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Sample records for pine bluff arkansas

  1. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  2. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Final phase 1, Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  3. The Dietary guideline 2005 and physical activities role in weight management of University Arkansas at Pine Bluff

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the weight loss initiative, researchers at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff conducted an obesity prevention intervention based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans approach. A 12 month study was conducted that focused on interventions to improve physical ...

  4. Environmental Inventory and Analysis for Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Volume I. Pine Bluff Metropolitan Area, Arkansas Urban Water Management Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-03

    Source: Citizens’ Advisory Camittee, pers. comm. VIlI-19 144 3 0 3 CULTURA IX CULTURAL RESOURCES A. INTRODUCTION. Cultural resources include resources...the fluted points of the Clovis and Folsom types. These earliest Indians cvidently were nomadic and hunted large herd animals such as the mammoth and

  5. Environmental Inventory and Analysis for Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Volume II. Appendices. Pine Bluff Metropolitan Area, Arkansas Urban Water Management Study. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    uplands C Sassafras- LEGUMINOSAE Amorpha fruticosa Open areas C False Indigo Amphicarpa bracteata Rich woods, moist areas C Hog Peanut Apios americana...Roadsides, open sandy C Slender Bush Clover woodlands Medicago lupulina Fields, open areas C Black Medick D-29 Table D-2 (continued) LEGUMINOSAE

  6. 75 FR 65230 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Arkansas Waterway, Pine Bluff, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... Property Rights. Civil Justice Reform This rule meets applicable standards in sections 3(a) and 3(b)(2) of... vessel until the requested span has opened and vessel passage has been completed. The bridge is equipped...

  7. A 5-Year Assessment Of Shortleaf Pine And Hardwood Sprouts Relative To Three Methods Of Hardwood Control In The Arkansas Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Cain

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - Compared with untreated checks, manual hardwood control and herbicide injection of hardwoods facilitated the development of direct seeded shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) regeneration following a single-tree selection harvest in a mature natural stand of shortleaf pines in northwest Arkansas. Five years after...

  8. Soil chemistry and nutrient regimes following 17-21 years of shortleaf pine-bluesteam restoration in Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hal O. Liechty; Kenneth R. Luckow; James M. Guldin

    2005-01-01

    Harvesting and repeated burning are frequently used to restore shortleaf pine-bluestem ecosystems within the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma and Arkansas, USA. These practices have been shown to adequately restore much of the habitat for bird and mammal species that utilize this ecosystem. However, there have been only limited studies to quantify the impact of...

  9. Small mammal communities of streamside management zones in intensively managed pine forests of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darren A. Miller; Ronald E. Thill; M. Anthony Melchiors; T. Bently Wigley; Philip A. Tappe

    2004-01-01

    Streamside management zones (SMZs), composed primarily of hardwoods in the southeastern United States, provide habitat diversity within intensively managed pine (Pinus spp.) plantations. However, effects of SMZ width and adjacent plantation structure on riparian wildlife communities are poorly understood. Therefore, during 1990-1995, we examined small mammal...

  10. Small-mammal responses to pine regeneration treatments in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill

    2005-01-01

    We compared the initial effects of four forest regeneration treatments (single-tree selection, group selection, shelterwood, and clearcut), and unharvested controls (mature, second-growth forest) on relative abundance of small mammals and small-mammal habitat throughout the Ouachita Mountains of western Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma. We compared small-mammal capture...

  11. Learning to Bluff

    CERN Document Server

    Hurwitz, Evan

    2007-01-01

    The act of bluffing confounds game designers to this day. The very nature of bluffing is even open for debate, adding further complication to the process of creating intelligent virtual players that can bluff, and hence play, realistically. Through the use of intelligent, learning agents, and carefully designed agent outlooks, an agent can in fact learn to predict its opponents reactions based not only on its own cards, but on the actions of those around it. With this wider scope of understanding, an agent can in learn to bluff its opponents, with the action representing not an illogical action, as bluffing is often viewed, but rather as an act of maximising returns through an effective statistical optimisation. By using a tee dee lambda learning algorithm to continuously adapt neural network agent intelligence, agents have been shown to be able to learn to bluff without outside prompting, and even to learn to call each others bluffs in free, competitive play.

  12. Decomposition rate comparisons between frequently burned and unburned areas of uneven-aged loblolly pine stands in southeastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miclele Renschin; Hal O. Leichty; Michael G. Shelton

    2001-01-01

    Although fire has been used extensively over long periods of time in loblolly pine (Pinis taeda L.) ecosystems, little is known concerning the effects of frequent fire use on nutrient cycling and decomposition. To better understand the long-term effects of fire on these processes, foliar litter decomposition rates were quantified in a study...

  13. Volume, Mass, And Nutrients Of Down Woody Debris Following Initial Shortleaf Pine-Bluestem Grass Restoration Activities In The Ouachita Mountains Of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica C. Seifert; Hal O. Liechty; Martin A. Spetich; Daniel A. Marion

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - The Ouachita National Forest is restoring pine-mixed hardwood forests to a shortleaf pine-bluestem grass ecosystem through harvesting, midstory control, and the application of prescribed fire. Mean mass and volume of downed woody debris (DWD) in plots following initial harvesting and midstory-control were respectively 335 percent and 253...

  14. Arkansas, 2009 forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Rosson

    2011-01-01

    The summary includes estimates of forest land area (table 1), ownership (table 2), forest-type groups (table 3), volume (tables 4 and 5), biomass (tables 6 and 7), and pine plantation area (table 8) along with maps of Arkansas’ survey units (fig. 1), percent forest by county (fig. 2), and distribution of pine plantations (fig. 3). The estimates are presented by survey...

  15. Hybridization in naturally regenerated shortleaf pine as affected by the distance to nearby artificially regenerated stands of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Stewart; Charles G. Tauer; James M. Guldin; C. Dana Nelson

    2013-01-01

    The natural range of shortleaf pine encompasses 22 states from New York to Texas, second only to eastern white pine in the eastern United States. It is a species of minor and varying occurrence in most of these states usually found in association with other pines, but it is the only naturally occurring pine in the northwestern part of its range in Oklahoma, Arkansas,...

  16. Endwall convective heat transfer for bluff bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Salewski, Mirko; Sundén, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    The endwall heat transfer characteristics of forced flow past bluff bodies have been investigated using liquid crystal thermography (LCT). The bluff body is placed in a rectangular channel with both its ends attached to the endwalls. The Reynolds number varies from 50,000 to 100,000. In this study...

  17. Slamming Arkansas Schools!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W. Clayton

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author, a poet and teaching artist, shares how he successfully brought slam poetry to College Hill Middle School in Texarkana, Arkansas. In 2001 he discovered slam poetry--a poetry-reading format in which poets compete in dramatic readings of their works--and went to Slam Nationals in Seattle on the Arkansas slam team. He…

  18. Study on Hydrodynamic Vibration in Dual Bluff Body Vortex Flowmeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of the dual bluff body vortex shedding is investigated, and the possibility to use dual bluff body combinations to strengthen the hydrodynamic vibration around the bluff body objects is explored. The numerical and experimental approaches were utilized to examine the time dependent flow field and the pressure oscillation around the bluff bodies. The numerical data were obtained by the advanced large eddy simulation model. The experiment was conducted on a laboratory scale of Karman vortex flowmeter with 40 mm diameter. It is revealed that the optimized dual bluff body combinations strengthened the hydrodynamic vibration. It was also found that the hydrodynamic vibration with 180° phase difference occurred at the axisymmetric points of circular pipe on the lateral faces of the equilateral triangle-section bluff bodies. Using the dual bluff body configuration and the differential sensing technique, a novel prototype of vortex flowmeter with excellent noise immunity and improved sensibility was developed.

  19. The Hydrogen Economy as a Technological Bluff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen economy is a technological bluff in its implied assurance that, despite the accelerating pace at which we are depleting the remaining half of our fossil fuels, our energy future is secure. Elementary thermodynamic considerations are developed to show that a hydrogen economy is about as feasible as a perpetual motion machine. Hydrogen…

  20. Weyerhaeuser in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Hearnsberger

    2011-01-01

    Weyerhaeuser Company has undergone many transitions since it was founded in 1900. Changes have occurred in the timberlands and wood products divisions as well as other divisions, based on both the US and global economies. This paper will present a synopsis of the current status of Weyerhaeuser generally, and in Arkansas in particular.

  1. Effects of Alternative Thinning Regimes and Prescribed Burning in Natural, Even-Aged Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine Stands: 25 Year Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Cain; Michael G. Shelton

    2003-01-01

    In southeastern Arkansas, pine growth was monitored for 19 yr after mechanically strip thinning a dense, naturally regenerated, even-aged stand of 6-yr-old loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) and shortleaf pines (P. echinata Mill.) that averaged 16,600 stems/UC. Prescribed winter burns were conducted biennially between ages 9 and 20...

  2. Influence of weather and climate variables on the basal area growth of individual shortleaf pine trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradip Saud; Thomas B. Lynch; Duncan S. Wilson; John Stewart; James M. Guldin; Bob Heinemann; Randy Holeman; Dennis Wilson; Keith Anderson

    2015-01-01

    An individual-tree basal area growth model previously developed for even-aged naturally occurring shortleaf pine trees (Pinus echinata Mill.) in western Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma did not include weather variables. Individual-tree growth and yield modeling of shortleaf pine has been carried out using the remeasurements of over 200 plots...

  3. Small Mammal Communities of Mature Pine Hardwood Stands in the Ouachita Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip A. Tappe; Ronald E. Thill; Joseph J. Krystofik; Gary A. Heidt

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted on the Ouachita and Ozark National Forests in Arkansas to evaluate the effects of alternative pine-hardwood reproduction cutting methods on small mammal abundance and diversity. Pretreatment characteristics of small mammal communities on 20 late-rotation mixed pine-hardwood stands in four physiographic zones of the Ouachita Mountain region of...

  4. Liquid-liquid flow past a bluff body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyeong H.; Abidin, M. I. I. Zainal; Angeli, Panagiota; Kahouadji, Lyes; Xie, Zhihua; Matar, Omar K.; Pain, Christopher C.

    2016-11-01

    The generation of instabilities behind a bluff body bounded by a pipe wall and its effects on flow pattern transitions from separated to dispersed oil-water flows are studied. A cylindrical bluff body is located in the water phase and the transverse direction of the flow. Investigations are conducted for flow rates that result in stratified flow in the absence of the bluff body. A high-speed camera is used to track the interfacial waves while the velocity profile in the water phase is determined by PIV. Numerical studies on single-phase flow assist in designing new bluff bodies. The results showed that the choice of the bluff body and its location generated vortices with frequencies similar to unbounded flows that corresponded to Strouhal number of 0.2. In two-phase flows, the bluff body generates waves with frequencies similar to the von Kármán vortices in the water phase behind the cylinder. The formation of the waves depended on the distance of the bluff body from the oil-water interface. Project funded under the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) Programme Grant MEMPHIS.

  5. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arkansas Mountain. 9.112... Arkansas Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arkansas Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Arkansas...

  6. Particle Methods in Bluff Body Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj

    Fluid-structure interaction is studied numerically in academics and the industry. Shear computational power alone is insufficient to accurately resolve the complex dynamics of high Reynolds number fluid flow. Therefore the development of more efficient and applicable computational algorithms...... is important. This dissertation focuses on the use of vortex particle methods and computational efficiency. The work is divided into three parts. A novel method for the simulation of the aerodynamic admittance in bluff body aerodynamics is presented. The method involves a model for describing oncoming...... turbulence in two-dimensional discrete vortex method simulations by seeding the upstream flow with vortex particles. The turbulence is generated prior to the simulations and is based on analytic spectral densities of the atmospheric turbulence and a coherence function defining the spatial correlation...

  7. 75 FR 17766 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... (Historic Bridges of Arkansas MPS) Jefferson County Taylor Field, 1201 E. 16th St., Pine Bluff, 09001250..., 09001257, LISTED, 1/21/10 Pulaski County Seed Warehouse No. 5, SW corner of US 165 and AR 161,...

  8. Plentern mit Kiefern--Ergebnisse aus den USA [Plentering with pines--results from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin; Don C. Bragg; Andreas Zingg

    2017-01-01

    Until now, scientifically reliable data on plentering of light-demanding tree species in Europe have been lacking. This gap is filled with long-term trials from the USA, among others with southern yellow pines. In the southern state of Arkansas, two plots of 16 hectares were installed in 1936, in the context of a large-scale trial of mixed loblolly pine (...

  9. Arkansas River Water Needs Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the legal elements, hydrologic analysis, objectives, and water levels related to the Arkansas River and the management of it.

  10. Jackson Bluff Hydroelectric Project. Feasibility assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    A feasibility assessment study was conducted to determine if it is economical to reinstall hydroelectric generating units at the existing Jackson Bluff Dam on the Ochlockonee River in Florida. The studies and investigations have included site reconnaissance, system loads, growth rate, site hydrology, conceptual project arrangements and layouts, power output, estimates of construction costs and annual costs, economic analyses, development of a design and construction schedule and a preliminary environmental review of the proposed Project. It was concluded that the Project poses no unusual technical problems and no significant adverse environmental effects are anticipated. It shows sufficient promise of technical, economic and financial feasibility, to justify the City entering into the next phase of work, the FERC License Application, as soon as possible. The site can be restored for an investment of $9.9 to $10.4 million to establish 8.8 MW of capacity and produce 24,920 MWh of electrical energy annually, and in 10 years would save over $4 million as compared with current fuel costs for operating an oil-fueled power plant. (LCL)

  11. Libraries in Arkansas: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/arkansas.html Libraries in Arkansas To use the sharing features on ... Center Northwest - U Ark Med Sci AHEC - Northwest Library 1125 N College Ave Fayetteville, AR 72703 479- ...

  12. Gas Turbine Engine Staged Fuel Injection Using Adjacent Bluff Body and Swirler Fuel Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A fuel injection array for a gas turbine engine includes a plurality of bluff body injectors and a plurality of swirler injectors. A control operates the plurality of bluff body injectors and swirler injectors such that bluff body injectors are utilized without all of the swirler injectors at least at low power operation. The swirler injectors are utilized at higher power operation.

  13. The Interaction Vortex Flow Around Two Bluff Cylinders

    OpenAIRE

    Hirao K.; Yokoi Y.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the interaction vortex flow features around a pair of parallel arranged bluff cylinders were observed by visualizing water flow experiment at the range of the gap ratio G/d=0~3. It was obtained that the result of established wind tunnel test and the result of this water tank test agreed about the characteristics of vortex shedding when varying the distance of circular cylinder gap. The flow pattern and vortex shedding frequency of another type bluff cylinder (triangular and squ...

  14. Monitoring stream bluff erosion using repeat terrestrial laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, G.; Gran, K. B.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technology provides high-resolution topographic data that can be used to detect geomorphic change in fluvial environments. In this study, we utilize successive terrestrial laser scans to investigate the relationship between peak flow rates and stream bluff erosion in the Amity Creek watershed in Duluth, Minnesota. We also combine TLS scan results with bluff inventories from airborne lidar to estimate the volume of sediment erosion from bluffs in the watershed, which is an important source of fine sediment contributing to the creek's turbidity impairment. We selected nine study bluffs to conduct terrestrial laser scans on after all significant flood events over a two-year time period. The study employs a Faro Focus 3D phase-shift laser to collect data. Post-processing of the TLS-point cloud data sets involves: (1) removal of vegetation and objects other than the erosional surface of interest; (2) decimation of the point cloud in PC Tools and extraction of zmin values to produce a data set manageable in GIS; (3) creation of a bare earth digital elevation model (DEM) for each set of scans using ArcMap; and (4) utilization of Geomorphic Change Detection (GCD) software to generate DEMs of Difference (DODs) from subsequent terrestrial laser scans. Preliminary results from three flooding events indicate significant erosional activity at all field sites. Slumps were observed at two bluffs following spring melt and freeze/thaw cycling. Two major precipitation events in late spring and early summer provided a unique opportunity to observe the impact of extreme high flow events on bluff erosion throughout the watershed using TLS technology. 4.75 inches of intermittent rain over a six-day period in late May 2012 (May 23-28) resulted in slumping at many bluffs and one major failure. The ≥100-year flood that occurred on June 19-20 (7.25 inches), 2012 was powerful enough to induce considerable channel change. Slumps occurred at six study sites

  15. 75 FR 11195 - Central Arkansas National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... obtain a copy of the CCP by writing to: Mr. William R. Smith, Planning Team Leader, Central Arkansas... International Importance.'' Cache River NWR is noted as part of the most important wintering habitats for..., Including the Preferred Alternative A planning team comprised of Service personnel, State...

  16. Abortion applicants in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henker, F O

    1973-03-01

    The article reports upon the characteristics of 300 abortion applicants in Arkansas manifesting significant stress from unwanted pregnancy between May 1, 1970 and June 30, 1971. The sample is limited by the fact that all of these women had been willing to seek medical aid. Patients ranged from ages 13-47, 131 of them ages 17-21. 35% had had some college education; another 29% were high school graduates. 50.6%, 20.6%, and 27.3% were single, divorced, and married, respectively. 59.6% of the patients were primiparas. 18.3%, 9.6%, and 12.3% were classified as being neurotic, having psychophysiologic tendencies (gastrointestinal problems, obesity, chronic headaches), and having sociopathic features (passive-aggressive, frankly rebellious, delinquent, antisocial, alcoholic), respectively. 12 women had noticeable schizoid features; 4 women had mildly active schizophrenia. Fathers of the women were usually blue-collar workers (55.3%) or white-collar workers (24.6%). The most frequent ordinal sibling position among the women was oldest child (38%). Parental instability (1 or both parents lost through death, divorce, father usually away working, chronic alcoholism, etc.) was reported by 39.6% of the patients. Patients' attitudes toward the unwanted pregnancy included dislike of inexpediency of the situation (82.6%), self-depreciation (55.6%), and aversion (28.6%). Precipitated psychiatric disorders were for the greatest part mild. Manifesting symptoms included depression (66.7%), anxiety (21%), and mixed anxiety and depression (12.2%). Suicidal threats and gestures were made by 22 and 8 patients, respectively. In summary, the study reveals a group of predominantly Caucasian women from unstable, middle-class urban families who were going through an adjustment reaction to adolescence or adult life.

  17. Wind Erosion and Dune Formation on High Frozen Bluffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, W. M.; Marsh, B. D.

    1984-01-01

    Frost penetration increases upslope on barren, windswept bluffs in cold environments. Along the south shore of Lake Superior, near the brow of 100 m high bluffs it typically exceeds 5 m. Frost increases the shear strength of damp sand to a level comparable to that of concrete, making winter slopes highly stable despite undercutting by waves and ground-water sapping along the footslope. Sublimation of interparticle ice in the slope face increases with wind speed and lower vapor pressures. The cold and dry winter winds of Lake Superior ablate these slopes through loss of binding ice. Wind erosion rates, based on measurements of sand accumulation on the forest floor downwind of the brow, show most airborne sand falls out within several meters of the brow, forming a berm 1 to 3 m high after many years. The spatial pattern of sand deposition, however, varies considerably over distances of several hundred meters along the top bluffs in response to frost conditions and the build-up of gravel lag on the slope face, sand exposure from mass movements, and local aerodynamics of the crest slope. The formation of perched sand dunes in the Great Lakes region is clearly related to wind erosion of sand from high bluffs in winter. Broadly similar processes may operate on Mars.

  18. Beaches and Bluffs of Puget Sound and the Northern Straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    exposed in coastal bluffs. During the maximum extent of the ice sheets, sub-glacial meltwater and scour by the ice sheets carved the deep, linear...meter per century) could occur given accelerated melting of the Greenland ice sheet and/or collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet (Overpeck et al

  19. Changes in non-pine woody species density, composition, and diversity following herbicide and fertilization application to mid-rotation loblolly pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hal O. Liechty; Conner Fristoe

    2012-01-01

    We monitored woody vegetation (dbh>1.0 in) response for up to six years following a herbicide (16 ounces imazapyr /acre), a fertilizer (365 pounds urea and 175 pounds diammonium phosphate/acre ) and a combined fertilizer and herbicide application in four mid-rotation loblolly pine stands located within the Upper Gulf Coastal Plain in Arkansas. Approximately 60-80%...

  20. Plant Nematodes Occurring in Arkansas

    OpenAIRE

    Wehunt, E. J.; Golden, A. M.; Robbins, R. T.

    1989-01-01

    A total of 110 species of plant nematodes were found in various habitats in Arkansas. Thirty species from 19 genera are reported here for the first time. Included in the new reports are the known plant pathogens Criconemella onoense, Hirshmanniella oryzae, Longidorus elongatus, and Pratylenchus pratensis.

  1. Pine Mountain Revisited: An Archeological Study in the Arkansas Ozarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    which show growth rings indicative of mortality peaks in those seasons. Again this problem may be based on an incorrect presumption, and it probably...subsistence (such as seeds and small animal remains). Shell remains and fish bones could be subjected to mortality /seasonality analyses. Some of these data...site forms, National i i Register forms, data analysisi I forms, maps (final form) and f preparation of material for ! cura tion. ; { Report

  2. Hardwood vigor and survival following applications of imazapyr in mid-rotation pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabudhda Dahal Dahal; Hal O. Liechty; Bryan Rupar; Conner Fristoe; Eric Heitzman

    2006-01-01

    Tree vigor, live crown ratios, dieback, and survival of hardwood competition were monitored for 2 years following a fall application (16 ounces per acre) of imazapyr on 4 stands of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in the Gulf Coastal Plain of Louisiana and Arkansas. Assessments during the first growing season following application indicated that 87 to...

  3. Natural loblolly and shortleaf pine productivity through 53 years of management under four reproduction cutting methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Cain; Michael G. Shelton

    2001-01-01

    A study was initiated in 1943 to evaluate the long-term productivity of loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and shortleaf pines (P. echinata Mill.) when managed under four reproduction cutting methods—clearcut, heavy seedtree, diameter-limit, and selection—on the Upper Coastal Plain of southeastern Arkansas. Early volume production...

  4. New Trichoptera records from Arkansas and Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Etnier

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of about 69,000 Trichoptera from Arkansas and Missouri resulted in identification of six species previously unknown from Arkansas (i.e., Agraylea costello, Neotrichia collata, Orthotrichia curta, Oxyethira glasa, O. pescadori, Neureclipsis piersoni) and three species previously unknown from Missouri (i.e., Cheumatopsyche mollala, Hydroptila broweri, H....

  5. A brief history of forests and tree planting in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg

    2012-01-01

    Forests are vital to the socioeconomic well-being of Arkansas. According to one recent report, Arkansas is the eighth leading wood-producing State (Smith and others 2009), providing billions of dollars of economic contributions related to the timber industry (University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture 2009). Additional benefits of Arkansas forests include tourism,...

  6. 33 CFR 207.170 - Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Bluff, Fla.; pool level. 207.170 Section 207.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level. (a) The level of the pool shall normally be maintained at elevation 56.5 feet above sea level: Provided, That the level of the pool may be raised to not exceeding 58.5...

  7. Proceedings of the Department of Defense Natural Resources Leadership Conference Held in Colorado Springs, CO on 12-16 August 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-22

    48753; (A/V) 623-5180 Becker, Charles SMOPB-EMB; Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas 71602-9500; (A/V) 966-2834 Belew, Gary HQ Ft. Carson, 4th...31314- 5300; (912) 767-2584 Buck, Slader Office of Environment & Safety; MCB Camp Pendleton, CA 92055 Bukowski , Grace RAMA/Citizen Alert; PO Box 5339...Freeland, Albert W. DEH, Environmental Management, Fort Knox, KY 40121 Freeman, Charles ESO/DEB Hanscom AFB, MA 01371 Freese, Elizabeth COMNAVSECGRO

  8. Revisiting the relationship between common weather variables and loblolly-shortleaf pine seed crops in natural stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Cain; Michael G Shelton

    2000-01-01

    Seed production was monitored during 24 years using seed-collection traps in loblolly-shortleaf pine (Pinus taeda L.-P. echinata Mill.) stands located in southeast Arkansas, north-central Louisiana, and southwest Mississippi on the southeastern Coastal Plain, USA. Sound seed production was correlated with mean monthly precipitation...

  9. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from transverse galloping of bluff bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkefi, A.; Hajj, M. R.; Nayfeh, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of harvesting energy from transverse galloping oscillations of a bluff body with different cross-section geometries is investigated. The energy is harvested by attaching a piezoelectric transducer to the transverse degree of freedom of the body. The power levels that can be generated from these vibrations and the variations of these levels with the load resistance, cross-section geometry, and freestream velocity are determined. A representative model that accounts for the transverse displacement of the bluff body and harvested voltage is presented. The quasi-steady approximation is used to model the aerodynamic loads. A linear analysis is performed to determine the effects of the electrical load resistance and the cross-section geometry on the onset of galloping, which is due to a Hopf bifurcation. The normal form of this bifurcation is derived to determine the type (supercritical or subcritical) of the instability and to characterize the effects of the linear and nonlinear parameters on the level of harvested power near the bifurcation. The results show that the electrical load resistance and the cross-section geometry affect the onset speed of galloping. The results also show that the maximum levels of harvested power are accompanied with minimum transverse displacement amplitudes for all considered (square, D, and triangular) cross-section geometries, which points to the need for performing a coupled analysis of the system.

  10. Fighting Online Click-Fraud Using Bluff Ads

    CERN Document Server

    Haddadi, Hamed

    2010-01-01

    Online advertising is currently the greatest source of revenue for many Internet giants. The increased number of specialized websites and modern profiling techniques, have all contributed to an explosion of the income of ad brokers from online advertising. The single biggest threat to this growth, is however, click-fraud. Trained botnets and even individuals are hired by click-fraud specialists in order to maximize the revenue of certain users from the ads they publish on their websites, or to launch an attack between competing businesses. In this note we wish to raise the awareness of the networking research community on potential research areas within this emerging field. As an example strategy, we present Bluff ads; a class of ads that join forces in order to increase the effort level for click-fraud spammers. Bluff ads are either targeted ads, with irrelevant display text, or highly relevant display text, with irrelevant targeting information. They act as a litmus test for the legitimacy of the individual...

  11. The Interaction Vortex Flow Around Two Bluff Cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirao K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the interaction vortex flow features around a pair of parallel arranged bluff cylinders were observed by visualizing water flow experiment at the range of the gap ratio G/d=0~3. It was obtained that the result of established wind tunnel test and the result of this water tank test agreed about the characteristics of vortex shedding when varying the distance of circular cylinder gap. The flow pattern and vortex shedding frequency of another type bluff cylinder (triangular and square cylinder were also investigated. As a result of the experiment, it was shown that the flow pattern of wake flow was divided into three kinds (coupled vortex streets, biased gap flow and single vortex street regardless of the cylinder section shape and cylinder size. Then, the region of the appearance of flow pattern was shown about each case. In the case where two each other independent vortex streets were formed, three typical flow patterns of vortex formation (in-phase coupled vortex streets, out-of-phase coupled vortex streets and complication coupled vortex streets were observed. It was known that three configuration of vortex formation appear intermittently and alternatively.

  12. The Interaction Vortex Flow Around Two Bluff Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Y.; Hirao, K.

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the interaction vortex flow features around a pair of parallel arranged bluff cylinders were observed by visualizing water flow experiment at the range of the gap ratio G/d=0~3. It was obtained that the result of established wind tunnel test and the result of this water tank test agreed about the characteristics of vortex shedding when varying the distance of circular cylinder gap. The flow pattern and vortex shedding frequency of another type bluff cylinder (triangular and square cylinder) were also investigated. As a result of the experiment, it was shown that the flow pattern of wake flow was divided into three kinds (coupled vortex streets, biased gap flow and single vortex street) regardless of the cylinder section shape and cylinder size. Then, the region of the appearance of flow pattern was shown about each case. In the case where two each other independent vortex streets were formed, three typical flow patterns of vortex formation (in-phase coupled vortex streets, out-of-phase coupled vortex streets and complication coupled vortex streets) were observed. It was known that three configuration of vortex formation appear intermittently and alternatively.

  13. Arkansas State University Beebe Branch Faculty Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Univ., Beebe.

    Arkansas State University Beebe Branch provides a liberal arts oriented program for traditional and nontraditional students. Its faculty handbook contains institutional goals, description of responsibilities of administrative officers and faculty committees, faculty employment policies, and administrative and instructional policies. The…

  14. Mountain Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph

    1989-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  15. On point vortex models of exotic bluff body wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stremler, Mark A; Basu, Saikat, E-mail: stremler@vt.edu [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Exotic vortex wakes, in which three or more vortices are generated during each shedding cycle, are frequently found in the wake of an oscillating bluff body. Two common examples are P+S wakes (with 3 vortices) and 2P wakes (with 4 vortices). We consider mathematical models of these wakes consisting of N = 3 or 4 point vortices with constant strengths in an inviscid fluid that is otherwise at rest in a singly-periodic domain. By enforcing constraints on the vortex strengths and, in the case of N = 4, on the symmetry of the vortex locations, the mathematical models reduce to integrable Hamiltonian systems. We compare the point vortex trajectories with two exotic wake patterns reported in the literature. Results support the use of point vortex modeling to investigate vortex dynamics in exotic wakes and suggest the need for additional classification of experimental wake patterns. (paper)

  16. Point vortex model for asymmetric inviscid wakes past bluff bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcrat, A [Mathematics and Statistics Department, Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount St, Wichita, KS 67260 (United States); Ferlauto, M; Zannetti, L, E-mail: luca.zannetti@polito.it [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    Wakes past bluff bodies are modeled by means of point vortices standing in equilibrium. The consistency of the adopted model is discussed with respect to the asymptotic model proposed by Batchelor. It is shown that, in general, when symmetry is broken, the wake configuration may be neither closed, as for the Batchelor model, nor open, as for the Kirchhoff model. The proposed model has three degrees of freedom, which reduce to one when the locations of separation are prescribed. A further condition has been established for the closure of the wake which reduces the degrees of freedom to zero as for the asymptotic Batchelor model. The existence of multiple solutions, suggestive for real world phenomena, is discussed. (papers)

  17. A numerical analysis of the unsteady flow past bluff bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, M. S. U. K.; Modi, V. J.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes in detail a relatively sophisticated numerical approach, using the Boundary Element Method in conjunction with the Discrete Vortex Model, to represent the complex unsteady flow field around a bluff body with separating shear layers. Important steps in the numerical analysis of this challenging problem are discussed and a performance evaluation algorithm established. Of considerable importance is the effect of computational parameters such as number of elements representing the geometry, time-step size, location of the nascent vortices, etc., on the accuracy of results and the associated cost. As an example, the method is applied to the analysis of the flow around a stationary Savonius rotor. A detailed parametric study provides fundamental information concerning the starting torque time histories, evolution of the wake, Strouhal number, etc. A comparison with the wind tunnel test data shows remarkable correlation suggesting considerable promise for the approach.

