145.6 cm in Taurus cedar which were natural species of the region. There were mostly positive and significant (p <= 0.05) correlations among the traits. Results of the study were discussed for new plantations and breeding of the species. (author)

  12. Determination of metals in scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris) needles and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludborzs, A.; Viksna, A.

    2000-01-01

    Current report is the finding to apply two modern and powerful methods of microanalysis - Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (TXRF) and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry - for the analysis of biological and geological materials. For some of the measurements Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been used as an arbitrary method. The goal of the research project is to find possible relationships between metals content in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles and the soil samples, which have been taken under the trees. The objectives of the work are analysis of both needles and soils, pH measurements of the soil samples, and handling of a simplified metal speciation analysis in the soil samples. For statistical reliability of the project, seven pine trees from different locations in Latvia have been chosen as the analysis objects. Samples of 20 different age class needles have been collected from the trees and 21 soil sample has been sampled under the trees. K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Rb, Sr, Pb, and Cd content have been analysed in both samples of the needles and the soils. The obtained measurement data have been processed according to the aim of the project. Relevant questions about causal differences of metal concentrations in different age classes of needles, about subtle working principles of the plant's root system, about the role of some elements in the plant's living processes still remain unanswered. (author)

  13. No evidence for depletion of carbohydrate pools in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, A; Pirkebner, D; Florian, C; Oberhuber, W

    2012-01-01

    The physiological mechanisms leading to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) decline in the dry inner alpine valleys are still unknown. Testing the carbon starvation hypothesis, we analysed the seasonal course of mobile carbohydrate pools (NSC) of Scots pine growing at a xeric and a dry-mesic site within an inner alpine dry valley (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) during 2009, which was characterised by exceptional soil dryness. Although, soil moisture content dropped to ca. 10% at both sites during the growing season, NSC concentrations rose in all tissues (branch, stem, root) until the end of July, except in needles, where maxima were reached around bud break. NSC concentrations were not significantly different in the analysed tissues at the xeric and the dry-mesic site. At the dry-mesic site, NSC concentrations in the aboveground tree biomass were significantly higher during the period of radial growth. An accumulation of NSC in roots at the end of July indicates a change in carbon allocation after an early cessation in aboveground growth, possibly due to elevated belowground carbon demand. In conclusion, our results revealed that extensive soil dryness during the growing season did not lead to carbon depletion. However, even though carbon reserves were not exhausted, sequestration of carbohydrate pools during drought periods might lead to deficits in carbon supply that weaken tree vigour and drive tree mortality. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Possibilities of the chemical analysis of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viksna, A.

    1999-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is a good bio indicator. This species is widely distributed in Europe, including Latvia, is easily identified, and is used in bio indication studies. It is known that the concentrations of most elements in needles change with time. These changes are connected to the processes involved in the uptake, transportation, storage and retranslocation of the elements. Scots pine keeps their needles for several years (3 to 4 years) and are suitable for the study of time related processes. The chemical composition of pine needles is used for the study the deposition and impact of air pollutants. Coniferous needles are covered with epicuticular wax, which act as a trap for airborne deposits. A comparison of chemical composition of pine needles that were unwashed and washed with chloroform made it possible to distinguish which elements were on the needles and to evaluate the character of pollution. The most important stage of the analysis of pine needles is sampling. Nutrient concentrations in the needles of coniferous trees have been shown to vary with the needle age and tree age, the phase of the annual physiological cycle, availability of nutrients in the soil and needle position within the crown. It is very important to take representative sample for the analysis. In the current work the trace element concentrations of the single needle were analysed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and total reflection X-ray spectrometry (TXRF). The results of analysis showed that concentration of some elements depends from the position of needle within branch for the same needle age class. The concentrations of trace elements in the single needles within main shoot were more or less constant compare with other order shoots at given needle age class. Some higher variations in the elemental concentrations between single needles were observed in the tip part of main shoot. The actual distribution of the elements within a needle has

  15. Changes in the Essential Oil Composition in the Needles of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Under Anthropogenic Stress

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    Asta Judzentiene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Unfavorable anthropogenic factors, such as air pollution, lead to biochemical responses in trees. Changes in the amounts of secondary metabolites may be early indicators of invisible injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in the areas affected by pollutant emissions of main factories in Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory (NFF, a cement factory (CF, and an oil refinery (OR. Totally, 14 pine stands were examined along transects from the factories (July 2005. Volatile components of the needles were extracted and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Over 70 components of the essential oils were identified in current-year and 1-year-old needles.

  16. Seasonal dynamics of mobile carbohydrates and stem growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) exposed to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Kofler, Werner; Schuster, Roman; Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Tree growth requires a continuous supply of carbon as structural material and as a source for metabolic energy. To detect whether intra-annual stem growth is related to changes in carbon allocation, we monitored seasonal dynamics of shoot and radial growth and concentrations of mobile carbohydrates (NSC) in above- and belowground organs of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The study area is situated within an inner Alpine dry environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria), which is characterized by recurring drought periods at the start of the growing season in spring and limited water holding capacity of nutrient deficient, shallow stony soils. Shoot elongation was monitored on lateral branches in the canopy and stem radius changes were continuously followed by electronic band dendrometers. Daily radial stem growth and tree water deficit (ΔW) were extracted from dendrometer records. ΔW is regarded a reliable measure of drought stress in trees and develops when transpirational water loss from leaves exceeds water uptake by the root system. Daily radial stem growth and ΔW were related to environmental variables and determination of NSC was performed using specific enzymatic assays. Results revealed quite early culmination of aboveground growth rates in late April (shoot growth) and late May (radial growth), and increasing accumulation of NSC in coarse roots in June. NSC content in roots peaked at the end of July and thereafter decreased again, indicating a shift in carbon allocation after an early cessation of aboveground stem growth. ΔW was found to peak in late summer, when high temperatures prevailed. That maximum growth rates of aboveground organs peaked quite before precipitation increased during summer is related to the finding that ΔW and radial stem growth were more strongly controlled by the atmospheric environment, than by soil water content. We conclude that as a response to the seasonal development of ΔW a shift in carbon allocation from aboveground

  17. Changes in the concentrations of phenolics and photosynthates in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings exposed to nickel and copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roitto, M. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Environmental Research, Karilantie 2A, FIN-50600 Mikkeli (Finland) and Department of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Niemenkatu 73, FIN-15140 Lahti (Finland)]. E-mail: marja.roitto@mtt.fi; Rautio, P. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Station, Kaironiementie 54, FIN-39700 Parkano (Finland); Julkunen-Tiitto, R. [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, PO Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Kukkola, E. [University of Helsinki, Department of Biosciences, Division of Plant Physiology, PO Box 56, FIN-00014, Helsinki (Finland); Huttunen, S. [Department of Biology, University of Oulu, PO Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2005-10-15

    Studies were done on the effects of elevated soil concentrations of copper (Cu) and (Ni) on foliar carbohydrates and phenolics in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Four year-old seedlings were planted in pots filled with metal-treated mineral forest soil in early June. The experimental design included all combinations of four levels of Cu (0, 25, 40 and 50 mg kg{sup -1} soil dw) and Ni (0, 5, 15 and 25 mg kg{sup -1} soil dw). Current year needles were sampled for soluble sugar, starch and phenolics at the end of September. Ni increased sucrose concentration in the needles, indicating disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism. Trees exposed to Ni had higher concentrations of condensed tannins compared with controls. In contrast, concentrations of several other phenolic compounds decreased when seedlings were exposed to high levels of Cu or to a combination of Ni and Cu. The results suggest that concentrations of phenolics in Scots pine needles vary in their responses to Ni and Cu in the forest soil. - Excess nickel in soil interferes with carbohydrate metabolism and induces an increase in concentration of condensed tannins in Scots pine needles.

  18. Changes in the concentrations of phenolics and photosynthates in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings exposed to nickel and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roitto, M.; Rautio, P.; Julkunen-Tiitto, R.; Kukkola, E.; Huttunen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Studies were done on the effects of elevated soil concentrations of copper (Cu) and (Ni) on foliar carbohydrates and phenolics in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Four year-old seedlings were planted in pots filled with metal-treated mineral forest soil in early June. The experimental design included all combinations of four levels of Cu (0, 25, 40 and 50 mg kg -1 soil dw) and Ni (0, 5, 15 and 25 mg kg -1 soil dw). Current year needles were sampled for soluble sugar, starch and phenolics at the end of September. Ni increased sucrose concentration in the needles, indicating disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism. Trees exposed to Ni had higher concentrations of condensed tannins compared with controls. In contrast, concentrations of several other phenolic compounds decreased when seedlings were exposed to high levels of Cu or to a combination of Ni and Cu. The results suggest that concentrations of phenolics in Scots pine needles vary in their responses to Ni and Cu in the forest soil. - Excess nickel in soil interferes with carbohydrate metabolism and induces an increase in concentration of condensed tannins in Scots pine needles

  19. Variability of morphological needle traits of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. among populations from mountain and lowland regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łabiszak Bartosz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work was to examine interpopulational needle traits variability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. from four mountain, one foothill and three lowland, natural populations located in Poland. This choice of locations was motivated by the presumed different origins of mountainous populations and the necessity to demonstrate how closely they are related to lowland populations. Variation in the studied populations was determined using seven morphological traits of needles: 1 - needle length, 2 - number of stomatal rows on the flat side of a needle, 3 - number of stomata per 2 mm of needle length on the flat side, 4 - number of stomatal rows on the convex side of a needle, 5 - number of stomata per 2 mm of needle length on the convex side, 6 - number of serrations per 2 mm of the needle length on the left side and 7 - number of serrations per 2 mm of the needle length on the right side. Biometric data were analysed statistically, and it was found that (i needle traits differentiate studied populations; (ii the postulated division of the population into two groups is reflected in the obtained results; and (iii a particularly strong relationship was found between two relict pine populations from the Pieniny (Sokolica, Kazalnica, Czertezik and Tatra Mts. (Wielke Koryciska, which may be the result of the common origins and history of these two populations

  20. Changes in the essential oil composition in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under anthropogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judzentiene, Asta; Stikliene, Aida; Kupcinskiene, Eugenija

    2007-03-21

    Unfavorable anthropogenic factors, such as air pollution, lead to biochemical responses in trees. Changes in the amounts of secondary metabolites may be early indicators of invisible injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the areas affected by pollutant emissions of main factories in Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory (NFF), a cement factory (CF), and an oil refinery (OR). Totally, 14 pine stands were examined along transects from the factories (July 2005). Volatile components of the needles were extracted and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Over 70 components of the essential oils were identified in current-year and 1-year-old needles. Along the CF transect for current-year needles, the percentage of diterpenes was decreasing with the increasing pH of the pine bark (r = -0.582; p essential oils in the needles allowed us to distinguish the most contrasting stands according to the concentration of air pollutants. Current-year needles were more effective as indicators of the effects of pollution than 1-year-old needles in the case of the NFF and the OR transects, and both-aged needles were equally valuable in the case of the CF transect. The changes detected in the proportions of components of the essential oils in the needles of the trees affected by the industrial emissions may play a significant role in modifying the susceptibility of the pine stands to the biotic factors, and also may alter emissions of terpenes from the stands to the atmosphere.

  1. Ozone fumigation under dark/light conditions of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaval, Eva; Jud, Werner; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Norway Spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent dominating tree species in the northern hemisphere. Thus, the understanding of their ozone sensitivity in the light of the expected increasing ozone levels in the future is of great importance. In our experiments we investigated the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of 3-4 year old Norway Spruce and Scots Pine seedlings under ozone fumigation (50-150 ppbv) and dark/light conditions. For the experiments the plants were placed in a setup with inert materials including a glass cuvette equipped with a turbulent air inlet and sensors for monitoring a large range of meteorological parameters. Typical conditions were 20-25°C and a relative humidity of 70-90 % for both plant species. A fast gas exchange rate was used to minimize reactions of ozone in the gas phase. A Switchable-Reagent-Ion-Time-of-Flight-MS (SRI-ToF-MS) was used to analyze the VOCs at the cuvette outlet in real-time during changing ozone and light levels. The use of H3O+ and NO+ as reagent ions allows the separation of certain isomers (e.g. aldehydes and ketones) due to different reaction pathways depending on the functional groups of the molecules. Within the Picea abies experiments the ozone loss, defined as the difference of the ozone concentration between cuvette inlet and outlet, remained nearly constant at the transition from dark to light. This indicates that a major part of the supplied ozone is depleted non-stomatally. In contrast the ozone loss increased by 50 % at the transition from dark to light conditions within Pinus sylvestris experiments. In this case the stomata represent the dominant loss channel. Since maximally 0.1% of the ozone loss could be explained by gas phase reactions with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, we suggest that ozone reactions on the surface of Picea abies represent the major sink in this case and lead to an light-independent ozone loss. This is supported by the fact that we detected

  2. Multivariate Correlation between Analysis Data on Dissolved Organic Material from Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris Chips and their Autohydrolysis Pre-Treatment Conditions

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    Joni Lehto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemometric techniques were used to establish the relationship between the autohydrolysis conditions prior to pulping and the chemical compositions of the soluble organic materials removed from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris wood chips. The aqueous chip pre-treatments (autohydrolysis were administered at 130 °C and 150 °C for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min, and the hydrolysates obtained were characterized in terms of total carbohydrates (various mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides together with uronic acid side groups, volatile acids (acetic and formic acids, lignin, and furans (furfural and 5-(hydroxymethylfurfural. Based on the analytical data gathered, a relatively accurate model for pine chip autohydrolysis was developed.

  3. Actinobacteria possessing antimicrobial and antioxidant activities isolated from the pollen of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) grown on the Baikal shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axenov-Gribanov, Denis V; Voytsekhovskaya, Irina V; Rebets, Yuriy V; Tokovenko, Bogdan T; Penzina, Tatyana A; Gornostay, Tatyana G; Adelshin, Renat V; Protasov, Eugenii S; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; Timofeyev, Maxim A

    2016-10-01

    Isolated ecosystems existing under specific environmental conditions have been shown to be promising sources of new strains of actinobacteria. The taiga forest of Baikal Siberia has not been well studied, and its actinobacterial population remains uncharacterized. The proximity between the huge water mass of Lake Baikal and high mountain ranges influences the structure and diversity of the plant world in Siberia. Here, we report the isolation of eighteen actinobacterial strains from male cones of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) growing on the shore of the ancient Lake Baikal in Siberia. In addition to more common representative strains of Streptomyces, several species belonging to the genera Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, and Micromonospora were isolated. All isolated strains exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities. We identified several strains that inhibited the growth of the pathogen Candida albicans but did not hinder the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several isolates were active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The high proportion of biologically active strains producing antibacterial and specific antifungal compounds may reflect their role in protecting pollen against phytopathogens.

  4. The arthropod community of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) canopies in Norway

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thunes, K. H.; Skartveit, J.; Gjerde, I.; Starý, Josef; Solhoy, T.; Fjellberg, A.; Kobro, S.; Nakahara, S.; zur Strassen, R.; Vierbergen, G.; Szadziewski, R.; Hagan, D. V.; Grogan Jr., W. L.; Jonassen, T.; Aakra, K.; Anonby, J.; Greve, L.; Aukema, B.; Heller, K.; Michelsen, V.; Haenni, J.-P.; Emeljanov, A. F.; Douwes, P.; Berggren, K.; Franzen, J.; Disney, R. H. L.; Prescher, S.; Johanson, K. A.; Mamaev, B.; Podenas, S.; Andersen, S.; Gaimari, S. D.; Nartshuk, E.; Soli, G. E. E.; Papp, L.; Midtgaard, F.; Andersen, A.; von Tschirnhaus, M.; Bächli, G.; Olsen, K. M.; Olsvik, H.; Földvári, M.; Raastad, J. E.; Hansen, L. O.; Djursvoll, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2004), s. 65-90 ISSN 0785-8760 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : arthropod community * Scots pine * canopies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.298, year: 2004

  5. Association of FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1-like gene FTL2 expression with growth rhythm in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avia, Komlan; Kärkkäinen, Katri; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Savolainen, Outi

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of the timing of bud set, an important trait in conifers, is relevant for adaptation and forestry practice. In common garden experiments, both Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) show a latitudinal cline in the trait. We compared the regulation of their bud set biology by examining the expression of PsFTL2, a Pinus sylvestris homolog to PaFTL2, a FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (FT/TFL1)-like gene, the expression levels of which have been found previously to be associated with the timing of bud set in Norway spruce. In a common garden study, we analyzed the relationship of bud phenology under natural and artificial photoperiods and the expression of PsFTL2 in a set of Scots pine populations from different latitudes. The expression of PsFTL2 increased in the needles preceding bud set and decreased during bud burst. In the northernmost population, even short night periods were efficient to trigger this expression, which also increased earlier under all photoperiodic regimes compared with the southern populations. Despite the different biology, with few limitations, the two conifers that diverged 140 million yr ago probably share an association of FTL2 with bud set, pointing to a common mechanism for the timing of growth cessation in conifers. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. An interesting chemical polymorphism in Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Szweykowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and interpopulational polymorphism in the production of phenolic compounds is described in Polish populations of Pinus sylvestris L. Two mutually exclusive forms of pine trees are present in changing proportions in all populations studied. This allows three groups of populations to be distinguished. The character of this differentiation is discussed.

  7. Multivariate NIR studies of seed-water interaction in Scots Pine Seeds (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lestander, Torbjörn

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes seed-water interaction using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multivariate regression models and Scots pine seeds. The presented research covers classification of seed viability, prediction of seed moisture content, selection of NIR wavelengths and interpretation of seed-water interaction modelled and analysed by principal component analysis, ordinary least squares (OLS), partial least squares (PLS), bi-orthogonal least squares (BPLS) and genetic algorithms. The potenti...

  8. Influence of tree provenance on biogenic VOC emissions of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäenpää, Minna; Magsarjav, Narantsetseg; Ghimire, Rajendra; Markkanen, Juha-Matti; Heijari, Juha; Vuorinen, Martti; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2012-12-01

    Resin-storing plant species such as conifer trees can release substantial amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere under stress circumstances that cause resin flow. Wounding can be induced by animals, pathogens, wind or direct mechanical damage e.g. during harvesting. In atmospheric modelling of biogenic VOCs, actively growing vegetation has been mostly considered as the source of emissions. Root systems and stumps of resin-storing conifer trees could constitute a significant store of resin after tree cutting. Therefore, we assessed the VOC emission rates from the cut surface of Scots pine stumps and estimated the average emission rates for an area with a density of 2000 stumps per ha. The experiment was conducted with trees of one Estonian and three Finnish Scots pine provenances covering a 1200 km gradient at a common garden established in central Finland in 1991. VOC emissions were dominated by monoterpenes and less than 0.1% of the total emission was sesquiterpenes. α-Pinene (7-92% of the total emissions) and 3-carene (0-76% of the total emissions) were the dominant monoterpenes. Proportions of α-pinene and camphene were significantly lower and proportions of 3-carene, sabinene, γ-terpinene and terpinolene higher in the southernmost Saaremaa provenance compared to the other provenances. Total terpene emission rates (standardised to +20 °C) from stumps varied from 27 to 1582 mg h-1 m-2 when measured within 2-3 h after tree cutting. Emission rates decreased rapidly to between 2 and 79 mg h-1 m-2 at 50 days after cutting. The estimated daily terpene emission rates on a hectare basis from freshly cut stumps at a cut tree density of 2000 per ha varied depending on provenance. Estimated emission ranges were 100-710 g ha-1 d-1 and 137-970 g ha-1 d-1 in 40 and in 60 year-old forest stands, respectively. Our result suggests that emission directly from stump surfaces could be a significant source of monoterpene emissions for a few weeks after

  9. The true distribution and accumulation of radiocaesium in stem of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiry, Y.; Goor, F.; Riesen, T.

    2002-01-01

    The radial and vertical distributions of radiocaesium, potassium and calcium were determined in two Scots pine stands (17 and 58 yr old) similarly affected by the Chernobyl fallout. For both age classes, concentrations are always the lowest in the stemwood, highest in the inner bark and intermediary levels were observed for the outer bark. Due to the cumulative character of its biomass, however, stemwood is a long-term major reservoir of 137 Cs. With tree development, changes in the 137 Cs radial distribution are well described by variations in the sap ascent pattern and reveal an important transfer between tree rings. It is shown that, both the biomass evolution and knowledge of the evolution of the 137 Cs radial gradient are important to predicting 137 Cs accumulation in wood with time. According to the common transfer factor (TF) approach, one would expect a decrease in radiocaesium accumulation with time (from 0.0047±0.0013 to 0.0035±0.0008 m 2 kg -1 for the 17 and 58 yr old trees, respectively). With the wood immobilisation potential (WIP) approach, it was, however, clearly shown that additional annual uptake was highest for the older stand (3.12±0.23 Bq cm -3 yr -1 for the 58-year-old stand compared to 1.99±0.30 Bq cm -3 yr -1 for the younger stand). Following the WIP approach, it was moreover possible to distinguish between the 137 Cs incorporated via the root uptake process and a possible lasting effect of interception. It is shown that, whereas for the younger stand (5 yr old at the time of the accident) root uptake contributed exclusively to the wood contamination, the former process explained only 48% of the measured total 137 Cs content in the wood of the older tree

  10. Genotoxicity of dill (Anethum graveolens L.), peppermint (Menthaxpiperita L.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) essential oils in human lymphocytes and Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazutka, J R; Mierauskiene, J; Slapsyte, G; Dedonyte, V

    2001-05-01

    Genotoxic properties of the essential oils extracted from dill (Anethum graveolens L.) herb and seeds, peppermint (Menthaxpiperita L.) herb and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles were studied using chromosome aberration (CA) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) tests in human lymphocytes in vitro, and Drosophila melanogaster somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in vivo. In the CA test, the most active essential oil was from dill seeds, then followed essential oils from dill herb, peppermint herb and pine needles, respectively. In the SCE test, the most active essential oils were from dill herb and seeds followed by essential oils from pine needles and peppermint herb. Essential oils from dill herb and seeds and pine needles induced CA and SCE in a clear dose-dependent manner, while peppermint essential oil induced SCE in a dose-independent manner. All essential oils were cytotoxic for human lymphocytes. In the SMART test, a dose-dependent increase in mutation frequency was observed for essential oils from pine and dill herb. Peppermint essential oil induced mutations in a dose-independent manner. Essential oil from dill seeds was almost inactive in the SMART test.

  11. Individual variability of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. by the drought resistance features in forest-steppe pine forests of south Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tikhonova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The drought resistance of trees in the Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. populations was studied under forest steppe conditions of southern Siberia. We found large differences amongthe treesin the time and rate of needles dehydration. In the populations of the more arid growing conditions (Shira, Balgazyn the rate of loss 50 % of the water was three to four times lower than in the population of the more favorable conditions for growth (Minusinsk. It has been established that the variability of water-holding capacity of needles from individual trees in populations varies from high to very high levels. On the contrary, for the water absorption capacity of needles characteristically has variability, as within population and between them. Is marked a great assessment reliability of water holding capacity of the needles under the pooled analysis of absolute and relative indicators of dynamics of the needles degradration. We investigated the correlation of needles’ water retention signs with a height and heterozygosity of trees. It was found that under more favorable conditions of the growth the large part of sample are the trees with a direct connection between heterozygosity and drought resistance of tree and in the worst conditions – with a reverse. The correlations of water-holding capacity of needles with the height of the tree are ambiguous: in the Minusinsk sample, the most of drought-resistant trees are characterized by better growth, in Balgazyn population – conversely. Some dwarf individuals from the Balgazyn and Shira populations in terms of drought tolerance are at same level as the typical trees, among the less drought-resistant trees found as dwarfs, and typical trees. It was concluded that there are trees in populations with different strategies to adaptation to the moisture deficit.

  12. Long-term development of experimental mixtures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. in northern Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Mason

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caledonian pinewoods of northern Scotland are a priority conservation habitat in Europe which are dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris, but varying proportions of a number of broadleaved species such as silver birch (Betula pendula can occur in these forests. Better understanding of the dynamics of mixed Scots pine-birch stands would be helpful in informing current initiatives to restore and increase the area of the pinewood ecosystem. Some evidence is provided by two experiments established in the 1960s which compared plots of pure Scots pine and pure birch with two treatments where the two species were mixed in 3:1 and 1:1 ratios. Some fifty years later, Scots pine was the more vigorous of the two species in these experiments, being both taller and significantly larger in diameter. The highest basal area was generally found in the pure Scots pine plots and the values in the mixed plots tended to be intermediate between those of the two component species. Examination of the growth in the mixed plots showed a slight, but non-significant, tendency towards overyielding. This appeared to be due to Scots pine growth being better than predicted, while that of birch was slightly less than predicted. These results suggest that in these mixtures, which are composed of two light demanding species, the main mechanism driving long-term performance is competition for light and there is little evidence of any complementary effect. These results suggest that any strategy seeking to increase the long-term representation of broadleaves such as birch in the Caledonian pinewoods will need to create discrete blocks that are large enough to withstand the competitive pressures exerted by the pine.

  13. Effects of Reforestation and Site Preparation Methods on Early Growth and Survival of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in South-Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Aleksandrowicz-Trzcińska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful tree regeneration is a key process in ensuring forest sustainability and one of the most crucial investments made in silviculture. This study compared the effects of three reforestation methods (planting, direct seeding, and natural regeneration and three mechanical site preparation methods (double mould-board forest plough (FP; active plough (AP; and forest mill (FM on biometric parameters, survival, and density of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings in the first 4 years of growth in a clear-cut area in south-eastern Poland. Planted seedlings were higher, thicker in root collar, and had higher survival rates after the fourth growing season than trees from natural regeneration and direct seeding. Site preparation methods did not affect the density of planted seedlings. After natural regeneration and direct seeding, seedling density was lower and less homogeneous (plots with no seedlings in FM soil preparation in comparison to other methods. The survival of pines in all reforestation methods was not affected significantly by site preparation methods. Our results indicate that the best mechanical site preparation method for planting is FM, as this is the one that least disturbs the soil environment. For direct seeding the best results were achieved after AP preparation. Natural regeneration of Scots pine was most effective after FP use, and in relatively wet years also after AP use.

  14. The role of defoliation and root rot pathogen infection in driving the mode of drought-related physiological decline in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguadé, D; Poyatos, R; Gómez, M; Oliva, J; Martínez-Vilalta, J

    2015-03-01

    Drought-related tree die-off episodes have been observed in all vegetated continents. Despite much research effort, however, the multiple interactions between carbon starvation, hydraulic failure and biotic agents in driving tree mortality under field conditions are still not well understood. We analysed the seasonal variability of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in four organs (leaves, branches, trunk and roots), the vulnerability to embolism in roots and branches, native embolism (percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC)) in branches and the presence of root rot pathogens in defoliated and non-defoliated individuals in a declining Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) population in the NE Iberian Peninsula in 2012, which included a particularly dry and warm summer. No differences were observed between defoliated and non-defoliated pines in hydraulic parameters, except for a higher vulnerability to embolism at pressures below -2 MPa in roots of defoliated pines. No differences were found between defoliation classes in branch PLC. Total NSC (TNSC, soluble sugars plus starch) values decreased during drought, particularly in leaves. Defoliation reduced TNSC levels across tree organs, especially just before (June) and during (August) drought. Root rot infection by the fungal pathogen Onnia P. Karst spp. was detected but it did not appear to be associated to tree defoliation. However, Onnia infection was associated with reduced leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity and sapwood depth, and thus contributed to hydraulic impairment, especially in defoliated pines. Infection was also associated with virtually depleted root starch reserves during and after drought in defoliated pines. Moreover, defoliated and infected trees tended to show lower basal area increment. Overall, our results show the intertwined nature of physiological mechanisms leading to drought-induced mortality and the inherent difficulty of isolating their contribution under field conditions. © The

  15. Impact of warming, moderate nitrogen addition and bark herbivory on BVOC emissions and growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiiva, Päivi; Häikiö, Elina; Kasurinen, Anne

    2018-04-10

    The changing climate will expose boreal forests to rising temperatures, increasing soil nitrogen (N) levels and an increasing risk of herbivory. The single and interaction effects of warming (+2 °C increase), moderate N addition (30 kg ha-1 year-1) and bark herbivory by large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) on growth and emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were studied in growth chambers over 175 days. In addition, warming and N addition effects on shoot net photosynthesis (Pn) were measured. Nitrogen addition increased both shoot and root dry weights, whereas warming, in combination with herbivory, reduced stem height growth. Warming together with N addition increased current-year shoot Pn, whereas N effects on previous-year shoot Pn were variable over time. Warming decreased non-oxygenated monoterpene (MT) emissions in June and increased them in July. Of individual MT compounds, α-pinene, δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene and terpinolene were among the most frequently responsive compounds in warming treatments in the May-July period. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed only from warming treatments in July. Moderate N addition increased oxygenated monoterpenes in May, and MTs in June and September. However, N addition effect on MTs in June was clearer without warming than with warming. Bark herbivory tended to increase MT emissions in combination with warming and N addition 3 weeks after the damage caused by weevils. Of individual compounds in other BVOC blends, herbivory increased the emissions of methyl-benzene, benzene and hexanal in July. Hence, though both warming and N addition have a potential to change BVOC emissions from Scots pines, the N effect may also be partly cancelled by warming. Furthermore, herbivory pressure in combination with climate warming and N addition may, at least periodically, increase BVOC release to the atmosphere from young Scots pine seedlings.

  16. Pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) antifeedants from lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, K; Sunnerheim, K; Nordenhem, H; Nordlander, G; Langström, B

    2001-11-01

    Pine weevils (Hylobius abietis) fed less on bark of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) than on bark of Scots pine (P. sylvestris). Two pine weevil antifeedants, ethyl trans-cinnamate and ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenyl-propanoate, were isolated from bark of lodgepole pine. These two compounds significantly reduced pine weevil feeding in a laboratory bioassay. In field assays, the second compound significantly decreased pine weevil damage on planted seedlings. Ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenylpropanoate has not previously been reported as a natural product.

  17. Static and kinetic friction coefficients of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., parallel and perpendicular to grain direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aira, J. R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the static (µe and kinetic (µd coefficients of friction were obtained for Pinus sylvestis L. sawn timber of Spanish origin. Friction between transverse surfaces sliding perpendicular to the grain (tangential direction and radial surfaces sliding parallel to the grain was analyzed. A specifically designed device was used for tests, which makes it possible to apply contact pressure and measure displacements and applied loads simultaneously. Coefficients of friction between transverse surfaces (µe = 0,24; µd = 0,17 were about twice of the coefficients of friction between radial surfaces (µe = 0,12; µd = 0,08. Furthermore, these values are located within normal values of those commonly reported for softwood. The results are considered preliminary due to the small number of specimens.En este estudio se determinaron los coeficientes de rozamiento, estático (µe y dinámico (µd, en madera aserrada de Pinus sylvestris L. de procedencia española, diferenciando si se produce el contacto entre secciones de corte transversal con deslizamiento en dirección perpendicular a la fibra (en dirección tangencial, o entre secciones de corte radial con deslizamiento paralelo a la fibra. Para la realización de los ensayos se ha utilizado un dispositivo, diseñado específicamente, que posibilita la aplicación de una presión de contacto y la medición del desplazamiento y de la fuerza aplicada de manera simultánea, permitiendo la obtención de los coeficientes de rozamiento estático y dinámico. Los coeficientes de rozamiento obtenidos entre secciones transversales (µe = 0.24; µd = 0.17 fueron del orden del doble de los coeficientes de rozamiento entre secciones radiales (µe = 0.12; µd = 0.08. Además, estos valores se encuentran dentro de los valores que aparecen habitualmente en la bibliografía para madera de coníferas. Debido al escaso tamaño de la muestra los resultados se consideran preliminares.

  18. Levels of selected trace elements in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) in an urbanized environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiorek, Milena; Modrzewska, Beata; Wyszkowski, Mirosław

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of selected trace elements in needles and bark of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), leaves and bark of silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), as well as in the soil in which the trees grew, depending on their localization and hence the distribution of local pollution sources. The content of trace elements in needles of Scots pine, leaves of silver birch, and Norway maple and in bark of these trees depended on the location, tree species, and analyzed organ. The content of Fe, Mn, and Zn in needles, leaves, and bark of the examined tree species was significantly higher than that of the other elements. The highest average content of Fe and Mn was detected in leaves of Norway maple whereas the highest average content of Zn was found in silver birch leaves. The impact of such locations as the center of Olsztyn or roadside along Road 51 on the content of individual elements tended to be more pronounced than the influence of the other locations. The influence of the sampling sites on the content of trace elements in tree bark was less regular than the analogous effect in needles and leaves. Moreover, the relevant dependences were slightly different for Scots pine than for the other two tree species. The concentrations of heavy metals determined in the soil samples did not exceed the threshold values set in the Regulation of the Minister for the Environment, although the soil along Road 51 and in the center of Olsztyn typically had the highest content of these elements. There were also significant correlations between the content of some trace elements in soil and their accumulation in needles, leaves, and bark of trees.

  19. Contamination of environment in the road surroudings - impact of road salting on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegrová, Jitka; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter; Tanda, Stefan; Anděl, Petr

    2017-09-01

    A comprehensive overview of the influence of transport on the environment is presented in this study. The complex analysis of soil and needle samples provides an extensive set of data, which presents elemental contamination of the environment near roads. Traffic pollution (including winter road treatment) has a significant negative influence on our environment. Besides sodium and chlorine from winter maintenance many other elements are emitted into the environment. Three possible sources of contamination are assumed for environmental contamination evaluation: car emission, winter maintenance and abrasion from breaks and clutches. The chemical analysis focused on the description of samples from inorganic point of view. The influence of the contamination potential on the sodium and chlorine content in the samples of 1st year-old and 2nd year-old needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is discussed. Additional soil samples were taken from each sampling site and analyzed to get insight in the sodium and chlorine distribution. Statistical evaluation was used for interpretation of complex interaction patterns between element concentrations in different aged needles based on localities character including distance from the road and element concentration in soils. This species of needles were chosen because of its heightened sensitivity towards salinization. The study was conducted in different parts of the Czech Republic. The resulting database is a source of valuable information about the influence of transport on the environment.

  20. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) based reconstruction of 130 years of water table fluctuations in a peatland and its relevance for moisture variability assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamkevičiūtė, Marija; Edvardsson, Johannes; Pukienė, Rūtilė; Taminskas, Julius; Stoffel, Markus; Corona, Christophe; Kibirkštis, Gintautas

    2018-03-01

    Continuous water-table (WT) measurements from peatlands are scarce and - if existing at all -very short. Consequently, proxy indicators are critically needed to simulate hydrological changes in peatlands over longer time periods. In this study, we demonstrate that tree-ring width (TRW) records of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the Čepkeliai peatland (southern Lithuania) can be used as a proxy to reconstruct hydrological variability in a raised bog environment. A two-step modelling procedure was applied to extend existing measurements and to develop a new and longer peatland WT time series. To this end, we used instrumental WT measurements extending back to 2002, meteorological records, a P-PET (difference between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration) series covering the period 1935-2014, so as to construct a tree-ring based time series of WT fluctuations at the site for the period 1870-2014. Strongest correlations were obtained between average annual WT measured at the bog margin and total P-PET over 7 years (r = 0.923, p runoff since CE 1812 (r = 0.39, p < 0.00001, 1870-2014). We conclude that peatlands can act both as sinks and sources of greenhouse gases in case that hydrological conditions change, but that hydrological lags and complex feedbacks still hamper our understanding of several processes affecting the hydrology and carbon budget in peatlands. We therefore call for the development of further proxy records of water-table variability in peatlands to improve our understanding of peatland responses to climatic changes.

  1. Juvenile wood volume and its proportion to stem volume vs. selected biometric features of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Tomczak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether there is a correlation between breast height diameter, tree height and stem total volume of Scots pines, on the one hand, and volume and proportion of juvenile wood, on the other. The investigations comprised pure pine stands of the IInd, IIIrd, IVth and Vth age classes developed in conditions of fresh mixed coniferous forest. A distinct curvilinear correlation was found between volume and proportion of juvenile wood in tree stems and breast height diameter, height and stem total volume. Because of high values of determination coefficients (R2, which characterised the above-mentioned correlations, it seems appropriate to use these regularities to assess the quality of the timber raw material regarding the proportions of its volume and juvenile wood in stems of Scots pine trees.

  2. Selectivity of Pinus sylvestris extract and essential oil to estrogen-insensitive breast cancer cells Pinus sylvestris against cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoai, Nguyen Thi; Duc, Ho Viet; Thao, Do Thi; Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain

    2015-10-01

    So far, the anticancer action of pine tree extracts has mainly been shown for the species distributed widely around the Asian countries. Therefore, this study was performed to examine the potential cytotoxicity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native also to the European region and growing widely in Estonia. The cytotoxic activity of methanol extract and essential oil of Scots pine needles was determined by sulforhodamine B assay in different human cancer cell lines. This needle extract was found to suppress the viability of several human cancer cell lines showing some selectivity to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231(half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 35 μg/ml) in comparison with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, MCF-7 (IC50 86 μg/ml). It is the strongest cytotoxic effect at all measured, thus far for the needles and leaves extracts derived from various pine species, and is also the first study comparing the anticancer effects of pine tree extracts on molecularly different human breast cancer cells. The essential oil showed the stronger cytotoxic effect to both negative and positive breast cancer cell lines (both IC50 29 μg/ml) than pine extract (IC50 42 and 80 μg/ml, respectively). The data from this report indicate that Scots pine needles extract and essential oil exhibits some potential as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent for mammary tumors unresponsive to endocrine treatment.

  3. Particulate pollutants are capable to 'degrade' epicuticular waxes and to decrease the drought tolerance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Juergen; Pariyar, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution causes the amorphous appearance of epicuticular waxes in conifers, usually called wax 'degradation' or 'erosion', which is often correlated with tree damage symptoms, e.g., winter desiccation. Previous investigations concentrated on wax chemistry, with little success. Here, we address the hypothesis that both 'wax degradation' and decreasing drought tolerance of trees may result from physical factors following the deposition of salt particles onto the needles. Pine seedlings were sprayed with dry aerosols or 50 mM solutions of different salts. The needles underwent humidity changes within an environmental scanning electron microscope, causing salt expansion on the surface and into the epistomatal chambers. The development of amorphous wax appearance by deliquescent salts covering tubular wax fibrils was demonstrated. The minimum epidermal conductance of the sprayed pine seedlings increased. Aerosol deposition potentially 'degrades' waxes and decreases tree drought tolerance. These effects have not been adequately considered thus far in air pollution research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biometric characters of seeds and wings as markers of geographical differentiation between European scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. provenances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Urbaniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric characters of seeds and wings served to describe interprovenance differentiation of Scots pine in Europe. Grouping analysis was applied, Mahalanobis distances were calculated as well as Hotellings T2 statistics were applied. The similarity of East European and Finnish provenances was conspicuous. The provenance from Scotland proved to be similar to provenances originating from the region of Scandinavia. On the other hand, two southern provenances 54(Rychtal, Poland and 55(Luboml, Ukraine, were also found similar to provenances originating from the region of Scandinavia (western Norway. The obtained pattern of reciprocal relations may indicate pathways of Scots pine migration in the postglacial period or may be a result of adaptation to certain similar environmental conditions. No relations were detected between size of seeds and geographic origin of provenances.

  5. Non-indigenous plant species and their ecological range in Central European pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests

    OpenAIRE

    Zerbe , Stefan; Wirth , Petra

    2006-01-01

    International audience; In this study, forest ecosystems were analysed with regard to the occurrence and ecological range of non-indigenous plant species. Pine forests in the NE German lowland, which naturally and anthropogenically occur on a broad range of different sites, were taken as an example. The analysis is based on a data set of about 2 300 vegetation plots. The ecological range was assessed applying Ellenberg's ecological indicator values. Out of a total of 362 taxa recorded in the ...

  6. Effects of treatment with vermicompost on the some morphological and physiological characteristics of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Atik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, effects of vermicompost treatment tried to be determined on some morphological and physiological seedling quality characteristics of one – year Scots pines. Experiments were set according to random plots experimental design including 14 trials with 3 repetitions. With this aim, seeds obtained from seven different sites (origins of mixed Scots pine stands which naturally grow in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey were used in the experiments. At the end of the vegetation period, important physiologic and morphologic parameters of seedlings in the plots, SH, RCD, TDW, RDW and total N rate were detected. After that, RI, V and QI rates, each of which is also important rational indicator in seedlings for height, root collar diameter and weight balance, were calculated with the help of morphological data. Effects of VC treatment were found to be statistically significant on all the development parameters measured in seedlings in seven origin groups. It was determined in all morphologic parameters that the best development rate was observed in Goktepe originating seedlings in both VC treatment and control groups while Geyikgolu originating seedlings showed the least development performance. It was observed from the correlation analysis that there is a positive relation between morphologic and physiologic quality criteria. It was also determined according to the results of multivariable regression analysis that elevation of the sites where seedlings were picked up was more effective on the development of seedling development than the aspect of the sites. Results of the study were found to be convenient with the related literature and showed that VC treatment contributed positively to the development of Scots pine seedlings taken from seven different origins.

  7. Uranium distribution and cycling in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing on a revegetated U-mining heap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiry, Yves; Schmidt, Peter; Hees, May van; Wannijn, Jean; Bree, Peter van; Rufyikiri, Gervais; Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2005-01-01

    We determined the uranium distribution in soil and its allocation in compartments of 35-year-old Scots pine developed on a revegetated U-mining heap. The processes controlling the dynamics of U recycling were identified and further quantified in terms of annual fluxes. As pine developed, an acid humus layer emerged leading to weathering of the alkaline mining debris but this had little effect on U mobility in the soil profile. Increased U mobility mainly involved a translocation of U to metal-humus chelates in surface layers. The root compartment accounted for 99.3% of the U budget in tree, thus serving as an effective barrier which restricts U uptake. The current root uptake and transfer of U to upper parts of the tree amounted to about 3 g ha -1 y -1 , i.e. less than 0.03% of the current NH 4 -exchangeable U pool in the soil (0-30 cm). Allocation and translocation pattern made it clear that a dominant fraction of the translocated U moves passively with the ascent xylem sap, most likely as a soluble complex, and steadily accumulates in the needles. Consequently, 97% of the U annual uptake is returned to the soil through litterfall. At the studied site, the risk of U dissemination due to biomass turnover or trunk harvest was low when considered in relation to the current 'exemption level' for U

  8. CHRONIC IRRADIATION OF SCOTS PINE TREES (PINUS SYLVESTRIS) IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE: DOSIMETRY AND RADIOBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To identify effects of chronic internal and external radiation exposure for components of terrestrial ecosystems, a comprehensive study of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was performed. The experimental plan included over 1,100 young trees (up to 20 years old) selected from areas with varying levels of radioactive contamination. These pine trees were planted after the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mainly to prevent radionuclide resuspension and soil erosion. For each tree, the major morphological parameters and radioactive contamination values were identified. Cytological analyses were performed for selected trees representing all dose rate ranges. A specially developed dosimetric model capable of taking into account radiation from the incorporated radionuclides in the trees was developed for the apical meristem. The calculated dose rates for the trees in the study varied within three orders of magnitude, from close to background values in the control area (about 5 mGy y{sup -1}) to approximately 7 Gy y{sup -1} in the Red Forest area located in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site. Dose rate/effect relationships for morphological changes and cytogenetic defects were identified and correlations for radiation effects occurring on the morphological and cellular level were established.

  9. On links of 137Cs with organic compounds of the vegetative organs of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokhanson, K.J.; Dolgilevich, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The samples of structural parts of pine were taken in 1997 in forest ecosystems in the Ovruch district of the Zhytomyr region, Ukraine. The ground depositions of 137 Cs range from 21 to 214kBq/m 2 . The high level of radioactivity reaches 40...79% of the total activity and is found in water soluble substances of young growing organs as: cambium, twigs, and needles. The activity of radiocesium associated with hemi cellulose was the most in wood and branches and reached 38%, the less in twigs and needles. The activity of 137 Cs associated with cellulose of all organs was at most 0.5-5%. The residues of samples after hydrolysis accumulated 2...46% of radiocaesium, the most was in external bark and old needles, and the less was in branches and twigs

  10. Soil carbon and nitrogen budget in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands along an air pollution gradient in eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, T.; Bergmann, C.; Huettl, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    Litterfall, bio- and necromass of the forest floor vegetation, decomposition of recent organic material, soil respiration and humus stocks were examined in 3 Scots pine stands along an air pollution gradient in eastern Germany. One site, Rosea, received heavy deposition loads from chemical industries and brown coal fired power plants. The site Taura received moderate air pollution due to lower deposition of coarse and calcium rich dust particles; the third site, Neuglobsow was afforested and represents a low polluted control site. High nitrogen loads and increased pH value due to Ca deposition caused shifts in the vegetation structure, and higher biomass production of the forest floor vegetation, whereas needle litter production was not impacted. Simultaneously, decomposition rates of the recently harvested forest floor vegetation decreased with increasing pollutant loads, but needle litter and soil organic matter decomposition rates did not differ between the sites. Consequently, soil carbon and nitrogen stocks increased with increasing pollutant input. 19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. Interactions between canopy cover density and regeneration cores of older saplings in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchi, M.; Nocentini, S.; Ducci, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: This paper provides an analysis of growth and survival of twenty–year–old Scots pine saplings in relation to canopy cover density (CCD) gradients, from dense (D–CCD), sparse (S–CCD), and gap (G–CCD) situations. Area of study: Aladag (Bolu) in northern Turkey. Material and methods: Sparse canopy cover density (S–CCD), dense canopy cover density (D–CCD) and gap canopy (G–CCD) were chosen within ten different strip sample plots (10 × 50 m) with sapling regeneration cores. Those regeneration cores were divided into two portions (individuals at the edge and middle of the regeneration cores) and from each portion three individuals was were obtained from a sample. The growth relationships of individual saplings were calculated with stem analyses. Honowski Light Factor (HLF) (ratio of Terminal sprout length (T) to Lateral sprout length (L)) was used to present growth potential measure of seedlings. Main results: The largest sapling regeneration cores were found in the G–CCD followed by S–CCD, and finally D–CCD, all tested for significance with Kruskal–Wallis Test. Compared with saplings in the middle of regeneration cores (crop saplings), those at the edge were always reduced in terms of mean height. Significant difference was only found between the ‘Main Crop’ and the ‘Edge 1’ of the regeneration cores for G–CCD suggesting that sapling regeneration cores are more typical under G–CCD conditions. HLF ratios were greater than 1 with high growth potentials for both CCD gradients (G–CCD and S–CCD) and there were no significant variations between G–CCD and S–CCD for main crop and edges. The thinning after 12–14 years increased sapling growth. However, under D–CCD, growth had virtually ceased. Research highlights: Naturally occurring Scots pine saplings are suppressed by a dense canopy. However, they are tolerant of shade to the extent that they can survive over relatively long time–periods (10–12 years) and

  12. Relationship between the light environment and carbohydrates in needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) on a dune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klõšeiko, J.

    2003-01-01

    The fraction of photosynthetically active radiation transmitted through the canopy (FPAR) on a forested dune was measured at different locations with a ceptometer, and the correlations of carbohydrates in Scots pine needles with FPAR were studied. The hypothesis was that the sucrose content is relatively stable in different light environments and the main effect of the location on the dune is expressed on the glucose content in needles assuming that glucose regulates the balance between the light environment and nutritional conditions influencing the carbohydrate production and demand processes in trees. The contents of the investigated carbohydrates did not correlate with the FPAR, which was significantly elevated at the higher locations on the dune (500 per cent on top) relative to the locations on the foot. The concentrations of hexoses varied substantially between the individual branches or trees from the same plots and between plots, while sucrose levels on single plots were relatively constant. Analysis of variance indicated the effect of the location on the concentrations of sucrose and excess bound fructose, and on the total content of carbohydrates in current-year needles in which the investigated parameters were positively correlated with the respective parameters in one-year-old needles. The results indicate that the content of carbohydrates does not directly depend on the light environment on the dune, though the large variance in the content of hexoses possibly requires increasing the number of samples on each plot to reveal the differences in needles between the locations on the dune

  13. Distribution of 137Cs activity concentration in wood scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. of Zhytomyr Polissya after the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Holiaka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the calculated values for wood samples (relative diameter, height and relative activity concentration of 137Cs selected in different parts of the profile tree stems, statistical and graphical interpretation of the regularity of the distribution of 137Cs in the wood of model trees of Scots pine were performed. In the research, detected observation uniformity of samples in the studied profiles stems for the relative activity concentration of 137Cs, calculated on the base of the ratio of the activity concentration of tree rings for certain years to their median at height of 1.3 m. Three intervals of the relative diameters for stem wood of model trees at height of 1.3 m of the study stand were obtained, that is characterized by significant difference on the activity concentration of 137Cs: d(ω1.3m ≤ 0.55 (Am(ω = 0.63 ± 0.08; 0.55 < d(ω1.3m ≤ 0.95 (Am(ω = 1.01 ± 0.04; 0.95 < d(ω1.3m ≤ 1.0 (Am(ω = 2.1 ± 0.5.

  14. Trace elements in fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal fungi growing in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudawska, Maria; Leski, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The trace metal contents in fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, symbiotic partners of Scots pine, were studied on three sites situated in west-central Poland. Elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in 123 samples of 16 species. The study explored the differences in metal accumulation in relation to site, fungal species, age and part of the fruiting body and results were related to metal content in soil and plant material (roots and needles). Soil analysis revealed that results were obtained under environmental conditions not subject to strong anthropogenic pressure. Median metal concentrations did not differ disparately between sites, although the concentrations of each of the tested metals in the individual species varied to a large extent. Extremely high levels of Al with a large bioconcentration factor (BCF) were found in sporocarps of Thelephora terrestris. The spread between the highest and the lowest concentration (max/min) was very wide in Al, Cd and Pb and these elements may be considered to be absorbed preferentially by fruiting bodies of some species whereas Fe, Mn and Zn, with relatively low values of max/min, are normally absorbed by the majority of fungi. There was no clear relationship between caps and stipes in metal content. However, a tendency to higher metal concentration in the caps was observed. The metal content in young and older fruiting bodies of five different fungi was species dependent. In order to estimate the degree of accumulation of each element by plant and mushrooms, bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were calculated. In plant material (roots and needles), highest values of BCFs were noted for essential metals, like Zn and Mn. Lead showed a definite exclusion pattern (BCF below 1). In fruiting bodies of tested fungi, especially in Amanita muscaria, cadmium was the most intensively accumulated metal. Lead was excluded by plants but was accumulated or excluded by fungi depending on the species. The

  15. Streptomyces pini sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from phylloplane of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needle-like leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Saravanan, Venkatakrishnan Sivaraj; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Pragatheswari, Dhandapani; Santhanakrishnan, Palani; Kim, Soo-Jin; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2016-10-01

    A novel siderophore-producing actinomycete, designated PL19T, was isolated from the Scots-pine needle-like leaves collected from TNAU campus, Coimbatore, India. The isolate was chemoorganotrophic in nutrition and able to grow at 30 °C, and the optimum pH and NaCl facilitated the growth pH 6-11 and 0-8 % (w/v), respectively. The cells are filamentous and the mycelia formed are basically of wide and intricately branched substrate mycelium from which aerial mycelia arises, later gets differentiated into spores that are warty and arranged spirally. The 16S rRNA gene of strain PL19T was sequenced and was highly similar to the type strains of species of the genus Streptomyces, including Streptomyces barkulensis RC1831T (98.8 % pairwise similarity), Streptomyces fenghuangensis GIMN4.003T (98.2 %), Streptomyces nanhaiensis SCSIO 01248T (98.0 %), Streptomyces radiopugnans R97T (97.9 %), Streptomyces atacamensis C60T (97.8 %) and Streptomyces macrosporus NBRC 14749T (97.2 %), all of which were subjected to taxonomical characterization using a polyphasic approach. The strains showed unique carbon utilization patterns, and it possesses iso-C16 : 0 anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as a major cellular fatty acids. The cell-wall was dominated with ll-type diaminopimelic acid, and the menaquinone type was MK-9(H6, H8). These chemotaxonomic evidences placed strain PL19T within the genus Streptomyces. The determination of G+C ratio (69.5 mol%) and DNA-DNA hybridization values (13.4-31.8 % with the phylogenetically related species) helped in further hierarchical classification of strain PL19T. Based on morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic data as well as DNA-DNA hybridization values, strain PL19T could be distinguished from the evolutionarily closest species currently available. All these collective data show that strain PL19T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces pini sp. nov. is proposed

  16. Genetic Analysis of Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus sylvestris forma turfosa L. Using RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta ÁBRAHÁM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the level of genetic diversity within and among Ciuc basin, Romania (populations from Mohos and Luci raised bogs in Harghita Mountain and Sumuleu in Ciuc Mountain Pinus sylvestris populations using molecular markers. Two of populations (Mohos and Luci seems to be the descendants that survived the continental glaciation. Genetic diversity was analyzed by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Nine primers were selected for analysis, which generated reproducible bands. On base of presence or absence of homologues bands Nei’s gene diversity, the percentage of polymorphic loci and Nei’s unbiased genetic distance were calculated. The level of genetic variation among populations was found to be low. For both populations the variation values among populations were higher than within populations. The fossil records and geological historical data explain the extremely low genetic diversity of this species. Pinus sylvestris experienced strong bottlenecks during its evolutionary history, which caused the loss of genetic variation. Genetic drift and breeding in post-bottlenecked small populations may be the major forces that contribute to low genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of populations. Human activities may have accelerated the loss of genetic diversity in Pinus sylvestris.

  17. Tree Growth and Climate Relationship: Dynamics of Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) Growing in the Near-Source Region of the Combined Heat and Power Plant During the Development of the Pro-Ecological Strategy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensuła, Barbara; Wilczyński, Sławomir; Opała, Magdalena

    Since the 1990s, the emission of pollutants was reduced in a majority of Polish and developing country factories whereas the level of energy production was similar to that prior to the 1990s. The conifer investigated in this study has grown for many years under the stress of industrial pollution. Despite this, the trees are preserved, to a large extent, sensitive to the natural climatic factors. We present a complex analysis of the climatic (sunshine, temperature, precipitation, humidity, and wind circulation) and anthropogenic factors influencing the radial increment dynamics of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the vicinity of the combined heat and power station in Łaziska (Poland). We analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution of growth reductions, the depth of reduction with respect to the distance from the emitter, the relationship between tree growth and climate during the industry development period and during proecological strategy application . Samples of carbon isotopic composition in pine needles from 2012 to 2013 were additionally determined. Pines series of 3 positions indicate that they have a similar sensitivity to most climatic elements of the previous and given year, but there is also a different rhythm between the studied populations of incremental growth of pines. The causes of diversity are due to the different types of habitat (site types) and industrial pollution. The variation in carbon stable isotopic composition in pine needles was connected with an increase of CO 2 .

  18. Changes in climate-growth relationships and IADF formation over time of pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster and P. sylvestris in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Olivar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Mediterranean basin has experienced an increase in the mean annual temperature, a decrease in the mean annual precipitation, and an increase in the frequency of severe drought periods during the second half of the 20th century. However, winter and spring precipitation has increased and summer precipitation has decreased in the western Mediterranean region. Aim of the study: The objectives of the present study were: i to compare changes in climate-growth relationships over time for Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster and P. sylvestris in Spain ii to quantify the presence of intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs on the three species, and iii to define the associated climatic variables. Area of study: 26 sampling sites (8 P. halepensis sites, 8 P. pinaster sites and 10 P. sylvestris sites were selected in their distribution area in Spain. Main results: Precipitation is the main factor influencing growth and IADF occurrence in the three species. Wet periods during previous winter and spring induced higher growth rates on P. halepensis and P. pinaster, while P. sylvestris was mostly influenced by summer precipitation. However, the influence of these climatic variables on the growth of these species changed over the studied period. The increase of winter and spring precipitation combined with increasingly harsh summer climatic conditions in the second half of the 20th century may have enhanced the importance of precipitation at the beginning of the growing season on the growth of species subject to higher summer drought stress (P. halepensis and P. pinaster and increased IADF occurrence. Research highlights: Besides reflecting changes in the environmental conditions during the growing season, the inclusion of IADF detection in chronologies adds new information to ring-width chronologies, thereby improving its quality.

  19. Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Pinus sylvestris Essential Oils Chemotypes and Monoterpene Hydrocarbon Enantiomers, before and after Inoculation with the Pinewood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana M; Mendes, Marta D; Lima, Ana S; Barbosa, Pedro M; Ascensão, Lia; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G; Mota, Manuel M; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, a serious threat to global forest populations of conifers, especially Pinus spp. A time-course study of the essential oils (EOs) of 2-year-old Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Pinus sylvestris following inoculation with the PWN was performed. The constitutive and nematode inoculation induced EOs components were analyzed at both the wounding or inoculation areas and at the whole plant level. The enantiomeric ratio of optically active main EOs components was also evaluated. External symptoms of infection were observed only in P. pinaster and P. sylvestris 21 and 15 days after inoculation, respectively. The EO composition analysis of uninoculated and unwounded plants revealed the occurrence of chemotypes for P. pinaster, P. halepensis and P. sylvestris, whereas P. pinea showed a homogenous EO composition. When whole plants were evaluated for EO and monoterpene hydrocarbon enantiomeric chemical composition, no relevant qualitative and quantitative differences were found. Instead, EO analysis of inoculated and uninoculated wounded areas revealed an increase of sesquiterpenes and diterpenic compounds, especially in P. pinea and P. halepensis, comparatively to healthy whole plants EOs. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  20. Seasonal patterns of ascorbate in the needles of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees: Correlation analyses with atmospheric O3 and NO2 gas mixing ratios and meteorological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberer, Kristine; Jaeger, Lutz; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2006-01-01

    In the present field study the role of ascorbate in scavenging the harmful atmospheric trace gases O 3 and NO 2 was examined. For this purpose ascorbate contents were determined in needles of adult Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris L.) during three consecutive years. Ascorbate contents were correlated with ambient tropospheric O 3 and NO 2 concentrations and with meteorological parameters. The results showed a strong correlation of atmospheric O 3 but not of atmospheric NO 2 concentrations with the apoplastic content of ascorbate during the seasonal course. Ascorbate contents in needle extracts did not correlate with ambient trace gas concentrations. In the apoplastic space, but not in needle extracts ascorbate contents correlate highly significantly with global radiation. From these results it is assumed that apoplastic ascorbate in Scots pine needles is adapted to the actual atmospheric O 3 concentration to mediate immediate detoxification of O 3 , while the atmospheric O 3 concentration itself is largely dependent on light intensity. - Contents of apoplastic but not symplastic ascorbate correlate significantly with atmospheric ozone concentrations

  1. Competition for nitrogen between Pinus sylvestris and ectomycorrhizal fungi generates potential for negative feedback under elevated CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberton, O.; Kuyper, T.W.; Gorissen, A.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated fungal species-specific responses of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings on growth and nutrient acquisition together with mycelial development under ambient and elevated CO2. Each seedling was associated with one of the following ECM species: Hebeloma

  2. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Portuguese Pinus sylvestris L.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Online resources. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Portuguese Pinus sylvestris L. populations based on molecular data and inferences about the future use of this germplasm. J. Cipriano A. Carvalho C. Fernandes M. J. Gaspar J. Pires J. Bento L. Roxo J. Louzada J. Lima- ...

  3. Carbon stable isotope-climate association in tree rings of Pinus pinaster and Pinus sylvestris in Mediterranean environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogino, Stella M; Bravo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Carbon isotope ratios, recorded as "1"3C/"1"2C variations in tree rings of woody species, are the result of physiological changes related to environmental conditions. The objective of this work was to analyze the association among carbon thirteen variability (δ"1"3C), climate variables and tree-ring growth of Pinus pinaster and Pinus sylvestris in central Spain. Pulverized woody material from the period 1975-1999 from four trees for each pine species was analyzed. To detect common patterns in δ"1"3C within each species and between δ"1"3C and growth indices, a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. δ"1"3C of trees and the residual tree-ring chronologies were used at the PCA. Multilevel mixed linear models were applied between intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) and climate variables. Our results show an inverse significant correlation between δ"1"3C and tree-ring growth of both species. Winter and spring air moisture was negatively correlated with iWUE of Pinus pinaster. July maximum temperature was positively correlated with iWUE of Pinus sylvestris. As δ"1"3C is significantly related to climate and growth and it may be recommended as a valuable tool for tree growth dynamic analysis to withstand increasingly stressful climate conditions

  4. Cytogenetic variability in pinus sylvestris L. populations experiencing anthropogenic influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudalova, A.; Geras'kin, S.; Vasiliev, D.; Dikarev, V.

    2004-01-01

    Techno-genic pollution has become one of the most significant ecological factors determining biosphere existence and development. An analysis of genetic consequences of the radiation accidents in the South Urals and Chernobyl has shown that mutation and recombination processes are considerably accelerated in plant and animal's populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This implies that there are complicated adaptation processes leading to changes in genetic structure of populations and increasing genetic load. Pinus sylvestris L. populations growing at the territory of the 'radon' Leningrad regional radioactive waste reprocessing enterprise and Sosnovy Bor town were monitored 6 years (1997-2002) by a set of cyto-genetical and morphological tests. Cytogenetic damage levels within intercalary meristem of needle as well as in root meristem of seedlings were found to significantly exceed corresponding controls. A higher radioresistance of the Scots pine seeds analyzed was demonstrated with an acute γ-radiation that also revealed a selection process directed at an enhancement of repair efficiency and resulting in a shift of mean values of radioresistance in populations towards higher values. An enlargement of variance of studied cytogenetic parameters was found in the populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This indicates, with an account of phenomenon of the enhanced radioresistance, that there are processes of cyto-genetical adaptation in the investigated regions. An analysis of the structure of ecological-genetical variability was carried out with the purpose of separating two components in the inter-population variability - the first is engaged to the genetically determined variability of biological characteristics intrinsic for this species, and the second is responsible for the variability originating from anthropogenic contamination of the natural habitat. Changes of these two types of variability were studied in dependence on time and techno

  5. Cytogenetic variability in pinus sylvestris L. populations experiencing anthropogenic influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, A.; Geras' kin, S.; Vasiliev, D.; Dikarev, V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Techno-genic pollution has become one of the most significant ecological factors determining biosphere existence and development. An analysis of genetic consequences of the radiation accidents in the South Urals and Chernobyl has shown that mutation and recombination processes are considerably accelerated in plant and animal's populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This implies that there are complicated adaptation processes leading to changes in genetic structure of populations and increasing genetic load. Pinus sylvestris L. populations growing at the territory of the 'radon' Leningrad regional radioactive waste reprocessing enterprise and Sosnovy Bor town were monitored 6 years (1997-2002) by a set of cyto-genetical and morphological tests. Cytogenetic damage levels within intercalary meristem of needle as well as in root meristem of seedlings were found to significantly exceed corresponding controls. A higher radioresistance of the Scots pine seeds analyzed was demonstrated with an acute {gamma}-radiation that also revealed a selection process directed at an enhancement of repair efficiency and resulting in a shift of mean values of radioresistance in populations towards higher values. An enlargement of variance of studied cytogenetic parameters was found in the populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This indicates, with an account of phenomenon of the enhanced radioresistance, that there are processes of cyto-genetical adaptation in the investigated regions. An analysis of the structure of ecological-genetical variability was carried out with the purpose of separating two components in the inter-population variability - the first is engaged to the genetically determined variability of biological characteristics intrinsic for this species, and the second is responsible for the variability originating from anthropogenic contamination of the natural habitat. Changes of these two types of variability were studied in dependence on

  6. Evaluation of the present genetic conservation efforts in Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Quercus spp., Fagus sylvatica, and Pinus pinaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.