  18. Environmental contaminants in shortnose sturgeon from Bears Bluff National Fish Hatchery, Wadmalaw Island, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) is a federally‐listed endangered species. In 2008, eleven shortnose sturgeon, reared at the Bears Bluff National Fish...

  19. Assessing landslide potential on coastal bluffs near Mukilteo, Washington—Geologic site characterization for hydrologic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Smith, Joel B.; Benjamin Stark,; York Lewis,; Abigail Michel,; Baum, Rex L.

    2016-07-01

    During the summer 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey collected geologic and geotechnical data for two sites on coastal bluffs along the eastern shore of Puget Sound, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey also installed hydrologic instrumentation at the sites and collected specimens for laboratory testing. The two sites are located on City of Mukilteo open-space land and are about 0.6 kilometers apart. The bluffs at each site are approximately 42 meters high, and rise steeply from the shoreline with 32–35° slopes. The more northerly of the two sites occupies an active landslide and is mostly unvegetated. The other site is forested, and although stable during the preparation of this report, shows evidence of historical and potential landslide activity. The slopes of the bluffs at both sites are mantled by a thin, nonuniform colluvium underlain by clay-rich glacial deposits and tills of the Whidbey Formation or Double Bluff Drift. Till consisting of sand, gravel, and cobbles caps the bluffs and rests on finer grained glacial deposits of sand, silt, and clay. These types of different glacial deposits are dense, vertically fractured, and generally have low permeability, but field observations indicate that locally the deposits are sufficiently permeable to allow lateral flow of water along fractures and subhorizontal boundaries between deposits of different texture. Laboratory tests indicate that many of the deposits are highly plastic, with low hydraulic conductivity, and moderate shear strength. Steep slopes combined with the strength and hydraulic characteristics of the deposits leave the bluffs prone to slope instability, particularly during the wet season when infiltrating rainfall changes moisture content, pore-water pressure, and effective stress within the hillslope. The instrumentation was designed to primarily observe rainfall variability and hydrologic changes in the subsurface that can affect stability of the bluffs, and also to compare the hydrologic

  20. The anchoring mechanism of a bluff-body stabilized laminar premixed flame

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanism of the laminar premixed flame anchoring near a heat-conducting bluff-body. We use unsteady, fully resolved, two-dimensional simulations with detailed chemical kinetics and species transport for methane-air combustion. No artificial flame anchoring boundary conditions were imposed. Simulations show a shear-layer stabilized flame just downstream of the bluff-body, with a recirculation zone formed by the products of combustion. A steel bluff-body resulted in a slightly larger recirculation zone than a ceramic bluff-body; the size of which grew as the equivalence ratio was decreased. A significant departure from the conventional two-zone flame-structure is shown in the anchoring region. In this region, the reaction zone is associated with a large negative energy convection (directed from products to reactants) resulting in a negative flame-displacement speed. It is shown that the premixed flame anchors at an immediate downstream location near the bluff-body where favorable ignition conditions are established; a region associated with (1) a sufficiently high temperature impacted by the conjugate heat exchange between the heat-conducting bluff-body and the hot reacting flow and (2) a locally maximum stoichiometry characterized by the preferential diffusion effects. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  1. Processes of coastal bluff erosion in weakly lithified sands, Pacifica, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, B.D.; Sitar, N.

    2008-01-01

    Coastal bluff erosion and landsliding are currently the major geomorphic processes sculpting much of the marine terrace dominated coastline of northern California. In this study, we identify the spatial and temporal processes responsible for erosion and landsliding in an area of weakly lithified sand coastal bluffs located south of San Francisco, California. Using the results of a five year observational study consisting of site visits, terrestrial lidar scanning, and development of empirical failure indices, we identify the lithologic and process controls that determine the failure mechanism and mode for coastal bluff retreat in this region and present concise descriptions of each process. Bluffs composed of weakly cemented sands (unconfined compressive strength - UCS between 5 and 30??kPa) fail principally due to oversteepening by wave action with maximum slope inclinations on the order of 65 at incipient failure. Periods of significant wave action were identified on the basis of an empirical wave run-up equation, predicting failure when wave run-up exceeds the seasonal average value and the bluff toe elevation. The empirical relationship was verified through recorded observations of failures. Bluffs composed of moderately cemented sands (UCS up to 400??kPa) fail due to precipitation-induced groundwater seepage, which leads to tensile strength reduction and fracture. An empirical rainfall threshold was also developed to predict failure on the basis of a 48-hour cumulative precipitation index but was found to be dependent on a time delay in groundwater seepage in some cases.

  2. Bird Diversity and Composition in Even-Aged Loblolly Pine Stands Relative to Emergence of 13-year Periodical Cicadas and Vegetation Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Hestir; Michael D. Cain

    1999-01-01

    In southern Arkansas, l3-year periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) were expected to emerge in late April and early May of 1998. Presence of a superabundant food source, such as periodical cicadas, may attract greater numbers of birds and more species of birds than is usually present in a particular area. Three even-aged loblolly pine (Pinus...

  3. Direct numerical simulation of bluff-body-stabilized premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Arias, Paul G.

    2014-01-10

    To enable high fidelity simulation of combustion phenomena in realistic devices, an embedded boundary method is implemented into direct numerical simulations (DNS) of reacting flows. One of the additional numerical issues associated with reacting flows is the stable treatment of the embedded boundaries in the presence of multicomponent species and reactions. The implemented method is validated in two test con gurations: a pre-mixed hydrogen/air flame stabilized in a backward-facing step configuration, and reactive flows around a square prism. The former is of interest in practical gas turbine combustor applications in which the thermo-acoustic instabilities are a strong concern, and the latter serves as a good model problem to capture the vortex shedding behind a bluff body. In addition, a reacting flow behind the square prism serves as a model for the study of flame stabilization in a micro-channel combustor. The present study utilizes fluid-cell reconstruction methods in order to capture important flame-to-solid wall interactions that are important in confined multicomponent reacting flows. Results show that the DNS with embedded boundaries can be extended to more complex geometries without loss of accuracy and the high fidelity simulation data can be used to develop and validate turbulence and combustion models for the design of practical combustion devices.

  4. Manipulation of flow around bluff bodies by flexible slender filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyeganeh, Mohammad; Pinelli, Alfredo

    2016-11-01

    Manipulation of bluff bodies wakes to control the intensity of fluid forces and the induced solid vibrations is of paramount importance. A biomimetic passive control based on the use of flexible slender appendages protruding from the body into the separated region has shown promising achievements in drag reduction and moderating force fluctuations. The present research aimed at understating and optimizing the physical properties and the arrangement of elongated flexible filaments to delay the 3D transition of the wake in terms of Reynolds number, mean drag reduction, and mitigation of the force fluctuations. The numerical campaign unveiled the role of flexural stiffness of the filaments: matching the natural frequency with the vortex shedding frequency enhances the mixing at the lee side. However, softer filaments (i.e. larger time scales) lock-in on either side of mid plane breaking the symmetry of the flow field (inducing a net lift force). In addition to 2D effects, the presence of filaments can interfere with the 3D bifurcation process resulting in a delay of the spanwise destabilization of the wake. The most effective parameter for this transitional interference is the spacing between filaments that should be smaller than the wavelength of the dominant 3D unstable mode.

  5. Suspension flows past bluff bodies: Investigation in a microfluidic environment

    CERN Document Server

    Shojaei-Zadeh, Shahab

    2010-01-01

    This sequence of fluid dynamics videos illustrates the behavior of a suspension of noncolloidal particles flowing past various bluff body obstacles within a microfluidic device. The polystyrene particles, of 7 {\\mu}m diameter and volume fraction of 8.4%, are carefully made neutrally buoyant with the suspending liquid composed of a mixture of water and a small fraction of glycerol. The channel depth is 60 {\\mu}m and the typical length of the obstacles normal to the flow direction is 200 {\\mu}m. The flow rate is varied to generate Reynolds numbers based on the scale of the obstacle in the approximate range 60 < Re < 500; the narrow dimension in the depth direction suppresses onset of unsteadiness and vortex shedding, so that the flows studied are found to be steady (aside from particle-scale fluctuations). Particles are observed to be depleted in the wake region of the obstacle. In certain cases, the entire wake is clear of particles; in other cases there is a portion of the wake in which particles recirc...

  6. 78 FR 9448 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00061

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Arkansas Disaster AR-00061 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  7. 2015 Fact Book: Arkansas Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Department of Higher Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This publication provides governmental and higher education decision-makers a statewide perspective of Arkansas public higher education finance for the 2015-17 biennium, as well as trends for the past several years. It also contains a detailed financial profile of each institution and presents a basis for comparative assessments of revenue sources…

  8. Battle Brewing Over Arkansas Creationism Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rudy

    1981-01-01

    Reports recent proceedings regarding a new law enacted in early 1981 in Arkansas which requires schools that teach evolution to teach what the law calls "creation-science." Opposition to the law by the American Civil Liberties Union is discussed. (CS)

  9. Lodgepole Pine Dwarf Mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank G. Hawksworth; Oscar J. Dooling

    1984-01-01

    Lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum Nutt. ex Engelm.) is a native, parasitic, seed plant that occurs essentially throughout the range of lodgepole pine in North America. It is the most damaging disease agent in lodgepole pine, causing severe growth loss and increased tree mortality. Surveys in the Rocky Mountains show that the parasite is found in...

  10. 78 FR 5202 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Arkansas State University Museum, Jonesboro, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Arkansas State University Museum, Jonesboro, AR AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Arkansas State University Museum... culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Arkansas State University Museum....

  11. 78 FR 5199 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Arkansas State University Museum, Jonesboro, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Arkansas State University Museum, Jonesboro, AR AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Arkansas State University Museum... associated funerary objects may contact the Arkansas State University Museum. Repatriation of the...

  12. Identifying sites for elk restoration in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesco, R.L.; Van Manen, F.T.; Clark, J.D.; Cartwright, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    We used spatial data to identify potential areas for elk (Cervus elaphus) restoration in Arkansas. To assess habitat, we used locations of 239 elk groups collected from helicopter surveys in the Buffalo National River area of northwestern Arkansas, USA, from 1992 to 2002. We calculated the Mahalanobis distance (D2) statistic based on the relationship between those elk-group locations and a suite of 9 landscape variables to evaluate winter habitat in Arkansas. We tested model performance in the Buffalo National River area by comparing the D2 values of pixels representing areas with and without elk pellets along 19 fixed-width transects surveyed in March 2002. Pixels with elk scat had lower D2 values than pixels in which we found no pellets (logistic regression: Wald χ2 = 24.37, P cover, gently sloping ridge tops and valleys, low human population density, and low road densities. To assess the potential for elk–human conflicts in Arkansas, we used the analytical hierarchy process to rank the importance of 8 criteria based on expert opinion from biologists involved in elk management. The biologists ranked availability of forage on public lands as having the strongest influence on the potential for elk–human conflict (33%), followed by human population growth rate (22%) and the amount of private land in row crops (18%). We then applied those rankings in a weighted linear summation to map the relative potential for elk–human conflict. Finally, we used white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) densities to identify areas where success of elk restoration may be hampered due to meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) transmission. By combining results of the 3 spatial data layers (i.e., habitat model, elk–human conflict model, deer density), our model indicated that restoration sites located in west-central and north-central Arkansas were most favorable for reintroduction.

  13. Analysis and inundation mapping of the April-May 2011 flood at selected locations in northern and eastern Arkansas and southern Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Drew A.; Merriman, Katherine R.; De Lanois, Jeanne L.; Berenbrock, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation that fell from April 19 through May 3, 2011, resulted in widespread flooding across northern and eastern Arkansas and southern Missouri. The first storm produced a total of approximately 16 inches of precipitation over an 8-day period, and the following storms produced as much as 12 inches of precipitation over a 2-day period. Moderate to major flooding occurred quickly along many streams within Arkansas and Missouri (including the Black, Cache, Illinois, St. Francis, and White Rivers) at levels that had not been seen since the historic 1927 floods. The 2011 flood claimed an estimated 21 lives in Arkansas and Missouri, and damage caused by the flooding resulted in a Federal Disaster Declaration for 59 Arkansas counties that received Federal or State assistance. To further the goal of documenting and understanding floods, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers–Little Rock and Memphis Districts, and Arkansas Natural Resources Commission, conducted a study to summarize meteorological and hydrological conditions before the flood; computed flood-peak magnitudes for 39 streamgages; estimated annual exceedance probabilities for 37 of those streamgages; determined the joint probabilities for 11 streamgages paired to the Mississippi River at Helena, Arkansas, which refers to the probability that locations on two paired streams simultaneously experience floods of a magnitude greater than or equal to a given annual exceedance probability; collected high-water marks; constructed flood-peak inundation maps showing maximum flood extent and water depths; and summarized flood damages and effects. For the period of record used in this report, peak-of-record stage occurred at 24 of the 39 streamgages, and peak-of-record streamflow occurred at 13 of the 30 streamgages where streamflow was determined. Annual exceedance probabilities were estimated to be less than 0.5 percent at three

  14. Interactions of bluff-body obstacles with turbulent airflows affecting evaporative fluxes from porous surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Erfan; Or, Dani

    2015-11-01

    Bluff-body obstacles interacting with turbulent airflows are common in many natural and engineering applications (from desert pavement and shrubs over natural surfaces to cylindrical elements in compact heat exchangers). Even with obstacles of simple geometry, their interactions within turbulent airflows result in a complex and unsteady flow field that affects surface drag partitioning and transport of scalars from adjacent evaporating surfaces. Observations of spatio-temporal thermal patterns on evaporating porous surfaces adjacent to bluff-body obstacles depict well-defined and persistent zonation of evaporation rates that were used to construct a simple mechanistic model for surface-turbulence interactions. Results from evaporative drying of sand surfaces with isolated cylindrical elements (bluff bodies) subjected to constant turbulent airflows were in good agreement with model predictions for localized exchange rates. Experimental and theoretical results show persistent enhancement of evaporative fluxes from bluff-rough surfaces relative to smooth flat surfaces under similar conditions. The enhancement is attributed to formation of vortices that induce a thinner boundary layer over part of the interacting surface footprint. For a practical range of air velocities (0.5-4.0 m/s), low-aspect ratio cylindrical bluff elements placed on evaporating sand surfaces enhanced evaporative mass losses (relative to a flat surface) by up to 300% for high density of elements and high wind velocity, similar to observations reported in the literature. Concepts from drag partitioning were used to generalize the model and upscale predictions to evaporation from surfaces with multiple obstacles for potential applications to natural bluff-rough surfaces.

  15. Wall effect on fluid-structure interactions of a tethered bluff body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sumant; Raghav, Vrishank; Komerath, Narayanan; Smith, Marilyn

    2013-11-01

    Wind tunnel experiments have shown an unexplained amplification of the free motion of a tethered bluff body in a small wind tunnel relative to that in a large wind tunnel. The influence of wall proximity on fluid-structure interaction is explored using a compound pendulum motion in the plane orthogonal to a steady freestream with a doublet model for aerodynamic forces. Wall proximity amplifies a purely symmetric single degree of freedom oscillation with the addition of an out-of-phase force. The success of this simple level of simulation enables progress to develop metrics for unsteady wall interference in dynamic testing of tethered bluff bodies.

  16. Thirty-eight years of autogenic, woody understory dynamics in a mature, temperature pine-oak forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, M.D.; Shelton, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    In 1935, 32 ha of a pine-hardwood forest were set aside from future timber management in southern Arkansas, U.S.A. Old-growth timber had been cut to a 36-cm stump diameter before 1915. During 38 years of assessment, no catastrophic disturbances occurred within the 32-ha forest. Although loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) dominated the overstory (64% of basal area in 1954 and 63% in 1993), pines were absent from the understory in all but seedling size classes for the last 38 years. Woody understory diversity indices were essentially stable for 38 years, but the similarity of understory species tended to decline as the time between inventories increased. Relative importance values for woody understory species tended to increase for the more shade-tolerant genera and decrease for less tolerant genera. Survival and height growth for woody understory species were also found to be positively correlated with shade tolerance.

  17. Distributed forcing of the flow past a blunt-based axisymmetric bluff body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Thierry; Bury, Yannick

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we address the influence of a blowing-/suction-type distributed forcing on the flow past a blunt-based axisymmetric bluff body by means of direct numerical simulations. The forcing is applied via consecutive blowing and suction slots azimuthally distributed along the trailing edge of the bluff body. We examine the impact of the forcing wavelength, amplitude and waveform on the drag experienced by the bluff body and on the occurrence of the reflectional symmetry preserving and reflectional symmetry breaking wake modes, for Reynolds numbers 800 and 1,000. We show that forcing the flow at wavelengths inherent to the unforced flow drastically damps drag oscillations associated with the vortex shedding and vorticity bursts, up to their complete suppression. The overall parameter analysis suggests that this damping results from the surplus of streamwise vorticity provided by the forcing that tends to stabilize the ternary vorticity lobes observed at the aft part of the bluff body. In addition, conversely to a blowing-type or suction-type forcing, the blowing-/suction-type forcing involves strong nonlinear interactions between locally decelerated and accelerated regions, severely affecting both the mean drag and the frequencies representative of the vortex shedding and vorticity bursts.

  18. Site investigation of Bluff, May 24-26, 1983: Trip report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of the site visit were to 1) familiarize ourselves with Bluff in relation to present and future proposals to mine by dredge, near-shore sed5ments for...

  19. 36 CFR 7.72 - Arkansas Post National Memorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Memorial. 7.72 Section 7.72 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.72 Arkansas Post National Memorial. (a... landed from or on lands within the Arkansas Post National Memorial. ...

  20. 78 FR 61251 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Heber Springs, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Heber Springs, Arkansas. AGENCY: Federal... Making filed by Sydney Allison Sugg, proposing the allotment of Channel 270C3 at Heber Springs, Arkansas, as the community's third local service. Channel 270C3 can be allotted to Heber Springs...

  1. Employee Retention at ABC & Co. Northwest Arkansas. Research Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Timothy; And Others

    A 7-month research project was conducted by graduate students at a garment manufacturing plant in Fayetteville, Arkansas, to gain information about high employee turnover. Information also was gathered about the employment situation in northwest Arkansas in general, union-labor relationships, and how other companies handled turnover. Data were…

  2. Exploring Arkansas's Private Education Sector. School Survey Series #6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catt, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    This report synthesizes information about Arkansas's private schools from two separate surveys conducted by the Friedman Foundation and the U.S. Department of Education (USDOE). If the Friedman Foundation survey data are representative of the state's private schools, then Arkansas's private schools have enough empty seats to increase current…

  3. A Feasibility Study of Youth Apprenticeship in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobs for the Future, Inc., West Somerville, MA.

    A study assessed the feasibility and attractiveness of youth apprenticeship in Arkansas in over 80 interviews with employers in 5 key Arkansas industries and occupations. They were allied health, food processing (equipment repair and maintenance and lab technician/quality control), information services, metalworking, and self-employment and…

  4. How UAPB students eat: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    The University of ArkansasPine Bluff Delta Obesity Prevention Research Project (DOPRP) is focused on nutritional adherence to the dietary guidelines, prevention of excess weight, promotion of healthy eating, and maintenance of a healthy weight during the college years. Adjusting to college life ...

  5. 75 FR 44982 - Arkansas Valley Conduit (AVC) and Long-Term Excess Capacity Master Contract, Fryingpan-Arkansas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ..., Fryingpan-Arkansas Project (Fry-Ark Project) Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION... proposed feature of the Fryingpan-Arkansas (Fry-Ark) Project, and the issuance of an Excess Capacity Master...-Ark Project water in Pueblo Reservoir, a feature of the Fry-Ark Project. The water would be used...

  6. Hurricane Katrina winds damaged longleaf pine less than loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Butnor; John S. Kush; Ronald C. Schmidtling; C. Dana. Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that longleaf pine might be more tolerant of high winds than either slash pine (Pinus elliotii Englem.) or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We studied wind damage to these three pine species in a common garden experiment in southeast Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina,...

  7. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  8. Arkansas' Anemometer Loan Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando Vego

    2012-10-11

    The measurement campaign had one year duration from 04/01/2011 to 03/31/2012 and was taken at 20m and 34m with NRG instrumentation. The data was analyzed weekly to check inconsistencies and validity and processed using Excel, Flexpro and Windographer standard Edition Version 2.04. The site analyzed is located in the Waldron, Arkansas in Scott County. It is an open site for most of the direction sectors with immediate roughness class of 1.5. It has seasonally directional winds, of which the most energetic come from the southern direction. The vertical wind profile shows moderate wind shear that varies by season as well.

  9. Population status and reproductive success of cliff-nesting seabirds at Bluff, Alaska in 1985: Report of field results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1985 fieldwork was conducted at the Bluff colony in Norton Sound to provide a continuing assessment of numbers and reproductive performance of Common Murres (Uria...

  10. Earthquakes in Arkansas and vicinity 1699-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Richard L.; Ausbrooks, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    This map summarizes approximately 300 years of earthquake activity in Arkansas. It is one in a series of similar State earthquake history maps. Work on the Arkansas map was done in collaboration with the Arkansas Geological Survey. The earthquake data plotted on the map are from several sources: the Arkansas Geological Survey, the Center for Earthquake Research and Information, the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, and the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality. In addition to earthquake locations, other materials presented include seismic hazard and isoseismal maps and related text. Earthquakes are a legitimate concern in Arkansas and parts of adjacent states. Arkansas has undergone a number of significant felt earthquakes since 1811. At least two of these events caused property damage: a magnitude 4.7 earthquake in 1931, and a magnitude 4.3 earthquake in 1967. The map shows all historical and instrumentally located earthquakes in Arkansas and vicinity between 1811 and 2010. The largest historic earthquake in the vicinity of the State was an intensity XI event, on December 16, 1811; the first earthquake in the New Madrid sequence. This violent event and the earthquakes that followed caused considerable damage to the then sparsely settled region.

  11. Numerical investigations on effects of bluff body in flat plate micro thermo photovoltaic combustor with sudden expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄂加强; 黄海蛟; 赵晓欢

    2016-01-01

    In order to reveal combustion characteristics of H2/air mixture in a micro-combustor with and without bluff body, the effects of inlet velocities, equivalence ratios and bluff body’s blockage ratios on the temperature field, pressure of the combustor wall, combustion efficiency and blow-off limit were investigated. The numerical results indicate that the sudden expansion plate micro combustor with bluff body could enhance the turbulent disturbance of the mixed gas in the combustion chamber and the combustion condition is improved. Moreover, a low-speed and high temperature recirculation region was formed between the sudden expansion step and the bluff body so that the high and uniform wall temperature (>1000 K) could be gotten. As a result, it could strengthen the mixing process, prolong the residence time of gas, control the flame position effectively and widen the operation range by the synergistic effect of the bluff body and steps. When the blockage ratio ranged from 0.3 to 0.6, it could be found that the bluff body could play a stabilizing effect and expand combustion blow burning limit, and combustion efficiency firstly was increased with the inlet velocity and equivalence ratio, and then was decreased.

  12. Examining Patterns of Carbon Assimilation and Allocation to Defense Processes in a Restored Southern Pine Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritger, H.; Novick, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Southern pine forests provide many important ecosystem services, including biodiversity, carbon sequestration, and softwood timber production, which is a vital component of local economies in the American South. However, all southern pine forests are sensitive to damage from infestations of bark beetles and drought events, which can lead to declines in productivity that may cause mortality in extreme cases, and which may increase in frequency in the future due to ongoing climate change. This study explores how southern pine management for restored, old-growth like conditions, in contrast with management for timber production, affects stand scale drought response and tree resistance to bark beetle herbivory by leveraging a suite of data from a new eddy covariance flux monitoring site in a 65-year-old restored loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (Pinus echinata) pine forest situated in the Crossett Experimental Forest (Arkansas, USA). The sensitivity of ecosystem scale fluxes of CO2 and H2O to drought is interpreted through a synthesis with other long-running Ameriflux sites located in southern pine forests. The effects of the management regime on resin production, which is the pine trees' main defense against beetle attacks, are assessed by comparing monthly resin flow observations collected over the course of the 2013 growing season in the restored stand and in a co-located stand of even-age planted loblolly pines managed for timber production. Results show that loblolly in the uneven-aged stand consistently produced much larger amounts of resin than loblolly in the even-aged stand, and shortleaf pines were the lowest producers throughout the growing season. No significant relationship between resin flow and diameter at breast height was observed within or across species and sites; thus, species and management effects are independent of their effect on tree size.

  13. Large eddy simulation of flows around ground vehicles and other bluff bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnovic, Sinisa

    2009-07-28

    A brief review of large eddy simulation (LES) applications for different bluff-body flows performed by the author and his co-workers is presented. Examples of flows range from simple cube flows characterized by sharp edge separation over a three-dimensional hill where LES relies on good near-wall resolution, to complex flows of a tall, finite cylinder that contains several flow regimes that cause different challenges to LES. The second part of the paper is devoted to flows around ground vehicles at moderate Reynolds numbers. Although the present review proves the applicability of LES for various bluff-body flows, an increase of the Reynolds number towards the operational speeds of ground vehicles requires accurate near-wall modelling for a successful LES.

  14. Orientation of bluff body for designing efficient energy harvesters from vortex-induced vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, H. L. [Department of Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Abdelkefi, A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Yang, Y., E-mail: cywyang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wang, L. [Department of Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-02-01

    The characteristics and performances of four distinct vortex-induced vibrations (VIVs) piezoelectric energy harvesters are experimentally investigated and compared. The difference between these VIV energy harvesters is the installation of the cylindrical bluff body at the tip of cantilever beam with different orientations (bottom, top, horizontal, and vertical). Experiments show that the synchronization regions of the bottom, top, and horizontal configurations are almost the same at low wind speeds (around 1.5 m/s). The vertical configuration has the highest wind speed for synchronization (around 3.5 m/s) with the largest harvested power, which is explained by its highest natural frequency and the smallest coupled damping. The results lead to the conclusion that to design efficient VIV energy harvesters, the bluff body should be aligned with the beam for low wind speeds (<2 m/s) and perpendicular to the beam at high wind speeds (>2 m/s)

  15. Aquifers of Arkansas: protection, management, and hydrologic and geochemical characteristics of groundwater resources in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Merriman, Katherine R.; Gillip, Jonathan A.; Fugitt, D. Todd; Spellman, Jane L.; Nottmeier, Anna M.; Westerman, Drew A.; Blackstock, Joshua M.; Battreal, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen aquifers in Arkansas that currently serve or have served as sources of water supply are described with respect to existing groundwater protection and management programs, geology, hydrologic characteristics, water use, water levels, deductive analysis, projections of hydrologic conditions, and water quality. State and Federal protection and management programs are described according to regulatory oversight, management strategies, and ambient groundwater-monitoring programs that currently (2013) are in place for assessing and protecting groundwater resources throughout the State.

  16. Final Environmental Assessment (EA) for Headquarters Building Construction and Main Gate Reconfiguration White Bluff, Spokane, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    falcon Falco peregrinus SOC S Mammals Long-eared myotis Myotis evotis SOC None Townsend’s big-eared bat Corynorhinus townsendii pallescens SOC C...noted during interviews with WB personnel. The underlayment and insulation in buildings that include flat gravel-style roofs was reported to include...Bluff Environmental Assessment (EA) Page 3-14 prove otherwise, it is generally considered that all building materials other than wood , steel, or glass

  17. Simulations and experiments on the ignition probability in turbulent premixed bluff-body flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitte, Michael Philip; Bach, Ellen; Kariuki, James; Bauer, Hans-Jörg; Mastorakos, Epaminondas

    2016-05-01

    The ignition characteristics of a premixed bluff-body burner under lean conditions were investigated experimentally and numerically with a physical model focusing on ignition probability. Visualisation of the flame with a 5 kHz OH* chemiluminescence camera confirmed that successful ignitions were those associated with the movement of the kernel upstream, consistent with previous work on non-premixed systems. Performing many separate ignition trials at the same spark position and flow conditions resulted in a quantification of the ignition probability Pign, which was found to decrease with increasing distance downstream of the bluff body and a decrease in equivalence ratio. Flows corresponding to flames close to the blow-off limit could not be ignited, although such flames were stable if reached from a richer already ignited condition. A detailed comparison with the local Karlovitz number and the mean velocity showed that regions of high Pign are associated with low Ka and negative bulk velocity (i.e. towards the bluff body), although a direct correlation was not possible. A modelling effort that takes convection and localised flame quenching into account by tracking stochastic virtual flame particles, previously validated for non-premixed and spray ignition, was used to estimate the ignition probability. The applicability of this approach to premixed flows was first evaluated by investigating the model's flame propagation mechanism in a uniform turbulence field, which showed that the model reproduces the bending behaviour of the ST-versus-u‧ curve. Then ignition simulations of the bluff-body burner were carried out. The ignition probability map was computed and it was found that the model reproduces all main trends found in the experimental study.

  18. The blow-off mechanism of a bluff-body stabilized laminar premixed flame

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.

    2015-04-01

    © 2014 The Combustion Institute. The objective of this work is to investigate the dynamics leading to blow-off of a laminar premixed flame stabilized on a confined bluff-body using high fidelity numerical simulations. We used unsteady, fully resolved, two-dimensional simulations with detailed chemical kinetics and species transport for methane-air combustion. The flame-wall interaction between the hot reactants and the heat conducting bluff-body was accurately captured by incorporating the conjugate heat exchange between them. Simulations showed a shear-layer stabilized flame just downstream of the bluff-body, with a recirculation zone formed by the products of combustion. The flame was negatively stretched along its entire length, primarily dominated by the normal component of the strain. Blow-off was approached by decreasing the mixture equivalence ratio, at a fixed Reynolds number, of the incoming flow. A flame is stable (does not undergo blow-off) when (1) flame displacement speed is equal to the flow speed and (2) the gradient of the flame displacement speed normal to its surface is higher than the gradient of the flow speed along the same direction. As the equivalence ratio is reduced, the difference between the former and the latter shrinks until the dynamic stability condition (2) is violated, leading to blow-off. Blow-off initiates at a location where this is first violated along the flame. Our results showed that this location was far downstream from the flame anchoring zone, near the end of the recirculation zone. Blow-off started by flame pinching separating the flame into an upstream moving (carried within the recirculation zone) and a downstream convecting (detached from the recirculation zone) flame piece. Within the range of operating conditions investigated, the conjugate heat exchange with the bluff-body had no impact on the flame blow-off.

  19. Drag of a D-shaped bluff body under small amplitude harmonic actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqing Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Open-loop flow control method was used to affect the development of a turbulent wake behind a D-shaped bluff body. Loud speakers were embedded inside the bluff body to produce two zero-net-mass-flux jets through 2 mm-wide span-wise slots located along the upper and lower edges on the rear wall. The drag forces for different actuation amplitudes (Cμ, the ratio between the momentum of the actuating jets and the moment deficit caused by the bluff body and frequencies (StA were examined. The effects of the phase difference in the two jets (0 and π were also studied. It was found that when Cμ was 0.1%, a drag reduction up to 5% was achieved when the velocities of the two jets varied in phase at a frequency of StA=0.16. When the velocities of the two jets varied π out of phase, significant drag increase was observed.

  20. Transition to bluff body dynamics in the wake of vertical axis turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Daniel; Dabiri, John

    2015-11-01

    A unifying characteristic among bluff bodies is a similar wake structure independent of the shape of the body. We present experimental data to demonstrate that the wake of a vertical axis wind/water turbine (VAWT) shares similar features to that of a bluff body, namely a circular cylinder. For a fixed Reynolds number (Re ~ 104) and variable tip-speed ratio, 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to measure the velocity field in the wake of three different laboratory-scale turbines: a 2-bladed, 3-bladed, and 5-bladed VAWT, each with similar geometry. From the PIV measurements, the time-averaged and dynamic characteristics of the wake are evaluated. In all cases, we observe three distinct regions in the VAWT wake: (1) the near wake, where periodic blade shedding dominates; (2) a transition region, where blade vortices decay and growth of a shear layer instability occurs; (3) the far wake, where bluff body wake oscillations dominate. We further characterize this wake transition with regard to turbine solidity and examine its relation to the mean flow, an important metric for power production within a wind farm.

  1. Dynamics of bluff-body-stabilized lean premixed syngas flames in a meso-scale channel

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Bok Jik

    2016-07-15

    Direct numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the dynamics of lean premixed syngas flames stabilized by a bluff-body in a meso-scale channel at near blow-off conditions, in order to provide fundamental insights into the physical mechanisms responsible for the critical phenomena. Flames in a two-dimensional meso-scale channel with a square flame holder are adopted as the model configuration, and a syngas mixture at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 with the CO:H ratio of 1 is considered. As the inlet velocity is increased, the initially stable steady flames undergo a transition to an unsteady mode of regular asymmetric fluctuation. When the inlet velocity is further increased, the flame is eventually blown off. Between the regular fluctuation mode and blow-off limit, there exists a narrow range of the inlet velocity where the flames exhibit periodic local extinction and recovery. Approaching further to the blow-off limit, the recovery mode fails to occur but the flame survives as a short kernel attached to the base of the bluff-body, until it is completely extinguished as the attached flames are gradually shrunk towards the bluff-body. The results are systematically compared with the hydrogen flame results reported in our earlier study. Examination of the characteristic time scales of relevant processes provided understanding of key mechanisms responsible for the observed differences, thereby allowing improved description of the local extinction and re-ignition dynamics that are critical to flame stabilization.

  2. Interaction between leading and trailing edge vortex shedding: effects of bluff body geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zachary; Kopp, Gregory; Gurka, Roi

    2011-11-01

    Elongated bluff bodies are distinguished from shorter bluff bodies (e.g., circular cylinders) by the fact that they have separating-reattaching flow at the leading edge as well as having vortex shedding at the trailing edge. Engineering examples of these bodies include heat exchanger fins and long-span suspension bridges. We have performed experiments on elongated bluff bodies of varying geometry. These experiments have been performed at Reynolds numbers O(104) based on the thickness of the model. Both surface pressure measurements (using 512 simultaneously sampled pressure taps) and PIV are used to quantify the flow fields of these bodies. The leading edge separation angle is controlled by changing the leading edge geometry. It is observed that the size of the leading edge separation bubble increases with increasing leading edge separation angle. As the size of the leading edge separation bubble increases, it is shown to continually decrease the shedding frequency for a given elongation ratio. It is suggested that the shedding frequency is diminished because the trailing edge vortex shedding is affected by the structures being shed from the leading edge separation bubble. The implications of this competition between leading and trailing edge flows will be explored.

  3. Regional assessment of nonforestry related biomass resources: Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    This document consists of spreadsheets detailing in a county by county manner agricultural crop, agricultural waste, municipal waste and industrial waste in Arkansas that are potential biomass energy sources.

  4. Central Arkansas National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Central Arkansas NWR Complex for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Complex...

  5. Final Critical Habitat for the Arkansas River Shiner (Notropis girardi)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Arkansas River Shiner (Notropis girardi) occur. The geographic extent includes New...

  6. PINE -- Electronic mail interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, G. R.

    The PINE mail interface is a user-friendly mail utility for Unix systems. It has been adopted by Starlink as the recommended mail utility because of its ease of use compared with the mail utilities supplied as standard with the Unix operating system. PINE is intended to be intuitive and "to be learned by exploration rather than reading manuals". Here however are a few brief notes to get you started.

  7. Archeological Investigation at Montgomery Point, Desha County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    listed in the same census were the voyageurs trading on the Arkansas, White and St. Francis Rivers (Vaudreull Papers, LO 200). Life at the post settled...tied to the systems of navigation and commerce on the Mississippi, Arkansas, and White Rivers. Although the Mississippi River was a highway of trade...was guaranteed that a real system of commerce developed. Beginning with flatboats and keelboats, expanding during the steamboat era, and continuing into

  8. A quasi-steady 3 degree-of-freedom model for the determination of the onset of bluff body galloping instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstrup, H.; Georgakis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a quasi-steady three degree-of-freedom (3-dof) flow-induced galloping instability model for bluff-bodies is proposed. The proposed model can be applied generally for the prediction of onset of galloping instability due to negative aerodynamic damping of any prismatic compact bluff...... of galloping instability due changes in drag, lift and moment, assuming that the bluff body is subject to uniform flow and motion. The changes may be a function of wind angle of attack (a) perpendicular to bluff body’s length axis, Reynolds number and a skew wind angle (f) in relation to the length axis...

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Arkansas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Arkansas.

  10. 78 FR 72877 - Arkansas Electric Corporation v. Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Arkansas Electric Corporation v. Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company; Notice... Procedure of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206, Arkansas Electric Corporation (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company...

  11. Pine nut allergy in perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falliers, C J

    1989-03-01

    Anaphylaxis and other acute allergic reactions following the ingestion of pine--or pinon--nuts are documented and reviewed in perspective. Systemic allergic reactions to other relatively uncommon or "exotic" foods are also considered. Although hypersensitivity to more than one type of "nuts" is reported by some individuals, no significant cross-reactivity between any of these, or between pine pollen, pine resin, and pine nuts has been demonstrated.

  12. The response of a harmonically forced premixed flame stabilized on a heat-conducting bluff-body

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 The Combustion Institute. The objective of this work is to investigate the unsteady response of a bluff-body stabilized laminar premixed flame to harmonic inlet velocity excitation. A time series analysis was performed to analyze the physical sequence of events at a fixed longitudinal forcing frequency of 100 Hz for cases with (1) two different equivalence ratios and (2) two different thermal properties of the stabilizing bluff-body. It was observed that conjugate heat exchange between the heat conducting bluff-body and the surrounding reacting flow has a crucial impact on the dynamic response. The flame area and anchoring location, the net conjugate heat transfer and the total heat release underwent significant oscillations. The latter was mean shifted and had multiple frequencies. The burning velocity varied significantly along the flame length and the recirculation zone underwent complex changes in its shape and size during an unsteady cycle. The lower equivalence ratio case exhibited vortex shedding after an initial symmetric response with periodic flame extinction and re-ignition along its surface, unlike the higher equivalence ratio case. The metal/ceramic bluff-body showed a net heat transfer directed from/to the bluff-body, to/from the reacting flow during an unsteady cycle, resulting in a significantly different flame response for the two otherwise equivalent cases.

  13. Whitebark pine mortality related to white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle outbreak, and water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Erin; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Thoma, David P.; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Ray, Andrew; Legg, Kristin; Shovic, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests in the western United States have been adversely affected by an exotic pathogen (Cronartium ribicola, causal agent of white pine blister rust), insect outbreaks (Dendroctonus ponderosae, mountain pine beetle), and drought. We monitored individual trees from 2004 to 2013 and characterized stand-level biophysical conditions through a mountain pine beetle epidemic in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Specifically, we investigated associations between tree-level variables (duration and location of white pine blister rust infection, presence of mountain pine beetle, tree size, and potential interactions) with observations of individual whitebark pine tree mortality. Climate summaries indicated that cumulative growing degree days in years 2006–2008 likely contributed to a regionwide outbreak of mountain pine beetle prior to the observed peak in whitebark mortality in 2009. We show that larger whitebark pine trees were preferentially attacked and killed by mountain pine beetle and resulted in a regionwide shift to smaller size class trees. In addition, we found evidence that smaller size class trees with white pine blister rust infection experienced higher mortality than larger trees. This latter finding suggests that in the coming decades white pine blister rust may become the most probable cause of whitebark pine mortality. Our findings offered no evidence of an interactive effect of mountain pine beetle and white pine blister rust infection on whitebark pine mortality in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Interestingly, the probability of mortality was lower for larger trees attacked by mountain pine beetle in stands with higher evapotranspiration. Because evapotranspiration varies with climate and topoedaphic conditions across the region, we discuss the potential to use this improved understanding of biophysical influences on mortality to identify microrefugia that might contribute to successful whitebark pine conservation

  14. Biography of Dr. Eugene W. Smith Arkansas State University President 1984 to 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Glenda

    2012-01-01

    A president of a university in the state of Arkansas would benefit from researching the roots of the educational system within the state. Even though the state now has a number of universities that have evolved and are on the cutting-edge of advanced technology, Arkansas was slow in growth and development. Since Arkansas was slow to expand public…

  15. Forest Inventory and Analysis: What it Tells Us About Water Quality in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin L. Miller; Hal O. Liechty

    2001-01-01

    Forests and forest activities have a significant impact on the amount and quality of surface water in Arkansas. Recognizing this important relationship between forests and water quality, we utilized the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data from Arkansas to better understand how forest land use in Arkansas has likely influenced the water quality in the State during...

  16. 40 CFR 81.139 - Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.139 Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Arkansas Intrastate...

  17. 40 CFR 81.140 - Northwest Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.140 Northwest Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northwest Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northwest Arkansas Intrastate...

  18. 40 CFR 81.138 - Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.138 Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Arkansas Intrastate...

  19. 75 FR 66306 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Arkansas Waterway, Little Rock, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ..., Little Rock, AR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Drawbridge operations for the Baring Cross Railroad Drawbridge across the Arkansas Waterway at Mile 119.6 at Little Rock, Arkansas... (NPRM) entitled Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Arkansas Waterway, Little ] Rock, AR in the...

  20. Guide to Surficial Geology and River-Bluff Exposures, Noatak National Preserve, Northwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    From its origin in rugged granitic highlands of the central Brooks Range, the Noatak River flows westward between the De Long Mountains and the Baird Mountains before turning south to enter Kotzebue Sound. Glaciers of middle and late Pleistocene age entered the Noatak River valley from the east, north, and south. Glaciers flowed down the upper Noatak River valley from the rugged peaks at its head, merging with tributary glaciers that issued from cirque-headed valleys along its south flank. Farther downvalley, small glaciers flowed northward from the Baird Mountains and much larger glaciers issued from the De Long Mountains. The De Long Mountains glaciers expanded southward to cover parts of the Noatak valley floor; they dammed the Noatak River during successive advances, creating a series of glacial lakes. The more extensive glacial advances dammed huge lakes that filled the Aniuk Lowland to overflowing. At various times, overflow waters spilled northward through Howard Pass, southward via Hunt River into the Kobuk River system, and westward down a series of channelways that skirted south of the glacier margins. Prominent bluffs along the Noatak River and its principal tributaries reveal glacial, glaciolacustrine, fluvial, and eolian sediments. More than 120 measured bluff exposures are described and illustrated in this report. These are dated by 92 radiocarbon age determinations and by the presence of the old Crow tephra, which was deposited about 130,000-140,000 years ago. Six geologic base maps, which cover sections of the Noatak River valley from east to west, show the locations of the river bluffs in relation to the glacial, glaciolacustrine, and fluvial deposits that cover the valley floor. The upper Noatak River valley is dominated by a bulky end moraine near Douglas Creek that was deposited during the last glacial maximum about 25,000-15,000 14C yr BP (termed the Itkillik II phase in the central Brooks Range glacial succession). Bluffs along this section of

  1. Map showing recent and historic landslide activity on coastal bluffs of Puget Sound between Shilshole Bay and Everett, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, R.L.; Harp, E.L.; Hultman, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Many landslides occurred on the coastal bluffs between Seattle and Everett, Washington during the winters of 1996 and 1997. Shallow earth slides and debris flows were the most common, but a few deep-seated rotational earth slides also occurred. The landslides caused significant property damage and interfered with rail traffic; future landslides in the area pose significant hazards to property and public safety. Field observations indicate that ground-water seepage, runoff concentration, and dumping at the tops of the bluffs all contributed to instability of the bluffs. Most landslides in the study area occurred in colluvium, residuum, and landslide deposits derived from the Vashon Drift, particularly the advance outwash. In the northern part of the area, colluvium derived from the Pleistocene Whidbey Formation was also involved in shallow landslides. Comparison of recent activity with historic records in the southern part of the map area indicates that landslides tend to occur in many of the same areas as previous landslides.

  2. Recent development of vortex method in incompressible viscous bluff body flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lan; JI Feng; FAN Jian-ren; CEN Ke-fa

    2005-01-01

    Vortex methods have been alternative tools of finite element and finite difference methods for several decades. This paper presents a brief review of vortex method development in the last decades and introduces efficient vortex methods developed for high Reynolds number bluffbody flows and suitable for running on parallel computer architectures. Included in this study are particle strength exchange methods, core-spreading method, deterministic particle method and hybrid vortex methods. Combined with conservative methods, vortex methods can comprise the most available tools for simulations of three-dimensional complex bluff body flows at high Reynolds numbers.

  3. Numerical modelling of a turbulent bluff-body flow with Reynolds stress turbulent models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guoxiu; Dirk ROEKAERTS

    2005-01-01

    Numerical modelling of a turbulent bluff-body flow has been performed using differential Reynolds stress models (DRSMs). To clarify the applicability of the existing DRSMs in this complex flow, several typical DRSMs, including LRR-IP model, JM model, SSG model, as well as a modified LRR-IP model, have been validated and evaluated. The performance difference between various DRSMs is quite significant. Most of the above mentioned DRSMs cannot provide overall satisfactory predictions for this challenging test case. Motivated by the deficiency of the existing approaches, a new modification of LRR-IP model has been proposed. A very significant improvement of the prediction of flow field is obtained.

  4. Return to Coalsack Bluff and the Permian Triassic boundary in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallack, Gregory J.; Greaver, Tara; Jahren, A. Hope

    2007-01-01

    Coalsack Bluff was the first discovery site in Antarctica for the latest Permian to earliest Triassic reptile Lystrosaurus. This together with discovery of Permian Glossopteris leaves during the heroic age of Antarctic exploration, indicated not only that Antarctica was part of Gondwanaland, but also that Antarctic rocks recorded faunas from the greatest of all mass extinctions at the Permian-Triassic boundary. Pinpointing the exact stratigraphic level of this life crisis has recently become possible using δ 13C values in terrestrial organic matter. Multiple, short-lived events of 13C depletion may reflect carbon cycle crises, with the isotopic change a measure of terrestrial and atmospheric disequilibrium. Additional evidence for ecosystem reorganization came from changes in paleosol types and their root traces. Such studies previously completed at the Antarctic localities of Graphite Peak, Mount Crean, Portal Mountain, Shapeless Mountain and Allan Hills, are here extended to Coalsack Bluff. Carbon isotopic values in Permian rocks at Coalsack Bluff average - 23.08 ± 0.25‰, but begin to decline within the last coal with leaves ( Glossopteris), roots ( Vertebraria) and permineralized stumps ( Araucarioxylon) of glossopterids. The low point in ä 13C values is - 27.19‰ at 5.6 m above the last coal, which is capped by unusually abundant pyrite, and a claystone breccia with common clasts of redeposited clayey soils. Above this are massive quartz-rich sandstones of braided streams, considered a geomorphic response to deforestation and soil erosion following the mass extinction. Distinctive berthierine-bearing paleosols (Dolores pedotype) within these sandstones have unoxidized iron taken as evidence of severe groundwater hypoxia. Other paleosols at this stratigraphic level are like those in other Early Triassic rocks of Antarctica, which indicate unusually warm and humid conditions for such high paleolatitude lowlands. Waterlogging is also indicated by newly

  5. Dry-surface coating method for visualization of separation on a bluff body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, W. Z.; Brauer, H. J.; Durgin, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    A simple and relatively accurate dry-surface coating method for visualization of the flow separation on a circular cylinder (or any bluff body) during wind tunnel tests is described. The technique consists of (1) application of a thin coating composed of an indicator and a paint carrier; (2) drying of the film; (3) conditioning of the coating with an acidic solution to ensure a suitable color reaction; (4) release into the body wake of a gas able to produce a base through chemical reaction with the solvent of the conditioning solution; and (5) color reaction according to pH.

  6. Characterization of the turbulent bistable flow regime of a 2 D bluff body wake disturbed by a small control cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parezanović, Vladimir; Monchaux, Romain; Cadot, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    A small control cylinder placed in a turbulent wake of a much larger 2 D bluff body can cause a significant increase in drag fluctuations. These fluctuations occur on timescales longer than the timescales of the vortex shedding. The critical positions of the control cylinder are highly localized. Ensemble averages of PIV acquisitions and pressure measurements at the base of the bluff body reveal a bistable wake regime. Long duration hot-wire measurements are used to characterize the states and the transition process. The results show that a stochastic process is responsible for the transitions between the two stable states.

  7. Peak streamflow on selected streams in Arkansas, December 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaker, Brian K.

    2017-01-11

    Heavy rainfall during December 2015 resulted in flooding across parts of Arkansas; rainfall amounts were as high as 12 inches over a period from December 27, 2015, to December 29, 2015. Although precipitation accumulations were highest in northwestern Arkansas, significant flooding occurred in other parts of the State. Flood damage occurred in several counties as water levels rose in streams, and disaster declarations were declared in 32 of the 75 counties in Arkansas.Given the severity of the December 2015 flooding, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), conducted a study to document the meteorological and hydrological conditions prior to and during the flood; compiled flood-peak gage heights, streamflows, and flood probabilities at USGS streamflow-gaging stations; and estimated streamflows and flood probabilities at selected ungaged locations.

  8. Simulation, Modeling and Feedback Control of the flow around a Square-Back Bluff Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Longa, Laurent; Morgans, Aimee; Imperial College London-Flow Control Team

    2015-11-01

    Because of capacity, aesthetic and comfort requirements, most road vehicles are not streamlined but blunt bluff bodies. The flow exhibits a large wake recirculation area leading to high pressure drag, which at highway speeds, represents the main source of energy loss. In this work, Large Eddy Simulations of the flow past a square-back bluff body with interacting shear layers are performed with the aim of reducing aerodynamic drag. A linear feedback control strategy is applied to increase the back face pressure and therefore obtain drag reduction. Synthetic jets located along the perimeter of the back face are used for actuation while body mounted sensors record the base pressure. System identification, via harmonic actuator forcing, is used to characterize the flow response to actuation, which is assumed to be dynamically linear. Based on the identified frequency response, a feedback controller is designed in the frequency domain which aims to either attenuate or amplify base pressure fluctuations by shaping of the sensitivity transfer function. This is first done for a D-shaped body. Current work extends this strategy to a simplified lorry geometry on which experiments were carried out recently.

  9. Results of hydrologic monitoring on landslide-prone coastal bluffs near Mukilteo, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joel B.; Baum, Rex L.; Mirus, Benjamin B.; Michel, Abigail R.; Stark, Ben

    2017-08-31

    A hydrologic monitoring network was installed to investigate landslide hazards affecting the railway corridor along the eastern shore of Puget Sound between Seattle and Everett, near Mukilteo, Washington. During the summer of 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey installed monitoring equipment at four sites equipped with instrumentation to measure rainfall and air temperature every 15 minutes. Two of the four sites are installed on contrasting coastal bluffs, one landslide scarred and one vegetated. At these two sites, in addition to rainfall and air temperature, volumetric water content, pore pressure, soil suction, soil temperature, and barometric pressure were measured every 15 minutes. The instrumentation was designed to supplement landslide-rainfall thresholds developed by the U.S. Geological Survey with a long-term goal of advancing the understanding of the relationship between landslide potential and hydrologic forcing along the coastal bluffs. Additionally, the system was designed to function as a prototype monitoring system to evaluate criteria for site selection, instrument selection, and placement of instruments. The purpose of this report is to describe the monitoring system, present the data collected since installation, and describe significant events represented within the dataset, which is published as a separate data release. The findings provide insight for building and configuring larger, modular monitoring networks.

  10. Bluff-body stabilized flame dynamics of lean premixed syngas combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hong G.; Kim, Yu Jeong; Lee, Bok Jik; Kaust Team

    2015-11-01

    Recently, syngas combustion has been actively investigated for the potential application to integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While lean premixed combustion is attractive for both reduced emission and enhanced efficiency, flame instability becomes often an issue. Bluff-bodies have been adopted as effective flame holders for practical application of premixed flames. In the present study, high-fidelity direct numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the dynamics of lean premixed syngas flames stabilized on a bluff-body, in particular at the near blow-off regime of the flame. A two-dimensional domain of 4 mm height and 20 mm length with a flame holder of a 1 mm-by-1 mm square geometry is used. For a syngas mixture with the equivalence ratio of 0.5 and the CO:H2 ratio of 1, several distinct flame modes are identified as the inflow velocity approaches to the blowoff limit. The sequences of extinction pathway and combustion characteristics are discussed.

  11. Dynamics of bluff-body-stabilized premixed hydrogen/air flames in a narrow channel

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Bok Jik

    2015-06-01

    Two-dimensional direct numerical simulations were conducted for bluff-body stabilized flames of a lean hydrogen/air mixture at near-blowoff conditions in a meso-scale channel. Parametric simulations were conducted by incrementally varying the inflow velocity in the vicinity of the blowoff limit, and the corresponding flame response was monitored. The present study is a showcase of combustion DNS with embedded boundary representation, and full demonstration of the detailed visualization of the near-blowoff flame characteristics. As the inflow velocity approaches blowoff limit, the flame dynamics exhibit a complex sequence of events, such as periodic local extinction and recovery, and regrowth of the bulk flame by the flame segments attached behind the bluff-body. The total extinction is observed as the attached flames shrink down and are no longer able to regrow the bulk flames. Despite the disparity in the physical scale under study, the observed sequence of the extinction pathway shows a strong similarity with experimental observations at larger scale combustion systems. © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  12. Modelling and Feedback Control of Bistability in a Turbulent Bluff Body Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackston, Rowan; Wynn, Andrew; Garcia de La Cruz, Juan Marcos; Rigas, Georgios; Morrison, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    The turbulent wake behind many three-dimensional bluff bodies exhibits a bistable behaviour, the properties of which has been the subject of significant recent interest. This feature of the wake is known to contribute to the pressure drag on the body and is relevant for geometries representative of many road vehicles. Furthermore, due to its high visibility from surface mounted pressure measurements, it is a feature that may be observed and controlled in real-time. In Brackston et al. we have recently demonstrated such a feedback control strategy that aims to suppress the bistable feature of the wake. Starting from a stochastic modelling approach, we identify a linearised model for this mode of the flow, obtaining parameters via a system identification. The identified model is then used to design the feedback controller, with the aim of restoring the flow to the unstable, symmetric state. The controller is implemented experimentally at Re 2 . 3 ×105 and is found to both suppress the bistability of the flow and reduce the drag on the body. Furthermore, the control system is found to have a positive energy balance, providing a key demonstration of efficient feedback control applied to a 3D bluff body wake at turbulent Reynolds numbers.

  13. The flame anchoring mechanism and associated flow structure in bluff-body stabilized lean premixed flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Dan; Shanbhogue, Santosh; Ghoniem, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    We present numerical analysis of a lean premixed flame anchoring on a heat conducting bluff-body. Different mixtures of CH4/H2/air are analyzed in order to systematically vary the burning velocity, adiabatic flame temperature and extinction strain rate. The study was motivated by our experimental measurements in a step combustor which showed that both the recirculation zone length and stability map under acoustically coupled conditions for different fuels and thermodynamic conditions collapse using the extinction strain rate. The model fully resolves unsteady two-dimensional flow with detailed chemistry and species transport, and without artificial flame anchoring boundary conditions. The model includes a low Mach number operator-split projection algorithm, coupled with a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement and an immersed boundary method for the solid body. Calculations reveal that the recirculation zone length correlates with the flame extinction strain rate, consistent with the experimental evidence. It is found that in the vicinity of the bluff body the flame is highly stretched and its leading edge location is controlled by the reactants combustion characteristics under high strain. Moreover, the flame surface location relative to the shear layer influences the vorticity thus impacting the velocity field and the recirculation zone. The study sheds light on the experimentally observed collapse of the combustor dynamics using the reactants extinction strain rate.

  14. Pumice in the interglacial Whidbey Formation at Blowers Bluff, central Whidbey Island, WA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethier, D.P.; Dragovich, J.D.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Fleck, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    A new 40Ar/39Ar age of 128??9 ka and chemical analyses of pumice layers from interglacial alluvium at Blowers Bluff, Whidbey Island, WA, show that the deposits are part of the Whidbey Formation, a widespread, mainly subsurface unit. Glass chemistry of the dated dacitic pumice does not match any analyzed northern Cascade source, but upper Pleistocene dacites from Glacier Peak and early Pleistocene silicic rocks from the Kulshan caldera are chemically similar. The chemistry of pumiceous dacite in younger units, including the latest Pleistocene Partridge Gravel, is similar to that of the dated material. The deep troughs of the modern northern Puget lowland must have been filled during deposition of the Whidbey Formation, allowing volcanic-rich sediment to reach what is now Whidbey Island. Topographic analysis of LIDAR images demonstrates that extensive erosion occurred during latest Pleistocene ice retreat. The Partridge Gravel likely records subglacial fluvial erosion along an ice tunnel and ice-marginal deposition into adjacent marine waters. Pumice in the Partridge Gravel probably was reworked from stratigraphically and topographically lower deposits, including those at Blowers Bluff. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  15. Transitions to chaos in the wake of an axisymmetric bluff body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bury, Yannick, E-mail: yannick.bury@isae.fr [Université de Toulouse, ISAE, 10, avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse (France); Jardin, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.jardin@isae.fr [Université de Toulouse, ISAE, 10, avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2012-10-01

    This Letter aims at understanding the dynamical process that leads to the onset of chaos in the flow past a blunt-based axisymmetric bluff body. On the basis of direct numerical simulations, conducted for Reynolds numbers ranging from 100 to 900, we show that the flow undergoes multiple transitions, successively giving rise to the SS, RSP{sub a}, RSP{sub b}, RSP{sub c} and RSB wake states. In particular, the RSP{sub c} state, revealed in this work via long-term computations, is characterized by intermittent vortex stretching denoting the onset of chaos before the symmetry breaking and the occurrence of the RSB state. -- Highlights: ► We performed long-term Direct Numerical Simulations of the flow past an axisymmetric bluff body. ► We reveal the existence of a new wake mode. ► We show that this mode triggers chaos before the loss of planar symmetry in the wake. ► We decipher the transitions leading to this mode through the description of the wake structures.

  16. The Illinois Natural Heritage Conservation Education Kit V. [Ecology and Management of Special Habitats: Dune, Cave, Cliff, Bluff, and Urban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Sally F.