    2015-01-01

    Information on genetic diversity and gene conservation activities were combined with climatic data to evaluate the present genetic conservation efforts in Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Quercus spp., Fagus sylvatica, and Pinus pinaster. Combinations of climatic variables explained much of the

  7. A dose rate causes no fluctuating asymmetry indexes changes in silver birch (Betula pendula (L.) Roth.) leaves and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashparova, Elena; Levchuk, Sviatoslav; Morozova, Valeriia; Kashparov, Valery

    2018-06-04

    The assessment of the fluctuating asymmetry based on measurement of the parameters of left and right parts of silver birch (Betula pendula (L.) Roth.) leaves and relative sizes of pairs of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles from the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) was carried out. Twelve samples of both birch leaves and pairs of needles were collected from 10 trees at 5 sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and also at one control site located outside the ChEZ. Values of gamma dose rate in the air varied between the sites from 0.1 to 40 μGy h -1 . Activity concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the birch leaves varied over the range of 0.9÷2460 kBq kg -1 and 0.1÷339 kBq·kg -1 (DW), respectively. In addition to the above, in the Scots pine needles, these ranges were 0.7 ÷1970 kBq kg -1 f for 90 Sr and 0.1÷78 kBq kg -1 (DW) for 137 Cs. From the values of the radionuclides activity concentrations in the plants, the internal dose rate is estimated to be in the range of 0.1 ÷ 274 μGy h -1 . The main sources of the internal dose rate were radiation of 90 Sr and 90 Y. Indices of fluctuating asymmetry of silver birch leaves and Scots pine needles varied over the range of 0.048 ± 0.007 ÷ 0.060 ± 0.009 and 0.014 ± 0.002 ÷ 0.018 ± 0.002, respectively, and did not statistically differ for all experimental sites. The indices also did not depend on the external or internal dose rate of ionizing radiation for plants. The above findings seem to be consistent with other research effort in terms of understanding the response of organisms to chronic pollutant exposure and the long-term effects of large scale nuclear accidents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Suitable level of suppression in Pinus sylvestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, Mats

    1999-10-01

    It is `well known` among Swedish foresters that pine trees need light and cannot grow suppressed. It is also `well known` that old trees that have grown slowly are unable to react with good growth. However, these facts can be questioned in the light of new research as it has been found that thinning reaction is not correlated with age. It is also well known that the commercial value of a pine is closely related to the growth at young age. If the first 20 annual rings close to pith are wide (>3 mm) the log cannot be accepted as first class. This is related to number and size of branches on the young tree and to the features of the juvenile wood. This is to say that a pine must not grow fast when it is small and if this has happened it cannot be cured by artificial debranching or by growing the tree slowly at higher age. Accordingly, young pines should be grown under bigger trees that in their young age were grown under big trees, and so on. Today, when clear cutting is the dominating forest management system, the only way to obtain high quality pine trees is to start the rotation age with stands of very high density. This is of course a very expensive way as dense planting, followed by intensive thinning requires a lot of input. However, if pine is a pioneer species and cannot be grown in multistoried stands, then the economic solution is not present. This was the reason why the annual increment of three pines was measured. They were selected because their different growth pattern showed that old `well known facts` should be revised Working papers 139. 3 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  9. Stem compression reversibly reduces phloem transport in Pinus sylvestris trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Nils; Tarvainen, Lasse; Lim, Hyungwoo; Tor-Ngern, Pantana; Palmroth, Sari; Oren, Ram; Marshall, John; Näsholm, Torgny

    2015-10-01

    Manipulating tree belowground carbon (C) transport enables investigation of the ecological and physiological roles of tree roots and their associated mycorrhizal fungi, as well as a range of other soil organisms and processes. Girdling remains the most reliable method for manipulating this flux and it has been used in numerous studies. However, girdling is destructive and irreversible. Belowground C transport is mediated by phloem tissue, pressurized through the high osmotic potential resulting from its high content of soluble sugars. We speculated that phloem transport may be reversibly blocked through the application of an external pressure on tree stems. Thus, we here introduce a technique based on compression of the phloem, which interrupts belowground flow of assimilates, but allows trees to recover when the external pressure is removed. Metal clamps were wrapped around the stems and tightened to achieve a pressure theoretically sufficient to collapse the phloem tissue, thereby aiming to block transport. The compression's performance was tested in two field experiments: a (13)C canopy labelling study conducted on small Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees [2-3 m tall, 3-7 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)] and a larger study involving mature pines (∼15 m tall, 15-25 cm DBH) where stem respiration, phloem and root carbohydrate contents, and soil CO2 efflux were measured. The compression's effectiveness was demonstrated by the successful blockage of (13)C transport. Stem compression doubled stem respiration above treatment, reduced soil CO2 efflux by 34% and reduced phloem sucrose content by 50% compared with control trees. Stem respiration and soil CO2 efflux returned to normal within 3 weeks after pressure release, and (13)C labelling revealed recovery of phloem function the following year. Thus, we show that belowground phloem C transport can be reduced by compression, and we also demonstrate that trees recover after treatment, resuming C

  10. [Pathways and rates of Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea species recolonization into Scandinavia in Holocene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannikov, S N; Sannikova, N S

    2015-01-01

    The results are presented of comparative analysis of pathways, rates, and timing of recolonization into Scandinavia, in Holocene, of Pinus sylvestris populations and those of Picea abies and P. obovata. The dispersion rate, starting from 12 thou years before present (BP), is calculated using palynological data from scientific literature on radiometric dating. It is found out that P sylvestris spread into Central Scandinavia from the Alps via the Danish Isthmus about 8.2 thou years BP with the speed of 500-1250 km per 1 thou years. A hypothesis is put forward suggesting that such a fast speed is due to pine seeds hydrochory, which is much faster than anemochory according to our researches. From the northern part of the East European Plain, P. sylvestris spread into Fennoscandia with lower speed (520 km per 1 thou years). Populations of Picea species dispersed from the same regions with speed (131-164 km per 1 thou years) 3-10 times lower than that of P. sylvestris. Therefore, invasion of Picea abies from the Alps into Scandinavia via the Danish Isthmus did not have time to happen before the formation of the Kattegat Strait. By circumferential pathway, through Karelia, both species of Picea reached the northern parts of Scandinavia only 3.5 thou years BP, its central parts - 2 thou years BP, and its southern parts - 1.5 thou years BP, i.e., later than P. sylvestris by 4, 6.2, and 8.5 thou years respectively. Probably, this may be explained by the fact that in pines the time to seeding is twofold shorter, while their sprouts were more tolerant to climatic extremums in periglacial habitats in middle Holocene.

  11. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a stress-induced multifunctional O-methyltransferase with pinosylvin methyltransferase activity from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiron, H; Drouet, A; Claudot, A C; Eckerskorn, C; Trost, M; Heller, W; Ernst, D; Sandermann, H

    2000-12-01

    Formation of pinosylvin (PS) and pinosylvin 3-O-monomethyl ether (PSM), as well as the activities of stilbene synthase (STS) and S-adenosyl-1-methionine (SAM):pinosylvin O-methyltransferase (PMT), were induced strongly in needles of Scots pine seedlings upon ozone treatment, as well as in cell suspension cultures of Scots pine upon fungal elicitation. A SAM-dependent PMT protein was purified and partially characterised. A cDNA encoding PMT was isolated from an ozone-induced Scots pine cDNA library. Southern blot analysis of the genomic DNA suggested the presence of a gene family. The deduced protein sequence showed the typical highly conserved regions of O-methyltransferases (OMTs), and average identities of 20-56% to known OMTs. PMT expressed in Escherichia coli corresponded to that of purified PMT (40 kDa) from pine cell cultures. The recombinant enzyme catalysed the methylation of PS, caffeic acid, caffeoyl-CoA and quercetin. Several other substances, such as astringenin, resveratrol, 5-OH-ferulic acid, catechol and luteolin, were also methylated. Recombinant PMT thus had a relatively broad substrate specificity. Treatment of 7-year old Scots pine trees with ozone markedly increased the PMT mRNA level. Our results show that PMT represents a new SAM-dependent OMT for the methylation of stress-induced pinosylvin in Scots pine needles.

  12. Particulate pollutants are capable to ‘degrade’ epicuticular waxes and to decrease the drought tolerance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, Juergen; Pariyar, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution causes the amorphous appearance of epicuticular waxes in conifers, usually called wax ‘degradation’ or ‘erosion’, which is often correlated with tree damage symptoms, e.g., winter desiccation. Previous investigations concentrated on wax chemistry, with little success. Here, we address the hypothesis that both ‘wax degradation’ and decreasing drought tolerance of trees may result from physical factors following the deposition of salt particles onto the needles. Pine seedlings were sprayed with dry aerosols or 50 mM solutions of different salts. The needles underwent humidity changes within an environmental scanning electron microscope, causing salt expansion on the surface and into the epistomatal chambers. The development of amorphous wax appearance by deliquescent salts covering tubular wax fibrils was demonstrated. The minimum epidermal conductance of the sprayed pine seedlings increased. Aerosol deposition potentially ‘degrades’ waxes and decreases tree drought tolerance. These effects have not been adequately considered thus far in air pollution research. Highlights: • Demonstrated capability of particles to produce ‘wax degradation’. • Dynamics of particles on pine needles, shown by videos. • Salt particles sprayed on pine needles increased minimum epidermal conductance g min . • Results strongly suggest direct link between air pollution and drought tolerance. • Linkage between different types of forest decline is suggested. -- ‘Wax degradation’ on pine needles and increased minimum epidermal conductance (i.e. uncontrollable water loss) were created by particles, suggesting a link between air pollution and tree drought tolerance

  13. EVALUATION OF 2+0 AGED NURSERY OF THE SCOTCH PINE (Pinus sylvestrisL. RAISED IN KASTAMONU-TASKOPRU FOREST NURSERY AS TO TSI QUALITY CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan DEMİRCİOĞLU

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study; 2+0 aged, bare root, Daday-Koldandere origin of Scotch pine seedlings, produced at Kastamonu–Taşköprü forest nursery, were used. First the morphological characters of the seedlings were determined and the appropriateness to TS 2265/February 1988 were examined. Furthermore, the sensitiveness of quality classification both TSI and newly formed for the mentioned scotch pine seedlings were checked with discriminate analysis. In the conclusion, the average values of the seedling height, the root collar diameter, seedling height / root collar diameter ratio, stem dry weight / root dry weight ratio, dry root percent, quality index of 2+0 aged scotch pine seedlings were determined as 11.62 cm, 2.93 mm, 40.14, 2.34, 30.65 %, 0.32 respectively. In addition, 92.7 % of the seedlings as to the seedling height criterion, 98.7 % of the seedlings as to the root collar diameter criterion, 91.4 % of the seedlings as to the seedling height - root collar diameter criterion, 92.7 % of the seedlings as to the stem dry weight / root dry weight ratio criterion were included in first quality class in respect of TSI quality classification.

  14. Correlating gene expression to physiological parameters and environmental conditons during cold acclimation of Pinus sylvestris, identification of molecular markers using cDNA microarrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, R.V.L.; Lammers, M.; Balk, P.A.; Bronnum, P.; Konings, M.C.J.M.; Perks, M.; Stattin, E.; Wordragen, van M.F.; Geest, van der A.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were grown under different conditions (three field locations, two seasons and two climate room regimes), and then analyzed for freezing tolerance of shoots and roots and for transcript abundance in apical buds based on a cDNA microarray containing about

  15. The influence of drought on the water uptake by Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L. at different positions in the tree stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boczoń Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Periodically occurring drought is typical for the climate of Poland. In habitats supplied exclusively with rain water, tree stands are frequently exposed to the negative effects of water deficit in the soil. The aim of this study was to examine the water uptake and consumption of two individual Scots pine trees under drought conditions. The trees were located at different positions within the stand and at the time of study were over 150 years old. Soil moisture, availability of soil water and the quantity of water uptake by the individual trees were examined by measuring the water velocity inside the trunks (Thermal Dissipation Probe method.

  16. Climatic response of stable isotope variations in wood cellulose of pine (Pinus sylvestris l.) and their tree-ring width on the Kola Peninsula, north-western Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, T.; Hiller, A.; Gehre, M.; Friedrich, M.; Kremenetski, C.

    2002-01-01

    The Kola Peninsula region of northwestern Russia, adjacent to relatively well studied Scandinavian areas, is climatically affected by not only the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic but also the Eurasian continent. Living and subfossil pine trees from the Khibiny mountains on the Kola Peninsula were analysed for carbon, oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition and for tree-ring width. Comparisons of local meteorological and tree-ring data revealed significant correlations. δ 13 C and δ 18 O values are particularly sensitive to changes in the temperature in July and August and to precipitation in the winter months of the previous year, respectively. On average, 13 C in the cellulose of pine trees between c. 1000 and 1300 AD is enriched by δ values of around 1 per mille compared to the modern trees from this region. This indicates a distinctly warmer summer climate at that time (the Medieval Warm epoch in Europe) than recently observed. The δ 18 O values of wood cellulose and the δ 2 H values of non-exchangeable hydrogen of tree cellulose from both fossil and modern samples cover a wide range between around 22 and 29 per mille and between about -80 and -120 per mille vs. SMOW, respectively. This suggests variations in the seasonal distribution of precipitation at that time, assuming its source has remained the same as in the past. (author)

  17. Translocation and bonding of calcium (45Ca) in two-year-old seedlings of spruce (Picea abies[L.] Karst.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuerk, S.H.

    1995-12-01

    Within the framework of the project ''Effect of liming and magnesium fertilization on the uptake, transport, and chemical bonding form of calcium and magnesium in conifers'', experiments regarding the calcium budget of two-year-old spruce and pine seedlings under conditions of controlled nutrition in a gravel culture were carried out. Two variants of calcium nutrition demonstrated which of the mechanisms in the calcium metabolism of trees are dependent on changes in element availability. Root labelling using the radioactive tracer 45 Ca permitted aimed investigation of the uptake and translocation of calcium during shoot formation in May. The functional importance of the investigated nutritive element was characterized by breaking up the total calcium contents ( 45 Ca) into the three essential chemical bonding forms (water-soluble Ca, Ca-pectate, Ca-oxalate) for the different tree fractions.- The culture experiments led to the conclusion that the root tips are most important as sites of calcium uptake. Translocation within the roots to the shoot took place via diffusion and exchange displacement as a function of calcium supply in the nutritive solution. There is no clue to support the assumption of a regulation of calcium uptake in spruces; in pines, by contrast, it cannot be excluded.- From a nutrition-physiological viewpoint, a total calcium content of 2 mg per gramme of dry mass is to be considered as sufficient. As this target is always attained, even where calcium supply is scarce, it is not appropriate to equate increased calcium availability with enhanced nutrient supply. Rather, the results discussed seem to support the theory that the trees now need to detoxicate excessively high calcium concentrations, which are liable to endanger the physiological cell metabolism, by a reaction with oxalic acid resulting in the formation of calcium oxalate. (orig.) [de

  18. Pinus sylvestris L. subsp. nevadensis (Christ Heywood in southern Spain: An endangered endemic Mediterranean forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olmedo-Cobo Antonio José

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pinus sylvestris subsp. nevadensis is the most endangered pine in Spain. This taxon takes refuge in only two massifs of the Betic Cordillera -Sierra Nevada and Sierra de Baza-, where its forests represent the southernmost limit of the species global distribution, surviving under conditions of geographic, demographic and ecological marginality in the upper treeline boundary that makes them very vulnerable to any environmental change or external aggression. This research establishes for the first time, and for the entire Betic Cordillera, the locations and ecological patterns of these pine forests, their plant dynamic and floristic composition, and provides an updated map of the current and potential distribution area of this subspecies. The methodological process for this research has consisted of an integrated phytosociological and biogeographical analysis of vegetation and the resulting landscape, through fieldwork covering in as much detail as possible the distribution area of P. sylvestris in the Betic Cordillera, and a review of the bibliographic background. Taking into account the results, P. sylvestris subsp. nevadensis forests survive at present under hostile Mediterranean conditions due to the special physical characteristics of the microenvironments in which they have taken refuge, mainly the cool, relatively moist climate of their ecological niches and the relatively impermeable soils that forests occupy. However, there are significant ecological obstacles for the future preservation of this pine in southern Spain, and therefore it is necessary for the creation of programmes to protect these threatened endemic and post-glacial relict forests through continued monitoring of their evolution and further research studying the processes that make this ecosystem as a whole so unique and valuable.

  19. Nucleotide diversity and gene expression of Catalase and Glutathione peroxidase in irradiated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vornam, Barbara; Arkhipov, Andrey; Finkeldey, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    In the Chernobyl exclusion zone forest trees have to tolerate and to adapt to ionizing radiation, therefore the molecular basis of their adaptive responses is of the utmost interest. Based on SNP analysis and real time PCR nucleotide diversity and expression profiles of gene fragments of catalase (Cat) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which are known as radical scavenging genes, were analysed in the needles of irradiated pine trees of the Chernobyl exclusion zone. In acutely and chronically irradiated trees (50 years old) planted before the accident a higher nucleotide diversity of Cat and more somatic mutations were found compared to their control. Chronically irradiated trees (20 years old) planted after the accident showed a similar nucleotide diversity of Cat compared to their control and in both collectives one somatic mutation was found. The nucleotide diversity of GPx was higher in all analysed trees compared to Cat. No somatic mutation events were found in GPx. For both gene fragments, no association between the received dose in a tree and the nucleotide diversity and mutation events was detected. The expression profiles of Cat and GPx in acutely and chronically and in chronically irradiated trees were similar. Compared to their corresponding control collectives, Cat was up-regulated and GPx slightly down-regulated.

  20. The evaluation of different forest structural indices to predict the stand aboveground biomass of even-aged Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Kunduz, Northern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercanli, İlker; Kahriman, Aydın

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the effect of stand structural diversity, including the Shannon, improved Shannon, Simpson, McIntosh, Margelef, and Berger-Parker indices, on stand aboveground biomass (AGB) and developed statistical prediction models for the stand AGB values, including stand structural diversity indices and some stand attributes. The AGB prediction model, including only stand attributes, accounted for 85 % of the total variance in AGB (R (2)) with an Akaike's information criterion (AIC) of 807.2407, Bayesian information criterion (BIC) of 809.5397, Schwarz Bayesian criterion (SBC) of 818.0426, and root mean square error (RMSE) of 38.529 Mg. After inclusion of the stand structural diversity into the model structure, considerable improvement was observed in statistical accuracy, including 97.5 % of the total variance in AGB, with an AIC of 614.1819, BIC of 617.1242, SBC of 633.0853, and RMSE of 15.8153 Mg. The predictive fitting results indicate that some indices describing the stand structural diversity can be employed as significant independent variables to predict the AGB production of the Scotch pine stand. Further, including the stand diversity indices in the AGB prediction model with the stand attributes provided important predictive contributions in estimating the total variance in AGB.

  1. Distribution of "1"3"7Cs activity concentration in wood scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) of Zhytomyr Polissya after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golyaka, D.M.; Levchuk, S.Je.; Protsak, V.P.; Kashparov, V.O.

    2017-01-01

    Using the calculated values for wood samples (relative diameter, height and relative activity concentration of "1"3"7Cs) selected in different parts of the profile tree stems, statistical and graphical interpretation of the regularity of the distribution of "1"3"7Cs in the wood of model trees of Scots pine were performed. In the research detected observation uniformity of samples in the studied profiles stems for the relative activity concentration of "1"3"7Cs, calculated on the base of the ratio of the activity concentration of tree rings for certain years to their median at height of 1.3 m. Three intervals of the relative diameters for stem wood of model trees at height of 1.3 m of the study stand were obtained, that is characterized by significant difference on the activity concentration of "1"3"7Cs: d(omega)_1_,_3_m <= 0,55 (Am(omega) = 0,63 +- 0,08), 0,55 < d(omega)_1_,_3_m <= 0,95 Am(omega) = 1,01 +- 0,04), 0,95 < d(omega)_1_,_3_m <= 1,0 (Am(omega) = 2,1 +- 0,5).

  2. Evidence for selection in response to radiation exposure: Pinus sylvestris in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchma, Oleksandra; Finkeldey, Reiner

    2011-01-01

    Changes of genetic structures due to viability selection are likely to occur in populations exposed to rapidly and extremely changing environmental conditions after catastrophic events. However, very little is known about the extent of selective responses and in particular the proportion of the genome involved in putatively adaptive reactions for non-model plants. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) in order to investigate genetic differences between pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees which were partially exposed to extreme environmental conditions. Genetic variation patterns of pines exposed to high radiation in the Chernobyl exclusion zone with or without phenotypic stress symptoms were compared to control trees with a similar origin. Six percent of the investigated loci (15 of 222 loci) were identified as candidates for selective responses. Moderate differentiation was observed between groups of trees showing either weak or strong phenotypic responses to high radiation levels. - Highlights: → Genetic variation patterns of pines exposed to high radiation were investigated. → Pines with or without phenotypic stress symptoms were compared to control trees. → AFLP markers were used to reveal evidences of selection processes. → 15 of 222 loci are identified as candidates for selective responses. → Moderate differentiation is observed between irradiated and control trees. - Genetic responses to the exposure of trees to radiation in the Chernobyl zone may involve adaptive changes at a comparatively large part of the genome.

  3. Growth and mycorrhizal community structure of Pinus sylvestris seedlings following the addition of forest litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucina, Algis; Rudawska, Maria; Leski, Tomasz; Skridaila, Audrius; Riepsas, Edvardas; Iwanski, Michal

    2007-08-01

    We report the effects of pine and oak litter on species composition and diversity of mycorrhizal fungi colonizing 2-year-old Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings grown in a bare-root nursery in Lithuania. A layer of pine or oak litter was placed on the surface of the nursery bed soil to mimic natural litter cover. Oak litter amendment appeared to be most favorable for seedling survival, with a 73% survival rate, in contrast to the untreated mineral bed soil (44%). The concentrations of total N, P, K, Ca, and Mg were higher in oak growth medium than in pine growth medium. Relative to the control (pH 6.1), the pH was lower in pine growth medium (5.8) and higher in oak growth medium (6.3). There were also twofold and threefold increases in the C content of growth medium with the addition of pine and oak litter, respectively. Among seven mycorrhizal morphotypes, eight different mycorrhizal taxa were identified: Suillus luteus, Suillus variegatus, Wilcoxina mikolae, a Tuber sp., a Tomentella sp., Cenococcum geophilum, Amphinema byssoides, and one unidentified ectomycorrhizal symbiont. Forest litter addition affected the relative abundance of mycorrhizal symbionts more than their overall representation. This was more pronounced for pine litter than for oak litter, with 40% and 25% increases in the abundance of suilloid mycorrhizae, respectively. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that changes in the supply of organic matter through litter manipulation may have far-reaching effects on the chemistry of soil, thus influencing the growth and survival of Scots pine seedlings and their mycorrhizal communities.

  4. Growth and Mycorrhizal Community Structure of Pinus sylvestris Seedlings following the Addition of Forest Litter▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aučina, Algis; Rudawska, Maria; Leski, Tomasz; Skridaila, Audrius; Riepšas, Edvardas; Iwanski, Michal

    2007-01-01

    We report the effects of pine and oak litter on species composition and diversity of mycorrhizal fungi colonizing 2-year-old Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings grown in a bare-root nursery in Lithuania. A layer of pine or oak litter was placed on the surface of the nursery bed soil to mimic natural litter cover. Oak litter amendment appeared to be most favorable for seedling survival, with a 73% survival rate, in contrast to the untreated mineral bed soil (44%). The concentrations of total N, P, K, Ca, and Mg were higher in oak growth medium than in pine growth medium. Relative to the control (pH 6.1), the pH was lower in pine growth medium (5.8) and higher in oak growth medium (6.3). There were also twofold and threefold increases in the C content of growth medium with the addition of pine and oak litter, respectively. Among seven mycorrhizal morphotypes, eight different mycorrhizal taxa were identified: Suillus luteus, Suillus variegatus, Wilcoxina mikolae, a Tuber sp., a Tomentella sp., Cenococcum geophilum, Amphinema byssoides, and one unidentified ectomycorrhizal symbiont. Forest litter addition affected the relative abundance of mycorrhizal symbionts more than their overall representation. This was more pronounced for pine litter than for oak litter, with 40% and 25% increases in the abundance of suilloid mycorrhizae, respectively. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that changes in the supply of organic matter through litter manipulation may have far-reaching effects on the chemistry of soil, thus influencing the growth and survival of Scots pine seedlings and their mycorrhizal communities. PMID:17575001

  5. Effects of environmental conditions on onset of xylem growth in Pinus sylvestris under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas; Kofler, Werner; Oberhuber, Walter

    2011-05-01

    We determined the influence of environmental factors (air and soil temperature, precipitation, photoperiod) on onset of xylem growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) within a dry inner Alpine valley (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) by repeatedly sampling micro-cores throughout 2007-10 at two sites (xeric and dry-mesic) at the start of the growing season. Temperature sums were calculated in degree-days (DD) ≥5 °C from 1 January and 20 March, i.e., spring equinox, to account for photoperiodic control of release from winter dormancy. Threshold temperatures at which xylogenesis had a 0.5 probability of being active were calculated by logistic regression. Onset of xylem growth, which was not significantly different between the xeric and dry-mesic sites, ranged from mid-April in 2007 to early May in 2008. Among most study years, statistically significant differences (Pdrought stress forces P. sylvestris to draw upon water reserves in the stem for enlargement of first tracheids after cambial resumption in spring. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. Drought resistance of Pinus sylvestris seedlings conferred by plastic root architecture rather than ectomycorrhizal colonisation

    OpenAIRE

    Moser , Barbara; Kipfer , Tabea; Richter , Sarah; Egli , Simon; Wohlgemuth , Thomas

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Abstract ContextIncreased summer drought is considered as a threat to the regeneration of Pinus sylvestris in the Central Alps. To a certain degree, seedlings are able to mitigate negative effects of drought by altering root/shoot ratios. But, seedlings may also enhance access to water and nutrients by cooperation with ectomycorrhizal fungi. AimsWe tested the importance of both mechanisms for drought resistance of P. sylvestris seedlings during early establishment and ...

  7. A comparison of estimation methods for fitting Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta functions to Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris stands in northwest Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgoseo, J. J.; Rojo, A.; Camara-Obregon, A.; Dieguez-Aranda, U.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta distributions, fitted with some of the most usual methods and with different fixed values for the location parameters, for describing diameter distributions in even-aged stands of Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris in northwest Spain. A total of 155 permanent plots in Pinus sylvestris stands throughout Galicia, 183 plots in Pinus pinaster stands throughout Galicia and Asturias and 325 plots in Pinus radiata stands in both regions were measured to describe the diameter distributions. Parameters of the Weibull function were estimated by Moments and Maximum Likelihood approaches, those of Johnson's SB function by Conditional Maximum Likelihood and by Knoebel and Burkhart's method, and those of the beta function with the method based on the moments of the distribution. The beta and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to Weibull function for Pinus pinaster stands; the Johnson's SB and beta functions were more accurate in the best fits for Pinus radiata stands, and the best results of the Weibull and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to beta function for Pinus sylvestris stands. However, the three functions are suitable for this stands with an appropriate value of the location parameter and estimation of parameters method. (Author) 44 refs.

  8. Growth decline assessment in Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus nigra Arnold. forest by using 3-PG model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael M. Navarro-Cerrillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: We assessed the ability of the 3-PG process-based model to accurately predict growth of Pinus sylvestris and P. nigra plantations across a range of sites, showing declining growth trends, in southern Spain. Area of study: The study area is located in “Sierra de Los Filabres” (Almería. Material and methods: The model was modified in fifteen parameters to predict diameter (DBH, cm, basal area increment (BAI, cm2 yr-1 and leaf area index (LAI, m2 m-2 in healthy trees and trees showing declining growth. We assumed that a set of specific physiological parameters (stem partitioning ratio-pFS20, maximum litterfall rate-γFx, maximum canopy conductance-gCx, specific leaf area for mature aged stands-σ1, age at which specific leaf area = ½ (σ0 + σ1, age at full canopy cover-tc, and canopy boundary layer conductance-gB included in 3-PG would be suitable for predicting growth decline related to climate conditions. The calibrated model was evaluated using dendrochronological and LAI data obtained from plots. Main results: Observed and simulated DBH showed a high correlation (R2 > 0.99 between modelled and measured values for both species. In contrast, modelled and observed BAI showed lower correlation (R2 < 0.68. Sensitivity analysis on 3-PG outputs showed that the foliage parameters - maximum litterfall rate, maximum canopy conductance, specific leaf area for mature aged stands, age at which specific leaf area, and age at full canopy cover - were important for DBH and BAI predictions under drought stress. Research highlights: Our overall results indicated that the 3-PG model could predict growth response of pine plantations to climatic stress with desirable accuracy in southern Spain by using readily available soil and climatic data with physiological parameters derived from experiments. Keywords: Hybrid process model; forest management models; growth prediction; Pinus spp, Parameterization; forest decline.

  9. Living on the edge: contrasted wood-formation dynamics in Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris under Mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edurne eMartinez Del Castillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood formation in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. was intra-annually monitored to examine plastic responses of the xylem phenology according to altitude in one of the southernmost areas of their distribution range, i.e. in the Moncayo Natural Park, Spain. The monitoring was done from 2011 to 2013 at 1180 and 1580 m a.s.l., corresponding to the lower and upper limits of European beech forest in this region. Microcores containing phloem, cambium and xylem were collected biweekly from twenty-four trees from the beginning of March to the end of November to assess the different phases of wood formation. The samples were prepared for light microscopy to observe the following phenological phases: onset and end of cell production, onset and end of secondary wall formation in xylem cells and onset of cell maturation. The temporal dynamics of wood formation widely differed among years, altitudes and tree species. For Fagus sylvatica, the onset of cambial activity varied between the first week of May and the third week of June. Cambial activity then slowed down and stopped in summer, resulting in a length of growing season of 48–75 days. In contrast, the growing season for Pinus sylvestris started earlier and cambium remained active in autumn, leading to a period of activity varying from 139-170 days. The intra-annual wood-formation pattern is site and species-specific. Comparison with other studies shows a clear latitudinal trend in the duration of wood formation, positive for Fagus sylvatica and negative for Pinus sylvestris.

  10. Effects of photoperiod and thermal time on the growth rhythm of Pinus sylvestris seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partanen, Jouni; Beuker, Egbert [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Punkaharju (Finland). Punkaharju Research Station

    1999-07-01

    The effects of photoperiod and thermal time and their interaction on the timing of growth cessation were examined in seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in greenhouses with 20 deg C day and 10 deg C night temperatures combined with the natural development of the photoperiod. Sowing was repeated five times during both 1995 and 1996 using origins from different altitudes and latitudes (> 60 deg N) in Sweden and Finland. In this way, gradients in temperature sums at a nearly constant photoperiod and different photoperiods at constant temperature sums were obtained. After the first growing season the timing of growth cessation of seedlings from different origins was flexible, i.e. it was determined by the specific combinations of accumulated temperature sum and night length illustrated by fitted straight lines. The photoperiod at the site of origin was a dominant factor in determining the timing of growth cessation in origins from northern latitudes. Because of predetermined growth, the sowing date did not affect the phenology during the second growing season.

  11. Influence of ammonia and ozone on growth and drought sensitivity of Pinus sylvestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dueck, Th.A.; Zuin, A.; Elderson, J.

    1998-01-01

    Four-year-old Pinus sylvestris trees were exposed to ammonia (16, 55, 110 ppb for 24 h d-1)and ozone (0, 45 and 68 ppb, 9 h d-1) in a factorial design in open-top chambers for 15 months. Treatment effects on tree growth and architecture were assessed during two growing seasons; effects on

  12. Regeneration of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) three decades after stand-replacing fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan D. Coop; Anna W. Schoettle

    2009-01-01

    Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) are important highelevation pines of the southern Rockies that are forecast to decline due to the recent spread of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) into this region. Proactive management strategies to promote the evolution of rust resistance and maintain ecosystem function...

  13. Genetic and environmental control of seasonal carbohydrate dynamics in trees of diverse Pinus sylvestris populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksyn, J.; Zytkowiak, R.; Karolewski, P.; Reich, P. B.; Tjoelker, M. G.

    2000-06-01

    We explored environmental and genetic factors affecting seasonal dynamics of starch and soluble nonstructural carbohydrates in needle and twig cohorts and roots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees of six populations originating between 49 degrees and 60 degrees N, and grown under common garden conditions in western Poland. Trees of each population were sampled once or twice per month over a 3-year period from age 15 to 17 years. Based on similarity in starch concentration patterns in needles, two distinct groups of populations were identified; one comprised northern populations from Sweden and Russia (59-60 degrees N), and another comprised central European populations from Latvia, Poland, Germany and France (49-56 degrees N). Needle starch concentrations of northern populations started to decline in late spring and reached minimum values earlier than those of central populations. For all populations, starch accumulation in spring started when minimum air temperature permanently exceeded 0 degrees C. Starch accumulation peaked before bud break and was highest in 1-year-old needles, averaging 9-13% of dry mass. Soluble carbohydrate concentrations were lowest in spring and summer and highest in autumn and winter. There were no differences among populations in seasonal pattern of soluble carbohydrate concentrations. Averaged across all populations, needle soluble carbohydrate concentrations increased from about 4% of needle dry mass in developing current-year needles, to about 9% in 1- and 2-year-old needles. Root carbohydrate concentration exhibited a bimodal pattern with peaks in spring and autumn. Northern populations had higher concentrations of fine-root starch in spring and autumn than central populations. Late-summer carbohydrate accumulation in roots started only after depletion of starch in needles and woody shoots. We conclude that Scots pine carbohydrate dynamics depend partially on inherited properties that are probably related to phenology of root

  14. Silvical characteristics of pitch pine (Pinus rigida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little

    1959-01-01

    Pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) grows over a wide geographical range - from central Maine to New York and extreme southeastern Ontario, south to Virginia and southern Ohio, and in the mountains to eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia, and western South Carolina. Because it grows mostly on the poorer soils, its distribution is spotty.

  15. Growth, nutrient uptake and ectomycorrhizal function in Pinus sylvestris plants exposed to aluminium and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    2000-07-01

    The potential role of aluminium (Al) toxicity to trees has been of particular concern to forest owners and scientists since the early 1980's when Ulrich hypothesised that both Al and heavy metals were involved in forest dieback because of their increased concentrations in soil due to acidification. Since then, numerous studies have examined the effects of metals upon nutrient uptake by plants. However, most of these investigations have been carried out in the absence of mycorrhizal fungi, which, in most ecosystems, are crucial components in nutrient uptake by plants. The present work focused on the effects of elevated concentrations of Al and heavy metals on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and the potential role of ectomycorrhiza in modifying these effects. Ectomycorrhizal colonisation enhanced the growth and nutrient uptake by seedlings. To some extent, colonisation also alleviated reduced nutrient uptake which was a feature of seedlings growing in the presence of the metals. This effect was particularly noticeable with respect to P uptake. In general, mycorrhizal seedlings grew better and had an improved P, K, Mg and S status compared with non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Significant differences were also found in nutrient uptake among seedlings colonised by different fungi. One fungus, Hebeloma cf. longicaudum, was more sensitive to the Al treatment than the pine seedlings. The use of the base cation / Al ratio as an indicator of the potential detrimental effects to trees to acidification and Al is discussed. The production of oxalic acid was found to increase when mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal seedlings were exposed to Al or Cu. Colonisation by Suillus variegatus or Rhizopogon roseolus, in particular, resulted in a marked increase. These results demonstrate that there is a capacity, especially by certain ectomycorrhizal fungi, for increased production of the metal-chelating oxalic acid when root systems are exposed to increased levels of metals. In a field

  16. Growth, nutrient uptake and ectomycorrhizal function in Pinus sylvestris plants exposed to aluminium and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla

    2000-01-01

    The potential role of aluminium (Al) toxicity to trees has been of particular concern to forest owners and scientists since the early 1980's when Ulrich hypothesised that both Al and heavy metals were involved in forest dieback because of their increased concentrations in soil due to acidification. Since then, numerous studies have examined the effects of metals upon nutrient uptake by plants. However, most of these investigations have been carried out in the absence of mycorrhizal fungi, which, in most ecosystems, are crucial components in nutrient uptake by plants. The present work focused on the effects of elevated concentrations of Al and heavy metals on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and the potential role of ectomycorrhiza in modifying these effects. Ectomycorrhizal colonisation enhanced the growth and nutrient uptake by seedlings. To some extent, colonisation also alleviated reduced nutrient uptake which was a feature of seedlings growing in the presence of the metals. This effect was particularly noticeable with respect to P uptake. In general, mycorrhizal seedlings grew better and had an improved P, K, Mg and S status compared with non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Significant differences were also found in nutrient uptake among seedlings colonised by different fungi. One fungus, Hebeloma cf. longicaudum, was more sensitive to the Al treatment than the pine seedlings. The use of the base cation / Al ratio as an indicator of the potential detrimental effects to trees to acidification and Al is discussed. The production of oxalic acid was found to increase when mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal seedlings were exposed to Al or Cu. Colonisation by Suillus variegatus or Rhizopogon roseolus, in particular, resulted in a marked increase. These results demonstrate that there is a capacity, especially by certain ectomycorrhizal fungi, for increased production of the metal-chelating oxalic acid when root systems are exposed to increased levels of metals. In a field

  17. 13C-isotopic fingerprint of Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus sylvestris L. wood related to the quality of standing tree mass in forests from NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Irene; González-Prieto, Serafin J; Cabaneiro, Ana

    2005-01-01

    Pine forest plantations of Pinus pinaster Ait. and P. sylvestris L. located in Galicia, NW Spain, were selected to study the 13C/12C-isotopic fingerprint in wood core samples in order to find possible relationships between the delta(13)C at natural abundance levels and the quality of the standing tree mass. For each pine species, 24 forests growing on acidic soils were studied: half developed over granite and half over schists. Two dominant trees from each plot, corresponding to all possible combinations of forest stands with high or low site index and with adults or young trees, were drilled at the basal part of trunks using a Pressler drill to obtain tree ring samples. The C-isotopic compositions of the litter and the soil organic matter from different soil depths were also determined and statistically significant correlations between these values and the 13C content of the wood were observed. Despite internal variations due to the influence of site index, tree age and parent material, the isotopic fingerprint of P. pinaster wood (mean value delta13C=-26.2+/-0.8 per thousand) significantly differed (Ppinaster stands (r=-0.667, Ppinaster growing over schists (r=-0.833, Ppinaster trees is higher when plots over granite or schists are separately considered. A similar fact occurs for adult P. sylvestris trees from schists stands, high quality specimens being 13C-depleted compared with low quality ones. On the other hand, 13C natural abundance of wood from P. sylvestris trees seems to be also strongly influenced by the underlying parent material, young trees from granite stands having a statistically higher 13C-isotopic composition (P<0.05) than young trees from schists stands. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Larvicidal efficacies and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus sylvestris and Syzygium aromaticum against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayemiwo, Kehinde Adenike; Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; Okoro, Ovie Princewill; Awojide, Shola Hezekiah; Awoniyi, Ilias Olufemi

    2014-01-01

    To assess the chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal potentials of essential oils of locally sourced Pinus sylvestris (P. sylvestris) and Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (C. quinquefasciatus). The chemical composition of the essential oils of both plants was determined using GC-MS while the larvicidal bioassay was carried out using different concentrations of the oils against the larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus in accordance with the standard protocol. The results as determined by GC-MS showed that oil of S. aromaticum has eugenol (80.5%) as its principal constituent while P. sylvestris has 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, .alpha., .alpha.4-trimethyl (27.1%) as its dominant constituent. Both oils achieved over 85% larval mortality within 24 h. The larvae of A. aegypti were more susceptible to the oils [LC50 (S. aromaticum)=92.56 mg/L, LC50(P. sylvestris)=100.39 mg/L] than C. quinquefasciatus [LC50(S. aromaticum)=124.42 mg/L; LC50(P. sylvestris)=128.00 mg/L]. S. aromaticum oil was more toxic to the mosquito larvae than oil of P. sylvestris but the difference in lethal concentrations was insignificant (P>0.05). The results justify the larvicidal potentials of both essential oils and the need to incorporate them in vector management and control. Copyright © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Growth decline assessment in Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus nigra Arnold. forest by using 3-PG model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro-Cerrillo, R.M.; Beira, J.; Suarez, J.; Xenakis, G.; Sánchez-Salguero, R.; Hernández-Clemente, R.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: We assessed the ability of the 3-PG process-based model to accurately predict growth of Pinus sylvestris and P. nigra plantations across a range of sites, showing declining growth trends, in southern Spain. Area of study: The study area is located in “Sierra de Los Filabres” (Almería). Material and methods: The model was modified in fifteen parameters to predict diameter (DBH, cm), basal area increment (BAI, cm2 yr-1) and leaf area index (LAI, m2 m-2) in healthy trees and trees showing declining growth. We assumed that a set of specific physiological parameters (stem partitioning ratio-pFS20, maximum litterfall rate-γFx, maximum canopy conductance-gCx, specific leaf area for mature aged stands-σ1, age at which specific leaf area = ½ (σ0 + σ1), age at full canopy cover-tc, and canopy boundary layer conductance-gB) included in 3-PG would be suitable for predicting growth decline related to climate conditions. The calibrated model was evaluated using dendrochronological and LAI data obtained from plots. Main results: Observed and simulated DBH showed a high correlation (R2 > 0.99) between modelled and measured values for both species. In contrast, modelled and observed BAI showed lower correlation (R2 < 0.68). Sensitivity analysis on 3-PG outputs showed that the foliage parameters - maximum litterfall rate, maximum canopy conductance, specific leaf area for mature aged stands, age at which specific leaf area, and age at full canopy cover - were important for DBH and BAI predictions under drought stress. Research highlights: Our overall results indicated that the 3-PG model could predict growth response of pine plantations to climatic stress with desirable accuracy in southern Spain by using readily available soil and climatic data with physiological parameters derived from experiments. (Author)

  20. Ectomycorrhizal colonization of naturally regenerating Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings growing in different micro-habitats in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwański, Michał; Rudawska, Maria

    2007-07-01

    We investigated the species richness and composition of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi colonizing Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings naturally regenerating in boreal forest, in three different microhabitats: on forest ground, on decaying stumps, and within moss layer on erratic boulders. We tested the hypothesis that habitat differences would affect the composition of the EM community of regenerating pine seedlings. In total, 16 EM species were detected, from which none occurred on seedlings growing in all three microhabitats. Piloderma croceum and Cenococcum geophilum were common for seedlings growing in forest ground and on boulders, while Tricholoma aestuans and Suillus luteus were shared between seedlings growing on forest ground and decaying stumps. EM species richness and composition were strikingly different between seedlings regenerating in different microhabitats. Results are discussed as a function of dispersal and niche differentiation of EM fungi.

  1. Heavy and frequent thinning promotes drought adaptation in Pinus sylvestris forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Julia A; Hartig, Florian; Kohler, Martin; Huss, Jürgen; Bauhus, Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    Droughts and their negative effects on forest ecosystems are projected to increase under climate change for many regions. It has been suggested that intensive thinning could reduce drought impacts on established forests in the short-term. Most previous studies on the effect of thinning on drought impacts, however, have been confined to single forest sites. It is therefore still unclear how general and persisting the benefits of thinning are. This study assesses the potential of thinning to increase drought tolerance of the wide spread Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Central Europe. We hypothesized (1) that increasing thinning intensity benefits the maintenance of radial growth of crop trees during drought (resistance) and its recovery following drought, (2) that those benefits to growth decrease with time elapsed since the last thinning and with stand age, and (3) that they may depend on drought severity as well as water limitations in pre- and post-drought periods. To test these hypotheses, we assessed the effects of thinning regime, stand age, and drought severity on radial growth of 129 Scots pine trees during and after drought events in four long-term thinning experiments in Germany. We found that thinning improved the recovery of radial growth following drought and to a lesser extent the growth resistance during a drought event. Growth recovery following drought was highest after the first thinning intervention and in recently and heavily thinned stands. With time since the last thinning, however, this effect decreased and could even become negative when compared to unthinned stands. Further, thinning helped to avoid an age-related decline in growth resistance (and recovery) following drought. The recovery following drought, but not the resistance during drought, was related to water limitations in the drought period. This is the first study that analyzed drought-related radial growth in trees of one species across several stands of different age. The

  2. Impact of drought on the temporal dynamics of wood formation in Pinus sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Andreas; Strobl, Stefan; Veit, Barbara; Oberhuber, Walter

    2010-04-01

    We determined the temporal dynamics of cambial activity and xylem cell differentiation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) within a dry inner Alpine valley (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria), where radial growth is strongly limited by drought in spring. Repeated micro-sampling of the developing tree ring of mature trees was carried out during two contrasting years at two study plots that differ in soil water availability (xeric and dry-mesic sites). In 2007, when air temperature at the beginning of the growing season in April exceeded the long-term mean by 6.4 degrees C, cambial cell division started in early April at both study plots. A delayed onset of cambial activity of c. 2 weeks was found in 2008, when average climate conditions prevailed in spring, indicating that resumption of cambial cell division after winter dormancy is temperature controlled. Cambial cell division consistently ended about the end of June/early July in both study years. Radial enlargement of tracheids started almost 3 weeks earlier in 2007 compared with 2008 at both study plots. At the xeric site, the maximum rate of tracheid production in 2007 and 2008 was reached in early and mid-May, respectively, and c. 2 weeks later at the dry-mesic site. Since in both study years more favorable growing conditions (i.e., an increase in soil water content) were recorded during summer, we suggest a strong sink competition for carbohydrates to mycorrhizal root and shoot growth. Wood formation stopped c. 4 weeks earlier at the xeric compared with the dry-mesic site in both years, indicating a strong influence of drought stress on cell differentiation. This is supported by radial widths of earlywood cells, which were found to be significantly narrower at the xeric than at the dry-mesic site (P drought is strongly influenced by water availability, the onset of cambial activity and cell differentiation is controlled by temperature.

  3. Annual ecosystem respiration budget for a Pinus sylvestris stand in central Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibistova, O.; Zrazhevskaya, G.; Astrakhantceva, N.; Shijneva, I.; Lloyd, J.; Arneth, A.; Kolle, J.; Knohl, A.; Schmerler, J.

    2002-01-01

    Using a ground-based and an above-canopy eddy covariance system in addition to stem respiration measurements, the annual respiratory fluxes attributable to soil, stems and foliage were determined for a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest growing in central Siberia. Night-time foliar respiration was estimated on the basis of the difference between fluxes measured below and above the canopy and the stem respiration measurements. Comparison of the effects of night-time turbulence on measured CO 2 fluxes showed flux loss above the canopy at low wind speeds, but no such effect was observed for the ground-based eddy system. This suggests that problems with flow homogeneity or flux divergence (both of which would be expected to be greater above the canopy than below) were responsible for above-canopy losses under these conditions. After correcting for this, a strong seasonality in foliar respiration was observed. This was not solely attributable to temperature variations, with intrinsic foliar respiratory capacities being much greater in spring and autumn. The opposite pattern was observed for stem respiration, with the intrinsic respiratory capacity being lower from autumn through early spring. Maximum respiratory activity was observed in early summer. This was not simply associated with a response to higher temperatures but seemed closely linked with cambial activity and the development of new xylem elements. Soil respiration rates exhibited an apparent high sensitivity to temperature, with seasonal data implying a Q 10 of about 7. We interpret this as reflecting covarying changes in soil microbial activity and soil temperatures throughout the snow-free season. Averaged over the two study years (1999 and 2000), the annual respiratory flux was estimated at 38.3 mol C/m 2 /a. Of this 0.61 was attributable to soil respiration, with stem respiration accounting for 0.21 and foliar respiration 0.18

  4. Links between root carbohydrates and seasonal pattern of soil microbial activity of diverse european populations of Pinus sylvestris grown in a provenance plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kaliszewska-Rokicka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity of soil dehydrogenase (DHA was measured in the mineral soil in a forest stand of 15 to 16-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. from geographically diverse populations, as an indicator of biological activity of soil microorganisms, in a provenance experiment in Poland. The pine populations originated from six European countries (Sweden, Russia, Latvia, Poland, Germany, France and differed widely in aboveground biomass and productivity. Soil DHA during two growing seasons showed pronounced seasonal variability, which was significantly related to the fine root concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates. Higher DHA was found in soil under canopies of the central and southern European populations than in those from more northern parts of the Scots pine range. Significant positive correlation between soil DHA and aboveground tree biomass suggest that these patterns most likely resulted from differences in carbon dynamics and productivity among populations.

  5. Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Poyatos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stand transpiration was measured during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons using heat dissipation sap flow sensors in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and a pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd. forests located in a montane area of the Eastern Pyrenees (NE Spain. The first aim of the study was to assess the differences in quantitative estimates of transpiration (Ec and the response to evaporative demand of the two stands. Over the studied period of 2003, characterised by a severe drought episode during the summer, the oak stand (Ec was only 110 mm compared to the 239 mm transpired by the Scots pine stand, although the ratio of transpiration to reference evapotranspiration (Ec/ET0 in the oak stand compares well with the expected values predicted for low leaf area index (LAI oak forests in southern Europe. Scots pine showed a strong reduction in (Ec/ET0 as the drought developed, whereas pubescent oak was less affected by soil moisture deficits in the upper soil. As a second objective, and given the contrasting meteorological conditions between 2003 and 2004 summer periods, the interannual variability of transpiration was studied in the Scots pine plot. Rainfall during the summer months (June-September in 2003 was almost 40% less than in the same interval in 2004. Accordingly, transpiration was also reduced about 25% in 2003. Finally, Scots pine data from 2003 and 2004 was used to calibrate a simple transpiration model using ET0 and soil moisture deficit (SMD as input variables, and implicitly including stomatal responses to high vapour pressure deficits (Dd and soil water status.

  6. Evolutionary relationships of Slash Pine ( Pinus elliottii ) with its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    llozymes in bud tissue and monoterpene contents in xylem oleoresin of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) were analyzed from populations across the natural distribution, as well as those from other species in the AUSTRALES pines. Allozyme diversity measures of slash pine were similar to those found in other southern pines.

  7. Effect of irrigation on needle morphology, shoot and stem growth in a drought-exposed Pinus sylvestris forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbertin, Matthias; Eilmann, Britta; Bleuler, Peter; Giuggiola, Arnaud; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Landolt, Werner; Schleppi, Patrick; Rigling, Andreas

    2010-03-01

    In Valais, Switzerland, Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) are declining, mainly following drought. To assess the impact of drought on tree growth and survival, an irrigation experiment was initiated in 2003 in a mature pine forest, approximately doubling the annual precipitation. Tree crown transparency (lack of foliage) and leaf area index (LAI) were annually assessed. Seven irrigated and six control trees were felled in 2006, and needles, stem discs and branches were taken for growth analysis. Irrigation in 2004 and 2005, both with below-average precipitation, increased needle size, area and mass, stem growth and, with a 1-year delay, shoot length. This led to a relative decrease in tree crown transparency (-14%) and to an increase in stand LAI (+20%). Irrigation increased needle length by 70%, shoot length by 100% and ring width by 120%, regardless of crown transparency. Crown transparency correlated positively with mean needle size, shoot length and ring width and negatively with specific leaf area. Trees with high crown transparency (low growth, short needles) experienced similar increases in needle mass and growth with irrigation than trees with low transparency (high growth, long needles), indicating that seemingly declining trees were able to 'recover' when water supply became sufficient. A simple drought index before and during the irrigation explained most of the variation found in the parameters for both irrigated and control trees.

  8. Evidence on climatic variability and prehistoric human activities between 165 B.C. and A.D. 1400 derived from subfossil Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L. found in a lake in Utsjoki, northernmost Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetterberg, P.

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples from 1265 subfossil pines have been collected from small lakes and peat deposits in the forest-limit zone of northern Fennoscandia in order to study past variations of climate. Many of the subfossils have been dated by dendrochronology and the chronology constructed from the measured ring-width data extends as a continuous master curve from the present back until 165 B.C. and after a short gap until about 7000 years before the present time. This material has greatly increased the number of dated pine megafossils in northern Finland which had previously been restricted only to radiocarbon-dated samples. In addition to the year-by-year information provided by tree-ring width data, the temporal distribution of pine megafossils found in the vicinity of the forest-limit zone also provides information on past climatic changes. The 102 pine subfossils collected from Lake Ailigas, in Utsjoki, form part of the above material. They provide information about past variations in pine growth caused, to a large degree, by changing climate at this one site, but they also give glimpses of the local activities of Prehistoric Man. The data from 90 of these trees have been successfully dated using dendrochronological techniques and the results show that all of them grew during the time period beginning 3000 years before present, and that 79 pines lived during the time span 165 B.C. to A.D. 1952. In several lakes in the forest-limit zone, some subfossil trees are much older than those in Lake Ailigas. The relatively young ages of the subfossils at this site indicates that the lake has been in existence probably only during the past 3000 years, forming when climate turned more humid than in earlier times. The present continuous master curve is about 600 years longer than the earlier published pine chronology for northern Sweden, though this has recently been extended to A.D. 1. In the present study, the life spans of individual dated pines are considered in

  9. A Comparative Study on Turpentine Oils of Oleoresins of Pinus sylvestris L. from Three Districts of Denizli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Tümen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Oleoresin samples collected from Pinus sylvestris L. trees from Acıpayam, Çal and Çamlıbel, three different locations in Denizli-Turkey. The constituents of the turpentine oil, obtained by hydrodistillation of oleoresin of Pinus sylvestris L., were identified by GC-MS. Fifty four constituents were detected from the turpentine oil, which constituted about between 96.2% and 98.2% of the total amount. Major constituents of the oil were a-pinene, b-pinene, camphene, longifolene, D3-carene, limonene and b-caryophyllene

  10. Growth dynamics of tree-line and lake-shore Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in the central Scandinavian Mountains during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the early Little Ice Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans W Linderholm

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Trees growing at their altitudinal or latitudinal distribution in Fennoscandia have been widely used to reconstruct warm season temperatures, and the region hosts some of the world’s longest tree-ring chronologies. These multi-millennial long chronologies have mainly been built from tree remains found in lakes (subfossil wood from lake-shore trees. We used a unique dataset of Scots pine tree-ring data collected from wood remains found on a mountain slope in the central Scandinavian Mountains, yielding a chronology spanning over much of the last 1200 years. This data was compared with a local subfossil wood chronology with the aim to 1 describe growth variability in two environments during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA and the early Little Ice Age (LIA, and 2 investigate differences in growth characteristics during these contrasting periods. It was shown that the local tree-line during both the MCA and early LIA was almost 150 m higher that at present. Based on living pines from the two environments, tree-line pine growth was strongly associated with mid-summer temperatures, while the lake-shore trees showed an additional response to summer precipitation. During the MCA, regarded to be a period of favourable climate in the region, the tree-ring data from both environments showed strong coherency and moderate growth variability. In the early LIA, the two chronologies were less coherent, with the tree-line chronology showing more variability, suggesting different growth responses in the two environments during this period of less favourable growing conditions. Our results indicate that tree-ring width chronologies mainly based on lake-shore trees may need to be re-evaluated.

  11. Modeling soil CO2 production and transport to investigate the intra-day variability of surface efflux and soil CO2 concentration measurements in a scots pine forest (Pinus Sylvestris, L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Goffin, Stéphanie; Wylock, Christophe; Haut, Benoît; Maier, Martin; Longdoz, Bernard; Aubinet, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Aimed:The main aim of this study is to improve the mechanistic understanding of soil CO2 efflux (Fs), especially its temporal variation at short-time scales, by investigating, through modeling, which underlying process among CO2 production and its transport up to the atmosphere is responsible for observed intra-day variation of Fs and soil CO2 concentration [CO2].Methods:In this study, a measurement campaign of Fs and vertical soil [CO2] profiles was conducted in a Scots Pine Forest soil in H...

  12. Dendrochronology of bristlecone pine, Pinus longaeva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1953 the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research has conducted dendrochronological studies of bristlecone pine Pinus longaeva D.K. Bailey, sp. nov.) in the White Mountains of California. This research resulted in the establishment of a continuous tree-ring sequence of 8253 yr. The millennia-old pines have emerged as a unique source of chronological data and the precisely dated wood is essential to certain paleoenvironmental and geophysical investigations. Over 1000 dendrochronologically dated decade samples of bristlecone pine supplied to three C-14 laboratories have been used to calibrate the radiocarbon time scale for the past seven millennia, a development of far reaching consequences in the fields of archaeology and geology. In addition, recent advances in other methods of analyzing past climatic variability - techniques involving stable isotope ratios, amino acid racemization, remanent magnetism and trace element abundances - have greatly increased the demand for wood of known age and, hence, for chronology development. Spanning the past 7500 yr, 1138 prepared decade samples, with a total weight of nearly 16 kg are available for study. (author)

  13. Biogeochemical assessment of environmental risk by the example of Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybakov Dmitry Sergeevich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using annual rings of Pinus sylvestris L. to assess chemical pollution in the Republic of Karelia is discussed. With the help of principal component factor analysis the relationship between the contents of chemical elements and dendrological parameters – the width of annual rings and wood density - was revealed. The main factors contributing to the pollution of the northern part of the Republic of Karelia by the emission from iron-ore enterprise JSC «Karelsky Okatysh» are frequent ecologically significant wind directions, the distance from the source and the total mass of the emission. The value of radial growth (the average width of annual rings for five-years of Pinus sylvestris L. is connected negatively with the content of Cu, Cd, Ni and Fe. As an element of nutrition, Mn is positively correlated with the density of wood wherein it is an antagonist of Fe and partially of Cr in northern areas . Several peaks of Pb content coincide with the most intense tests of atomic weapons. Sharp maximums of Pb can also be due to a cross-border pollution and emission from regional sources.

  14. Assessing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration after southern pine beetle kill using a compact experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.-P. Berrill; C.M. Dagley

    2010-01-01

    A compact experimental design and analysis is presented of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth in a restoration project in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA. Longleaf pine seedlings were planted after salvage logging and broadcast burning in areas of catastrophic southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) attacks on even-aged mixed pine-hardwood...

  15. Smoke hardiness of pines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelz, E

    1958-01-01

    It has been determined in East Germany that some species of pines are more susceptible to the damaging effects of sulfates than others. On sites that are deficient in nutrients, the trees were found to be more susceptible to injuries. Pinus nigra was the most resistant, then Pinus strobus was next, and Pinus sylvestris was the most sensitive.

  16. The essential oil qualitative and quantitative composition in the needles of Pinus sylvestris L. growing along industrial transects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupcinskiene, Eugenija [Department of Biology, Vytautas Magnus University, Vileikos 8, LT-44404 Kaunas (Lithuania)], E-mail: e.kupcinskiene@gmail.com; Stikliene, Aida [Department of Ecology, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu 11, LT-53361 Kaunas, Akademija (Lithuania); Judzentiene, Asta [Institute of Chemistry, A. Gostauto 9, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2008-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Pinus sylvestris growing in the areas affected by a cement factory (CF), and an oil refinery (OR). Volatile components of the needles were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The most heavily polluted CF stand had significantly higher concentration of {gamma}-Terpinene, Caryophyllene oxide in the current-year needles, while higher concentration of {delta}-3-Carene, {alpha}-Terpinene, {gamma}-Terpinene and Terpinolene was documented for 1-year-old needles. The most heavily polluted OR stand had a significantly higher concentration of Sabinene + {beta}-Pinene, 1-epi-Cubenol in the current-year needles and a significantly higher concentration of Camphene, Sabinene + {beta}-Pinene, Myrcene, {alpha}-Cadinene, 1-epi-Cubenol in the 1-year-old needles than the least polluted site. Along transects an increase in the amount of some diterpenes and a decrease in the components of the shorter chain essential oils was observed. These effects could be at least partially attributed to SO{sub 2}. - Quantities of components of essential oil in the needles of Scots pine growing around two factories are described in relation to pollution.

  17. The essential oil qualitative and quantitative composition in the needles of Pinus sylvestris L. growing along industrial transects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupcinskiene, Eugenija; Stikliene, Aida; Judzentiene, Asta

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Pinus sylvestris growing in the areas affected by a cement factory (CF), and an oil refinery (OR). Volatile components of the needles were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The most heavily polluted CF stand had significantly higher concentration of γ-Terpinene, Caryophyllene oxide in the current-year needles, while higher concentration of δ-3-Carene, α-Terpinene, γ-Terpinene and Terpinolene was documented for 1-year-old needles. The most heavily polluted OR stand had a significantly higher concentration of Sabinene + β-Pinene, 1-epi-Cubenol in the current-year needles and a significantly higher concentration of Camphene, Sabinene + β-Pinene, Myrcene, α-Cadinene, 1-epi-Cubenol in the 1-year-old needles than the least polluted site. Along transects an increase in the amount of some diterpenes and a decrease in the components of the shorter chain essential oils was observed. These effects could be at least partially attributed to SO 2 . - Quantities of components of essential oil in the needles of Scots pine growing around two factories are described in relation to pollution

  18. Perspective of use of Pinus sylvestris L. as biological indicator of areas with low level radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragan, G.I.; Dragan, N.V.; Levon, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Research indicates data about distinct of Pinus sylvestris as biological indicator. Especially important is discovered distinctiveness of reactions of Pinus sylvestris to low level radioactive pollution. To identify radioactive pollution in habitats using biological indicators it is recommended the following complex of markers of functions of vegetative and reproductive systems of Pinus sylvestris: specific changes in architectonic of tree crowns; increase in number of annual cycles of growth to two or three and duration of active vegetation drastic change in morphogenesis of vegetative shoots in secondary (summer) shoots; formation of intermediate structures (combined buds and shoots) with mosaic development of some metamers with regular or affected structure; stimulation of buds (general increase of points of growth and appearance of additional ways of their formation); specific changes in gistogenesis of needles; hollow tar channels filled with sclerenhyma or parenchyma ect.; interruption of morphogenesis of male reproductive shoots; increase in the number of abnormal pollen grains to 70%; abnormal branching of pollen channels. All affects in vegetative system of Pinus sylvestris take place at the age of up to 12-14 (20) years. (authors)

  19. Object-based semi-automatic approach for forest structure characterization using lidar data in heterogeneous Pinus sylvestris stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Pascual; A. Garcia-Abril; L.G. Garcia-Montero; S. Martin-Fernandez; W.B. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a two-stage approach for characterizing the structure of Pinus sylvestris L. stands in forests of central Spain. The first stage was to delimit forest stands using eCognition and a digital canopy height model (DCHM) derived from lidar data. The polygons were then clustered into forest structure types based on the DCHM data...