    The ecology and management of special habitats is the theme of this instructional guide. It contains 24 activities designed to help teachers familiarize their students with dune, cave, cliff, bluff, and urban habitats in Illinois. Each activity (which is ready to be copied and given to students) includes an objective (called a mission) and…

  17. 33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.169 Section 207.169 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  18. Error analysis of large-eddy simulation of the turbulent non-premixed sydney bluff-body flame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempf, A.M.; Geurts, B.J.; Oefelein, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    A computational error analysis is applied to the large-eddy simulation of the turbulent non-premixed Sydney bluff-body flame, where the error is defined with respect to experimental data. The errorlandscape approach is extended to heterogeneous compressible turbulence, which is coupled to combustion

  19. Trap lure blend of pine volatiles and bark beetle pheromones for Monochamus spp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in pine forests of Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel R; Dodds, Kevin J; Eglitis, Andy; Fettig, Christopher J; Hofstetter, Richard W; Langor, David W; Mayfield, Albert E; Munson, A Steven; Poland, Therese M; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2013-08-01

    In 2007-2008, we examined the flight responses of Monochamus titillator (F.) complex [M. titillator, Monochamus carolinensis (Olivier), and any possible hybrids], Monochamus scutellatus (Say), Monochamus clamator (LeConte), Monochamus obtusus Casey, and Monochamus mutator LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to multiple-funnel traps baited with and without host volatiles and bark beetle pheromones. Experiments were conducted in mature pine (Pinus) stands in Alberta (Canada), and Arkansas, Arizona, California, Florida, Idaho, Michigan, Montana, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Tennessee, Utah, and Wisconsin (United States). At each location, traps were deployed in 10 replicate blocks of four traps per block. The trap treatments were: 1) blank control; 2) ipsenol and ipsdienol; 3) ethanol and alpha-pinene; and 4) a quaternary blend of ipsenol, ipsdienol, ethanol, and alpha-pinene. All five species or species complex of Monochamus preferred traps baited with the quaternary blend over all other treatments. The consistency of these results across such a large geographic area suggests that similar selection pressures may be acting on Monochamus spp. in pine forests, regardless of variation in stand composition and climatic conditions. Our results suggest that multiple-funnel traps baited with the quaternary blend ofipsenol, ipsdienol, ethanol, and alpha-pinene may be highly effective for monitoring various Monochamus spp. in pine forests of North America, and may have utility in trapping and detection programs in North America and overseas.

  20. State Minimum Core Curricula: Arkansas Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    State minimum core curricula for two-year and four-year colleges and universities have been approved by the Arkansas Board of Higher Education. Within the framework of the State Minimum Core, each state institution is required to propose 35 semester/credit hours from its institutional general education core to be recognized for purposes of the…

  1. State Minimum Core Curricula: Arkansas Institutions of Higher Education, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    This document provides state minimum core curricula for each two- and four-year institution of higher education in Arkansas, determined by the Department of Higher Education. Courses within this core are to apply toward the general education core curriculum requirements for baccalaureate degrees at state-supported institutions and should be fully…

  2. State Minimum Core Curricula: Arkansas Institutions of Higher Education, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    In 1990 the Arkansas State Board of Higher Education adopted guidelines for the development of state minimum core curriculum response to state legislation. This legislation provides that courses within the core shall apply to the general education core curriculum requirements for baccalaureate degrees at state-supported institutions and shall be…

  3. Risks, Assets, and Negative Health Behaviors among Arkansas' Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.; Choudary, Wendie; Kearney, Anne; Piko, Bettina F.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between risk, assets, and negative health behaviors among a large sample of Hispanic adolescents. Data were collected from over 1,000 Hispanic youth in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 attending school in a moderate size school district in Northwest Arkansas. Logistic regression models examined the variation in the odds…

  4. Black bears in Arkansas: Characteristics of a successful translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly G.; Clark, Joseph D.

    1994-01-01

    In 1958, the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission began translocating black bears (Ursus americanus) from Minnesota to the Interior Highlands (Ozark and Ouachita mountains) of Arkansas where bears had been extirpated early in this century. This project continued for 11 years with little public imput, during which time an estimated 254 bears were released. We estimate there are now >2,500 bears in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma, making it one of the most successful translocations of a Carnivora. Factors that contributed to the success include use of wild-captured animals, elimination of major factors associated with extirpation, release into prime habitats within the former range, multiple release sites, release of 20–40 animals/year for eight years, and release of mostly males prior to release of mostly females. Studies on two allopatric populations demonstrate that they are now diverging in some demographic characteristics, including litter size, cub survivorship, and adult sex-ratio. Translocation of black bears to the Interior Highlands is successful in terms of numbers of animals, but it will not be truly successful until people accept black bears as part of the regional fauna. To that end, those associated with management and research of bears in Arkansas are now focussing on public education and control of nuisance bears.

  5. Project CAP. Boston Mountains Educational Cooperative, Greenland, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jack A.; Leffler, Jeanne

    This description of career education activities in Greenland, Arkansas, was prepared as part of a study conducted to identify evaluated, exemplary career education activities which represent the best of the current career education programs and practices referred to in Public Law 93-380. (See CE 018 212 for the final report of this study.) This…

  6. Alteration and geochemical zoning in Bodie Bluff, Bodie mining district, eastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, P.A.; Closs, L.G.; Silberman, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    Banded, epithermal quartz-adularia veins have produced about 1.5 million ounces of gold and 7 million ounces of silver from the Bodie mining district, eastern California. The veins cut dacitic lava flows, pyroclastic rocks and intrusions. Sinter boulders occur in a graben structure at the top of Bodie Bluff and fragments of sinter and mineralized quartz veins occur in hydrothermal breccias nearby. Explosive venting evidently was part of the evolution of the ore-forming geothermal systems which, at one time, must had reached the paleosurface. Previous reconnaissance studies at Bodie Bluff suggested that the geometry of alteration mineral assemblages and distribution of some of the major and trace elements throughout the system correspond to those predicted by models of hot-spring, volcanic rock hosted precious metal deposits (Silberman, 1982; Silberman and Berger, 1985). The current study was undertaken to evaluate these sugestions further. About 500 samples of quartz veins and altered rocks, including sinter, collected over a vertical extent of 200 meters within Bodie Bluff were petrographically examined and chemically analyzed for trace elements by emission spectrographic and atomic absorption methods. Sixty-five samples were analyzed for major elements by X-ray fluorescence methods. The results of these analyses showed that, in general, alteration mineral assemblage and vertical geochemical zoning patterns follow those predicted for hot-spring deposits, but that geochemical zoning patterns for sinter and quartz veins (siliceous deposits), and altered wall rocks are not always similar. The predicted depth-concentration patterns for some elements, notably Au, Ag, Hg, and Tl in quartz veins, and Hg, As and Ag in wall rocks were not as expected, or were perturbed by the main ore producing zone. For both quartz veins and altered wall rocks, the main ore zone had elevated metal contents. Increased concentration of many of these elements could indicate proximity to this

  7. Lithology, hydrologic characteristics, and water quality of the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer in the vicinity of Van Buren, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Westerman, Drew A.; Hart, Rheannon M.

    2015-01-01

    A study to assess the potential of the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer in the vicinity of Van Buren, Arkansas, as a viable source of public-supply water was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Little Rock, District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. An important study component was to identify possible changes in hydrologic conditions following installation of James W. Trimble Lock and Dam 13 (December 1969) on the Arkansas River near the study area. Data were gathered for the study in regard to the lithology, hydrologic characteristics, and water quality of the aquifer. Lithologic information was obtained from drillers’ logs of wells drilled from 1957 through 1959. Water-quality samples were collected from 10 irrigation wells and analyzed for inorganic constituents and pesticides. To evaluate the potential viability of the alluvial aquifer in the Van Buren area, these data were compared to similar stratigraphic, lithologic, and groundwater-quality data from the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer at Dardanelle, Ark., where the aquifer provides a proven, productive, sole-source of public-supply water.

  8. Effects of bluff-body burner and coal particle size on NOx emissions and burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, L.S.; Cheng, J.F.; Zeng, H.C. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). National Coal Combustion Lab.

    1999-12-01

    Investigations on air staging have been carried out using various coals with different degrees of fineness and a variety of burners with a 92.9 kw h{sup -1} tunnel furnace burning pulverized coal. It has been observed that using the bluff-body burner can reduce both the unburned carbon in fly ash and NOx emissions in the case of air staging. The experimental results show that air-staging combustion has a more remarkable effect on NOx reduction for higher-volatile coal than for lower-volatile coal. The results also show that there is a strong influence of coal particle size on NOx emissions and unburned carbon in the fly ash in the case of air staging. 13 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. High-Speed Linear Raman Spectroscopy for Instability Analysis of a Bluff Body Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Jun; Fischer, David

    2013-01-01

    We report a high-speed laser diagnostics technique based on point-wise linear Raman spectroscopy for measuring the frequency content of a CH4-air premixed flame stabilized behind a circular bluff body. The technique, which primarily employs a Nd:YLF pulsed laser and a fast image-intensified CCD camera, successfully measures the time evolution of scalar parameters (N2, O2, CH4, and H2O) in the vortex-induced flame instability at a data rate of 1 kHz. Oscillation of the V-shaped flame front is quantified through frequency analysis of the combustion species data and their correlations. This technique promises to be a useful diagnostics tool for combustion instability studies.

  10. Vortex-acoustic lock-on in bluff-body and backward-facing step combustors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S R Chakravarthy; R Sivakumar; O J Shreenivasan

    2007-02-01

    Experimental data on acoustic pressure measurements obtained over a wide range of conditions is reported for two simple geometries that are commonly studied for their combustion dynamics behaviour. These geometries are the confined bluff-body and the confined backward-facing steps. The data indicate regimes of flow-acoustic lock-on that signifies the onset of combustion instability, marked by the excitation of high-amplitude discrete tones of sound in the combustor. The highspeed chemiluminescence imaging of the combustion zone indicates heat-release-rate fluctuations occurring at the same frequencies as observed in the acoustic spectra. Attention is then devoted to the data obtained under cold-flow conditions to illustrate distinctly different behaviour than when combustion instability occurs, contrary to the commonly held view that the combustion process does not alter the underlying fluid mechanical processes under low-Mach number conditions.

  11. A dry-surface coating method for visualization of separation. [bluff bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, W. Z.; Brauer, H. J.; Durgin, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    A relatively simple and reasonably accurate dry-surface coating method for visualization of the separation line on a bluff body was devised and successfully tested. This technique is based on the color reaction of a dry film containing a pH indicator with an appropriate gas released in the body wake. The dry-surface coating method is effective at any Reynolds number and for both incident laminar and turbulent flows. It further supplies a colorful permanent of consistently good photographic quality of the separation line. The effectiveness and accuracy of this technique were tested in visualizing the separation angle on a circular cylinder in both laminar and turbulent crossflows at subcritical Reynolds numbers. Separation angles revealed by the visualization were within + or - 4 percent of their counterparts deduced from the mean wall pressure distribution.

  12. Mountain pine beetles use volatile cues to locate host limber pine and avoid non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis A. Gray; Justin B. Runyon; Michael J. Jenkins; Andrew D. Giunta

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not...

  13. Modeling flow around bluff bodies and predicting urban dispersion using large eddy simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Heng; Meneveau, Charles; Parlange, Marc B

    2006-04-15

    Modeling air pollutant transport and dispersion in urban environments is especially challenging due to complex ground topography. In this study, we describe a large eddy simulation (LES) tool including a new dynamic subgrid closure and boundary treatment to model urban dispersion problems. The numerical model is developed, validated, and extended to a realistic urban layout. In such applications fairly coarse grids must be used in which each building can be represented using relatively few grid-points only. By carrying out LES of flow around a square cylinder and of flow over surface-mounted cubes, the coarsest resolution required to resolve the bluff body's cross section while still producing meaningful results is established. Specifically, we perform grid refinement studies showing that at least 6-8 grid points across the bluff body are required for reasonable results. The performance of several subgrid models is also compared. Although effects of the subgrid models on the mean flow are found to be small, dynamic Lagrangian models give a physically more realistic subgrid-scale (SGS) viscosity field. When scale-dependence is taken into consideration, these models lead to more realistic resolved fluctuating velocities and spectra. These results set the minimum grid resolution and subgrid model requirements needed to apply LES in simulations of neutral atmospheric boundary layer flow and scalar transport over a realistic urban geometry. The results also illustrate the advantages of LES over traditional modeling approaches, particularly its ability to take into account the complex boundary details and the unsteady nature of atmospheric boundary layer flow. Thus LES can be used to evaluate probabilities of extreme events (such as probabilities of exceeding threshold pollutant concentrations). Some comments about computer resources required for LES are also included.

  14. A comparison of dispersion calculations in bluff body wakes using LES and unsteady RANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschkewitz, J S

    2006-01-19

    Accurate modeling of the dispersion behavior of sprays or particles is critical for a variety of problems including combustion, urban pollution or release events, and splash and spray transport around heavy vehicles. Bluff body wakes are particularly challenging since these flows are both highly separated and strongly unsteady. Attempting to model the dispersion of droplets or particles interacting with bluff body wakes is even more difficult since small differences in the flow field encountered by particles can lead to large differences in the dispersion behavior. Particles with finite inertia can exhibit additional complicating effects such as preferential concentration. In this preliminary study, we consider the dispersion of solid particles in the wake of a rectangular plane at a Reynolds number (Re) of 10000 and that of droplets in the wake of a simplified tractor-trailer geometry at Re = 2 x 10{sup 6} using both the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) turbulence modeling approaches. The calculations were performed using identical meshes for both the LES and URANS models. Particle stresses are not backcoupled to the carrier fluid velocity solution. In the case of the rectangular plane wake, the LES calculation predicts a finer-scale and more persistent wake structure than the URANS one; the resulting particle dispersion is considerably ({approx} 40%) underpredicted for low inertia particles. For the case of the simplified tractor-trailer geometry, although the LES is underresolved, similar trends are observed with strong differences in the vertical and horizontal dispersion of the smallest particles. These results suggest that it may be necessary to use LES to accurately capture the dispersion behavior of small, low inertia particles or droplets, but that URANS may be sufficient for problems in which only large particles with substantial inertia are of primary concern.

  15. Experimental investigation of galloping piezoelectric energy harvesters with square bluff bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewere, Felix; Wang, Gang; Cain, Brian

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, both a baseline galloping piezoelectric energy harvester (GPEH) with a square bluff body and an improved GPEH with an impact bump stop are tested in a wind tunnel in order to determine the system damping, electrical response and limit cycle oscillation (LCO) amplitude. In the baseline GPEH, harvested voltage, LCO amplitude and damping ratio vary with wind velocity and electrical load. They all increase with increasing wind velocity under the same electrical load. Under each wind velocity, the damping ratio increases from the short circuit load, reaches a peak value at the electrical load resulting in a maximum voltage, and reduces the value at the open circuit load. The LCO amplitude shows the opposite trend compared to the damping case. It decreases as the electrical resistance load increases and reaches the minimum value when the damping ratio is highest. A resistance load of 100 kΩ yields a maximum peak power output. The impact stop is introduced to reduce bending stresses and improve the fatigue life of the baseline GPEH. The performance of the improved GPEH depends on the stop design parameters such as gap size, stop location and contact area. Comprehensive tests were conducted to investigate the effect of each parameter on the performance of the improved GPEH and an optimal bump stop configuration was determined. Compared to the expected proportional reduction in both electrical and structural responses, a maximum 70% reduction in LCO amplitude and only a maximum 20% reduction in harvested voltage are achieved in our optimal improved GPEH. The time variable and motion dependent aerodynamic forces acting on the bluff body could contribute to this. In summary, comprehensive experimental evaluations were conducted to characterize the performance of both baseline GPEHs and improved GPEHs. The baseline GPEH service life can be significantly improved by incorporating an impact bump stop. The improved GPEH design provides a practical solution to

  16. Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Fuel reduction treatments around pinyon pine trees began as a simple project but ended in something more complex, enjoyable, and rewarding. The project eventually led to pinyon species (Pinus monophylla and P. quadrifolia) reforestation efforts, something that has been tried in the past with disappointing results. The Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project and current...

  17. The Austrian x red pine hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield

    1963-01-01

    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  18. Multi-site Management Plan Ecoregional Conservation for the Ouachita Ecoregion Arkansas and Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    Ecological Studies: Analysis of vertebrates in the Inyo-white Mountains, California . In Proc: Management of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Small Mammals...Forests in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas and Oklahoma, Winrock International; 1992. Duncan, Wilbur H. and Leonard E. Foote. Wildflowers of the...Trees, Shrubs and Vines of Arkansas. Ozark Soc. Found.; 1989. Hunter, Carl G. Wildflowers of Arkansas (3rd. ed.). Ozark Soc. Found.; 1992 Hyatt

  19. Changes in Woodland Use from Longleaf Pine to Loblolly Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Schelhas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence suggesting that the United States’ roots are not in a state of “pristine” nature but rather in a “human-modified landscape” over which Native people have since long exerted vast control and use. The longleaf pine is a typical woodland use largely shaped by fires, lightning and by Native Americans. The frequent fires, which were used to reduce fuels and protect themselves from wildfires, enhance wildlife habitats and for hunting, protect themselves from predators and enemy tribes, led to the establishment of the fire dependent and fire tolerant longleaf pine across the southern landscape. In the last 3 centuries however, the range of longleaf ecosystem has been gradually replaced first by agriculture and then by loblolly pine farming. The joint effects of agricultural expansion, intense logging of the longleaf in the late 1800s, expanded fire control since the early 20th century, and subsequent bare-root planting beginning in the 1930s, has permitted loblolly pine to become dominantly established in the south. Longleaf and loblolly pines represent two distinct woodland uses and represent separate human values. This study investigated the change from longleaf pine use to loblolly pine farming in Southern US from perspectives of human values of land and natural resources.

  20. Middle Claiborne Aquifer: Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Outcrop and subcrop extent of the Middle Claiborne Aquifer in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee.

  1. Middle Claiborne Aquifer: Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the Middle Claiborne Aquifer in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee. The...

  2. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack is

  3. Floods of Selected Streams in Arkansas, Spring 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, Jaysson E.; Eng, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Floods can cause loss of life and extensive destruction to property. Monitoring floods and understanding the reasons for their occurrence are the responsibility of many Federal agencies. The National Weather Service, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. Geological Survey are among the most visible of these agencies. Together, these three agencies collect and analyze floodflow information to better understand the variety of mechanisms that cause floods, and how the characteristics and frequencies of floods vary with time and location. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored and assessed the quantity of streamflow in our Nation's streams since the agency's inception in 1879. Because of ongoing collection and assessment of streamflow data, the USGS can provide information about a range of surface-water issues including the suitability of water for public supply and irrigation and the effects of agriculture and urbanization on streamflow. As part of its streamflow-data collection activities, the USGS measured streamflow in multiple streams during extreme flood events in Arkansas in the spring of 2008. The analysis of streamflow information collected during flood events such as these provides a scientific basis for decision making related to resource management and restoration. Additionally, this information can be used by water-resource managers to better define flood-hazard areas and to design bridges, culverts, dams, levees, and other structures. Water levels (stage) and streamflow (discharge) currently are being monitored in near real-time at approximately 150 locations in Arkansas. The streamflow-gaging stations measure and record hydrologic data at 15-minute or hourly intervals; the data then are transmitted through satellites to the USGS database and displayed on the internet every 1 to 4 hours. Streamflow-gaging stations in Arkansas are part of a network of over 7,500 active streamflow-gaging stations operated by the USGS throughout the United

  4. Histoplasmosis associated with a bamboo bonfire--Arkansas, October 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselow, Dirk T; Safi, Haytham; Holcomb, David; Smith, Nathaniel; Wagner, Kendall D; Bolden, Branson B; Harik, Nada S

    2014-02-28

    On October 27, 2011, the Arkansas Department of Health (ADH) was notified by a northeast Arkansas primary care provider of a cluster of three histoplasmosis cases. On November 4, ADH was notified by a pediatric infectious diseases specialist regarding seven potential cases of pulmonary histoplasmosis associated with a family gathering that included a bonfire that burned bamboo from a grove that had been a red-winged blackbird roost. These reports prompted an outbreak investigation to ensure that the persons involved received appropriate medical care, to identify whether any novel exposures were associated with illness, and to determine whether any factors were associated with hospitalization. The investigation found that, among the 19 attendees at the family gathering, seven were confirmed with histoplasmosis, 11 were probable, and one did not have histoplasmosis.

  5. Environmental Impact Assessment. Overall Training Mission, Fort Chaffee, Arkansas,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    Lindane for fleas, and Warfarin for mice. (f) Fire protection and prevention. Fort Chaffee maintains its own fire protection service. At present...Sebastian County have inadequate diets , according to statistics acquired by the Cooperative Extension Service of~ the University of Arkansas, Division...adequate diet or lack knowledge of the basic four food groups. Homemakers lack the knowledge of principles of food cookery. Homemakers lack knowledge

  6. Theoretical analysis and experimental verification on valve-less piezoelectric pump with hemisphere-segment bluff-body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jing; Zhang, Jianhui; Xia, Qixiao; Wang, Shouyin; Huang, Jun; Zhao, Chunsheng

    2014-05-01

    Existing researches on no-moving part valves in valve-less piezoelectric pumps mainly concentrate on pipeline valves and chamber bottom valves, which leads to the complex structure and manufacturing process of pump channel and chamber bottom. Furthermore, position fixed valves with respect to the inlet and outlet also makes the adjustability and controllability of flow rate worse. In order to overcome these shortcomings, this paper puts forward a novel implantable structure of valve-less piezoelectric pump with hemisphere-segments in the pump chamber. Based on the theory of flow around bluff-body, the flow resistance on the spherical and round surface of hemisphere-segment is different when fluid flows through, and the macroscopic flow resistance differences thus formed are also different. A novel valve-less piezoelectric pump with hemisphere-segment bluff-body (HSBB) is presented and designed. HSBB is the no-moving part valve. By the method of volume and momentum comparison, the stress on the bluff-body in the pump chamber is analyzed. The essential reason of unidirectional fluid pumping is expounded, and the flow rate formula is obtained. To verify the theory, a prototype is produced. By using the prototype, experimental research on the relationship between flow rate, pressure difference, voltage, and frequency has been carried out, which proves the correctness of the above theory. This prototype has six hemisphere-segments in the chamber filled with water, and the effective diameter of the piezoelectric bimorph is 30mm. The experiment result shows that the flow rate can reach 0.50 mL/s at the frequency of 6 Hz and the voltage of 110 V. Besides, the pressure difference can reach 26.2 mm H2O at the frequency of 6 Hz and the voltage of 160 V. This research proposes a valve-less piezoelectric pump with hemisphere-segment bluff-body, and its validity and feasibility is verified through theoretical analysis and experiment.

  7. Model Validation for Propulsion - On the TFNS and LES Subgrid Models for a Bluff Body Stabilized Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the reacting results of simulating a bluff body stabilized flame experiment of Volvo Validation Rig using a releasable edition of the National Combustion Code (NCC). The turbulence models selected to investigate the configuration are the sub-grid scaled kinetic energy coupled large eddy simulation (K-LES) and the time-filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) simulation. The turbulence chemistry interaction used is linear eddy mixing (LEM).

  8. Phytoparasitic nematodes associated with three types of blueberries in arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J R; Robbins, R T

    1994-12-01

    Research and commercial blueberry plantings were sampled in October 1991 to determine the population densities and species of phytoparasitic nematodes associated with rabbiteye (Vaccinium ashei), southern highbush (Vaccinium sp.), and highbusb (V. corymbosum) blueberry cultivars and the sod middles between the blueberry rows. In the research planting at Clarksville, Arkansas, samples from the highbush cv. Bluecrop, the southern highbush cv. Cooper and Gulf Coast, and the sod middles had similar numbers of total vermiform phytoparasitic nematodes (125-451/250 cm(3) soil), whereas the samples from rabbiteye cv. Climax and Tifblue had significantly lower numbers (4/250 cm(3)). The major nematode species associated with blueberries and sod was Xiphinema americanum. In a research planting at Bald Knob, Arkansas, which contained Bluecrop and rabbiteye cultivars only, samples from Bluecrop and the sod had similar numbers (288 and 334/250 cm(3)), and the rabbiteye samples had significantly lower numbers (6-14/250 cm(3)). Xiphinema americanum was the major species found in the blueberry samples, whereas Mesocriconema ornata was the major species in the sod. Nematode population densities and species distribution in commercial rabbiteye plantings in nine counties in central and southwestern Arkansas varied greatly. The average population density for rabbiteye samples was 129/250 cm(3) and for sod was 577/250 cm(3). Weed infestations in the blueberry rows in the commercial plantings probably increased the population size and species distribution.

  9. Potentiometric surfaces and water-level trends in the Cockfield (upper Claiborne) aquifer in southern Arkansas and the Wilcox (lower Wilcox) aquifer of northeastern and southern Arkansas, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kirk D.

    2015-01-01

    The Cockfield aquifer, located in southern Arkansas, is composed of Eocene-age sand beds found near the base of the Cockfield Formation of Claiborne Group. The Wilcox aquifer, located in northeastern and southern Arkansas, is composed of Paleocene-age sand beds found in the middle to lower part of the Wilcox Group. The Cockfield and Wilcox aquifers are primary sources of groundwater. In 2010, withdrawals from the Cockfield aquifer in Arkansas totaled 19.2 million gallons per day (Mgal/d), and withdrawals from the Wilcox aquifer totaled 36.5 Mgal/d.

  10. Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Coastal Bluff Erosion near Barrow Alaska over the Past Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, K. B.; Lopez, A. F.; Aguirre, A.; Aiken, Q.; Cody, R. P.; Gaylord, A. G.; Manley, W. F.; Green, E.; Nelson, L.; Lougheed, V.; Velasco, A. A.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic coastal systems are recognized as being one of the most climate change - vulnerable ecosystems on Earth and represent a complex nexus for examining change at the interface between marine, terrestrial, atmospheric, cryospheric and social systems. Although coastal erosion has received increased attention in the Arctic, few studies have examined the fine scale spatiotemporal dynamics and variability in erosion rates relative to the range of factors that act concomitantly to control erosion (e.g. duration of ice free seas, bathymetry, wave action, sea and air temperature, landscape morphology). This study reports on the spatiotemporal dynamics of annual DGPS surveys of eroding coastal bluffs in northern Alaska near the city of Barrow. Surveys along ca. 11km of the Elson Lagoon coast have been conducted since 2002 and additional surveys along ca. 120km of Elson Lagoon and Chuckhi Sea coast have been conducted since 2013. There has been strong inter-annual spatiotemporal variability in erosion rates with no indication of a long term change in erosion rates over time. Factors controlling wave intensity (e.g. wind run, off shore bathymetry, aspect of the coast relative to prevailing winds) explain most variability in erosion rates over time but during relatively calm periods, landscape history and morphology become more important. These findings highlight the extreme fine scale spatiotemporal heterogeneity in erosion rates along the Arctic Coast, and the importance of incorporating both storm-related climatic events and landscape characteristics when forecasting future environmental states in Arctic coastal landscapes. Case studies outlining new remote sensing technologies and future directions of study will also be outlined including terrestrial and airborne LiDAR, and Kite, UAV, and satellite imagery that is being used to derive and monitor topographic and hydrological change near eroding coastal bluffs; a wireless sensor network of micrometeorological and optical

  11. "McLean v. Arkansas" (1982) and Beyond: Implications for Biology Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Mark W.; Moore, Randy

    2011-01-01

    To assess current trends of evolution instruction in high schools of the mid-South, we invited Arkansas high school biology teachers from across the state to respond to a survey designed to address this issue. We also asked students enrolled in a freshman-level, nonmajors biology course at a midsize public Arkansas university to recall their…

  12. Transport and transformation of nutrients and sediment in two agricultural watersheds in northeast Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture is vital to Arkansas economy as it contributes $20 billion annually, double the average national contribution to the state GDP. Arkansas is ranked in the top 5 in rice, cotton seed and sorghum, and top 20 in soybean, corn for grain, and wheat production nationally. Despite the importance...

  13. 78 FR 14319 - Arkansas; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Arkansas; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of Arkansas (FEMA-4100-DR), dated January 29,...

  14. 76 FR 36142 - Arkansas; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Arkansas; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of Arkansas (FEMA-1975-DR), dated May 2, 2011,...

  15. PTC 2005: Pulaski Technical College's Strategic Plan for Serving Central Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark

    Intended as a long-range agenda for Arkansas' Pulaski Technical College (PTC), this plan describes the planning process used at the college, sets forth college goals through the year 2005, and reviews strategies to help the college achieve its goals. Following introductory sections, the educational and training needs of Central Arkansas are…

  16. Association of School-Based Influenza Vaccination Clinics and School Absenteeism--Arkansas, 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquelais, Rachel E.; Safi, Haytham; Butler, Sandra; Smith, Nathaniel; Haselow, Dirk T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Influenza is a major cause of seasonal viral respiratory illness among school-aged children. Accordingly, the Arkansas Department of Health (ADH) coordinates >800 school-based influenza immunization clinics before each influenza season. We quantified the relationship between student influenza vaccination in Arkansas public schools…

  17. 78 FR 27306 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Dermott, Arkansas, and Cleveland, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Dermott, Arkansas, and Cleveland, Mississippi AGENCY... Delta Radio Network, LLC, substitutes FM Channel 224A for 289A at Dermott, Arkansas, and substitutes FM... CFR part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez,...

  18. 77 FR 47797 - Arkansas: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Arkansas: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program... Arkansas has applied to EPA for Final authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). EPA proposes to grant Final authorization to the State of...

  19. A Five-Year Retrospective on the Arkansas Department of Education Co-Teaching Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Cynthia; Dieker, Lisa Ann; Kirkpatrick, Rose Merry

    2012-01-01

    The Arkansas Department of Education Co-teaching Project was designed to assist Arkansas schools in the implementation of more inclusive service delivery models for students with disabilities. The project began due to a need to increase the number of students being served in less restrictive environments, but evolved into a systematic statewide…

  20. Allergic Reactions to Pine Nut: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, B; Novak, N

    2015-01-01

    Pine nut is a nutrient-rich food with a beneficial impact on human health. The many bioactive constituents of pine nut interact synergistically to affect human physiology in a favorable way. However, pine nut can trigger dangerous allergic reactions. Severe anaphylactic reactions to pine nut accounted for most of the 45 cases reported in the scientific literature. Pine nut allergy seems to be characterized by low IgE cross-reactivity with other commonly consumed nuts and a high monosensitization rate. The present review provides updated information on allergic reactions to pine nut, molecular characterization of its allergens, and potential homologies with other nut allergens.

  1. Biomimetic bluff body drag reduction by self-adaptive porous flaps

    CERN Document Server

    Mazellier, Nicolas; Kourta, Azeddine

    2011-01-01

    The performances of an original passive control system based on a biomimetic approach are assessed by investigating the flow over a bluff-body. This control device consists in a couple of flaps made from the combination of a rigid plastic skeleton coated with a porous fabric mimicking the shaft and the vane of the bird's feathers, respectively. The sides of a square cylinder have been fitted with this system so as to enable the flaps to freely rotate around their leading edge. This feature allows the movable flaps to self-adapt to the flow conditions. Comparing both the uncontrolled and the controlled flow, a significant drag reduction (up to 22%) has been obtained over a broad range of Reynolds number. The investigation of the mean flow reveals a noticeable modification of the flow topology at large scale in the vicinity of the controlled cylinder accounting for the increase of the pressure base in comparison with the natural flow. Meanwhile, the study of the relative motion of both flaps points out that the...

  2. GPU accelerated simulations of bluff body flows using vortex particle methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossinelli, Diego; Bergdorf, Michael; Cottet, Georges-Henri; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2010-05-01

    We present a GPU accelerated solver for simulations of bluff body flows in 2D using a remeshed vortex particle method and the vorticity formulation of the Brinkman penalization technique to enforce boundary conditions. The efficiency of the method relies on fast and accurate particle-grid interpolations on GPUs for the remeshing of the particles and the computation of the field operators. The GPU implementation uses OpenGL so as to perform efficient particle-grid operations and a CUFFT-based solver for the Poisson equation with unbounded boundary conditions. The accuracy and performance of the GPU simulations and their relative advantages/drawbacks over CPU based computations are reported in simulations of flows past an impulsively started circular cylinder from Reynolds numbers between 40 and 9500. The results indicate up to two orders of magnitude speed up of the GPU implementation over the respective CPU implementations. The accuracy of the GPU computations depends on the Re number of the flow. For Re up to 1000 there is little difference between GPU and CPU calculations but this agreement deteriorates (albeit remaining to within 5% in drag calculations) for higher Re numbers as the single precision of the GPU adversely affects the accuracy of the simulations.

  3. Combustion instability of pilot flame in a pilot bluff body stabilized combustor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Xiao; Yang Fujiang; Guo Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Combustion instability of pilot flame has been investigated in a model pilot bluff body stabilized combustor by running the pilot flame only. The primary objectives are to investigate the pilot flame dynamics and to provide bases for the study of the interaction mechanisms between the pilot flame and the main flame. Dynamic pressures are measured by dynamic pressure transduc-ers. A high speed camera with CH*bandpass filter is used to capture the pilot flame dynamics. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is used to further analyze the high speed images. With the increase of the pilot fuel mass flow rate, the pilot flame changes from stable to unstable state grad-ually. The combustion instability frequency is 136 Hz when the pilot flame is unstable. Numerical simulation results show that the equivalence ratios in both the shear layer and the recirculation zone increase as the pilot fuel mass flow rate increases. The mechanism of the instability of the pilot flame can be attributed to the coupling between the second order acoustic mode and the unsteady heat release due to symmetric vortex shedding. These results illustrate that the pilot fuel mass flow rate has significant influences on the dynamic stability of the pilot flame.

  4. Flow Control Behind Bluff Bodies through the Interaction of an Attached Resonant Flexible Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Samuel; Smith, John; Hibbins, Alastair; Sambles, Roy; Horsley, Simon

    2016-11-01

    Steady uniform flow, incident upon a bluff body can separate downstream causing a wake to form, this leads to the periodic shedding of vortices behind the body. By adding a thin flexible tail to the rear of the body one may reduce the drag as well as change the vortex shedding frequency (VSF). In this work we model the flow past a cylinder, in the Laminar flow regime, with an attached tail, varying the length and stiffness of the tail to couple the resonant frequencies of the tail to the natural VSF of the structure. We use this to explore how the drag and VSF of the system change as we couple to different vibrational modes of the tail. On increasing tail length, or decreasing tail stiffness progressively on passing where the natural VSF of the cylinder and tail resonances couple we see sharp increases in both the drag and VSF, which both gradually decrease again. The effect of changing the shape of the end of the tail is also investigated by exploring tails with square, rounded and triangular trailing edges. Experiments are being conducted in water at a higher Reynolds number using a tail made out of Neoprene to confirm these modelling results. DSTL.

  5. Experimental and numerical investigation of flow control on bluff bodies by passive ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, M.; Provenzano, G.; Pietrogiacomi, D.; Romano, G. P.

    2006-07-01

    In this work, the so-called natural or passive ventilation drag reduction method is investigated experimentally and numerically. Passive ventilation is performed by directly connecting the high pressure region at the front of a body to the lower pressure in the near wake using a venting duct; in this manner, a net mass flux is established within the wake. In particular, in aerodynamic applications it appears suitable to attain a global reduction in the drag of a body moving in a fluid and a reduction in turbulence levels by means of a global modification of the body wake. Velocity field investigations using particle image velocimetry measurements and a Reynolds averaged numerical code are employed at moderately high Reynolds numbers to clarify the effectiveness of drag reduction on a vented bluff body. The numerical and experimental results agree qualitatively, but the amount of reduction for the vented body (about 10%) is underestimated numerically. The effectiveness of drag reduction has been proved both for smooth and rough (single strip) models. Direct balance measurements are used for comparisons.

  6. Corrosion investigations, Tracy Red Bluff, California, and Boulder City, Nevada, ehv direct current tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backstrom, T.E.

    1965-01-01

    Evaluation of corrosion on buried metalwork, by the introduction of large direct currents into the ground, was studied during ehv dc transmission investigations in the Tracy-Red Bluff, California and the Boulder City, Nevada areas. Tests made on two types of electrodes showed that ehv dc ground return at test current levels would: (1) promote serious corrosion of buried metalwork within approximately 1/2-mile radius of the electrode with a ground mat electrode and mild corrosion with a deep-well electrode; (2) promote negligible-to-serious corrosion of buried pipelines within 1/2 to 3 mile radius of either a ground mat or deep-well electrode, depending on (a) distance of the pipelines from the electrode, (b) geometry of the two electrode-pipeline systems, and (c) horizontal extent of the pipelines; (3) impress negligible-to-mild corrosion of buried pipelines beyond a 3-mile radius of the electrode depending upon geometry of the electrode-pipeline system. Results show normal corrosion prevention techniques will be adequate to prevent corrosion of buried metalwork, if electrode is properly located. Use of ground return for only 8 to 24 hours per year on the ehv intertie, although with currents 2 to 3 times higher than test currents, will cause stray current damage of only a fraction of that expected with continuous operations.

  7. Combustion instability of pilot flame in a pilot bluff body stabilized combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Xiao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Combustion instability of pilot flame has been investigated in a model pilot bluff body stabilized combustor by running the pilot flame only. The primary objectives are to investigate the pilot flame dynamics and to provide bases for the study of the interaction mechanisms between the pilot flame and the main flame. Dynamic pressures are measured by dynamic pressure transducers. A high speed camera with CH∗ bandpass filter is used to capture the pilot flame dynamics. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD is used to further analyze the high speed images. With the increase of the pilot fuel mass flow rate, the pilot flame changes from stable to unstable state gradually. The combustion instability frequency is 136 Hz when the pilot flame is unstable. Numerical simulation results show that the equivalence ratios in both the shear layer and the recirculation zone increase as the pilot fuel mass flow rate increases. The mechanism of the instability of the pilot flame can be attributed to the coupling between the second order acoustic mode and the unsteady heat release due to symmetric vortex shedding. These results illustrate that the pilot fuel mass flow rate has significant influences on the dynamic stability of the pilot flame.

  8. Numerical acoustic analysis of a turbulent flow around a bluff body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianferra, Marta; Ianniello, Sandro; Armenio, Vincenzo

    2016-11-01

    A body invested by a fluid flow gives rise to vortical and turbulent three-dimensional fields, whose structure depends on the shape of the body itself and the Reynolds number. Then, pressure fluctuations occur in the field and propagate far away as noise. The acoustic analogy based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FWH) equation represents a rigorous way to deal with the problem, enabling the evaluation of noise through a post-processing of fluid dynamic data. Moreover, the presence of separate source terms theoretically allows to identify the dominant generating noise mechanisms taking place in the flow, which, of course, repre- sents a key information in view of any possible reduction or alteration of the acoustic field. This paper deals with a numerical, FWH-based acoustic analysis of a turbulent flow around a bluff body and, in particular, a 3D square cylinder in a uniform velocity field. The fluid dynamic solution is obtained through Large eddy simulations carried out using a standard Smagorinsky model at different Reynolds numbers. The acoustic solution is pursued by different integral solution forms of the FWH equation, in the attempt of recognizing the main noise sources and pointing out the potentiality and possible weak-points of the alternative numerical approaches.

  9. Erosional history of Cape Halkett and contemporary monitoring of bluff retreat, Beaufort Sea coast, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, Christopher D.; Beck, Richard A.; Grosse, Guido; Webster, James M.; Urban, Frank E.

    2009-01-01

    Cape Halkett is located along the Beaufort Sea at the end of a low-lying tundra landscape. The area has been subject to major modifications over the last century as a result of erosion and migration of the coastline inland. Long-term mean annual erosion rates (1955-2009) for the entire cape are 7.6 m/yr, with a gradual increase in rates over the first five time periods of remotely sensed imagery analyzed and a large increase during the most recent time period. Division of the cape into three distinct coastal zones shows very different erosional patterns: the northeast-facing segment (Zone 1) showing a consistent and large increase; the southeast-facing segment (Zone 3) showing a gradual increase with recent, heightened erosion rates; and the east-facing segment (Zone 2) showing decreased rates due to the reformation of a sand and gravel spit. Monitoring of bluff erosion with time-lapse photography, differential GPS surveys, terrestrial and bathymetric surveys, and water level, sea and permafrost temperature data provide insights into the processes driving contemporary patterns of erosion and will provide valuable information for the prediction of future shoreline positions.

  10. Limber pine forests on the leading edge of white pine blister rust distribution in Northern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Betsy A. Goodrich; Anna W. Schoettle

    2011-01-01

    The combined threats of the current mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) epidemic with the imminent invasion of white pine blister rust (caused by the non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, WPBR) in limber pine (Pinus flexilis) forests in northern Colorado threatens the limber pine's regeneration cycle and ecosystem function. Over one million...

  11. Species determination of pine nuts in commercial samples causing pine nut syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Aase Æ.; Jessen, Flemming; Ballin, Nicolai Z.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of pine nuts from the species of Pinus armandii has been reported to cause dysgeusia, commonly known as pine mouth, or pine nut syndrome (PNS). However, the number of reports on pine nut consumptions of the different species and PNS is limited. This leaves open the possibility...

  12. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Curtis A; Runyon, Justin B; Jenkins, Michael J; Giunta, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species.

  13. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Curtis A.; Runyon, Justin B.; Jenkins, Michael J.; Giunta, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species. PMID:26332317

  14. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis A Gray

    Full Text Available The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp. are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species.

  15. Traits of Masson Pine Affecting Attack of Pine Wood Nematode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Shi; You-Qing Luo; Ji-Ying Song; Hai-Wei Wu; Lei Wang; Gary Z. Wang

    2007-01-01

    Masson pine characteristics were analyzed in five sample plots in Zhejiang Province, China.Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle (pine wood nematode, PWN) carried by Monochamus alternatus predominately attacked Masson pines in the lower diameter classes.Among the 10 tree characteristics examined, mean crown width, percentage of bole with crown, 5-year cumulative diameter growth, and resin amount showed significant variation between successfully attacked and unattacked trees.The attacked trees had a lower percentage of the bole covered with tree crown, lower crown width, lower radial growth in the last 5 years, and produced less induced resinosis than unattacked trees.Results allowed for effective ranking of the pine forest based on individual tree resistance to PWN.This Index of resistance should be considered throughout the development of an "Evaluation Criterion and Indicator System".The preceding ranking can be used to evaluate the resistance and resiliency of the pine forest ecosystem to PWN's invasion, which is similar to Pest Risk Analysis (PRA).

  16. Hybrids of sugar pine by embryo culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. C. Stone; J. W. Duffield

    1950-01-01

    A modified embryo culture technique was used to facilitate germination of seed obtained after pollinating sugar pine with pollen from blister rust- resistant Armand and Korean pines. Resulting seedlings appear to be hybrids.

  17. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Singh, Preet [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and the efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  18. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J; Singh, Preet

    2014-01-10

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: • The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; • The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and • The efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  19. Water-quality investigation of the Tyronza River watershed, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a 1-year study of surface-water quality in the Tyronza River Watershed, Arkansas, are presented to document conditions before implementation of Soil Conservation Service Programs. The report includes a general description of the watershed 's topography, geology, and aquifers, and the results of monthly measurements of discharge at five sites, and several physical and chemical parameters, plus quarterly analyses for several ions and semiannual analyses of bottom material for various pesticides. The results indicate that the quality of the water in the streams and ditches samples is normal for an intensely farmed area such as this watershed. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Tappable Pine Trees: Commercial Production of Terpene Biofuels in Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: The University of Florida is working to increase the amount of turpentine in harvested pine from 4% to 20% of its dry weight. While enhanced feedstocks for biofuels have generally focused on fuel production from leafy plants and grasses, the University of Florida is experimenting with enhancing fuel production in a species of pine that is currently used in the paper pulping industry. Pine trees naturally produce around 3-5% terpene content in the wood—terpenes are the energy-dense fuel molecules that are the predominant components of turpentine. The team aims to increase the terpene storage potential and production capacity while improving the terpene composition to a point at which the trees could be tapped while alive, like sugar maples. Growth and production from these trees will take years, but this pioneering technology could have significant impact in making available an economical and domestic source of aviation and diesel biofuels.

  1. Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Pine Project Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Pine-grassland Project includes 261 ac of mid– to late-rotation loblolly pine which were managed with a heavy pine thin (50-60...

  2. Silvical characteristics of Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert G., Jr. Snow

    1960-01-01

    Virginia pine has finally attained its rightful place among trees of commercial importance. It has done so in spite of being called "scrub pine" and "poverty pine" - and in spite of the term "forest weed", which has lingered long in the speech of oldtimers who remember the days of timber-plenty.

  3. Nonlinear hydrodynamic and thermoacoustic oscillations of a bluff-body stabilised turbulent premixed flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin Yik; Li, Larry Kin Bong; Juniper, Matthew P.; Cant, Robert Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Turbulent premixed flames often experience thermoacoustic instabilities when the combustion heat release rate is in phase with acoustic pressure fluctuations. Linear methods often assume a priori that oscillations are periodic and occur at a dominant frequency with a fixed amplitude. Such assumptions are not made when using nonlinear analysis. When an oscillation is fully saturated, nonlinear analysis can serve as a useful avenue to reveal flame behaviour far more elaborate than period-one limit cycles, including quasi-periodicity and chaos in hydrodynamically or thermoacoustically self-excited system. In this paper, the behaviour of a bluff-body stabilised turbulent premixed propane/air flame in a model jet-engine afterburner configuration is investigated using computational fluid dynamics. For the frequencies of interest in this investigation, an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach is found to be appropriate. Combustion is represented using a modified laminar flamelet approach with an algebraic closure for the flame surface density. The results are validated by comparison with existing experimental data and with large eddy simulation, and the observed self-excited oscillations in pressure and heat release are studied using methods derived from dynamical systems theory. A systematic analysis is carried out by increasing the equivalence ratio of the reactant stream supplied to the premixed flame. A strong variation in the global flame structure is observed. The flame exhibits a self-excited hydrodynamic oscillation at low equivalence ratios, becomes steady as the equivalence ratio is increased to intermediate values, and again exhibits a self-excited thermoacoustic oscillation at higher equivalence ratios. Rich nonlinear behaviour is observed and the investigation demonstrates that turbulent premixed flames can exhibit complex dynamical behaviour including quasiperiodicity, limit cycles and period-two limit cycles due to the interactions of various

  4. Tectonic origin of Crowley's Ridge, northeastern Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanArsdale, R.B. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States). Geology Dept.); Williams, R.A.; Shedlock, K.M.; King, K.W.; Odum, J.K. (Geological survey, Denver, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center); Schweig, E.S. III; Kanter, L.R. (Memphis State Univ., TN (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Crowley's Ridge is a 320 km long topographic ridge that extends from Thebes, Illinois to Helena, Arkansas. The ridge has been interpreted as an erosional remnant formed during Quaternary incision of the ancestral Mississippi and Ohio rivers; however, the Reelfoot Rift COCORP line identified a down-to-the-west fault bounding the western margin of Crowley's Ridge south of Jonesboro, Arkansas. Subsequent Mini-Sosie seismic reflection profiles confirmed the COCORP data and identified additional faults beneath other margins of the ridge. In each case the faults lie beneath the base of the ridge scarp. The Mini-Sosie data did not resolve the uppermost 150 m and so it was not possible to determine if the faults displace the near-surface Claiborne Group (middle Eocene). A shotgun source seismic reflection survey was subsequently conducted to image the uppermost 250 m across the faulted margins. The shotgun survey across the western margin of the ridge south of Jonesboro reveals displaced reflectors as shallow as 30 m depth. Claiborne Group strata are displaced approximately 6 m and it appears that some of the topographic relief of Crowley's Ridge at this location is due to post middle Eocene fault displacement. Based on the reflection data, the authors suggest that Crowley's Ridge is tectonic in origin.

  5. Woodpecker densities in the big woods of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscier, J.D.; Krementz, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Sightings of the now-feared-extinct ivory-billed woodpecker Campephilus principalis in 2004 in the Big Woods of Arkansas initiated a series of studies on how to best manage habitat for this endangered species as well as all woodpeckers in the area. Previous work suggested that densities of other woodpeckers, particularly pileated Dryocopus pileatus and red-bellied Melanerpes carolinus woodpeckers, might be useful in characterizing habitat use by the ivory-billed woodpecker. We estimated densities of six woodpecker species in the Big Woods during the breeding seasons of 2006 and 2007 and also during the winter season of 2007. Our estimated densities were as high as or higher than previously published woodpecker density estimates for the Southeastern United States. Density estimates ranged from 9.1 to 161.3 individuals/km2 across six woodpecker species. Our data suggest that the Big Woods of Arkansas is attractive to all woodpeckers using the region, including ivory-billed woodpeckers.

  6. Central Arkansas Energy Project. Coal to medium-Btu gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    The Central Arkansas Energy Project has as its objective the conversion of coal in a central location to a more readily usable energy source, medium Btu gas (MBG), for use at dispersed locations as fuel for power production and steam generation, or as a feedstock for chemical processing. The project elements consist of a gasification facility to produce MBG from coal, a pipeline to supply the MBG to the dispersed sites. The end of line users investigated were the repowering or refueling of an existing Arkansas Power and Light Co. Generating station, an ammonia plant, and a combined cycle cogeneration facility for the production of steam and electricity. Preliminary design of the gasification plant including process engineering design bases, process flow diagrams, utility requirements, system description, project engineering design, equipment specifications, plot plan and section plot plans, preliminary piping and instrument diagrams, and facilities requirements. Financial analyses and sensitivities are determined. Design and construction schedules and manpower loadings are developed. It is concluded that the project is technically feasible, but the financial soundness is difficult to project due to uncertainty in energy markets of competing fuels.

  7. Geologic map of the Jam Up Cave and Pine Crest quadrangles, Shannon, Texas, and Howell Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Repetski, John E.

    2013-01-01

    The Jam Up Cave and Pine Crest 7.5-minute quadrangles are located in south-central Missouri within the Salem Plateau region of the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province. About 2,400 to 3,100 feet (ft) of flat-lying to gently dipping Lower Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, mostly dolomite, chert, sandstone, and orthoquartzite, overlie Mesoproterozoic igneous basement rocks. Unconsolidated residuum, colluvium, terrace deposits, and alluvium overlie the sedimentary rocks. Numerous karst features, such as sinkholes, caves, and springs, have formed in the carbonate rocks. Many streams are spring fed. The topography is a dissected karst plain with elevations ranging from about 690 ft where the Jacks Fork River exits the northeastern corner of the Jam Up Cave quadrangle to about 1,350 ft in upland areas along the north-central edge and southwestern corner of the Pine Crest quadrangle. The most prominent physiographic feature is the valley of the Jacks Fork River. This reach of the upper Jacks Fork, with its clean, swiftly-flowing water confined by low cliffs and bluffs, provides one of the most beautiful canoe float trips in the nation. Most of the land in the quadrangles is privately owned and used primarily for grazing cattle and horses and growing timber. A large minority of the land within the quadrangles is publicly owned by the Ozark National Scenic Riverways of the National Park Service. Geologic mapping for this investigation was conducted in 2005 and 2006.

  8. Anaphylaxis to pine nuts and immunological cross-reactivity with pine pollen proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, G; Roncarolo, D; Dama, A; Mistrello, G

    2000-01-01

    Despite the wide use of pine nuts, the fruit of Pinus pinea, only a few reports of allergic reactions to them have been published. We present herein a case of food allergy to pine nuts in a patient who showed no clinical symptoms to pine pollen despite the presence in her serum of specific IgE antibodies. In order to verify whether the reaction against pine nuts was IgE mediated, specific IgE against pine nuts and pollen were evaluated by skin-prick test, prick by prick and RAST. Immunoblotting and immunoblotting-inhibition were used to evaluate the allergenic components of both extracts and their cross-reactivity. Prick by prick with fresh pine nuts and RAST with pine nut and pine pollen extracts showed that the patient had high levels of specific IgE against both extracts. Immunoblotting experiments showed the presence in serum of IgE antibodies against several components in pine nuts and pollen. Immunoblotting-inhibition experiments demonstrated the presence of some cross-reacting components. These data confirm the existence of food allergy induced by pine nuts. This sensitization to pine nuts developed with no symptoms of pine pollinosis. Development of pollinosis may require a longer time of exposure to allergens. Based on the cross-reactivity between pine nut and pine pollen extracts, cosensitization to these two allergens could be possible.

  9. Restoration planting options for limber pines in Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Marie Casper; William R. Jacobi; Anna W. Schoettle; Kelly S. Burns

    2011-01-01

    Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis) populations in the southern Rocky Mountains are severely threatened by the combined impacts of mountain pine beetles and white pine blister rust. Limber pineʼs critical role in these high elevation ecosystems heightens the importance of mitigating these impacts. To develop forest-scale planting methods, six limber pine seedling...

  10. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  11. Numerical investigation of incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer across a bluff body in a channel flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymaz Imdat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lattice Boltzmann Method is applied to computationally investigate the laminar flow and heat transfer of an incompressible fluid with constant material properties in a two-dimensional channel with a built-in bluff body. In this study, a triangular prism is taken as the bluff body. Not only the momentum transport, but also the energy transport is modeled by the Lattice Boltzmann Method. A uniform lattice structure with a single time relaxation rule is used. For obtaining a higher flexibility on the computational grid, interpolation methods are applied, where the information is transferred from the lattice structure to the computational grid by Lagrange interpolation. The flow is investigated for different Reynolds numbers, while keeping the Prandtl number at the constant value of 0.7. The results show how the presence of a triangular prism effects the flow and heat transfer patterns for the steady-state and unsteady-periodic flow regimes. As an assessment of the accuracy of the developed Lattice Boltzmann code, the results are compared with those obtained by a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics code. It is observed that the present Lattice Boltzmann code delivers results that are of similar accuracy to the well-established Computational Fluid Dynamics code, with much smaller computational time for the prediction of the unsteady phenomena.

  12. NEAR-BLOWOFF DYNAMICS OF BLUFF-BODY-STABILIZED PREMIXED HYDROGEN/AIR FLAMES IN A NARROW CHANNEL

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Bok Jik

    2015-06-07

    The flame stability is known to be significantly enhanced when the flame is attached to a bluff-body. The main interest of this study is on the stability of the flame in a meso-scale channel, considering applications such as combustion-based micro power generators. We investigate the dynamics of lean premixed hydrogen/air flames stabilized behind a square box in a two-dimensional meso-scale channel with high-fidelity numerical simulations. Characteristics of both non-reacting flows and reacting flows over the bluff-body are studied for a range of the mean inflow velocity. The flame stability in reacting flows is investigated by ramping up the mean inflow velocity step by step. As the inlet velocity is increased, the initially stable steady flames undergo a transition to an unsteady mode of regular asymmetric fluctuation. When the inlet velocity is further increased, the flame is eventually blown off. Between the regular fluctuation mode and blowoff limit, there exists a narrow range of the inlet velocity where the flames exhibit periodic local extinction and recovery. Approaching further to blowoff limit, the local extinction and recovery becomes highly transient and a failure of recovery leads blowoff and extinction of the flame kernel.

  13. Environmental Assessment of the Gering-Stegall 115-kV Transmission Line Consolidation Project, Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to consolidate segments of two transmission lines near the Gering Substation in Gering, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska, within the city of Gering. Presently, there are three parallel 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines on separate rights-of-way (ROW) that terminate at the Gering Substation. The project would include dismantling the Archer-Gering wood-pole transmission line and rebuilding the remaining two lines on single-pole steel double circuit structures. The project would consolidate the Gering-Stegall North and Gering-Stegall South 115-kV transmission lines on to one ROW for a 1.33-mile segment between the Gering Substation and a point west of the Gering Landfill. All existing wood-pole H-frame structures would be removed, and the Gering-Stegall North and South ROWs abandoned. Western is responsible for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the line. Western prepared an environmental assessment (EA) that analyzed the potential environmental impacts of the proposed construction, operation, and maintenance of the 115-kV transmission line consolidation. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  14. Problem Definition Studies on Potential Environmental Pollutants. 6. Preliminary Assessment of Environmental Effects of Seven Substances Used in Pyrotechnic Compositions at Pine Bluff Arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    Dextrin Red -- 85 ...... 15 Yellowa 65 -- 35 --.... Greena 20 -- 10 70 .... Violet -- 20 -- -- 80 -- a. Mil.Spec. not given. TABLE 4. COMPOSITION OF...Potassium chlorate 2,234,000 22,300 Sulfur 893,000 8,900 Dextrin 151,000 1,500 Oil 18,000 180 Unknown 563,000 5,600 a. Calculations are based on pure...hazard; sulfur, essentially harmless in itself, slowly degrades chemically and biochemically to rontoxic products; dextrin (a starch derivative used in

  15. Growth of a Pine Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  16. Growth of a Pine Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  17. Vicksburg-Jackson Confining Unit: Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the Vicksburg-Jackson Confining Unit in Arkansas, Alabama, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, and Tennessee. The hydrogeologic unit...

  18. Middle Wilcox Aquifer: Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the Middle Wolcox Aquifer in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee. The hydrogeologic...

  19. 78 FR 48716 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Arkansas Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Arkansas River Basin, groundwater, climate change, recreation biological resources, human environment, socioeconomics, environmental justice, and historic properties. A Notice of Availability of the Draft EIS was... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  20. Summer resting and den site selection by eastern spotted skunks (Spilogale putorius) in Arkansas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damon B. Lesmeister; Matthew E. Gompper; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Denning and resting site use by radiocollared eastern spotted skunks (Spilogale putorius) in the Ouachita Mountains of western Arkansas was investigated from May through August 2005 and 2006...

  1. An Evaluation of Ecosystem Restoration Options for Grand Prairie Region of Arkansas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Evaluation of Ecosystem Restoration and Management Options covers the hydrogeomorphic analysis (HGM) for Grand Prairie Region of Arkansas. This three step...

  2. Middle Claiborne Confining Unit: Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the Middle Claiborne Confining Unit in Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee. The hydrogeologic...

  3. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2014 - Arkansas Ecological Services Field Office

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Arkansas Ecological Field Service Office for the CY 2014. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID...

  4. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2017 - Arkansas Ecological Services Field Office

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Arkansas Ecological Field Service Office for the CY 2016. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID...

  5. Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer, Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee; 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Outcrop and subcrop extent of the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee.

  6. New Mexico, Arkansas Kroger Stores Compete in EPAs Sixth Annual Energy Star Battle of the Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALLAS - (July 22, 2015) Today, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the 2015 Energy Star Battle of the Buildings. Kroger supermarkets and warehouses across New Mexico and Arkansas are among the groups fielding 6,500 buildings nationwi

  7. 78 FR 56170 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Magnolia, Arkansas; and Oil City, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Magnolia, Arkansas; and Oil City, Louisiana AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; denial of application for review. SUMMARY: In...

  8. Lower Wilcox Aquifer: Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi. The hydrogeologic unit dataset contains 414 rows and 394...

  9. Midway Confining Unit: Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the Midway Confining Unit in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi. The hydrogeologic unit dataset contains...