  20. Long-term effects of liming and fertilization with N, P and K on ground vegetation, forest growth and soil chemistry of a Scots pine stand (Pinus sylvestris) in central Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsell, E.

    1997-12-31

    The present study was performed in a pine forest liming and fertilization experiment situated in central Sweden, started in 1959. The main objective was to investigate how the floristical composition changed due to different treatments during the period 1959-1996 and in particular since the latest investigation in 1981. Treatments including nitrogen and lime had the most important impact on both the species composition as well as on mean cover while effects by treatments including only phosphorous and potassium were less pronounced. It could be concluded that the main effects on the floristical composition by different treatments recorded in 1981 and 1996 were similar. However, the additional fertilization made since the last investigation in 1981 have led to more pronounced effects on floristic cover. Calluna vulgaris and Vaccinium vitis-idaea e.g. reacted negatively on nitrogen fertilization, while they were positively affected by lime. Vaccinium myrtillus reacted in the opposite way. These reactions were because of different preferences of nitrogen availability. V. Myrtillus prefers a nutrient rich environment while C. Vulgaris and V. Vitis-idaea prefer nutrient poor environments. Liming causes increased microbial activity which immobilise nitrogen. The added nitrogen during 1982-1990 made the effects more pronounced. The changes in floristical cover were linked to changes in soil chemistry and also the treatment effects on tree growth were analysed. The soil chemistry had not changed much concerning pH or base saturation since 1981, but the continued addition of nitrogen decreased the C/N-ratio in the humus layer. Tree growth was most affected by nitrogen which resulted in an almost immediately increased growth rate, while lime, phosphorous and potassium had a negative effect during the first years and then slightly increased Examination paper 1997:3. 34 refs, 23 figs, 16 tabs

  1. Nutrient uptake by intact mycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris seedlings: a diagnostic tool to detect copper toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tichelen, Katia K.; Vanstraelen, Tom; Colpaert, Jan V.

    1999-03-01

    We developed a nondestructive method for detecting early toxic effects of inflethal copper (Cu) concentrations on ectomycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal (NM) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings. The fungal symbionts examined were Paxillus involutus (Fr.) Fr., Suillus luteus (Fr.) S.F. Gray and Thelephora terrestris (Ehrh.) Fr. The accumulation of Cu in needles and fungal development (ergosterol) in roots and infstrate were assessed. Inorganic phosphate (P(i)) and ammonium (NH(4) (+)) uptake capacities were determined in a semi-hydroponic cultivation system on intact P-limited plants that were exposed for 3 weeks to 0.32 (control), 8 or 16 &mgr;moles Cu(2+). Short-term effects of a 1-hour exposure to 32 &mgr;moles Cu(2+) on nutrient uptake rates were also determined. None of the Cu(2+) treatments affected plant growth or root ergosterol concentrations. The active fungal biomass in infstrate invaded by S. luteus was reduced by 50% in the 16 &mgr;M Cu(2+) treatment compared with the control treatment; however, colonization by S. luteus prevented an increased accumulation of Cu in the needles. In contrast, the 16 &mgr;M Cu(2+) treatment caused a 2.2-fold increase in needle Cu concentration in NM plants. Ergosterol concentrations in the infstrate colonized by P. involutus and T. terrestris were not affected by 16 &mgr;molar Cu(2+). Although P. involutus and T. terrestris were less sensitive to Cu(2+) than S. luteus, T. terrestris did not prevent the accumulation of Cu in needles of its host plant in the 16 &mgr;molar Cu(2+) treatment. Mycorrhizal plants consistently had higher P(i) and NH(4) (+) uptake capacities than NM plants. In the control treatment, specific P(i) uptake rates were almost 10, 4 and 3 times higher in plants associated with P. involutus, S. luteus and T. terrestris, respectively, than in NM plants, and specific NH(4) (+) uptake rates were about 2, 2 and 5 times higher, respectively, than those of NM seedlings. Compared with the corresponding

  2. A comparison of epicuticular wax of Pinus sylvestris needles from three sites in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, A.; Dowding, P.

    1994-01-01

    Three forest stands of Pinus sylvestris were chosen for comparison in Ireland. Needles from three year classes were collected. Cuticular transpiration curves showed that the rate of water loss from 1-year-old needles was faster than either 2-year-old or current-year needles at all sites. The amount of epicuticular wax extracted was similar to that reported in the literature. Needle wettability increased with needle age. Amorphous wax coverage was estimated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and was found to increase with needle age. Algal cells were noted on needles of all ages at one site and appeared to affect transpiration and microroughness. The presence of fungal hyphae was also noted. (orig.)

  3. Early testing of adaptedness to temperature and water availability in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonesson, Johan

    2000-01-01

    Long-term climate changes have been evident in the past. In the future an increase in the rate of climate change is predicted owing to man-made emissions. Studies of adaptedness to different climatic conditions are of great importance for the design of appropriate breeding and gene conservation programmes. This thesis presents studies of adaptedness to temperature and water availability in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies and explores the possibilities of utilising differences in adaptedness to obtain juvenile-mature (J-M) correlations strong enough for efficient early testing. Offspring from clones in two Swedish Pinus sylvestris seed orchards and one Picea abies seed orchard were grown in growth chambers for one and two growth periods respectively. Two temperature regimes and two irrigation regimes were applied in a factorial design. Both species expressed high phenotypic plasticity and additive variance for height growth and biomass traits. This implies that these populations should be able to adapt both to short-term and to long-term climate changes. Genotype by environment (GxE) interaction indicated strong differences in adaptedness to temperature and low differences in adaptedness to water availability. Parent rank changes between treatments indicated that climate change could seriously alter the ranking of clones in breeding populations and thus decrease the genetic gain obtained in previous selections. Differences in stability among parents suggested that culling of unstable genotypes could be a way to reduce the negative effects of GxE interaction. Genetic correlations between growth chamber and 14-30 year old field progeny trials with the same parents were mainly weak for both species. The correlations were improved by the drought treatment in the Picea abies experiment suggesting that further development of early testing methods for this species should include treatments with limiting water availability

  4. Temperature responses of photosynthetic capacity parameters were not affected by foliar nitrogen content in mature Pinus sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, Lasse; Lutz, Martina; Räntfors, Mats; Näsholm, Torgny; Wallin, Göran

    2018-03-01

    A key weakness in current Earth System Models is the representation of thermal acclimation of photosynthesis in response to changes in growth temperatures. Previous studies in boreal and temperate ecosystems have shown leaf-scale photosynthetic capacity parameters, the maximum rates of carboxylation (V cmax ) and electron transport (J max ), to be positively correlated with foliar nitrogen (N) content at a given reference temperature. It is also known that V cmax and J max exhibit temperature optima that are affected by various environmental factors and, further, that N partitioning among the foliar photosynthetic pools is affected by N availability. However, despite the strong recent anthropogenic influence on atmospheric temperatures and N deposition to forests, little is known about the role of foliar N contents in controlling the photosynthetic temperature responses. In this study, we investigated the temperature dependencies of V cmax and J max in 1-year-old needles of mature boreal Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) trees growing under low and high N availabilities in northern Sweden. We found that needle N status did not significantly affect the temperature responses of V cmax or J max when the responses were fitted to a peaked function. If such N insensitivity is a common tree trait it will simplify the interpretation of the results from gradient and multi-species studies, which commonly use sites with differing N availabilities, on temperature acclimation of photosynthetic capacity. Moreover, it will simplify modeling efforts aimed at understanding future carbon uptake by precluding the need to adjust the shape of the temperature response curves to variation in N availability. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. Comparative mapping in Pinus: sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.).Tree Genet Genomes 7:457-468

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen D. Jermstad; Andrew J. Eckert; Jill L. Wegrzyn; Annette Delfino-Mix; Dean A Davis; Deems C. Burton; David B. Neale

    2011-01-01

    The majority of genomic research in conifers has been conducted in the Pinus subgenus Pinus mostly due to the high economic importance of the species within this taxon. Genetic maps have been constructed for several of these pines and comparative mapping analyses have consistently revealed notable synteny. In contrast,...

  6. Individual traits as determinants of time to death under extreme drought in Pinus sylvestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Forner, Núria; Sala, Anna; Biel, Carme; Savé, Robert; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2016-10-01

    Plants exhibit a variety of drought responses involving multiple interacting traits and processes, which makes predictions of drought survival challenging. Careful evaluation of responses within species, where individuals share broadly similar drought resistance strategies, can provide insight into the relative importance of different traits and processes. We subjected Pinus sylvestris L. saplings to extreme drought (no watering) leading to death in a greenhouse to (i) determine the relative effect of predisposing factors and responses to drought on survival time, (ii) identify and rank the importance of key predictors of time to death and (iii) compare individual characteristics of dead and surviving trees sampled concurrently. Time until death varied over 3 months among individual trees (from 29 to 147 days). Survival time was best predicted (higher explained variance and impact on the median survival time) by variables related to carbon uptake and carbon/water economy before and during drought. Trees with higher concentrations of monosaccharides before the beginning of the drought treatment and with higher assimilation rates prior to and during the treatment survived longer (median survival time increased 25-70 days), even at the expense of higher water loss. Dead trees exhibited less than half the amount of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) in branches, stem and relative to surviving trees sampled concurrently. Overall, our results indicate that the maintenance of carbon assimilation to prevent acute depletion of NSC content above some critical level appears to be the main factor explaining survival time of P. sylvestris trees under extreme drought. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Tree-ring analysis of crown competition and climatic sensitivity in Pinus strobus and P. sylvestris stands in the Elbe River Sandstone Mountains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mácová, Marcela

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2001), s. 103-113 ISSN 1125-7865 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : dendroclimatology * Pinus strobus * Pinus sylvestris Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  8. 13C discriminations of Pinus sylvestris vs. Pinus ponderosa at a dry site in Brandenburg (eastern Germany): 100-year growth comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ralf; Insinna, Patrick A; Götz, Bernhard; Junge, Sebastian; Boettger, Tatjana

    2007-06-01

    The carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C, per thousand) and discrimination (Delta, per thousand) of old grown North American Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex P. et C. Laws. and European Pinus sylvestris L. were determined using trees grown under almost identical growing conditions in a mixed stand in Bralitz, Northeast Germany. Single-tree delta(13)C analyses of tree-ring cellulose of both species were carried out at a yearly resolution for the period 1901-2001 and the results compared with growth (basal area increment). Annual mean delta(13)C values for P. ponderosa ranged from-21.6 per thousand to-25.2 per thousand and for P. sylvestris from-21.4 per thousand to-24.4 per thousand. Accordingly, (13)C discrimination (Delta) showed higher values for P. ponderosa throughout the investigation period. Five characteristic periods of Delta were identified for both the tree species, reflecting positive and negative influences of environmental factors. Good growing conditions such as after-thinning events had a positive effect on Delta, reflecting higher values, while poor conditions like aridity and air pollution had a negative influence, reflecting lower values. The dynamics of Delta were likewise reflected in the growth (basal area increment, BAI). Higher (13)C discrimination values of P. ponderosa led to higher BAIs of P. ponderosa in comparison with P. sylvestris. Correlation function analyses confirmed that P. sylvestris was more dependent on precipitation than P. ponderosa, which showed a closer relationship with temperature. The results confirm that under predominantly dry growing conditions, P. ponderosa showed better growth performance than P. sylvestris, indicating better common intrinsic water-use efficiency and, therefore, higher rates of net photosynthesis at a given transpiration. In view of the prospect of climate change, the results are very significant for assessing both trees' physiological properties and, hence, their potential for coping with future growing

  9. Direct and indirect effects of climate on demography and early growth of Pinus sylvestris at the rear edge: changing roles of biotic and abiotic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Benavides

    Full Text Available Global change triggers shifts in forest composition, with warming and aridification being particularly threatening for the populations located at the rear edge of the species distributions. This is the case of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris in the Mediterranean Basin where uncertainties in relation to its dynamics under these changing scenarios are still high. We analysed the relative effect of climate on the recruitment patterns of Scots pine and its interactions with local biotic and abiotic variables at different spatial scales. Number of seedlings and saplings was surveyed, and their annual shoot growth measured in 96 plots located across altitudinal gradients in three different regions in the Iberian Peninsula. We found a significant influence of climate on demography and performance of recruits, with a non-linear effect of temperature on the presence of juveniles, and a positive effect of precipitation on their survival. Abundance of juveniles of P. sylvestris that underwent their first summer drought was skewed towards higher altitudes than the altitudinal mean range of the conspecific adults and the optimum elevation for seedlings' emergence. At local level, light availability did not influence juveniles' density, but it enhanced their growth. Biotic interactions were found between juveniles and the herb cover (competition and between the number of newly emerged seedlings and shrubs (facilitation. Results also highlighted the indirect effect that climate exerts over the local factors, modulating the interactions with the pre-existing vegetation that were more evident at more stressful sites. This multiscale approach improves our understanding of the dynamics of these marginal populations and some management criteria can be inferred to boost their conservation under the current global warming.

  10. Direct and indirect effects of climate on demography and early growth of Pinus sylvestris at the rear edge: changing roles of biotic and abiotic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Raquel; Rabasa, Sonia G; Granda, Elena; Escudero, Adrián; Hódar, José A; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Rincón, Ana M; Zamora, Regino; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Global change triggers shifts in forest composition, with warming and aridification being particularly threatening for the populations located at the rear edge of the species distributions. This is the case of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in the Mediterranean Basin where uncertainties in relation to its dynamics under these changing scenarios are still high. We analysed the relative effect of climate on the recruitment patterns of Scots pine and its interactions with local biotic and abiotic variables at different spatial scales. Number of seedlings and saplings was surveyed, and their annual shoot growth measured in 96 plots located across altitudinal gradients in three different regions in the Iberian Peninsula. We found a significant influence of climate on demography and performance of recruits, with a non-linear effect of temperature on the presence of juveniles, and a positive effect of precipitation on their survival. Abundance of juveniles of P. sylvestris that underwent their first summer drought was skewed towards higher altitudes than the altitudinal mean range of the conspecific adults and the optimum elevation for seedlings' emergence. At local level, light availability did not influence juveniles' density, but it enhanced their growth. Biotic interactions were found between juveniles and the herb cover (competition) and between the number of newly emerged seedlings and shrubs (facilitation). Results also highlighted the indirect effect that climate exerts over the local factors, modulating the interactions with the pre-existing vegetation that were more evident at more stressful sites. This multiscale approach improves our understanding of the dynamics of these marginal populations and some management criteria can be inferred to boost their conservation under the current global warming.

  11. Bishop pine (Pinus muricata) of inland Marin County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1986-01-01

    The locations and characteristics of five, small, previously undescribed stands of bishop pine (Pinus muricata) in central Marin Co., California, are reported. Three stands lie on dry sites in the Kent Lake Drainage north of Mt. Tamalpais: San Geronimo Ridge, a spur ridge above Little Carson Cr., and Oat Hill. These stands are anomalous in occurring...

  12. Experiments in rooting bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1987-01-01

    Presented here are results of rooting studies using hedges established from juvenile seedlings of "blue" and "green" foliaged bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) from Mendocino and Sonoma Counties, California. Rootability, averaged over all clones and all setting dates, was 88%. The average time for 50% of the...

  13. Xylem diameter changes during osmotic stress, desiccation and freezing in Pinus sylvestris and Populus tremula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Anna; Lindfors, Lauri; Nikinmaa, Eero; Hölttä, Teemu

    2017-04-01

    Trees experience low apoplastic water potential frequently in most environments. Low apoplastic water potential increases the risk of embolism formation in xylem conduits and creates dehydration stress for the living cells. We studied the magnitude and rate of xylem diameter change in response to decreasing apoplastic water potential and the role of living parenchyma cells in it to better understand xylem diameter changes in different environmental conditions. We compared responses of control and heat-injured xylem of Pinus sylvestris (L.) and Populus tremula (L.) branches to decreasing apoplastic water potential created by osmotic stress, desiccation and freezing. It was shown that xylem in control branches shrank more in response to decreasing apoplastic water potential in comparison with the samples that were preheated to damage living xylem parenchyma. By manipulating the osmotic pressure of the xylem sap, we observed xylem shrinkage due to decreasing apoplastic water potential even in the absence of water tension within the conduits. These results indicate that decreasing apoplastic water potential led to withdrawal of intracellular water from the xylem parenchyma, causing tissue shrinkage. The amount of xylem shrinkage per decrease in apoplastic water potential was higher during osmotic stress or desiccation compared with freezing. During desiccation, xylem diameter shrinkage involved both dehydration-related shrinkage of xylem parenchyma and water tension-induced shrinkage of conduits, whereas dehydration-related shrinkage of xylem parenchyma was accompanied by swelling of apoplastic ice during freezing. It was also shown that the exchange of water between symplast and apoplast within xylem is clearly faster than previously reported between the phloem and the xylem. Time constant of xylem shrinkage was 40 and 2 times higher during osmotic stress than during freezing stress in P. sylvestris and P. tremula, respectively. Finally, it was concluded that the

  14. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. Results We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. Conclusion In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine. PMID:23679205

  15. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dawn E; Yuen, Macaire M S; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet K; Li, Maria; Henderson, Hannah; Arango-Velez, Adriana; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, Roderick T; Chan, Simon K; Cooke, Janice Ek; Breuil, Colette; Jones, Steven Jm; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-05-16

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine.

  16. Resistance to white pine blister rust in Pinus flexilis and P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Richard A. Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Jerry Hill; Kelly S. Burns

    2010-01-01

    The non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, that causes white pine blister rust (WPBR), is impacting or threatening limber pine, Pinus flexilis, and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata. In the Southern Rockies, where the rust invasion is still expanding, we have the opportunity to be proactive and prepare the landscape for invasion. Genetic...

  17. Fungi in roots of nursery grown Pinus sylvestris: ectomycorrhizal colonisation, genetic diversity and spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkis, Audrius; Vasaitis, Rimvydas

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate patterns of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonisation and community structure on nursery grown seedlings of Pinus sylvestris, spatial distribution of ECMs in the nursery plot and genetic diversity of commonly isolated ECM basidiomycete Hebeloma cavipes. One hundred seedlings were sampled in 225 m(2) area using a systematic grid design. For each seedling, 20 individual root tips were randomly collected, morphotyped, and surface sterilised for fungal isolation in pure culture. Results showed that ECM community was comprised of nine distinct morphotypes among which Thelephora terrestris (39.7%), Hebeloma sp. (17.8%) and Suillus luteus (6.1%) were the most abundant. Spatial distribution of ECMs in the nursery plot was determined by their relative abundance: even in common ECMs and random in rare ones. Fungal isolation yielded 606 pure cultures, representing 71 distinct taxa. The most commonly isolated fungi were the ascomycetes Neonectria macrodidyma (20.3%), Phialocephala fortinii (13.5%), Neonectria radicicola (6.3%) and the ECM basidiomycete H. cavipes (4.5%). Intraspecific genetic diversity within 27 H. cavipes isolates was studied using two methods: restriction digestion of the amplified intergenic spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA and genealogical concordance of five genetic markers. Five and eight genotypes were revealed by each respective method, but both of those were largely consistent, in particular, in determining the largest genotype (A) composed of 18 isolates. Mapping positions for each H. cavipes isolate and genotype in the field showed that isolates of the A genotype covered a large part of the nursery plot. This suggests that H. cavipes is largely disseminated by vegetative means of local genotypes and that nursery cultivation practices are likely to contribute to the dissemination of this species in the forest nursery soils.

  18. Hydrogen apparent fractionation between source water and epicuticular waxes of Pinus sylvestris in North East Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, S. L.; Grace, J.; Pedentchouk, N.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogen isotopic composition of plant biomass provides crucial information about plant ecophysiology and local hydrology. Little is known about the apparent fractionation between hydrogen in source water and epicuticular leaf waxes of coniferous tree species that dominate the boreal forest ecosystem exposed to prolonged periods of sunlight during the growing season. In this study, single rope canopy access techniques were used to harvest needle and twig material from the upper, middle and lower crown of north and south facing branches of Pinus sylvestris within the subarctic forest of North East Finland. Samples were collected towards the beginning of the growing season in July and repeated in late September 2010. Leaf and twig waters were extracted cryogenically and analysed for D-enrichment. Individual n-alkanes are currently being quantified and analyzed for 13C/12C and D/H compositions. The molecular and isotopic data are supplemented by long-term in-situ cuvette photosynthetic assimilation measurements as well as relative humidity (RH), air temperature, precipitation and wind speed data collected by Helsinki University (SMEAR I). In addition RH, air temperature, wind speed and incoming solar radiation measurements were made at each individual sample point at the time of harvesting to quantify meteorological and microclimatological variation within individual trees. The outcome of this investigation will provide important insights into plant biochemistry and physiology of a crucial climate sensitive higher plant species subjected to continuous low light throughout the season. Furthermore, this work will expand our understanding of modern and palaeo-hydrology not only in northern Finland but also in other boreal forests around the world.

  19. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance.

  20. Online investigation of respiratory quotients in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies during drought and shading by means of cavity-enhanced Raman multi-gas spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Stefan; Fischer, Sarah; Hartmann, Henrik; Keiner, Robert; Trumbore, Susan; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, Torsten

    2015-07-07

    Photosynthesis and respiration are major components of the plant carbon balance. During stress, like drought, carbohydrate supply from photosynthesis is reduced and the Krebs cycle respiration must be fueled with other stored carbon compounds. However, the dynamics of storage use are still unknown. The respiratory quotient (RQ, CO2 released per O2 consumed during respiration) is an excellent indicator of the nature of the respiration substrate. In plant science, however, online RQ measurements have been challenging or even impossible so far due to very small gas exchange fluxes during respiration. Here we apply cavity-enhanced multi-gas Raman spectrometry (CERS) for online in situ RQ measurements in drought-tolerant pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) and drought-intolerant spruce (Picea abies [L. H. Karst]). Two different treatments, drought and shading, were applied to reduce photosynthesis and force dependency on stored substrates. Changes in respiration rates and RQ values were continuously monitored over periods of several days with low levels of variance. The results show that both species switched from COH-dominated respiration (RQ = 1.0) to a mixture of substrates during shading (RQ = 0.77-0.81), while during drought only pine did so (RQ = 0.75). The gas phase measurements were complemented by concentration measurements of non-structural carbohydrates and lipids. These first results suggest a physiological explanation for greater drought tolerance in pine. CERS was proven as powerful technique for non-consumptive and precise real-time monitoring of respiration rates and respirational quotients for the investigation of plant metabolism under drought stress conditions that are predicted to increase with future climate change.

  1. Comparative Drought Responses of Quercus ilex L. and Pinus sylvestris L. in a Montane Forest Undergoing a Vegetation Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Aguadé

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Different functional and structural strategies to cope with water shortage exist both within and across plant communities. The current trend towards increasing drought in many regions could drive some species to their physiological limits of drought tolerance, potentially leading to mortality episodes and vegetation shifts. In this paper, we study the drought responses of Quercus ilex and Pinus sylvestris in a montane Mediterranean forest where the former species is replacing the latter in association with recent episodes of drought-induced mortality. Our aim was to compare the physiological responses to variations in soil water content (SWC and vapor pressure deficit (VPD of the two species when living together in a mixed stand or separately in pure stands, where the canopies of both species are completely exposed to high radiation and VPD. P. sylvestris showed typical isohydric behavior, with greater losses of stomatal conductance with declining SWC and greater reductions of stored non-structural carbohydrates during drought, consistent with carbon starvation being an important factor in the mortality of this species. On the other hand, Q. ilex trees showed a more anisohydric behavior, experiencing more negative water potentials and higher levels of xylem embolism under extreme drought, presumably putting them at higher risk of hydraulic failure. In addition, our results show relatively small changes in the physiological responses of Q. ilex in mixed vs. pure stands, suggesting that the current replacement of P. sylvestris by Q. ilex will continue.

  2. Physiological responses of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings to the interaction between Suillus luteus and Trichoderma virens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, D; Deng, X; Chet, Ilan; Song, R

    2014-09-01

    The effects of the interaction between Suillus luteus (L.) Roussel and Trichoderma virens (J.H. Mill., Giddens & A.A. Foster) Arx on Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litv. were studied using plant physiology, mycorrhizal science, forest pathology, and biochemistry. Seedling growth and physiological parameters were determined, including the colonization rate of mycorrhizal fungi, biomass, root activity, photosynthetic pigment content, soluble protein content, antioxidant enzyme activities, rhizosphere soil enzyme activities, and protective enzyme activities. In addition, an optimal resistance system involving T. virens, mycorrhizal fungus (S. luteus), and P. sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings was constructed. Synergies between S. luteus and T. virens were observed, and most of the parameters of P. sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings inoculated with S. luteus 30 days + T. virens were higher than other treatments. After three months, when compared the control, the S. luteus 30 days + T. virens treatment gave increases in height (42.3 %); collar diameter (66.7 %); fresh weight (54 %); dry weight (50 %); soluble protein content (69.86 %); root activity (150 %); chlorophyll a (77.6 %); chlorophyll b (70.5 %); carotenoids (144 %); CAT activity (876.9 %); POD activity (268.3 %); SOD activity (66.18 %); β-1,3-glucanase activity (125.8 %); chitinase activity (40 %); rhizosphere soil catalase activity (97.8 %); and phosphatase activity (266.7 %). These results indicate that there may be a stimulating factor between S. luteus and T. virens when they are inoculated together (S. luteus 30 days + T. virens).

  3. Removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions, from aqueous solutions, by adsorption onto sawdust of Pinus sylvestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taty-Costodes, V. Christian; Fauduet, Henri; Porte, Catherine; Delacroix, Alain

    2003-01-01

    Fixation of heavy metal ions (Cd(II) and Pb(II)) onto sawdust of Pinus sylvestris is presented in this paper. Batch experiments were conducted to study the main parameters such as adsorbent concentration, initial adsorbate concentration, contact time, kinetic, pH solution, and stirring velocity on the sorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by sawdust of P. sylvestris. Kinetic aspects are studied in order to develop a model which can describe the process of adsorption on sawdust. The equilibrium of a solution between liquid and solid phases is described by Langmuir model. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows that the process is controlled by a porous diffusion with ion-exchange. The capacity of the metal ions to bind onto the biomass was 96% for Cd(II), and 98% for Pb(II). The sorption followed a pseudo-second-order kinetics. The adsorption of these heavy metals ions increased with the pH and reached a maximum at a 5.5 value. From these results, it can be concluded that the sawdust of P. sylvestris could be a good adsorbent for the metal ions coming from aqueous solutions. Moreover, this material could also be used for purification of water before rejection into the natural environment

  4. Automatic determination of trunk diameter, crown base and height of scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) Based on analysis of 3D point clouds gathered from multi-station terrestrial laser scanning. (Polish Title: Automatyczne okreslanie srednicy pnia, podstawy korony oraz wysokosci sosny zwyczajnej (Pinus Silvestris L.) Na podstawie analiz chmur punktow 3D pochodzacych z wielostanowiskowego naziemnego skanowania laserowego)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, M.; Wężyk, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in recent years resulted in its recognition and implementation in many industries, including forestry and nature conservation. The use of the 3D TLS point clouds in the process of inventory of trees and stands, as well as in the determination of their biometric features (trunk diameter, tree height, crown base, number of trunk shapes), trees and lumber size (volume of trees) is slowly becoming a practice. In addition to the measurement precision, the primary added value of TLS is the ability to automate the processing of the clouds of points 3D in the direction of the extraction of selected features of trees and stands. The paper presents the original software (GNOM) for the automatic measurement of selected features of trees, based on the cloud of points obtained by the ground laser scanner FARO. With the developed algorithms (GNOM), the location of tree trunks on the circular research surface was specified and the measurement was performed; the measurement covered the DBH (l: 1.3m), further diameters of tree trunks at different heights of the tree trunk, base of the tree crown and volume of the tree trunk (the selection measurement method), as well as the tree crown. Research works were performed in the territory of the Niepolomice Forest in an unmixed pine stand (Pinussylvestris L.) on the circular surface with a radius of 18 m, within which there were 16 pine trees (14 of them were cut down). It was characterized by a two-storey and even-aged construction (147 years old) and was devoid of undergrowth. Ground scanning was performed just before harvesting. The DBH of 16 pine trees was specified in a fully automatic way, using the algorithm GNOM with an accuracy of +2.1%, as compared to the reference measurement by the DBH measurement device. The medium, absolute measurement error in the cloud of points - using semi-automatic methods "PIXEL" (between points) and PIPE (fitting the cylinder) in the FARO Scene 5.x

  5. Mechanical properties of wood from Pinus sylvestris L. treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative and with waterborne Copper Azole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villasante, A.; Laina, R.; Rojas, J. A. M.; Rojas, I. M.; Vignote, S.

    2013-07-01

    Aim of study: To determine the effect on wood from Pinus sylvestris of treatment with preservatives on mechanical properties and to establish the relation between the penetration and compression strenght. Area of study: Spain. Material and methods: 40 samples of defect-free wood from Pinus sylvestris L. were treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative (Vacsol Azure WR 2601) and 50 with waterborne Copper Azole (Tanalith E 3492). 40 control samples were not treated (water or preservative). Mechanical resistance to static bending, modulus of elasticity and compression strength parallel to the grain were compared with untreated wood. Regression analysis between the penetration and compression strength parallel was done with the samples treated with waterborne preservative. Main results: The results indicate that the treated wood (with either product) presents a statistically significant increase in mechanical resistance in all three mechanical characteristics. The results obtained differ from earlier studies carried out by other authors. There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation of the wood with waterborne Copper Azole. The most probable explanation for these results concerns changes in pressure during treatment. The use of untreated control samples instead of samples treated only with water is more likely to produce significant results in the mechanical resistance studies. Research highlights: Treated wood presents a statistically significant increase in MOE, modulus of rupture to static bending and parallel compression strength. There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation with waterborne preservative. (Author)

  6. Isoenzymatic variability in progeny of Pinus mugo Turra x Pinus sylvestris L. hybrids from Bór na Czerwonem, in experimental culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Bobowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the genetic structure of 12-year old seedlings. They were grown in an experimental culture representing the progeny of natural hybrids of Pinus mugo Turra and Pinus sylvestris L. from the peatbog Bór na Czerwonem. The studies were carried out on seedlings, employing electrophoresis of enzymatic proteins from winter buds. Parallel isoenzymatic analyses were also conducted for trees of P. mugo Turra from Tatra Mountains and for P. sylvestris L. trees from Białowieża in order to determine similarities of the hybrids to the 'pure' species, thought to represent parental forms, and for natural hybrids from Bór na Czerwonem. The obtained electrophoretic patterns made the determination of genetic structure of the population possible, namely of the observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, Wright's fixation index and coefficients of similarity according to Nei and Hedrick. Genetic distances between the populations were also estimated. The variability of 11 enzymatic loci demonstrated the highest level of variability in the population of hybrids. Coefficients of genetic differentiation (GST and of gene flow, (Nm suggested a close relationship of the hybrids to P. mugo which may indicate an introgressive type of the hybrid swarm, from which the studied trees originated. The analysis of genetic similarity coefficients, according to Nei and Hedrick, demonstrated also an extensive similarity of the two hybrid groups to P. mugo. However, upon analysis of individual enzymatic loci, some of them highly resembled P. mugo while others were similar to P. sylvestris. The closest genetic similarity was demonstrated for the group of hybrids from the peatbog and the respective of hybrides group from culture. The variable gene expression as well as asymmetric inheritance of isoenzymes provided additional evidence of the introgressive character of the studied trees from the hybrid population.

  7. Xylem and Leaf Functional Adjustments to Drought in Pinus sylvestris and Quercus pyrenaica at Their Elevational Boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Uña, Laura; Rossi, Sergio; Aranda, Ismael; Fonti, Patrick; González-González, Borja D; Cañellas, Isabel; Gea-Izquierdo, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    Climatic scenarios for the Mediterranean region forecast increasing frequency and intensity of drought events. Consequently, a reduction in Pinus sylvestris L. distribution range is projected within the region, with this species being outcompeted at lower elevations by more drought-tolerant taxa such as Quercus pyrenaica Willd. The functional response of these species to the projected shifts in water availability will partially determine their performance and, thus, their competitive success under these changing climatic conditions. We studied how the cambial and leaf phenology and xylem anatomy of these two species responded to a 3-year rainfall exclusion experiment set at their elevational boundary in Central Spain. Additionally, P. sylvestris leaf gas exchange, water potential and carbon isotope content response to the treatment were measured. Likewise, we assessed inter-annual variability in the studied functional traits under control and rainfall exclusion conditions. Prolonged exposure to drier conditions did not affect the onset of xylogenesis in either of the studied species, whereas xylem formation ceased 1-3 weeks earlier in P. sylvestris . The rainfall exclusion had, however, no effect on leaf phenology on either species, which suggests that cambial phenology is more sensitive to drought than leaf phenology. P. sylvestris formed fewer, but larger tracheids under dry conditions and reduced the proportion of latewood in the tree ring. On the other hand, Q. pyrenaica did not suffer earlywood hydraulic diameter changes under rainfall exclusion, but experienced a cumulative reduction in latewood width, which could ultimately challenge its hydraulic performance. The phenological and anatomical response of the studied species to drought is consistent with a shift in resource allocation under drought stress from xylem to other sinks. Additionally, the tighter stomatal control and higher intrinsic water use efficiency observed in drought-stressed P. sylvestris

  8. Xylem and Leaf Functional Adjustments to Drought in Pinus sylvestris and Quercus pyrenaica at Their Elevational Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández-de-Uña

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Climatic scenarios for the Mediterranean region forecast increasing frequency and intensity of drought events. Consequently, a reduction in Pinus sylvestris L. distribution range is projected within the region, with this species being outcompeted at lower elevations by more drought-tolerant taxa such as Quercus pyrenaica Willd. The functional response of these species to the projected shifts in water availability will partially determine their performance and, thus, their competitive success under these changing climatic conditions. We studied how the cambial and leaf phenology and xylem anatomy of these two species responded to a 3-year rainfall exclusion experiment set at their elevational boundary in Central Spain. Additionally, P. sylvestris leaf gas exchange, water potential and carbon isotope content response to the treatment were measured. Likewise, we assessed inter-annual variability in the studied functional traits under control and rainfall exclusion conditions. Prolonged exposure to drier conditions did not affect the onset of xylogenesis in either of the studied species, whereas xylem formation ceased 1–3 weeks earlier in P. sylvestris. The rainfall exclusion had, however, no effect on leaf phenology on either species, which suggests that cambial phenology is more sensitive to drought than leaf phenology. P. sylvestris formed fewer, but larger tracheids under dry conditions and reduced the proportion of latewood in the tree ring. On the other hand, Q. pyrenaica did not suffer earlywood hydraulic diameter changes under rainfall exclusion, but experienced a cumulative reduction in latewood width, which could ultimately challenge its hydraulic performance. The phenological and anatomical response of the studied species to drought is consistent with a shift in resource allocation under drought stress from xylem to other sinks. Additionally, the tighter stomatal control and higher intrinsic water use efficiency observed in drought

  9. Effect of long-term drought on carbon allocation and nitrogen uptake of Pinus sylvestris seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpanen, Jukka; Aaltonen, Heidi; Lindén, Aki; Köster, Kajar; Biasi, Christina; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2015-04-01

    Weather extremes such as drought events are expected to increase in the future as a result of climate change. The drought affects the allocation of carbon assimilated by plants e.g. by modifying the root to shoot ratio, amount of fine roots and the amount of mycorrhizal fungal hyphae. We studied the effect of long term drought on the allocation of carbon in a common garden experiment with 4-year-old Pinus sylvestris seedlings. Half of the seedlings were exposed to long-term drought by setting the soil water content close to wilting point for over two growing seasons whereas the other half was grown in soil close to field capacity. We conducted a pulse labelling with 13CO2 in the end of the study by injecting a known amount of 13C enriched CO2 to the seedlings and measuring the CO2 uptake and distribution of 13C to the biomass of the seedlings and to the root and rhizosphere respiration. In addition, we studied the effect of drought on the decomposition of needle litter and uptake of nitrogen by 15N labelled needles buried in the soil in litter bags. The litterbags were collected and harvested in the end of the experiment and the changes in microbial community in the litterbags were studied from the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition. We also determined the 15N isotope concentrations from the needles of the seedlings to study the effect of drought on the nitrogen uptake of the seedlings. Our results indicate that the drought had a significant effect both on the biomass allocation of the seedlings and on the microbial species composition. The amount of carbon allocated belowground was much higher in the seedlings exposed to drought compared to the control seedlings. The seedlings seemed to adapt their carbon allocation to long-term drought to sustain adequate needle biomass and water uptake. The seedlings also adapted their osmotic potential and photosynthesis capacity to sustain the long-term drought as was indicated by the measurements of osmotic potential

  10. Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinus spp.) Grown in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhanen, Leo P; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2013-04-03

    Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine ( Pinus armandii Franch), Swiss stone pine ( Pinus cembra L.), Mexican pinyon ( Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little), Coulter pine ( Pinus coulteri D. Don), Johann's pine ( Pinus johannis M.F. Robert), Italian stone pine ( Pinus pinea L.) and Torrey pine ( Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière), was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn) were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day) while they supplied between 39%-89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals.

  11. A hybrid swarm population of Pinus densiflora x P. sylvestris hybrids inferred from sequence analysis of chloroplast DNA and morphological characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    To confirm a hybrid swarm population of Pinus densiflora × P. sylvestris in Jilin, China and to study whether shoot apex morphology of 4-year old seedlings can be correlated with the sequence of a chloroplast DNA simple sequence repeat marker (cpDNA SSR), needles and seeds from P. densiflora, P. syl...

  12. Growth response of drought-stressed Pinus sylvestris seedlings to single- and multi-species inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabea Kipfer

    Full Text Available Many trees species form symbiotic associations with ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungi, which improve nutrient and water acquisition of their host. Until now it is unclear whether the species richness of ECM fungi is beneficial for tree seedling performance, be it during moist conditions or drought. We performed a pot experiment using Pinus sylvestris seedlings inoculated with four selected ECM fungi (Cenococcum geophilum, Paxillus involutus, Rhizopogon roseolus and Suillus granulatus to investigate (i whether these four ECM fungi, in monoculture or in species mixtures, affect growth of P. sylvestris seedlings, and (ii whether this effect can be attributed to species number per se or to species identity. Two different watering regimes (moist vs. dry were applied to examine the context-dependency of the results. Additionally, we assessed the activity of eight extracellular enzymes in the root tips. Shoot growth was enhanced in the presence of S. granulatus, but not by any other ECM fungal species. The positive effect of S. granulatus on shoot growth was more pronounced under moist (threefold increase than under dry conditions (twofold increase, indicating that the investigated ECM fungi did not provide additional support during drought stress. The activity of secreted extracellular enzymes was higher in S. granulatus than in any other species. In conclusion, our findings suggest that ECM fungal species composition may affect seedling performance in terms of aboveground biomass.

  13. Growth response of drought-stressed Pinus sylvestris seedlings to single- and multi-species inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipfer, Tabea; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Egli, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Many trees species form symbiotic associations with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, which improve nutrient and water acquisition of their host. Until now it is unclear whether the species richness of ECM fungi is beneficial for tree seedling performance, be it during moist conditions or drought. We performed a pot experiment using Pinus sylvestris seedlings inoculated with four selected ECM fungi (Cenococcum geophilum, Paxillus involutus, Rhizopogon roseolus and Suillus granulatus) to investigate (i) whether these four ECM fungi, in monoculture or in species mixtures, affect growth of P. sylvestris seedlings, and (ii) whether this effect can be attributed to species number per se or to species identity. Two different watering regimes (moist vs. dry) were applied to examine the context-dependency of the results. Additionally, we assessed the activity of eight extracellular enzymes in the root tips. Shoot growth was enhanced in the presence of S. granulatus, but not by any other ECM fungal species. The positive effect of S. granulatus on shoot growth was more pronounced under moist (threefold increase) than under dry conditions (twofold increase), indicating that the investigated ECM fungi did not provide additional support during drought stress. The activity of secreted extracellular enzymes was higher in S. granulatus than in any other species. In conclusion, our findings suggest that ECM fungal species composition may affect seedling performance in terms of aboveground biomass.

  14. Static and dynamic bending has minor effects on xylem hydraulics of conifer branches (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Stefan; Bertel, Clara; Dämon, Birgit; Beikircher, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    The xylem hydraulic efficiency and safety is usually measured on mechanically unstressed samples, although trees may be exposed to combined hydraulic and mechanical stress in the field. We analysed changes in hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism during static bending of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris branches as well as the effect of dynamic bending on the vulnerability. We hypothesized this mechanical stress to substantially impair xylem hydraulics. Intense static bending caused an only small decrease in hydraulic conductance (-19.5 ± 2.4% in P. abies) but no shift in vulnerability thresholds. Dynamic bending caused a 0.4 and 0.8 MPa decrease of the water potential at 50 and 88% loss of conductivity in P. sylvestris, but did not affect vulnerability thresholds in P. abies. With respect to applied extreme bending radii, effects on plant hydraulics were surprisingly small and are thus probably of minor eco-physiological importance. More importantly, results indicate that available xylem hydraulic analyses (of conifers) sufficiently reflect plant hydraulics under field conditions. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The fate of recently fixed carbon after drought release: towards unravelling C storage regulation in Tilia platyphyllos and Pinus sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiano, Lucía; Timofeeva, Galina; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Hommel, Robert; Gessler, Arthur

    2017-09-01

    Carbon reserves are important for maintaining tree function during and after stress. Increasing tree mortality driven by drought globally has renewed the interest in how plants regulate allocation of recently fixed C to reserve formation. Three-year-old seedlings of two species (Tilia platyphyllos and Pinus sylvestris) were exposed to two intensities of experimental drought during ~10 weeks, and 13 C pulse labelling was subsequently applied with rewetting. Tracking the 13 C label across different organs and C compounds (soluble sugars, starch, myo-inositol, lipids and cellulose), together with the monitoring of gas exchange and C mass balances over time, allowed for the identification of variations in C allocation priorities and tree C balances that are associated with drought effects and subsequent drought release. The results demonstrate that soluble sugars accumulated in P. sylvestris under drought conditions independently of growth trends; thus, non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) formation cannot be simply considered a passive overflow process in this species. Once drought ceased, C allocation to storage was still prioritized at the expense of growth, which suggested the presence of 'drought memory effects', possibly to ensure future growth and survival. On the contrary, NSC and growth dynamics in T. platyphyllos were consistent with a passive (overflow) view of NSC formation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Warming Effects on Pinus sylvestris in the Cold–Dry Siberian Forest–Steppe: Positive or Negative Balance of Trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Shestakova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding climate change impacts on drought-prone forests is a critical issue. We investigated ring-width and stable isotopes (Δ13C and δ18O in two Pinus sylvestris stands of the cold–dry Siberian forest–steppe growing under contrasting climatic trends over the last 75 years. Despite regional warming, there was increasing precipitation during the growing period at the southern site (MIN but increasing water deficit (WD at the northern site (BER. Intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi increased similarly (ca. 22% in response to warming and rising atmospheric CO2. However, the steady increase in WUEi was accompanied by divergent growth patterns since 1980: increasing basal area increment (BAI in MIN (slope = 0.102 cm2 year−2 and decreasing BAI in BER (slope = −0.129 cm2 year−2. This suggests that increased precipitation, mediated by CO2 effects, promoted growth in MIN, whereas intensified drought stress led to decreased carbon gain and productivity in BER. When compared to warm–dry stands of eastern Spain, the WUEi dependence on WD was three-fold greater in Siberia. Conversely, BAI was more affected by the relative impact of water stress within each region. These results indicate contrasting future trajectories of P. sylvestris forests, which challenge forecasting growth and carbon sequestration in cold–dry areas.

  17. Saturated salt method determination of hysteresis of Pinus sylvestris L. wood for 35 ºC isotherms

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    García Esteban, L.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The saturated salts method was used in this study to quantify hysteresis in Pinus sylvestris L. wood, in an exercise that involved plotting the 35 ºC desorption and sorption isotherms. Nine salts were used, all of which establish stable and known relative humidity values when saturated in water The wood was kept at the relative humidity generated by each of these salts until the equilibrium moisture content (EMC was reached, both in the water loss or desorption, and the water uptake or sorption processes. The Guggenheim method was used to fit the values obtained to the respective curves. Hysteresis was evaluated in terms of the hysteresis coefficient, for which a mean value of 0.87 was found.

    Con este trabajo se ha cuantificado la histéresis de la madera de Pinus sylvestris L. Para ello, se han construido las isotermas de 35 ºC de adsorción y sorción, mediante el método de las sales saturadas. Se han utilizado nueve sales que cuando se saturan en agua dan lugar a unas humedades relativas estables y conocidas. La madera fue colocada bajo las distintas humedades relativas que confieren cada una de las sales hasta que alcanzaron las distintas humedades de equilibrio higroscópico, tanto en el proceso de pérdida de agua o desorción, como en el de adquisición de agua o de sorción. Los valores obtenidos fueron ajustados a las respectivas sigmoides, haciendo uso del método de Guggenheim. La valoración de la histéresis se determinó mediante el coeficiente de histéresis, obteniendo un valor medio de 0,87.

  18. Mechanical properties of wood from Pinus sylvestris L. treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative and with waterborne Copper Azole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Villasante

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To determine the effect on wood from Pinus sylvestris of treatment with preservatives on mechanical properties and to establish the relation between the penetration and compression strength.Area of study: SpainMaterial and Methods: 40 samples of defect-free wood from Pinus sylvestris L. were treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative (Vacsol Azure WR 2601 and 50 with waterborne Copper Azole (Tanalith E 3492. 40 control samples were not treated (water or preservative. Mechanical resistance to static bending, modulus of elasticity and compression strength parallel to the grain were compared with untreated wood. Regression analysis between the penetration and compression strength parallel was done with the samples treated with waterborne preservative.Main results: The results indicate that the treated wood (with either product presents a statistically significant increase in mechanical resistance in all three mechanical characteristics. The results obtained differ from earlier studies carried out by other authors.There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation of the wood with waterborne Copper Azole . The most probable explanation for these results concerns changes in pressure during treatment.The use of untreated control samples instead of samples treated only with water is more likely to produce significant results in the mechanical resistance studies.Research highlights: Treated wood presents a statistically significant increase in MOE, modulus of rupture to static bending  and parallel compression strength.There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation with waterborne preservative.Keywords: Light Organic Solvent Preservative; MOE; parallel compression; static bending; waterborne Copper Azole; wood technology.

  19. The complete plastid genome of Bunge's pine Pinus bungeana (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Hu; Zhu, Juan; Yang, Yi-Xin; Yang, Jie; He, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Bunge's pine Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl. chloroplast genome (cp DNA) was determined in this study. The cpDNA was 117 861 bp in length, containing a pair of 475 bp inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb), which were separated by large and small single copy regions (LSC and SSC) of 65 373 and 51 538 bp, respectively. The cpDNA contained 111 genes, including 71 protein-coding genes (71 PCG species), 4 ribosomal RNA genes (4 rRNA species) and 36 tRNA genes (32 tRNA species). In these genes, 13 harbored a single intron and 1 (ycf3) contained a couple of introns. The overall AT content of Bunge's pine cpDNA is 61.2%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC and IR regions are 61.9%, 60.2% and 62.5%, respectively. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on the maximum parsimony analysis suggested that all the sampled Pinus species clustered a monophyletic clade and have a high bootstrap support, and the cpDNA of P. bungeana is closely related to that of congeneric P. gerardiana.

  20. Genetic conservation and management of the Californian endemic, Torrey Pine (Pinus torreyana Parry)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Hamilton; Jessica W. Wright; F. Thomas. Ledig

    2017-01-01

    Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana) is one of the rarest pine species in the world. Restricted to one mainland and one island population in California, Torrey pine is a species of conservation concern under threat due to low population sizes, lack of genetic variation, and environmental stochasticity. Previous research points to a lack of within population variation that is...

  1. [Responses of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica radial growth to climate warming in Great Xing' an Mountins: a case study in Mangui].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing-Liang; He, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Zhen-Ju; Cui, Ming-Xing; Li, Na

    2011-12-01

    Based on the theory and methodology of dendrochronology, the tree ring width chronology of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in Mangui of Great Xing' an Mountains was developed, and the relationships between the standardized tree ring width chronology and local climate factors (temperature and precipitation) as well as the effects of climate factors on the P. sylvestris var. mongolica radial growth were analyzed. In this region, the mean monthly temperature in April-August of current year was the main factor limiting the radial growth, and the increasing mean monthly temperature from April to August had negative effects to the radial growth. The simulation of the variations of the radial growth by the mean monthly temperature change in April-August showed that the radial growth of P. sylvestris var. mongolica would present a declining trend accompanied with the warmer and drier regional climate condition.

  2. Cryopreservation of ectomycorrhizal fungi has minor effects on root colonization of Pinus sylvestris plantlets and their subsequent nutrient uptake capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crahay, Charlotte; Wevers, Jan; Munaut, Françoise; Colpaert, Jan V; Declerck, Stéphane

    2013-08-01

    The use of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi for afforestation, bioremediation, and timber production requires their maintenance over long periods under conditions that preserve their genetic, phenotypic, and physiological stability. Cryopreservation is nowadays considered as the most suitable method to maintain the phenotypic and genetic stability of a large number of filamentous fungi including the ECM fungi. Here, we compared the ability of eight ECM fungal isolates to colonize Pinus sylvestris roots and to transport inorganic phosphate (Pi) and NH4 (+) from the substrate to the plant after cryopreservation for 6 months at -130 °C or after storage at 4 °C. Overall, the mode of preservation had no significant effect on the colonization rates of P. sylvestris, the concentrations of ergosterol in the roots and substrate, and the uptake of Pi and NH4 (+). Comparing the isolates, differences were sometimes observed with one or the other method of preservation. Suillus bovinus exhibited a reduced ability to form mycorrhizas and to take up Pi following cryopreservation, while one Suillus luteus isolate exhibited a decreased ability to take up NH4 (+). Conversely, Hebeloma crustuliniforme, Laccaria bicolor, Paxillus involutus, and Pisolithus tinctorius exhibited a reduced ability to form mycorrhizas after storage at 4 °C, although this did not result in a reduced uptake of Pi and NH4 (+). Cryopreservation appeared as a reliable method to maintain important phenotypic characteristics (i.e., root colonization and nutrient acquisition) of most of the ECM fungal isolates studied. For 50 % of the ECM fungal isolates, the colonization rate was even higher with the cultures cryopreserved at -130 °C as compared to those stored at 4 °C.

  3. Morphological and ecological variation of Gremmeniella abietina var. abietina in Pinus sylvestris, Pinus contorta and Picea abies sapling stands in northern Finland and the Kola Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaitera, Juha; Seitamaeki, Leena; Jalkanen, Risto [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Rovaniemi (Finland). Rovaniemi Research Station

    2000-07-01

    The morphological and ecological variation of two types of Gremmeniella abietina var. abietina causing scleroderris canker on conifers was investigated in Pinus spp. and Picea sp. sapling stands in northern Finland and the Kola Peninsula. Small-tree type (STT or B type) of G. abietina was detected alone in 13 Scots pine, three lodgepole pine and two Norway spruce sapling stands out of 26 stands investigated, both STT and large-tree type (LTT or A type) were observed in six Scots pine stands, and LTT was detected alone in two Scots pine stands. For the first time, G. abietina was found to injure Norway spruce saplings in a respective plantation in northern Fennoscandia. STT isolates produced statistically significantly more conidia in vitro than LTT isolates. Morphological variation in conidia septation revealed that STT produced conidia with more than five septa more frequently than did LTT. There was a greater range in variation in septation in STT than in LTT, with overlapping between the types. Isolates of both types were equally associated with cankers, coloured wood, pycnidia or apothecia in the infected saplings.

  4. The essential oil qualitative and quantitative composition in the needles of Pinus sylvestris L. growing along industrial transects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupcinskiene, Eugenija; Stikliene, Aida; Judzentiene, Asta

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Pinus sylvestris growing in the areas affected by a cement factory (CF), and an oil refinery (OR). Volatile components of the needles were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The most heavily polluted CF stand had significantly higher concentration of gamma-Terpinene, Caryophyllene oxide in the current-year needles, while higher concentration of delta-3-Carene, alpha-Terpinene, gamma-Terpinene and Terpinolene was documented for 1-year-old needles. The most heavily polluted OR stand had a significantly higher concentration of Sabinene+beta-Pinene, 1-epi-Cubenol in the current-year needles and a significantly higher concentration of Camphene, Sabinene+beta-Pinene, Myrcene, alpha-Cadinene, 1-epi-Cubenol in the 1-year-old needles than the least polluted site. Along transects an increase in the amount of some diterpenes and a decrease in the components of the shorter chain essential oils was observed. These effects could be at least partially attributed to SO(2).

  5. The Impact of Moss Species and Biomass on the Growth of Pinus sylvestris Tree Seedlings at Different Precipitation Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babs M. Stuiver

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Boreal forests are characterized by an extensive moss layer, which may have both competitive and facilitative effects on forest regeneration. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to investigate how variation in moss species and biomass, in combination with precipitation frequency, affect Pinus sylvestris seedling growth. We found that moss species differed in their effects on seedling growth, and moss biomass had negative effects on seedlings, primarily when it reached maximal levels. When moss biomass was maximal, seedling biomass decreased, whereas height and above- relative to below-ground mass increased, due to competition for light. The effect that moss biomass had on seedling performance differed among the moss species. Hylocomium splendens and Polytrichum commune reduced seedling growth the most, likely because of their taller growth form. Seedlings were not adversely affected by Sphagnum girgensohnii and Pleurozium schreberi, possibly because they were not tall enough to compete for light and improved soil resource availability. Reduced precipitation frequency decreased the growth of all moss species, except P. commune, while it impaired the growth of seedlings only when they were grown with P. commune. Our findings suggest that changes in moss species and biomass, which can be altered by disturbance or climate change, can influence forest regeneration.

  6. Natural Regeneration in a Multi-Layered Pinus sylvestris-Picea abies Forest after Target Diameter Harvest and Soil Scarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Drössler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest management in Sweden can be characterized by even-aged silviculture heavily relying on three established harvest regimes: clearcutting, the seed-tree method, and the shelterwood system. Less intense, small-scale retention harvest systems such as single tree and group selection harvest are rarely used. In addition, natural regeneration dynamics without enrichment planting have barely been studied. Consequently, this study examined natural regeneration establishment in a multi-layered Pinus sylvestris-Picea abies forest stand in southwest Sweden after target diameter harvesting and soil scarification. The creation of forest canopy gaps had a positive effect on total seedling density five years after harvest, mainly due to a significantly higher number of Betula pendula individuals. Seedling density of more desirable tree species suitable for continuous cover forestry such as Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and Picea abies also increased substantially in gaps when compared to pre-harvest conditions or the unharvested plots. In contrast, soil scarification did not increase the number of seedlings of desired tree species due to a significant decrease in Picea abies abundance. Soil moisture and gap size significantly improved Betula pendula seedling establishment while a larger number of Quercus petraea seedlings were observed in Vaccinium myrtillus patches. We conclude that canopy gaps are beneficial under the encountered stand conditions to initiate forest regeneration, and that soil scarification without the timely occurrence of a mast year of desired tree species is not effective in the type of forest studied.

  7. Bacterial microbiomes of individual ectomycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris roots are shaped by soil horizon and differentially sensitive to nitrogen addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marupakula, Srisailam; Mahmood, Shahid; Jernberg, Johanna; Nallanchakravarthula, Srivathsa; Fahad, Zaenab A; Finlay, Roger D

    2017-11-01

    Plant roots select non-random communities of fungi and bacteria from the surrounding soil that have effects on their health and growth, but we know little about the factors influencing their composition. We profiled bacterial microbiomes associated with individual ectomycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris roots colonized by different fungi and analyzed differences in microbiome structure related to soils from distinct podzol horizons and effects of short-term additions of N, a growth-limiting nutrient commonly applied as a fertilizer, but known to influence patterns of carbon allocation to roots. Ectomycorrhizal roots growing in soil from different horizons harboured distinct bacterial communities. The fungi colonizing individual roots had a strong effect on the associated bacterial communities. Even closely related species within the same ectomycorrhizal genus had distinct bacterial microbiomes in unfertilized soil, but fertilization removed this specificity. Effects of N were rapid and context dependent, being influenced by both soil type and the particular ectomycorrhizal fungi involved. Fungal community composition changed in soil from all horizons, but bacteria only responded strongly to N in soil from the B horizon where community structure was different and bacterial diversity was significantly reduced, possibly reflecting changed carbon allocation patterns. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Growth and photosynthetic responses of two pine species (Pinus koraiensis and Pinus rigida) in a polluted industrial region in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, D.S.; Kayama, M.; Jin, H.O.; Lee, C.H.; Izuta, T.; Koike, T.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of pollutants on two pine species (Pinus koraiensis and Pinus rigida) in an industrial region in Korea, using a physiological approach. The concentrations of fluorine (F) and chlorine (Cl) in the atmosphere, in precipitation and soil water at the damaged site were all significantly higher than at a control site. Moreover, the concentrations of F, Cl and Mn in pine needles were significantly higher, and essential elements and chlorophyll in needles were significantly lower at the damaged site than at the control site. The photosynthetic capacities, shoot length and survival statistics of needles of the two pines were all significantly reduced at the damaged site compared to the control site, especially P. rigida. Based on our comparison of photosynthetic responses and the concentrations of F, Cl and Mn in needles of the two pine species, P. koraiensis is more resistant to excess Mn in its needles than P. rigida. - Pinus koraiensis seems to be more pollution tolerant than Pinus rigida

  9. Long-term effect of wildfires on temperate Pinus sylvestris forests: Vegetation dynamics and ecosystem resilience

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adámek, Martin; Hadincová, Věroslava; Wild, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 380, NOV 15 (2016), s. 285-295 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22658S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Scots pine * succession * sandstone Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.064, year: 2016

  10. Geographic patterns of genetic variation and population structure in Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Betsy A. Goodrich; Valerie Hipkins; Christopher Richards; Julie Kray

    2012-01-01

    Pinus aristata Engelm., Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, has a narrow core geographic and elevational distribution, occurs in disjunct populations, and is threatened by rapid climate change, white pine blister rust, and bark beetles. Knowledge of genetic diversity and population structure will help guide gene conservation strategies for this species. Sixteen sites...

  11. Reproduction ecology of Pinus halepensis : a monoecious, wind-pollinated and partially serotinous Mediterranean pine tree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goubitz, Shirrinka

    2001-01-01

    Fire is an important factor in the evolution and ecology of Mediterranean plant species. The fire frequency has increased in the 20st century. Pines are the most important tree species in the area. Pinus halepensis is the only natural pine in parts of the east Mediterranean basin, such as Israel and

  12. The genetics of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata mill.) with implications for restoration and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Stewart; Rodney E. Will; Barbara S. Crane; C. Dana Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) is an important commercial timber resource and forest ecosystem component in the southeastern USA. The species occurs in mainly drier sites as an early- to mid-successional species, is fireadapted, and it plays an important role in the fire ecology of the region. However, shortleaf pine genetics are not well-studied, especially in...

  13. The utility of Pinus sylvestris L. in dendrochemical investigations: Pollution impact of lead mining and smelting in Darley Dale, Derbyshire, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lageard, J.G.A.; Howell, J.A.; Rothwell, J.J.; Drew, I.B.

    2008-01-01

    This research investigates atmospheric pollution from an isolated and increasingly productive lead-smelting site by examining the dendrochemistry of Pinus sylvestris growing in the local environment and at control sites. Tree increment cores and soil in the rooting environment were analysed for lead content. Inter-site comparisons of lead-in-soil suggest that contamination of the soil may be a less important pathway for lead inclusion within wood than pathways via bark or needles. Levels of lead-in-wood (up to 38 mg kg -1 ) are at the upper end of those previously reported. There is evidence of radial translocation of lead towards the heartwood and variability in intra-site dendrochemical records. Mean site lead-in-wood records can however be related to a well-documented pollution chronology and also suggest the importance of local topography in the dispersal and deposition of particulate lead. This study demonstrates that P. sylvestris can be used to estimate the scale and timing of past pollution episodes in similar environmental contexts to those investigated at Darley Dale, where precisely dated pollution chronologies are lacking. - Mean site dendrochemical records for Pinus sylvestris can be used to estimate the general scale and timing of atmospheric pollution episodes

  14. Characterisation of bacteria from Pinus sylvestris-Suillus luteus mycorrhizas and their effects on root-fungus interactions and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bending, Gary D; Poole, Elizabeth J; Whipps, John M; Read, David J

    2002-03-01

    Bacteria from Pinus sylvestris-Suillus luteus mycorrhizas were isolated, characterised, and their effects on P. sylvestris-S. luteus interactions and plant growth investigated in vitro. The isolates formed five distinct phenotypic and physiological groups. Two of the groups, accounting for 34 of the 55 isolates, consisted of Bacillus spp., with three subgroups represented. The other groups contained Burkholderia spp., Serratia spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Representatives from each bacterial group were used in microcosm experiments to investigate bacterial effects on P. sylvestris-S. luteus interactions. Most Bacillus isolates stimulated growth of S. luteus along the P. sylvestris root, while isolates of Pseudomonas and Serratia inhibited root colonisation by the fungus. Burkholderia and Serratia isolates inhibited ectomycorrhiza formation by 97 and 41% respectively, while a single Bacillus isolate doubled the formation of first order ectomycorrhizal roots. There were no clear relationships between effects of the bacteria on root colonisation by the fungus after 4 weeks, and chitinase production or subsequent ectomycorrhiza formation. However, isolates that inhibited ectomycorrhiza formation appeared to associate preferentially with ectomycorrhizal roots. Several isolates enhanced plant growth substantially, although these effects were unrelated to either root colonisation by the fungus or ectomycorrhiza formation.

  15. First report of the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola, infecting Pinus flexilis on Pine Mountain, Humboldt National Forest, Elko County, northeastern Nevada, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlev R. Vogler; Patricia E. Maloney; Tom Burt; Jacob W. Snelling

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, while surveying for five-needle white pine cone crops in northeastern Nevada, we observed white pine blister rust, caused by the rust pathogen Cronartium ribicola Fisch., infecting branches and stems of limber pines (Pinus flexilis James) on Pine Mountain (41.76975°N, 115.61622°W), Humboldt National Forest,...

  16. Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháčová, Kateřina; Bäck, J.; Vanhatalo, A.; Halmeenmäki, E.; Kolari, P.; Mammarella, I.; Pumpanen, J.; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, mar (2016), s. 23410 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0246 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : CH4 * N2O * greenhouse gas * emission * gas flux * tree emission * tree * stem * shoot * forest floor * Scots pine * soil moisture * ecosystem exchange Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  17. Using Landsat satellite imagery to detect small-size forest stands of Pinus nigra Arn. and Pinus sylvestris L. affected by Scolytidae; Uso de imagenes satelite Landsat para la deteccion de rodales de Pinus nigra Arn. y Pinus sylvestris L. afectados por escolitidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, E.; Bonet, J. A.; Eizaguirre, M.

    2009-07-01

    Medium resolution images from multispectral sensors like Landsat TM have been extensively used for decades in order to identify decline and defoliation generated by insects and other forest pests. The present work analyses the usefulness of these kinds of images to detect small-size stands of Pinus nigra Arn. and Pinus sylvestris L. affected by Scolytidae attacks. The study area was located in the Solsones region (Eastern Pyrenees), selecting 34 training zones (17 damaged small-size stands and 17 healthy small-size stands). The exploratory analysis of the images was conducted with the ERDAS IMAGINE 8.x. program.The results of the study showed significant differences between the affected and non-affected stands in 5 of the 7 spectral bands analysed. TM5 and TM7 bands were identified as those having the highest power to detect damaged stands. The digital levels obtained and the spaces of characteristics created, both showed trends to group small-size affected stands versus healthy, achieving improvements in the methodological procedure employed. (Author) 31 refs.

  18. Cambial injury in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta): mountain pine beetle vs fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbellay, Estelle; Daniels, Lori D; Mansfield, Shawn D; Chang, Alice S

    2017-12-01

    Both mountain pine beetle (MPB) Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins and fire leave scars with similar appearance on lodgepole pine Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. that have never been compared microscopically, despite the pressing need to determine the respective effects of MPB and fire injury on tree physiology. We analysed changes in wood formation in naturally caused scars on lodgepole pine, and tested the hypotheses that (i) MPB and fire injury elicit distinct anomalies in lodgepole pine wood and (ii) anomalies differ in magnitude and/or duration between MPB and fire. Mountain pine beetle and fire injury reduced radial growth in the first year post-injury. Otherwise, radial growth and wood density increased over more than 10 years in both MPB and fire scars. We found that the general increase in radial growth was of greater magnitude (up to 27%) and of longer duration (up to 5 years) in fire scars compared with MPB scars, as shown in earlywood width. We also observed that the increase in latewood density was of greater magnitude (by 12%) in MPB scars, but of longer duration (by 4 years) in fire scars. Crystallinity decreased following MPB and fire injury, while microfibril angle increased. These changes in fibre traits were of longer duration (up to 4 years) in MPB scars compared with fire scars, as shown in microfibril angle. We found no significant changes in carbon and nitrogen concentrations. In conclusion, we stress that reduced competition and resistance to cavitation play an important role alongside cambial injury in influencing the type and severity of changes. In addition, more research is needed to validate the thresholds introduced in this study. Our findings serve as a foundation for new protocols to distinguish between bark beetle and fire disturbance, which is essential for improving our knowledge of historical bark beetle and fire regimes, and their interactions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All

  19. VEGETAL ASSOCIATIONS EDIFIED BY PINUS SYLVESTRIS L. IN NEAGRA BROŞTENILOR HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARDARI CONSTANTIN

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of the natural habitats specific to Neagra Broşteni hydrographical basin have favoured installation of two different types of pine phytocoenoses. Although both of these plants communities are characteristic to acid substrata, one is specific to oligotrophic peat - bogs (Oxycocco – Sphagnetea and the other to mountain versants presenting acidophilous soils and accentuated slopes (Vaccinio – Piceetea. These vegetal associations are presented in phytosociological tables and analysed in this paper from the bioforms, floristic elements and ecological requests perspectives.

  20. Response to lead pollution: mycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris forms the biomineral pyromorphite in roots and needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizo, Maria L; Nietzsche, Sandor; Mansfeld, Ulrich; Langenhorst, Falko; Majzlan, Juraj; Göttlicher, Jörg; Ozunu, Alexandru; Formann, Steffi; Krause, Katrin; Kothe, Erika

    2017-06-01

    The development of mycorrhized pine seedlings grown in the presence of lead was assessed in order to investigate how higher plants can tolerate lead pollution in the environment. Examination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that Pb uptake was prominent in the roots, while a smaller amount was found in pine needles, which requires symplastic uptake and root-to-shoot transfer. Lead was concentrated in nanocrystalline aggregates attached to the cell wall and, according to elemental microanalyses, is associated with phosphorus and chlorine. The identification of the nanocrystalline phase in roots and needles was performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction (μ-XRD), revealing the presence of pyromorphite, Pb 5 [PO 4 ] 3 (Cl, OH), in both roots and needles. The extracellular embedding of pyromorphite within plant cell walls, featuring an indented appearance of the cell wall due to a callus-like outcrop of minerals, suggests a biogenic origin. This biomineralization is interpreted as a defense mechanism of the plant against lead pollution.

  1. Soil and Root Respiration Under Elevated CO2 Concentrations During Seedling Growth of Pinus sylvestris var. sylvestriformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of higher CO2 concentrations (500 and 700 μmol mol-1) in atmosphere on total soil respiration and the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration during seedling growth of Pinus sylvestris var. sylvestriformis. During the four growing seasons (May-October) from 1999 to 2003, the seedlings were exposed to elevated concentrations of CO2 in open-top chambers. The total soil respiration and contribution of root respiration were measured using an LI-6400-09 soil CO2 flux chamber on June 15 and October 8, 2003. To separate root respiration from total soil respiration, three PVC cylinders were inserted approximately 30 cm deep into the soil in each chamber. There were marked diurnal changes in air and soil temperatures on June 15. Both the total soil respiration and the soil respiration without roots showed a strong diurnal pattern, increasing from before sunrise to about 14:00in the afternoon and then decreasing before the next sunrise. No increase in the mean total soil respiration and mean soil respiration with roots severed was observed under the elevated CO2 treatments on June 15, 2003, as compared to the open field and control chamber with ambient CO2. However, on October 8, 2003, the total soil respiration and soil respiration with roots severed in the open field were lower than those in the control and elevated CO2 chambers. The mean contribution of root respiration measured on June 15, 2003, ranged from 8.3% to 30.5% and on October 8, 2003,from 20.6% to 48.6%.

  2. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the biosorption of textile dye (Reactive Red 195) onto Pinus sylvestris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksakal, Ozkan; Ucun, Handan

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the biosorption of Reactive Red 195 (RR 195), an azo dye, from aqueous solution by using cone biomass of Pinus sylvestris Linneo. To this end, pH, initial dye concentration, biomass dosage and contact time were studied in a batch biosorption system. Maximum pH for efficient RR 195 biosorption was found to be 1.0 and the initial RR 195 concentration increased with decreasing percentage removal. Biosorption capacity increased from 6.69 mg/g at 20 deg. C to 7.38 mg/g at 50 deg. C for 200 mg/L dye concentration. Kinetics of the interactions was tested by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics, the Elovich equation and intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided a better correlation for the experimental data studied in comparison to the pseudo-first-order kinetic model and intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Moreover, the Elovich equation also showed a good fit to the experimental data. Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were used for the mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium data. The activation energy of biosorption (Ea) was found to be 8.904 kJ/mol by using the Arrhenius equation. Using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficients obtained at different temperatures, the study also evaluated the thermodynamic constants of biosorption (ΔG o , ΔH o and ΔS). The results indicate that cone biomass can be used as an effective and low-cost biosorbent to remove reactive dyes from aqueous solution.

  3. Pinus sylvestris L. needle surface wettability parameters as indicators of atmospheric environment pollution impacts: Novel contact angle hysteresis methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorzelski, Stanisław J.; Rochowski, Pawel; Szurkowski, Janusz

    2014-02-01

    An investigation of water contact angles (CAs), contact angle hysteresis (CAH) was carried out for 1-year to 4-year old needles (Pinus sylvestris) collected in urban (Gdansk) and rural (Karsin) locations using an original measuring technique based on the geometry of the drop on a vertical filament. Concentrations of air pollutants (SO2, NOx, C6H6, and suspended particular matter - SPM) currently considered to be most important in causing direct damage to vegetation were simultaneously monitored. A set of the surface wettability parameters: the apparent surface free energy γSV, adhesive film tension Π, work of adhesion WA, and spreading WS, were determined from CAH data using the approach developed by Chibowski (2003) to quantify the surface energetics of the needle substrata affected by aging and pollution impacts. This formalism relates the total apparent surface free energy of the solid γSV with only three measurable quantities: the surface tension of the probe liquid γLV and its advancing θA and receding θR contact angle hysteresis. Since CAH depends on the outermost wax layer surface roughness and spatial physicochemical heterogeneity of a solid surface, CA data were corrected using surface architecture profiles registered with confocal scanning laser microscopy. It was found that the roughness parameter r is significantly negatively correlated (R = -0.74) with the needle age (collected at Karsin). The needle surface aging process resulted in its surface hydrophilization (CA↓ and CAH↓ with γSV↑ and WA↑). A temporal evolution of the needles wettability was traced with the data point distribution in the 2D space of CAH plotted versus WS. The wettability parameters were closely correlated to pollutant concentrations as evidenced from Spearman's rank correlation procedure (R = 0.63-0.91; p biological systems.

  4. Effects of environmental biomass-producing factors on Cd uptake in two Swedish ecotypes of Pinus sylvestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekvall, Lars; Greger, Maria

    2003-03-01

    Cadmium uptake in Scots pine seedlings was mainly regulated by biomass production. - A factorial design was used to study direct effects of external biomass-producing factors such as light, temperature and photoperiod on cadmium (Cd) uptake and indirect effects, via change in biomass production in two ecotypes of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris). The aim was to find out if the external factors affect the Cd uptake directly or via change in biomass production, and if the effect differs between ecotypes. Seedlings were grown under 10 combinations of external factors, i.e. temperature (15 and 20 deg. C), light intensity (50 and 200 {mu}mol photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1}), photoperiod (18 h light/8 h darkness and continuous light) and external Cd concentration (totally 1.88 and 7.50 {mu}mol). The treatment lasted for 18 days and Cd concentrations in roots and shoots were determined by AAS. The results showed that an increased biomass production increased the total Cd uptake but had a dilution effect on the Cd concentration, especially in the root tissues. The external factors tested did not have any direct effects on the Cd uptake, only in the case of Cd translocation to the shoot did the higher temperature show a direct increase, but only in the southern ecotype. The two ecotypes reacted differently in Cd uptake and translocation to the external factors studied. The relative Cd uptake increased with increasing photoperiod in the northern but not in the southern ecotype. The southern ecotype decreased the Cd concentration in the shoot with increased light intensity caused by a dilution effect due to extensive shoot growth of this ecotype. The conclusion is that the uptake in pine seedlings is mainly regulated via biomass production, and not directly by light and temperature and that resulting plant Cd contents to a certain extent depend on plant origin.

  5. Effects of environmental biomass-producing factors on Cd uptake in two Swedish ecotypes of Pinus sylvestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekvall, Lars; Greger, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium uptake in Scots pine seedlings was mainly regulated by biomass production. - A factorial design was used to study direct effects of external biomass-producing factors such as light, temperature and photoperiod on cadmium (Cd) uptake and indirect effects, via change in biomass production in two ecotypes of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris). The aim was to find out if the external factors affect the Cd uptake directly or via change in biomass production, and if the effect differs between ecotypes. Seedlings were grown under 10 combinations of external factors, i.e. temperature (15 and 20 deg. C), light intensity (50 and 200 μmol photons m -2 s -1 ), photoperiod (18 h light/8 h darkness and continuous light) and external Cd concentration (totally 1.88 and 7.50 μmol). The treatment lasted for 18 days and Cd concentrations in roots and shoots were determined by AAS. The results showed that an increased biomass production increased the total Cd uptake but had a dilution effect on the Cd concentration, especially in the root tissues. The external factors tested did not have any direct effects on the Cd uptake, only in the case of Cd translocation to the shoot did the higher temperature show a direct increase, but only in the southern ecotype. The two ecotypes reacted differently in Cd uptake and translocation to the external factors studied. The relative Cd uptake increased with increasing photoperiod in the northern but not in the southern ecotype. The southern ecotype decreased the Cd concentration in the shoot with increased light intensity caused by a dilution effect due to extensive shoot growth of this ecotype. The conclusion is that the uptake in pine seedlings is mainly regulated via biomass production, and not directly by light and temperature and that resulting plant Cd contents to a certain extent depend on plant origin

  6. Dynamics of Pinus sylvestris L. needles activity in Predbaikal’ye forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Romanova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to analyse changes in peroxidase activity of common pine needles throughout the year. The needles of the 1-st, 2-nd and 3-d years were collected. Total activity of guaiacol-dependent peroxidase was determined. Minimum peroxidase activity is observed in January and February. In March intense overall activation of peroxidase is observed in the needles of all ages, which might be related to spring enhancement of physiological processes and activation of metabolism. Autumn period is characterized by more or less high activities of guaiacol peroxidase from September till November, which is related to its participation in stress-adaptation to low temperatures in winter. Peroxidase activity changes depending on the season of the year. Needles of different age are characterized by their own peroxidase activity level in various time periods.

  7. Fungicidal control of Lophodermium seditiosum on Pinus sylvestris seedlings in Swedish forest nurseries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenstroem, Elna [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology; Arvidsson, Bernt [Svenska Skogsplantor AB, Joenkoeping (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    During the 1990s, there were serious outbreaks of the pathogen Lophodermium seditiosum on pine seedlings in Swedish forest nurseries, even though the seedlings had been treated with the fungicide propiconazole. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate two other fungicides, fluazinam and azoxystrobin, as possible alternatives to propiconazole. In the tests, which were all carried out in the same forest nursery, seedlings were treated with either propiconazole, fluazinam. or azoxystrobin, and the proportion of needles with ascocarps of L. seditiosum and the number of ascocarps per needle were recorded over the following 2 yrs. Seedlings treated with azoxystrobin already appeared healthier than control seedlings in September of the first year, and by November all azoxystrobin-treated seedlings had fewer ascocarps per needle compared with control seedlings. In autumn of the second year, there were no ascocarps on seedlings treated with fluazinam or azoxystrobin, whereas seedlings treated with propiconazole had similar numbers of ascocarps to non-treated control seedlings.

  8. Geographic variation in shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) - cortical monoterpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Schmidtling; J.H. Myszewski; C.E. McDaniel

    2005-01-01

    Cortical monoterpenes were assayed in bud tissue from 16 Southwide Southern Pine Seed Source Study (SSPSS) sources and from 6 seed orchard sources fiom across the natural range of the species, to examine geogaphic variation in shortleaf pine. Spruce pine and pond pine were also sampled. The results show geographic differences in all of the major terpenes. There was no...

  9. Pinus sylvestris switches respiration substrates under shading but not during drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Henrik; Fischer, Sarah; Hanf, Stefan; Frosch, Torsten; Poppp, Jürgen; Trumbore, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Reduced carbon assimilation during prolonged drought forces trees to rely on stored carbon to maintain vital processes like respiration. It has been shown, however, that the use of carbohydrates, a major carbon storage pool and main respiratory substrate in plants, strongly declines with deceasing plant hydration. Yet, no empirical evidence has been produced to what degree other carbon storage compounds like lipids and proteins may fuel respiration during drought. We exposed young scots pine trees to carbon limitation using either drought or shading and assessed respiratory substrate use by monitoring the respiratory quotient, δ13C of respired CO2and concentrations of the major storage compounds, i.e. carbohydrates (COH), lipids and amino acids. Generally, respiration was dominated by the most abundant substrate. Only shaded trees shifted from carbohydrate-dominated to lipid-dominated respiration and showed progressive carbohydrate depletion. In drought trees respiration was strongly reduced and fueled with carbohydrates from also strongly reduced carbon assimilation. Initial COH content was maintained during drought probably due to reduced COH mobilization and use and the maintained COH content may have prevented lipid catabolism via sugar signaling. Our results suggest that respiratory substrates other than carbohydrates are used under carbohydrate limitation but not during drought. Thus, respiratory substrate change cannot provide an efficient means to counterbalance carbon limitation under natural drought.

  10. Physiological responses of Pinus sylvestris to changing carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holopainen, T. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Palomaeki, V. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry; Helmisaari, H.S. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this research is to study the effects of elevated ozone, carbon dioxide and their combination on ultrastructural, physiological and biochemical responses of Scots pine needles and how these effects are reflected to photosynthesis, carbohydrate and nutrient allocation and finally to shoot and root growth of trees. In addition the interactions of the studied trees and mycorrhizal fungi as well as insect herbivores are studied. The exposures have been running only for two growing periods and it seems necessary to continue the experiment over the third growing season in 1996. Since the analyses are partially incomplete, only preliminary conclusions are possible at the moment. The slightly increased shoot growth and needle width and increased amount of starch in chloroplasts point to the slight stimulating effect of elevated CO{sub 2} among the chamber treatments. Altogether the growth of the seedlings was best in the chamberless treatment indicating a negative chamber effect. The elevated ozone significantly increased the chlorotic mottling and overall yellowing of second year needles as well as caused increased density of chloroplast stroma and declined photosynthesis, all these responses being often related to ozone exposures. The ozone related responses appeared at both CO{sub 2} levels indicating no clear protection due to elevated CO{sub 2}. The ozone or carbon dioxide treatments were not able to significantly change nutrient concentrations, insect herbivory or carbon allocation among the secondary compounds of needles. A tendency of increased carbon allocation to fine roots due to ozone but not so clearly to CO{sub 2} was observed

  11. Hyperspectral and multispectral satellite sensors for mapping chlorophyll content in a Mediterranean Pinus sylvestris L. plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael Mª; Trujillo, Jesus; de la Orden, Manuel Sánchez; Hernández-Clemente, Rocío

    2014-02-01

    A new generation of narrow-band hyperspectral remote sensing data offers an alternative to broad-band multispectral data for the estimation of vegetation chlorophyll content. This paper examines the potential of some of these sensors comparing red-edge and simple ratio indices to develop a rapid and cost-effective system for monitoring Mediterranean pine plantations in Spain. Chlorophyll content retrieval was analyzed with the red-edge R750/R710 index and the simple ratio R800/R560 index using the PROSPECT-5 leaf model and the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) and experimental approach. Five sensors were used: AHS, CHRIS/Proba, Hyperion, Landsat and QuickBird. The model simulation results obtained with synthetic spectra demonstrated the feasibility of estimating Ca + b content in conifers using the simple ratio R800/R560 index formulated with different full widths at half maximum (FWHM) at the leaf level. This index yielded a r2 = 0.69 for a FWHM of 30 nm and r2 = 0.55 for a FWHM of 70 nm. Experimental results compared the regression coefficients obtained with various multispectral and hyperspectral images with different spatial resolutions at the stand level. The strongest relationships where obtained using high-resolution hyperspectral images acquired with the AHS sensor (r2 = 0.65) while coarser spatial and spectral resolution images yielded a lower root mean square error (QuickBird r2 = 0.42; Landsat r2 = 0.48; Hyperion r2 = 0.56; CHRIS/Proba r2 = 0.57). This study shows the need to estimate chlorophyll content in forest plantations at the stand level with high spatial and spectral resolution sensors. Nevertheless, these results also show the accuracy obtained with medium-resolution sensors when monitoring physiological processes. Generating biochemical maps at the stand level could play a critical rule in the early detection of forest decline processes enabling their use in precision forestry.

  12. Physiological responses of Pinus sylvestris to changing carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holopainen, T [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Palomaeki, V [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry; Helmisaari, H S [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland); and others

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this research is to study the effects of elevated ozone, carbon dioxide and their combination on ultrastructural, physiological and biochemical responses of Scots pine needles and how these effects are reflected to photosynthesis, carbohydrate and nutrient allocation and finally to shoot and root growth of trees. In addition the interactions of the studied trees and mycorrhizal fungi as well as insect herbivores are studied. The exposures have been running only for two growing periods and it seems necessary to continue the experiment over the third growing season in 1996. Since the analyses are partially incomplete, only preliminary conclusions are possible at the moment. The slightly increased shoot growth and needle width and increased amount of starch in chloroplasts point to the slight stimulating effect of elevated CO{sub 2} among the chamber treatments. Altogether the growth of the seedlings was best in the chamberless treatment indicating a negative chamber effect. The elevated ozone significantly increased the chlorotic mottling and overall yellowing of second year needles as well as caused increased density of chloroplast stroma and declined photosynthesis, all these responses being often related to ozone exposures. The ozone related responses appeared at both CO{sub 2} levels indicating no clear protection due to elevated CO{sub 2}. The ozone or carbon dioxide treatments were not able to significantly change nutrient concentrations, insect herbivory or carbon allocation among the secondary compounds of needles. A tendency of increased carbon allocation to fine roots due to ozone but not so clearly to CO{sub 2} was observed

  13. Interactive effects of juvenile defoliation, light conditions, and interspecific competition on growth and ectomycorrhizal colonization of Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocha, Lidia K; Weiser, Ewa; Robakowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Seedlings of forest tree species are exposed to a number of abiotic (organ loss or damage, light shortage) and biotic (interspecific competition) stress factors, which may lead to an inhibition of growth and reproduction and, eventually, to plant death. Growth of the host and its mycorrhizal symbiont is often closely linked, and hence, host damage may negatively affect the symbiont. We designed a pot experiment to study the response of light-demanding Pinus sylvestris and shade-tolerant Fagus sylvatica seedlings to a set of abiotic and biotic stresses and subsequent effects on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root tip colonization, seedling biomass, and leaf nitrogen content. The light regime had a more pronounced effect on ECM colonization than did juvenile damage. The interspecific competition resulted in higher ECM root tip abundance for Pinus, but this effect was insignificant in Fagus. Low light and interspecific competition resulted in lower seedling biomass compared to high light, and the effect of the latter was partially masked by high light. Leaf nitrogen responded differently in Fagus and Pinus when they grew in interspecific competition. Our results indicated that for both light-demanding (Pinus) and shade-tolerant (Fagus) species, the light environment was a major factor affecting seedling growth and ECM root tip abundance. The light conditions favorable for the growth of seedlings may to some extent compensate for the harmful effects of juvenile organ loss or damage and interspecific competition.

  14. Caledonian scots pine: origins and genetic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohun B Kinloch; R. D. Westfall; G. I. Forrest

    1986-01-01

    Monoterpene and isozyme loci, used as markers to study the genetic structure of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native to Scotland, showed that the endemic populations are not genetically impoverished, in spite of severe contraction in range and numbers as a result of both natural and anthropogenic causes. On the contrary, variability in the relict...

  15. Association genetics of growth and adaptive traits in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using whole-exome-discovered polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengmeng Lu; Konstantin V. Krutovsky; C. Dana Nelson; Jason B. West; Nathalie A. Reilly; Carol A. Loopstra

    2017-01-01

    In the USA, forest genetics research began over 100 years ago and loblolly pine breeding programs were established in the 1950s. However, the genetics underlying complex traits of loblolly pine remains to be discovered. To address this, adaptive and growth traits were measured and analyzed in a clonally tested loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) population. Over 2.8 million...

  16. Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) by Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry A.

    2013-01-01

    We report a discovery of black bears (Ursus americanus) consuming seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) on north slopes of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona, in high-elevation, mixed-species conifer forest. In one instance, a bear had obtained seeds from cones excavated from a larder horde made by a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine by bears had not been previously documented. This discovery adds to the number of species of pine used by bears for food as well as the geographic range within which the behavior occurs.

  17. Chloroplast microsatellites reveal population genetic diversity in red pine, Pinus resinosa Ait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig S. Echt; L.L. DeVerno; M. Anzidei; G.G. Vendramin

    1998-01-01

    Variation in paternally inherited chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) DNA was used to study population genetic structure in red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.), a species characterized by morphological uniformity, no allozyme variation, and limited RAPD variation. Using nine cpSSR loci, a total of 23 chloroplast haplotypes and 25 cpSSR alleles were were...

  18. Inheritance of allozyme variants in bishop pine (Pinus muricata D.Don)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1985-01-01

    Isozyme phenotypes are described for 45 structural loci and I modifier locus in bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don,) and segregation data are presented for a subset of 31 polymorphic loci from 19 enzyme systems. All polymorphic loci had alleles that segregated within single-focus Mendelian expectations, although one pair of alleles at each of three...

  19. Fungal endophytes in woody roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Hoff; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald; Jonalea R. Tonn; Mee-Sook Kim; Paul J. Zambino; Paul F. Hessburg; J. D. Rodgers; T. L. Peever; L. M. Carris

    2004-01-01

    The fungal community inhabiting large woody roots of healthy conifers has not been well documented. To provide more information about such communities, a survey was conducted using increment cores from the woody roots of symptomless Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growing in dry forests...

  20. Patterns of resistance to Cronartium ribicola in Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; R. A. Sniezko; A. Kegley; R. Danchok; K. S. Burns

    2012-01-01

    The core distribution of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata Engelm., extends from central Colorado into northern New Mexico, with a disjunct population on the San Francisco Peaks in northern Arizona. Populations are primarily at high elevations and often define the alpine treeline; however, the species can also be found in open mixed conifer stands with...

  1. Nuclear genetic variation across the range of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa): Phylogeographic, taxonomic and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Valerie D. Hipkins; Mary F. Mahalovich; Robert E. Means

    2015-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) is among the most broadly distributed conifer species of western North America, where it possesses considerable ecological, esthetic, and commercial value. It exhibits complicated patterns of morphological and genetic variation, suggesting that it may be in the process of differentiating into distinct regional...

  2. A Comparison of Fire Intensity levels for stand replacement of table mountain pine (Pinus pungens Lamb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Patrick H. Brose

    1999-01-01

    Stand-replacement prescribed fire has been recommended to regenerate stands of table mountain pine (Pinus pungens Lamb.) in the Southern Appalachian Mountains because the species has serotinous cones and is shade intolerant. A 350 ha prescribed fire in northeast Georgia provided an opportunity to observe overstory mortality and regeneration of table...

  3. Water availability and genetic effects on wood properties of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. A. Gonzalez-Benecke; T. A. Martin; Alexander Clark; G. F. Peter

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effect of water availability on basal area growth and wood properties of 11-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees from contrasting Florida (FL) (a mix of half-sib families) and South Carolina coastal plain (SC) (a single, half-sib family) genetic material. Increasing soil water availability via irrigation increased average wholecore specific...

  4. Assessing the gene content of the megagenome: sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Gonzalez-Ibeas; Pedro J. Martinez-Garcia; Randi A. Famula; Annette Deflino-Mix; Kristian A. Stevens; Carol A. Loopstra; Charles H. Landley; David B. Neale; Jill L. Wegryzn

    2016-01-01

    Sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Douglas) is within the subgenus Strobus with an estimated genome size of 31 Gbp. Transcriptomic resources are of particular interest in conifers due to the challenges presented in their megagenomes for gene identification. In this study, we present the first comprehensive survey of the P. lambertiana...

  5. Cogongrass ( Imperata cylindrica ) affects above- and belowground processes in commercial loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda ) stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam N. Trautwig; Lori G. Eckhardt; Nancy J. Loewenstein; Jason D. Hoeksema; Emily A. Carter; Ryan L. Nadel

    2017-01-01

    Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica), an invasive grass species native to Asia, has been shown to reduce tree vigor in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations, which comprise more than 50% of growing stock in commercial forests of the United States. I. cylindrica produces exudates with possible allelopathic effects that may influence abundance of P. taeda symbionts, such...

  6. Impact of solar activity on growth of pine trees (Pinus cembra: 1610 - 1970; Pinus pinaster: 1910 -1989)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surový, P.; Dorotovič, I.; Karlovský, V.; Rodrigues, J. C.; Rybanský, M.; Fleischer, P.

    2010-12-01

    In this work we have focused on the analysis of the data on the annual growth of cembra pine (Pinus cembra) grown in the Kôprová dolina Valley in the High Tatra Mountains. The database covers the period of 1406 - 1970, however, the sunspot data (minima and maxima) at the NGDC web site are only available since 1610. Moreover, reliable sunspot data are only available since 1749. The results of this analysis agree with the observation made in our previous work, i.e. there is a negative impact of high SA on the pine tree growth. However, it should be noted that statistical significance of the results is low. We also applied wavelet analysis to the data on the tree growth evolution, with the results indicating growth variations' period of about 20 years (duration of approximately two solar cycles or one magnetic cycle, respectively). A negative impact of the SA was also observed in growth of a 90 year-old maritime pine tree (Pinus pinaster) grown in northern Portugal. The width of the annual rings was smaller in the years of maximum SA; furthermore, it was found that it is the latewood growth that it is affected while the earlywood growth is not, and consequently the latewood additions also show a significative negative correlation with SA.

  7. Pinus sylvestris L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... Çamburnu) up to the Alpine Zone (Zigana Mountain) as high as 2400 m in Northeastern Black Sea Region. Within its distribution range ... adaptation and thus, of stability of the forest ecosystems. This is particularly important ...

  8. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M; Naugolnykh, Serge V; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-11-09

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene.

  9. Methylated Fatty Acids from Heartwood and Bark of Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba, Picea abies, and Larix decidua: Effect of Strong Acid Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zidan Mohamed Salem

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methylated fatty acid (FA compounds in the heartwood and bark of some softwood species, specifically Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba, Picea abies, and Larix decidua, grown in the Czech Republic were evaluated. Strong H2SO4 was used for methylation of the lipids. The highest content of lipid was found in P. abies bark (40.132 mg/g o.d. sample, and the lowest content was in A. alba wood (11.027 mg/g o.d. sample. The highest concentration of FAs was observed in L. decidua bark. The highest percentages of FAs in wood of P. sylvestris were arachidic acid and oleic acid. In bark, the highest percentages of FAs were stearic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid. The FAs with the highest concentrations in A. alba wood were arachidic acid, palmitic acid, pentadecanoic acid, and margarinic, and those in bark were behenic acid, lignoceric acid, and arachidic acid. P. abies wood FAs showed arachidic acid, palmitic acid, and margarinic acid, and the bark contained lignoceric acid and arachidic acid. The FAs of L. decidua wood were arachidic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid, and in bark they were pentacosylic acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, lignoceric acid, arachidic acid, and behenic acid. The lack of typically dominant unsaturated fatty acids (e.g. 18:1, 18:2, compared to literature values were attributed to the application of strong acid for the hydrolysis.

  10. The utility of Pinus sylvestris L. in dendrochemical investigations: pollution impact of lead mining and smelting in Darley Dale, Derbyshire, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lageard, J G A; Howell, J A; Rothwell, J J; Drew, I B

    2008-05-01

    This research investigates atmospheric pollution from an isolated and increasingly productive lead-smelting site by examining the dendrochemistry of Pinus sylvestris growing in the local environment and at control sites. Tree increment cores and soil in the rooting environment were analysed for lead content. Inter-site comparisons of lead-in-soil suggest that contamination of the soil may be a less important pathway for lead inclusion within wood than pathways via bark or needles. Levels of lead-in-wood (up to 38mgkg(-1)) are at the upper end of those previously reported. There is evidence of radial translocation of lead towards the heartwood and variability in intra-site dendrochemical records. Mean site lead-in-wood records can however be related to a well-documented pollution chronology and also suggest the importance of local topography in the dispersal and deposition of particulate lead. This study demonstrates that P. sylvestris can be used to estimate the scale and timing of past pollution episodes in similar environmental contexts to those investigated at Darley Dale, where precisely dated pollution chronologies are lacking.

  11. Free amino acids production by ectomycorrhizal fungi of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rózycki, H; Strzelczyk, E

    1985-01-01

    Studies on free amino acids production by five species of ectomycorrhizal fungi (Amanita muscaria, Suillus granulatus, Suillus luteus, Suillus bovinus and Rhizopogon luteolus) show that all the fungi produced mainly: glutamic acid, leucine, lysine, ornithine, arginine and an unidentified ninhydrin-positive compound X3. Both the quality and quantity of amino acids released was different in the fungal species studied. The predominant amino acids in post-culture liquids in general did not exceed 1.5 micrograms/mg dry mass.

  12. Imaging of native early embryogenic tissue of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by ESEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hřib, Jiří; Vooková, B.; Neděla, Vilém

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2015), s. 285-290 ISSN 2391-5412 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22777S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : somatic embryogenesis * backscattered electron detector * ionization detector * bottle cells * extracellular matrix * structural integrity Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  13. Actual evapotranspiration estimation in a Mediterranean mountain region by means of Landsat-5 TM and TERRA/AQUA MODIS imagery and Sap Flow measurements in Pinus sylvestris forest stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal, J.; Poyatos, R.; Ninyerola, M.; Pons, X.; Llorens, P.

    2009-04-01

    Evapotranspiration monitoring has important implications on global and regional climate modelling, as well as in the knowledge of the hydrological cycle and in the assessment of environmental stress that affects forest and agricultural ecosystems. An increase of evapotranspiration while precipitation remains constant, or is reduced, could decrease water availability for natural and agricultural systems and human needs. Consequently, water balance methods, as the evapotranspiration modelling, have been widely used to estimate crop and forest water needs, as well as the global change effects. Nowadays, radiometric measurements provided by Remote Sensing and GIS analysis are the technologies used to compute evapotranspiration at regional scales in a feasible way. Currently, the 38% of Catalonia (NE of the Iberian Peninsula) is covered by forests, and one of the most important forest species is Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) which represents the 18.4% of the area occupied by forests. The aim of this work is to model actual evapotranspiration in Pinus sylvestris forest stands, in a Mediterranean mountain region, using remote sensing data, and compare it with stand-scale sap flow measurements measured in the Vallcebre research area (42° 12' N, 1° 49' E), in the Eastern Pyrenees. To perform this study a set of 30 cloud-free TERRA-MODIS images and 10 Landsat-5 TM images of path 198 and rows 31 and 32 from June 2003 to January 2005 have been selected to perform evapotranspiration modelling in Pinus sylvestris forest stands. TERRA/AQUA MODIS images have been downloaded by means of the EOS Gateway. We have selected two different types of products which contain the remote sensing data we have used to model daily evapotranspiration, daily LST product and daily calibrated reflectances product. Landsat-5 TM images have been corrected by means of conventional techniques based on first order polynomials taking into account the effect of land surface relief using a Digital

  14. Fire ecology of Scots pine in Northwest Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: biodiversity, fire ecology, fuel modelling, succession, tree regenerationIn this thesis the ecological consequences of forest fire are studied in North-west European Scots pine {Pinus sylvestris) forests. The focus is on post-fire succession, and the factors and mechanisms that influence

  15. Modifications in pine (Pinus silvestris) under the impact of industrial air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolak, J

    1970-01-01

    Growth habit forms in pine which developed in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region in places where industrial air pollution is a dominant ecological factor are described. Juvenile pine individuals, when not growing in density, soon cease to grow in height and their lateral branches grow freely while creeping on ground. In contrast to lifted up branches which are invaded by pests, those creeping one are healthy, with great increment, healthy needles, and normally developed cones. Pine shrubs acquire the habit of mountain pine. In pine shrubs there is formed the plant association Pinus silvestris-Solanum dulcamara which is not to be found elsewhere. When air pollution reaches its threshold value, when pine trees have no lower verticils, then upper branches grow downward until they reach soil surface and creep on it similarly as in the former case. The phenomenon of the formation of genuine habit forms in pine is one of the symptoms of impairment of productive capacity of habitat under the impact of the industrial air pollution.

  16. HYDROLOGICAL AND CLIMATIC RESPONSES OF OLD-GROWTH PINUS ELLIOTTII VAR. DENSA IN MESIC PINE FLATWOODS FLORIDA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinus elliottii Englem. var. densa Little & Dorman (Southern Slash Pine) is unique in that it is the only native sub-tropical pine in the USA. Once occupying much of the south Florida landscape, it is now restricted to an estimated 3% of its pre human settlement area. Land manag...

  17. Response of Planted Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.) to Mechanical Release, Competition, and Drought in the Southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton; Katherine J. Elliott; Wayne T. Swank

    1997-01-01

    Conversion of low-quality, natural mixed pine hardwood ecosystems, containing a mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.) dominated understory, to more productive eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.)/mixed-hardwood systems is a common prescription on relatively xeric southern Appalachian forest sites. We examined the effects of...

  18. Earthworms, arthropods and plant litter decomposition in aspen (Populus tremuloides) and lodgepole pine(Pinus contorta) forests in Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; Timothy R. Seastedt; Zugeily Donato

    2003-01-01

    We compared the abundance and community composition of earthworms, soil macroarthropods, and litter microarthropods to test faunal effects on plant litter decomposition rates in two forests in the subalpine in Colorado, USA. Litterbags containing recently senesced litter of Populus tremuloides (aspen) and Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine) were placed in aspen and pine...

  19. Dehydrins in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) and their expression related to drought stress response

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco-Conde, Tania; Yakovlev, Igor; Majada, J.P. (Juan); Johnsen, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) is an important commercial species throughout its Atlantic distribution. With the anticipated increase in desiccation of its habitat as a result of climate change, the selection of genotypes with increased survival and growth capability under these conditions for breeding programs is of great interest for this species. We aimed to study the response to a realistic drought stress under controlled conditions, looked for a method to measure dehydration resistance, ...

  20. Late Holocene expansion of Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in the Central Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jodi R; Betancourt, Julio L.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    "Aim: Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) experienced one of the most extensive and rapid post-glacial plant migrations in western North America. We used plant macrofossils from woodrat (Neotoma) middens to reconstruct its spread in the Central Rocky Mountains, identify other vegetation changes coinciding with P. ponderosa expansion at the same sites, and relate P. ponderosa migrational history to both its modern phylogeography and to a parallel expansion by Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma).

  1. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Keyes, Christopher R.; Gonzalez, Ruben Manso

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA). Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicul...

  2. Site index models for calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. in Thasos Island, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Kitikidou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A site index model for Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. in Thasos island (North Aegean sea, Greece is presented. The model was fitted and validated from 150 stem analyses, obtained from 75 fixed-area plots from five experimental sites. Four height growth equations of difference form were tested and the BAILEY and CLUTTER (1974 function was considered appropriate due to its good performance with both fitting and validation data. The results show errors lower than 5% and little bias.

  3. Use of Pinus sylvestris L. (Pinaceae), Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae), and Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) essential oils and their main components to enhance itraconazole activity against azole susceptible/not-susceptible Cryptococcus neoformans strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalas, Daniela; Mandras, Narcisa; Roana, Janira; Tardugno, Roberta; Cuffini, Anna Maria; Ghisetti, Valeria; Benvenuti, Stefania; Tullio, Vivian

    2018-05-03

    Cryptococcal infections, besides being a problem for immunocompromised patients, are occasionally being a problem for immunocompetent patients. In addition, the lower susceptibility of this yeast to azoles is a growing problem in health care. To date, there are very few molecules with any activity towards Cryptococcus neoformans, leading to heightened interest in finding new alternatives or adjuvants to conventional drugs for the treatment of mycosis caused by this yeast. Since the essential oils (EOs) are considered as a potential rich source of bioactive antimicrobial compounds, we evaluated the antifungal activity of Origanum vulgare (oregano), Pinus sylvestris (pine), and Thymus vulgaris (thyme red) EOs, and their components (α-pinene, carvacrol, thymol) compared with fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole, against C.neoformans clinical strains. Then, we investigated the effect of EOs and components in combination with itraconazole. EO composition was analysed by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the susceptibility of C.neoformans to azoles, EOs and components. Checkerboard tests, isobolograms and time-kill assays were carried out for combination studies. Six C.neoformans isolates were susceptible to azoles, while one C.neoformans exhibited a reduced susceptibility to all tested azole drugs. All EOs exerted a good inhibitory activity against all C.neoformans strains. Pine EO was the most effective. Among components, thymol exerted the most remarkable activity. By checkerboard testing and isobolographic analysis, combinations of itraconazole with oregano, pine, or thyme EOs, and carvacrol were found to be synergistic (FICI≤0.5) against azole susceptible C.neoformans. Regarding the azole not susceptible C.neoformans strain, the synergistic effect with itraconazole was observed with thyme EO (chemotype: thymol 26.52%; carvacrol 7.85%), and carvacrol. Time-kill assays confirmed the synergistic

  4. Geographic variation of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung Oh Hyun

    1977-01-01

    Ten traits were measured on 10-year-old jack pine grown at Cloquet, Minnesota, from seed collected from 90 provenances. The traits were examined by using analysis of variance and computing correlations for all combinations of 9 traits plus latitude , longitude, and elevation of the seed sources and cluster analyses using the D2 values from the...

  5. Population structure of a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (P. banksiana) complex as revealed by random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Terrance Z; Yang, Rong-Cai; Yeh, Francis C

    2002-06-01

    We studied the population structure of a lodgepole (Pinus contorta Dougl.) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) complex in west central Alberta and neighboring areas by assessing random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) variability in 23 lodgepole pine, 9 jack pine, and 8 putative hybrid populations. Of 200 random primers screened, 10 that amplified 39 sharp and reproducible RAPDs were chosen for the study. None of the 39 RAPDs were unique to the parental species. RAPD diversity ranged from 0.085 to 0.190 among populations and averaged 0.143 for lodgepole pine, 0.156 for jack pine, 0.152 for hybrids, and 0.148 for all 40 populations. The estimated population differentiation based on G(ST) was 0.168 for hybrids, 0.162 for lodgepole pine, 0.155 for jack pine, and 0.247 across all 40 populations. Cluster analysis of genetic distances generally separated jack pine from lodgepole pine and hybrids, but no division could be identified that further separated lodgepole pine from hybrids. The observed weak to mild trend of "introgression by distance" in the complex and neighbouring areas was consistent with the view that introgressive hybridization between lodgepole and jack pines within and outside the hybrid zone may have been through secondary contact and primary intergradation, respectively.

  6. GC/MS Analysis of Oil Extractives from Wood and Bark of Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba, Picea abies, and Larix decidua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zidan Mohamed Salem

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood and bark oil extractives components (OECs of Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba, Picea abies, and Larix decidua grown in the Czech Republic were analyzed using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The analysis showed the presence of monoterpene, sesquiterpene, diterpenoids, and resin acids. The highest percentages of OECs in the wood of P. sylvestris were α-fenchyl alcohol (26.04%, D-fenchyl alcohol (12.39%, and L-borneol (8.81%; the OECs in the bark included α-methyl-γ-butyrolactone (31.88% and isodecyl octyl phthalate (15.85%. The most frequently occurring OEC in A. alba wood were 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone (73.36%, α-cedrol (10.08%, and 2,6-dimethyl-1,3,6-heptatriene (7.35%; the most OECs in the bark were di(2-ethylhexylphthalate (59.83%, methyl cyclopentane (16.63%, and 13-epimanool (6.31%. P. abies wood OECs included 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone (29.42%, α-cedrol (26.98%, ∆3-carene (6.08%, and terpinen-4-ol (5.42%; the most OECs in the bark were di(2-ethylhexylphthalate (30.91%, cyclohexane (12.89%, caryophyllene oxide (8.90%, and α-pinene (4.59%. OECs of L. decidua wood were α-terpineol (26.06%, isoborneol (14.12%, camphene (11.78%, D-fenchyl alcohol (10.39%, and larixol (4.85%; OECs in the bark were larixol (33.29%, phthalic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (16.96%, 13-epimanool (15.40%, and cyclohexane (8.44%.

  7. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum Intercropping within Managed Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda Does Not Affect Wild Bee Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua W. Campbell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensively-managed pine (Pinus spp. have been shown to support diverse vertebrate communities, but their ability to support invertebrate communities, such as wild bees, has not been well-studied. Recently, researchers have examined intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, a native perennial, within intensively managed loblolly pine (P. taeda plantations as a potential source for cellulosic biofuels. To better understand potential effects of intercropping on bee communities, we investigated visitation of bees within three replicates of four treatments of loblolly pine in Mississippi, U.S.A.: 3–4 year old pine plantations and 9–10 year old pine plantations with and without intercropped switchgrass. We used colored pan traps to capture bees during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. We captured 2507 bees comprised of 18 different genera during the two-year study, with Lasioglossum and Ceratina being the most common genera captured. Overall, bee abundances were dependent on plantation age and not presence of intercropping. Our data suggests that switchgrass does not negatively impact or promote bee communities within intensively-managed loblolly pine plantations.

  8. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Intercropping within Managed Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Does Not Affect Wild Bee Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joshua W; Miller, Darren A; Martin, James A

    2016-11-04

    Intensively-managed pine ( Pinus spp.) have been shown to support diverse vertebrate communities, but their ability to support invertebrate communities, such as wild bees, has not been well-studied. Recently, researchers have examined intercropping switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum ), a native perennial, within intensively managed loblolly pine ( P. taeda ) plantations as a potential source for cellulosic biofuels. To better understand potential effects of intercropping on bee communities, we investigated visitation of bees within three replicates of four treatments of loblolly pine in Mississippi, U.S.A.: 3-4 year old pine plantations and 9-10 year old pine plantations with and without intercropped switchgrass. We used colored pan traps to capture bees during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. We captured 2507 bees comprised of 18 different genera during the two-year study, with Lasioglossum and Ceratina being the most common genera captured. Overall, bee abundances were dependent on plantation age and not presence of intercropping. Our data suggests that switchgrass does not negatively impact or promote bee communities within intensively-managed loblolly pine plantations.

  9. Investigation of Changes in Solubility Values of Some Non Impregnated Pine Species used in Water Cooling Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ÖZALP

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L., Austrian black pine (Pinus nigra L. and Cyprus pine (Pinus brutia L. specimens were prepared and settled to water return system on water cooling tower. For every 3 months period’s specimens were tested solubility of hot and could water, 1% NaOH, alcohol-benzene and ethyl alcohol values were determined. For the control specimens significant color change, odour and surface softening was observed. For chemical analysis, all the solubility values were changed significantly.

  10. Molecular response to water stress in two contrasting Mediterranean pines (Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdiguero, Pedro; Barbero, María Del Carmen; Cervera, María Teresa; Collada, Carmen; Soto, Alvaro

    2013-06-01

    Adaptation to water stress has determined the evolution and diversification of vascular plants. Water stress is forecasted to increase drastically in the next decades in certain regions, such as in the Mediterranean basin. Consequently, a proper knowledge of the response and adaptations to drought stress is essential for the correct management of plant genetic resources. However, most of the advances in the understanding of the molecular response to water stress have been attained in angiosperms, and are not always applicable to gymnosperms. In this work we analyse the transcriptional response of two emblematic Mediterranean pines, Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea, which show noticeable differences in their performance under water stress. Using microarray analysis, up to 113 genes have been detected as significantly induced by drought in both species. Reliability of expression patterns has been confirmed by RT-PCR. While induced genes with similar profiles in both species can be considered as general candidate genes for the study of drought response in conifers, genes with diverging expression patterns can underpin the differences displayed by these species under water stress. Most promising candidate genes for drought stress response include genes related to carbohydrate metabolism, such as glycosyltransferases or galactosidases, sugar transporters, dehydrins and transcription factors. Additionally, differences in the molecular response to drought and polyethylene-glycol-induced water stress are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of origin conditions on the anatomical structure of the annual ring of Pinus sylvestris L. in the taiga zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiсhshenko Ivan Tarasovich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The studies were conducted in South Karelia (middle taiga subzone in 2006. Objects of study were the following kinds of pine forest: bilberry, cowberry and wild rosemary-bog moss ones. The investigation has shown that with the advancement of the tree in the forest canopy the annual growth ring of the trunk increases significantly. Thus, in the bilberry pine forest in the trees of the growth class I this index is higher than in the trees of the growth classes II-III and IV-V by 4 and 97 %, respectively. In the bilberry pine forest the percentage of the participation of late wood in the formation of growth ring in the dominant trees is by 6-9% less than that of the rest of the stand. The width of the early tracheid shells in the trees of the growth class I-III is by 22% more than in the overtopped ones in the bilberry pine forest. Annual ring width and latewood percentage in the pine forest of Hylocomium group is higher than in the wild rosemary – bog moss one by 41-50 and 7-35%, respectively. The maximal thickness of the late tracheid shells was observed in the cowberry pine forest (6.8-7.4 microns.

  12. Improvement of real pine (Pinus montezumae Lamb). Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez J, J.; Jimenez C, M.; Garcia T, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The real pine is an endemic specie of Mexico which is actually in danger of extinction. So the gamma radiation can accelerate the development of some vegetal species, then it is proceeded to find the radiation dose which allows to break the disease condition to diminish the lethargy time of those seeds with a dose range of 1 to 300 Krad of gamma radiation. It is required to realize more tests and observing in a greater period the hipocotile emission to determine the dose which allow to break the condition permanently. (Author)

  13. Reproductive Success and Inbreeding Differ in Fragmented Populations of Pinus rzedowskii and Pinus ayacahuite var. veitchii, Two Endemic Mexican Pines under Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paty Castilleja Sánchez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed production, quality, germination and seedling establishment are indicators of reproductive success in conifers. Monitoring of these parameters is essential to determine the viability of populations for the purposes of conservation. We analyze cone and seed traits as indicators of reproductive success in the endangered Rzedowski´s pine (Pinus rzedowskii (Madrigal et Caballero and near-threatened veitchii pine (Pinus ayacahuite var. veitchii (Shaw in west-central Michoacán, Mexico. These traits were systematically quantified and their variation assessed using Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs. We found that the reproductive success of Rzedowski’s pine seems to be critical, presenting low seed efficiency (17.10%, germination (5.0% and seedling establishment (27.7%, with high levels of inbreeding (0.79. In contrast, veitchii pine presents moderate seed efficiency (54.9%, high germination (71.5% and seedling establishment (84%–97% and low inbreeding (0.33. Reproductive indicators differed significantly among zones and populations for each species, where fragment sizes mainly affected seed production and efficiency. This result indicates that fragmentation has played a more important role in the reproductive success of Rzedowski’s pine than in veitchii pine, perhaps by limiting pollen flow among zones and populations and producing higher levels of inbreeding and lower seed efficiency in the former species. We propose a conservation strategy for these important pine species in order to increase their long-term genetic viability.

  14. Managing succession in conifer plantations: converting young red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantations to native forest types by thinning and underplantiing

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Parker; Ken A. Elliott; Daniel C. Dey; Eric Boysen; Steven G. Newmaster

    2001-01-01

    The effects of thinning on growth and survival of white pine (Pinus strobus L.), white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and understory plant diversity were examined in a young red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantation. Five years after thinning, seedling diameter,...

  15. Expression Profiling in Pinus pinaster in Response to Infection with the Pine Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gaspar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Forests are essential resources on a global scale, not only for the ecological benefits, but also for economical and landscape purposes. However, in recent years, a large number of forest species have suffered a serious decline, with maritime pine being one of the most affected. In Portugal, the maritime pine forest has been devastated by the pine wood nematode (PWN, the causal agent of pine wilt disease. In this study, RNA-Seq data was used to characterize the maritime pine response to infection with PWN, by determining the differentially expressed genes and identifying the regulatory networks and pathways associated. The analyses showed clear differences between an early response that occurs immediately after inoculation and a late response that is observed seven days after inoculation. Moreover, differentially expressed genes related to secondary metabolism, oxidative stress and defense against pathogen infection were identified over different time points. These results provide new insights about the molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways involved in the response of Pinus pinaster against PWN infection, which will be a useful resource in follow-up studies and for future breeding programs to select plants with lower susceptibility to this disease.

  16. SOME IMPORTANT SHOOT AND STEM FUNGI IN PINE (Pinus spp.) AND FIRS (Abies sp.) IN WESTERN BLACKSEA REGION, TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKAZANÇ, Nuri Kaan; MADEN, Salih

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine fungal diseases of pines and firs observed on the shoots and the stems in the Western Blacksea Region (Karabük, Ulus and Bartın State Forest Enterprises) between the years of 2001–2004. Five different fungi were determined on pines (Pinus sp.) and firs (Abies sp.) by this study. Melampsora pinitorqua and Cronartium flaccidum which cause rust diseases were determined only on pines. Sphaeropsis sapinea and Gremmeniella abietina were determined on pines an...

  17. Radiation and genetic consequences of ionizing radiation on population of Pinus sylvestris L. within the zone of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotov, I.S.; Kal'chenko, V.A.; Igonina, E.V.; Rubanovich, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Main results of the nineteen year monitoring of genetic radiation effects of ionizing radiations on pines of forest plantation in the zone of the Chernobylsk NPP accident are presented. It is shown that the acute ionizing irradiation at radiation doses >1 Gy induces the formation of morphosis and depressed growth, and at doses >2 Gy, the reproductive ability of pines is declined. The radiobiological parameters have practically linear dose-dependence relationship. The acute irradiation at dose of 0.5 Gy induces cytogenetic and genetic effects that are significantly higher than corresponding control values. The relationship between the cytogenetic effects and the absorbed dose is exponential. The dependence of mutation frequency at specific loci on the absorbed dose is described by a nonlinear curve. The results of the cytogenetic analysis of seedlings obtained from seeds annually collected in zones of slight, moderate and strong damages of pines are presented [ru

  18. Effect of body condition on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, J A; Panter, K E; Gardner, D R; Cook, D; Welch, K D

    2008-12-01

    We determined whether cows in low (LBC) or high body condition (HBC) would consume different amounts of green pine needles (Pinus ponderosa). Cows (mature; open Hereford and Hereford x Angus) were fed a maintenance basal diet (alfalfa pellets) for Exp. 1 and 2; during Exp. 3 and 4, cows were fed high-protein and high-energy diets, respectively. Experiment 5 was a grazing study on rangeland during winter in South Dakota; diets were determined by using bite counts. Mean BCS (1 = emaciated, 9 = obese) was 7.5 for HBC cows and <4.0 for LBC cows during the experiments. During Exp. 1, LBC cows consumed more (P = 0.001) pine needles than did HBC cows (5.5 +/- 0.25 vs. 1.0 +/- 0.14 g/kg of BW daily, respectively). During Exp. 2, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) as LBC cows consumed variable, but greater, amounts of pine needles than did HBC cows (3.7 +/- 0.19 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.12 g/kg of BW daily, respectively). When fed a high-protein/low-energy diet, LBC cows ate more (P = 0.04) pine needles than did HBC cows. When fed a low-protein/high-energy diet, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) because LBC cows consumed more pine needles than did HBC cows for the first 3 d of the study, and then consumption by LBC animals decreased during the last 4 d. These experiments suggest that the protein:energy ratio may be an important factor in the ability of cows to tolerate terpenes, and that cows were not able to sustain an increased quantity of needle consumption on a low-protein diet. During the 25-d grazing study, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) as LBC animals selected more pine needles (up to 25% of daily bites) on some days compared with HBC cows. Weather influenced pine needle consumption because pine needle bites by LBC cows were related (r(2) = 0.60; P = 0.001) to days of greater snow depth and lower minimum daily temperatures. Both LBC and HBC cows increased selection of pine needles from trees during cold, snowy weather, but

  19. Short communication. Tomography as a method to study umbrella pine (Pinus pinea) cones and nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, A.; Pereira, H.; Tomé, M.; Silva, J.; Fontes, L.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Umbrella or stone pine (Pinus pinea) nuts are one of the most valuable and expensive non-wood forest products in Portugal. The increasing market and landowner's interest resulted on a high expansion of plantation areas. This study tests the feasibility of using tomography to characterize pine cones and nuts. Area of study: The research was carried out in pine stand, with nine years, grafted in 2011, on Herdade of Machoqueira do Grou, near Coruche, in Portugal’s central area. Material and Methods: Starting in June 2015, ten pine cones in their final stage of development, were randomly monthly collected, and evaluated with tomography equipment commonly used in clinical medicine, according to Protocol Abdomen Mean. A sequence of images corresponding to 1mm-spaced cross-sections were obtained and reconstructed to produce a 3D model. The segmented images were worked using free image processing software, like RadiAnt Dicom Viewer, Data Viewer and Ctvox. Main results: The cone’s structures were clearly visible on the images, and it was possible to easily identify empty pine nuts. Although expensive, tomography is an easy and quick application technique that allows to assess the internal structures, through the contrast of materials densities, allowing to estimate pine nut’s size and empty nut’s proportion. By analysis of ninety images, it was obtained, an estimated mean value of 25.5 % empty nuts. Research highlights: Results showed the potential of tomography as a screening tool to be used in industry and research areas, for analysis and diagnostic of stone pine cone’s structures. (Author)

  20. Optimum Vegetation Conditions for Successful Establishment of Planted Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas G. Pitt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The 10th-growing season performance of planted eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. seedlings was evaluated in response to herbaceous and woody vegetation control treatments within a clearcut and two variants of the uniform shelterwood regeneration system (single vs. multiple future removal cuts. Herbaceous vegetation control involved the suppression of grasses, forbs, ferns and low shrubs for the first 2 or 4 growing seasons after planting. Deciduous woody vegetation control treatments, conducted in combination with the herbaceous treatments within a response-surface design, involved the permanent removal of all tall shrubs and deciduous trees at the time of planting, at the end of the 2nd or 5th growing seasons, or not at all. In general, the average size of planted pine was related positively to the duration of herbaceous vegetation control and negatively to delays in woody control. White pine weevil (Pissodes strobi Peck altered these trends, reducing the height of pine on plots with little or no overtopping deciduous woody vegetation or mature tree cover. Where natural pine regeneration occurred on these plots, growth was similar but subordinate to the planted pine. Data from the three sites indicate that at least 60% of planted pine may be expected to reach an age-10 height target of 2.5 m when overtopping cover (residual overstory + regenerating deciduous is managed at approximately 65% ± 10%, and total herbaceous cover is suppressed to levels not exceeding 50% in the first five years. On productive sites, this combination may be difficult to achieve in a clearcut, and requires fairly rigorous vegetation management in shelterwood regeneration systems. Currently, synthetic herbicides offer the only affordable and effective means of achieving such vegetation control.

  1. Defence activation in strawberry and pine- Epigenetic changes in treated plants

    OpenAIRE

    Komajda, Ludwika

    2016-01-01

    Strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent species, withinagriculture and forestry respectively, that are traditionally protected by utilization of pesticidesincluding neurotoxic insecticides. More environmentally friendly protection strategies are thereforehighly desirable. Treating plants with specific metabolites naturally occurring in their tissues might alterepigenetic mechanisms, which in turn may strengthen plants self-defense against diseases a...

  2. Variability of fire behavior, fire effects, and emissions in Scotch pine forests of central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. J. McRae; Susan Conard; G. A. Ivanova; A. I. Sukhinin; Steve Baker; Y. N. Samsonov; T. W. Blake; V. A. Ivanov; A. V. Ivanov; T. V. Churkina; WeiMin Hao; K. P. Koutzenogij; Nataly Kovaleva

    2006-01-01

    As part of the Russian FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project, replicated 4-ha experimental fires were conducted on a dry Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris)/lichen (Cladonia sp.)/feathermoss (Pleurozeum schreberi) forest site in central Siberia. Observations from the initial seven surface fires (2000-2001) ignited under a range of burning...

  3. Dendroclimatic signals deduced from riparian versus upland forest interior pines in North Karelia, Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helama, Samuli; Arentoft, Birgitte W.; Collin-Haubensak, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Radial growth of boreal tree species is only rarely studied in riparian habitats. Here we investigated chronologies of earlywood, latewood, and annual ring widths and blue intensity (BI; a surrogate to latewood density) from riparian lake shore and upland forest interior pines (Pinus sylvestris L...

  4. 13C/12C ratio variations in Pinus longaeva (bristlecone pine) cellulose during the last millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinsted, M.J.; Wilson, A.T.; Ferguson, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Delta 13 C values are presented for cellulose samples prepared from two dendrochronologically dated Pinus longaeva (bristlecone pine) trees which grew during the last 1000 years. Delta 13 C variations for these forest border trees are similar to upper tree line ring-width variations for the same species and English high summer temperature variations for the same time period. However, the delta 13 C variations appear to be unrelated to lower forest border ring-width variations and cellulose deltaD variations for the same specimens. (Auth.)

  5. Diversity and expression of nitrogenase genes (nifH) from ectomycorrhizas of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hironari; Anderson, Ian C; Alexander, Ian J; Killham, Ken; Moore, Edward R B

    2006-12-01

    The diversity of bacterial nitrogenase genes (nifH) and their mRNA transcription in ectomycorrhizas of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) were examined. DNA and RNA were extracted from surface-sterilized and non-sterilized Corsican pine roots colonized by the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, Suillus variegatus and Tomentellopsis submollis. DNA-derived nifH polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were obtained from all samples, but only a few reverse transcription PCRs for nifH mRNA were successful, suggesting that nitrogenase genes were not always transcribed. Several different nifH sequences were detected and the bacteria actively transcribing nifH were different from those whose genes were detected through DNA-based PCR. Putative nitrogenase amino acid sequences revealed that more than half of the nifH products were derived from methylotrophic bacteria, such as Methylocella spp. The next most frequent sequence types were similar to those from Burkholderia.