  10. The fishes of Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, B.G.; Petersen, James C.

    2005-01-01

    A fish inventory was conducted at Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas, during base-flow conditions in September 2003. Six sites including four streams and two ponds were sampled using conventional electrofishing equipment (a seine also was used at one site). There were 653 individuals collected comprising 18 species (plus 1 hybrid) and 15 genera. The number of species collected at the four stream sites ranged from 1 16. Most fish species collected generally are associated with small streams in the Ozark Plateaus. The two most common species were the banded sculpin and the southern redbelly dace. Three species and a sunfish hybrid were collected from the quarry pond. No fish were collected from the unnamed pond. A preliminary expected species list incorrectly listed 42 species because of incorrect species range or habitat requirements. One species not on the original list was added to the revised list. Upon revising this list, the inventory yielded 18 the 40 species (45 percent) and 1 hybrid. No previous fish inventories have been completed for park but some observations can be made relative to species distributions. There were only five fish species collected in three headwater streams, and it is unlikely that many other species would occur in these three streams because of constraints imposed on the fish community by stream size. Little Sugar Creek, a medium-sized stream, had the most species collected, and it is likely that additional species would be collected from this stream if additional sampling were to occur. Distribution records indicate that all 18 species occur in the general area. Although no species collected in this study are federallylisted threatened or endangered species, three species collected at Pea Ridge National Military Park may be of some special interest to National Park Service managers and others. Two the species collected (cardinal shiner and stippled darter) are endemic to the Ozark Plateaus; both are rather common in certain

  11. Influences of guide-tube and bluff-body on advanced atmospheric pressure plasma source for single-crystalline polymer nanoparticle synthesis at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Ha; Park, Choon-Sang; Kim, Won Hyun; Shin, Bhum Jae; Hong, Jung Goo; Park, Tae Seon; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Tae, Heung-Sik

    2017-02-01

    The use of a guide-tube and bluff-body with an advanced atmospheric pressure plasma source is investigated for the low-temperature synthesis of single-crystalline high-density plasma polymerized pyrrole (pPPy) nano-materials on glass and flexible substrates. Three process parameters, including the position of the bluff-body, Ar gas flow rate, and remoteness of the substrate from the intense and broadened plasma, are varied and examined in detail. Plus, for an in-depth understanding of the flow structure development with the guide-tube and bluff-body, various numerical simulations are also conducted using the same geometric conditions as the experiments. As a result, depending on both the position of the bluff-body and the Ar gas flow rate, an intense and broadened plasma as a glow-like discharge was produced in a large area. The production of the glow-like discharge played a significant role in increasing the plasma energy required for full cracking of the monomers in the nucleation region. Furthermore, a remote growth condition was another critical process parameter for minimizing the etching and thermal damage during the plasma polymerization, resulting in single- and poly-crystalline pPPy nanoparticles at a low temperature with the proposed atmospheric pressure plasma jet device.

  12. The Arkansas AHEC model of community-oriented primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, M S; Landis, B J

    1999-07-01

    This article explicates the Arkansas Area Health Education Center (AHEC) model of community-oriented primary care (COPC) and the role of the family nurse practitioner (FNP) in its implementation. The AHECs collaborate with local agencies to provide comprehensive, accessible, quality health care to specific patient populations, and offer learning opportunities to a wide variety of health professions students. The FNP demonstrates organizational and role competencies that include directing patient care, providing professional leadership, and developing the advanced practice nursing role. Two case studies are used to illustrate the FNPs' approach to COPC: (1) selection of interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, and transdisciplinary approaches to management of a patient with chronic illnesses, and (2) the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners Training Project.

  13. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buotte, Polly C; Hicke, Jeffrey A; Preisler, Haiganoush K; Abatzoglou, John T; Raffa, Kenneth F; Logan, Jesse A

    2016-12-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle are not well understood, yet are important considerations in whether to list whitebark pine as a threatened or endangered species. We sought to increase the understanding of climate influences on mountain pine beetle outbreaks in whitebark pine forests, which are less well understood than in lodgepole pine, by quantifying climate-beetle relationships, analyzing climate influences during the recent outbreak, and estimating the suitability of future climate for beetle outbreaks. We developed a statistical model of the probability of whitebark pine mortality in the GYE that included temperature effects on beetle development and survival, precipitation effects on host tree condition, beetle population size, and stand characteristics. Estimated probability of whitebark pine mortality increased with higher winter minimum temperature, indicating greater beetle winter survival; higher fall temperature, indicating synchronous beetle emergence; lower two-year summer precipitation, indicating increased potential for host tree stress; increasing beetle populations; stand age; and increasing percent composition of whitebark pine within a stand. The recent outbreak occurred during a period of higher-than-normal regional winter temperatures, suitable fall temperatures, and low summer precipitation. In contrast to lodgepole pine systems, area with mortality was linked to precipitation variability even at high beetle populations. Projections from climate models indicate future climate conditions will likely provide favorable conditions for beetle outbreaks within nearly all current whitebark pine habitat in the GYE by

  14. Changes in Woodland Use from Longleaf Pine to Loblolly Pine

    OpenAIRE

    John Schelhas; Indrajit Majumdar; Yaoqi Zhang

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence suggesting that the United States’ roots are not in a state of “pristine” nature but rather in a “human-modified landscape” over which Native people have since long exerted vast control and use. The longleaf pine is a typical woodland use largely shaped by fires, lightning and by Native Americans. The frequent fires, which were used to reduce fuels and protect themselves from wildfires, enhance wildlife habitats and for hunting, protect themselves from predators and ...

  15. Best Practices Case Study: Pine Mountain Builders - Pine Mountain, GA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-09-01

    Case study of Pine Mountain Builders who worked with DOE’s IBACOS team to achieve HERS scores of 59 on 140 homes built around a wetlands in Georgia. The team used taped rigid foam exterior sheathing and spray foam insulation in the walls and on the underside of the attic for a very tight 1.0 to 1.8 ACH 50 building shell.

  16. Mountain pine beetle in high-elevation five-needle white pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Elizabeth Campbell; Ken Gibson; Sandra Kegley; Jesse Logan; Diana Six

    2011-01-01

    Across western North America mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), populations are growing at exponential rates in pine ecosystems that span a wide range of elevations. As temperature increased over the past several decades, the flexible, thermally-regulated life-history strategies of mountain pine beetle have allowed...

  17. Monitoring white pine blister rust infection and mortality in whitebark pine in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathie Jean; Erin Shanahan; Rob Daley; Gregg DeNitto; Dan Reinhart; Chuck Schwartz

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for information on the status and trend of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Concerns over the combined effects of white pine blister rust (WPBR, Cronartium ribicola), mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae), and climate change prompted an interagency working group to design and implement...

  18. Selection for resistance to white pine blister rust affects the abiotic stress tolerances of limber pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick J. Vogan; Anna W. Schoettle

    2015-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) mortality is increasing across the West as a result of the combined stresses of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola; WPBR), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium cyanocarpum) in a changing climate. With the continued spread of WPBR, extensive mortality will continue with strong selection...

  19. Secondary forest succession following reproduction cutting on the Upper Coastal Plain of southeastern Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Cain; Michael G. Shelton

    2001-01-01

    To contribute to an understanding of forest management on secondary forest succession, we conducted vegetation surveys in a chronosequence of pine stands ranging in age from 1 to 59 years. Adjacent areas were compared at 1, 7, 12, and 17 years following two reproduction cutting methods (clearcuts or pine seed-tree cuts); a 59-year-old pine stand that...

  20. Folic acid and the decline in neural tube defects in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Bridget S; Hobbs, Charlotte A; Flowers, Bettye S; Smith, Veronica; Robbins, James M

    2007-04-01

    Folic acid has been shown to reduce the risk of pregnancies affected by neural tube defects (NTDs) by as much as 70%. Cereal grains sold in the U.S. have been fortified with folic acid since 1998. The Arkansas Reproductive Health Monitoring System and the Arkansas Folic Acid Coalition have encouraged use of folic acid and monitored the impact of increased consumption of folic acid among Arkansans. NTDs in Arkansas have declined 40% since intervention programs were implemented. The greatest decline has been observed among white and Hispanic women. Efforts to encourage folic acid consumption should continue to target Arkansas women. NTDs include anencephaly and spina bifida. These birth defects result from incomplete closure of the fetal neural tube during the first month of pregnancy. Infants with anencephaly are born without all or most of their brain and die within a few days of life. Infants with spina bifida have varying degrees of impairment ranging from little noticeable disability to severe, lifelong disability. Folic acid, when taken in supplement form has been shown to reduce the risk of a pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect by as much as 70%. As a result of this finding, the U.S. Federal Drug Administration mandated that cereal grains sold in this country be fortified with at least 140 mcg of folic acid per 100 grams of grain by January 1, 1998. Prior to mandatory fortification, the March of Dimes and the U.S. Public Health Service released statements encouraging all women of reproductive age who are capable of becoming pregnant to take 400 mcg 'of synthetic folic acid daily. The Arkansas Reproductive Health Monitoring System (ARHMS) has monitored rates of NTDs in Arkansas since 1980. ARHMS is the lead agency of the Arkansas Folic Acid Coalition whose mission is to encourage folic acid use among all Arkansas women of reproductive age. In this report, we summarize efforts by ARHMS and the Arkansas Folic Acid Coalition to increase the awareness and

  1. Restoration planting options for limber pines impacted by mountain pine beetles and/or white pine blister rust in the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Marie Casper; William R. Jacobi; Anna W. Schoettle; Kelly S. Burns

    2010-01-01

    Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis) populations in the southern Rock Mountains are severely threatened by the combined impacts of mountain pine beetles and white pine blister rust. Limber pine’s critical role these high elevation ecosystems heightens the importance of mitigating impacts. To develop forest-scale planting methods six seedling planting trial sites were installed...

  2. Potential for long-term seed storage for ex situ genetic conservation of high elevation white pine species – whitebark pine and foxtail pine case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Sniezko; A.J. Kegley

    2017-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) and foxtail pine (P. balfouriana) are conifers native to western North America. Due to several threats, including a non-native pathogen (Cronartium ribicola) and a changing climate, whitebark pine and foxtail pine are classified on the IUCN Red List as ‘endangered’ and ‘...

  3. Water Relations and Gas Exchange of Loblolly Pine Seedlings Under Different Cultural Practices on Poorly Drained Sites in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd S. Rahman; Michael G. Messina; Richard F. Fisher

    2002-01-01

    Substantial forest acreage in the south-central U.S. is seasonally water-logged due to an underlying fragipan. Severely restricted drainage in the non-growing season leads to a reduced subsoil zone, which restricts root respiration. The same sites may also be subjected to summer drought. These climatic and edaphic problems may result in low seedling survival and...

  4. Structure and short-term dynamics of the tree component of a mature pine-oak forest in southeastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Shelton; Michael D. Cain

    1999-01-01

    The R.R. Reynolds Research Natural Area is a 32-ha second-growth forest with little human intervention for nearly 60 years. In this paper, the authors characterize the existing vegetation, which represents 60 years of successional change with no major disturbances, and report vegetative changes over a 5-year period, which suggest the future successional direction....

  5. Large eddy simulation of bluff body stabilized premixed and partially premixed combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porumbel, Ionut

    Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of bluff body stabilized premixed and partially premixed combustion close to the flammability limit is carried out in this thesis. The main goal of the thesis is the study of the equivalence ratio effect on flame stability and dynamics in premixed and partially premixed flames. An LES numerical algorithm able to handle the entire range of combustion regimes and equivalence ratios is developed for this purpose. The algorithm has no ad-hoc adjustable model parameters and is able to respond automatically to variations in the inflow conditions, without user intervention. Algorithm validation is achieved by conducting LES of reactive and non-reactive flow. Comparison with experimental data shows good agreement for both mean and unsteady flow properties. In the reactive flow, two scalar closure models, Eddy Break-Up (EBULES) and Linear Eddy Mixing (LEMLES), are used and compared. Over important regions, the flame lies in the Broken Reaction Zone regime. Here, the EBU model assumptions fail. In LEMLES, the reaction-diffusion equation is not filtered, but resolved on a linear domain and the model maintains validity. The flame thickness predicted by LEMLES is smaller and the flame is faster to respond to turbulent fluctuations, resulting in a more significant wrinkling of the flame surface when compared to EBULES. As a result, LEMLES captures better the subtle effects of the flame-turbulence interaction, the flame structure shows higher complexity, and the far field spreading of the wake is closer to the experimental observations. Three premixed (φ = 0.6, 0.65, and 0.75) cases are simulated. As expected, for the leaner case (φ = 0.6) the flame temperature is lower, the heat release is reduced and vorticity is stronger. As a result, the flame in this case is found to be unstable. In the rich case (φ = 0.75), the flame temperature is higher, and the spreading rate of the wake is increased due to the higher amount of heat release. The ignition

  6. "To Bluff like a Man or Fold like a Girl?" - Gender Biased Deceptive Behavior in Online Poker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Palomäki

    Full Text Available Evolutionary psychology suggests that men are more likely than women to deceive to bolster their status and influence. Also gender perception influences deceptive behavior, which is linked to pervasive gender stereotypes: women are typically viewed as weaker and more gullible than men. We assessed bluffing in an online experiment (N = 502, where participants made decisions to bluff or not in simulated poker tasks against opponents represented by avatars. Participants bluffed on average 6% more frequently at poker tables with female-only avatars than at tables with male-only or gender mixed avatars-a highly significant effect in games involving repeated decisions. Nonetheless, participants did not believe the avatar genders affected their decisions. Males bluffed 13% more frequently than females. Unlike most economic games employed exclusively in research contexts, online poker is played for money by tens of millions of people worldwide. Thus, gender effects in bluffing have significant monetary consequences for poker players.

  7. "To Bluff like a Man or Fold like a Girl?" – Gender Biased Deceptive Behavior in Online Poker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, Jussi; Yan, Jeff; Modic, David; Laakasuo, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology suggests that men are more likely than women to deceive to bolster their status and influence. Also gender perception influences deceptive behavior, which is linked to pervasive gender stereotypes: women are typically viewed as weaker and more gullible than men. We assessed bluffing in an online experiment (N = 502), where participants made decisions to bluff or not in simulated poker tasks against opponents represented by avatars. Participants bluffed on average 6% more frequently at poker tables with female-only avatars than at tables with male-only or gender mixed avatars—a highly significant effect in games involving repeated decisions. Nonetheless, participants did not believe the avatar genders affected their decisions. Males bluffed 13% more frequently than females. Unlike most economic games employed exclusively in research contexts, online poker is played for money by tens of millions of people worldwide. Thus, gender effects in bluffing have significant monetary consequences for poker players. PMID:27383472

  8. On the Role of Chemical Kinetics Modeling in the LES of Premixed Bluff Body and Backward-Facing Step Combustors

    KAUST Repository

    Chakroun, Nadim W.

    2017-01-05

    Recirculating flows in the wake of a bluff body, behind a sudden expansion or down-stream of a swirler, are pivotal for anchoring a flame and expanding the stability range. The size and structure of these recirculation zones and the accurate prediction of the length of these zones is a very important characteristic that computational simulations should have. Large eddy simulation (LES) techniques with an appropriate combustion model and reaction mechanism afford a balance between computational complexity and predictive accuracy. In this study, propane/air mixtures were simulated in a bluff-body stabilized combustor based on the Volvo test case and also in a backward-facing step combustor. The main goal is to investigate the role of the chemical mechanism and the accuracy of estimating the extinction strain rate on the prediction of important ow features such as recirculation zones. Two 2-step mechanisms were employed, one which gave reasonable extinction strain rates and another modi ed 2-step mechanism where it grossly over-predicted the values. This modified mechanism under-predicted recirculation zone lengths compared to the original mechanism and had worse agreement with experiments in both geometries. While the recirculation zone lengths predicted by both reduced mechanisms in the step combustor scale linearly with the extinction strain rate, the scaling curves do not match experimental results as none of the simpli ed mechanisms produce extinction strain rates that are consistent with those predicted by the comprehensive mechanisms. We conclude that it is very important that a chemical mechanism is able to correctly predict extinction strain rates if it is to be used in CFD simulations.

  9. Tall oil precursors in three western pines: ponderosa, lodgepole, and limber pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.H.; Diehl, M.A.; Rowe, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The nonvolatile diethyl ether extracts (NVEE) from ponderosa, lodgepole, and limber pines were analyzed to determine the amounts and chemical composition of the tall oil precursors (resin acids, fatty acids, and nonsaponifiables) and turpentine precursors available from these species. The results showed that crude tall oil compositions would be approximately as follows (% resin acids, % fatty acids, % nonsaponifiables); ponderosa pine - sapwood (15, 75, 10), heartwood (78, 7, 15); lodgepole pine - sapwood (24, 57, 19), heartwood (51, 26, 23); limber pine - sapwood (10, 82, 8), heartwood (23, 60, 17). The larger nonsaponifiables content, as compared to southern pines, is the major factor in explaining the greater difficulty in the distillative refining of tall oil from these western species. Eight resin acids were found in ponderosa and lodgepole pine: palustric, isopimaric, abietic, dehydroabietic, and neoabietic acids predominated. Seven resin acids were identified from limber pine: anticopalic, isopimaric, abietic, and dehydroabietic acids predominated. The free and esterfied fatty acids from these species contained predominantly oleic and linoleic acids. In addition limber pine contained major amounts of 5, 9, 12-octadecatrienoic acid. The nonsaponifiables contained mostly diterpenes and the sterols, sitosterol and campesterol. The major turpentine components were: ponderosa pine - ..beta..-pinene and 3-carene; lodgepole pine - ..beta..-phellandrene; and limber pine - 3-carene, ..beta..-phellandrene, ..cap alpha..-piene, and ..beta..-pinene.

  10. Reconnaissance of acid drainage sources and preliminary evaluation of remedial alternatives at the Copper Bluff mine, Hoopa Valley Reservation, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Charles N.; Hunerlach, Michael P.; Hamlin, Scott N.; Zierenberg, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Acidic drainage from the inactive Copper Bluff mine cascades down a steep embankment into the Trinity River, on the Hoopa Valley Reservation in northern California. The Copper Bluff mine produced about 100,000 tons of sulfide-bearing copper-zinc-gold-silver ore during 1957–1962. This report summarizes the results of a water-resources investigation begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1994 with the overall objective of gathering sufficient geochemical, hydrologic, and geologic information so that a sound remediation strategy for the Copper Bluff mine could be selected and implemented by the Hoopa Valley Tribe. This study had the following specific objectives: (1) monitor the quality and quantity of the mine discharge, (2) determine seasonal variability of metal concentrations and loads, (3) map and sample the underground mine workings to determine sources of flow and suitability of mine plugging options, and (4) analyze the likely consequences of various remediation and treatment options.Analysis of weekly water samples of adit discharge over parts of two wet seasons (January to July 1995 and October 1995 to May 1996) shows that dissolved copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations (in samples filtered with 0.20-micrometer membranes) varied systematically in a seasonal pattern. Metal concentrations increased dramatically in response to the first increase in discharge, or first flush, early in the wet season. The value of Zn/Cu in the adit discharge exhibited systematic seasonal variations; an annual Zn/Cu cycle was observed, beginning with values between 3 and 5 during the main part of the wet season, rising to values between 6 and 10 during the period of lowest discharge late in the dry season, and then dropping dramatically to values less than 3 during the first-flush period. Values of pH were fairly constant in the range of 3.1 to 3.8 throughout the wet season and into the beginning of the dry season, but rose to values between 4.5 and 5.6 during the period of

  11. Development of secondary pine forests after pine wilt disease in western Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujihara, Michiro [Natural History Museum and Inst., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    The development of secondary Pinus densiflora (Japanese red pine) forests after pine wilt disease was studied through phytosociological analysis, estimation of forest structure before disease and size-structure, tree ring and stem analyses. Following the end of the disease, the growth of previously suppressed small oak trees was accelerated. This is quite different from the development of forests following fire, which starts with the establishment of pine seedlings. Pine wilt disease shifted the dominance of secondary forests from Pinus densiflora to Quercus serrata oak forest. In pine forests, disturbance by fire is important for forest maintenance. In contrast, disturbance by pine wilt disease leads to an acceleration of succession from pine forest to oak forest. 50 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Diprionidae sawflies on lodgepole and ponderosa pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight species of Diprionidae feed on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) in western United States: Neodiprion burkei Middleton, N. annulus contortae Ross, N. autumnalis Smith, N. fulviceps (Cresson), N. gillettei (Rohwer), N. mundus Rohwer, N. ventralis Ross, and Zadi...

  13. Developing blister rust resistance in white pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohun B. Kinloch Jr.

    2000-01-01

    After a century since introduction to North America from Europe, white pine blister rust, caused by Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch., is recognized as one of the catastrophic plant disease epidemics in history. It has not yet stabilized and continues to spread and intensify. Its nine native white pine hosts comprise major timber producers, important...

  14. Pine nuts: the mycobiota and potential mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenbörner, M

    2001-05-01

    The mycobiota of pine nuts was investigated. In total, 1832 fungi belonging to 31 species and 15 genera (Ascomycota, 2; Zygomycota, 3; mitosporic fungi, 10) could be isolated. Cladosporium spp. dominated the mycobiota with 685 isolations followed by Phoma macrostoma with 351 isolations. Overall, 16 potentially mycotoxigenic species were present on pine nuts.

  15. White pine blister rust resistance research in Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew David; Paul Berrang; Carrie Pike

    2012-01-01

    The exotic fungus Cronartium ribicola causes the disease white pine blister rust on five-needled pines throughout North America. Although the effects of this disease are perhaps better known on pines in the western portion of the continent, the disease has also impacted regeneration and growth of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. ...

  16. White pine blister rust in the interior Mountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Burns; Jim Blodgett; Dave Conklin; Brian Geils; Jim Hoffman; Marcus Jackson; William Jacobi; Holly Kearns; Anna Schoettle

    2010-01-01

    White pine blister rust is an exotic, invasive disease of white, stone, and foxtail pines (also referred to as white pines or five-needle pines) in the genus Pinus and subgenus Strobus (Price and others 1998). Cronartium ribicola, the fungus that causes WPBR, requires an alternate host - currants and gooseberries in the genus Ribes and species of Pedicularis...

  17. Pine nut allergy: clinical features and major allergens characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine nuts, the seeds of pine trees, are widely used for human consumption in Europe, America, and Asia. The aims of this study were to evaluate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to pine nut in a large number of patients with details of clinical reactions, and to characterize major pine nut allergens. Th...

  18. Relations among geology, physiography, land use, and stream habitat conditions in the Buffalo and Current River Systems, Missouri and Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfil, Maria S.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated links between drainage-basin characteristics and stream habitat conditions in the Buffalo National River, Arkansas and the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri. It was designed as an associative study - the two parks were divided into their principle tributary drainage basins and then basin-scale and stream-habitat data sets were gathered and compared between them. Analyses explored the relative influence of different drainage-basin characteristics on stream habitat conditions. They also investigated whether a relation between land use and stream characteristics could be detected after accounting for geologic and physiographic differences among drainage basins. Data were collected for three spatial scales: tributary drainage basins, tributary stream reaches, and main-stem river segments of the Current and Buffalo Rivers. Tributary drainage-basin characteristics were inventoried using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and included aspects of drainage-basin physiography, geology, and land use. Reach-scale habitat surveys measured channel longitudinal and cross-sectional geometry, substrate particle size and embeddedness, and indicators of channel stability. Segment-scale aerial-photo based inventories measured gravel-bar area, an indicator of coarse sediment load, along main-stem rivers. Relations within and among data sets from each spatial scale were investigated using correlation analysis and multiple linear regression. Study basins encompassed physiographically distinct regions of the Ozarks. The Buffalo River system drains parts of the sandstone-dominated Boston Mountains and of the carbonate-dominated Springfield and Salem Plateaus. The Current River system is within the Salem Plateau. Analyses of drainage-basin variables highlighted the importance of these physiographic differences and demonstrated links among geology, physiography, and land-use patterns. Buffalo River tributaries have greater relief, steeper slopes, and more

  19. The fishes of Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, James C.; Justus, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    Fish communities were sampled from eight sites within Hot Springs National Park. Fish were collected by seining and electrofishing during base-flow periods in July and October 2003. All individuals were identified to species. More than 1,020 individuals were collected, representing 24 species. The number of species collected at the sites ranged from 5 to 19. Central stoneroller, orangebelly darter, and longear sunfish were among the more abundant fish species at most sites. These species are typical of small streams in this area. An expected species list incorrectly listed 35 species because of incorrect species range or habitat requirements. Upon revising this list, the inventory yielded 24 of the 51 expected species (47 percent). No species collected in 2003 were federally-listed threatened or endangered species. However, two species collected at Hot Springs National Park may be of special interest to National Park Service managers and others. The Ouachita madtom is endemic to the Ouachita Mountains and is listed as a species of special concern by the Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission. The grass carp, which is a native of eastern Asia, is present in Ricks Pond; one individual was collected and no other grass carp were observed. The introduction of grass carp into the United States is a controversial issue because of possible (but undocumented) harmful effects on native species and habitats.

  20. A rare Uroglena bloom in Beaver Lake, Arkansas, spring 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, William R.; Hufhines, Brad

    2017-01-01

    A combination of factors triggered a Uroglena volvox bloom and taste and odor event in Beaver Lake, a water-supply reservoir in northwest Arkansas, in late April 2015. Factors contributing to the bloom included increased rainfall and runoff containing increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, followed by a stable pool, low nutrient concentrations, and an expansion of lake surface area and littoral zone. This was the first time U. volvox was identified in Beaver Lake and the first time it was recognized as a source of taste and odor. Routine water quality samples happened to be collected by the US Geological Survey and the Beaver Water District throughout the reservoir during the bloom—. Higher than normal rainfall in March 2015 increased the pool elevation in Beaver Lake by 2.3 m (by early April), increased the surface area by 10%, and increased the littoral zone by 1214 ha; these conditions persisted for 38 days, resulting from flood water being retained behind the dam. Monitoring programs that cover a wide range of reservoir features, including dissolved organic carbon, zooplankton, and phytoplankton, are valuable in explaining unusual events such as this Uroglena bloom.

  1. Anaphylaxis induced by pine nuts in two young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, M Dolores; Lombardero, Manuel; San Ireneo, Mercedes Martinez; Muñoz, M Carmen

    2003-08-01

    Pine nuts are the seeds of Pinus pinea. There are few reported cases of allergy to pine nut. We describe two young girls with anaphylaxis caused by small amounts of pine nuts. Specific IgE to pine nut was demonstrated by skin prick tests and RAST but no IgE to other nuts and pine pollen was detected. The patients had IgE against a pine nut protein band with apparent molecular weights of approximately 17 kDa that could be considered as the main allergen. Our patients were monosensitized to pine nut and the 17-kDa protein could be correlated with the severe clinical symptoms.

  2. Scientific designs of pine seeds and pine cones for species conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Kim, Hyejeong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-11-01

    Reproduction and propagation of species are the most important missions of every living organism. For effective species propagation, pine cones fold their scales under wet condition to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. They open and release their embedded seeds on dry and windy days. In this study, the micro-/macro-scale structural characteristics of pine cones and pine seeds are studied using various imaging modalities. Since the scales of pine cones consist of dead cells, the folding motion is deeply related to structural changes. The scales of pine cones consist of three layers. Among them, bract scales are only involved in collecting water. This makes pine cones reduce the amount of water and minimize the time spent on structural changes. These systems also involve in drying and recovery of pine cones. In addition, pine cones and pine seeds have advantageous structures for long-distance dispersal and response to natural disaster. Owing to these structural features, pine seeds can be released safely and efficiently, and these types of structural advantages could be mimicked for practical applications. This research was financially supported by the Creative Research Initiative of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) and the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract grant number: 2008-0061991).

  3. Effect of damaged pine needles on growth and development of pine caterpillar larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lili; LI Zhenyu; LI Hailin; HAN Ruidong; ZHAO Yongli

    2006-01-01

    Chinese pine caterpillar (Dendrolimus tabulaeformis)larvae were fed with pine needles of different degrees of damage to evaluate the effects of pine needles on the growth and development of larvae.The results showed that the nutritional index of the larvae declines after feeding on the damaged pine needlings.The lowest amount of food ingested and voided feces,the lowest nutritional index,slowest development,lightest pupae and most mortality were found in those pine caterpillar larvae fed with pine needles which were 50% damaged.The damaged pine needles significantly affected the population dynamics of Chinese pine caterpillars.The nutritional indices of larvae fed with 25% and 75% damaged pine needles were similar.The nutritional index of the dark morphs was higher than that of the tinted morphs,however,their mortality was lower than that of the tinted morphs.This phenomenon was reversed at the later stage of development when the larvae were fed on 50% damaged pine needles.

  4. Histological observations on needle colonization by Cronartium ribicola in susceptible and resistant seedlings of whitebark pine and limber pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Stone; Anna Schoettle; Richard Sniezko; Angelia Kegley

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to white pine blister rust based on a hypersensitive response (HR) that is conferred by a dominant gene has been identified as functioning in needles of blister rust-resistant families of sugar pine, western white pine and southwestern white pine. The typical HR response displays a characteristic local necrosis at the site of infection in the needles during...

  5. Hybridization Leads to Loss of Genetic Integrity in Shortleaf Pine: Unexpected Consequences of Pine Management and Fire Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles G. Tauer; John F. Stewart; Rodney E. Will; Curtis J. Lilly; James M. Guldin; C. Dana Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization between shortleaf pine and loblolly pine is causing loss of genetic integrity (the tendency of a population to maintain its genotypes over generations) in shortleaf pine, a species already exhibiting dramatic declines due to land-use changes. Recent findings indicate hybridization has increased in shortleaf pine stands from 3% during the 1950s to 45% for...

  6. Ipsenol, Ipsdienol, Ethanol, and α-Pinene: Trap Lure Blend for Cerambycidae and Buprestidae (Coleoptera) in Pine Forests of Eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D R; Crowe, C M; Dodds, K J; Galligan, L D; de Groot, P; Hoebeke, E R; Mayfield, A E; Poland, T M; Raffa, K F; Sweeney, J D

    2015-08-01

    In 2007-2008, we examined the flight responses of wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Buprestidae) to multiple-funnel traps baited with the pine volatiles, ethanol, and α-pinene [85% (-)], and the bark beetle pheromones, racemic ipsenol and racemic ipsdienol. Experiments were conducted in mature pine stands in Canada (Ontario and New Brunswick) and the United States (Arkansas, Florida, Michigan, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Ohio, Tennessee, and Wisconsin). At each location, traps were deployed in 10 replicate blocks of four traps per block. The trap treatments were: 1) blank control; 2) ipsenol and ipsdienol; 3) ethanol and α-pinene; and 4) a quaternary blend of ipsenol, ipsdienol, ethanol, and α-pinene. Traps baited with the quaternary blend caught the greatest numbers of Acanthocinus nodosus (F.), Acanthocinus obsoletus (Olivier), Acmaeops proteus (Kirby), Astylopsis sexguttata (Say), Rhagium inquisitor (L.) (Cerambycidae), and Buprestis lineata (F.) (Buprestidae). Traps baited with ethanol and α-pinene caught the greatest numbers of Arhopalus rusticus (LeConte), Asemum striatum (L.), Tetropium spp., Xylotrechus sagittatus (Germar) (Cerambycidae), and Buprestis maculipennis Gory (Buprestidae) with minimal interruption by ipsenol and ipsdienol. Our results suggest that multiple-funnel traps baited with the quaternary lure blend of ipsenol, ipsdienol, ethanol, and α-pinene are effective for trapping various species of wood-boring beetles in pine forests of eastern North America, and may have utility in detection programs for adventive species in North America and overseas.