  6. Long-term evaluation of the needle surface wax condition of Pinus sylvestris around different industries in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupcinskiene, Eugenija; Huttunen, Satu

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the annual dynamics of needle surface wax erosion and wettability in Scots pines exposed to a gradient of industrial pollutants emitted from the main factories of Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory, an oil refinery and a cement factory. Decreased emissions (in the case of the oil refinery and the cement factory) were reflected in the increased structural surface area (SSA, i.e. area covered by tubular waxes) on the needles. The nearly constant amount of emissions from the nitrogen fertilizer factory within the 1994-2000 period corresponded to negligible annual differences in SSA. Annual changes in the hydrophobicity of needles on the investigated transects were small. Despite the decreased pollution within the 7-year period, industrial emissions are still causing significantly accelerated wax erosion and increased wettability in needles sampled from the stands most heavily affected by pollutants. - Tubular wax on the pine needle surface reflects changes/differences in industrial emissions

  7. Effect of dose rate and exposure time on the stimulation effect of tube growth of Pinus sylvestris pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelles, L.; Fendrik, I.; Technische Univ. Hannover

    1975-01-01

    The stimulating effect of ionizing radiation in respect to dose rate and exposure time was studied using the tube growth of Pinus silvestris pollen. Stimulation was registered with a small dose (50 rad) supplied at low dose rates (0.5; 1.0; 3.0 and 5.0 rad/sec) and with higher doses (300; 800 and 1,400 rad) supplied at higher dose rates (10; 40 and 50 rad/sec). This suggests that only the exposure time is of importance for radiation-induced stimulation provided that the exposure time does not exceed 100 sec. (orig.) [de

  8. The effects of decreased water availability on loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) productivity and the interaction between fertilizer and drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam O. Maggard; Rodney E. Will; Duncan S. Wilson; Cassandra R. Meek

    2016-01-01

    As part of the regional PINEMAP (Pine Integrated Network: Education, Mitigation, and Adaptation project) funded by the NIFA - USDA, we established a factorial study in McCurtain County, OK near Broken Bow. This study examined the effects of fertilization and ~30 percent reduction in throughfall on an seven-yearold loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation. The...

  9. Zn pollution counteracts Cd toxicity in metal-tolerant ectomycorrhizal fungi and their host plant, Pinus sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krznaric, Erik; Wevers, Jan H L; Cloquet, Christophe; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Vanhaecke, Frank; Colpaert, Jan V

    2010-08-01

    Adaptive Zn and Cd tolerance have evolved in populations of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus. When exposed to high concentrations of both metals in vitro, a one-sided antagonism was apparent in the Zn- and Cd-tolerant isolates. Addition of high Zn concentrations restored growth of Cd-stressed isolates, but not vice versa. The antagonistic effect was not detected in a S. luteus isolate from non-contaminated land and in Paxillus involutus. The fungi were inoculated on pine seedlings and subsequently exposed to ecologically relevant Zn and Cd concentrations in single and mixed treatments. The applied doses severely reduced nutrient acquisition of non-mycorrhizal pines and pines inoculated with metal-sensitive S. luteus. Highest translocation of Zn and Cd to shoots occurred in the same plants. Seedlings inoculated with fungi collected from the polluted site reduced metal transfer to their host and maintained nutrient acquisition under high metal exposure. The isolate showing highest tolerance in vitro also offered best protection in symbiosis. The antagonistic effect of high Zn on Cd toxicity was confirmed in the plant experiment. The results indicate that a Zn- and Cd-polluted soil has selected ectomycorrhizal fungi that are able to survive and protect their phytobiont from nutrient starvation and excessive metal uptake. © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Analytical Modelling of Canopy Interception Loss from a Juvenile Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle-Moses, D. E.; Lishman, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    In the central interior of British Columbia (BC), Canada, the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (MPB) has severely affected the majority of pine species in the region, especially lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson). The loss of mature lodgepole pine stands, including those lost to salvage logging, has resulted in an increase in the number of juvenile pine stands in the interior of BC through planting and natural regrowth. With this change from mature forests to juvenile forests at such a large spatial scale, the water balance of impacted areas may be altered, although the magnitude of such change is uncertain. Previous studies of rainfall partitioning by lodgepole pine and lodgepole pine dominated canopies have focused on mature stands. Thus, rainfall, throughfall and stemflow were measured and canopy interception loss was derived during the growing season of 2010 in a juvenile lodgepole pine dominated stand located approximately 60 km NNW of Kamloops, BC at 51°12'49" N 120°23'43" W, 1290 m above mean sea level. Scaling up from measurements for nine trees, throughfall, stemflow and canopy interception loss accounted for 87.7, 1.8 and 10.5 percent of the 252.9 mm of rain that fell over 38 events during the study period, respectively. The reformulated versions of the Gash and Liu analytical interception loss models estimated cumulative canopy interception loss at 24.7 and 24.6 mm, respectively, compared with the observed 26.5 mm; an underestimate of 1.8 and 1.9 mm or 6.8 and 7.2% of the observed value, respectively. Our results suggest that canopy interception loss is reduced in juvenile stands compared to their mature counterparts and that this reduction is due to the decreased storage capacity offered by these younger canopies. Evaporation during rainfall from juvenile canopies is still appreciable and may be a consequence of the increased proportion of the canopy exposed to wind during events.

  11. Presence of Nitrosospiral cluster 2 bacteria corresponds to N transformation rates in nine acid Scots pine forest soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugroho, R. Adi; Roling, W.F.M.; Laverman, A.M.; Zoomer, R.; Verhoef, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    The relation between environmental factors and the presence of ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB), and its consequences for the N transformation rates were investigated in nine Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest soils. In general, the diversity in AOB appears to be strikingly low compared to

  12. The threatened plant intermediate wintergreen (Pyrola media) associates with a wide range of biotrophic fungi in native Scottish pine woods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Tenna; Iason, Glenn R.; Alexander, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    The plant intermediate wintergreen (Pyrola media, Ericaceae) is in need of conservation action in Scotland. Although widespread, it is locally distributed in dwarf shrub heath and more commonly in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) woodlands. A recent study on the mycorrhizal status of Pyrola suggeste...

  13. Chemical composition of needles and cambial activity of stems of Scots pine trees affected by air pollutants in Polish forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciech Dmuchowski; Ewa U. Kurczynska; Wieslaw Wloch

    1998-01-01

    The impact of environmental pollution is defined for the chemical composition of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles and cambial activity in the tree stems in Polish forests. The research investigated 20-year-old trees growing in two areas in significantly different levels of pollution. The highly polluted area was located near the Warsaw...

  14. Dynamics and stratification of functional groups of micro- and mesoarthropods in the organic layer of a Scots pine forest.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.P.; Kniese, J.P.; Bedaux, J.J.M.; Verhoef, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the abundance, biomass and microstratification of functional groups of micro- and mesoarthropods inhabiting the organic layers of a Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris L.). An experiment using stratified litterbags, containing organic material of four degradation stages, i.e.,

  15. Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Plomion; D. Chagne; D. Pot; S. Kumar; P.L. Wilcox; R.D. Burdon; D. Prat; D.G. Peterson; J. Paiva; P. Chaumeil; G.G. Vendramin; F. Sebastiani; C.D. Nelson; C.S. Echt; O. Savolainen; T.L. Kubisiak; M.T. Cervera; N. de Maria; M.N. Islam-Faridi

    2007-01-01

    Pinus is the most important genus within the Family Pinaceae and also within the gymnosperms by the number of species (109 species recognized by Farjon 2001) and by its contribution to forest ecosystems. All pine species are evergreen trees or shrubs. They are widely distributed in the northern hemisphere, from tropical areas to northern areas in America and Eurasia....

  16. A new approach to defining rotation ages on the basis of productive and technological aspects. Application to natural Pinus sylvestris L. stands in Central Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo-Alboreca, A.; García-Villabrille, J.D.; Corral-Rivas, J.J.; Alía, R.; Montero, G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: To propose a new approach to defining rotation ages on the basis of productive and technological aspects and to present an example of application of the methodology to natural Pinus sylvestris stands in relation to silvicultural treatment (light or heavy thinning) and site index. Area of study: Central Spain. Material and methods: We assumed that the price per m3 of logwood suitable for veneer is four times higher than logwood not apt for veneer. Considering the yield distribution for different technological and commercial classes, a model of diameter distributions and yield tables, the variation in an average price index for different age classes, site indexes and silvicultural treatments was calculated. The age at which the price index rises by less than 3%, the proportion of trees with d.b.h. higher than 40 cm, and other aspects such as the possible presence of fungal decay in old-growth stands were also taken into account to establish three criteria for defining rotation ages. Main results: The proposed methodology generates a wide range of rotation ages between 100 and 140 years for lightly thinned stands, and between 90 and 140 years for heavily thinned stands, depending on the site index. Research highlights: The proposed approach is based on technological and productive criteria, with the limitations imposed by sanitary risks. The methodology can be applied to generate rotation ages in relation to different site indexes and silvicultural treatments, provided that the timber market prices and the yield distribution for different technological and commercial classes are known, and that a model of diameter distributions and yield tables are available.

  17. A new approach to defining rotation ages on the basis of productive and technological aspects. Application to natural Pinus sylvestris L. stands in Central Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo-Alboreca, A.; García-Villabrille, J.D.; Corral-Rivas, J.J.; Alía, R.; Montero, G.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: To propose a new approach to defining rotation ages on the basis of productive and technological aspects and to present an example of application of the methodology to natural Pinus sylvestris stands in relation to silvicultural treatment (light or heavy thinning) and site index. Area of study: Central Spain. Material and methods: We assumed that the price per m3 of logwood suitable for veneer is four times higher than logwood not apt for veneer. Considering the yield distribution for different technological and commercial classes, a model of diameter distributions and yield tables, the variation in an average price index for different age classes, site indexes and silvicultural treatments was calculated. The age at which the price index rises by less than 3%, the proportion of trees with d.b.h. higher than 40 cm, and other aspects such as the possible presence of fungal decay in old-growth stands were also taken into account to establish three criteria for defining rotation ages. Main results: The proposed methodology generates a wide range of rotation ages between 100 and 140 years for lightly thinned stands, and between 90 and 140 years for heavily thinned stands, depending on the site index. Research highlights: The proposed approach is based on technological and productive criteria, with the limitations imposed by sanitary risks. The methodology can be applied to generate rotation ages in relation to different site indexes and silvicultural treatments, provided that the timber market prices and the yield distribution for different technological and commercial classes are known, and that a model of diameter distributions and yield tables are available.

  18. Fire Frequency Effects on Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris P. Miller) Vegetation in South Carolina and Northeast Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff S. Glitzenstein; Donna R. Streng; Dale D. Wade

    2003-01-01

    Southeastern United States habitats dominated by longleaf pine (Pinus pulutris P. Miller) have declined precipitously in area and extent. Conservation of diverse ground-layer vegetation in these endangered habitats depends on prescribed fire. While the need for prescribed fire is now generally accepted, there is disagreement concerning the most...

  19. Modeling the effects of fire and climate change on carbon and nitrogen storage in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. A. H. Smithwick; M. G. Ryan; D. M. Kashian; W. H. Romme; D. B. Tinker; M. G. Turner

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between disturbance and climate change and resultant effects on ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes are poorly understood. Here, we model (using CENTURY version 4.5) how climate change may affect C and N fluxes among mature and regenerating lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm. ex S.Wats.)...

  20. Do climate and outbreak frequency affect levels of foliar phytochemistry in different lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden) is a widely distributed tree in North American forests and is found in a variety of environments, each with different levels of disease activity. We quantified the levels of defense-associated metabolites (including soluble phenolics, lignin, and ter...

  1. Modeling the longitudinal variation in wood specific gravity of planted loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Antony; L. R. Schimleck; R. F. Daniels; Alexander Clark; D. B. Hall

    2010-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is a major plantation species grown in the southern United States, producing wood having a multitude of uses including pulp and lumber production. Specific gravity (SG) is an important property used to measure the quality of wood produced, and it varies regionally and within the tree with height and radius. SG at different height levels...

  2. Stratification and seasonal stability of diverse bacterial communities in a Pinus merkusii (pine) forest soil in central Java, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krave, A.S.; Lin, B.; Braster, M.; Laverman, A.M.; van Straalen, N.M.; Roling, W.F.M.; van Verseveld, H.W.

    2002-01-01

    In Java, Indonesia, many nutrient-poor soils are intensively reforested with Pinus merkusii (pine). Information on nutrient cycles and microorganisms involved in these cycles will benefit the management of these important forests. Here, seasonal effects on the stratification of bacterial community

  3. Internal and external control of net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of mature eastern white pine (Pinus strobus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris A. Maier; R.O. Teskey

    1992-01-01

    Leaf gas exchange and water relations were monitored in the upper canopy of two 25 m tall eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) trees over two consecutive growing seasons (1986 and 1987). Examination of the seasonal and diurnal patterns of net photosynthesis and leaf conductance showed that both internal and external (environmental) factors were...

  4. Effect of seedling stock on the early stand development and physiology of improved loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakuntala Sharma; Joshua P. Adams; Jamie L. Schuler; Robert L. Ficklin; Don C. Bragg

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of spacing and genotype on the growth and physiology of improved loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings from three distinct genotypes planted in Drew County, Arkansas (USA). Genotype had a significant effect on survival and height. Clone CF Var 1 showed greater height and survival compared to other seedlings....

  5. Modeling silviculture after natural disturbance to sustain biodiversity in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystem : balancing complexity and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. Palik; Robert J. Mitchell; J. Kevin Hiers

    2002-01-01

    Modeling silviculture after natural disturbance to maintain biodiversity is a popular concept, yet its application remains elusive. We discuss difficulties inherent to this idea, and suggest approaches to facilitate implementation, using longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) as an example. Natural disturbance regimes are spatially and temporally variable. Variability...

  6. Influence of residual basal area on longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) first year germination and establishment under selection silviculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhat Kara; Edward F. Loewenstein

    2015-01-01

    Even-aged silvicultural methods have been successfully used to manage longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests for wood production; however, successful use of uneven-aged methods to manage this ecosystem is less well documented. In this study, the effects of varying levels of residual basal area (RBA) (9.2, 13.8, and 18.4 m2...

  7. Effect of average growing season temperature on seedling germination, survival and growth in jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. David; E. Humenberger

    2017-01-01

    Because jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) is serotinous, it retains multiple years of cones until environmental conditions are favorable for releasing seed. These cones, which contain seed cohorts that developed under a variety of growing seasons, can be accurately aged using bud scale scars on twigs and branches. By calculating the average daily...

  8. Chlorophyll content in pine (Pinus silvestris L. needles exposed to flue dust from lead and zinc works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Świeboda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll a and b, sulphur, zinc and lead contents were determined in annual and biennial needles of Scotch pine (Pinus silevstris L. exposed to flue dust-polluted air. Intoxication indexes were calculated on the basis of the obtained results.

  9. Comparing the intra-annual wood formation of three European species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and Pinus sylvestris) as related to leaf phenology and non-structural carbohydrate dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, Alice; Simard, Sonia; Rathgeber, Cyrille; Dufrêne, Eric; Damesin, Claire

    2012-08-01

    Monitoring cambial phenology and intra-annual growth dynamics is a useful approach for characterizing the tree growth response to climate change. However, there have been few reports concerning intra-annual wood formation in lowland temperate forests with high time resolution, especially for the comparison between deciduous and coniferous species. The main objective of this study was to determine how the timing, duration and rate of radial growth change between species as related to leaf phenology and the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) under the same climatic conditions. We studied two deciduous species, Fagus sylvatica L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., and an evergreen conifer, Pinus sylvestris L. During the 2009 growing season, we weekly monitored (i) the stem radial increment using dendrometers, (ii) the xylem growth using microcoring and (iii) the leaf phenology from direct observations of the tree crowns. The NSC content was also measured in the eight last rings of the stem cores in April, June and August 2009. The leaf phenology, NSC storage and intra-annual growth were clearly different between species, highlighting their contrasting carbon allocation. Beech growth began just after budburst, with a maximal growth rate when the leaves were mature and variations in the NSC content were low. Thus, beech radial growth seemed highly dependent on leaf photosynthesis. For oak, earlywood quickly developed before budburst, which probably led to the starch decrease quantified in the stem from April to June. For pine, growth began before the needles unfolding and the lack of NSC decrease during the growing season suggested that the substrates for radial growth were new assimilates of the needles from the previous year. Only for oak, the pattern determined from the intra-annual growth measured using microcoring differed from the pattern determined from dendrometer data. For all species, the ring width was significantly influenced by growth duration

  10. Susceptibility of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa (Dougl. Ex Laws.), to mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, attack in uneven-aged stands in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Kurt Allen; Blaine Cook; John R. Withrow

    2008-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins can cause extensive tree mortality in ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forests in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Most studies that have examined stand susceptibility to mountain pine beetle have been conducted in even-aged stands. Land managers...

  11. Micrometeorología de masas forestales de pino silvestre (Pinus sylvestris L.) y rebollo (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) en la vertiente norte del Sistema Central (Montes de Valsaín, Segovia). Consecuencias selvícolas

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Sanz, Valentín

    2011-01-01

    La Tesis trata sobre el estudio y evaluación de los patrones microescálicos de variabilidad, tanto espacial como temporal, que bajo diferentes cubiertas forestales de pino silvestre (Pinus sylvestris L.) y rebollo (Quercus pyrenaica Wild.), presentan las variables de estado de uso más frecuente en la caracterización de] sistema atmósfera-superficie terrestre. Se ha buscado con ello analizar cualitativa y cuantitativamente el efecto modificador que, sobre la respuesta micrometereológica bajo e...

  12. Chronic radiation exposure as an ecological factor: Hypermethylation and genetic differentiation in irradiated Scots pine populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, P Yu; Geras'kin, S A; Horemans, N; Makarenko, E S; Saenen, E; Duarte, G T; Nauts, R; Bondarenko, V S; Jacobs, G; Voorspoels, S; Kudin, M

    2018-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic changes were investigated in chronically irradiated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations from territories that were heavily contaminated by radionuclides as result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In comparison to the reference site, the genetic diversity revealed by electrophoretic mobility of AFLPs was found to be significantly higher at the radioactively contaminated areas. In addition, the genome of pine trees was significantly hypermethylated at 4 of the 7 affected sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomass production of dense direct-seeded lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) at short rotation periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backlund, I.; Bergsten, U.

    2012-07-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) is a fast-growing species that is suitable for producing woody biomass in Nordic countries. Direct seeding of this species is cheaper than planting and creates dense, stable stands. The objective of this study was to quantify the stem volume and biomass production of direct seeded lodgepole pine stands grown under different site conditions with different stem densities, at an age that would permit extensive harvesting of biomass. A circle-plot inventory was performed in 16 of the oldest direct seeded lodgepole pine stands in mid-northern Sweden. Stemwood production of almost 200 m{sup 3}/ha was achieved on average on the best sites, rising to about 300 m{sup 3}/ha for the best circle-plots within 30 years of direct seeding despite the fact that pre-commercial thinning was made once or twice. This corresponds to 100 and 140 tons of dry weight biomass/ha, respectively. Higher stand stem densities ({>=}3000 st/ha) yielded more biomass with only slight reductions in diameter at breast height. The development of stem volume with respect to dominant height in direct seeded stands was becoming comparable to that in planted stands with similar spacing. It therefore seems that there is an unutilized potential for cost-effectively growing lodgepole pine in dense stands for biomass production after direct seeding. It may be possible to devise regimes for short(er) rotation forestry that would yield substantial amount of inexpensive biomass for biorefineries within a few decades. (orig.)

  14. Forest structure and plant diversity in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stands in central Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, L. F.; Bravo, F.; Zaldivar, P.; Pando, V.

    2009-07-01

    The relationship between forest structure and plant diversity in Mediterranean Maritime pine stands (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in the Iberian Range (Spain) was studied. Forty eight stands were sampled. In each, a circular plot (15 m radius) and a transect (25*1 m{sup 2}) were established to estimate stand variables and record presence and abundance of vascular species respectively. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA), simple correlations and multiple stepwise linear regressions were used to explore the relationship between plant diversity and forest structure. Correlation between diversity measurements and stand variables is very weak, but significant correlations were found when evaluating each set of variables separately. Presence and cover of some species (for instance, Veronica arvensis L. or Micropyrum tenellum (L.) Link) is correlated with stand variables; however, determination coefficients found in step-by-step regression are not significant. (Author) 34 refs.

  15. INTERACTIONS OF ELEVATED CO2, NH3 AND O-3 ON MYCORRHIZAL INFECTION, GAS-EXCHANGE AND N-METABOLISM IN SAPLINGS OF SCOTS PINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PEREZSOBA, M; DUECK, TA; PUPPI, G; KUIPER, PJC

    Four-year-old saplings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were exposed for 11 weeks in controlled-environment chambers to charcoal-filtered air, or to charcoal-filtered air supplemented with NH3 (40 mu g m(-3)), O-3 (110 mu g m(-3) during day/ 40 mu g m(-3) during night) or NH3 + O-3. All

  16. There is no direct relationship between N-status and frost hardiness in needles of NH3-exposed Scots pine seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, JMAM; Venema, JH; Van Hasselt, PR

    2000-01-01

    The effect of short-term atmospheric ammonia deposition on frost hardening of needles of three-month-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was studied. Plants were frost hardened under short day and moderate temperature conditions in the laboratory during exposure to gaseous NH3

  17. Estimation of diameter and height of individual trees for Pinus sylvestris L. based on the individualising of crowns using airborne LiDAR and the National Forestry Inventory data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valbuena-Rabadán, M.A.; Santamaría-Peña, J.; Sanz-Adán, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The objective of this study is to test the validity of the DBH and total height allometric models fitted to the crown polygon data obtained by the application of a crown delineation and individualisation algorithm which uses the geometrical relationships between the points in the original LiDAR point clouds in the Pinus sylvestris L. stands. Area of study: The study area is located in the province of Álava in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. Material and Methods: The crowns are delineated using data from airborne LiDAR point clouds obtained in the 2008 overflight of the Basque Autonomous Community. The DBH and total height data for field trees are obtained from the plots in the 4th National forest inventory. Main Results: For the adjusted total height and DBH models coefficients of determination of 0.87 and 0.74 respectively were obtained. The root mean squared errors were 10.67% and 18.97% respectively. The distributions of obtained DBH and total height fitted values and the distributions of the DBH and total height of the field trees are very similar except for the DBH below 15 cm. Research highlights: For stands of Pinus sylvestris L. in Álava, the geometrical relationships between the points that correspond to laser signal echoes obtained with airborne LiDAR sensors can be used directly to delineate approximations of the horizontal projections of the crowns of the trees. Although the procedure set out here was developed for stands of P. sylvestris L. in Álava, it can be applied to other conifers in regular stands by adjusting the working parameters of the function which delineates the crowns on the basis of the point cloud. (Author)

  18. Synergistic, additive and antagonistic impacts of drought and herbivory on Pinus sylvestris: leaf, tissue and whole-plant responses and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sheel; Hallsby, Göran; Löfvenius, Mikael O; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte

    2013-05-01

    Forests typically experience a mix of anthropogenic, natural and climate-induced stressors of different intensities, creating a mosaic of stressor combinations across the landscape. When multiple stressors co-occur, their combined impact on plant growth is often greater than expected based on single-factor studies (i.e., synergistic), potentially causing catastrophic dysfunction of physiological processes from an otherwise recoverable situation. Drought and herbivory are two stressors that commonly co-occur in forested ecosystems, and have the potential to 'overlap' in their impacts on various plant traits and processes. However, the combined impacts from these two stressors may not be predictable based on additive models from single-stressor studies. Moreover, the impacts and subsequent recovery may be strongly influenced by the relative intensities of each stressor. Here, we applied drought stress and simulated bark-feeding herbivory at three levels of intensity (control, moderate and severe) in a full factorial design on young Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings. We assessed if the combined effects from two stressors were additive (responses were equal to the sum of the single-factor effects), synergistic (greater than expected) or antagonistic (less than expected) on a suite of morphological and physiological traits at the leaf-, tissue- and whole-plant level. We additionally investigated whether recovery from herbivory was dependent on relief from drought. The two stressors had synergistic impacts on specific leaf area and water-use efficiency, additive effects on height and root-to-shoot ratios, but antagonistic effects on photosynthesis, conductance and, most notably, on root, shoot and whole-plant biomass. Nevertheless, the magnitude and direction of the combined impacts were often dependent on the relative intensities of each stressor, leading to many additive or synergistic responses from specific stressor combinations. Also, seedling recovery was far more

  19. Compatible above-ground biomass equations and carbon stock estimation for small diameter Turkish pine (Pinus brutia Ten.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakici, Oytun Emre; Kucuk, Omer; Ashraf, Muhammad Irfan

    2018-04-15

    Small trees and saplings are important for forest management, carbon stock estimation, ecological modeling, and fire management planning. Turkish pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) is a common coniferous species and comprises 25.1% of total forest area of Turkey. Turkish pine is also important due to its flammable fuel characteristics. In this study, compatible above-ground biomass equations were developed to predict needle, branch, stem wood, and above-ground total biomass, and carbon stock assessment was also described for Turkish pine which is smaller than 8 cm diameter at breast height or shorter than breast height. Compatible biomass equations are useful for biomass prediction of small diameter individuals of Turkish pine. These equations will also be helpful in determining fire behavior characteristics and calculating their carbon stock. Overall, present study will be useful for developing ecological models, forest management plans, silvicultural plans, and fire management plans.

  20. ENERGY BALANCE AND CO2 EXCHANGE BEHAVIOUR IN SUB-TROPICAL YOUNG PINE (Pinus roxburghii PLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Bhattacharya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to understand the seasonal and annual energy balance behaviour of young and growing sub-tropical chir pine (Pinus roxburghii plantation of eight years age in the Doon valley, India and its coupling with CO2 exchange. The seasonal cycle of dekadal daytime latent heat fluxes mostly followed net radiation cycle with two minima and range between 50–200 Wm-2 but differed from the latter during the period when soil wetness and cloudiness were not coupled. Dekadal evaporative fraction closely followed the seasonal dryness-wetness cycle thus minimizing the effect of wind on energy partitioning as compared to diurnal variation. Daytime latent heat fluxes were found to have linear relationship with canopy net assimilation rate (Y = 0.023X + 0.171, R2 = 0.80 though nonlinearity exists between canopy latent heat flux and hourly net CO2 assimilation rate . Night-time plant respiration was found to have linear relationship (Y = 0.088 + 1.736, R2 = 0.72 with night-time average vapour pressure deficit (VPD. Daily average soil respiration was found to be non-linearly correlated to average soil temperatures (Y = -0.034X2 + 1.676X – 5.382, R2 = 0.63 The coupled use of empirical models, seasonal energy fluxes and associated parameters would be useful to annual water and carbon accounting in subtropical pine ecosystem of India in the absence high-response eddy covariance tower.

  1. Development-specific responses to drought stress in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexou, Maria

    2013-10-01

    Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) is a pioneer species, highly competitive due to exceptional resistance to drought. To investigate the stress resistance in the first and second year of development, a steady-state drought experiment was implemented. Photosynthesis (A(net)), stomatal conductance and transpiration (E) were measured on three different sampling dates together with phloem soluble sugars, amino acids and non-structural proteins. Needle ascorbic acid (AsA) and reactive oxygen species were measured to evaluate the seedlings' drought stress condition in the final sampling. Drought impaired A(net) and E by 35 and 31%, respectively, and increased AsA levels up to 10-fold, without significant impact on the phloem metabolites. Phloem sugars related to temperature fluctuations rather than soil moisture and did not relate closely to A(net) levels. Sugars and proteins decreased between the second and third sampling date by 56 and 61%, respectively, and the ratio of sugars to amino acids decreased between the first and third sampling by 81%, while A(net) and water-use efficiency (A(net)/E) decreased only in the older seedlings. Although gas exchange was higher in the older seedlings, ascorbic acid and phloem metabolites were higher in the younger seedlings. It was concluded that the drought stress responses depended significantly on developmental stage, and research on the physiology of Aleppo pine regeneration should focus more on temperature conditions and the duration of drought than its severity.

  2. Compensation processes of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) to ozone exposure and drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inclan, R.; Gimeno, B.S.; Dizengremel, P.; Sanchez, M.

    2005-01-01

    A long-term experiment was performed to study the effects of O 3 and drought-stress (DS) on Aleppo pine seedlings (Pinus halepensis Mill.) exposed in open-top chambers. Ozone reduced gas exchange rates, ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity (Rubisco), aboveground C and needle N concentrations and C/N ratio and Ca concentrations of the twigs under 3 mm (twigs Pd ), C/N ratio, twigs<3 Ca, plant growth, aerial biomass and increased N, twigs with a diameter above 3 mm P and Mg concentrations. The combined exposure to both stresses increased N concentrations of twigs<3 and roots and aboveground biomass K content and decreased root C, maximum daily assimilation rate and instantaneous water use efficiency. The sensitivity of Aleppo pine to both stresses is determined by plant internal resource allocation and compensation mechanisms to cope with stress. - Ozone and drought stress induce the activation of similar processes related to C and N metabolism

  3. Characterization of Three L-Asparaginases from Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerckhoven, Sonia H; de la Torre, Fernando N; Cañas, Rafael A; Avila, Concepción; Cantón, Francisco R; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2017-01-01

    Asparaginases (ASPG, EC 3.5.1.1) catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide group of L-asparagine producing L-aspartate and ammonium. Three ASPG, PpASPG1, PpASPG2, and PpASPG3, have been identified in the transcriptome of maritime pine ( Pinus pinaster Ait.) that were transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana by agroinfection. The three recombinant proteins were processed in planta to active enzymes and it was found that all mature forms exhibited double activity asparaginase/isoaspartyl dipeptidase but only PpASPG1 was able to catalyze efficiently L-asparagine hydrolysis. PpASPG1 contains a variable region of 77 amino acids that is critical for proteolytic processing of the precursor and is retained in the mature enzyme. Furthermore, the functional analysis of deletion mutants demonstrated that this protein fragment is required for specific recognition of the substrate and favors enzyme stability. Potassium has a limited effect on the activation of maritime pine ASPG what is consistent with the lack of a critical residue essential for interaction of cation. Taken together, the results presented here highlight the specific features of ASPG from conifers when compared to the enzymes from angiosperms.

  4. Characterization of Three L-Asparaginases from Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia H. Van Kerckhoven

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Asparaginases (ASPG, EC 3.5.1.1 catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide group of L-asparagine producing L-aspartate and ammonium. Three ASPG, PpASPG1, PpASPG2, and PpASPG3, have been identified in the transcriptome of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. that were transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana by agroinfection. The three recombinant proteins were processed in planta to active enzymes and it was found that all mature forms exhibited double activity asparaginase/isoaspartyl dipeptidase but only PpASPG1 was able to catalyze efficiently L-asparagine hydrolysis. PpASPG1 contains a variable region of 77 amino acids that is critical for proteolytic processing of the precursor and is retained in the mature enzyme. Furthermore, the functional analysis of deletion mutants demonstrated that this protein fragment is required for specific recognition of the substrate and favors enzyme stability. Potassium has a limited effect on the activation of maritime pine ASPG what is consistent with the lack of a critical residue essential for interaction of cation. Taken together, the results presented here highlight the specific features of ASPG from conifers when compared to the enzymes from angiosperms.

  5. Radiocarbon dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.H.; Lee, J.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Yun, M.H.; Kim, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of the dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea. The age of the tree was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of years, however, the tree had been broken by a strong wind in March 2010 and now only the stump of the tree is left. At the time of sampling in 2014, there were several decayed parts in the stump, so using the usual dendrochronological method (i.e. ring counting) for dating was difficult. However, we found a small wood sample with tree rings near the center of the stump that could be used for radiocarbon wiggle-match dating. Radiocarbon dates were determined using Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The IntCal13 curve was used to calibrate the radiocarbon dates, and the wiggle matching technique was used to reduce the error of the calibrated ages. Based on the dating results, we suggest that the pine tree is approximately 300 years or older.

  6. Radiocarbon dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C.H.; Lee, J.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Yun, M.H. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We report the results of the dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea. The age of the tree was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of years, however, the tree had been broken by a strong wind in March 2010 and now only the stump of the tree is left. At the time of sampling in 2014, there were several decayed parts in the stump, so using the usual dendrochronological method (i.e. ring counting) for dating was difficult. However, we found a small wood sample with tree rings near the center of the stump that could be used for radiocarbon wiggle-match dating. Radiocarbon dates were determined using Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The IntCal13 curve was used to calibrate the radiocarbon dates, and the wiggle matching technique was used to reduce the error of the calibrated ages. Based on the dating results, we suggest that the pine tree is approximately 300 years or older.

  7. Radiocarbon dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C. H.; Lee, J. H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Yun, M. H.; Kim, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of the dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea. The age of the tree was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of years, however, the tree had been broken by a strong wind in March 2010 and now only the stump of the tree is left. At the time of sampling in 2014, there were several decayed parts in the stump, so using the usual dendrochronological method (i.e. ring counting) for dating was difficult. However, we found a small wood sample with tree rings near the center of the stump that could be used for radiocarbon wiggle-match dating. Radiocarbon dates were determined using Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The IntCal13 curve was used to calibrate the radiocarbon dates, and the wiggle matching technique was used to reduce the error of the calibrated ages. Based on the dating results, we suggest that the pine tree is approximately 300 years or older.

  8. Purification, Characterization, and Cloning of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'malley, D M; Porter, S; Sederoff, R R

    1992-04-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, EC 1.1.1. 195) has been purified to homogeneity from differentiating xylem tissue and developing seeds of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). The enzyme is a dimer with a native molecular weight of 82,000 and a subunit molecular weight of 44,000, and is the only form of CAD involved in lignification in differentiating xylem. High levels of loblolly pine CAD enzyme were found in nonlignifying seed tissue. Characterization of the enzyme from both seeds and xylem demonstrated that the enzyme is the same in both tissues. The enzyme has a high affinity for coniferaldehyde (K(m) = 1.7 micromolar) compared with sinapaldehyde (K(m) in excess of 100 micromolar). Kinetic data strongly suggest that coniferin is a noncompetitive inhibitor of CAD enzyme activity. Protein sequences were obtained for the N-terminus (28 amino acids) and for two other peptides. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers based on the protein sequences were used to amplify by polymerase chain reaction a 1050 base pair DNA fragment from xylem cDNA. Nucleotide sequence from the cloned DNA fragment coded for the N-terminal protein sequence and an internal peptide of CAD. The N-terminal protein sequence has little similarity with the lambdaCAD4 clone isolated from bean (MH Walter, J Grima-Pettenati, C Grand, AM Boudet, CJ Lamb [1988] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:5546-5550), which has homology with malic enzyme.

  9. Purification, Characterization, and Cloning of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, David M.; Porter, Stephanie; Sederoff, Ronald R.

    1992-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, EC 1.1.1. 195) has been purified to homogeneity from differentiating xylem tissue and developing seeds of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). The enzyme is a dimer with a native molecular weight of 82,000 and a subunit molecular weight of 44,000, and is the only form of CAD involved in lignification in differentiating xylem. High levels of loblolly pine CAD enzyme were found in nonlignifying seed tissue. Characterization of the enzyme from both seeds and xylem demonstrated that the enzyme is the same in both tissues. The enzyme has a high affinity for coniferaldehyde (Km = 1.7 micromolar) compared with sinapaldehyde (Km in excess of 100 micromolar). Kinetic data strongly suggest that coniferin is a noncompetitive inhibitor of CAD enzyme activity. Protein sequences were obtained for the N-terminus (28 amino acids) and for two other peptides. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers based on the protein sequences were used to amplify by polymerase chain reaction a 1050 base pair DNA fragment from xylem cDNA. Nucleotide sequence from the cloned DNA fragment coded for the N-terminal protein sequence and an internal peptide of CAD. The N-terminal protein sequence has little similarity with the λCAD4 clone isolated from bean (MH Walter, J Grima-Pettenati, C Grand, AM Boudet, CJ Lamb [1988] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:5546-5550), which has homology with malic enzyme. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:16668801

  10. Removal of Heavy Metals by Adsorption onto Activated Carbon Derived from Pine Cones of Pinus roxburghii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, Muhammad Jawwad; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Usman, Muhammad; Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid

    2015-04-01

    Activated carbon derived from cones of Pinus roxburghii (Himalayan Pine) was used as an adsorbent for the removal of copper, nickel and chromium ions from waste water. Surface analysis was carried out to determine the specific surface area and pore size distribution of the pine cone derived activated carbon. Optimal parameters, effect of adsorbent quantity, pH, equilibrium time, agitation speed and temperature were studied. Equilibrium data were evaluated by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Langmuir isotherm afforded the best fit to the equilibrium data with a maximum adsorption capacity of 14.2, 31.4 and 29.6 mg/g for Cu(II), Ni(II) and Cr(VI) respectively. Maximum adsorption of Cu(II), Ni(II) was observed in the pH range 4.0 to 4.5, whereas the best adsorption of Cr(VI) was observed at pH 2.5. It was found that 180 minutes was sufficient to gain adsorption equilibrium. The adsorption process follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  11. Biosorption of Phenolic Compounds from Aqueous Solutions using Pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb Bark Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Kumar Nadavala

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the development of a new bioadsorbent from lignocellulosic wastes of agricultural origin. The biosorption capacity of an agricultural solid waste, pine bark (Pinus densiflora Sieb., to remove phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-chlorophenol (2-CPh, and 4- chlorophenol (4-CPh from aqueous solutions under batch equilibrium conditions was investigated. The morphological characteristics of the biosorbent were evaluated by BET surface area analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, elemental analysis, an X-ray diffractometer (XRD, and a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of initial pH (2 to 10, contact time, initial concentration of adsorbate (50 to 200 mg/L, and biosorbent dosage. The biosorption of phenolic compounds decreased with increasing pH, and the highest biosorption capacity was achieved at a pH of 6.0. Biosorption equilibrium was established in 120 min. The biosorption equilibrium data were fitted and analyzed with Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm equations, as well as four adsorption kinetic models. The kinetics data fitted well into the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.993. The maximum monolayer biosorption capacity of pine bark for phenol, 2-CPh, and 4-CPh was found to be 142.85, 204.08, and 263.15 mg/g, respectively, as calculated by the Langmuir model at 30 ± 1 °C. Pine bark could be used as a new effective, low-cost biosorbent material with good uptake capacity and rapid kinetics for the removal of phenolic compounds from aqueous media.

  12. Secondary vegetation succession on jack pine (Pinus banksiana) cutovers in northeastern Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiveau, Daniel

    2000-07-01

    The effects of different harvesting and site preparation methods on competing vegetation were studied in nine jack pine (Pinus banksiana) cutovers in northeastern Ontario, Canada. Six different treatments plus glyphosate herbiciding and no herbiciding were applied: 1) tree-length harvesting followed by trenching, and full-tree harvesting followed by five site preparations, 2) no site preparation, 3) trenching and 4) blading and compaction as well as blading followed by two planting densities, 5) 1.2m and 6) 2m. Competing vegetation was assessed preharvest and years 1, 2, 3, and 5 postharvest. Data was also available from nine juvenile sites as well as nine semimature sites. Data collection consisted of coverage values of each species as well as structural data for main life forms in height classes. Growth and health data of the planted jack pine seedlings were also available. The data was analyzed using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), diversity indices and tabular analysis. Three years after the herbicide application there is no difference between the total coverage in the halfplots that have received herbiciding and those that have not, but an alteration of the relative abundance of species groups has developed; glyphosate herbiciding promotes grasses over shrubs. When no site preparation is applied, shrubs increase and compete with the seedlings, whose growth is cut in half compared to the ones that have been site prepared by trenching. Five years after blading, and blading plus compaction, there is still very little vegetation in the research plots, but there is no reduction of the survival rate and growth of the jack pine seedlings. More dense planting after this treatment leads to more competing vegetation, probably due to increased availability of moisture. Grasses do not seem to be affected by compaction and pioneer mosses are promoted by this treatment but compaction leads to a significant reduction of the total coverage of competing vegetation

  13. Influence of instantaneous controlled pressure drop extraction conditions on composition and oil yield from Maritime Pine (Pinus Pinaster)

    OpenAIRE

    Rezzoug , Sid-Ahmed; Janocka , Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Experiments to extract the essential oil from maritime pine (pinus pinaster) were carried out using the instantaneous controlled pressure drop process: "Détente Instantanée Contrôlée" (D.I.C). This process involves subjecting the maritime pine needles for a short period of time to a steam pressure varying from 2 to 5 bar (120 to 150 °C) during a fixed processing time, followed by an instantaneous decompression towards a vacuum (about 50 mbar). In this contribution, we ...

  14. Population biology of sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) with reference to historical disturbances in the Lake Tahoe Basin: implications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia E. Maloney; Detlev R. Vogler; Andrew J. Eckert; Camille E. Jensen; David B. Neale

    2011-01-01

    Historical logging, fire suppression, and an invasive pathogen, Cronartium ribicola, the cause of white pine blister rust (WPBR), are assumed to have dramatically affected sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) populations in the Lake Tahoe Basin. We examined population- and genetic-level consequences of these disturbances within 10...

  15. Genetic diversity and structure of western white pine (Pinus monticola) in North America: A baseline study for conservation, restoration, and addressing impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee-Sook Kim; Bryce A. Richardson; Geral I. McDonald; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2010-01-01

    Western white pine (Pinus monticola) is an economically and ecologically important species in western North America that has declined in prominence over the past several decades, mainly due to the introduction of Cronartium ribicola (cause of white pine blister rust) and reduced opportunities for regeneration. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were...

  16. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing Fusarium root disease on sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) in a forest container nursery in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Stewart; K. Otto; G. A. Cline; Kas Dumroese; Ned Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium species, specifically F. commune, F. proliferatum, and F. solani, can cause severe damping-off and root disease in container and bareroot forest nurseries throughout North America. Many conifer and hardwood species can be affected, but Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), western white pine (Pinus monticola), and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) are known to be...

  17. Exploring climate niches of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) haplotypes in the western United States: implications for evolutionary history and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas J. Shinneman; Robert E. Means; Kevin M. Potter; Valerie D. Hipkins; Tzen-Yuh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique...

  18. Soil CO2 efflux in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations on the virginia Piedmond and South Carolina coastal plain over a rotation-length chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Gough; John R. Seiler; P. Eric Wiseman; Christopher A. Maier

    2005-01-01

    We measured soil surface CO2 efflux (Fx) in loblolly pine stands (Pinus taeda L.) located on the Virginia Piedmont (VA) and South Carolina Coastal Plain (SC) in efforts to assess the impact climate, productivity, and cultural practices have on Fs in the managed loblolly pine...

  19. Comparison of red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) nestling diet in old-growth and old-field longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Hanula; R. Todd Engstrom

    2000-01-01

    Automatic cameras were used to record adult red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) nest visits with food for nestlings. Diet of nestlings on or near an old-growth longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) remnant in southern Georgia was compared to that in longleaf pine stands established on old farm fields in western South Carolina....

  20. Biomass equations and biomass expansion factors (BEFs) for pine (pinus spp.), spruce (picea spp.) and broadleaved dominated stands in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Viken, Knut Ole

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The objectives of this study were (1) to develop models for estimation of stand-level tree biomass for spruce (picea spp.)- pine (pinus spp.)- and broadleaved-dominated forest in Norway and, (2) develop biomass expansion factors (BEFs; ratio of stem volume to biomass) which convert stem volume to whole tree biomass for Norwegian forest conditions. A dataset from a 5 year period (2006 – 2010) from the Norwegian National Forest Inventory (NFI) were used to develop the...

  1. Adaptive potential of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster populations to the emerging pitch canker pathogen, Fusarium circinatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Elvira-Recuenco

    Full Text Available There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3-7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43-0.58 and 0.51-0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival. These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease.

  2. Adaptive potential of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) populations to the emerging pitch canker pathogen, Fusarium circinatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira-Recuenco, Margarita; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Majada, Juan; Alia, Ricardo; Raposo, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster) stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3-7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43-0.58 and 0.51-0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival). These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm) was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease.

  3. Dispersal ecology of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in its native environment as related to Swedish forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despain, D.G.

    2001-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) covers extensive areas of the mountains of western North America. It has evolved into four subspecies, each adapted to slightly different environmental conditions. All are adapted to reproduce following fire. Subspecies latifolia is the most extensive and economically important in North America. Serotiny is common in this subspecies, but trees bearing nonserotinous cones can be found in most stands, sometimes constituting more that 70% of the trees. Cone crops are produced yearly and seed loss to seed predators, insects and diseases are minimal. Germination and establishment occurs across a broad range of conditions allowing lodgepole pine to grow on poor sites as well as highly productive sites. These characteristics give lodgepole pine the ability to be highly invasive in new areas of suitable habitat.

  4. Farklı tohum kaynaklarının Sarıçam (Pinus sylvestris L. tohum özelliklerine etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan KELEŞ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Çalışmanın amacı; Sarıçam’da (Pinus sylvestris L. aynı orijinli ve farklı tohum kaynaklarının tohum özelliklerine etkisini belirlemektir. Araştırma alanı olarak; Çankırı-Ilgaz-Uzundağ mevkiindeki tohum meşceresi ile Çankırı-Ilgaz-Uzundağ orijinli Eskişehir-Mihalıçcık-Ormantepe mevkiindeki klonal tohum bahçesi seçilmiştir.Bu amaçla; 2004 bol tohum yılında, Ilgaz-Uzundağ mevkii 176 nolu tohum meşceresindeki 30 üstün ağaçtan ve Mihalıçcık-Ormantepe mevkiindeki 96 nolu klonal tohum bahçesinden 30 klonu temsil edecek şekilde her bir ağaçtan (ramet 20’şer adet olmak üzere toplam 1200 adet kozalak örneğinden tohum temin edilmiştir.Her bir kozalaktan elde edilen tohumlar üzerinde; tohum çapı (Thç, tohum boyu (Thb, tohum sayısı (Ths, tohum ağırlığı (Thag, bir tohum ağırlığı (BrThag,  kanat boyu (Knb, kanat eni (Knç ve kanat rengi (Knr gibi tohum ve kanata ilişkin morfolojik özellikleri belirlenmiştir.Yapılan ölçüm ve değerlendirmeler sonucunda; Ilgaz tohum meşceresine ve Mihalıçcık klonal tohum bahçesine ait tohumların ortalama değerleri sırasıyla; Ths: 30,18 adet ve 27,96 adet, Thç: 2,83 mm ve 2,73 mm, Thb: 5,13 mm ve 4,79 mm, Thag: 0,310 gr ve 0,180 gr, BrThag: 0,01 gr ve 0,006 gr, Knç: 5,82 mm ve 5,30 mm, Knb: 18,56 ve 16,6 mm olarak bulunmuştur.Sonuç olarak; Ilgaz tohum meşceresinden alınan örneklerin Mihalıçcık klonal tohum bahçesinden alınan örneklere göre, tüm özellikler bakımından daha yüksek değerlere sahip olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Bu sonuçlar; tohum bahçesindeki etkili klon sayısı, çiçeklenme fenolojisi/çiçeklenme senkronizasyonu, kendileme depresyonu gibi konuların ortaya konulmasını gerekli kılmaktadır.

  5. Environment-dependent microevolution in a Mediterranean pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alía, Ricardo; Chambel, Regina; Notivol, Eduardo; Climent, José; González-Martínez, Santiago C

    2014-09-23

    A central question for understanding the evolutionary responses of plant species to rapidly changing environments is the assessment of their potential for short-term (in one or a few generations) genetic change. In our study, we consider the case of Pinus pinaster Aiton (maritime pine), a widespread Mediterranean tree, and (i) test, under different experimental conditions (growth chamber and semi-natural), whether higher recruitment in the wild from the most successful mothers is due to better performance of their offspring; and (ii) evaluate genetic change in quantitative traits across generations at two different life stages (mature trees and seedlings) that are known to be under strong selection pressure in forest trees. Genetic control was high for most traits (h2 = 0.137-0.876) under the milder conditions of the growth chamber, but only for ontogenetic change (0.276), total height (0.415) and survival (0.719) under the more stressful semi-natural conditions. Significant phenotypic selection gradients were found in mature trees for traits related to seed quality (germination rate and number of empty seeds). Moreover, female relative reproductive success was significantly correlated with offspring performance for specific leaf area (SLA) in the growth chamber experiment, and stem mass fraction (SMF) in the experiment under semi-natural conditions, two adaptive traits related to abiotic stress-response in pines. Selection gradients based on genetic covariance of seedling traits and responses to selection at this stage involved traits related to biomass allocation (SMF) and growth (as decomposed by a Gompertz model) or delayed ontogenetic change, depending also on the testing environment. Despite the evidence of microevolutionary change in adaptive traits in maritime pine, directional or disruptive changes are difficult to predict due to variable selection at different life stages and environments. At mature-tree stages, higher female effective reproductive

  6. Spatially variable natural selection and the divergence between parapatric subspecies of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta, Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Andrew J; Shahi, Hurshbir; Datwyler, Shannon L; Neale, David B

    2012-08-01

    Plant populations arrayed across sharp environmental gradients are ideal systems for identifying the genetic basis of ecologically relevant phenotypes. A series of five uplifted marine terraces along the northern coast of California represents one such system where morphologically distinct populations of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) are distributed across sharp soil gradients ranging from fertile soils near the coast to podzolic soils ca. 5 km inland. A total of 92 trees was sampled across four coastal marine terraces (N = 10-46 trees/terrace) located in Mendocino County, California and sequenced for a set of 24 candidate genes for growth and responses to various soil chemistry variables. Statistical analyses relying on patterns of nucleotide diversity were employed to identify genes whose diversity patterns were inconsistent with three null models. Most genes displayed patterns of nucleotide diversity that were consistent with null models (N = 19) or with the presence of paralogs (N = 3). Two genes, however, were exceptional: an aluminum responsive ABC-transporter with F(ST) = 0.664 and an inorganic phosphate transporter characterized by divergent haplotypes segregating at intermediate frequencies in most populations. Spatially variable natural selection along gradients of aluminum and phosphate ion concentrations likely accounted for both outliers. These results shed light on some of the genetic components comprising the extended phenotype of this ecosystem, as well as highlight ecotones as fruitful study systems for the detection of adaptive genetic variants.

  7. Analysis of genetic stability at SSR loci during somatic embryogenesis in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marum, Liliana; Rocheta, Margarida; Maroco, João; Oliveira, M Margarida; Miguel, Célia

    2009-04-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a propagation tool of particular interest for accelerating the deployment of new high-performance planting stock in multivarietal forestry. However, genetic conformity in in vitro propagated plants should be assessed as early as possible, especially in long-living trees such as conifers. The main objective of this work was to study such conformity based on genetic stability at simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci during somatic embryogenesis in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Embryogenic cell lines (ECLs) subjected to tissue proliferation during 6, 14 or 22 months, as well as emblings regenerated from several ECLs, were analyzed. Genetic variation at seven SSR loci was detected in ECLs under proliferation conditions for all time points, and in 5 out of 52 emblings recovered from somatic embryos. Three of these five emblings showed an abnormal phenotype consisting mainly of plagiotropism and loss of apical dominance. Despite the variation found in somatic embryogenesis-derived plant material, no correlation was established between genetic stability at the analyzed loci and abnormal embling phenotype, present in 64% of the emblings. The use of microsatellites in this work was efficient for monitoring mutation events during the somatic embryogenesis in P. pinaster. These molecular markers should be useful in the implementation of new breeding and deployment strategies for improved trees using SE.

  8. The role of arginine metabolic pathway during embryogenesis and germination in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llebrés, María-Teresa; Pascual, María-Belén; Debille, Sandrine; Trontin, Jean-François; Harvengt, Luc; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2018-03-01

    Vegetative propagation through somatic embryogenesis is critical in conifer biotechnology towards multivarietal forestry that uses elite varieties to cope with environmental and socio-economic issues. An important and still sub-optimal process during in vitro maturation of somatic embryos (SE) is the biosynthesis and deposition of storage proteins, which are rich in amino acids with high nitrogen (N) content, such as arginine. Mobilization of these N-rich proteins is essential for the germination and production of vigorous somatic seedlings. Somatic embryos accumulate lower levels of N reserves than zygotic embryos (ZE) at a similar stage of development. To understand the molecular basis for this difference, the arginine metabolic pathway has been characterized in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). The genes involved in arginine metabolism have been identified and GFP-fusion constructs were used to locate the enzymes in different cellular compartments and clarify their metabolic roles during embryogenesis and germination. Analysis of gene expression during somatic embryo maturation revealed high levels of transcripts for genes involved in the biosynthesis and metabolic utilization of arginine. By contrast, enhanced expression levels were only observed during the last stages of maturation and germination of ZE, consistent with the adequate accumulation and mobilization of protein reserves. These results suggest that arginine metabolism is unbalanced in SE (simultaneous biosynthesis and degradation of arginine) and could explain the lower accumulation of storage proteins observed during the late stages of somatic embryogenesis.

  9. Plasticity of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) wood-forming tissues during a growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, J A P; Garnier-Géré, P H; Rodrigues, J C; Alves, A; Santos, S; Graça, J; Le Provost, G; Chaumeil, G; Da Silva-Perez, D; Bosc, A; Fevereiro, P; Plomion, C

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal effect is the most significant external source of variation affecting vascular cambial activity and the development of newly divided cells, and hence wood properties. Here, the effect of edapho-climatic conditions on the phenotypic and molecular plasticity of differentiating secondary xylem during a growing season was investigated. Wood-forming tissues of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) were collected from the beginning to the end of the growing season in 2003. Data from examination of fibre morphology, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), analytical pyrolysis, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were combined to characterize the samples. Strong variation was observed in response to changes in edapho-climatic conditions. A genomic approach was used to identify genes differentially expressed during this growing season. Out of 3512 studied genes, 19% showed a significant seasonal effect. These genes were clustered into five distinct groups, the largest two representing genes over-expressed in the early- or late-wood-forming tissues, respectively. The other three clusters were characterized by responses to specific edapho-climatic conditions. This work provides new insights into the plasticity of the molecular machinery involved in wood formation, and reveals candidate genes potentially responsible for the phenotypic differences found between early- and late-wood.

  10. Characterization and Bioactivity of Polysaccharides Obtained from Pine Cones of Pinus koraiensis by Graded Ethanol Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pinus koraiensis polysaccharides (PKP were extracted by hot water from P. koraiensis pine cones. Five polysaccharide fractions named PKP-A, PKP-B, PKP-C, PKP-D and PKP-E were successfully separated at final ethanol concentrations of 30%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 80%, respectively. HPLC, FT-IR, GC-MS and automatic amino-acid analysis were applied to investigate their chemical characteristics. Monosaccharide component analysis indicated that the five fractions were all composed of d-ribose, l-rhamnose, l-arabinose, d-xylose, d-mannose, d-glucose and d-galactose, but their molar ratios were quite different. HPLC results revealed that the polysaccharides precipitated by higher concentrations of ethanol solution had lower molecular masses. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of the five fractions were studied on the basis of hydroxyl radical and ABTS radical scavenging tests. The five graded polysaccharide fractions exhibited good inhibitory power, and MTT tests in vitro showed the IC50 of PKP-A and PKP-E were 1,072.5 and 2,070.0 μg·mL−1, respectively. These results demonstrated that the PKP could be a potential source of natural antioxidants or dietary supplements.

  11. Impact of Geography and Climate on the Genetic Differentiation of the Subtropical Pine Pinus yunnanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baosheng; Mao, Jian-Feng; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2013-01-01

    Southwest China is a biodiversity hotspot characterized by complex topography, heterogeneous regional climates and rich flora. The processes and driving factors underlying this hotspot remain to be explicitly tested across taxa to gain a general understanding of the evolution of biodiversity and speciation in the region. In this study, we examined the role played by historically neutral processes, geography and environment in producing the current genetic diversity of the subtropical pine Pinus yunnanensis. We used genetic and ecological methods to investigate the patterns of genetic differentiation and ecological niche divergence across the distribution range of this species. We found both continuous genetic differentiation over the majority of its range, and discrete isolated local clusters. The discrete differentiation between two genetic groups in the west and east peripheries is consistent with niche divergence and geographical isolation of these groups. In the central area of the species' range, population structure was shaped mainly by neutral processes and geography rather than by ecological selection. These results show that geographical and environmental factors together created stronger and more discrete genetic differentiation than isolation by distance alone, and illustrate the importance of ecological factors in forming or maintaining genetic divergence across a complex landscape. Our findings differ from other phylogenetic studies that identified the historical drainage system in the region as the primary factor shaping population structure, and highlight the heterogeneous contributions that geography and environment have made to genetic diversity among taxa in southwest China.

  12. Thermal conditions within tree cavities in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests: potential implications for cavity users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierling, Kerri T.; Lorenz, Teresa J.; Cunningham, Patrick; Potterf, Kelsi

    2017-11-01

    Tree cavities provide critical roosting and breeding sites for multiple species, and thermal environments in these cavities are important to understand. Our objectives were to (1) describe thermal characteristics in cavities between June 3 and August 9, 2014, and (2) investigate the environmental factors that influence cavity temperatures. We placed iButtons in 84 different cavities in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in central Washington, and took hourly measurements for at least 8 days in each cavity. Temperatures above 40 °C are generally lethal to developing avian embryos, and 18% of the cavities had internal temperatures of ≥ 40 °C for at least 1 h of each day. We modeled daily maximum cavity temperature, the amplitude of daily cavity temperatures, and the difference between the mean internal cavity and mean ambient temperatures as a function of several environmental variables. These variables included canopy cover, tree diameter at cavity height, cavity volume, entrance area, the hardness of the cavity body, the hardness of the cavity sill (which is the wood below the cavity entrance which forms the barrier between the cavity and the external environment), and sill width. Ambient temperature had the largest effect size for maximum cavity temperature and amplitude. Larger trees with harder sills may provide more thermally stable cavity environments, and decayed sills were positively associated with maximum cavity temperatures. Summer temperatures are projected to increase in this region, and additional research is needed to determine how the thermal environments of cavities will influence species occupancy, breeding, and survival.

  13. Persisting soil drought reduces leaf specific conductivity in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterck, F.J.; Zweifel, R.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Qumruzzaman, C.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Leaf specific conductivity (LSC; the ratio of stem conductivity (KP) to leaf area (AL)), a measure of the hydraulic capacity of the stem to supply leaves with water, varies with soil water content. Empirical evidence for LSC responses to drought is ambiguous, because previously published

  14. Soil Respiration Changes after Prescribed Fires in Spanish Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii Monospecific and Mixed Forest Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Plaza-Álvarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration is a major carbon pathway sensitive to environmental changes. Using prescribed burnings to reduce fuel accumulation and lower risks of large-scale wildfires has recently become more important. Prescribed burning can significantly alter the soil environment, but its effect in practice on soil respiration is not sufficiently understood. We evaluated the effects of prescribed burning on soil respiration before and after burning (May–July 2016. Prescribed burning was conducted in two natural pine areas by comparing a mixed stand of Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii with Pinus pinaster Ait. to a pure stand of Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii in the central Iberian Peninsula. Soil respiration was measured by an EGM-4 (Environmental Gas Monitor infrared gas analyser in both burned and unburned (control plots. Burnings were low-intensity, and slightly more energetic in the pure stand given its larger litter volume. Post-burning soil respiration followed a similar evolution to that in the control plots, but was greater in the pure stand burned zone and slightly lower in the burned plots in the mixed stand. No significant differences were found in any stand. Soil respiration significantly changed in temporal evolution due to increasing temperatures when summer began. We conclude that prescribed fire induces no changes in SR immediately after fire. This study helps understand how prescribed burnings can affect soil respiration in pure and mixed Spanish black pine forest stands.

  15. Simulated Summer Rainfall Variability Effects on Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda Seedling Physiology and Susceptibility to Root-Infecting Ophiostomatoid Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Chieppa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Seedlings from four families of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. were grown in capped open-top chambers and exposed to three different weekly moisture regimes for 13 weeks. Moisture regimes varied in intensity and frequency of simulated rainfall (irrigation events; however, the total amounts were comparable. These simulated treatments were chosen to simulate expected changes in rainfall variability associated with climate change. Seedlings were inoculated with two root-infecting ophiostomatoid fungi associated with Southern Pine Decline. We found susceptibility of loblolly pine was not affected by water stress; however, one family that was most sensitive to inoculation was also most sensitive to changes in moisture availability. Many studies have examined the effects of drought (well-watered vs. dry conditions on pine physiology and host-pathogen interactions but little is known about variability in moisture supply. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of variability in water availability, pathogen inoculation and their interaction on physiology of loblolly pine seedlings.

  16. Homogeneity of δ15N in needles of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) was altered by air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Yuanwen; Wen Dazhi; Li Jiong; Sun Fangfang; Hou Enqing; Zhou Guoyi; Zhang Deqiang; Huang Longbin

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the changes of δ 15 N values in the tip, middle and base section (divided by the proportion to needle length) of current- and previous-year needles of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) from two declining forest stands suffering from air pollution, in comparison with one healthy stand. At the healthy stand, δ 15 N in the three sections of both current- and previous-year needles were found evenly distributed, while at the polluted stands, δ 15 N values in the needles were revealed significantly different from the tip to the base sections. The results implied that the distribution of δ 15 N among different parts or sections in foliages was not always homogeneous and could be affected by air pollution. We suggested that the difference of δ 15 N values among pine needle sections should be reconsidered and should not be primarily ignored when the needle δ 15 N values were used to assess plant responses to air pollution. - Values of δ 15 N in needles of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) were uneven and affected by air pollution.

  17. Population dynamics of bacteria associated with different strains of the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus after inoculation in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roriz, Mariana; Santos, Carla; Vasconcelos, Marta W

    2011-08-01

    For a long time it was thought that Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was the only agent of the pine wilt disease. Recently, it was discovered that there are bacteria associated with the nematodes that contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease, mainly through the release of toxins that promote the death of the pines. Among the species most commonly found, are bacteria belonging to the Bacillus, Pantoea, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas genera. The main objective of this work was to study the effect of inoculation of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) with four different nematode isolates, in the bacterial population of nematodes and trees, at different stages of disease progression. The monitoring of progression of disease symptoms was also recorded. Also, the identification of bacteria isolated from the xylem of trees and the surface of nematodes was performed by classical identification methods, by the API20E identification system and by sequencing of bacterial DNA. The results showed that for the symptoms progression, the most striking difference was observed for the pines inoculated with the avirulent isolate, C14-5, which led to a slower and less severe aggravation of symptoms than in pines inoculated with the virulent isolates. In general, it was found that bacterial population, inside the tree, increased with disease progression. A superior bacterial quantity was isolated from pines inoculated with the nematode isolates HF and 20, and, comparatively, few bacteria were isolated from pines inoculated with the avirulent isolate. The identification system API20E was insufficient in the identification of bacterial species; Enterobacter cloacae species was identified in 79% of the isolated bacterial colonies and seven of these colonies could not be identified by this method. Molecular identification methods, through bacterial DNA sequencing, allowed a more reliable identification: eleven different bacterial species within the Bacillus, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia

  18. Rapid changes in the range limits of Scots pine 4000 years ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gear, A.J.; Huntley, B.

    1991-01-01

    Paleoecological data provide estimates of response rates to past climate changes. Fossil Pinus sylvestris stumps in far northern Scotland demonstrate former presence of pine trees where conventional pollen evidence of pine forests is lacking. Radiocarbon, dendrochronological, and fine temporal-resolution palynological data show that pine forest were present for about four centuries some 4,000 years ago; the forests expanded and then retreated rapidly some 70 to 80 kilometers. Despite the rapidity of this response to climate change, it occurred at rates slower by an order of magnitude than those necessary to maintain equilibrium with forecast climate changes attributed to the greenhouse effect

  19. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Keyes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA. Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicultural study of uneven-aged management techniques that was carried out in 1984, and which resulted in three separate units consisting of one control, one cut/no-burn treatment, and one cut/burn treatment. Seeds were collected during the 10 years following treatment in 15 traps systematically deployed within each of the stand’s three units. The total numbers of seeds collected in each unit were plotted over time to analyze crop synchrony, with Spearman rank correlation coefficient used to test for masting cycles and crop depletion after a mast year. Meteorological records over the period 1983-1994 were related to the occurrence of a mast event (defined as crops exceeding 50,000 viable seeds/ha. Main results: The seed production pattern was non-cyclical, synchronous, and independent of silvicultural treatment history. A mast-depletion effect was evident but was not statistically significant. Mast events seem to be promoted by the occurrence of optimum mean temperatures at the beginning of spring during both the first (11 °C and second (9 °C years of cone maturation. The probability of a mast year was also affected by summer temperature (number of late frost days; negative effect and precipitation amount (positive effect. All these factors would seemingly explain the observed synchronous pattern in cone production. Research highlights: The non-cyclical trend of ponderosa pine seed mast years is influenced by specific climate determinants. Fluctuations in mean early

  20. Usage of the pruned log index for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda and slash pine (Pinus elliottii Aplicação do Índice de Tora Podada para Pinus taeda e Pinus elliottii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Jeton Cardoso

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The assessment of the quality of clearwood produced in pruned plantations of pine is necessary, especially to set price and know the utilization potential. The pruned log index (PLI, index used in Chile and New Zealand to characterize the quality of the logs, is a function of measurable variables of each log as diameter with defects, diameter 1.3 m from the largest end and the ratio between the cylinder volume common to the entire length of the log and the scaling volume through the method Smalian. This study aims at evaluating the ITP usage for slash pine (Pinus elliottii logs at the age 24 years and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda at 19, harvested
    in the regions of Ibaiti, Paraná, and Itapeva, São Paulo. The PLI values did not exceed 2.3, which  indicates that there is little clearwood on the logs. This has been proven through the veneering results, in which the potentially clear volume in relation to the log volume ranged between 52% and 55%, but 10.3% at the maximum, was turned into clearwood veneer. The slicing procedure in the lathe proved to be suitable, since it allowed the diameter of the knotty core to be measured as soon as the knot came out. The PLI showed itself as applicable for the Brazilian conditions.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.62.119

  1. Lichen biogeochemical and spatial dynamics in canopies of Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M. M.; Martin, J.; Olson, E.

    2017-12-01

    Forest canopies have been shown to contain complex ecosystem level processes but much of this work is from the tropics or the charismatic tall trees of Oceana and the Pacific Northwestern US. However, many of the processes can occur in other species of trees that are not as tall, as old, nor as surrounded by biological diversity. Such an occurrence is within the lichen diversity and coverage of Eastern white pines (Pinus strobus) in the Lake States region of the US. We used arborist techniques to scale, survey, and document the lichen abundance in three large and regionally old trees (diameter at breast height 70-80+cm, 30m in height, and 100 to 115 years old). These trees represent the first generation of second growth forests to reclaim the landscape following the massive cutover period in the region from 1880s to the 1910s. We surveyed the stem in framed quadrats in the four cardinal directions at every 2 meters, as well as various branch locations, and used digital photographs and image analysis software to quantify coverage. Lichen coverage ranged from 0% to over 50% and increased with height indicating: (1) possible light limitations or bark suitability limitations near the ground, and (2) that conditions, not time, may be more important for lichen abundance. Lastly, because lichens can fix atmospheric nitrogen and absorb substantial amounts of water, we scaled the coverage of lichen to determine the total nitrogen pool and water holding capacity in the footprint of these large trees. The vertical structure of these large trees helps add to these biogeochemical pools and may be an important consideration for management and restoration efforts aimed at slowing nutrient and water loss from upland forests.

  2. Mucilaginibacter pineti sp. nov., isolated from Pinus pinaster wood from a mixed grove of pines trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Gabriel; Abreu, Pedro; Proença, Diogo Neves; Santos, Susana; Nobre, Maria Fernanda; Morais, Paula V

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial strain M47C3B(T) was isolated from the endophytic microbial community of a Pinus pinaster tree branch from a mixed grove of pines. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that this organism represented one distinct branch within the family Sphingobacteriaceae, most closely related to the genus Mucilaginibacter. Strain M47C3B(T) formed a distinct lineage, closely related to Mucilaginibacter dorajii KACC 14556(T), with which it shared 97.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The other members of the genus Mucilaginibacter included in the same clade were Mucilaginibacter lappiensis ATCC BAA-1855(T) sharing 97.0% similarity and Mucilaginibacter composti TR6-03(T) that had a lower similarity (95.7%). The novel strain was Gram-staining-negative, formed rod-shaped cells, grew optimally at 26 °C and at pH 7, and was able to grow with up to 0.3% (w/v) NaCl. The respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7) and the major fatty acids of the strain were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, representing 73.5% of the total fatty acids. The major components of the polar lipid profile of strain M47C3B(T) consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified aminophospholipids, one unidentified aminolipid and three unidentified polar lipids. The G+C content of the DNA was 40.6 mol%. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis and physiological and biochemical characteristics we propose the name Mucilaginibacter pineti sp. nov. for the novel species represented by strain M47C3B(T) ( = CIP 110632(T) = LMG 28160(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  3. Pinus albicaulis Engelm. (Whitebark Pine in Mixed-Species Stands throughout Its US Range: Broad-Scale Indicators of Extent and Recent Decline

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    Sara A. Goeking

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We used data collected from >1400 plots by a national forest inventory to quantify population-level indicators for a tree species of concern. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis has recently experienced high mortality throughout its US range, where we assessed the area of land with whitebark pine present, size-class distribution of individual whitebark pine, growth rates, and mortality rates, all with respect to dominant forest type. As of 2016, 51% of all standing whitebark pine trees in the US were dead. Dead whitebark pines outnumbered live ones—and whitebark pine mortality outpaced growth—in all size classes ≥22.8 cm diameter at breast height (DBH, across all forest types. Although whitebark pine occurred across 4.1 million ha in the US, the vast majority of this area (85% and of the total number of whitebark pine seedlings (72% fell within forest types other than the whitebark pine type. Standardized growth of whitebark pines was most strongly correlated with the relative basal area of whitebark pine trees (rho = 0.67; p < 0.01, while both standardized growth and mortality were moderately correlated with relative whitebark pine stem density (rho = 0.39 and 0.40; p = 0.031 and p < 0.01, respectively. Neither growth nor mortality were well correlated with total stand basal area, total stem density, or stand mean diameter. The abundance, extent, and relative growth vs. mortality rates of whitebark pine in multiple forest types presents opportunities for management to encourage whitebark pine recruitment in mixed-species stands. The lodgepole pine forest type contained more whitebark pine seedlings (35% than any other forest type, suggesting that this forest type represents a potential management target for silvicultural treatments that seek to facilitate the recruitment of whitebark pine seedlings into larger size classes. National forest inventories in other countries may use a similar approach to assess species of concern.

  4. Effects of introgression on the genetic population structure of two ecologically and economically important conifer species: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2013-10-01

    Forest trees exhibit a remarkable range of adaptations to their environment, but as a result of frequent and long-distance gene flow, populations are often only weakly differentiated. Lodgepole and jack pine hybridize in western Canada, which adds the opportunity for introgression through hybridization to contribute to population structure and (or) adaptive variation. Access to large sample size, high density SNP datasets for these species would improve our ability to resolve population structure, parameterize introgression, and separate the influence of demography from adaptation. To accomplish this, 454 transcriptome reads for lodgepole and jack pine were assembled using Newbler and MIRA, the assemblies mined for SNPs, and 1536 SNPs were selected for typing on lodgepole pine, jack pine, and their hybrids (N = 536). We identified population structure using both Bayesian clustering and discriminate analysis of principle components. Introgressed SNP loci were identified and their influence on observed population structure was assessed. We found that introgressed loci resulted in increased differentiation both within lodgepole and jack pine populations. These findings are timely given the recent mountain pine beetle population expansion in the hybrid zone, and will facilitate future studies of adaptive traits in these ecologically important species.

  5. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of endemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politeo, Olivera; Skocibusic, Mirjana; Maravic, Ana; Ruscic, Mirko; Milos, Mladen

    2011-03-01

    The chemical composition and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil isolated from the needles of endemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica) from Croatia were investigated. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC and GC/MS analyses, and the main compounds identified were α-pinene, β-pinene, germacrene D, and β-caryophyllene. Disc-diffusion and broth-microdilution assays were used for the in vitro antimicrobial screening. The Dalmatian black pine essential oil exhibited a great potential of antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (MIC=0.03-0.50% (v/v)) and a less pronounced activity against Gram-negative bacteria (MIC=0.12-3.2% (v/v)). The volatile compounds also inhibited the growth of all fungi tested, including yeast. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  6. Evaluation of Compatibility between Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta var. Latifolia) Wood with Portland Cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasca, Sorin A; Hartley, Ian D; Reid, Matthew E; Thring, Ronald W

    2010-12-17

    The compatibility of wood from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa) killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) with Portland cement was investigated based on time-since-death as a quantitative estimator, and the presence of blue-stained sapwood, brown rot, or white rot as qualitative indicators. The exothermic behavior of cement hydration, maximum heat rate, time to reach this maximum, and total heat released within a 3.5-24 h interval were used for defining a new wood-cement compatibility index (CX). CX was developed and accounted for large discrepancies in assessing wood-cement compatibility compared to the previous methods. Using CX, no significant differences were found between fresh or beetle-killed wood with respect to the suitability for cement; except for the white rot samples which reached or exceeded the levels of incompatibility. An outstanding physicochemical behavior was also found for blue-stained sapwood and cement, producing significantly higher compatibility indices.

  7. Evaluation of Compatibility between Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta var. Latifolia Wood with Portland Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Hartley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility of wood from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia with Portland cement was investigated based on time-since-death as a quantitative estimator, and the presence of blue-stained sapwood, brown rot, or white rot as qualitative indicators. The exothermic behavior of cement hydration, maximum heat rate, time to reach this maximum, and total heat released within a 3.5–24 h interval were used for defining a new wood-cement compatibility index (CX. CX was developed and accounted for large discrepancies in assessing wood-cement compatibility compared to the previous methods. Using CX, no significant differences were found between fresh or beetle-killed wood with respect to the suitability for cement; except for the white rot samples which reached or exceeded the levels of incompatibility. An outstanding physicochemical behavior was also found for blue-stained sapwood and cement, producing significantly higher compatibility indices.

  8. Identification of gene pools used in restoration and conservation by chloroplast microsatellite markers in Iberian pine species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Hernández-Tecles

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To contribute to the characterization of the origin of material used in afforestation, restoration or conservation activities by using Cp-SSR markers. Area of study: We used information from the natural range of Iberian pines, from Spain. Materials and methods: We used Iberian pines as an example to undertook gene pool characterization based on a wide Iberian sample of 97 populations from five Pinus species (Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus nigra, Pinus sylvestris and Pinus uncinata. Haplotypes from each analyzed tree (derived from nine chloroplast microsatellites markers in P. halepensis and six in the rest of the species were obtained. Based on this information we subdivided each species in regions (considering both genetic structure and its application in afforestation, restoration and conservation programs and tested the assignation of populations to the different groups based on the genetic distance among samples. Main results: The rate of successful identification of populations among the different species was very high (> 94 % for P. nigra, P. sylvestris and P. uncinata, high (81 % for P. pinaster, and low (< 65 % for P. halepensis. Research highlights: Chloroplast DNA markers from extensive population datasets can be used to assign the origin of the forest reproductive material in some pine species.

  9. Identification of gene pools used in restoration and conservation by chloroplast microsatellite markers in Iberian pine species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Tecles, Enrique; De las Heras, Jorge; Lorenzo, Zaida; Navascués, Miguel; Alia, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: To contribute to the characterization of the origin of material used in afforestation, restoration or conservation activities by using Cp-SSR markers. Area of study: We used information from the natural range of Iberian pines, from Spain. Materials and methods: We used Iberian pines as an example to undertook gene pool characterization based on a wide Iberian sample of 97 populations from five Pinus species (Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus nigra, Pinus sylvestris and Pinus uncinata). Haplotypes from each analyzed tree (derived from nine chloroplast microsatellites markers in P. halepensis and six in the rest of the species) were obtained. Based on this information we subdivided each species in regions (considering both genetic structure and its application in afforestation, restoration and conservation programs) and tested the assignation of populations to the different groups based on the genetic distance among samples. Main results: The rate of successful identification of populations among the different species was very high (> 94 %) for P. nigra, P. sylvestris and P. uncinata, high (81 %) for P. pinaster, and low (< 65 %) for P. halepensis. Research highlights: Chloroplast DNA markers from extensive population datasets can be used to assign the origin of the forest reproductive material in some pine species.

  10. Identification of gene pools used in restoration and conservation by chloroplast microsatellite markers in Iberian pine species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández-Tecles, Enrique; De las Heras, Jorge; Lorenzo, Zaida; Navascués, Miguel; Alia, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: To contribute to the characterization of the origin of material used in afforestation, restoration or conservation activities by using Cp-SSR markers. Area of study: We used information from the natural range of Iberian pines, from Spain. Materials and methods: We used Iberian pines as an example to undertook gene pool characterization based on a wide Iberian sample of 97 populations from five Pinus species (Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus nigra, Pinus sylvestris and Pinus uncinata). Haplotypes from each analyzed tree (derived from nine chloroplast microsatellites markers in P. halepensis and six in the rest of the species) were obtained. Based on this information we subdivided each species in regions (considering both genetic structure and its application in afforestation, restoration and conservation programs) and tested the assignation of populations to the different groups based on the genetic distance among samples. Main results: The rate of successful identification of populations among the different species was very high (> 94 %) for P. nigra, P. sylvestris and P. uncinata, high (81 %) for P. pinaster, and low (< 65 %) for P. halepensis. Research highlights: Chloroplast DNA markers from extensive population datasets can be used to assign the origin of the forest reproductive material in some pine species.

  11. Growth and Yield of 15-Year Plantations of Pine, Spruce and Birch in Agricultural Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daugaviete Mudrite

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth data and the potential returns from 15-year-old plantations of pine Pinus sylvestris L. (6 trial sites, spruce Picea abies Karst L. (9 trial sites and silver birch Betula pendula Roth (13 trial sites, established in abandoned agricultural lands in a variety of soil types (sod calcareous, anthrosols, podzolic, podzols, gley, podzolic gley, alluvial, using the planting density 2,500 and 3,300 and also 5,000 trees/ha are analysed.

  12. Pre-logging Treatment of Invasive Glossy Buckthorn (Frangula alnus Mill. Promotes Regeneration of Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-native glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus Mill. is invasive in forests of the northeastern USA but little is known of its effects on tree regeneration. We tested whether killing buckthorn stems before logging reduces its post-logging abundance and increases the density and height of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. seedlings. Three 0.4 ha plots were clearcut, three were thinned, and three were left as controls. Each plot had previously been divided into three subplots that received different buckthorn treatments during the two years before logging. Buckthorn treatments were (1 stems cut at base five times; (2 stems cut once then heat killed four times; (3 untreated control. Three years post-logging, buckthorn density and stem height were unaffected by logging but equally reduced by the two buckthorn treatments. Buckthorn reduction increased density and height of pine seedlings, and seedling height also increased with logging. In the fifth year post-logging, pine height growth and biomass were greater in clearcut than in thinned treatments, greater in areas of buckthorn removal and, within treated subplots, greater in areas with low buckthorn density than in thickets of recovering buckthorn. Thus, although buckthorn inhibited regenerating pine, pre-logging destruction of buckthorn stems reduced such competition for at least four years.

  13. Exploring Climate Niches of Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) Haplotypes in the Western United States: Implications for Evolutionary History and Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Shinneman, Douglas J.; Means, Robert E.; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa) and Rocky ...

  14. Patterns of biomass and carbon distribution across a chronosequence of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinlong; Kang, Fengfeng; Wang, Luoxin; Yu, Xiaowen; Zhao, Weihong; Song, Xiaoshuai; Zhang, Yanlei; Chen, Feng; Sun, Yu; He, Tengfei; Han, Hairong

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of biomass and carbon (C) storage distribution across Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) natural secondary forests are poorly documented. The objectives of this study were to examine the biomass and C pools of the major ecosystem components in a replicated age sequence of P. tabulaeformis secondary forest stands in Northern China. Within each stand, biomass of above- and belowground tree, understory (shrub and herb), and forest floor were determined from plot-level investigation and destructive sampling. Allometric equations using the diameter at breast height (DBH) were developed to quantify plant biomass. C stocks in the tree and understory biomass, forest floor, and mineral soil (0-100 cm) were estimated by analyzing the C concentration of each component. The results showed that the tree biomass of P. tabulaeformis stands was ranged from 123.8 Mg·ha-1 for the young stand to 344.8 Mg·ha-1 for the mature stand. The understory biomass ranged from 1.8 Mg·ha-1 in the middle-aged stand to 3.5 Mg·ha-1 in the young stand. Forest floor biomass increased steady with stand age, ranging from 14.9 to 23.0 Mg·ha-1. The highest mean C concentration across the chronosequence was found in tree branch while the lowest mean C concentration was found in forest floor. The observed C stock of the aboveground tree, shrub, forest floor, and mineral soil increased with increasing stand age, whereas the herb C stock showed a decreasing trend with a sigmoid pattern. The C stock of forest ecosystem in young, middle-aged, immature, and mature stands were 178.1, 236.3, 297.7, and 359.8 Mg C ha-1, respectively, greater than those under similar aged P. tabulaeformis forests in China. These results are likely to be integrated into further forest management plans and generalized in other contexts to evaluate C stocks at the regional scale.

  15. Patterns of biomass and carbon distribution across a chronosequence of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Zhao

    Full Text Available Patterns of biomass and carbon (C storage distribution across Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis natural secondary forests are poorly documented. The objectives of this study were to examine the biomass and C pools of the major ecosystem components in a replicated age sequence of P. tabulaeformis secondary forest stands in Northern China. Within each stand, biomass of above- and belowground tree, understory (shrub and herb, and forest floor were determined from plot-level investigation and destructive sampling. Allometric equations using the diameter at breast height (DBH were developed to quantify plant biomass. C stocks in the tree and understory biomass, forest floor, and mineral soil (0-100 cm were estimated by analyzing the C concentration of each component. The results showed that the tree biomass of P. tabulaeformis stands was ranged from 123.8 Mg·ha-1 for the young stand to 344.8 Mg·ha-1 for the mature stand. The understory biomass ranged from 1.8 Mg·ha-1 in the middle-aged stand to 3.5 Mg·ha-1 in the young stand. Forest floor biomass increased steady with stand age, ranging from 14.9 to 23.0 Mg·ha-1. The highest mean C concentration across the chronosequence was found in tree branch while the lowest mean C concentration was found in forest floor. The observed C stock of the aboveground tree, shrub, forest floor, and mineral soil increased with increasing stand age, whereas the herb C stock showed a decreasing trend with a sigmoid pattern. The C stock of forest ecosystem in young, middle-aged, immature, and mature stands were 178.1, 236.3, 297.7, and 359.8 Mg C ha-1, respectively, greater than those under similar aged P. tabulaeformis forests in China. These results are likely to be integrated into further forest management plans and generalized in other contexts to evaluate C stocks at the regional scale.

  16. Examining Spatial Variation in the Effects of Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora on Burn Severity Using Geographically Weighted Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Joo Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Burn severity has profound impacts on the response of post-fire forest ecosystems to fire events. Numerous previous studies have reported that burn severity is determined by variables such as meteorological conditions, pre-fire forest structure, and fuel characteristics. An underlying assumption of these studies was the constant effects of environmental variables on burn severity over space, and these analyses therefore did not consider the spatial dimension. This study examined spatial variation in the effects of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora on burn severity. Specifically, this study investigated the presence of spatially varying relationships between Japanese red pine and burn severity due to changes in slope and elevation. We estimated conventional ordinary least squares (OLS and geographically weighted regression (GWR models and compared them using three criteria; the coefficients of determination (R2, Akaike information criterion for small samples (AICc, and Moran’s I-value. The GWR model performed considerably better than the OLS model in explaining variation in burn severity. The results provided strong evidence that the effect of Japanese red pine on burn severity was not constant but varied spatially. Elevation was a significant factor in the variation in the effects of Japanese red pine on burn severity. The influence of red pine on burn severity was considerably higher in low-elevation areas but became less important than the other variables in high-elevation areas. The results of this study can be applied to location-specific strategies for forest managers and can be adopted to improve fire simulation models to more realistically mimic the nature of fire behavior.

  17. The NAC transcription factor family in maritime pine (Pinus Pinaster): molecular regulation of two genes involved in stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Ma Belén; Cánovas, Francisco M; Ávila, Concepción

    2015-10-24

    NAC transcription factors comprise a large plant-specific gene family involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes. Despite the growing number of studies on NAC transcription factors in various species, little information is available about this family in conifers. The goal of this study was to identify the NAC transcription family in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), to characterize ATAF-like genes in response to various stresses and to study their molecular regulation. We have isolated two maritime pine NAC genes and using a transient expression assay in N. benthamiana leaves estudied the promoter jasmonate response. In this study, we identified 37 NAC genes from maritime pine and classified them into six main subfamilies. The largest group includes 12 sequences corresponding to stress-related genes. Two of these NAC genes, PpNAC2 and PpNAC3, were isolated and their expression profiles were examined at various developmental stages and in response to various types of stress. The expression of both genes was strongly induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), mechanical wounding, and high salinity. The promoter regions of these genes were shown to contain cis-elements involved in the stress response and plant hormonal regulation, including E-boxes, which are commonly found in the promoters of genes that respond to jasmonate, and binding sites for bHLH proteins. Using a transient expression assay in N. benthamiana leaves, we found that the promoter of PpNAC3 was rapidly induced upon MeJA treatment, while this response disappeared in plants in which the transcription factor NbbHLH2 was silenced. Our results suggest that PpNAC2 and PpNAC3 encode stress-responsive NAC transcription factors involved in the jasmonate response in pine. Furthermore, these data also suggest that the jasmonate signaling pathway is conserved between angiosperms and gymnosperms. These findings may be useful for engineering stress tolerance in pine via biotechnological approaches.

  18. Leaf-level gas-exchange uniformity and photosynthetic capacity among loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes of contrasting inherent genetic variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Aspinwall; John S. King; Steven E. McKeand; Jean-Christophe Domec

    2011-01-01

    Variation in leaf-level gas exchange among widely planted genetically improved loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes could impact stand-level water use, carbon assimilation, biomass production, C allocation, ecosystem sustainability and biogeochemical cycling under changing environmental conditions. We examined uniformity in leaf-level light-saturated photosynthesis...

  19. Long-term effects of fire and fire-return interval on population structure and growth of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelcy R. Ford; Emily S. Minor; Gordon A. Fox

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of fire and fire frequency on stand structure and longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill.) growth and population demography in an experimental research area in a southwest Florida sandhill community. Data were collected from replicated plots that had prescribed fire-return intervals of 1, 2, 5, or 7 years or were left...

  20. Genetic variation of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) provenances and families from Oregon and Washington in juvenile height growth and needle color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Hamlin; Angelia Kegley; Richard Sniezko

    2011-01-01

    A three year common garden study was conducted on whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) which included 215 families from the eight provenances or seed zones in Oregon and Washington. Total height and needle color were assessed. Height differed significantly among provenances and families, and was primarily associated with source elevation, longitude, and precipitation. A...

  1. Effects of site preparation treatments on early growth and survival of planted longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Susan Cohen

    2006-01-01

    We tested the effects of eight site preparation treatments on early growth and survival of container-grown longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings. Treatments included an untreated check, six combinations of two initial vegetation control treatments (chopping or herbicide) with three planting site conditions (flat [no additional treatment],...

  2. Unthinned slow-growing ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees contain muted isotopic signals in tree rings as compared to thinned trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    We analysed the oxygen isotopic values of wood (δ18Ow) of 12 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees from control, moderately, and heavily thinned stands and compared them with existing wood-based estimates of carbon isotope discrimination (∆13C), basal area increment (BAI), and g...

  3. Branch growth and gas exchange in 13-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) trees in response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration and fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris A. Maier; Kurt H. Johnsen; John Butnor; Lance W. Kress; Peter H. Anderson

    2002-01-01

    Summary We used whole-tree, open-top chambers to expose 13-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees, growing in soil with high or low nutrient availability, to either ambient or elevated (ambient + 200 µmol mol-1 ) carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) for 28 months. Branch growth...

  4. Mountain pine beetle infestation: GCxGCTOFMS and GC-MS of lodgepole pine (pinus contorta) acetone extractives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderquita K. Moore; Michael Leitch; Erick Arellano-ruiz; Jonathon Smaglick; Doreen Mann

    2015-01-01

    The Rocky Mountains and western U.S. forests are impacted by the infestation of mountain pine beetles (MPB). MPB outbreak is killing pine and spruce trees at an alarming rate. These trees present a fuel build-up in the forest, which can result in catastrophic wildland fires. MPB carry blue-stain fungi from the genus Ophiostoma and transmit infection by burrowing into...

  5. In vitro co-cultures of Pinus pinaster with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus: a biotechnological approach to study pine wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Jorge M S; Sena, Inês; Vieira da Silva, Inês; Ribeiro, Bruno; Barbosa, Pedro; Ascensão, Lia; Bennett, Richard N; Mota, Manuel; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Co-cultures of Pinus pinaster with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus were established as a biotechnological tool to evaluate the effect of nematotoxics addition in a host/parasite culture system. The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD), was detected for the first time in Europe in 1999 spreading throughout the pine forests in Portugal and recently in Spain. Plant in vitro cultures may be a useful experimental system to investigate the plant/nematode relationships in loco, thus avoiding the difficulties of field assays. In this study, Pinus pinaster in vitro cultures were established and compared to in vivo 1 year-old plantlets by analyzing shoot structure and volatiles production. In vitro co-cultures were established with the PWN and the effect of the phytoparasite on in vitro shoot structure, water content and volatiles production was evaluated. In vitro shoots showed similar structure and volatiles production to in vivo maritime pine plantlets. The first macroscopic symptoms of PWD were observed about 4 weeks after in vitro co-culture establishment. Nematode population in the culture medium increased and PWNs were detected in gaps of the callus tissue and in cavities developed from the degradation of cambial cells. In terms of volatiles main components, plantlets, P. pinaster cultures, and P. pinaster with B. xylophilus co-cultures were all β- and α-pinene rich. Co-cultures may be an easy-to-handle biotechnological approach to study this pathology, envisioning the understanding of and finding ways to restrain this highly devastating nematode.

  6. Modelling the soil carbon cycle of pine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, K.

    1994-01-01

    Soil carbon cycling rates and carbon budgets were calculated for stands of four pine species. Pinus sylvestris (at Jaedraaas, Sweden), P. densiflora (Hiroshima, Japan), P. elliottii (Florida, USA) and P. radiata (Canberra, Australia), using a simulation model driven by daily observations of mean air temperature and precipitation. Inputs to soil carbon through litterfall differ considerably among the four pine forests, but the accumulation of the A 0 layer and humus in mineral soil is less variable. Decomposition of the A 0 layer and humus is fastest for P. densiflora and slowest for P. sylvestris stands with P. radiata and P. elliottii intermediate. The decomposition rate is lower for the P. elliottii stand than for P. densiflora in spite of its higher temperatures and slightly higher precipitation. Seasonal changes in simulated soil carbon are observed only for the A 0 layer at the P. densiflora site. Simulated soil respiration rates vary seasonally in three stands (P. sylvestris, P. densiflora and P. radiata). In simulations for pine trees planted on bare soil, all soil organic matter fractions except the humus in mineral soil recover to half their asymptotic values within 30 to 40 years of planting for P. sylvestris and P. densiflora, compared with 10 to 20 years for P. radiata and P. elliottii. The simulated recovery of soil carbon following clear-cutting is fastest for the P. elliottii stand and slowest for P. sylvestris. Management of P. elliottii and P. radiata stands on 40-years rotations is sustainable because carbon removed through harvest is restored in the interval between successive clear-cuts. However p. densiflora and P. sylvestris stands may be unable to maintain soil carbon under such a short rotation. High growth rates of P. elliottii and p. radiata stands in spite of relatively poor soil conditions and slow carbon cycling may be related to the physiological responses of species to environmental conditions. (Abstract Truncated)

  7. [Dendroclimatic potentials for the tree rings of Huangshan pine (Pinus taiwanensis ) at Xiaolinhai in the western Dabie Mountains, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian-Feng; Li, Guo-Dong; Li, Ling-Ling

    2014-07-01

    By using the dendrochronology research methods, this paper developed the 1915-2011 tree ring-width standard chronology of the Huangshan pine (Pinus taiwanesis) at the north slope of western Dabie Mountains in the junction of Hubei, Henan and Anhui provinces. High mean sensitivity (MS) indicated that there was conspicuous high-frequency climate signals and high first-order autocorrelation (AC) showed there were significant lag-effects of tree previous growth. The higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and expressed population signal (EPS) indicated that the trees had high levels of common climate signals. Correlations between the tree ring-width standard chronology and climatic factors (1959-2011) revealed the significant influences of temperature, precipitation and relative humidity on the tree width growth of Huangshan pine by the end of growing season (September and October). Significant positive correlations were found between the tree-ring indices and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) of current September and October. In conclusion, the combination of water and heat of September and October is the major effect factor for the growth of Huangshan pine in western Dabie Mountains.

  8. Influence of stand density and soil treatment on the Spanish Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. Salzmannii) regeneration in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerro Barja, A. del; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Martinez Garcia, E.; Lopez Serrano, F. R.; Andres Abellan, M.; Garcia Morote, F. A.; Navarro Lopez, R.

    2009-07-01

    Satisfactory results relating to the natural regeneration of the Spanish black pine (Pinus nigra Arn ssp. salzmannii) is generally difficult to achieve. The natural regeneration of this pine was studied comparing two types of soil treatment and various over story densities in six experimental forests. These studies were conducted from 1999 to 2002 and seed rain and germination, as well as seedling survival were observed in a number of specific plots: Brushing, scalping and control plots. In addition various over story densities were used (measured as base area m2/ha). Soil and air temperature together with soil moisture were continuously recorded throughout this summer period. The results showed that seed germination was higher in plots using the scalping technique, as opposed to the brushed or controlled plots. The best seedling survival percentage was found in scalped plots together with a larger basal area. It was also found that seedling survival was lower during the first year than during the second one. The results have practical implications for management of Spanish black pine forests as well as valuable information which could improve the conditions for regeneration. (Author) 82 refs.

  9. RAPD markers and black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold intraspecies taxonomy - Evidence from the study of nine populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Liber

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although intraspecies researches within the black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold have a long tradition, the intraspecies taxonomy, classification and chorology are still unclear. Among the numerous reasons that have caused this situation the most important are: the absence of a study that would completely cover the whole range of this species, the impossibility of connection of results of the existing detailed studies of certain areas, and the high variability of traits which have been used so far. Since the characteristics of the molecular systematic techniques could make possible the research free of the mentioned shortages, the intention of this study was to determine the relationships among nine populations of black pine using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD. The obtained results were compared to the recent results of the morphological and anatomical analysis of the leaves of the same populations. The RAPD results clearly divided the Croatian populations from populations of Austria (subsp. nigra and Turkey (subsp. pallasiana, while among Croatian populations, as in previous study, the existence of several groups (subsp. illyrica, subsp. dalmatica and transitional population between them was noticed. It is assumed that the optimisations conducted in this study will finally make possible estimating the relationships on the level of the whole range of the black pine and the classification based on molecular traits that are probably less dependent on environmental influences than it has been the case with the characteristics mostly used so far.

  10. Long-term dynamics of monoterpene synthase activities, monoterpene storage pools and emissions in boreal Scots pine

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhatalo, Anni; Ghirardo, Andrea; Juurola, Eija; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Zimmer, Ina; Hellén, Heidi; Hakola, Hannele; Bäck, Jaana

    2018-01-01

    Seasonal variations in monoterpene emissions from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) are well documented, and emissions are often shown to follow the incident temperatures due to effects on compound volatility. Recent studies have indicated a link between monoterpene emissions and physiological drivers such as photosynthetic capacity during needle development. The complex interplay between the dynamic changes in the biosynthetic capacity to produce monoterpenes and the temperature-dependent evapor...

  11. Pinus tropical com potencial para uso em plantios comerciais no Brasil. Tropical pine for commercial planting in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Silveira WREGE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre os pinus tropicais, Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis é uma variedade natural, oriunda de região com clima tropical na América Central. A espécie se aclimatou bem em várias partes do mundo, em regiões com alta pluviosidade e temperaturas elevadas. Embora não tolere geadas severas, pode ser plantada em partes da região Sul do Brasil onde o clima é mais quente e a frequência de geadas é menor e é indicado para plantio em boa parte do Brasil, em mais de 3,5 milhões de km2 . Essa é uma variedade que apresenta alto rendimento em madeira de boa qualidade, além de possibilitar a exploração da resina. Neste trabalho, são apresentadas as regiões no Brasil que apresentam potencial para cultivo dessa variedade em regime de silvicultura intensiva, tomando como base sua região de origem no mundo. São indicadas para plantio comercial as zonas com os menores riscos de geada nos estados da região Sul, no Estado de São Paulo e nas demais regiões que oferecem condições climáticas favoráveis, principalmente de disponibilidade hídrica para o desenvolvimento dessa variedade de pinus. – Among tropical pines, Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis is a natural variation from the tropical regions of Central America. The species has adapted well in various parts of the world, in regions with high rainfall and high temperatures. Although intolerance to severe frosts, it can be grown in parts of southern Brazil, where the climate is hot, with infrequent frosts and even can be used for commercial planting in over 3.5 million square kilometers.This variety presents high yield in quality wood as well as resin. This work shows regions in Brazil where environmental conditions are favorable for commercial plantations with this variety, by making comparisons with the conditions in its origin. Climatic zones within the Southern Region, as well as in the state of São Paulo and elsewhere with the lowest risks of frost and plenty of water for the

  12. Accelerated Stem Growth Rates and Improved Fiber Properties of Loblolly Pine: Functional Analysis Of CyclinD from Pinus taeda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. John Cairney, School of Biology and Institute of Paper Science and Technology @ Georgia Tech, Georgia Institute of Technology; Dr. Gary Peter, University of Florida; Dr. Ulrika Egertsdotter, Dept. of Forestry, Virgina Tech; Dr. Armin Wagner, New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd. (Scion Research.)

    2005-11-30

    divisions in the cambial meristem as expected. We isolated a promoter from a cambial specific gene and commenced development of transformation protocols for loblolly pine. Since our results show that cyclin D expression correlates with increased growth we continued with experiments to demonstrate the effect of cyclin overexpression upon tree growth. Vectors which constitutively express the cyclin D cDNA were constructed and transformed into a transgenic pine system through the collaboration with Forest Research, New Zealand. The transformation system for Pinus radiata is well established and we hoped to gain phenotypic information in a closely related pine, rather than await development of a robust loblolly pine transformation method. Transformation experiments were conducted by a biolistic method developed at Forest Research, NZ. A total of 78 transgenic embryogenic lines were generated and bulked up with a good representation of transgenic lines per construct. Transformed calli were originally identified by resistance to the antibiotic Geneticin contained in the medium. The transgenic nature of the selected lines was subsequently confirmed using histochemical GUS staining. To date, 10 out of 13 selected transgenic lines have produced embryos and we are currently harvesting the first transgenic plantlets. At present time 22 of those plantlets have been moved to GMO facilities. We will soon develop a strategy for assessing potential phenotypic differences between the transclones and non-transformed controls. Transgenic plants are being grown to a stage (approx. 1 year) when meaningful phenotypic evaluation can be conducted. The recent availability of 10,000 element loblolly pine cDNA microarray will permit the evaluation of cyclinD overexpression upon gene expression in transgenic Pinus.

  13. The ecological classification of coastal wet longleaf pine (pinus palustris) of Florida from reference conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. McCaskill; Jose. Shibu

    2012-01-01

    Tropical storms, fire, and urbanization have produced a heavily fragmented forested landscape along Florida’s Gulf coast. The longleaf pine forest, one of the most threatened ecosystems in the US, makes up a major part of this fragmented landscape. These three disturbance regimes have produced a mosaic of differently-aged pine patches of single or two cohort structures...

  14. Spatial patterns of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) seedling eastablishment on the croatan national forest, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick R. Avery; Susan Cohen; Kathleen C. Parker; John S. Kush

    2004-01-01

    Ecological research aimed at determining optimal conditions for longleaf pine regeneration has become increasingly important in efforts @ restore the longleaf pine ecosystem. Numerous authors have concluded that a negative relationship exists between the occurrence of seedlings and the occurrence of mature trees; however, observed field conditions in several North...

  15. Differential effects of plant ontogeny and damage type on phloem and foliage monoterpenes in jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Colgan, L Jessie

    2012-08-01

    Coniferous trees have both constitutive and inducible defences that deter or kill herbivores and pathogens. We investigated constitutive and induced monoterpene responses of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) to a number of damage types: a fungal associate of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey & R.W. Davidson); two phytohormones, methyl jasmonate (MJ) and methyl salicylate (MS); simulated herbivory; and mechanical wounding. We only included the fungal, MJ and mechanical wounding treatments in the field experiments while all treatments were part of the greenhouse studies. We focused on both constitutive and induced responses between juvenile and mature jack pine trees and differences in defences between phloem and needles. We found that phytohormone applications and fungal inoculation resulted in the greatest increase in monoterpenes in both juvenile and mature trees. Additionally, damage types differentially affected the proportions of individual monoterpenes: MJ-treated mature trees had higher myrcene and β-pinene than fungal-inoculated mature trees, while needles of juveniles inoculated with the fungus contained higher limonene than MJ- or MS-treated juveniles. Although the constitutive monoterpenes were higher in the phloem of juveniles than mature jack pine trees, the phloem of mature trees had a much higher magnitude of induction. Further, induced monoterpene concentrations in juveniles were higher in phloem than in needles. There was no difference in monoterpene concentration between phytohormone applications and G. clavigera inoculation in mature trees, while in juvenile trees MJ was different from both G. clavigera and simulated herbivory in needle monoterpenes, but there was no difference between phytohormone applications and simulated herbivory in the phloem.

  16. Studying of metals distribution in the Pinus Sylvestris bark and needles in a zone of influence the gradient polluted air stream from Cu-smelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminov, P.G.; Lonshchakova, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    In the paper the features of accumulation for heavy metals by pine needles and bark in the gradient dispersion area of technogenic elements and using of the bark as the bioindicator to establish influencing zones of smelter on environment are represented

  17. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Resins and Essential Oil From Pine (Pinus merkusii, Pinuso ocarpa, Pinus insularis and Agathis (Agathis loranthifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardho Tillah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The most common human pathogen that colonizes in a third of healthy people around the world are Staphylococcus aureus, and one of the materials allegedly able to overcome the pathogen is resin. Resin has been used in folk medicine for thousands of years to treat diseases. The antimicrobial activity of natural resins can be associated with a variety of organic compounds contained in them such as diterpenoids and triterpenoids. This research aimed to explore the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Pinus merkusii, P. oocarpa, P. insularis, Agathis loranthifolia resins and essential oil. Resin was separated by distillation process to get essential oil and the residue was extracted using n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc, and methanol (MeOH. Antioxidant activity was performed by DPPH (1,1diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging method. The antibacterial activity of resins and essential oil of the samples determined using the disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results showed that the yield of resin extract was ranging from 8.44 % to 95.56%. All extracts and essential oil could not inhibit E coli growth but inhibit the S. aureus growth. This experiment concluded that resin n-hexane extract from P.oocarpa was the most potent as antibacterial activity against S. aureus. All of the samples used had less potential antioxidant activity compared to positive control ascorbic acid. Result of this study show that pine resin from Indonesia has potential as an antibacterial agent. 

  18. Chemical composition of essential oils from needles and twigs of balkan pine (Pinus peuce grisebach) grown in Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukos, P K; Papadopoulou, K I; Patiaka, D T; Papagiannopoulos, A D

    2000-04-01

    The composition of essential oils from twigs and needles of Balkan pine (Pinus peuce Gris.) grown in northern Greece was investigated. The compounds were identified by using GC-MS analysis. The twig oil was rich in alpha-pinene (7.38%), beta-pinene (12.46%), beta-phellandrene (26.93%), beta-caryophyllene (4.48%), and citronellol (12.48%), and the needle oil was rich in alpha-pinene (23.07%), camphene (5.52%), beta-pinene (22.00%), beta-phellandrene (6.78%), bornyl acetate (9.76%), beta-caryophyllene (3.05%), and citronellol (13.42%). The mean oil yield was 2.85% for twigs and 0. 57% for needles.

  19. Measurement of ethylene emission from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) under field conditions in NOx-polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, A.; Nakatani, N.; Tsuboi, N.; Nakane, K.; Sakurai, N.; Nakagawa, N.; Sakugawa, H.

    2001-01-01

    Emission of ethylene from the needles of Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, was measured in air-polluted areas in Hiroshima, Japan. We applied a suitable protocol to determine the rate of ethylene emission from the excised needles. The influence of excision of needles on ethylene emission was not detected during the first 4 h of incubation at 20degC. Ethylene emissions were low in the unpolluted (Clean) areas regardless of the altitude or season. The emission of stress ethylene increased with the atmospheric NO 2 concentration, suggesting that atmospheric NO x or related substances induced the higher ethylene emission in the polluted areas (near urban and industrial areas). In all cases, 1-year-old needles emitted significantly larger amounts of ethylene than the current needles. Ethylene emission did not increase evenly in the polluted areas, but the frequency of trees emitting high ethylene increased. Therefore, threshold rates for the baseline ethylene emission were proposed. (Author)

  20. [GENETIC VARIABILITY OF MATERNAL PLANTS AND SEED EMBRYOS OF KOCH PINE POPULATIONS (PINUS KOCHIANA KLOTZSCH EX KOCH) IN CRIMEA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshykov, I I; Kalafat, L O; Vynogradova, O M; Podgornyi, D Y

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies of genetic variability were undertaken for 12 allozyme loci selections of trees and embryos of seed, and also for the crossing systems in five populations of Koch pine of (Pinus kochiana Klotzsch ex Koch) in Crimea. It was shown that in seed embryos the allelic variety peculiar to the maternal plants was restored, however the level of the available (H₀) heterozygosity was considerably lower, 0.286 and 0.189 respectively. For the embryos unlike the trees, in the majority of the analyzed loci the considerable divergence was specific in the actual distribution of genotypes from the theoretically expected according to Hardy- Weinberg law. The proportion of cross pollination at the unilocal (t(s)) estimation varied from 0.384 to 0.673 in the populations, while at the multilocal ones (t(m)) it was 0.639-0.841.

  1. Genetic variation of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, chemical and physical defenses that affect mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, attack and tree mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Daniel S; Yanchuk, Alvin D; Huber, Dezene P W; Wallin, Kimberly F

    2011-09-01

    Plant secondary chemistry is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, and while large intraspecific variation in secondary chemistry has been reported frequently, the levels of genetic variation of many secondary metabolites in forest trees in the context of potential resistance against pests have been rarely investigated. We examined the effect of tree genotype and environment/site on the variation in defensive secondary chemistry of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, against the fungus, Grosmannia clavigera (formerly known as Ophiostoma clavigerum), associated with the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. Terpenoids were analyzed in phloem samples from 887, 20-yr-old trees originating from 45 half-sibling families planted at two sites. Samples were collected both pre- and post-inoculation with G. clavigera. Significant variation in constitutive and induced terpenoid compounds was attributed to differences among families. The response to the challenge inoculation with G. clavigera was strong for some individual compounds, but primarily for monoterpenoids. Environment (site) also had a significant effect on the accumulation of some compounds, whereas for others, no significant environmental effect occurred. However, for a few compounds significant family x environment interactions were found. These results suggest that P. c. latifolia secondary chemistry is under strong genetic control, but the effects depend on the individual compounds and whether or not they are expressed constitutively or following induction.

  2. Growth, aboveground biomass, and nutrient concentration of young Scots pine and lodgepole pine in oil shale post-mining landscapes in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Tatjana; Tilk, Mari; Pärn, Henn; Lukjanova, Aljona; Mandre, Malle

    2011-12-01

    The investigation was carried out in 8-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) plantations on post-mining area, Northeast Estonia. The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of lodgepole pine for restoration of degraded lands by comparing the growth, biomass, and nutrient concentration of studied species. The height growth of trees was greater in the Scots pine stand, but the tree aboveground biomass was slightly larger in the lodgepole pine stand. The aboveground biomass allocation to the compartments did not differ significantly between species. The vertical distribution of compartments showed that 43.2% of the Scots pine needles were located in the middle layer of the crown, while 58.5% of the lodgepole pine needles were in the lowest layer of the crown. The largest share of the shoots and stem of both species was allocated to the lowest layer of the crown. For both species, the highest NPK concentrations were found in the needles and the lowest in the stems. On the basis of the present study results, it can be concluded that the early growth of Scots pine and lodgepole pine on oil shale post-mining landscapes is similar.

  3. Comparative toxic effects of some xenobiotics on the germination and early seedling growth of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. ) and white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberger, P; Vladut, R

    1981-12-01

    Seeds of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) were germinated in homogeneous emulsions or aqueous tank-mix solutions of fenitrothion or Matacil and their respective adjuvants: Atlox and Aerotex, or diluent oil No. 585 and nonylphenol. Percentage and peak germination values, water uptake, sprout length, ATP content, and morphological modifications were recorded from 0 to 14 or 21 days. Apart from 100 ppm fenitrothion which stimulated germination values, germination in jack pine was only marginally affected by any of the treatments; in contrast, white birch was negatively affected by all treatments. The most sensitive parameters of toxicity were the sprout length and ATP content after 14 days growth. Aberrant hypocotyl/root length ratios were evidenced in pine seeds after exposure to xenobiotic treatments which did not affect the germinative capacity of seeds. ATP content in the 14-day-old pine and birch seedlings was consistently higher than controls in all treatment sets. (Refs. 29).

  4. Lodgepole Pine Cambium (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Wats.): a springtime first peoples' food in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbone, Megan; Turner, Nancy J; von Aderkas, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) is a tree species utilized for succulent edible cambium and secondary phloem in the spring by Interior First Peoples of the Pacific Northwest. In this article we present a nutritional analysis of this food based on a pooled sample of 17 trees harvested in the Chilcotin region of British Columbia. We also present enzymatic sugar analysis of raw, dried, and cooked lodgepole pine cambium harvested from the Chilcotin and Okanagan regions in British Columbia. In the discussion we interpret the nutrient values of raw lodgepole pine cambium in comparison to dried and cooked cambium, results from other nutritional studies of pine cambium, and nutrients in some other traditional and nontraditional foods.

  5. Integration of Andrographis paniculata as Potential Medicinal Plant in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Plantation of North-Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekher Sanwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of Andrographis paniculata under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine plantation has been studied to evaluate the growth and yield for its economic viability and conservation. It was grown on three topographical aspects, namely, northern, north-western, and western, at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, followed by three tillage depths, namely, minimum (0 cm, medium (up to 10 cm, and deep (up to 15 cm tillage. The growth parameters, namely, plant height and number of branches per plant, were recorded as significantly higher on western aspect and lowest on northern aspect except for leaf area index which was found nonsignificant. However under all tillage practices all the growth parameters in both understorey and open conditions were found to be nonsignificant except for plant height which was found to be significantly highest under deep tillage and lowest under minimum tillage. The study of net returns for Andrographis paniculata revealed that it had positive average annual returns even in understorey conditions which indicate its possible economic viability under integration of Chir pine plantations. Hence net returns can be enhanced by integrating Andrographis paniculata and this silvimedicinal system can be suggested which will help utilizing an unutilized part of land and increase total productivity from such lands besides conservation of the A. paniculata in situ.

  6. Integration of Andrographis paniculata as Potential Medicinal Plant in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) Plantation of North-Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanwal, Chandra Shekher; Bhardwaj, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of Andrographis paniculata under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine) plantation has been studied to evaluate the growth and yield for its economic viability and conservation. It was grown on three topographical aspects, namely, northern, north-western, and western, at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, followed by three tillage depths, namely, minimum (0 cm), medium (up to 10 cm), and deep (up to 15 cm) tillage. The growth parameters, namely, plant height and number of branches per plant, were recorded as significantly higher on western aspect and lowest on northern aspect except for leaf area index which was found nonsignificant. However under all tillage practices all the growth parameters in both understorey and open conditions were found to be nonsignificant except for plant height which was found to be significantly highest under deep tillage and lowest under minimum tillage. The study of net returns for Andrographis paniculata revealed that it had positive average annual returns even in understorey conditions which indicate its possible economic viability under integration of Chir pine plantations. Hence net returns can be enhanced by integrating Andrographis paniculata and this silvimedicinal system can be suggested which will help utilizing an unutilized part of land and increase total productivity from such lands besides conservation of the A. paniculata in situ. PMID:27563482

  7. The role of population origin and microenvironment in seedling emergence and early survival in Mediterranean maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaíno-Palomar, Natalia; Revuelta-Eugercios, Bárbara; Zavala, Miguel A; Alía, Ricardo; González-Martínez, Santiago C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding tree recruitment is needed to forecast future forest distribution. Many studies have reported the relevant ecological factors that affect recruitment success in trees, but the potential for genetic-based differences in recruitment has often been neglected. In this study, we established a semi-natural reciprocal sowing experiment to test for local adaptation and microenvironment effects (evaluated here by canopy cover) in the emergence and early survival of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton), an emblematic Mediterranean forest tree. A novel application of molecular markers was also developed to test for family selection and, thus, for potential genetic change over generations. Overall, we did not find evidence to support local adaptation at the recruitment stage in our semi-natural experiment. Moreover, only weak family selection (if any) was found, suggesting that in stressful environments with low survival, stochastic processes and among-year climate variability may drive recruitment. Nevertheless, our study revealed that, at early stages of recruitment, microenvironments may favor the population with the best adapted life strategy, irrespectively of its (local or non-local) origin. We also found that emergence time is a key factor for seedling survival in stressful Mediterranean environments. Our study highlights the complexity of the factors influencing the early stages of establishment of maritime pine and provides insights into possible management actions aimed at environmental change impact mitigation. In particular, we found that the high stochasticity of the recruitment process in stressful environments and the differences in population-specific adaptive strategies may difficult assisted migration schemes.

  8. Diversity of bacteria associated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from Pinus pinaster trees with pine wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Neves Proença

    Full Text Available The pinewood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, has been thought to be the only causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD, however, since bacteria have been suggested to play a role in PWD, it is important to know the diversity of the microbial community associated to it. This study aimed to assess the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and with other nematodes isolated from pine trees, Pinus pinaster, with PWD from three different affected forest areas in Portugal. One hundred and twenty three bacteria strains were isolated from PWN and other nematodes collected from 14 P. pinaster. The bacteria strains were identified by comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene partial sequence. All except one gram-positive strain (Actinobacteria belonged to the gram-negative Beta and Gammaproteobacteria. Most isolates belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Species isolated in higher percentage were Pseudomonas lutea, Yersinia intermedia and Burkholderia tuberum. The major bacterial population associated to the nematodes differed according to the forest area and none of the isolated bacterial species was found in all different forest areas. For each of the sampled areas, 60 to 100% of the isolates produced siderophores and at least 40% produced lipases. The ability to produce siderophores and lipases by most isolates enables these bacteria to have a role in plant physiological response. This research showed a high diversity of the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from P. pinaster with PWD.

  9. Diversity of bacteria associated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from Pinus pinaster trees with pine wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Diogo Neves; Francisco, Romeu; Santos, Clara Vieira; Lopes, André; Fonseca, Luís; Abrantes, Isabel M O; Morais, Paula V

    2010-12-09

    The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, has been thought to be the only causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD), however, since bacteria have been suggested to play a role in PWD, it is important to know the diversity of the microbial community associated to it. This study aimed to assess the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and with other nematodes isolated from pine trees, Pinus pinaster, with PWD from three different affected forest areas in Portugal. One hundred and twenty three bacteria strains were isolated from PWN and other nematodes collected from 14 P. pinaster. The bacteria strains were identified by comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene partial sequence. All except one gram-positive strain (Actinobacteria) belonged to the gram-negative Beta and Gammaproteobacteria. Most isolates belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Species isolated in higher percentage were Pseudomonas lutea, Yersinia intermedia and Burkholderia tuberum. The major bacterial population associated to the nematodes differed according to the forest area and none of the isolated bacterial species was found in all different forest areas. For each of the sampled areas, 60 to 100% of the isolates produced siderophores and at least 40% produced lipases. The ability to produce siderophores and lipases by most isolates enables these bacteria to have a role in plant physiological response. This research showed a high diversity of the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from P. pinaster with PWD.

  10. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, Kurtis R.; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; Mark Ford.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Twelve 9.3-ha plots were assigned one of the following treatments: removal- all CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed; downed- five-fold increase in volume of down CWD; and unmanipulated control stands. We collected southern toads _4 cm snout-vent length (SVL) during 14 d sampling periods in June and October 2002, June 2003 and during a 28 d sampling period in April 2003. We collected 80, 36 and 35 southern toads in control, downed and removal treatments, respectively. We found no difference in relative abundance or frequency of invertebrate groups consumed among treatments (P.0.05). Average body weight (g), SVL (cm) and stomach content weight (g wet) of individuals also were similar among treatments (P . 0.05). The role of CWD as a foraging substrate for southern toads in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern Coastal Plain may be negligible, at least in the early stages of decay.

  11. Photosynthesis of a scots pine shoot: the effect of shoot inclination on the photosynthetic response of a shoot subjected to direct radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oker-Blom, P.; Kellomaki, S.; Smolander, H.

    1983-01-01

    A set of photosynthetic responses of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoot to light was derived from the shoot geometry and the photosynthetic response of a single needle. Computations showed that the shape of the photosynthesis light-curves varies substantially depending on the direction of radiation relative to the shoot position. Differences in the initial and maximum rates of photosynthesis were due to changes in the effective projection area and the irradiated fraction of the shoot, respectively

  12. The role of hybridization during ecological divergence of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) and limber pine (P. flexilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Mitra; Bagley, Justin C; Friedline, Christopher J; Whipple, Amy V; Schoettle, Anna W; Leal-Sàenz, Alejandro; Wehenkel, Christian; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Gonzalez-Elizondo, M Socorro; Sniezko, Richard A; Cushman, Samuel A; Waring, Kristen M; Eckert, Andrew J

    2018-03-01

    Interactions between extrinsic factors, such as disruptive selection and intrinsic factors, such as genetic incompatibilities among loci, often contribute to the maintenance of species boundaries. The relative roles of these factors in the establishment of reproductive isolation can be examined using species pairs characterized by gene flow throughout their divergence history. We investigated the process of speciation and the maintenance of species boundaries between Pinus strobiformis and Pinus flexilis. Utilizing ecological niche modelling, demographic modelling and genomic cline analyses, we illustrated a divergence history with continuous gene flow. Our results supported an abundance of advanced generation hybrids and a lack of loci exhibiting steep transition in allele frequency across the hybrid zone. Additionally, we found evidence for climate-associated variation in the hybrid index and niche divergence between parental species and the hybrid zone. These results are consistent with extrinsic factors, such as climate, being an important isolating mechanism. A build-up of intrinsic incompatibilities and of coadapted gene complexes is also apparent, although these appear to be in the earliest stages of development. This supports previous work in coniferous species demonstrating the importance of extrinsic factors in facilitating speciation. Overall, our findings lend support to the hypothesis that varying strength and direction of selection pressures across the long lifespans of conifers, in combination with their other life history traits, delays the evolution of strong intrinsic incompatibilities. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Kaitlin C.; Shinneman, Douglas; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2018-01-01

    Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America. Morphological and genetic variation across the distribution of ponderosa pine suggest the need to model intraspecific populations: the two varieties (var. ponderosa and var. scopulorum) and several haplotype groups within each variety have been shown to occupy unique climatic niches, suggesting populations have distinct evolutionary lineages adapted to different environmental conditions. We utilized a recently-available, geographically-widespread dataset of intraspecific variation (haplotypes) for ponderosa pine and a recently-devised lineage distance modeling approach to derive additional, likely intraspecific occurrence locations. We confirmed the relative uniqueness of each haplotype-climate relationship using a niche-overlap analysis, and developed ecological niche models (ENMs) to project the distribution for two varieties and eight haplotypes under future climate forecasts. Future projections of haplotype niche distributions generally revealed greater potential range loss than predicted for the varieties. This difference may reflect intraspecific responses of distinct evolutionary lineages. However, directional trends are generally consistent across intraspecific levels, and include a loss of distributional area and an upward shift in elevation. Our results

  14. Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Kaitlin C; Shinneman, Douglas J; Potter, Kevin M; Hipkins, Valerie D

    2018-03-14

    Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America. Morphological and genetic variation across the distribution of ponderosa pine suggest the need to model intraspecific populations: the two varieties (var. ponderosa and var. scopulorum) and several haplotype groups within each variety have been shown to occupy unique climatic niches, suggesting populations have distinct evolutionary lineages adapted to different environmental conditions. We utilized a recently-available, geographically-widespread dataset of intraspecific variation (haplotypes) for ponderosa pine and a recently-devised lineage distance modeling approach to derive additional, likely intraspecific occurrence locations. We confirmed the relative uniqueness of each haplotype-climate relationship using a niche-overlap analysis, and developed ecological niche models (ENMs) to project the distribution for two varieties and eight haplotypes under future climate forecasts. Future projections of haplotype niche distributions generally revealed greater potential range loss than predicted for the varieties. This difference may reflect intraspecific responses of distinct evolutionary lineages. However, directional trends are generally consistent across intraspecific levels, and include a loss of distributional area and an upward shift in elevation. Our results

  15. Single-Locus versus Multilocus Patterns of Local Adaptation to Climate in Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus, Pinaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om P Rajora

    Full Text Available Natural plant populations are often adapted to their local climate and environmental conditions, and populations of forest trees offer some of the best examples of this pattern. However, little empirical work has focused on the relative contribution of single-locus versus multilocus effects to the genetic architecture of local adaptation in plants/forest trees. Here, we employ eastern white pine (Pinus strobus to test the hypothesis that it is the inter-genic effects that primarily drive climate-induced local adaptation. The genetic structure of 29 range-wide natural populations of eastern white pine was determined in relation to local climatic factors using both a reference set of SSR markers, and SNPs located in candidate genes putatively involved in adaptive response to climate. Comparisons were made between marker sets using standard single-locus outlier analysis, single-locus and multilocus environment association analyses and a novel implementation of Population Graphs. Magnitudes of population structure were similar between the two marker sets. Outlier loci consistent with diversifying selection were rare for both SNPs and SSRs. However, genetic distances based on the multilocus among population covariances (cGD were significantly more correlated to climate, even after correcting for spatial effects, for SNPs as compared to SSRs. Coalescent simulations confirmed that the differences in mutation rates between SSRs and SNPs did not affect the topologies of the Population Graphs, and hence values of cGD and their correlations with associated climate variables. We conclude that the multilocus covariances among populations primarily reflect adaptation to local climate and environment in eastern white pine. This result highlights the complexity of the genetic architecture of adaptive traits, as well as the need to consider multilocus effects in studies of local adaptation.

  16. Research on the antioxidant, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activities and the phytochemical composition of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tümen, İbrahim; Akkol, Esra Küpeli; Taştan, Hakkı; Süntar, Ipek; Kurtca, Mehmet

    2018-01-30

    Ethnobotanical investigations have shown that the Pinus species have been used against rheumatic pain and for wound healing in Turkish folk medicine. In this study, phytochemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing activities of Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) that is collected in Turkey are investigated. Essential oil composition and the amount of extracts (lipophilic and hydrophilic) of maritime pine wood and fresh cone samples had been tested. The essential oil from cones of P. pinaster revealed the highest activities, whereas other parts of the plant did not display any appreciable wound healing, anti-inflammatory, or antioxidant effects. α-Pinene was the main constituent of the essential oil obtained from the cones of P. pinaster. Experimental studies shown that P. pinaster's remarkable anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities support the traditional use of the plant, and suggest it could have a place in modern medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of heavy metals and some biotic factors on ectomycorrhizal Scots pine in northern Finland; Effekter av tungmetaller och naagra biotiska faktorer paa tall och dess ektomykorrhiza i norra Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen-Jonnarth, U.

    1996-04-01

    In this work, nickel and copper exposure on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was studied experimentally under field conditions. The significance of some biotic factors was also studied. We wanted to test whether the understorey lichen layer has a protective role against nickel exposure, and whether it has any effects on pine seedlings. Effects of defoliation, simulating sawfly grazing, were also examined, since the reduced photosynthesis can be assumed to affect root growth and ectomycorrhiza negatively. Ectomycorrhizal colonization has been found to decrease in pinyon pine due to defoliation. 19 refs

  18. Influence of copper and formalin on the mycorrhiza of pine (Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Sharma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Various concentrations of copper sulphate and formalin were tested for their effect on the efficiency of mycorrhizal functioning in pine seedlings. Low and higher doses of copper applied to the container grown seedling exhibited a less stimulatory effect than nedium doses. When applied in higher concentrations, the formalin caused mortality in young pine seedlings. The seedling yield and phosphate uptake was found maximum in 100 ppm applied concentration of copper. while słów growth and lower phosphate concentration was observed in the seedlings not given any copper treatment. Formalin at 50 ppm concentration slightly improved the seedling growth and phosphate uptake in mycorrhizal seedling as compared with untreated ones. Variation in the development and spread of ectomycorrhiza on the surface of roots of pine seedlings was also recorded in responses to copper and formalin treatments.

  19. Population variation in drought resistance and its relationship with adaptive and physiological seedling traits in Turkish red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.)

    OpenAIRE

    KANDEMİR, GAYE; ÖNDE, SERTAÇ; TEMEL, FATİH; KAYA, ZEKİ

    2017-01-01

    Variation in drought resistance and its relationship with adaptive and physiological traits in forest trees are important in choosing suitable seed sources for reforestation and afforestation programs. A common garden experiment using 240 half-sib families originating from coastal and inland populations of Turkish red pine (Pinus brutia) in Turkey was set up with three replicates. The aims were to determine variation of drought damage, height growth, and phenology among populations and to ...