  7. Water-level trends and potentiometric surfaces in the Nacatoch Aquifer in northeastern and southwestern Arkansas and in the Tokio Aquifer in southwestern Arkansas, 2014–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kirk D.

    2017-09-20

    The Nacatoch Sand in northeastern and southwestern Arkansas and the Tokio Formation in southwestern Arkansas are sources of groundwater for agricultural, domestic, industrial, and public use. Water-level altitudes measured in 51 wells completed in the Nacatoch Sand and 42 wells completed in the Tokio Formation during 2014 and 2015 were used to create potentiometric-surface maps of the two areas. Aquifers in the Nacatoch Sand and Tokio Formation are hereafter referred to as the Nacatoch aquifer and the Tokio aquifer, respectively.Potentiometric surfaces show that groundwater in the Nacatoch aquifer flows southeast toward the Mississippi River in northeastern Arkansas. Groundwater flow direction is towards the south and southeast in Hempstead, Little River, and Nevada Counties in southwestern Arkansas. An apparent cone of depression exists in southern Clark County and likely alters groundwater flow from a regional direction toward the depression.In southwestern Arkansas, potentiometric surfaces indicate that groundwater flow in the Tokio aquifer is towards the city of Hope. Northwest of Hope, an apparent cone of depression exists. In southwestern Pike, northwestern Nevada, and northeastern Hempstead Counties, an area of artesian flow (water levels are at or above land surface) exists.Water-level changes in wells were identified using two methods: (1) linear regression analysis of hydrographs from select wells with a minimum of 20 years of water-level data, and (2) a direct comparison between water-level measurements from 2008 and 2014–15 at each well. Of the six hydrographs analyzed in the Nacatoch aquifer, four indicated a decline in water levels. Compared to 2008 measurements, the largest rise in water levels was 35.14 feet (ft) in a well in Clark County, whereas the largest decline was 14.76 ft in a well in Nevada County, both located in southwestern Arkansas.Of the four hydrographs analyzed in the Tokio aquifer, one indicated a decline in water levels, while

  8. Sadness, suicide, and bullying in Arkansas: results from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey -- 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindrick, Kristi; Castro, Juan; Messias, Erick

    2013-10-01

    Bullying is a common exposure in high school and more recently cyberbullying has become prevalent among teens. We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of school bullying and cyberbullying and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 11.6% of students reported only school bullying, 6.2% only cyberbullying, and 10.2% both forms of bullying. We determined "feeling unsafe at school" was a significant risk factor for depression and all suicide questions. We also found that being a victim of school bullying, cyberbullying, or both, increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, and plan.

  9. Monoterpene emission from ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerdau, Manual; Dilts, Stephen B.; Westberg, Hal; Lamb, Brian K.; Allwine, Eugene J.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the variability in monoterpene emissions from ponderosa pine beyond that which can be explained by temperature alone. Specifically, we examine the roles that photosynthesis and needle monoterpene concentrations play in controlling emissions. We measure monoterpene concentrations and emissions, photosynthesis, temperature, and light availability in the late spring and late summer in a ponderosa pine forest in central Oregon. We use a combination of measurements from cuvettes and Teflon bag enclosures to show that photosynthesis is not correlated with emissions in the short term. We also show that needle monoterpene concentrations are highly correlated with emissions for two compounds, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, but that Delta-carene concentrations are not correlated with emissions. We suggest that direct effects of light and photosynthesis do not need to be included in emission algorithms. Our results indicate that the role of needle concentration bears further investigation; our results for alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are explainable by a Raoult's law relationship, but we cannot yet explain the cause of our results with Delta-carene.

  10. Systemic allergic reaction to pine nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-02-01

    This case report describes a systemic reaction due to ingestion of pine nuts, confirmed by an open, oral provocation test. Skin prick testing with the aqueous allergen revealed an immediate positive prick test, and histamine release from basophil leukocytes to the aqueous allergen was demonstrated. Radioallergosorbent test demonstrated specific IgE antibodies to pine nuts. In a review of medical literature, we found no reports of either oral provocation tests confirming a systemic reaction due to ingestion of pine nuts or demonstration of specific IgE antibodies.

  11. [Pine mouth syndrome: a global problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redal-Baigorri, Ana Belén

    2011-12-01

    Pinemouth syndrome is characterised by the development of metallogeusia two days after the ingestion of Chinese pine nuts. The symptoms disappear 7-14 days later. The distribution of Chinese pine nuts not suitable for human consumption, is caused by an increasing demand due to price differences. The reason for the taste disturbances is unknown, some suggest turpentine-based products in its composition, and others have studied the fatty acid content of pine nuts and the properties of pinolenic acid. So far the presence of pesticides or mycotoxins is been ruled out, but the puzzle remains unsolved.

  12. "Pine mouth" syndrome: cacogeusia following ingestion of pine nuts (genus: pinus). An emerging problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Marc-David

    2010-06-01

    We report a case of cacogeusia, specifically metallogeusia (a perceived metallic or bitter taste) following pine nut ingestion. A 36-year-old male presented with cacogeusia one day following ingestion of 10-15 roasted pine nuts (genus: Pinus). Symptoms became worst on post-exposure day 2 and progressively improved without treatment over 5 days. There were no other symptoms and physical examination was unrevealing. All symptoms resolved without sequalae. We contemporaneously report a rise in pine nut-associated cacogeusia reported online during the first quarter of 2009, and a significant rise in online searches related to pine nut-associated cacogeusia (or what the online public has termed "pine mouth") during this time. Most online contributors note a similar cacogeusia 1-3 days following pine nut ingestion lasting for up to 2 weeks. All cases seem self-limited. Patients occasionally describe abdominal cramping and nausea after eating the nuts. Raw, cooked, and processed nuts (in pesto, for example) are implicated. While there appears to be an association between pine nut ingestion and cacogeusia, little is known about this condition, nor can any specific mechanism of specific cause be identified. It is not known if a specific species of pine nut can be implicated. "Pine mouth" appears to be an emerging problem.

  13. Geologic map of the Murray Quadrangle, Newton County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2016-07-06

    This map summarizes the geology of the Murray quadrangle in the Ozark Plateaus region of northern Arkansas. Geologically, the area is on the southern flank of the Ozark dome, an uplift that has the oldest rocks exposed at its center, in Missouri. Physiographically, the Murray quadrangle is within the Boston Mountains, a high plateau region underlain by Pennsylvanian sandstones and shales. Valleys of the Buffalo River and Little Buffalo River and their tributaries expose an approximately 1,600-ft-thick (488-meter-thick) sequence of Ordovician, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks that have been mildly deformed by a series of faults and folds. The Buffalo National River, a park that encompasses the Buffalo River and adjacent land that is administered by the National Park Service is present at the northwestern edge of the quadrangle.Mapping for this study was carried out by field inspection of numerous sites and was compiled as a 1:24,000 geographic information system (GIS) database. Locations and elevation of sites were determined with the aid of a global positioning satellite receiver and a hand-held barometric altimeter that was frequently recalibrated at points of known elevation. Hill-shade relief and slope maps derived from a U.S. Geological Survey 10-meter digital elevation model as well as orthophotographs were used to help trace ledge-forming units between field traverses within the Upper Mississippian and Pennsylvanian part of the stratigraphic sequence. Strike and dip of beds were typically measured along stream drainages or at well-exposed ledges. Structure contours, constructed on the top of the Boone Formation and the base of a prominent sandstone unit within the Bloyd Formation, were drawn based on the elevations of field sites on these contacts well as other limiting information for their minimum elevations above hilltops or their maximum elevations below valley bottoms.

  14. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling early growth in a (longleaf pine x slash pine) x slash pine BC(1) family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, C.; Kubisiak, L.; Nelson, D.; Stine, M.

    2002-04-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were employed to map the genome and quantitative trait loci controlling the early growth of a pine hybrid F(1) tree ( Pinus palustris Mill. x P. elliottii Engl.) and a recurrent slash pine tree ( P. elliottii Engl.) in a (longleaf pine x slash pine) x slash pine BC(1) family consisting of 258 progeny. Of the 150 hybrid F(1) parent-specific RAPD markers, 133 were mapped into 17 linkage groups covering a genetic distance of 1,338.2 cM. Of the 116 slash pine parent-specific RAPD markers, 83 were mapped into 19 linkage groups covering a genetic distance of 994.6 cM. A total of 11 different marker intervals were found to be significantly associated with 13 of the 20 traits on height and diameter growth using MAPMAKER/QTL. Nine of the eleven marker intervals were unique to the hybrid parent 488 genome, and two were unique to the recurrent parent 18-27 genome. The amount of phenotypic variance explained by the putative QTLs ranged from 3.6% to 11.0%. Different QTLs were detected at different ages. Two marker intervals from the hybrid parent 488 were found to have QTL by environment interactions.

  15. Longleaf Pine Survival, Growth, and Recruitment Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This experiment was to determine mean survivorship, growth rate, and recruitment rate of longleaf pine seedlings planted on different soil types on the refuge. Open...

  16. TBT recommends : Courtney Pine. Hansa disco night

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Inglise jazzsaksofonisti Courtney Pine heliplaadi "Resistance" esitluskontserdist 15. dets. Rock Cafés Tallinnas. Inglise laulja Chris Norman läti ansamblitega üritusel "Hansa disco night Nr.4" 9. dets. Kipsala Hallis Riias

  17. Quantification of acetone emission from pine plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO; Min; (邵敏); Jürgen; Wildt

    2002-01-01

    Acetone emission from pine plants (pinus sylvestris) is measured by continuously stirred tank reactor. Under a constant light intensity, acetone emission rates increase exponentially with leaf temperature. When leaf temperature is kept constant, acetone emission increases with light intensity. And acetone emission in darkness is also detected. Acetone emitted from pine is quickly labeled by 13C when the plants are exposed to air with 630 mg/m3 13CO2. However, no more than 20% of acetone is 13C labeled. Acetone emission from pine may be due to both leaf temperature- controlled process and light intensity-controlled process. Based on these understandings, an algorithm is used to describe the short term acetone emission rates from pine.

  18. TBT recommends : Courtney Pine. Hansa disco night

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Inglise jazzsaksofonisti Courtney Pine heliplaadi "Resistance" esitluskontserdist 15. dets. Rock Cafés Tallinnas. Inglise laulja Chris Norman läti ansamblitega üritusel "Hansa disco night Nr.4" 9. dets. Kipsala Hallis Riias

  19. A topological study of gravity free-surface waves generated by bluff bodies using the method of steepest descents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Philippe H

    2016-07-01

    The standard analytical approach for studying steady gravity free-surface waves generated by a moving body often relies upon a linearization of the physical geometry, where the body is considered asymptotically small in one or several of its dimensions. In this paper, a methodology that avoids any such geometrical simplification is presented for the case of steady-state flows at low speeds. The approach is made possible through a reduction of the water-wave equations to a complex-valued integral equation that can be studied using the method of steepest descents. The main result is a theory that establishes a correspondence between different bluff-bodied free-surface flow configurations, with the topology of the Riemann surface formed by the steepest descent paths. Then, when a geometrical feature of the body is modified, a corresponding change to the Riemann surface is observed, and the resultant effects to the water waves can be derived. This visual procedure is demonstrated for the case of two-dimensional free-surface flow past a surface-piercing ship and over an angled step in a channel.

  20. A topological study of gravity free-surface waves generated by bluff bodies using the method of steepest descents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Philippe H.

    2016-07-01

    The standard analytical approach for studying steady gravity free-surface waves generated by a moving body often relies upon a linearization of the physical geometry, where the body is considered asymptotically small in one or several of its dimensions. In this paper, a methodology that avoids any such geometrical simplification is presented for the case of steady-state flows at low speeds. The approach is made possible through a reduction of the water-wave equations to a complex-valued integral equation that can be studied using the method of steepest descents. The main result is a theory that establishes a correspondence between different bluff-bodied free-surface flow configurations, with the topology of the Riemann surface formed by the steepest descent paths. Then, when a geometrical feature of the body is modified, a corresponding change to the Riemann surface is observed, and the resultant effects to the water waves can be derived. This visual procedure is demonstrated for the case of two-dimensional free-surface flow past a surface-piercing ship and over an angled step in a channel.

  1. Shape optimization of active and passive drag-reducing devices on a D-shaped bluff body

    CERN Document Server

    Semaan, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Shape optimization of an active and a passive drag-reducing device on a two-dimensional D-shaped bluff body is performed. The two devices are: Coanda actuator, and randomly-shaped trailing-edge flap. The optimization sequence is performed by coupling the genetic algorithm software DAKOTA to the mesh generator Pointwise and to the CFD solver OpenFOAM. For the the active device the cost functional is the power ratio, whereas for the passive device it is the drag coefficient. The optimization leads to total power savings of $\\approx 70\\%$ for the optimal Coanda actuator, and a 40\\% drag reduction for the optimal flap. This reduction is mainly achieved through streamlining the base flow and suppressing the vortex shedding. The addition of either an active or a passive device creates two additional smaller recirculation regions in the base cavity that shifts the larger recirculation region away from the body and increases the base pressure. The results are validated against more refined URANS simulations for selec...

  2. A Comparison of the Characteristics of Planar and Axisymmetric Bluff-Body Combustors Operated under Stratified Inlet Mixture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paterakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents comparisons of the flame stabilization characteristics of axisymmetric disk and 2D slender bluff-body burner configurations, operating with inlet mixture stratification, under ultralean conditions. A double cavity propane air premixer formed along three concentric disks, supplied with a radial equivalence ratio gradient the afterbody disk recirculation, where the first flame configuration is stabilized. Planar fuel injection along the center plane of the leading face of a slender square cylinder against the approach cross-flow results in a stratified flame configuration stabilized alongside the wake formation region in the second setup. Measurements of velocities, temperatures, OH∗ and CH∗ chemiluminescence, local extinction criteria, and large-eddy simulations are employed to examine a range of ultralean and close to extinction flame conditions. The variations of the reacting front disposition within these diverse reacting wake topologies, the effect of the successive suppression of heat release on the near flame region characteristics, and the reemergence of large-scale vortical activity on approach to lean blowoff (LBO are investigated. The cross-correlation of the performance of these two popular flame holders that are at the opposite ends of current applications might offer helpful insights into more effective control measures for expanding the operational margin of a wider range of stabilization configurations.

  3. Implications of Teacher Motivation and Renewal Indicators in Arkansas toward Professional Growth and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Lary D.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to determine if the teaching population in the state of Arkansas had a more favorable attitude toward specific motivational theories and practices; and to determine if that attitude significantly affected the teacher retention rate and the quality of work produced. The literature reviewed included the role of…

  4. Field evaluation of four spatial repellent devices against Arkansas rice-land mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four commercially available spatial repellent devices were tested in a rice land habitat near Stuttgart, Arkansas after semi-field level assessments had been made at the Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, ARS, USDA in Gainesville, FL. OFF! Clip-On® (a.i. metofluthrin, S.C....

  5. Impact of Spina Bifida on Parental Caregivers: Findings from a Survey of Arkansas Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D.; Flores, Alina L.; Ouyang, Lijing; Robbins, James M.; Tilford, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The well-being of caregivers of children with spina bifida and other conditions is an important topic. We interviewed the primary caregivers of 98 children aged 0-17 years with spina bifida sampled from a population-based birth defects registry in Arkansas and the caregivers of 49 unaffected children. Measures of caregiver well-being were compared…

  6. Implications of Teacher Motivation and Renewal Indicators in Arkansas toward Professional Growth and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Lary D.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to determine if the teaching population in the state of Arkansas had a more favorable attitude toward specific motivational theories and practices; and to determine if that attitude significantly affected the teacher retention rate and the quality of work produced. The literature reviewed included the role of…

  7. Characterizing irrigation water requirements for rice production from the Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated rice irrigation water use in the University of Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program between the years of 2003 and 2011. Irrigation water use averaged 747 mm (29.4 inches) over the nine years. A significant 40% water savings was reported for rice grown under a zero gr...

  8. Impact of Spina Bifida on Parental Caregivers: Findings from a Survey of Arkansas Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D.; Flores, Alina L.; Ouyang, Lijing; Robbins, James M.; Tilford, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The well-being of caregivers of children with spina bifida and other conditions is an important topic. We interviewed the primary caregivers of 98 children aged 0-17 years with spina bifida sampled from a population-based birth defects registry in Arkansas and the caregivers of 49 unaffected children. Measures of caregiver well-being were compared…

  9. Utilizing Professional Learning Community Concepts and Social Networking for State Advocacy: The Arkansas Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albritton, Shelly; Chadwick, Mona; Bangs, David; Holt, Carleton; Longing, Jeff; Duyar, Ibrihim

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) state affiliate, Arkansas Professors of Educational Administration's (ARPEA), activities, accomplishments, and advocacy efforts. Faced with numerous changes being implemented in education in the state, it became imperative for ARPEA's…

  10. The Relationship between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Ninth-Grade Students in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Shellie Lyne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose, scope, and method of study. The purpose of this study was to determine if and to what degree a relationship existed between physical fitness and the academic achievement of ninth-grade public school students in Arkansas. A sample of 152 students from four different schools participated in the study. The dependent variable was academic…

  11. Dry matter partitioning and quality of Miscanthus, Panicum, and Saccharum genotypes in Arkansas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partitioning and quality of aboveground biomass have important ramifications for crop management and biomass conversion. In preliminary studies, small samples of Saccharum sp. x Miscanthus sp. hybrids exhibited stubble cold tolerance in west-central Arkansas, unlike Saccharum sp. x S. spontaneum...

  12. Ready to Lead? A Study of Arkansas and Louisiana Charter School Principals' Leadership Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Creshun Anjal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of Arkansas and Louisiana district conversion and open-enrollment charter school principals' background characteristics, leadership skills, and school success. A quantitative methodology was used to test the research questions prescribed in the study. Data was collected using a survey. The…

  13. Distribution and Habitat Use of Swainson's Warblers in Eastern and Northern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    James C. Bednarz; Petra Stiller-Krehel; Brian Cannon

    2005-01-01

    Systematic surveys of hardwood forests along the Buffalo National River, the St. Francis Sunken Lands Wildlife Management Area, St. Francis National Forest, Bayou Meto Wildlife Management Area, and the White River National Wildlife Refuge in eastern and northern Arkansas were undertaken between 5 April and 30 June 2000 and 2001 to document current status, distribution...

  14. Temporal patterns in capture rate and sex ratio of forest bats in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; S. Andrew Carter; Ronald E. Thill

    2010-01-01

    We quantified changes in capture rates and sex ratios from May to Sept. for eight species of bats, derived from 8 y of extensive mist netting in forests of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas. Our primary goal was to determine patterns of relative abundance for each species of bat captured over forest streams and to determine if these patterns were similar to patterns of...

  15. What Factors Relate to Student Performance in Arkansas College Gateway Courses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Rick; Butler, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    In higher education in the state of Arkansas, two courses are considered to be gateway courses to obtaining a college degree--College Algebra and English Composition I. While students may obtain Certificates of Proficiency and Technical Certificates without taking these courses, few, if any, can earn an Associate's or Bachelor's degree without…

  16. 76 FR 76971 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... its 40 CFR Part 272--Approved State Hazardous Waste Management EPA-authorized program for electronic reporting of annual hazardous waste information submitted under 40 CFR parts 262, 264, and 265 is being... Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality (AR DEQ) submitted an application for its Hazardous...

  17. Arkansas Public Higher Education Personal Services Recommendations, 2011-2013 Biennium. 7-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Department of Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication lists "non-classified" personal services recommendations of the Arkansas Higher Education Coordinating Board, and "classified" positions recommended by the Office of Personnel Management, Department of Finance and Administration for public institutions of higher education for the 2011-13 biennium. The Office of…

  18. Arkansas Public Higher Education Personal Services Recommendations: Fiscal Year 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Department of Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication lists non-classified personal services recommendations of the Arkansas Higher Education Coordinating Board for the Fiscal Year 2010-11. Due to the implementation of the pay plan study, the Office of Personnel Management of the Department of Finance and Administration (OPM) did not make recommendations for classified positions.…

  19. GPS geodetic measurements of subsidence from groundwater drawdown in central Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, P.; Mattioli, G.; Marshall, A.; Czarnecki, J.

    2005-05-01

    The state of Arkansas ranks fifth in the nation in ground water consumption, largely fueled by its robust rice and manufacturing industries. The region centered on Lonoke, Arkansas, Jefferson and Monroe counties in the center of the state has seen dramatic drawdown of its ground-water resources and development of significant cones of depression. Subsidence of 1.5 meters over a few decades was postulated for portions of Arkansas county on the basis of elevation changes of benchmarks. These results were preliminary and measurements were not made with geodetic grade equipment. Validation of these results is the primary goal of our on-going work. We are developing an extensive network of suitable benchmarks throughout central and eastern Arkansas, whose vertical position can be monitored using high-precision Global Positioning System geodesy. Campaign GPS measurements were first obtained in summer 2003. Second epoch observations were acquired throughout 2004. Although errors are high due to the limited temporal dataset, preliminary GPS geodetic results are consistent with subsidence of the ground surface above the cones of depression on the order of tens of millimeters per year.

  20. The Relationship between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Ninth-Grade Students in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Shellie Lyne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose, scope, and method of study. The purpose of this study was to determine if and to what degree a relationship existed between physical fitness and the academic achievement of ninth-grade public school students in Arkansas. A sample of 152 students from four different schools participated in the study. The dependent variable was academic…

  1. Insect infestations crop development and evolving management approaches on a northeast Arkansas cotton farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    COTMAN information, cotton production records and insect scouting reports for Wildy Farms in Mississippi County, Arkansas were organized into large databases and studied for variability among years and fields in a wide range of crop and insect indices. The study included records from 126 individual...

  2. Sadness, suicide, and sexual behavior in Arkansas: results from the youth risk behavior survey 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindrick, Clint; Gathright, Molly; Cisler, Josh M; Messias, Erick

    2013-12-01

    We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and sexual assault and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 50.3% of students reported ever having sexual intercourse, 26% onset at 14 or younger, 36 % having had more than one partner, and 10.2% having been physically forced to have sex. "Being forced to have sex" was a risk factor for depression and all components of the suicide continuum. Additionally, early onset of sexual activity and having more than one partner increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Suicide is a grievous and preventable tragedy, sadly standing among the leading causes of death for teens.' In this series, we examine risk factors for suicidality among Arkansas high school students; in this installment, we examine sexual behavior. A previous study utilizing the Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) found an association between having forced sexual intercourse and suicide. Furthermore, an association between psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviors, including both early onset and number of partners was found in a birth cohort study revealed. We hypothesize that Arkansas' teens reporting risky sexual behavior and sexual assault are at higher risk of depression and suicidality as well.

  3. Growth ring characteristics, specific gravity and fiber length of rapidly grown loblolly pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, F.W.; Burton, J.D.

    1982-07-01

    Intensive thinning, understory control, and green pruning of loblolly pine trees growing on a test area near Crossett, Arkansas, have produced trees with a diameter of 18.9 inches at breast heights in 35 years. Large increment borings extracted from experimental trees and control trees were examined for growth patterns and wood properties alterations related to growth rate differences. During some growth periods, radial growth of test trees was almost three times as great as radial growth of control trees. In the outer juvenile wood formed after the first thinning, growth rate differences were greatest between experimental trees. During the last 10 years of the study (mature wood zone), growth rate differences between treated and control trees were not as great, and there were no significant differences in latewood percentage or tracheid length. Specific gravity was not significantly influenced by growth rate differences in any growth zone. This result leads to the conclusion that trees can be rapidly grown without affecting specific gravity. (Refs. 19).

  4. Unpublished Interim Digital Geologic Map of Hot Springs National Park and Vicinity, Arkansas (NPS, GRD, GRI, HOSP, HOSP digital map) adapted from the interim Arkansas Geological Survey DGM-HSR-003 by Johnson and Hanson (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Interim Digital Geologic Map of Hot Springs National Park and Vicinity, Arkansas is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.3 layer (.LYR)...

  5. White pine blister rust resistance in limber pine: Evidence for a major gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; R. A. Sniezko; A. Kegley; K. S. Burns

    2014-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) is being threatened by the lethal disease white pine blister rust caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola. The types and frequencies of genetic resistance to the rust will likely determine the potential success of restoration or proactive measures. These first extensive inoculation trials using individual tree seed collections...

  6. Mountain pine beetle attack in ponderosa pine: Comparing methods for rating susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Chojnacky; Barbara J. Bentz; Jesse A. Logan

    2000-01-01

    Two empirical methods for rating susceptibility of mountain pine beetle attack in ponderosa pine were evaluated. The methods were compared to stand data modeled to objectively rate each sampled stand for susceptibly to bark-beetle attack. Data on bark-beetle attacks, from a survey of 45 sites throughout the Colorado Plateau, were modeled using logistic regression to...

  7. Mountain pine beetle attack alters the chemistry and flammability of lodgepole pine foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley G. Page; Michael J. Jenkins; Justin B. Runyon

    2012-01-01

    During periods with epidemic mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) populations in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) forests, large amounts of tree foliage are thought to undergo changes in moisture content and chemistry brought about by tree decline and death. However, many of the presumed changes have yet to be...

  8. Influence of hardwood midstory and pine species on pine bole arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher S. Collins; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    2002-01-01

    Arthropod density on the boles of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) was compared between a stand with and stand without hardwood midstory and between a stand of loblolly and shortleaf pines (P. echinata) in the Stephen E Austin Experimental Forest, Nacogdoches Co., Texas, USA from September 1993 through July 1994. Arthropod density was...

  9. Dose-dependent pheromone responses of mountain pine beetle in stands of lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; B. Staffan Lindgren; John H. Borden

    2005-01-01

    We conducted seven behavioral choice tests with Lindgren multiple-funnel traps in stands of mature lodgepole pine in British Columbia, from 1988 to 1994, to determine the dosedependent responses of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, to its pheromones. Amultifunctional dose-dependent response was exhibited by D. ...

  10. The influence of white pine blister rust on seed dispersal in whitebark pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn T. McKinney; Diana F. Tomback

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch.) damage in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands leads to reduced (1) seed cone density, (2) predispersal seed survival, and (3) likelihood of Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana (Wilson, 1811)) seed...

  11. Biology of a Pine Needle Sheath Midge, Contarinia Acuta Gagne (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), on Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie C. Weatherby; John C. Moser; Raymond J. Gagné; Huey N. Wallace

    1989-01-01

    The biology of a pine needle sheath midge, Contarinia acuta Gagné is described for a new host in Louisiana. This midge was found feeding within the needle sheath on elongating needles of loblolly pine, P. taeda L. Needle droop and partial defoliation were evident on heavily infested trees. Overwintering C. acuta...

  12. Histology of white pine blister rust in needles of resistant and susceptible eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel A. Jurgens; Robert A. Blanchette; Paul J. Zambino; Andrew David

    2003-01-01

    White pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola, has plagued the forests of North America for almost a century. Over past decades, eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) that appear to tolerate the disease have been selected and incorporated into breeding programs. Seeds from P. strobus with putative resistance were...

  13. Response of pine forest to disturbance of pine wood nematode with interpretative structural model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan SHI; Youqing LUO; Xiaosu YAN; Weiping CHEN; Ping JIANG

    2009-01-01

    Pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), originating from North America, causes destructive pine wilt disease. Different pine forest ecosystems have different resistances to B. xylophilus,and after its invasion, the resilience and restoration direction of different ecosystems also varies. In this study, an interpretative structural model was applied for analyzing the response of pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance. The result showed that a five-degree multi-stage hierarchical system affected the response of the pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance, in which direct affecting factors are resistance and resilience. Furthermore,the analysis to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th degree factors showed that not only does distribution pattern of plant species and pine's ecological features affect the resistance of pine forests' ecosystem, but removal of attacked trees and other measures also influence the resistance through indirectly affecting the damage degree of Monochamus alternatus and distribution pattern of plant species. As for resilience,it is influenced directly by soil factors, hydrology,surrounding species provenance and biological character-istics of the second and jointly dominant species, and the climate factors can also have a direct or indirect effect on it by affecting the above factors. Among the fifth elements,the elevation, gradient and slope direction, topographical factors, diversity of geographical location and improve-ment of prevention technology all influence the response of pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance.

  14. Water-resources reconnaissance of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Donald R.

    1965-01-01

    The Jenkins-Whitesburg area includes approximately 250 square miles in Letcher and Pike Counties in the southeastern part of the Eastern Coal Field. In this area ground water is the principal source of water for nearly all rural families, most public supplies, several coal mines and coal processing plants, and one bottling plant. The major aquifers in the Jenkins-Whitesburg area are the Breathitt and Lee Formations of Pennsylvanian age. Other aquifers range in age from Devonian to Quaternary but are not important in this area because they occur at great depth or yield little or no water. The Breathitt Formation occurs throughout the area except along the crest and slopes of Pine Mountain and where it is covered by unconsolidated material of Quaternary age. The Breathitt Formation consists of shale, sandstone, and lesser amounts of coal and associated underclay. The yield of wells penetrating the Breathitt Formation ranges from less than 1 to 330 gallons per minute. Well yield is controlled by the type and depth of well, character of the aquifer, and topography of the well site. Generally, deep wells drilled in valleys of perennial streams offer the best potential for high yields. Although enough water for a minimum domestic supply (more than 100 gallons per day) may be obtained from shale, all high-yielding wells probably obtain water from vertical joints and from bedding planes which are best developed in sandstone. About 13 percent of the wells inventoried in the Breathitt Formation failed to supply enough water for a minimum domestic supply. Most of these are shallow dug wells or drilled wells on hillsides or hilltops. Abandoned coal mines are utilized as large infiltration galleries and furnish part of the water for several public supplies. The chemical quality of water from the Breathitt Formation varies considerably from place to place, but the water generally is acceptable for most domestic and industrial uses. Most water is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate

  15. 75 FR 76522 - Open Meeting of the Area 5 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Arizona, Arkansas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas) AGENCY: Internal Revenue... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that a meeting of the Area 5 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel will be...