  20. Formation of post-fire water-repellent layers in Monterrey pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantations in south-central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Garcia-Chevesich; R. Pizarro; C. L. Stropki; P. Ramirez de Arellano; P. F. Ffolliott; L. F. DeBano; Dan Neary; D. C. Slack

    2010-01-01

    A wildfire burned about 15,000 ha of Monterrey Pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantations near Yungay, Chile, in January of 2007. Post-fire water repellency (hydrophobicity) was measured using the water-drop-penetration-time (WDPT) method at depths of 0, 5, and 10 mm from the soil surface. These measurements were collected on burned sites of both young (4-years old) and...

  1. Pinus patula and pine hybrid hedge productivity in South Africa: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In response to the Fusarium circinatum pine pathogen threat in southern Africa, research has been conducted on the development of F. circinatum-tolerant P. patula and P. patula hybrids. The objective of this study was to investigate the propagation potential of these taxa in two vegetative propagation systems, hydroponic ...

  2. Acute and long-term effects of irradiation on pine (Pinus silvestris) stands post-Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, N.P.; Kuchma, N.D.; Askbrant, S.; Pasternak, P.S.; Musica, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ionizing irradiation on the viability of pine stands after the fallout from the damaged nuclear energy plant at Chernobyl (ChNPP) was shown within the territory of the 10-km zone. During the period 1986-1991, irradiated and damaged forest stands, so-called 'red forest', located in this area were systematically classified by observation. Mortality rate, re-establishment, development of tree canopies, reproduction anomalies and stand viability were shown to be dependent on absorbed irradiation dose, on the age of the stand and on forest composition. For pine stands in the acutely affected zone, doses of more than 60 Gy resulted in a massive mortality and no regeneration of pine trees since 1987. The injured trees had burned or had dried-up. The drying process was accelerated by a massive production of pathogenic insects invading the dying trees. Specifically, irradiation doses of 10-60 Gy, 1-10 Gy and 0.1-1 Gy caused high, medium and low injury to the forest stands, respectively. Doses of less than 0.1 Gy did not cause any visible damage to the trees. In 1987, repair processes were displayed by the tree canopies and practically the entire viability of the forest stands had recovered except for trees in the acute and highly affected zones. The young forest was reestablished in the same place as the perished trees and new pine saplings were planted on the reclaimed areas

  3. Acute and long-term effects of irradiation on pine (Pinus silvestris) stands post-Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkhipov, N.P.; Kuchma, N.D. (Department of Radiology and Land Restoration, Pripyat Research and Industrial Association, Chernobyl (Ukraine)); Askbrant, S. (National Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)); Pasternak, P.S.; Musica, V.V. (Lyes Research and Industrial Association, Kharykov (Ukraine))

    1994-10-14

    The effect of ionizing irradiation on the viability of pine stands after the fallout from the damaged nuclear energy plant at Chernobyl (ChNPP) was shown within the territory of the 10-km zone. During the period 1986-1991, irradiated and damaged forest stands, so-called 'red forest', located in this area were systematically classified by observation. Mortality rate, re-establishment, development of tree canopies, reproduction anomalies and stand viability were shown to be dependent on absorbed irradiation dose, on the age of the stand and on forest composition. For pine stands in the acutely affected zone, doses of more than 60 Gy resulted in a massive mortality and no regeneration of pine trees since 1987. The injured trees had burned or had dried-up. The drying process was accelerated by a massive production of pathogenic insects invading the dying trees. Specifically, irradiation doses of 10-60 Gy, 1-10 Gy and 0.1-1 Gy caused high, medium and low injury to the forest stands, respectively. Doses of less than 0.1 Gy did not cause any visible damage to the trees. In 1987, repair processes were displayed by the tree canopies and practically the entire viability of the forest stands had recovered except for trees in the acute and highly affected zones. The young forest was reestablished in the same place as the perished trees and new pine saplings were planted on the reclaimed areas.

  4. Acute and long-term effects of irradiation on pine (Pinus silvestris) strands post-Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, N P; Kuchma, N D; Askbrant, S; Pasternak, P S; Musica, V V

    1994-12-11

    The effect of ionizing irradiation on the viability of pine stands after the fallout from the damaged nuclear energy plant at Chernobyl (ChNPP) was shown within the territory of the 10-km zone. During the period 1986-1991, irradiated and damaged forest stands, so-called 'red forest', located in this area were systematically classified by observation. Mortality rate, re-establishment, development of tree canopies, reproduction anomalies and stand viability were shown to be dependent on absorbed irradiation dose, on the age of the stand and on forest composition. For pine stands in the acutely affected zone, doses of more than 60 Gy resulted in a massive mortality and no regeneration of pine trees since 1987. The injured trees had burned or had dried-up. The drying process was accelerated by a massive production of pathogenic insects invading the dying trees. Specifically, irradiation doses of 10-60 Gy, 1-10 Gy and 0.1-1 Gy caused high, medium and low injury to the forest stands, respectively. Doses of less than 0.1 Gy did not cause any visible damage to the trees. In 1987, repair processes were displayed by the tree canopies and practically the entire viability of the forest stands had recovered except for trees in the acute and highly affected zones. The young forest was reestablished in the same place as the perished trees and new pine saplings were planted on the reclaimed areas.

  5. Plasticity in dendroclimatic response across the distribution range of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamopoulos, Stergios; Milios, Elias; Doganos, Dimitris; Bistinas, Ioannis; Aytug, B; Guven, K C; Boydak, Melih; Büntgen, Ulf; Martínez-Peña, Fernando; Aldea, Jorge; Rigling, Andreas; Fischer, Erich M; Camarero, J Julio; Hayes, Michael J; Fatton, Vincent; Egli, Simon; Cams, Serdar; Çatal, Yilmaz Yılmaz; Cermak, J; De Luis, Martín Martin; Čufar, Katarina; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Novak, Klemen; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Piovesan, Gianluca; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Raventós, José; Saz, Miguel Angel; Smith, Kevin T; Gričar, Jožica; Čufar, Katarina; Raventós, José; Fady, Bruno; Semerci, Hacer; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Fisher, James T; Neumann, Robert W; Mexal, John G; Fournier, T P; Battipaglia, G; Brossier, B; Carcaillet, C; Galván, J Diego; Camarero, J Julio; Ginzler, C; Büntgen, Ulf; Griggs, Carol; Pearson, Charlotte; Manning, Sturt W; Lorentzen, Brita; Guller, Bilgin; Isik, Kani; Cetinay, Senay; Körner, Christian; Sarris, Dimitrios; Christodoulakis, Dimitrios; Linares, Juan Carlos; Senhadji, Karim; Herrero, Asier; Hódar, José A; Liphschitz, Nili; Mendel, Zvi; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Camarero, J Julio; Hevia, Andrea; Madrigal-González, Jaime; Linares, Juan Carlos; Ballesteros-Canovas, Juan A; Sánchez-Miranda, Angela; Alfaro-Sánchez, Raquel; Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Galván, J Diego; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Génova, Mar; Rigling, Andreas; Sarris, Dimitrios; Christodoulakis, Dimitrios; Körner, Christian; Siegwolf, Rolf; Körner, Christian; Touchan, Ramzi; Anchukaitis, K J; Shishov, V V; Sivrikaya, F; Attieh, J; Ketmen, M; Stephan, J; Mitsopoulos, I; Christou, Andreas K; Meko, David M; Garfin, Gregg M; Meko, David M; Funkhouser, Gary; Erkan, Nesat; Hughes, Malcolm K; Wallin, Brian S; Вендин, А В; Демкин, В И; Добронравова, М В

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the variability of the climate-growth relationship of Aleppo pine across its distribution range in the Mediterranean Basin. We constructed a network of tree-ring index chronologies from 63 sites across the region. Correlation function analysis identified the relationships of

  6. From lifting to planting: Root dip treatments affect survival of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom E. Starkey; David B. South

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogels and clay slurries are the materials most commonly applied to roots of pines in the southern United States. Most nursery managers believe such applications offer a form of "insurance" against excessive exposure during planting. The objective of this study was to examine the ability of root dip treatments to: (1) support fungal growth; and (2) protect...

  7. Synthesis of lower treeline limber pine (Pinus flexilis) woodland knowledge, research needs, and management considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Means

    2011-01-01

    Lower treeline limber pine woodlands have received little attention in peer-reviewed literature and in management strategies. These ecologically distinct systems are thought to be seed repositories between discontinuous populations in the northern and central Rocky Mountains, serving as seed sources for bird dispersal between distinct mountain ranges. Their position on...

  8. Screening Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) families for physical and mechanical properties using vibrational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifty E. Acquah; Brian K. Via; Lori G. Eckhardt

    2016-01-01

    In a bid to control the loblolly pine decline complex, stakeholders are using the selection and deployment of genetically superior families that are disease tolerant. It is vital that we do not compromise other important properties while breeding for disease tolerance. In this preliminary study, near infrared spectroscopy was utilized in conjunction with data collected...

  9. Silvicultural evaluations on maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton plantations in Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Balekoğlu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial plantations have substantially reduced the pressure on natural forests. There are approximately 80.000 hectares of industrial plantations, established with fast growing coniferous species, 77.000 hectares of which are maritime pine plantations in Turkey. Furthermore, approximately 16.000 hectares of maritime pine plantations, which amount to about 20 percent of all maritime pine plantations in Turkey, occur in Istanbul. The aim of this study is to determine the growth pattern of maritime pine plantations located in Anatolian and European Istanbul: Kanlıca, Beykoz, Sultanbeyli and Şile-Sahilköy; and Bahçeköy-Bentler, Arnavutköy and Terkos-Durusu respectively. Specifically, the study examined individual trees within the above-mentioned sites to determine the first thinning age of the plantations. In addition, some specific silvicultural suggestions were offered for the plantations. The minimum and maximum recorded values for the trees’ age, DBH, height and stem volume were found in the range of 22-50 years, 26.6-46.8 cm, 14.0-23.0 m and 0.5150-1.8560 m3 respectively. In order to take advantage of the fast growing attributes of maritime pine which was found to grow fast within first 10 years, the first thinning should commence at the age of 11-12 years; thereafter, the second thinning should commence at the age of 18-20 years; finally, the final cut should be performed when the plantation is approximately 30 years of age. If rotation age is considered 40 years, the third thinning should commence at the age of 30 years.

  10. Change in the terpenoid profile and secondary growth in declining stands of Pinus sylvestris L. under mediterranean influence as a response to local factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The terpenoid profile could give information about the water status in Scots pine, especially for trees growing in the same geographical area but under contrasting local environmental conditions. Terpenes were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in needles, twigs and wood of ten affected and ten unaffected Scots pines in the southern “Sistema Ibérico” range (Teruel, Spain, where forest decline has been recently reported. Soil depth and secondary growth was also studied in both types of trees. Needles and twigs total resin acids were significantly higher in affected trees. The pimarane type resin acids were also higher in the twigs of affected trees. Secondary growth was lower in affected trees and it showed higher climate sensitivity. The use of the terpenoid profile may be used as an additional tool for the estimation of the water status, especially for situations inducing moderate but relatively prolonged stress conditions.El perfil terpénico podría dar información sobre el estado hídrico en el pino albar, especialmente cuando se comparen especímenes de una zona geográfica concreta afectados por factores ambientales locales. Los terpenos de acículas, brotes del año y madera fueron analizados en diez ejemplares afectados y otros tantos no afectados por el decaimiento mediante cromatografía de masas acoplada a espectrometría de masas. La serie de crecimiento secundario en ambos tipos de ejemplares fue también estudiada. La concentración total de ácidos resínicos aumentó de modo significativo en los árboles afectados tanto en brotes del año como en acículas. La cantidad de ácidos de tipo pimarano también aumentó en los brotes de los árboles afectados. La profundidad del suelo y el crecimiento secundario era menor en este tipo de ejemplares, que muestran una mayor sensibilidad en términos dendrocronológicos. El perfíl terpénico podría utilizarse como una herramienta adicional a la estimación del estado

  11. Drought stress leads to systemic induced susceptibility to a nectrotrophic fungus associated with mountain pine beetle in Pinus banksiana seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klutsch, Jennifer G; Shamoun, Simon Francis; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2017-01-01

    Conifers have complex defense responses to initial attacks by insects and pathogens that can have cascading effects on success of subsequent colonizers. However, drought can affect a plant's ability to respond to biotic agents by potentially altering the resources needed for the energetically costly production of induced defense chemicals. We investigated the impact of reduced water on induced chemical defenses of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings from initial attack by biotic agents and resistance to subsequent challenge inoculation with a pathogenic fungal associate of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), Grosmannia clavigera. Applications of phytohormones (methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate) and G. clavigera were used for initial induction of defenses. Monoterpene concentrations varied with initial induction from fungal and phytohormone application while watering treatment had no effect. Seedlings treated with G. clavigera and methyl jasmonate had the greatest monoterpene concentrations compared to the control and methyl salicylate-treated seedlings. However, the monoterpene response to the challenge inoculation varied with watering treatments, not with prior induction treatments, with lower monoterpene concentrations in fungal lesions on seedlings in the low to moderate watering treatments compared to normal watering treatment. Furthermore, prior induction from phytohormones resulted in systemic cross-induction of resistance to G. clavigera under normal watering treatment but susceptibility under low watering treatment. Seedlings stressed by low water conditions, which also had lower stomatal conductance than seedlings in the normal watering treatment, likely allocated resources to initial defense response but were left unable to acquire further resources for subsequent responses. Our results demonstrate that drought can affect interactions among tree-infesting organisms through systemic cross-induction of susceptibility.

  12. The role of population origin and microenvironment in seedling emergence and early survival in Mediterranean maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vizcaíno-Palomar

    Full Text Available Understanding tree recruitment is needed to forecast future forest distribution. Many studies have reported the relevant ecological factors that affect recruitment success in trees, but the potential for genetic-based differences in recruitment has often been neglected. In this study, we established a semi-natural reciprocal sowing experiment to test for local adaptation and microenvironment effects (evaluated here by canopy cover in the emergence and early survival of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton, an emblematic Mediterranean forest tree. A novel application of molecular markers was also developed to test for family selection and, thus, for potential genetic change over generations. Overall, we did not find evidence to support local adaptation at the recruitment stage in our semi-natural experiment. Moreover, only weak family selection (if any was found, suggesting that in stressful environments with low survival, stochastic processes and among-year climate variability may drive recruitment. Nevertheless, our study revealed that, at early stages of recruitment, microenvironments may favor the population with the best adapted life strategy, irrespectively of its (local or non-local origin. We also found that emergence time is a key factor for seedling survival in stressful Mediterranean environments. Our study highlights the complexity of the factors influencing the early stages of establishment of maritime pine and provides insights into possible management actions aimed at environmental change impact mitigation. In particular, we found that the high stochasticity of the recruitment process in stressful environments and the differences in population-specific adaptive strategies may difficult assisted migration schemes.

  13. Missing Rings, Synchronous Growth, and Ecological Disturbance in a 36-Year Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida Provenance Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Leland

    Full Text Available Provenance studies are an increasingly important analog for understanding how trees adapted to particular climatic conditions might respond to climate change. Dendrochronological analysis can illuminate differences among trees from different seed sources in terms of absolute annual growth and sensitivity to external growth factors. We analyzed annual radial growth of 567 36-year-old pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill. trees from 27 seed sources to evaluate their performance in a New Jersey Pine Barrens provenance experiment. Unexpectedly, missing rings were prevalent in most trees, and some years-1992, 1999, and 2006-had a particularly high frequency of missing rings across the plantation. Trees from local seed sources (<55 km away from the plantation had a significantly smaller percentage of missing rings from 1980-2009 (mean: 5.0%, relative to northernmost and southernmost sources (mean: 9.3% and 7.9%, respectively. Some years with a high frequency of missing rings coincide with outbreaks of defoliating insects or dry growing season conditions. The propensity for missing rings synchronized annual variations in growth across all trees and might have complicated the detection of potential differences in interannual variability among seed sources. Average ring width was significantly larger in seed sources from both the southernmost and warmest origins compared to the northernmost and coldest seed sources in most years. Local seed sources had the highest average radial growth. Adaptation to local environmental conditions and disturbances might have influenced the higher growth rate found in local seed sources. These findings underscore the need to understand the integrative impact of multiple environmental drivers, such as disturbance agents and climate change, on tree growth, forest dynamics, and the carbon cycle.

  14. Transgenic loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plants expressing a modified delta-endotoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis with enhanced resistance to Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and Crypyothelea formosicola Staud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Tian, Yingchuan

    2003-02-01

    A synthetic version of the CRY1Ac gene of Bacillus thuringiensis has been used for the transformation of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using particle bombardment. Mature zygotic embryos were used to be bombarded and to generate organogenic callus and transgenic regenerated plants. Expression vector pB48.215 DNA contained a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) CRY1Ac coding sequence flanked by the double cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator sequences, and the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) gene controlled by the promoter of the nopaline synthase gene was introduced into loblolly pine tissues by particle bombardment. The transformed tissues were proliferated and selected on media with kanamycin. Shoot regeneration was induced from the kanamycin-resistant calli, and transgenic plantlets were then produced. More than 60 transformed plants from independent transformation events were obtained for each loblolly pine genotype tested. The integration and expression of the introduced genes in the transgenic loblolly pine plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) analysis, by Southern hybridization, by Northern blot analysis, and by Western blot analysis. Effective resistance of transgenic plants against Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and Crypyothelea formosicola Staud was verified in feeding bioassays with the insects. The transgenic plants recovered could represent a good opportunity to analyse the impact of genetic engineering of pine for sustainable resistance to pests using a B. thuringiensis insecticidal protein. This protocol enabled the routine transformation of loblolly pine plants that were previously difficult to transform.

  15. Mechanical properties of structural maritime pine sawn timber from Galicia (Pinus pinaster Ait. ssp. atlantica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carballo, J.; Hermoso, E.; Fernandez-Golfin, J. I.

    2009-07-01

    The use of maritime pine sawn timber in structural applications requires knowledge of its mechanical properties. Standards have changed, however, since the last research on this timber was performed. In the present study, 491 beams of maritime pine from Gaelic, of structural-use size but different cross-section, were tested according to these modified standards. Each beam was visually graded according to standard UNE 56.544 and subjected to a four point bending test. The strength classes assigned by the visual grades awarded suggest this material to have greater structural capacity than that currently assumed. The relationships between the modulus of elasticity, strength and density were also examined. (Author) 25 refs.

  16. Phylogeography of Pinus armandii and its relatives: heterogeneous contributions of geography and climate changes to the genetic differentiation and diversification of Chinese white pines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Liu

    Full Text Available Geographic barriers and Quaternary climate changes are two major forces driving the evolution, speciation, and genetic structuring of extant organisms. In this study, we used Pinus armandii and eleven other Asian white pines (subsection Strobus, subgenus Pinus to explore the influences of geographic factors and Pleistocene climatic oscillations on species in South China, a region known to be centers of plant endemism and biodiversity hotspots. Range-wide patterns of genetic variation were investigated using chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA markers, with extensive sampling throughout the entire range of P. armandii. Both cpDNA and mtDNA revealed that P. armandii exhibits high levels of genetic diversity and significant population differentiation. Three geographically distinct subdivisions corresponding to the Qinling-Daba Mountains (QDM, Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM and Yungui Plateau (YGP were revealed in mainland China by cpDNA. Their break zone was located in the southeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP. A series of massive mountains, induced by the QTP uplift, imposed significant geographic barriers to genetic exchange. The disjunct distribution patterns of ancestral haplotypes suggest that a large continuous population of the white pines may have existed from southwest to subtropical China. Repeated range shifts in response to the Pleistocene glaciations led to the isolation and diversification of the subtropical species. The two Taiwanese white pines share a common ancestor with the species in mainland China and obtain their chloroplasts via long-distance pollen dispersal from North Asian pines. Distinct genetic patterns were detected in populations from the Qinling-Daba Mountains, Yungui Plateau, Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains, and subtropical China, indicating significant contributions of geographic factors to the genetic differentiation in white pines. Our study depicts a clear picture of the evolutionary history of

  17. Proportion of knotty wood in stems of 28-year old lodgepole and Scots pine in experimental plantation in Zvirgzde, Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansons Aris

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In forestry, alien tree species are planted to maximize yield from a stand by increasing productivity and decreasing environmental risks. In Eastern Europe, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia might be used as a source of biomass and industrial wood; however, before any recommendations are given, possible gains of the novel species should be scrupulously evaluated. In this study, we compared volume and proportion of knotty stemwood (VKN of native Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris from first generation seed orchards and provenances of alien lodgepole pine [Fort Nelson (58°38’ N, 122°41’ W and Summit Lake (54°24› N, 122°37› W] at the age of 27 years growing in central Latvia. We also assessed the relationships between VKN and several morphometric parameters.

  18. The effects of drought and disturbance on the growth and developmental instability of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John H.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Brown, Michelle L.; Kitchen, Stanley G.; Emlen, John M.; Malol, Jagadish; Bankstahl, Elizabeth; Krzysik, Anthony J.; Balbach, Harold E.; Freeman, D. Carl

    2012-01-01

    Ecological indicators provide early warning of adverse environmental change, helping land managers adaptively manage their resources while minimizing costly remediation. In 1999 and 2000, we studied two such indicators, growth and developmental instability, of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) influenced by mechanized infantry training at Fort Benning, Georgia. Disturbed areas were used for military training; tracked and wheeled vehicles damaged vegetation and soils. Highly disturbed sites had fewer trees, diminished ground cover, warmer soils in the summer, and more compacted soils with a shallower A-horizon. We hypothesized that disturbance would decrease the growth of needles, branches, and tree rings, increase the complexity of tree rings, and increase the developmental instability of needles. Contrary to our expectations, however, disturbance enhanced growth in the first year of the study, possibly by reducing competition. In the second year, a drought reduced growth of branches and needles, eliminating the stimulatory effect of disturbance. Growth-ring widths increased with growing-season precipitation, and decreased with growing-season temperature over the last 40 years. Disturbance had no effect on tree-ring complexity, as measured by the Hurst exponent. Within-fascicle variation of current-year needle length, a measure of developmental instability, differed among the study populations, but appeared unrelated to mechanical disturbance or drought.

  19. Effects of seeding ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) on vegetation recovery following fire in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Angela D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Allen, Craig D.

    2004-01-01

    Forty-nine vegetation transects were measured in 1997 and 1998 to determine the impact of grass seeding after the 1996 Dome Fire, which burned almost 6900 ha of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson) forest in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. High- and moderate-burned areas in Santa Fe National Forest were seeded with a mixture that included the exotic ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). Adjacent burned areas of Bandelier National Monument were not seeded, and were used as a control in the post-seeding study. On the seeded plots, foliar cover of ryegrass declined from 1997 to 1998 due to self-inhibition and/or reduced precipitation from 1997 to 1998. Foliar cover and diversity of native forbs were greater in 1997 than 1998, probably due to a wet growing season in 1997. Cover, species richness, and diversity of native forbs were highest in non-seeded areas of moderate- and high-burn intensities. Regeneration and survivorship of conifer seedlings decreased as ryegrass cover increased, particularly in areas of high-burn intensity. Exotic plant cover, mostly horseweed [Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.], increased from 1997 to 1998 in non-seeded areas of moderate- and high-burn intensity. Both the initial success of seeding and the eventual impacts on native vegetation were strongly modulated by climate variability.

  20. Improvement of real pine (Pinus montezumae Lamb). Part I; Mejoramiento del pino real. Parte I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez J, J; Jimenez C, M; Garcia T, M A [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Genetica Vegetal, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The real pine is an endemic specie of Mexico which is actually in danger of extinction. So the gamma radiation can accelerate the development of some vegetal species, then it is proceeded to find the radiation dose which allows to break the disease condition to diminish the lethargy time of those seeds with a dose range of 1 to 300 Krad of gamma radiation. It is required to realize more tests and observing in a greater period the hipocotile emission to determine the dose which allow to break the condition permanently. (Author)

  1. [Age dynamics of population gene pool of the Crimean pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) in Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Mudrik, E A; Krasnoshtan, O V; Velikorid'ko, T I; Kalafat, L A; Podgornyĭ, D Iu

    2011-01-01

    Polymorphism of young (14-16 years), middle-aged (70-80 years) and old (120-150 years) plants and their seed embryos has been studied using 20 and 10 allozyme loci correspondingly in the population of Pinus pallasiana D. Don from Mountain Crimea. It was revealed that the old-aged trees had significantly lower level of expected heterozygosity than the young plants. The level of observed heterozygosity of embryos of the uneven-aged plants was slightly different among the embryo samples and significantly lower than in the samples of maternal trees. Supernumerary homozygotation of the embryos is caused by low level of cross-pollination in three studied samples of plants (t(m) = 0,537-0,637).

  2. [Genetic structure, subdivision, and population differentiation in Stankewiczii pine Pinus stankewiczii (Sukacz.) Fomin from Mountain Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Gorlova, E M

    2006-06-01

    In order to analyze the genetic structure, subdivision and differentiation within and between two small isolated populations of the Crimea relict endemic, Pinus stankewiczii (Sukacz.) Fomin, electrophoretic analysis of the isozyme variation at nine enzymatic systems was carried out using 183 oldest trees. It was demonstrated that in populations of P. stankewiczii, 80% of the genes were in polymorphic state. Each tree was heterozygous at 19.1% loci, and at 21.6% loci in artificial 50-year-old plantation. The genetic structure of two populations was less differentiated (DN = 0.006), compared to their individual localities (DN = 0.008-0.009). Within-population subdivision of the diffusely dispersed populations was higher (FST-GST = 1.8-2.0%) than that of the populations themselves (0.8%).

  3. Chronic radiation exposure as an ecological factor: Hypermethylation and genetic differentiation in irradiated Scots pine populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkova, P.Yu.; Geras'kin, S.A.; Horemans, N.; Makarenko, E.S.; Saenen, E.; Duarte, G.T.; Nauts, R.; Bondarenko, V.S.; Jacobs, G.; Voorspoels, S.; Kudin, M.

    2018-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic changes were investigated in chronically irradiated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations from territories that were heavily contaminated by radionuclides as result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In comparison to the reference site, the genetic diversity revealed by electrophoretic mobility of AFLPs was found to be significantly higher at the radioactively contaminated areas. In addition, the genome of pine trees was significantly hypermethylated at 4 of the 7 affected sites. - Highlights: • Chronic radiation exposure changes the genetic structure of plant populations. • Genomes of irradiated pines are hypermethylated. • The level of hypermethylation does not depend on annual dose. - These results indicate that even relatively low levels of chronic radiation exposure can influence on the genetic characteristics and the methylation status of natural pine populations and that it should be considered as an important ecological factor reflecting the anthropogenic impact on ecosystems.

  4. Cd-tolerant Suillus luteus: a fungal insurance for pines exposed to Cd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krznaric, Erik; Verbruggen, Nathalie; Wevers, Jan H L; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan V

    2009-05-01

    Soil metal pollution can trigger evolutionary adaptation in soil-borne organisms. An in vitro screening test showed cadmium adaptation in populations of Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) Roussel, an ectomycorrhizal fungus of pine trees. Cadmium stress was subsequently investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings inoculated with a Cd-tolerant S. luteus, isolated from a heavy metal contaminated site, and compared to plants inoculated with a Cd-sensitive isolate from a non-polluted area. A dose-response experiment with mycorrhizal pines showed better plant protection by a Cd-adapted fungus: more fungal biomass and a higher nutrient uptake at high Cd exposure. In addition, less Cd was transferred to aboveground plant parts. Because of the key role of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for tree fitness, the evolution of Cd tolerance in an ectomycorrhizal partner such as S. luteus can be of major importance for the establishment of pine forests on Cd-contaminated soils.

  5. Evidence for an operative glutamine translocator in chloroplasts from maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claros, M G; Aguilar, M L; Cánovas, F M

    2010-09-01

    In higher plants, ammonium is assimilated into amino acids through the glutamine synthetase (GS)/glutamate synthase (GOGAT) cycle. This metabolic cycle is distributed in different cellular compartments in conifer seedlings: glutamine synthesis occurs in the cytosol and glutamate synthesis within the chloroplast. A method for preparing intact chloroplasts of pine cotyledons is presented with the aim of identifying a glutamine-glutamate translocator. Glutamine-glutamate exchange has been studied using the double silicone layer system, suggesting the existence of a translocator that imports glutamine into the chloroplast and exports glutamate to the cytoplasm. The translocator identified is specific for glutamine and glutamate, and the kinetic constants for both substrates indicate that it is unsaturated at intracellular concentrations. Thus, the experimental evidence obtained supports the model of the GS/GOGAT cycle in developing pine seedlings that accounts for the stoichiometric balance of metabolites. As a result, the efficient assimilation of free ammonia produced by photorespiration, nitrate reduction, storage protein mobilisation, phenylpropanoid pathway or S-adenosylmethionine synthesis is guaranteed.

  6. Pezizalean mycorrhizas and sporocarps in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) after prescribed fires in eastern Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, K E; Smith, J E; Horton, T R; Weber, N S; Spatafora, J W

    2005-03-01

    Post-fire Pezizales fruit commonly in many forest types after fire. The objectives of this study were to determine which Pezizales appeared as sporocarps after a prescribed fire in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon, and whether species of Pezizales formed mycorrhizas on ponderosa pine, whether or not they were detected from sporocarps. Forty-two sporocarp collections in five genera (Anthracobia, Morchella, Peziza, Scutellinia, Tricharina) of post-fire Pezizales produced ten restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) types. We found no root tips colonized by species of post-fire Pezizales fruiting at our site. However, 15% (6/39) of the RFLP types obtained from mycorrhizal roots within 32 soil cores were ascomycetes. Phylogenetic analyses of the 18S nuclear ribosomal DNA gene indicated that four of the six RFLP types clustered with two genera of the Pezizales, Wilcoxina and Geopora. Subsequent analyses indicated that two of these mycobionts were probably Wilcoxina rehmii, one Geopora cooperi, and one Geopora sp. The identities of two types were not successfully determined with PCR-based methods. Results contribute knowledge about the above- and below-ground ascomycete community in a ponderosa pine forest after a low intensity fire.

  7. Identification of water-deficit responsive genes in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubos, Christian; Plomion, Christophe

    2003-01-01

    Root adaptation to soil environmental factors is very important to maritime pine, the main conifer species used for reforestation in France. The range of climates in the sites where this species is established varies from flooded in winter to drought-prone in summer. No studies have yet focused on the morphological, physiological or molecular variability of the root system to adapt its growth to such an environment. We developed a strategy to isolate drought-responsive genes in the root tissue in order to identify the molecular mechanisms that trees have evolved to cope with drought (the main problem affecting wood productivity), and to exploit this information to improve drought stress tolerance. In order to provide easy access to the root system, seedlings were raised in hydroponic solution. Polyethylene glycol was used as an osmoticum to induce water deficit. Using the cDNA-AFLP technique, we screened more than 2500 transcript derived fragments, of which 33 (1.2%) showed clear variation in presence/absence between non stressed and stressed medium. The relative abundance of these transcripts was then analysed by reverse northern. Only two out of these 33 genes showed significant opposite behaviour between both techniques. The identification and characterization of water-deficit responsive genes in roots provide the emergence of physiological understanding of the patterns of gene expression and regulation involved in the drought stress response of maritime pine.

  8. Genetic diversity and gene exchange in Pinus oocarpa, a Mesoamerican pine with resistance to the pitch canker fungus (Fusarium circinatum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.S. Dvorak; K.M. Potter

    2009-01-01

    Eleven highly polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to determine the genetic structure and levels of diversity in 51 natural populations of Pinus oocarpa across its geographic range of 3000 km in Mesoamerica. The study also included 17 populations of Pinus patula and Pinus tecunumanii chosen for their resistance or susceptibility to the pitch canker fungus based...

  9. Distribution of ectomycorrhizal and pathogenic fungi in soil along a vegetational change from Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) to black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Takeshi; Kataoka, Ryota; Tamai, Shigenobu; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2009-04-01

    The nitrogen-fixing tree black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) seems to affect ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonization and disease severity of Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) seedlings. We examined the effect of black locust on the distribution of ECM and pathogenic fungi in soil. DNA was extracted from soil at depths of 0-5 and 5-10 cm, collected from the border between a Japanese black pine- and a black locust-dominated forest, and the distribution of these fungi was investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The effect of soil nutrition and pH on fungal distribution was also examined. Tomentella sp. 1 and Tomentella sp. 2 were not detected from some subplots in the Japanese black pine-dominated forest. Ectomycorrhizas formed by Tomentella spp. were dominant in black locust-dominated subplots and very little in the Japanese black pine-dominated forest. Therefore, the distribution may be influenced by the distribution of inoculum potential, although we could not detect significant relationships between the distribution of Tomentella spp. on pine seedlings and in soils. The other ECM fungi were detected in soils in subplots where the ECM fungi was not detected on pine seedlings, and there was no significant correlation between the distribution of the ECM fungi on pine seedlings and in soils. Therefore, inoculum potential seemed to not always influence the ECM community on roots. The distribution of Lactarius quieticolor and Tomentella sp. 2 in soil at a depth of 0-5 cm positively correlated with soil phosphate (soil P) and that of Tomentella sp. 2 also positively correlated with soil nitrogen (soil N). These results suggest the possibility that the distribution of inoculum potential of the ECM fungi was affected by soil N and soil P. Although the mortality of the pine seedlings was higher in the black locust-dominated area than in the Japanese black pine-dominated area, a pathogenic fungus of pine seedlings, Cylindrocladium pacificum, was

  10. Penerapan Analisis Diskriminan dalam Pembedaan Kelas Umur Tegakan Pinus (Discriminant Analysist for Stand Class Age Distinction of Pine Stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanto .

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This  study  describes the use of discriminant anylisis for pine (Pinus spp. stand class age distinction.    Aim of this  study were (1 to arrange stand age class based on variable of aerial photograph by non hierarchy cluster analysis,  and (2 to find out aerial  photograph variable contribute to stand age class distinction by discriminant analysis.    Data used in study was taken from  a  research  conducted by Adi (1998.   Pinus stand was located  in KPH Bandung Utara, West Java. The variable of aerial photograph that used in this analysis were tone, shape, texture, topography, pattern, crown, diameter and height. The result showed that validation analysis of discriminant function was significant.  Therefore, this function was applicable for grouping new object to stand age class based on discriminant score. Keywords: cluster analysis, discriminat analysis, stand age class, discriminant score

  11. Rooting of Mugo pine (Pinus mugo) cuttings as affected by IBA, NAA and planting substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedaghathoor, S.; Kayghobadi, S.; Tajva, Y.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. The effect of planting substrate and concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid (Ia) and naphthaleneacetic acid (Naca) hormones was studied on the rooting of mugo pine cuttings. Area of study: The research was carried out in Rasht city, Guilan province, Iran. Material and Methods: Both hormones (IBA and NAA) were applied at four concentrations of 0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/l. Planting substrates included sand, perlite, cocopeat, sand + perlite, and sand + cocopeat (1:1). Main results: The highest rooting percentage (55%) was obtained under the trilateral treatment a2b4c1 (sand × 4000 mg/l NAA × 1000 mg/l IBA). Sand + cocopeat was found to be the best rooting substrate. Research highlights: It is recommended to apply sand with 4000 mg/l and 1000mg/l concentration of experimental hormones (NAA and IBA, respectively). (Author)

  12. High-density SNP assay development for genetic analysis in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomion, C; Bartholomé, J; Lesur, I; Boury, C; Rodríguez-Quilón, I; Lagraulet, H; Ehrenmann, F; Bouffier, L; Gion, J M; Grivet, D; de Miguel, M; de María, N; Cervera, M T; Bagnoli, F; Isik, F; Vendramin, G G; González-Martínez, S C

    2016-03-01

    Maritime pine provides essential ecosystem services in the south-western Mediterranean basin, where it covers around 4 million ha. Its scattered distribution over a range of environmental conditions makes it an ideal forest tree species for studies of local adaptation and evolutionary responses to climatic change. Highly multiplexed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays are increasingly used to study genetic variation in living organisms and for practical applications in plant and animal breeding and genetic resource conservation. We developed a 9k Illumina Infinium SNP array and genotyped maritime pine trees from (i) a three-generation inbred (F2) pedigree, (ii) the French breeding population and (iii) natural populations from Portugal and the French Atlantic coast. A large proportion of the exploitable SNPs (2052/8410, i.e. 24.4%) segregated in the mapping population and could be mapped, providing the densest ever gene-based linkage map for this species. Based on 5016 SNPs, natural and breeding populations from the French gene pool exhibited similar level of genetic diversity. Population genetics and structure analyses based on 3981 SNP markers common to the Portuguese and French gene pools revealed high levels of differentiation, leading to the identification of a set of highly differentiated SNPs that could be used for seed provenance certification. Finally, we discuss how the validated SNPs could facilitate the identification of ecologically and economically relevant genes in this species, improving our understanding of the demography and selective forces shaping its natural genetic diversity, and providing support for new breeding strategies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Plasticity in dendroclimatic response across the distribution range of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin de Luis

    Full Text Available We investigated the variability of the climate-growth relationship of Aleppo pine across its distribution range in the Mediterranean Basin. We constructed a network of tree-ring index chronologies from 63 sites across the region. Correlation function analysis identified the relationships of tree-ring index to climate factors for each site. We also estimated the dominant climatic gradients of the region using principal component analysis of monthly, seasonal, and annual mean temperature and total precipitation from 1,068 climatic gridpoints. Variation in ring width index was primarily related to precipitation and secondarily to temperature. However, we found that the dendroclimatic relationship depended on the position of the site along the climatic gradient. In the southern part of the distribution range, where temperature was generally higher and precipitation lower than the regional average, reduced growth was also associated with warm and dry conditions. In the northern part, where the average temperature was lower and the precipitation more abundant than the regional average, reduced growth was associated with cool conditions. Thus, our study highlights the substantial plasticity of Aleppo pine in response to different climatic conditions. These results do not resolve the source of response variability as being due to either genetic variation in provenance, to phenotypic plasticity, or a combination of factors. However, as current growth responses to inter-annual climate variability vary spatially across existing climate gradients, future climate-growth relationships will also likely be determined by differential adaptation and/or acclimation responses to spatial climatic variation. The contribution of local adaptation and/or phenotypic plasticity across populations to the persistence of species under global warming could be decisive for prediction of climate change impacts across populations. In this sense, a more complex forest dynamics

  14. Hurricane Katrina winds damaged longleaf pine less than loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Butnor; John S. Kush; Ronald C. Schmidtling; C. Dana. Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that longleaf pine might be more tolerant of high winds than either slash pine (Pinus elliotii Englem.) or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We studied wind damage to these three pine species in a common garden experiment in southeast Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina,...

  15. Uptake and distribution of nitrogen from acidic fog within a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.)/litter/soil system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenn, M.E.; Leininger, T.D.

    1995-11-01

    The magnitude and importance of wet deposition of N in forests of the South Coast (Los Angeles) Air Basin have not been well characterized. We exposed 3-yr-old ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) seedlings growing in native forest soil to acidic fog treatments (pH 3.1) simulating fog chemistry from a pine forest near Los Angeles, California. Fog solutions contained either {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +}, {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, or unlabeled N. The fog treatments were applied in open-top chambers in six 5-hr exposures. Soil treatments within each of the fog exposures were bare soil, soil overlain with L- and F-litter, and soil covered with plastic during the fog events to prevent fogwater from contacting soil. Seedlings were harvested and samples were collected 15 wk after the fog treatments. Uptake of {sup 15}N by roots was by far the dominant pathway for plant assimilation of fog-deposited {sup 15}N. Deposition of N in fog supplied 9.4% and 8.7% of the total N in current-year crown biomass in the litter-overlay and bare-soil treatments, respectively. Total N concentrations in every plant fraction except current-year stems were significantly higher in the bare-soil treatment than in the plastic-covered soil treatment. Less than 5% of the {sup 15}N deposited directly to the seedling crowns was retained by the plants in the covered-soil treatment, whereas 57% of the {sup 15}N deposited to the seedling/litter/soil systems was incorporated into plant biomass. The litter layers retained {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} more effectively than {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} more effectively than {sup 15}NO{sub 3}. Data from this study suggest that N deposited from fog may be an important source of N for plant growth in forests of the SCAB where fog occurrence and pollution exposure coincide. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Distribution of pines in the Iberian Peninsula agrees with species differences in foliage frost tolerance, not with vulnerability to freezing-induced xylem embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pérez, Laura; Villar-Salvador, Pedro; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Toca, Andrei; Zavala, Miguel A

    2018-04-01

    Drought and frosts are major determinants of plant functioning and distribution. Both stresses can cause xylem embolism and foliage damage. The objective of this study was to analyse if the distribution of six common pine species along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in Europe is related to their interspecific differences in frost tolerance and to the physiological mechanisms underlying species-specific frost tolerance. We also evaluate if frost tolerance depends on plant water status. We studied survival to a range of freezing temperatures in 2-year-old plants and assessed the percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) due xylem embolism formation and foliage damage determined by needle electrolyte leakage (EL) after a single frost cycle to -15 °C and over a range of predawn water potential (ψpd) values. Species experiencing cold winters in their range (Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus uncinata Raymond ex A. DC.) had the highest frost survival rates and lowest needle EL and soluble sugar (SS) concentration. In contrast, the pines inhabiting mild or cool winter locations (especially Pinus halepensis Mill. and Pinus pinea L. and, to a lesser extent, Pinus pinaster Ait.) had the lowest frost survival and highest needle EL and SS values. Freezing-induced PLC was very low and differences among species were not related to frost damage. Reduction in ψpd decreased leaf frost damage in P. pinea and P. sylvestris, increased it in P. uncinata and had a neutral effect on the rest of the species. This study demonstrates that freezing temperatures are a major environmental driver for pine distribution and suggests that interspecific differences in leaf frost sensitivity rather than vulnerability to freezing-induced embolism or SS explain pine juvenile frost survival.

  17. Enhanced tools for predicting annual stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) cone production at tree and forest scale in Inner Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calama, R.; Gordo, J.; Madrigal, G.; Mutke, S.; Conde, M.; Montero, G.; Pardos, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: To present a new spatiotemporal model for Pinus pinea L. annual cone production with validity for Spanish Northen Plateau and Central Range regions. The new model aims to deal with detected deficiencies in previous models: temporal shortage, overestimation of cone production on recent years, incompatibility with data from National Forest Inventory, difficulty for upscaling and ignorance of the inhibitory process due to resource depletion. Area of study: Spanish Northern Plateau and Central Range regions, covering an area where stone pine occupies more than 90,000 ha. Material and methods: Fitting data set include 190 plots and more than 1000 trees were cone production has been annually collected from 1996 to 2014. Models were fitted independently for each region, by means of zero-inflated log normal techniques. Validation of the models was carried out over the annual series of cone production at forest scale. Results: The spatial and temporal factors influencing cone production are similar in both regions, thus the main regional differences in cone yield are related with differences in the phenological timing, the intensity of the influent factors and forest intrinsic conditions. A significant inhibition of floral induction by resource depletion was detected and included into the model. Upscaling the model results in accurate prediction at forest scale. Research highlights: [1] The new model for annual cone production surpass the detected deficiencies of previous models, accurately predicting recent decay in cone production; [2] Regional differences in cone production are due to phenological and seasonal climatic differences rather than to between provenances genetic differences. (Author)

  18. Soil properties and root biomass responses to prescribed burning in young Corsican pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufekcioglu, Aydin; Kucuk, Mehmet; Saglam, Bulent; Bilgili, Ertugrul; Altun, Lokman

    2010-05-01

    Fire is an important tool in the management of forest ecosystems. Although both prescribed and wildland fires are common in Turkey, few studies have addressed the influence of such disturbances on soil properties and root biomass dynamics. In this study, soil properties and root biomass responses to prescribed fire were investigated in 25-year-old corsican pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) stands in Kastamonu, Turkey. The stands were established by planting and were subjected to prescribed burning in July 2003. Soil respiration rates were determined every two months using soda-lime method over a two-year period. Fine (0-2 mm diameter) and small root (2-5 mm diameter) biomass were sampled approximately bimonthly using sequential coring method. Mean daily soil respiration ranged from 0.65 to 2.19 g Cm(-2) d(-1) among all sites. Soil respiration rates were significantly higher in burned sites than in controls. Soil respiration rates were correlated significantly with soil moisture and soil temperature. Fine root biomass was significantly lower in burned sites than in control sites. Mean fine root biomass values were 4940 kg ha(-1) for burned and 5450 kg ha(-1) for control sites. Soil pH was significantly higher in burned sites than in control sites in 15-35 cm soil depth. Soil organic matter content did not differ significantly between control and burned sites. Our results indicate that, depending on site conditions, fire could be used successfully as a tool in the management of forest stands in the study area.

  19. Vulnerability to cavitation, hydraulic efficiency, growth and survival in an insular pine (Pinus canariensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rosana; López de Heredia, Unai; Collada, Carmen; Cano, Francisco Javier; Emerson, Brent C; Cochard, Hervé; Gil, Luis

    2013-06-01

    It is widely accepted that hydraulic failure due to xylem embolism is a key factor contributing to drought-induced mortality in trees. In the present study, an attempt is made to disentangle phenotypic plasticity from genetic variation in hydraulic traits across the entire distribution area of a tree species to detect adaptation to local environments. A series of traits related to hydraulics (vulnerability to cavitation and hydraulic conductivity in branches), growth performance and leaf mass per area were assessed in eight Pinus canariensis populations growing in two common gardens under contrasting environments. In addition, the neutral genetic variability (FST) and the genetic differentiation of phenotypic variation (QST) were compared in order to identify the evolutionary forces acting on these traits. The variability for hydraulic traits was largely due to phenotypic plasticity. Nevertheless, the vulnerability to cavitation displayed a significant genetic variability (approx. 5 % of the explained variation), and a significant genetic × environment interaction (between 5 and 19 % of the explained variation). The strong correlation between vulnerability to cavitation and survival in the xeric common garden (r = -0·81; P < 0·05) suggests a role for the former in the adaptation to xeric environments. Populations from drier sites and higher temperature seasonality were less vulnerable to cavitation than those growing at mesic sites. No trade-off between xylem safety and efficiency was detected. QST of parameters of the vulnerability curve (0·365 for P50 and the slope of the vulnerability curve and 0·452 for P88) differed substantially from FST (0·091), indicating divergent selection. In contrast, genetic drift alone was found to be sufficient to explain patterns of differentiation for xylem efficiency and growth. The ability of P. canariensis to inhabit a wide range of ecosystems seemed to be associated with high phenotypic plasticity and some degree of local

  20. Chloroplastic responses of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings to ozone exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paul D; Palmer, Brent; Houpis, James L J; Smith, Mary K; Pushnik, James C

    2003-06-01

    Integrity of chloroplast membranes is essential to photosynthesis. Loss of thylakoid membrane integrity has been proposed as a consequence of ozone (O(3)) exposure and therefore may be a mechanistic basis for decreased photosynthetic rates commonly associated with ozone exposure. To investigate this hypothesis, Pinus ponderosa seedlings were exposed to ambient air or ozone concentrations maintained at 0.15 or 0.30 microliter l(-1) for 10 h day(-1) for 51 days during their second growing season. Over the course of the study, foliage samples were periodically collected for thylakoid membrane, chlorophyll and protein analyses. Additionally, gas-exchange measurements were made in conjunction with foliage sampling to verify that observed chloroplastic responses were associated with ozone-induced changes in photosynthesis. Needles exposed to elevated ozone exhibited decreases in chlorophyll a and b content. The decreases were dependent on the duration and intensity of ozone exposure. When based on equal amounts of chlorophyll, ozone-exposed sample tissue exhibited an increase in total protein. When based on equal amounts of protein, ozone-exposed samples exhibited an increase in 37 kDa proteins, possibly consisting of breakdown products, and a possible decrease in 68 kDa proteins, Rubisco small subunit. There was also a change in the ratio of Photosystem I protein complexes CPI and CPII that may have contributed to decreased photosynthesis. Net photosynthetic rates were decreased in the high ozone treatment suggesting that observed structural and biochemical changes in the chloroplast were associated with alterations of the photosynthetic process.

  1. Measurement and modelling of radiation transmission within a stand of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbigier, P.; Bonnefond, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A semi-empirical model of radiation penetration in a maritime pine canopy was developed so that mean solar (and net) radiation absorption by crowns and understorey could be estimated from above-canopy measurements only. Beam radiation Rb was assumed to penetrate the canopy according to Beer's law with an extinction coefficient of 0.32; this figure was found using non-linear regression techniques. For diffuse sky radiation, Beer's law was integrated over the sky vault assuming a SOC (standard overcast sky) luminance model; the upward and downward scattered radiative fluxes were obtained using the Kubelka-Munk equations and measurements of needle transmittance and reflectance. The penetration of net radiation within the canopy was also modelled. The model predicts the measured albedo of the stand very well. The estimation of solar radiation transmitted by the canopy was also satisfactory with the maximum difference between this and the mean output of mobile sensors at ground level being only 18 W m -2 . Due to the poor precision of net radiometers, the net radiation model could not be tested critically. However, as the modelled longwave radiation balance under the canopy is always between -10 and -20 Wm -2 , the below-canopy net radiation must be very close to the solar radiation balance. (author) [fr

  2. Seasonal influences on the rooting response of Chir pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Sharma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rooting ability of the vegetative cutting depends upon the various factors: age, size, and diameter of cutting, season, rooting substrate and concentration of the applied growth hormone. For assessing the seasonal variation in rooting ability of shoot, cuttings were taken from 4 year old hedges. Shoot cuttings were collected after every two months of hedging spring (March, summer (June, autumn (September and winter (December and treated with 4000 ppm Indole Butyric Acid (IBA, mixed with talc powder and planted in vermiculite filled beds. Suitable control was also maintained, wherein only talc powder was applied to the basal portion of cuttings. Periodical observations were taken on cuttings, with regard to root initiation. The cuttings were uprooted after 12 weeks of planting and observations were recorded. Highly significant differences were observed between root length, shoot length, number of roots per cutting and rooting percentage. This has led to the evaluation of a standard technique for application of mass clonal propagation of Chir pine during summer season (June, which would result into a good success in rooting percentage. This technique could also be helpful in the establishment of germplasm banks of desired genotypes and Clonal Seed Orchards (CSOs. Further, this will also help in overcoming the problem of stock and scion incompatibility, which is commonly faced, when Clonal Seed Orchards are established through grafted material. 

  3. Microculture of western white pine (Pinus monticola) by induction of shoots on bud explants from 1- to 7-year-old trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, M S; Malinek, J; Coffey, M

    1996-04-01

    We developed a protocol for the production of shoots from bud explants from 1- to 7-year-old trees of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.). The best explant was a 2-mm-thick cross-sectional slice of the early winter bud. Genotype of the donor tree was a significant factor affecting shoot production, but more than 80% of the genotypes tested produced shoots. Of the media tested, bud slices from 1- to 3-year-old trees grew best in Litvay's medium containing N(6)-benzyladenine in the range of 1 to 30 micro M, whereas bud slices from older trees grew best in Gupta and Durzan's DCR medium with zeatin riboside. Up to 400 shoots more than 3 mm in height were obtained from 100 bud-slice explants taken from 7-year-old western white pine trees.

  4. Effects of Drought on Xylem Anatomy and Water-Use Efficiency of Two Co-Occurring Pine Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Martin-Benito

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exploring how drought influences growth, performance, and survival in different species is crucial to understanding the impacts of climate change on forest ecosystems. Here, we investigate the responses of two co-occurring pines (Pinus nigra and Pinus sylvestris to interannual drought in east-central Spain by dendrochronological and wood anatomical features integrated with isotopic ratios of carbon (δ13C and oxygen (δ18O in tree rings. Our results showed that drought induces both species to allocate less carbon to build tracheid cell-walls but increases tracheid lumen diameters, particularly in the transition wood between early and latewood, potentially maximizing hydraulic conductivity but reducing resistance to embolism at a critical phase during the growing season. The thicker cell-wall-to-lumen ratio in P. nigra could imply that its xylem may be more resistant to bending stress and drought-induced cavitation than P. sylvestris. In contrast, the higher intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE in P. sylvestris suggests that it relies more on a water-saving strategy. Our results suggest that narrower cell-walls and reduced growth under drought are not necessarily linked to increased iWUE. At our site P. nigra showed a higher growth plasticity, grew faster and was more competitive than P. sylvestris. In the long term, these sustained differences in iWUE and anatomical characters could affect forest species performance and composition, particularly under increased drought stress.

  5. Influence of water deficit on the molecular responses of Pinus contorta × Pinus banksiana mature trees to infection by the mountain pine beetle fungal associate, Grosmannia clavigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; González, Leonardo M Galindo; Meents, Miranda J; El Kayal, Walid; Cooke, Barry J; Linsky, Jean; Lusebrink, Inka; Cooke, Janice E K

    2014-11-01

    Conifers exhibit a number of constitutive and induced mechanisms to defend against attack by pests and pathogens such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) and their fungal associates. Ecological studies have demonstrated that stressed trees are more susceptible to attack by mountain pine beetle than their healthy counterparts. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that water deficit affects constitutive and induced responses of mature lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrids (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Wats. × Pinus banksiana Lamb.) to inoculation with the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer and Wingfield. The degree of stress induced by the imposed water-deficit treatment was sufficient to reduce photosynthesis. Grosmannia clavigera-induced lesions exhibited significantly reduced dimensions in water-deficit trees relative to well-watered trees at 5 weeks after inoculation. Treatment-associated cellular-level changes in secondary phloem were also observed. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze transcript abundance profiles of 18 genes belonging to four families classically associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses: aquaporins (AQPs), dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB), terpene synthases (TPSs) and chitinases (CHIs). Transcript abundance profiles of a TIP2 AQP and a TINY-like DREB decreased significantly in fungus-inoculated trees, but not in response to water deficit. One TPS, Pcb(+)-3-carene synthase, and the Class II CHIs PcbCHI2.1 and PcbCHI2.2 showed increased expression under water-deficit conditions in the absence of fungal inoculation, while another TPS, Pcb(E)-β-farnesene synthase-like, and two CHIs, PcbCHI1.1 and PcbCHI4.1, showed attenuated expression under water-deficit conditions in the presence of fungal inoculation. The effects were observed both locally and systemically. These results demonstrate

  6. Natural regeneration in Iberian pines: A review of dynamic processes and proposals for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Calama

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Designing adequate silvicultural systems for natural regeneration of a forest species requires sound knowledge of the underlying ecological subprocesses: flowering and fruiting, seed dispersal and predation, seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling survival. The main objective of the present work is to carry out a review on the current knowledge about the different subprocesses governing the regeneration process for the main Iberian Pinus species, in order to propose scientifically based management schedules. Area of study: The review focuses on the five main native Pinus species within their most representative areas in the Iberian Peninsula: Pinus nigra in Cuenca mountains, Pinus sylvestris in Sierra de Guadarrama, Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea in the Northern Plateau and Pinus halepensis in Catalonia Material and methods: Firstly, currently available information on spatiotemporal dynamics and influential factors is introduced for each subprocess and species. Secondly, current regeneration strategies are characterized and the main bottlenecks are identified. Finally, alternative silvicultural practices proposed on the light of the previous information are presented. Main results: Different climate-mediated bottlenecks have been identified to limit natural regeneration of the Iberian pine species, with seed predation and initial seedling survival among the most influential. New approaches focusing on more gradual regeneration fellings, extended rotation periods, prevent big gaps and program fellings on mast years are presented. Research highlights: Natural regeneration of the studied species exhibit an intermittent temporal pattern, which should be aggravated under drier scenarios. More flexible management schedules should fulfil these limitations.

  7. Natural regeneration in Iberian pines: A review of dynamic processes and proposals for management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calama, R.; Manso, R.; Lucas-Borja, M.E.; Espelta, J.M.; Piqué, M.; Bravo, F.; Peso, C. del; Pardos, M.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: Designing adequate silvicultural systems for natural regeneration of a forest species requires sound knowledge of the underlying ecological subprocesses: flowering and fruiting, seed dispersal and predation, seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling survival. The main objective of the present work is to carry out a review on the current knowledge about the different subprocesses governing the regeneration process for the main Iberian Pinus species, in order to propose scientifically based management schedules. Area of study: The review focuses on the five main native Pinus species within their most representative areas in the Iberian Peninsula: Pinus nigra in Cuenca mountains, Pinus sylvestris in Sierra de Guadarrama, Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea in the Northern Plateau and Pinus halepensis in Catalonia Material and methods: Firstly, currently available information on spatiotemporal dynamics and influential factors is introduced for each subprocess and species. Secondly, current regeneration strategies are characterized and the main bottlenecks are identified. Finally, alternative silvicultural practices proposed on the light of the previous information are presented. Main results: Different climate-mediated bottlenecks have been identified to limit natural regeneration of the Iberian pine species, with seed predation and initial seedling survival among the most influential. New approaches focusing on more gradual regeneration fellings, extended rotation periods, prevent big gaps and program fellings on mast years are presented. Research highlights: Natural regeneration of the studied species exhibit an intermittent temporal pattern, which should be aggravated under drier scenarios. More flexible management schedules should fulfil these limitations.

  8. Natural regeneration in Iberian pines: A review of dynamic processes and proposals for management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calama, R.; Manso, R.; Lucas-Borja, M.E.; Espelta, J.M.; Piqué, M.; Bravo, F.; Peso, C. del; Pardos, M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: Designing adequate silvicultural systems for natural regeneration of a forest species requires sound knowledge of the underlying ecological subprocesses: flowering and fruiting, seed dispersal and predation, seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling survival. The main objective of the present work is to carry out a review on the current knowledge about the different subprocesses governing the regeneration process for the main Iberian Pinus species, in order to propose scientifically based management schedules. Area of study: The review focuses on the five main native Pinus species within their most representative areas in the Iberian Peninsula: Pinus nigra in Cuenca mountains, Pinus sylvestris in Sierra de Guadarrama, Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea in the Northern Plateau and Pinus halepensis in Catalonia Material and methods: Firstly, currently available information on spatiotemporal dynamics and influential factors is introduced for each subprocess and species. Secondly, current regeneration strategies are characterized and the main bottlenecks are identified. Finally, alternative silvicultural practices proposed on the light of the previous information are presented. Main results: Different climate-mediated bottlenecks have been identified to limit natural regeneration of the Iberian pine species, with seed predation and initial seedling survival among the most influential. New approaches focusing on more gradual regeneration fellings, extended rotation periods, prevent big gaps and program fellings on mast years are presented. Research highlights: Natural regeneration of the studied species exhibit an intermittent temporal pattern, which should be aggravated under drier scenarios. More flexible management schedules should fulfil these limitations.

  9. Point of no return: experimental determination of the lethal hydraulic threshold during drought for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, W.; Yu, K.; Wilson, L. A.; Will, R.; Anderegg, W.; Adams, H. D.

    2017-12-01

    The strength of the terrestrial carbon sink—dominated by forests—remains one of the greatest uncertainties in climate change modelling. How forests will respond to increased variability in temperature and precipitation is poorly understood, and experimental study to better inform global vegetation models in this area is needed. Necessary for achieving­­­­ this goal is an understanding of how increased temperatures and drought will affect landscape level distributions of plant species. Quantifying physiological thresholds representing a point of no return from drought stress, including thresholds in hydraulic function, is critical to this end. Recent theoretical, observational, and modelling research has converged upon a threshold of 60 percent loss of hydraulic conductivity at mortality (PLClethal). However, direct experimental determination of lethal points in conductivity and cavitation during drought is lacking. We quantified thresholds in hydraulic function in Loblolly pine, Pinus taeda, a commercially important timber species. In a greenhouse experiment, we exposed saplings (n = 96 total) to drought and rewatered treatment groups at variable levels of increasing water stress determined by pre-selected targets in pre-dawn water potential. Treatments also included a watered control with no drought, and drought with no rewatering. We measured physiological responses to water stress, including hydraulic conductivity, native PLC, water potential, foliar color, canopy die-back, and dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence. Following the rewatering treatment, we observed saplings for at least two months to determine which survived and which died. Using these data we calculated lethal physiological thresholds in water potential, directly measured PLC, and PLC inferred from water potential using a hydraulic vulnerability curve. We found that PLClethal inferred from water potential agreed with the 60% threshold suggested by previous research. However, directly

  10. Growth and yield of mixed versus pure stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) analysed along a productivity gradient through Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pretzsch, H.; Ammer, C.; Barbeito, I.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Ouden, den J.; Verheyen, K.

    2015-01-01

    Mixing of complementary tree species may increase stand productivity, mitigate the effects of drought and other risks, and pave the way to forest production systems which may be more resource-use efficient and stable in the face of climate change. However, systematic empirical studies on mixing

  11. Isolation and characterization of essential oils from the cones of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.), European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zule, Janja; Tišler, Vesna; Žurej, Andrej; Torelli, Niko

    2003-01-01

    Les dernières évolutions de l’Internet se sont traduites par l’émergence de nouvelles applications distribuées et par la multiplication des technologies réseaux (sans fils, mobiles. . . ) ainsi que des services offerts par les opérateurs sur de nouveaux types de terminaux (portable, PDA. . . ). L’enjeu socio économique majeur de ces avancées est le futur Internet ambiant, à la fois ubiquitaire et intelligent, au travers duquel l’utilisateur pourra, quelle que soit sa localisation ...

  12. Expression and beta-glucan binding properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) antimicrobial protein (Sp-AMP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sooriyaarachchi, Sanjeewani; Jaber, Emad; Covarrubias, Adrian Suárez

    2011-01-01

    . Furthermore, the genes were up-regulated after treatment with salicylic acid and an ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid, but neither methyl jasmonate nor H(2)O(2) induced expression, indicating that Sp-AMP gene expression is independent of the jasmonic acid signaling pathways. The c...

  13. Wood anatomical parameters of lowland European oak and Scots pine as proxies for climate reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanzategui, Daniel; Heußner, Karl-Uwe; Wazny, Tomasz; Helle, Gerd; Heinrich, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    Tree-ring based temperature reconstructions from the temperate lowlands worldwide are largely missing due to diffuse climate signals so far found in tree-ring widths. This motivated us to concentrate our efforts on the wood anatomies of two common European tree species, the European oak (Quercus robur) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We combined core samples of living trees with archaeological wood from northern Germany and Poland. We measured approx. 46,000 earlywood oak vessels of 34 trees covering the period AD 1500 to 2016 and approx. 7.5 million pine tracheid cells of 41 trees covering the period AD 1300 to 2010. First climate growth analyses indicate that both oak earlywood vessel and pine tracheid parameters contain climate signals which are different and more significant than those found in tree-ring widths. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed at EGU for the first time.

  14. Are we over-managing longleaf pine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Kush; Rebecca J. Barlow; John C. Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) is not loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) or slash pine (Pinus elliottii L.). There is the need for a paradigmatic shift in our thinking about longleaf pine. All too often we think of longleaf as an intolerant species, slow-grower, difficult to regenerate, and yet it dominated the pre...

  15. FlorNExT®, a cloud computing application to estimate growth and yield of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. stands in Northeastern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pérez-Rodríguez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To introduce and describe FlorNExT®, a free cloud computing application to estimate growth and yield of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. even-aged stands in the Northeast of Portugal (NE Portugal. Area of study: NE Portugal. Material and methods: FlorNExT® implements a dynamic growth and yield modelling framework which integrates transition functions for dominant height (site index curves and basal area, as well as output functions for tree and stand volume, biomass, and carbon content. Main results: FlorNExT® is freely available from any device with an Internet connection at: http://flornext.esa.ipb.pt/. Research highlights: This application has been designed to make it possible for any stakeholder to easily estimate standing volume, biomass, and carbon content in maritime pine stands from stand data, as well as to estimate growth and yield based on four stand variables: age, density, dominant height, and basal area. FlorNExT® allows planning thinning treatments. FlorNExT® is a fundamental tool to support forest mobilization at local and regional scales in NE Portugal. Keywords: forest management; maritime pine; forest modelling; knowledge transfer tool.

  16. Carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest floor and surface soil under different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, E.; Oral, H. V.; Akburak, S.; Makineci, E.; Yilmaz, E.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of study: To determine if plantations consisting of different geographic origins of the Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) could have altered C and N stocks in the forest floor and surface soils. Area of study: Forest floor and mineral soil C and N stocks were measured in four adjacent plantations of different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Gironde, Toulon, Corsica and Spain) and adjacent primary native Sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.) at Burunsuz region in Belgrad Forest where is located in the Istanbul province in the Marmara geographical region between 41° 09’-41° 12’ N latitude and 28° 54’-29° 00’ E longitude in Turkey. Material and methods: Plots were compared as common garden experiments without replications. 15 surface soil (0-10 cm) and 15 forest floor samples were taken from each Maritime pine origins and adjacent native Sessile oak forest. C and N contents were determined on LECO Truspec 2000 CN analyzer. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Research highlights: Forest floor carbon mass, nitrogen concentration and nitrogen mass of forest floor showed a significant difference among origins. Soil carbon mass and nitrogen mass did not significantly differ among investigated plots. (Author)

  17. Carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest floor and surface soil under different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton. plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ozdemir

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study : To determine if plantations consisting of different geographic origins of the Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton. could have altered C and N stocks in the forest floor and surface soils.Area of study : Forest floor and mineral soil C and N stocks were measured in four adjacent plantations of different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Gironde, Toulon, Corsica and Spain and adjacent primary native Sessile oak (Quercus petraea L. at Burunsuz region in Belgrad Forest where is located in the Istanbul province in the Marmara geographical region between 41°09' -41°12' N latitude and 28°54' - 29°00' E longitude in Turkey.Material and Methods : Plots were compared as common garden experiments without replications. 15 surface soil (0-10 cm and 15 forest floor samples were taken from each Maritime pine origins and adjacent native Sessile oak forest. C and N contents were determined on LECO Truspec 2000 CN analyzer. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA.Research highlights : Forest floor carbon mass, nitrogen concentration and nitrogen mass of forest floor showed a significant difference among origins. Soil carbon mass and nitrogen mass did not significantly differ among investigated plots.Keywords: carbon sequestration; C/N ratio; decomposition; exotic; tree provenance.

  18. Phytotoxicities of fluoranthene and phenanthrene deposited on needle surfaces of the evergreen conifer, Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Nakatani, Nobutake; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been widely studied with respect to their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on animals and human cells. Phenanthrene (PHE) and fluoranthene (FLU) effects on the needle photosynthetic traits of 2-year-old Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et. Zucc.) seedlings were investigated. Three months after fumigation of foliage with solutions containing these PAHs (10 μM each), FLU had negative effects on net photosynthesis at near-saturating irradiance, stomatal conductance, initial chlorophyll fluorescence, and the contents of total chlorophyll, magnesium, and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco) of current-year needles. PHE had similar negative effects to FLU but in lesser magnitude. The effects of the PAHs were mitigated by the addition of an OH-radical scavenger (mannitol) into the PAH solutions. PAHs deposited on the surface of pine needles may induce the generation of reactive oxygen species in the photosynthetic apparatus, a manner closely resembling the action of the herbicide paraquat. - Fluoranthene and phenanthrene caused negative effects on the needles of Japanese red pine

  19. Should ponderosa pine be planted on lodgepole pine sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.H. Cochran

    1984-01-01

    Repeated radiation frosts caused no apparent harm to the majority of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) seedlings planted on a pumice flat in south-central Oregon. For most but not all of the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.) seedlings planted with the lodgepole pine, however, damage from radiation frost resulted in...

  20. Effect of dietary protein level and quebracho tannin on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponderosa pine trees occupy over 15 million hectares of rangeland in western North America. Pregnant cows often consume pine needles (PN), and subsequently abort. The protein-to-energy ratio may be important in the ability of cattle to tolerate dietary terpenes. Tannins often co-occur with terpenes ...

  1. A comparison of postburn woodpecker foraging use of white fir (Abies concolor) and Jeffrey Pine (Pinus jeffreyi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry L. Farris; Steve Zack

    2008-01-01

    We examined the temporal patterns of the structural decay, insect infestation and woodpecker foraging patterns on white-fir and yellow pine following a prescribed burn in Lassen National Park, CA. Our objectives were to: 1) describe how pine and fir differ in their decay patterns and insect activity, and 2) determine how these differences reflect woodpecker foraging...

  2. Exploring climate niches of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) haplotypes in the western United States: Implications for evolutionary history and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas; Means, Robert E.; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa) and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum) varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM), ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated with

  3. Exploring Climate Niches of Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) Haplotypes in the Western United States: Implications for Evolutionary History and Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas J; Means, Robert E; Potter, Kevin M; Hipkins, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa) and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum) varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM), ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated with discrete

  4. Exploring Climate Niches of Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson Haplotypes in the Western United States: Implications for Evolutionary History and Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J Shinneman

    Full Text Available Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM, ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated

  5. Nitrogen Fertilizer Factory Effects on the Amino Acid and Nitrogen Content in the Needles of Scots Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenija Kupsinskiene

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to evaluate the content of amino acids in the needles of Pinus sylvestris growing in the area affected by a nitrogen fertilizer factory and to compare them with other parameters of needles, trees, and sites. Three young-age stands of Scots pine were selected at a distance of 0.5 km, 5 km, and 17 km from the factory. Examination of the current-year needles in winter of the year 2000 revealed significant (p

  6. Taxonomic Identification of Mediterranean Pines and Their Hybrids Based on the High Resolution Melting (HRM) and trnL Approaches: From Cytoplasmic Inheritance to Timber Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Aravanopoulos, Filippos; Madesis, Panagiotis; Pasentsis, Konstantinos; Bosmali, Irene; Ouzounis, Christos; Tsaftaris, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    Fast and accurate detection of plant species and their hybrids using molecular tools will facilitate the assessment and monitoring of local biodiversity in an era of climate and environmental change. Herein, we evaluate the utility of the plastid trnL marker for species identification applied to Mediterranean pines (Pinus spp.). Our results indicate that trnL is a very sensitive marker for delimiting species biodiversity. Furthermore, High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis was exploited as a molecular fingerprint for fast and accurate discrimination of Pinus spp. DNA sequence variants. The trnL approach and the HRM analyses were extended to wood samples of two species (Pinus nigra and Pinus sylvestris) with excellent results, congruent to those obtained using leaf tissue. Both analyses demonstrate that hybrids from the P. brutia (maternal parent) × P. halepensis (paternal parent) cross, exhibit the P. halepensis profile, confirming paternal plastid inheritance in Group Halepensis pines. Our study indicates that a single one-step reaction method and DNA marker are sufficient for the identification of Mediterranean pines, their hybrids and the origin of pine wood. Furthermore, our results underline the potential for certain DNA regions to be used as novel biological information markers combined with existing morphological characters and suggest a relatively reliable and open taxonomic system that can link DNA variation to phenotype-based species or hybrid assignment status and direct taxa identification from recalcitrant tissues such as wood samples. PMID:23577179

  7. The Growth of Bosnian Pine (Pinus hedreichii Christ. at Tree-Line Locations from Kosovo and its Response to Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Bojaxhi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Pinus heldreichii Christ. is a sub-endemic species occurring at tree-line locations in Kosovo and covering an area of 2500 ha. In high elevation sites radial growth is mainly controlled by low temperatures. The main purpose of this study was the analysis of radial growth of P. heldreichii and its response to local climate conditions. Materials and Methods: Research sites comprise of three high elevation stands of P. heldreichii with specific site conditions. Core samples were collected from 98 healthy dominant and co-dominant trees at breast height using increment borer. They were prepared and cross-dated using standard dendrochronological methods, while tree-ring widths were measured to the nearest 0.001 mm using the TSAP software. The ARSTAN program was used to standardize the tree-ring widths and to calculate dendrochronological statistical parameters. The growth-climate relationship was investigated using bootstrapped correlation function analysing the residual chronologies of each sampled site as a dependent variable and the climatic data from May of the (n-1 year up to the October of the n year for the common period 1951-2013 as an independent variable. Results: The length of Bosnian pine chronologies ranged from 175 to 541 years. All chronologies had high values of first-order autocorrelation indicating that radial growth of P. heldreichii is affected by the climate conditions of the previous growing year. Koritnik chronology had the highest values of the mean sensitivity due to the influence of drought stress. This conclusion is also supported by the result of growth-climate relationship where radial growth is negatively correlated with June temperatures and positively associated with July and August precipitation. We found that radial growth of young trees from Koritnik site is limited by the combined effect of temperatures and summer drought stress. In high elevation sites, temperature is expected to control the

  8. Ascensão capilar de água em substratos de coco e de pinus Capillary water rise in coconut and pine bark substrates

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    Carlos Vinicius Garcia Barreto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso da irrigação por capilaridade na produção de mudas em viveiros pode trazer vantagens ao uso de água e sua utilização adequada requer o conhecimento da capacidade de ascensão de água no meio de crescimento das raízes, atributo pouco estudado. Para avaliar esta condição fundamental, este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a ascensão de água em substratos comerciais de coco e pinus, em dois padrões de tamanho de partículas e em duas condições de umidade, para indicar aquele que possua as melhores características físicas para aplicação na irrigação por capilaridade. Utilizou-se o método de ascensão capilar, com colunas desmontáveis de anéis preenchidas com substratos, avaliando-se os seguintes tempos de contato do fundo da coluna com a lâmina de água: 0,25, 0,5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 e 24 horas, com 10 repetições por tempo testado. Pelos resultados, observou-se que a maior ascensão capilar acumulada em 24 horas de ensaio foi obtida para os substratos de textura fina de coco e de pinus. Além disso, a hidrofobia do substrato de coco seco recomenda que as irrigações nesse material devem ter frequências maiores que substratos de pinus, evitando seu secamento. O substrato de pinus, por não apresentar esse comportamento, deve ter turnos de rega mais espaçados, principalmente sob textura fina. Devido à sua maior retenção de água e capacidade de elevação de água quando umedecido, o substrato fino de coco é mais adequado à irrigação por capilaridade em recipientes como tubetes.The capillary irrigation in nursery production could give advantages in water use and its correct application demands knowledge about capillary water rise through root growth media, an attribute poorly studied. This research had as objective to evaluate water capillary rise in commercial pine and coconut substrates for two particle size distributions and two moisture conditions, to indicate the substrate with the best physical

  9. The relative contributions of disease and insects in the decline of a long-lived tree: a stochastic demographic model of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Erik S; Jackson, Jenell I.; van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Beck, Jennifer S.; Murray, Michael P.; Sahara, E. April

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens and insect pests have become increasingly important drivers of tree mortality in forested ecosystems. Unfortunately, understanding the relative contributions of multiple mortality agents to the population decline of trees is difficult, because it requires frequent measures of tree survival, growth, and recruitment, as well as the incidence of mortality agents. We present a population model of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), a high-elevation tree undergoing rapid decline in western North America. The loss of whitebark pine is thought to be primarily due to an invasive pathogen (white pine blister rust; Cronartium ribicola) and a native insect (mountain pine beetle; Dendroctonus ponderosae). We utilized seven plots in Crater Lake National Park (Oregon, USA) where 1220 trees were surveyed for health and the presence of blister rust and beetle activity annually from 2003–2014, except 2008. We constructed size-based projection matrices for nine years and calculated the deterministic growth rate (λ) using an average matrix and the stochastic growth rate (λs) by simulation for whitebark pine in our study population. We then assessed the roles of blister rust and beetles by calculating λ and λsusing matrices in which we removed trees with blister rust and, separately, trees with beetles. We also conducted life-table response experiments (LTRE) to determine which demographic changes contributed most to differences in λ between ambient conditions and the two other scenarios. The model suggests that whitebark pine in our plots are currently declining 1.1% per year (λ = 0.9888, λs = 0.9899). Removing blister rust from the models resulted in almost no increase in growth (λ = 0.9916, λs = 0.9930), while removing beetles resulted in a larger increase in growth (λ = 1.0028, λs = 1.0045). The LTRE demonstrated that reductions in stasis of the three largest size classes due to beetles contributed most to the smaller λ in the ambient condition

  10. Alternatives for composting Caribbean Pine sawdust (Pinus caribaea in the wood industry Refocosta S. A., in the municipality of Villanueva, Casanare, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Bibiana Sarmiento Oviedo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the day-to-day accumulation of sawdust, a byproduct of the milling process of the Pinus caribaea species in the Wood industry of Refocosta, a composting process was tested in three treatments with different nitrogen sources (urea, industrial palm oil sludge, cattle dung and it was compared with composted pine bark and sawdust exposed to the weather. To assess possible inhibition of the substrates, the fresh biomass and germination of Zea maize and Acacia mangium was measured. Seedlings of Pinus caribaea, eucalyptus Pellita and Acacia Mangium were transplanted, and two months later the stem length, strength and survival were assessed. There were differences between maize and Acacia mangium and a lower germination and biomass in the substrates, sawdust and bark exposed to the weather and without composting were observed. The vigor and stem length were significantly better in composted bark, substrate which is currently used in the vivarium of Refocosta to produce seedlings; the sawdust-based substrates showed marked deficits (red colors, necrosis and stunting.

  11. Growth response and nutrient uptake of blue pine (Pinus wallichiana seedlings inoculated with rhizosphere microorganisms under temperate nursery conditions

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    M.A. Ahangar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial inoculants (Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescens,Laccaria laccata inoculated either individually or in combinationsignificantly improved the growth and biomass of blue pine seedlings. The ECM fungus Laccaria laccata, when inoculated individually, showed significantly higher plant growth, followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum. The combined inoculation of rhizosphere microorganisms showed synergistic growth promoting action and proved superior in enhancing the growth of blue pine than individual inoculation. Co-inoculation of L. laccata with P. fluorescens resulted in higher ectomycorrhizal root colonization. Uptake of nutrients (N, P, K was significantly improved by microbial inoculants, tested individually or in combination. Combined inoculation of L. laccata with T. harzianum and P. fluorescens significantly increased in N, P and K contents in blue pine seedlings as compared to control. Acid phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere of blue pine seedlings was also enhanced by these microorganisms. L. laccata exhibited higher acid phosphatase activity followed by P. fluorescens.

  12. Feeding response of Ips paraconfusus to phloem and phloem metabolites of Heterobasidion annosum-inoculated ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNee, William R; Bonello, Pierluigi; Storer, Andrew J; Wood, David L; Gordon, Thomas R

    2003-05-01

    In studies of feeding by the bark beetle, Ips paraconfusus, two pine stilbenes (pinosylvin and pinosylvin methyl ether), ferulic acid glucoside, and enantiomers of the four most common sugars present in ponderosa pine phloem (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and raffinose) did not stimulate or reduce male feeding when assayed on wet alpha-cellulose with or without stimulatory phloem extractives present. When allowed to feed on wet alpha-cellulose containing sequential extracts (hexane, methanol, and water) of ponderosa pine phloem, methanol and water extractives stimulated feeding, but hexane extractives did not. Males confined in wet alpha-cellulose containing aqueous or organic extracts of culture broths derived from phloem tissue and containing the root pathogen. Heterobasidion annosum, ingested less substrate than beetles confined to control preparations. In an assay using logs from uninoculated ponderosa pines, the mean lengths of phloem in the digestive tracts increased as time spent feeding increased. Males confined to the phloem of basal logs cut from ponderosa pines artificially inoculated with H. annosum ingested significantly less phloem than beetles in logs cut from trees that were (combined) mock-inoculated or uninoculated and did not contain the pathogen. However, individual pathogen-containing treatments were not significantly different from uninoculated controls. It was concluded that altered feeding rates are not a major factor which may explain why diseased ponderosa pines are colonized by I. paraconfusus.

  13. Conservation and divergence of gene expression plasticity following c. 140 million years of evolution in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and interior spruce (Picea glauca×Picea engelmannii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Sam; Hodgins, Kathryn A; Suren, Haktan; Nurkowski, Kristin A; Rieseberg, Loren H; Holliday, Jason A; Aitken, Sally N

    2014-07-01

    Species respond to environmental stress through a combination of genetic adaptation and phenotypic plasticity, both of which may be important for survival in the face of climatic change. By characterizing the molecular basis of plastic responses and comparing patterns among species, it is possible to identify how such traits evolve. Here, we used de novo transcriptome assembly and RNAseq to explore how patterns of gene expression differ in response to temperature, moisture, and light regime treatments in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and interior spruce (a natural hybrid population of Picea glauca and Picea engelmannii). We found wide evidence for an effect of treatment on expression within each species, with 6413 and 11,658 differentially expressed genes identified in spruce and pine, respectively. Comparing patterns of expression among these species, we found that 74% of all orthologs with differential expression had a pattern that was conserved in both species, despite 140 million yr of evolution. We also found that the specific treatments driving expression patterns differed between genes with conserved versus diverged patterns of expression. We conclude that natural selection has probably played a role in shaping plastic responses to environment in these species. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. FlorNExT®, a cloud computing application to estimate growth and yield of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stands in Northeastern Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiro, S.; Rua, J.; Tomé, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. To introduce and describe FlorNExT®, a free cloud computing application to estimate growth and yield of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) even-aged stands in the Northeast of Portugal (NE Portugal). Area of study: NE Portugal. Material and methods: FlorNExT® implements a dynamic growth and yield modelling framework which integrates transition functions for dominant height (site index curves) and basal area, as well as output functions for tree and stand volume, biomass, and carbon content. Main results: FlorNExT® is freely available from any device with an Internet connection at: http://flornext.esa.ipb.pt/. Research highlights: This application has been designed to make it possible for any stakeholder to easily estimate standing volume, biomass, and carbon content in maritime pine stands from stand data, as well as to estimate growth and yield based on four stand variables: age, density, dominant height, and basal area. FlorNExT® allows planning thinning treatments. FlorNExT® is a fundamental tool to support forest mobilization at local and regional scales in NE Portugal. (Author)

  15. Profiling secondary metabolites of needles of ozone-fumigated white pine (Pinus strobus) clones by thermally assisted hydrolysis/methylation GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadkami, F; Helleur, R J; Cox, R M

    2007-07-01

    Plant secondary metabolites have an important role in defense responses against herbivores and pathogens, and as a chemical barrier to elevated levels of harmful air pollutants. This study involves the rapid chemical profiling of phenolic and diterpene resin acids in needles of two (ozone-tolerant and ozone-sensitive) white pine (Pinus strobus) clones, fumigated with different ozone levels (control, and daily events peaking at 80 and 200 ppb) for 40 days. The phenolic and resin acids were measured using thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Short-term fumigation affected the levels of two phenolic acids, i.e., 3-hydroxybenzoic and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acids, in that both showed a substantial decrease in concentration with increased ozone dose. The decrease in concentration of these THM products may be caused by inhibition of the plant's shikimate biochemical pathway caused by ozone exposure. The combined occurrence of these two ozone-sensitive indicators has a role in biomonitoring of ozone levels and its impact on forest productivity. In addition, chromatographic profile differences in the major diterpene resin acid components were observed between ozone-tolerant and ozone-sensitive clones. The resin acids anticopalic, 3-oxoanticopalic, 3beta-hydroxyanticopalic, and 3,4-cycloanticopalic acids were present in the ozone-sensitive pine; however, only anticopalic acid was present in the ozone-tolerant clone. This phenotypic variation in resin acid composition may be useful in distinguishing populations that are differentially adapted to air pollutants.

  16. Soil water stress affects both cuticular wax content and cuticle-related gene expression in young saplings of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Provost, Grégoire; Domergue, Frédéric; Lalanne, Céline; Ramos Campos, Patricio; Grosbois, Antoine; Bert, Didier; Meredieu, Céline; Danjon, Frédéric; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2013-07-01

    The cuticle is a hydrophobic barrier located at the aerial surface of all terrestrial plants. Recent studies performed on model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, have suggested that the cuticle may be involved in drought stress adaptation, preventing non-stomatal water loss. Although forest trees will face more intense drought stresses (in duration and intensity) with global warming, very few studies on the role of the cuticle in drought stress adaptation in these long-lived organisms have been so far reported. This aspect was investigated in a conifer, maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), in a factorial design with two genetic units (two half-sib families with different growth rates) and two treatments (irrigated vs non-irrigated), in field conditions. Saplings were grown in an open-sided greenhouse and half were irrigated three times per week for two growing seasons. Needles were sampled three times per year for cuticular wax (composition and content) and transcriptome (of 11 genes involved in cuticle biosynthesis) analysis. Non-irrigated saplings (i) had a higher cuticular wax content than irrigated saplings and (ii) overexpressed most of the genes studied. Both these trends were more marked in the faster growing family. The higher cuticular wax content observed in the non-irrigated treatment associated with strong modifications in products from the decarbonylation pathway suggest that cuticular wax may be involved in drought stress adaptation in maritime pine. This study provides also a set of promising candidate genes for future forward genetic studies in conifers.

  17. Soil microbiological properties and enzymatic activities of long-term post-fire recovery in dry and semiarid Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedo, J.; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Wic, C.; Andrés-Abellán, M.; de Las Heras, J.

    2015-02-01

    Wildfires affecting forest ecosystems and post-fire silvicultural treatments may cause considerable changes in soil properties. The capacity of different microbial groups to recolonise soil after disturbances is crucial for proper soil functioning. The aim of this work was to investigate some microbial soil properties and enzyme activities in semiarid and dry Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands. Different plots affected by a wildfire event 17 years ago without or with post-fire silvicultural treatments 5 years after the fire event were selected. A mature Aleppo pine stand, unaffected by wildfire and not thinned was used as a control. Physicochemical soil properties (soil texture, pH, carbonates, organic matter, electrical conductivity, total N and P), soil enzymes (urease, phosphatase, β-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities), soil respiration and soil microbial biomass carbon were analysed in the selected forests areas and plots. The main finding was that long time after this fire event produces no differences in the microbiological soil properties and enzyme activities of soil after comparing burned and thinned, burned and not thinned, and mature plots. Moreover, significant site variation was generally seen in soil enzyme activities and microbiological parameters. We conclude that total vegetation recovery normalises post-fire soil microbial parameters, and that wildfire and post-fire silvicultural treatments are not significant factors affecting soil properties after 17 years.

  18. Contributions of dynamic environmental signals during life-cycle transitions to early life-history traits in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Tongli; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.

    2016-05-01

    Environmental signals are important triggers in the life-cycle transitions and play a crucial role in the life-history evolution. Yet very little is known about the leading ecological factors contributing to the variations of life-history traits in perennial plants. This paper explores both the causes and consequences for the evolution of life-history traits (i.e., seed dormancy and size) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) across British Columbia (B.C.), Canada. We selected 83 logepole pine populations covering 22 ecosystem zones of B.C. and through their geographic coordinate, 197 climatic variables were generated accordingly for the reference (1961-1990) and future (2041-2070) periods. We found that dynamic climatic variables rather than constant geographic variables are the true environmental driving forces in seed dormancy and size variations and thus provide reliable predictors in response to global climate change. Evapotranspiration and precipitation in the plant-to-seed chronology are the most critical climate variables for seed dormancy and size variations, respectively. Hence, we predicted that levels of seed dormancy in lodgepole pine would increase across large tracts of B.C. in 2050s. Winter-chilling is able to increase the magnitude of life-history plasticity and lower the bet-hedge strategy in the seed-to-plant transition; however, winter-chilling is likely to be insufficient in the north of 49° N in 2050s, which may delay germination while unfavorable conditions during dry summers may result in adverse consequences in the survival of seedlings owing to extended germination span. These findings provide useful information to studies related to assessments of seed transfer and tree adaptation.

  19. Effect of Deep Drying and Torrefaction Temperature on Proximate, Ultimate Composition, and Heating Value of 2-mm Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Grind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar

    2016-06-22

    Deep drying and torrefaction compose a thermal pretreatment method where biomass is heated in the temperature range of 150-300 °C in an inert or reduced environment. The process parameters, like torrefaction temperature and residence time, have a significant impact on the proximate, ultimate, and energy properties. In this study, torrefaction experiments were conducted on 2-mm ground lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta ) using a thermogravimetric analyzer. Both deep drying and torrefaction temperature (160-270 °C) and time (15-120 min) were selected. Torrefied samples were analyzed for the proximate, ultimate, and higher heating value. The results indicate that moisture content decreases with increases in torrefaction temperature and time, where at 270 °C and 120 min, the moisture content is found to be 1.15% (w.b.). Volatile content in the lodgepole pine decreased from about 80% to about 45%, and ash content increased from 0.77% to about 1.91% at 270 °C and 120 min. The hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur content decreased to 3%, 28.24%, and 0.01%, whereas the carbon content and higher heating value increased to 68.86% and 23.67 MJ/kg at 270 °C and 120 min. Elemental ratio of hydrogen to carbon and oxygen to carbon (H/C and O/C) calculated at 270 °C and a 120-min residence time were about 0.56 and 0.47. Based on this study, it can be concluded that higher torrefaction temperatures ≥230 °C and residence time ≥15 min influence the proximate, ultimate, and energy properties of ground lodgepole pine.

  20. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen accumulation on coal mine spoils reclaimed with maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) in Agacli-Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Hakan; Makineci, Ender

    2009-08-01

    Mining operations on open coal mines in Agacli-Istanbul have resulted in the destruction of vast amounts of land. To rehabilitate these degraded lands, plantations on this area began in 1988. Twelve tree species were planted, however, the most planted tree species was maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton). This study performed on 14 sample plots randomly selected in maritime pine plantations on coal mine soil/spoils in 2005. Soil samples were taken from eight different soil layers (0-1, 1-3, 3-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 and 40-50 cm) into the soil profile. On soil samples; fine soil fraction (<2 mm), soil acidity (pH), organic carbon (C(org)) and total nitrogen (N(t)) contents were investigated, and results were compared statistically among soil layers. As a result, 17 years after plantations, total forest floor accumulation determined as 17,973.20 kg ha(-1). Total nitrogen and organic matter amounts of forest floor were 113.90 and 14,640.92 kg ha(-1) respectively. Among soil layers, the highest levels of organic carbon (1.77%) and total nitrogen (0.096%) and the lowest pH value (pH 5.38) were found in 0-1 cm soil layer, and the variation differs significantly among soil layers. Both organic carbon and total nitrogen content decreased, pH values increased from 0-1 to 5-10 cm layer. In conclusion, according to results obtained maritime pine plantations on coal mine spoils; slow accumulation and decomposition of forest floor undergo simultaneously. Depending on these changes organic carbon and total nitrogen contents increased in upper layer of soil/spoil.

  1. Effect of Deep Drying and Torrefaction Temperature on Proximate, Ultimate Composition, and Heating Value of 2-mm Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta Grind

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    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep drying and torrefaction compose a thermal pretreatment method where biomass is heated in the temperature range of 150–300 °C in an inert or reduced environment. The process parameters, like torrefaction temperature and residence time, have a significant impact on the proximate, ultimate, and energy properties. In this study, torrefaction experiments were conducted on 2-mm ground lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta using a thermogravimetric analyzer. Both deep drying and torrefaction temperature (160–270 °C and time (15–120 min were selected. Torrefied samples were analyzed for the proximate, ultimate, and higher heating value. The results indicate that moisture content decreases with increases in torrefaction temperature and time, where at 270 °C and 120 min, the moisture content is found to be 1.15% (w.b.. Volatile content in the lodgepole pine decreased from about 80% to about 45%, and ash content increased from 0.77% to about 1.91% at 270 °C and 120 min. The hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur content decreased to 3%, 28.24%, and 0.01%, whereas the carbon content and higher heating value increased to 68.86% and 23.67 MJ/kg at 270 °C and 120 min. Elemental ratio of hydrogen to carbon and oxygen to carbon (H/C and O/C calculated at 270 °C and a 120-min residence time were about 0.56 and 0.47. Based on this study, it can be concluded that higher torrefaction temperatures ≥230 °C and residence time ≥15 min influence the proximate, ultimate, and energy properties of ground lodgepole pine.

  2. A ponderosa pine-lodgepole pine spacing study in central Oregon: results after 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Seidel

    1989-01-01

    The growth response after 20 years from an initial spacing study established in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) plantation was measured in central Oregon. The study was designed to compare the growth rates of pure ponderosa pine, pure lodgepole pine, and a...

  3. Strategies for managing whitebark pine in the presence of white pine blister rust [Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond J. Hoff; Dennis E. Ferguson; Geral I. McDonald; Robert E. Keane

    2001-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is one of many North American white pine species (Pinus subgenus Strobus) susceptible to the fungal disease white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). Blister rust has caused severe mortality (often reaching nearly 100 percent) in many stands of white bark pine north of 45° latitude in western North America. The rust is slowly...

  4. Density, heating value, and composition of pellets made from lodgepole pine (Pinus concorta Douglas) infested with mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaini, P.; Kadla, J. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Wood Science; Sokansanj, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div., Bioenergy Resource and Engineering Systems; Bi, X.; Lim, C.J. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Mani, S. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Faculty of Engineering; Melin, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Delta Research Corp., Delta, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    BC is currently experiencing the largest recorded mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation in North America that has killed nearly 7 million hectares of pine. The dead trees gradually lose their suitability for dimension lumber and pulp chips due to excessive cracking and spoilage. The economic losses can be partly averted by recovering the killed wood and processing it into pellets for bioenergy and other applications. Currently, Canada exports roughly 750,000 tons of wood pellets to Europe as a fuel for heat and power. The most important physical properties of wood pellets are bulk and pellet density, heating value, moisture content, and durability. In light of the chemical and structural changes reported with MPB attack, it is important to develop engineering data on properties of MPB-affected pine for wood pellets. The objective of this study was to compare chemical composition, density, and heat value of pellets made from MPB-infested wood and to compare these properties with those measured for pellets made from uninfested wood. Chemical analysis showed minor decrease in lignin and sugar contents of pellets made from MPB wood. Pellets made from MPB-infested pine had a mean value for density larger than those made from uninfested pine but the difference was not statistically significant. Heating values of the pellets from MPB-infested wood were similar to those measured for pellets from uninfested wood. A preliminary observation of mold growth did not show any further staining or other decay fungi growth for the pellets made from MPB-infested wood. The pellets made from MPB-infested wood were found to be similar to pellets made from uninfested wood in density, heating value, and most chemical constituents. The overall conclusion was that MBP infested wood can be used to produce comparable pellets to non infested wood pellets. 37 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs.

  5. Analisis Keuntungan Pengusahaan Hutan Pinus (Pinus Merkusii Jung Et De Vriese Di KPH Pekalongan Barat (The Pine (Pinus merkusii Jung et de Vriese Forest Plantation Rentability Analysis In KPH West Pekalongan

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    Wahyu Andayani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Economical value of the pine wood and resin in the last ten years has contributed significant revenue to the KPH West Pekalongan. This research is aimed to discover the optimum rotation of the development of forest pine to gain the maximum yield for the producer. The method used in this study is the analysis of the Land Expectation Value (LEV by estimating the physical production function which developes the wood and resin at every plant rotation. The results of the analysis is that in the rotation of 20 years, the pine forest could produce maximum net yield/ net (profitability /rentability from the sales of wood and resin, by using the real interest rate of 9,75% annually as follow : (a In the third bonita is Rp. 1.546.945, 36/hectar/rotation and (b in the fourth bonita is Rp. 2.032.392,56/hectar/rotation. By shortening the rotation from 35 years to 20 years, it results in the increasing yield of the forest pine plantation in KPH West Pakalongan of 6,1 % to 8,6% more than the real yield gained by the producer at present.Key words: Rentability, rotation, bonita, resin, LEV

  6. The Growth of Bosnian Pine (Pinus hedreichii Christ.) at Tree-Line Locations from Kosovo and its Response to Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Bojaxhi, Faruk; Toromani, Elvin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Pinus heldreichii Christ. is a sub-endemic species occurring at tree-line locations in Kosovo and covering an area of 2500 ha. In high elevation sites radial growth is mainly controlled by low temperatures. The main purpose of this study was the analysis of radial growth of P. heldreichii and its response to local climate conditions. Materials and Methods: Research sites comprise of three high elevation stands of P. heldreichii with specific site conditions. Core sa...

  7. Identification of nine pathotype-specific genes conferring resistance to fusiform rust in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Amerson; C. Dana Nelson; Thomas L. Kubisiak; E.George Kuhlman; Saul Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Nearly two decades of research on the host-pathogen interaction in fusiform rust of loblolly pine is detailed. Results clearly indicate that pathotype-specific genes in the host interacting with pathogen avirulence cause resistance as defined by the non-gall phenotype under favorable environmental conditions for disease development. In particular, nine fusiform rust...

  8. Geographic variation in speed of seed germination in central Oregon ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Weber; Frank C. Sorensen

    1992-01-01

    Variation in speed of seed germination was investigated among ponderosa pine trees representing 225 locations in central Oregon. Results suggested that at least some of the geographic variation is related to the severity of summer drought. In general, germination speed was greater in locations with shod, drought-limited growing seasons. Levels of geographic variation...

  9. THERMAL AND DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF PINE WOOD IN THE TRANSVERSE DIRECTION

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    Hamiyet Şahin Kol

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the thermal conductivity and dielectric parameters for pine [Pinus sylvestris (L.] woods were determined in transverse directions for moisture conditions from oven-dry to 22 percent at a room temperature of 22 to 24 °C. Results indicate that the behaviors of thermal conductivity and dielectric parameters with moisture content and structural directions were similar. In general, the properties increased within the range studied with increasing moisture content. The radial values were similar to tangential values for both thermal conductivity and dielectric properties. The data presented here should be useful in most design problems where pine wood is subjected to microwave electric fields and heat changes.

  10. Analysis of fungal diversity impacts on pinus roxburghii seeds from pine forest and plant nurseries of azad kashmir, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishtiaq, M.; Noreen, M.; Maqbool, M.; Hussain, T.

    2015-01-01

    Pinus tree plays a pivotal role in commercial revenue generation, domestic lives of rural communities and sustaining of climate of Azad Kashmir. Pinus grows in forest as wild species but due to harsh environmental parameters it is also cultivated in nurseries for propagation and plantation. In this research, injurious impacts of mycofloral diversity on seed germination of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. in nature (forest) and nurseries were explored from different localities of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. In the analysis two protocols viz., blotter method (BM) and agar plate method (APM) were employed and 11 fungal species of nine genera were isolated. APM was found better (66a ± +-0.32) than BM (60a ± 0.09). The prevalence of different isolated taxa was as: Aspergillus niger (42.75%), Aspergillus flavus (24.0%), Botrytis sp (14.25%), Botryosphaeria sp. (17.75%), Cladosporium cladosporioides (32.75%), Drechslera sp. (5.75%), Fusarium sp. (47.50%), Penecillium sp. (7.25%), Rhizopus stolonifer (11.50%), Rhizopus oryzae (13.0%) and Mucor sp.(7.0%). Pathogenicity analysis depicted that Fusarium was the most harmful (15.75e ± 0.54), followed by Aspergillus flavus (20.50d ± 0.32), Aspergillus niger (25.75c ± 0.42) and Rhizopus sp. (35.75b ± 0.12). Different pathogenicity results of analyzed fungal species were found in different areas and it was highest in Muzaffarabad (52.0%), Kotli (45.6%), Samahni (42.4 %) and least in Bhimber (36.0 %). Radical length (mm) of Pinus roxburghii was severely affected by Aspergillus flavus (46.6a ± 0.44) in Muzaffarabad, Rhizopus sp. (44.1a ± 0.72) in Samahni, Fusarium sp.( 42.5a ± 0.28) in Kotali, Aspergillus niger (37.8a ± 0.44) in Samahni, respectively. The tested species showed that plumule length (mm) of samples was most retarded in Muzaffarbad (37.98%) and least affected in Mirpur (24.58%). The results depict that fungi do cause damage to seed germination and growth of seedlings in nature and nurseries and these findings will be useful

  11. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  12. Harmful effects of atmospheric nitrous acid on the physiological status of Scots pine trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakugawa, Hiroshi; Cape, J. Neil

    2007-01-01

    An open top chamber experiment was carried out in the summer of 2003 to examine the effect of nitrous acid (HONO) gas on the physiological status of Scots pine saplings (Pinus sylvestris). Four-year-old pine trees were exposed to two different levels of HONO gas (at ca. 2.5 ppb and 5.0 ppb) and a control (filtered air) from early evening to early morning (18:00-6:00), in duplicate open top chambers. Significant decreases in the ratios of chlorophylls a to b, an increase in the carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, and a reduction of maximum yield of PS II (F v /F m ) in pine needles were also observed after the 2 months' fumigation. Cation contents of pine needles were also decreased by the fumigation with HONO gas. The results could be explained by the harmful effects of OH radicals, generated from photolysis of HONO gas, and/or aqueous phase HONO (NO 2 - /HONO), on the photosynthetic capacity of pine needles. - Exposure to HONO affects photosynthesis and nutrient status of pine trees

  13. Mountain Pine Beetle Fecundity and Offspring Size Differ Among Lodgepole Pine and Whitebark Pine Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) is a treeline species in the central Rocky Mountains. Its occupation of high elevations previously protected whitebark pine from long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks. The mountain pine beetle, however, is currently reaching outbreaks of record magnitude in high-elevation whitebark pine. We used a factorial laboratory experiment to compare mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) life history characteristics between a typical host, ...

  14. Genetic Divergence and Signatures of Natural Selection in Marginal Populations of a Keystone, Long-Lived Conifer, Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus) from Northern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Vikram E.; Rajora, Om P.

    2014-01-01

    Marginal populations are expected to provide the frontiers for adaptation, evolution and range shifts of plant species under the anticipated climate change conditions. Marginal populations are predicted to show genetic divergence from central populations due to their isolation, and divergent natural selection and genetic drift operating therein. Marginal populations are also expected to have lower genetic diversity and effective population size (N e) and higher genetic differentiation than central populations. We tested these hypotheses using eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) as a model for keystone, long-lived widely-distributed plants. All 614 eastern white pine trees, in a complete census of two populations each of marginal old-growth, central old-growth, and central second-growth, were genotyped at 11 microsatellite loci. The central populations had significantly higher allelic and genotypic diversity, latent genetic potential (LGP) and N e than the marginal populations. However, heterozygosity and fixation index were similar between them. The marginal populations were genetically diverged from the central populations. Model testing suggested predominant north to south gene flow in the study area with curtailed gene flow to northern marginal populations. Signatures of natural selection were detected at three loci in the marginal populations; two showing divergent selection with directional change in allele frequencies, and one balancing selection. Contrary to the general belief, no significant differences were observed in genetic diversity, differentiation, LGP, and N e between old-growth and second-growth populations. Our study provides information on the dynamics of migration, genetic drift and selection in central versus marginal populations of a keystone long-lived plant species and has broad evolutionary, conservation and adaptation significance. PMID:24859159

  15. Genetic divergence and signatures of natural selection in marginal populations of a keystone, long-lived conifer, Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus) from Northern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Vikram E; Rajora, Om P

    2014-01-01

    Marginal populations are expected to provide the frontiers for adaptation, evolution and range shifts of plant species under the anticipated climate change conditions. Marginal populations are predicted to show genetic divergence from central populations due to their isolation, and divergent natural selection and genetic drift operating therein. Marginal populations are also expected to have lower genetic diversity and effective population size (Ne) and higher genetic differentiation than central populations. We tested these hypotheses using eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) as a model for keystone, long-lived widely-distributed plants. All 614 eastern white pine trees, in a complete census of two populations each of marginal old-growth, central old-growth, and central second-growth, were genotyped at 11 microsatellite loci. The central populations had significantly higher allelic and genotypic diversity, latent genetic potential (LGP) and Ne than the marginal populations. However, heterozygosity and fixation index were similar between them. The marginal populations were genetically diverged from the central populations. Model testing suggested predominant north to south gene flow in the study area with curtailed gene flow to northern marginal populations. Signatures of natural selection were detected at three loci in the marginal populations; two showing divergent selection with directional change in allele frequencies, and one balancing selection. Contrary to the general belief, no significant differences were observed in genetic diversity, differentiation, LGP, and Ne between old-growth and second-growth populations. Our study provides information on the dynamics of migration, genetic drift and selection in central versus marginal populations of a keystone long-lived plant species and has broad evolutionary, conservation and adaptation significance.

  16. Warming and the dependence of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) establishment on summer soil moisture within and above its current elevation range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Andrew B.; Castanha, Cristina; Germino, Matthew J.; Kueppers, Lara M.

    2013-01-01

    Continued changes in climate are projected to alter the geographic distributions of plant species, in part by affecting where individuals can establish from seed. We tested the hypothesis that warming promotes uphill redistribution of subalpine tree populations by reducing cold limitation at high elevation and enhancing drought stress at low elevation. We seeded limber pine (Pinus flexilis) into plots with combinations of infrared heating and water addition treatments, at sites positioned in lower subalpine forest, the treeline ecotone, and alpine tundra. In 2010, first-year seedlings were assessed for physiological performance and survival over the snow-free growing season. Seedlings emerged in midsummer, about 5–8 weeks after snowmelt. Low temperature was not observed to limit seedling photosynthesis or respiration between emergence and October, and thus experimental warming did not appear to reduce cold limitation at high elevation. Instead, gas exchange and water potential from all sites indicated a prevailing effect of summer moisture stress on photosynthesis and carbon balance. Infrared heaters raised soil growing degree days (base 5 °C, p p 3 m-3 consistently corresponded with moderate and severe indications of drought stress in midday stem water potential, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and respiration. Seedling survival was greater in watered plots than in heated plots (p = 0.01), and negatively related to soil growing degree days and duration of exposure to θ 3 m-3 in a stepwise linear regression model (p seasonal moisture stress and high soil surface temperature imposed a strong limitation to limber pine seedling establishment across a broad elevation gradient, including at treeline, and that these limitations are likely to be enhanced by further climate warming.

  17. Using fire to restore pine/hardwood ecosystems in the Southern Appalachians of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank; Barton D. Clinton; Ronald L. Hendrick; Amy E. Major

    1997-01-01

    In the Southern Appalachians, mixed pine/hardwood ecosystems occupy the most xeric sites (i.e., south/west aspect ridge sites). They are typically comprised of varying proportions of pitch pine (Pinus rigida), Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana), and/or shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) and a mixture of hardwoods, including scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea), chestnut oak (...

  18. Community analysis of preservative-treated southern pine (Pinus spp.) using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant T. Kirker; M. Lynn Prewitt; Walter J. Diehl; Susan V. Diehl

    2012-01-01

    The effects of wood preservatives on the bacterial community in southern yellow pine were assessed by the molecular method ‘terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism’ (T-RFLP). Stakes, treated with 0.25 % and 0.37 % ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ-C), 0.1 % and 0.25 % chlorothalonil (CTN), 0.1 % and 0.25 % CTN with 2 % butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and 2 % BHT...

  19. Mediation of seed provisioning in the transmission of environmental maternal effects in Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zas, R; Cendán, C; Sampedro, L

    2013-09-01

    Although maternal environmental effects are increasingly recognized as an important source of phenotypic variation with relevant impacts in evolutionary processes, their relevance in long-lived plants such as pine trees is largely unknown. Here, we used a powerful sample size and a strong quantitative genetic approach to analyse the sources of variation of early seedling performance and to identify seed mass (SM)-dependent and -independent maternal environmental effects in Maritime pine. We measured SM of 8924 individual seeds collected from 10 genotypes clonally replicated in two environments of contrasting quality (favourable and stressful), and we measured seedling growth rate and biomass allocation to roots and shoots. SM was extremely variable (up to 14-fold) and strongly determined by the maternal environment and the genotype of the mother tree. The favourable maternal environment led to larger cones, larger seeds and reduced SM variability. The maternal environment also determined the offspring phenotype, with seedlings coming from the favourable environment being 35% larger and with greater root/shoot ratio. Transgenerational plasticity appears, thus, to be a relevant source of phenotypic variation in the early performance of this pine species. Seed provisioning explained most of the effect of the maternal environment on seedling total biomass. Environmental maternal effects on seedling biomass allocation were, however, determined through SM-independent mechanisms, suggesting that other epigenetic regulation channels may be involved.

  20. The impact of seeds provenance and nursery production method on Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. seedlings quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Ivetić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed provenances and seedling production methodson quality of one and two years old seedlings of Austrian pine wereinvestigated. Seeds from three provenances of Austrian pine (Goč, Studenica and Šargan were used for seedlings production, combined with three production methods: (i the modified seedbeds (bare-root, (ii the container type Plantagrah II and (iii the container type Gočko. Provenance, as well as the combined influence of provenance and production method had minimal influence on the variability of one and two years old Austrian pine seedlings. Nevertheless, the production method had the highest influence. The production system, besides its importance in nursery, will have a high influence on seedlings growth during the first year after planting. Considering the results of this study (e.g. the highest values of the diameter, number of lateral roots, shoot and root dry weight, and quality index and the lowest value of SQ and satisfactory value of S:R, we can conclude that the seedlings produced in container type Gočko led to the highestseedlings quality, recommended especially for afforestation on hard sites.

  1. The impact of seeds provenance and nursery provenance method on Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. seedlings quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Ivetić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed provenances and seedling production methods on quality of one and two years old seedlings of Austrian pine were investigated. Seeds from three provenances of Austrian pine (Goc, Studenica and Sargan were used for seedlings production, combined with three production methods: (i the modified seedbeds (bare-root, (ii the container type Plantagrah II and (iii the container type Gocko. Provenance, as well as the combined influence of provenance and production method had minimal influence on the variability of one and two years old Austrian pine seedlings. Nevertheless, the production method had the highest influence. The production system, besides its importance in nursery, will have a high influence on seedlings growth during the first year after planting. Considering the results of this study (e.g. the highest values of the diameter, number of lateral roots, shoot and root dry weight, and quality index and the lowest value of SQ and satisfactory value of S:R, we can conclude that the seedlings produced in container type Gocko led to the highest seedlings quality, recommended especially for afforestation on hard sites.     

  2. The Differential Effects of the Blue-Stain Fungus Leptographium qinlingensis on Monoterpenes and Sesquiterpenes in the Stem of Chinese White Pine (Pinus armandi Saplings

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    Thanh Pham

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available When conifers such as Chinese white pine (Pinus armandi Fr. are attacked by insects or pathogens, they respond by increasing their content of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. In this study, we determined the effects of the blue-stain fungus Leptographium qinlingensis Tang and Chen on monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in the phloem and xylem of the stem of P. armandi saplings. We found that the total monoterpene concentrations in the phloem and xylem of the stem and the total sesquiterpene concentrations in the xylem of the stem were significantly higher in L. qinlingensis-inoculated saplings than in control (mechanically wounded saplings or untreated saplings. Additionally, the proportions of β-pinene in the xylem of the stem and limonene + β-phellandrene in the phloem and xylem of the stem were significantly higher in L. qinlingensis-inoculated saplings than in both control and untreated saplings. The proportions of individual sesquiterpenes in the phloem and xylem of the stem were significantly greater in L. qinlingensis-inoculated saplings than in untreated saplings. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that increases in total monoterpene and sesquiterpene concentrations, as well as increases in the concentrations of β-pinene and limonene + β-phellandrene, may play an important defensive role against blue-stain fungus L. qinlingensis inoculation.

  3. Effects of phosphorus availability and genetic variation of leaf terpene content and emission rate in Pinus pinaster seedlings susceptible and resistant to the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, J-S; Sampedro, L; Llusià, J; Moreira, X; Zas, R; Peñuelas, J

    2012-03-01

    We studied the effects of phosphorus fertilisation on foliar terpene concentrations and foliar volatile terpene emission rates in six half-sib families of Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings. Half of the seedlings were resistant to attack of the pine weevil Hylobius abietis L., a generalist phloem feeder, and the remaining seedlings were susceptible to this insect. We hypothesised that P stress could modify the terpene concentration in the needles and thus lead to altered terpene emission patterns relevant to plant-insect signalling. The total concentration and emission rate ranged between 5732 and 13,995 μg·g(-1) DW and between 2 and 22 μg·g(-1) DW·h(-1), respectively. Storage and emission were dominated by the isomers α- and β-pinene (77.2% and 84.2% of the total terpene amount amassed and released, respectively). In both resistant and susceptible families, P stress caused an increase of 31% in foliar terpene concentration with an associated 5-fold decrease in terpene emission rates. A higher terpene content in the leaves implies that the 'excess carbon', available under limiting growth conditions (P scarcity), is allocated to terpene production. Sensitive families showed a greater increase in terpene emission rates with increasing P concentrations, which could explain their susceptibility to H. abietis. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tree-rings of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) from two industrial sites in the Pearl River Delta, south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Yuan-wen; Zhou, Guo-yi; Wen, Da-zhi; Li, Jiong; Sun, Fang-fang

    2011-09-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined and potential sources of PAHs were identified from the dated tree-rings of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) near two industrial sites (Danshuikeng, DSK and Xiqiaoshan, XQS) in the Pearl River Delta of south China. Total concentrations of PAHs (∑PAHs) were revealed with similar patterns of temporal trends in the tree-rings at both sites, suggesting tree-rings recorded the historical variation in atmospheric PAHs. The differences of individual PAHs and of ∑PAHs detected in the tree-rings between the two sites reflected the historical differences of airborne PAHs. Regional changes in industrial activities might contribute to the site-specific and period-specific patterns of the tree-ring PAHs. The diagnostic PAH ratios of Ant/(Ant + PA), FL/(FL + Pyr), and BaA/(BaA + Chr)) revealed that PAHs in the tree-rings at both sites mainly stemmed from the combustion process (pyrogenic sources). Principal component analysis further confirmed that wood burning, coal combustion, diesel, and gasoline-powered vehicular emissions were the dominant contributors of PAHs sources at DSK, while diesel combustion, gasoline and natural gas combustion, and incomplete coal combustion were responsible for the main origins of PAHs at XQS. Tree-ring analysis of PAHs was indicative of PAHs from a mixture of sources of combustion, thus minimizing the bias of short-term active air sampling.

  5. Capturing forest dependency in the central Himalayan region: Variations between Oak (Quercus spp.) and Pine (Pinus spp.) dominated forest landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Anusheema; Joshi, Pawan Kumar; Sachdeva, Kamna

    2018-05-01

    Our study explores the nexus between forests and local communities through participatory assessments and household surveys in the central Himalayan region. Forest dependency was compared among villages surrounded by oak-dominated forests (n = 8) and pine-dominated forests (n = 9). Both quantitative and qualitative analyses indicate variations in the degree of dependency based on proximity to nearest forest type. Households near oak-dominated forests were more dependent on forests (83.8%) compared to households near pine-dominated forests (69.1%). Forest dependency is mainly subsistence-oriented for meeting basic household requirements. Livestock population, cultivated land per household, and non-usage of alternative fuels are the major explanatory drivers of forest dependency. Our findings can help decision and policy makers to establish nested governance mechanisms encouraging prioritized site-specific conservation options among forest-adjacent households. Additionally, income diversification with respect to alternate livelihood sources, institutional reforms, and infrastructure facilities can reduce forest dependency, thereby, allowing sustainable forest management.

  6. In situ genetic association for serotiny, a fire-related trait, in Mediterranean maritime pine (Pinus pinaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Katharina B; Heuertz, Myriam; Hernández-Serrano, Ana; Pausas, Juli G; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Verdú, Miguel; González-Martínez, Santiago C

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire is a major ecological driver of plant evolution. Understanding the genetic basis of plant adaptation to wildfire is crucial, because impending climate change will involve fire regime changes worldwide. We studied the molecular genetic basis of serotiny, a fire-related trait, in Mediterranean maritime pine using association genetics. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) set was used to identify genotype : phenotype associations in situ in an unstructured natural population of maritime pine (eastern Iberian Peninsula) under a mixed-effects model framework. RR-BLUP was used to build predictive models for serotiny in this region. Model prediction power outside the focal region was tested using independent range-wide serotiny data. Seventeen SNPs were potentially associated with serotiny, explaining approximately 29% of the trait phenotypic variation in the eastern Iberian Peninsula. Similar prediction power was found for nearby geographical regions from the same maternal lineage, but not for other genetic lineages. Association genetics for ecologically relevant traits evaluated in situ is an attractive approach for forest trees provided that traits are under strong genetic control and populations are unstructured, with large phenotypic variability. This will help to extend the research focus to ecological keystone non-model species in their natural environments, where polymorphisms acquired their adaptive value. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Correlations between some physiographic factors and diameter, height and cone characteristics in stone pine (Pinus pinea L. afforestation areas in Balıkesir-Burhaniye region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ömer Üçler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effects of some physiographic factors (aspect, slope and elevation on breast diameter, height and cone properties (cone weight, number of cones, cone width and cone length in stone pine (Pinus pinea L. afforestation areas in Balıkesir-Burhaniye region were investigated. To determine to effects of physiographic conditions, study area is separated according to aspect, slope and elevation groups. Aspect is separated two groups which are shady aspect (B1 and sunny aspect (B2. Slope is separated two groups which are small from 36 percent (E1 and big from 36 percent (E2. Elevation also is separated two groups which are under 400 meters (Y1 and over 400 meters (Y2. Sample areas were scattering to land classifications by using Stratified Sampling Method. Thus, each aspect, slope and elevation classifications were obtained from sample area where are provided from 32 different areas. Tree heights, the diameter at breast height and cone number were measured on saplings. In addition, in each sample area five Pinus pinea trees were selected. It was measured cone diameter, cone height and air-dries weight values of cones which are picked from selecting trees. According to statistical analysis results, aspect effects to tree heights, cone number and cone weight; slope effects the diameter at breast height, cone number and cone diameter; elevation effects the diameter at breast height, tree height, cone number and cone weight. In terms of tree height and diameter values; the highest average breast height diameter was found in the B1E1Y1 with 13.6 cm, and the highest average height value was found in the B2E2Y2 by interaction. In terms of cone characteristics; with the highest average cone number of 8.5 in B1E1Y1, the highest mean cone weight in B1E1Y1 with 232 gr and the highest cone diameter in B2E2Y1 with 5.4 cm. According to the results of correlation analysis; it was determined that slope and elevation factors have positive effect on breast

  8. Progress towards initiation of somatic embryogenesis from differentiated tissues of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) using cotyledonary embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Find, Jens Iver; Hargreaves, Cathy L.; Reeves, Catherine B.

    2014-01-01

    of dissected embryos and a modified Litvay medium, Glitz, was best. This combination gave the highest rate of initiation, and it was possible to initiate somatic embryogenesis (SE) from differentiated cells in the epicotyledonary region of postcotyledonary zygotic embryos from the two tested families...... with an average initiation rate of approximately 24% and 7% from stage five and six embryos, respectively. This is different from established initiation protocols of embryogenic cultures in radiata pine, which has traditionally been based on embryo rescue and continued proliferation of immature zygotic embryos....... A further implication of initiation of SE from excised post-cotyledonary embryos was that the period of initiation of embryogenic cultures was extended from 4 to 12 wk....

  9. Clonal Variations in Flower Production at the Anatolian Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arnold.subsp. pallasiana Seed Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ERTEKİN, Korhan TUNÇTANER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for three years (2002-2004 in a black pine seed orchard established with 30 clonesoriginating from the forest of Yenice-Bakraz in Bartın, 1990. During the research, the variations between theclones in the seed orchard were determined based on the number of male and female flowers. According to theresults, the average values of flower production in three years at seed orchard showed considerable variations. Itwas determined that the number of the male and female flowers were 817,2 and 99,3 respectively. 62% ofaverage number of male flowers and 49% of female flowers were produced by 10 clones in 3 years. It was alsodetermined that the amount of the flowers for the clones showed significant differences within the years.

  10. Effects of different soil preparation techniques on the Anatolian Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. pallasiana (Lamb. Holmboe regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Çalışkan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of different soil preparation treatments on regeneration of black pine success were examined and some suggestions were given according to the results. Twelve sample plots were randomly set in the research area. The size of each sample plot was 4 m². Sample plots were seeded equally with a total number of 2304 (48 seeds per m2 seeds in April 2012. The number of surviving seedlings was recorded every month from May to November in 2012. Surviving seedlings were recorded again in November 2013 and growths of thirty seedlings which are selected randomly from the all sample plots were examined. It was found that soil treatment with machine was more successful in regeneration at semi-arid regions like Cerkes-Turkey. Plowing equipment as mechanical soil cultivation has more economically advantageous in first years. However, the success and quality of seedlings were better in soil preparation with ripper equipment compared to plowing.

  11. Diverging Drought Resistance of Scots Pine Provenances Revealed by Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Seidel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With recent climate changes, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. forests have been affected by die-off events. Assisted migration of adapted provenances mitigates drought impacts and promotes forest regeneration. Although suitable provenances are difficult to identify by traditional ecophysiological techniques, which are time consuming and invasive, plant water status can be easily assessed by infrared thermography. Thus, we examined the stress responses of 2-year-old potted Scots pine seedlings from six provenances (Bulgaria, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Spain based on two thermal indices (crop water stress index and stomatal conductance index. Both indices were derived from infrared images during a six-week drought/control treatment in a greenhouse in the summer of 2013. The pines were monitored during the stress and subsequent recovery period. After controlling for fluctuating environmental conditions, soil moisture or treatment-specific water supply was the most important driver of drought stress. The stress magnitude and response to soil water deficit depended on provenance. Under moderate drought conditions, pines from western and eastern Mediterranean provenances (Bulgaria, France, and Spain expressed lower stress levels than those from both continental provenances (Germany and Poland. In pines from the Spanish and Bulgarian provenances, the stress level differences were significantly lower than in continental pines. Moreover, pines from continental provenances were less resilient (showed less recovery after the stress period than Mediterranean pines. Under extreme drought, all provenances were equally stressed with almost no significant differences in their thermal indices. Provenance-specific differences in drought resistance, which are associated with factors such as summer precipitation at the origin of Scots pine seedlings, may offer promising tracks of adaptation to future drought risks.

  12. Effects of feed supplemented with fermented pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) on growth performance and antioxidant status in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q J; Wang, Z B; Wang, G Y; Li, Y X; Qi, Y X

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented pine needles and nonfermented pine needles on growth performance and antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks. In total, 300 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments, which were then denoted as the control treatment (basal diet); the nonfermented treatment (containing 0.3% and 0.6% nonfermented treatment, respectively, in the starter and grower phase); or the fermented 1, fermented 2, or fermented 3 treatments. The fermented 1, fermented 2, and fermented 3 treatments contained 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% fermented treatment, respectively, in the starter phase and 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0% fermented treatment, respectively, in the growth phase for 42 d. The results showed that fermentation treated supplementation had no adverse effect on the growth performance of broilers at 42 d of age. The activity of total nitric oxide synthase was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented treatment compared with the control and nonfermented treatments in broilers at 21 d of age. Compared with the control, broilers had higher (P<0.05) total superoxide dismutase activities and total antioxidant capacity when they were provided with either the fermented 2 or fermented 3 diet. The malondialdehyde content was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented 2 and fermented 3 treatments compared with the control and nonfermented treatments. It was concluded that the addition of fermented treatment to the diet could improve antioxidant capacity in broilers, as evidenced by the decrease in malondialdehyde and the increase in total superoxide dismutase activities; however, the effect of fermentation treatment on growth performance was negligible. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Damages and causes of death in plantations with containerised seedlings of Scots pine and Norway spruce in the central of Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumburg, Jan

    2000-07-01

    In 1972, 94 forest areas were planted with containerised seedlings, 83 with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 11 with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), in the central of Sweden. In the first season after planting, 99% of the Scots pine and 98% of the Norway spruce seedlings survived. Three seasons after plantation, 67% of Scots pine and 62% of Norway spruce were alive. The most common type of known damages causing mortality were mammals and insects. Vegetation was registered as the cause of mortality at some occasions in Scots pine plantations, whereas vegetation never was considered as the cause of death in Norway spruce plantations. The average size of the scarification patches were 0.25 m{sup 2} and 0.4 m{sup 2} in Scots pine and Norway spruce respectively. In Scots pine plantations there were 1600 planted seedlings ha{sup -1} and in Norway spruce there were 1550 ha{sup -1}. After the third growing season, the numbers of main crop plants, including naturally regenerated hardwood and softwood plants, were 1500 ha{sup -1} for Scots pine and 1350 ha{sup -1} for Norway spruce. The studied plantings had been approved if the recommended number of seedlings had been planted. As there always is some mortality among planted seedlings, in the present study 35-40%, this phenomenon has to be taken into consideration when dimensioning the number of seedlings which are to be planted.

  14. Effect of air pollution on epiphytic lichen vegetation and element contents of a lichen and pine needles at Valkeakoski, South Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksovirta, K; Olkkonen, H

    1979-01-01

    The macrolichen vegetation on Pinus sylvestris L. and the contents of S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Fe and Zn in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and needles of Pinus sylvestris were investigated in relation to air pollution at 55 study stations in and around the industrial town of Valkeakoski, southern Finland. The air pollutants are emitted mainly by the wood pulp industry. The parameters of the lichen vegetation (occurrence of species, number of species, cover of the vegetation and the damage index) did not give a good picture of the distribution of air pollutants, because the environmental conditions were not exactly the same at the different study stations. The accumulation of the elements was more effective in the lichen than in pine needles and the lichen element contents agreed better with the pattern of the prevailing winds. The correlations between the contents of the different pollutant elements were also stronger in the lichen than in pine needles. The most reliable indices of pollutant substances originating from combustion of fuel oil and the wood pulp industry were the sulfur and vanadium contents of the lichen, while the calcium, titanium and iron concentrations of the lichen gave a good idea of the distribution of dust raised from the roads by traffic. 11 references, 10 figures, 4 tables.

  15. Cd-tolerant Suillus luteus: A fungal insurance for pines exposed to Cd