  16. 76 FR 17994 - Open Meeting of the Area 5 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Arizona, Arkansas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas) AGENCY: Internal Revenue... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that a meeting of the Area 5 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel will be held Thursday...

  17. 76 FR 32023 - Open Meeting of the Area 5 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Arizona, Arkansas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas) AGENCY: Internal Revenue... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that a meeting of the Area 5 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel will be held Thursday...

  18. 76 FR 2195 - Open Meeting of the Area 5 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (including the states of Arizona, Arkansas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas) AGENCY: Internal Revenue... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that a meeting of the Area 5 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel will be...

  19. 76 FR 6188 - Open Meeting of the Area 5 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Arizona, Arkansas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Missouri... to Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that a meeting of the...

  20. 76 FR 37199 - Open Meeting of the Area 5 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Arizona, Arkansas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas) AGENCY: Internal Revenue... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that a meeting of the Area 5 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel will be held Thursday...

  1. 76 FR 22169 - Open Meeting of the Area 5 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Arizona, Arkansas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas) AGENCY: Internal Revenue... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that a meeting of the Area 5 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel will be held Thursday...

  2. RAPD linkage mapping in a longleaf pine x slash pine F1 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisiak, T L; Nelson, C D; Nance, W L; Stine, M

    1995-06-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) were used to construct linkage maps of the parent of a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) slash pine (Pinus elliottii Englm.) F1 family. A total of 247 segregating loci [233 (1∶1), 14 (3∶1)] and 87 polymorphic (between parents), but non-segregating, loci were identified. The 233 loci segregating 1∶1 (testcross configuration) were used to construct parent-specific linkage maps, 132 for the longleaf-pine parent and 101 for the slash-pine parent. The resulting linkage maps consisted of 122 marker loci in 18 groups (three or more loci) and three pairs (1367.5 cM) for longleaf pine, and 91 marker loci in 13 groups and six pairs for slash pine (952.9 cM). Genome size estimates based on two-point linkage data ranged from 2348 to 2392 cM for longleaf pine, and from 2292 to 2372 cM for slash pine. Linkage of 3∶1 loci to testcross loci in each of the parental maps was used to infer further linkages within maps, as well as potentially homologous counterparts between maps. Three of the longleaf-pine linkage groups appear to be potentially homologous counterparts to four different slash-pine linkage groups. The number of heterozygous loci (previously testcross in parents) per F1 individual, ranged from 96 to 130. With the 87 polymorphic, but non-segregating, loci that should also be heterozygous in the F1 progeny, a maximum of 183-217 heterozygous loci could be available for mapping early height growth (EHG) loci and for applying genomic selection in backcross populations.

  3. Pine Savannah restoration monitoring –Tammany Holding Tract

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Monitor the response of pine flatwood/savannah to restoration and management actions including brush removal, prescribed burning and planting longleaf pine...

  4. 基于LES开缝V形钝体性能研究%Research on the centrically slit bluff body performance using large-eddy simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚京风; 张文平; 宣领宽; 明平剑

    2013-01-01

    为了研究开缝宽度对中缝式V形钝体性能的影响,采用大涡模拟(LES)方法研究不同开缝宽度V形钝体尾流场.首先,模拟标准钝体流场,通过与文献数值模拟结果及实验结果比较,验证方法的正确性.然后,保持钝体张角为60°,阻塞比为0.33不变,分别研究缝宽比为0.1、0.2、0.3及0.4开缝钝体性能.大涡模拟得到的尾流场与文献观察到的实验现象一致.钝体回流区随缝宽比增加先增加后减小;阻力损失随缝宽比增加而减小,并均小于标准钝体.数值模拟表明,中缝流对流场的影响仅局限于钝体尾部一定区域内.过大的开缝宽度将使钝体性能极具恶化.综合比较,缝宽比为0.2时钝体回流区最大,比标准钝体增长24.3%,总压损失系数降低49.6%.%In order to investigate the performance of the centrically slit bluff body, large-eddy simulation ( LES) has been applied to analyze the wake flow of bluff bodies with different gap ratio. Firstly, the turbulent flow over the standard bluff body was simulated and the results agreed well with experimental data and published results, which means that the present method is capable for this research. Secondly, the cases with gap ratio 0. 1, 0. 2, 0. 3 and 0.4 and the same open angle 60° and blockage ratio 0. 33 were studied. The predicted flow fields were equivalent to those observed with experiments. As the gap ratio increasing, the length of the recirculation zone increases first and then decreases; the total pressure coefficient decreases and is always smaller than that of the standard one. The influence induced by the gap flow vanishes after a distance from the bluff body. When the gap ratio becomes too large, the performance of the bluff body deteriorates. The slit bluff body with gap ratio 0. 2 possesses the biggest re-circulation length of an increase by 24. 3% and its total pressure loss coefficient decreases by 49. 6% compared to the standard one.

  5. Characterization of pine nuts in the U.S. market, including those associated with "pine mouth", by GC-FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Handy, Sara M; Rader, Jeanne I

    2012-03-14

    Taste disturbances following consumption of pine nuts, referred to as "pine mouth", have been reported by consumers in the United States and Europe. Nuts of Pinus armandii have been associated with pine mouth, and a diagnostic index (DI) measuring the content of Δ5-unsaturated fatty acids relative to that of their fatty acid precursors has been proposed for identifying nuts from this species. A 100 m SLB-IL 111 GC column was used to improve fatty acid separations, and 45 pine nut samples were analyzed, including pine mouth-associated samples. This study examined the use of a DI for the identification of mixtures of pine nut species and showed the limitation of morphological characteristics for species identification. DI values for many commercial samples did not match those of known reference species, indicating that the majority of pine nuts collected in the U.S. market, including those associated with pine mouth, are mixtures of nuts from different Pinus species.

  6. White pines, Ribes, and blister rust: integration and action

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Hunt; B. W. Geils; K. E. Hummer

    2010-01-01

    The preceding articles in this series review the history, biology and management of white pine blister rust in North America, Europe and eastern Asia. In this integration, we connect and discuss seven recurring themes important for understanding and managing epidemics of Cronartium ribicola in the white pines (five-needle pines in subgenus Strobus). Information and...

  7. Blister rust control in the management of western white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth P. Davis; Virgil D. Moss

    1940-01-01

    The forest industry of the western white pine region depends on the production of white pine as a major species on about 2,670,000 acres of commercial forest land. Continued production of this species and maintenance of the forest industry at anything approaching its present level is impossible unless the white pine blister rust is controlled. Existing merchantable...

  8. White pines, blister rust, and management in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. A. Conklin; M Fairweather; D Ryerson; B Geils; D Vogler

    2009-01-01

    White pines in New Mexico and Arizona are threatened by the invasive disease white pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola. Blister rust is already causing severe damage to a large population of southwestern white pine in the Sacramento Mountains of southern New Mexico. Recent detection in northern and western New Mexico suggests that a major expansion of the...

  9. Yield of a Choctawhatchee Sand Pine Plantation at Age 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell M. Burns; R.H. Brendemuehl

    1969-01-01

    A little-known tree, Choctawhatchee sand pine (Pinus clausa [Chapm.] Vasey), seems well adapted to the infertile, droughty soils common to the sandhills of Florida which now produce little value. Published yield data based on plantation-grown Choctawhatchee sand pine are not available. One 28-year-old plantation of this race of sand pine, growing...

  10. Avian response to pine restoration at Peck Ranch Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Clawson; Carrie Steen; Kim Houf; Terry Thompson

    2007-01-01

    Midco Pine Flats is a 2,223-acre region of Peck Ranch Conservation Area (CA) that is classified as a pine-oak plains land type association. Extensive logging in the early 1900s removed most overstory shortleaf pine allowing oak to become the primary overstory component. In 2000, Missouri Department of Conservation staff initiated a pineoak woodland restoration project...

  11. 78 FR 52498 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in Eureka, Nevada. The... Standard Time. All RAC meetings are subject to change or cancellation. For status of the White Pine-Nye...

  12. [Systemic allergic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts, Pinus pinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-11-26

    An in vivo open oral provocation with pine nuts (Pinus pinea) confirmed information about systemic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts. In vitro tests suggested a systemic IgE allergic reaction. Pine nuts are employed in sweets and cakes and, as in the present case, in green salads.

  13. First record of the Kuwana pine mealybug Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana) in Italy: a new threat to Italian pine forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselli, Mauro; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2016-02-19

    The Asiatic Kuwana pine mealybug, Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana, 1902) (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae), is reported in Italy for the first time. It was detected in September 2015 on maritime pine, Pinus pinaster, and stone pine, Pinus pinea, trees growing in the town of Cervia (Ravenna Province), Northern Italy. The mealybug has caused yellowing and decline of the pine trees. Pinus pinea is recorded here as a new host for C. pini.

  14. Solar Decathlon 2015 - Indigo Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouin, Vincent [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2016-05-30

    The Solar Decathlon competition challenges students across the country to design and build a net-zero, market ready solar powered home. The bi-annual competition consists of ten contests that seek to balance the home on a scale of innovation. The ten contests were selected by to organizers to address all aspects of housing, including architecture, market appeal, engineering, communication, affordability, comfort, appliances, home life, commuting, and energy balance. Along with the criteria associated with the contests, the competition includes several design constraints that mirror those found in practical housing applications: including (but certainly not limited to) lot lines, building height, and ADA accessibility. The Solar Decathlon 2015 was held at the Orange Country Great Park in Irvine, CA. The 2015 competition was Clemson University’s first entry into the Solar Decathlon and was a notable milestone in the continued development of a home, called Indigo Pine. From the beginning, the team reconsidered the notion of sustainability as related to both the design of a home and the competition itself. The designing and building process for the home reflects a process which seamlessly moves between thinking and making to develop a comprehensive design with a method and innovations that challenge the conventions of residential construction. This report is a summary of the activities of the Clemson University team during the two-year duration of the project leading to the participation in the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine California.

  15. Surface waters of Illinois River basin in Arkansas and Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, L.L.

    1959-01-01

    The estimated runoff from the Illinois River basin of 1,660 square miles has averaged 1,160,000 acre-feet per year during the water years 1938-56, equivalent to an average annual runoff depth of 13.1 inches. About 47 percent of the streamflow is contributed from drainage in Arkansas, where an average of 550,000 acre-ft per year runs off from 755 square miles, 45.5 percent of the total drainage area. The streamflow is highly variable. Twenty-two years of record for Illinois River near Tahlequah, Okla., shows a variation in runoff for the water year 1945 in comparison with 1954 in a ratio of almost 10 to 1. Runoff in 1927 may have exceeded that of 1945, according to records for White River at Beaver, Ark., the drainage basin just east of the Illinois River basin. Variation in daily discharge is suggested by a frequency analysis of low flows at the gaging station near Tahlequah, Okla. The mean flow at that site is 901 cfs (cubic feet per second), the median daily flow is 350 cfs, and the lowest 30-day mean flow in a year probably will be less than 130 cfs half of the time and less than 20 cfs every 10 years on the average. The higher runoff tends to occur in the spring months, March to May, a 3-month period that, on the average, accounts for almost half of the annual flow. High runoff may occur during any month in the year, but in general, the streamflow is the lowest in the summer. The mean monthly flow of Illinois River near Tahlequah, Okla., for September is about 11 percent of that for May. Records show that there is flow throughout the year in Illinois River and its principal tributaries Osage Creek, Flint Creek and Barren Fork. The high variability in streamflow in this region requires the development of storage by impoundment if maximum utilization of the available water supplies is to be attained. For example, a 120-day average low flow of 22 cfs occurred in 1954 at Illinois River near Tahlequah, Okla. To have maintained the flow at 350 cfs, the median daily

  16. White pine blister rust resistance of 12 western white pine families at three field sites in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Robert Danchok; Jim Hamlin; Angelia Kegley; Sally Long; James Mayo

    2012-01-01

    Western white pine (Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don) is highly susceptible to the non-native, invasive pathogen Cronartium ribicola, the causative agent of white pine blister rust. The susceptibility of western white pine to blister rust has limited its use in restoration and reforestation throughout much of western North...

  17. Status of white pine blister rust and seed collections in california's high-elevation white pine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Dunlap

    2011-01-01

    White pine blister rust (caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola) reached northern California about 80 years ago. Over the years its spread southward had been primarily recorded on sugar pine. However, observations on its occurrence had also been reported in several of the higher elevation five-needled white pine species in California. Since the late...

  18. Evolutionary fire ecology: lessons learned from pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausas, Juli G

    2015-05-01

    Macroevolutionary studies of the genus Pinus provide the oldest current evidence of fire as an evolutionary pressure on plants and date back to ca. 125 million years ago (Ma). Microevolutionary studies show that fire traits are variable within and among populations, especially among those subject to different fire regimes. In addition, there is increasing evidence of an inherited genetic basis to variability in fire traits. Added together, pines provide compelling evidence that fire can exert an evolutionary pressure on plants and, thus, shape biodiversity. In addition, evolutionary fire ecology is providing insights to improve the management of pine forests under changing conditions. The lessons learned from pines may guide research on the evolutionary ecology of other taxa.

  19. [The pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solt, Ido; Mendel, Zvi

    2002-09-01

    The pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) is considered to be a serious pest of medical importance. The hair on the dorsum of the last instar larvae of the moth may cause urticarial reactions (erucism) as well as eye problems and temporary blindness. In Israel, the pest occurs in all pine plantations as well as on ornamental pine trees in urban areas. The biology, ecology and management of the moth population are discussed as well as the mechanism of action of the urticarial hairs and their medical significance. Awareness of the life cycle and ecology of the pest may reduce the contact of the population with the urticarial hairs and prevent the morbidity caused by it.

  20. Arkansas: a leading laboratory for health care payment and delivery system reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Deborah; du Pont, Lammot; Lipson, Mindy

    2014-08-01

    As states' Medicaid programs continue to evolve from traditional fee-for-service to value-based health care delivery, there is growing recognition that systemwide multipayer approaches provide the market power needed to address the triple aim of improved patient care, improved health of populations, and reduced costs. Federal initiatives, such as the State Innovation Model grant program, make significant funds available for states seeking to transform their health care systems. In crafting their reform strategies, states can learn from early innovators. This issue brief focuses on one such state: Arkansas. Insights and lessons from the Arkansas Health Care Payment Improvement Initiative (AHCPII) suggest that progress is best gained through an inclusive, deliberative process facilitated by committed leadership, a shared agreement on root problems and opportunities for improvement, and a strategy grounded in the state's particular health care landscape.

  1. A demographic comparison of two black bear populations in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph D.; Smith, Kimberly G.

    1994-01-01

    The Ozark and Ouachita mountain regions of western Arkansas, collectively known as the Interior Highlands, historically supported large numbers of black bears (Ursus americanus). Indiscriminate killing of bears by early settlers and subsequent habitat reductions due to extensive logging and changes in land use resulted in their decline (Smith et al. 1991). By the late 1940's, bears had been extirpated from both regions (Holder 1951).

  2. The effects of harvesting short rotation cottonwood with tree shears in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew H. Pelkki; Michael Blazier; Jonathan Hartley; Hal Liechty; Bryce Zimmermann

    2016-01-01

    Short-rotation cottonwood plantations were established on a marginal agricultural site in the lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley in southeast Arkansas using two known clones (S7C20 and ST-66) and nurseryrun cottonwood stock (MIXED) from the Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry nursery. The cottonwood was grown for five seasons and harvested in the winter of...

  3. Field Evaluation of Four Spatial Repellent Devices Against Arkansas Rice-Land Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    FIELD EVALUATION OF FOUR SPATIAL REPELLENT DEVICES AGAINST ARKANSAS RICE-LAND MOSQUITOES DAVID A. DAME,1 MAX V. MEISCH,2 CAROLYN N. LEWIS,2 DANIEL L... mosquitoes to locate a host. There are many commercially available spatial repellent products currently on the market. These products include...a large rice growing area where late-spring and summer agricultural irriga- tion generates dense mosquito populations. Spatial repellent devices

  4. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia Species Within Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) Collected from Arkansas United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout Fryxell, R T; Steelman, C D; Szalanski, A L; Billingsley, P M; Williamson, P C

    2015-05-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), caused by the etiological agent Rickettsia rickettsii, is the most severe and frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and is commonly diagnosed throughout the southeast. With the discoveries of Rickettsia parkeri and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks, it remains inconclusive if the cases reported as RMSF are truly caused by R. rickettsii or other SFGR. Arkansas reports one of the highest incidence rates of RMSF in the country; consequently, to identify the rickettsiae in Arkansas, 1,731 ticks, 250 white-tailed deer, and 189 canines were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the rickettsial genes gltA, rompB, and ompA. None of the white-tailed deer were positive, while two of the canines (1.1%) and 502 (29.0%) of the ticks were PCR positive. Five different tick species were PCR positive: 244 (37%) Amblyomma americanum L., 130 (38%) Ixodes scapularis Say, 65 (39%) Amblyomma maculatum (Koch), 30 (9%) Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 7 (4%) Dermacentor variabilis Say, and 26 (44%) unidentified Amblyomma ticks. None of the sequenced products were homologous to R. rickettsii. The most common Rickettsia via rompB amplification was Rickettsia montanensis and nonpathogenic Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii, whereas with ompA amplification the most common Rickettsia was Ca. R. amblyommii. Many tick specimens collected in northwest Arkansas were PCR positive and these were commonly A. americanum harboring Ca. R. amblyommii, a currently nonpathogenic Rickettsia. Data reported here indicate that pathogenic R. rickettsii was absent from these ticks and suggest by extension that other SFGR are likely the causative agents for Arkansas diagnosed RMSF cases.

  5. Responses of Bats to Forest Fragmentation in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, Arkansas, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Risch, Thomas S.; Karen F. Gaines; Connior, Matthew B.; Rex E. Medlin

    2010-01-01

    Intense conversion of bottomland hardwood forests to rice and soybeans in the Mississippi River Valley of Arkansas has restricted the remaining forest to isolated fragments. Habitat fragmentation has proven to be detrimental to population sustainability of several species, and is the subject of intense study with often species and latitude specific responses. We compared both coarse land area classes and landscape fragmentation metrics from six 30 km × 30 km subsets centered on publicly owned...

  6. Extracting DNA from submerged pine wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, M Megan; Williams, Claire G

    2004-10-01

    A DNA extraction protocol for submerged pine logs was developed with the following properties: (i) high molecular weight DNA, (ii) PCR amplification of chloroplast and nuclear sequences, and (iii) high sequence homology to voucher pine specimens. The DNA extraction protocol was modified from a cetyltrimehtylammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol by adding stringent electrophoretic purification, proteinase K, RNAse, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and Gene Releaser. Chloroplast rbcL (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase) could be amplified. Nuclear ribosomal sequences had >95% homology to Pinus taeda and Pinus palustris. Microsatellite polymorphism for PtTX2082 matched 2 of 14 known P. taeda alleles. Our results show DNA analysis for submerged conifer wood is feasible.

  7. Medical tourism in the backcountry: alternative health and healing in the Arkansas Ozarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Justin M; Schneider, Mary Jo

    2011-01-01

    Tourists travel to Arkansas' mountain regions to experience, appreciate, and consume multiple aspects of otherness, including sacred sites and pristine and authentic peoples and environments. A largely unexplored aspect of this consumption of authenticity is alternative medicine, provided to tourists and day travelers in search of physical and emotional restoration. Traditional forms of medicine are deeply rooted in women's social roles as community healers in the region and are perpetuated in part because of the lack of readily accessible forms of so-called modern medicine. Contemporary medical tourism in Arkansas has promoted access to folk health systems, preserving them by incorporating them into tourists' health care services, and also has attracted new and dynamic alternative medical practices while encouraging the transformation of existing forms of traditional medicine. Ultimately, the blend of alternative, folk, and conventional medicine in the Arkansas highlands is evidence of globalizing forces at work in a regional culture. It also serves to highlight a renewed appreciation for the historic continuity and the efficacy of traditional knowledge in the upper South.

  8. Distributing medical expertise: the evolution and impact of telemedicine in arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Curtis L; Bronstein, Janet M; Benton, Tina L; Fletcher, David A

    2014-02-01

    Arkansas's telemedicine system has evolved since 2003 from a support mechanism for high-risk pregnancy consultations to an initiative that spans medical specialties, including asthma care, pediatric cardiology, gynecology, and mental health. The system has also expanded care to diverse populations, including incarcerated women and people with HIV/AIDS. This article describes the system's evolution, organization, and diverse activities. It also shows how telemedicine can have a positive impact on a rural state and how such a state can become an engine for change regionally. The Arkansas telemedicine system faced classic challenges to uptake and function, in building and sustaining funding, in obtaining insurance reimbursement for services, and in educating patients and providers. The system's impacts on health outcomes and medical practice culture have also reached beyond patient care and provider support. The existing yet continually evolving telemedicine infrastructure and partnerships in Arkansas will respond to the state's inevitable health care reform adaptations from the Affordable Care Act and could provide direction for other states seeking to adopt or expand their telemedicine efforts.

  9. The Niobrara Formation as a challenge to water quality in the Arkansas River, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton; Stogner, Sr., Robert W.

    2017-01-01

    Study regionArkansas River, east of the Rocky Mountains.Study focusCretaceous sedimentary rocks in the western United States generally pose challenges to water quality, often through mobilization of salts and trace metals by irrigation. However, in the Arkansas River Basin of Colorado, patchy exposure of multiple Cretaceous formations has made it difficult to identify which formations are most problematic. This paper examines water quality in surface-water inflows along a 26-km reach of the Arkansas River relative to the presence or absence of the Cretaceous Niobrara Formation within the watershed.New hydrological insights for the regionPrincipal component analysis (PCA) shows Niobrara-influenced inflows have distinctive geochemistry, particularly with respect to Na, Mg, SO42−, and Se. Uranium concentrations are also greater in Niobrara-influenced inflows. During the irrigation season, median dissolved solids, Se, and U concentrations in Niobrara-influenced inflows were 83%, 646%, and 55%, respectively, greater than medians where Niobrara Formation surface exposures were absent. During the non-irrigation season, which better reflects geologic influence, the differences were more striking. Median dissolved solids, Se, and U concentrations in Niobrara-influenced inflows were 288%, 863%, and 155%, respectively, greater than median concentrations where the Niobrara Formation was absent. Identification of the Niobrara Formation as a disproportionate source for dissolved solids, Se, and U will allow for more targeted studies and management, particularly where exposures underlie irrigated agriculture.

  10. Workshop proceedings: research and management in whitebark pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Katherine C.; Coen, Brenda

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this workshop is to exchange information on on-going and soon-to-be-initiated whitebark pine research and management projects. By doing so we hope to encourage future work on this valuable species. We also hope to promote the use of consistent methods for evaluation and investigation of whitebark pine, and to provide avenues of collaboration. Speakers will present information on a variety of topics related to whitebark pine management and research. Featured presentation topics include anthropomorphic utilization of whitepark pine forests, whitebark pine natural regeneration, blister rust and the decline of whitebark pine, blister rust resistance studies, ecological mapping of the species, restoration and management projects, and survey/monitoring techniques. Information gained from these presentations may hopefully be used in the planning of future projects for the conservation of whitebark pine.

  11. Interglacial Extension of the Boreal Forest Limit in the Noatak Valley, Northwest Alaska: Evidence from an Exhumed River-Cut Bluff and Debris Apron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M.E.; Hamilton, T.D.; Elias, S.A.; Bigelow, N.H.; Krumhardt, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous exposures of Pleistocene sediments occur in the Noatak basin, which extends for 130 km along the Noatak River in northwestern Alaska. Nk-37, an extensive bluff exposure near the west end of the basin, contains a record of at least three glacial advances separated by interglacial and interstadial deposits. An ancient river-cut bluff and associated debris apron is exposed in profile through the central part of Nk-37. The debris apron contains a rich biotic record and represents part of an interglaciation that is probably assignable to marine-isotope stage 5. Pollen spectra from the lower part of the debris apron closely resemble modern samples taken from the Noatak floodplain in spruce gallery forest, and macrofossils of spruce are also present at this level. Fossil bark beetles and carpenter ants occur higher in the debris apron. Mutual Climatic Range (MCR) estimates from the fossil beetles suggest temperatures similar to or warmer than today. Together, these fossils indicate the presence of an interglacial spruce forest in the western part of the Noatak Basin, which lies about 80 km upstream of the modern limit of spruce forest.

  12. Mountain pine beetle attack associated with low levels of 4-allylanisole in ponderosa pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerick, Jay J; Snyder, Aaron I; Bower, Nathan W; Snyder, Marc A

    2008-08-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is the most important insect pest in southern Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Tree mortality is hastened by the various fungal pathogens that are symbiotic with the beetles. The phenylpropanoid 4-allylanisole is an antifungal and semiochemical for some pine beetle species. We analyzed 4-allylanisole and monoterpene profiles in the xylem oleoresin from a total of 107 trees at six sites from two chemotypes of ponderosa pine found in Colorado and New Mexico using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Although monoterpene profiles were essentially the same in attacked and nonattacked trees, significantly lower levels of 4-allylanisole were found in attacked trees compared with trees that showed no evidence of attack for both chemotypes.

  13. Host Preference by Monochamus alternatus (Hope) during Maturation Feeding on Pine Species and Masson Pine Provenances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Host preferences pine of the sawyer beetle, Monochamus alternates (Hope), during maturation feeding on 8 conifer trees and 40 masson pine provenances, were investigated using 3 types of laboratory bioassay of consistent feeding preference, feeding area and visitation frequency. M. alternatus adults have the highest frequency of feeding and prefer to feed on the branches of P. massoniana and P. densiflora and had significant host selectivity on 8 conifer trees in the area of Nanjing. The adult feeding vi...

  14. Air pollution damage to Austrian pine in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, E.; Davis, S.H. Jr.

    1967-11-01

    Following a period of high pollution, extensive needle damage was observed on Austrian pine trees. Since the species is common in New Jersey, it was possible to obtain an approximation of its sensitivity. In nurseries, Christmas tree plantations and park areas, which included many species of conifers in addition to Austrian pine, species specifically noted as free from apparent damage were white pine (Pinus strobus), scotch pine (P. sylvestris), red pine (P. resinosa), Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica glauca), Norway spruce (Picea abies), Colorado spruce (P. pungens), white spruce (P. canadensis), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia), and many varieties of juniper, arbor vitae, hemlock, and yew. During the survey needle damage, which could be traced back to the episode of 24 June, was also observed on Japanese red pine (P. densiflora) and Japanese black pine (P. densiflora) and Japanese black pine (P. Thunbergil). The injury to Japanese red pine was identical to that on Austrian pine, but on Japanese black pine the damage appeared not on the current year's needles, but on 1-year-old needles and it did not have the distinctive dividing line between injured and healthy tissue. These two species did not occur in sufficient number to allow further evaluation. Austrian pine has been cited in the literature as very tolerant of industrial smoke. Currently, German foresters are advising aginst the use of spruce and firs in industrial areas and are recommending ''resistant species as Austrian pine.'' In New Jersey fluoride damage has been observed on Austrian pine on occasion over the past 20 years. Because of the damage also caused by photochemical smog in New Jersey, the resistance of the species should be reevaluated. A need may develop for a breeding program to provide resistant material to the highly polluted metropolitan areas.

  15. Seedling regeneration on decayed pine logs after the deforestation events caused by pine wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fukasawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coarse woody debris (CWD forms an important habitat suitable for tree seedling establishment, and the CWD decay process influences tree seedling community. In Japan, a severe dieback of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. caused by pine wilt disease (PWD damaged huge areas of pine stands but creates huge mass of pine CWD. It is important to know the factors influencing seedling colonization on pine CWD and their variations among geographical gradient in Japan to expect forest regeneration in post-PWD stands. I conducted field surveys on the effects of latitude, climates, light condition, decay type of pine logs, and log diameter on tree seedling colonization at ten geographically distinct sites in Japan. In total, 59 tree taxa were recorded as seedlings on pine logs. Among them, 13 species were recorded from more than five sites as adult trees or seedlings and were used for the analyses. A generalized linear model showed that seedling colonization of Pinus densiflora was negatively associated with brown rot in sapwood, while that of Rhus trichocarpa was positively associated with brown rot in heartwood. Regeneration of Ilex macropoda had no relationships with wood decay type but negatively associated with latitude and MAT, while positively with log diameter. These results suggested that wood decay type is a strong determinant of seedling establishment for certain tree species, even at a wide geographical scale; however, the effect is tree species specific.

  16. White pine blister rust resistance in limber pine: evidence for a major gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoettle, A W; Sniezko, R A; Kegley, A; Burns, K S

    2014-02-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) is being threatened by the lethal disease white pine blister rust caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola. The types and frequencies of genetic resistance to the rust will likely determine the potential success of restoration or proactive measures. These first extensive inoculation trials using individual tree seed collections from >100 limber pine trees confirm that genetic segregation of a stem symptom-free trait to blister rust is consistent with inheritance by a single dominant resistance (R) gene, and the resistance allele appears to be distinct from the R allele in western white pine. Following previous conventions, we are naming the R gene for limber pine "Cr4." The frequency of the Cr4 allele across healthy and recently invaded populations in the Southern Rocky Mountains was unexpectedly high (5.0%, ranging from 0 to 13.9%). Cr4 is in equilibrium, suggesting that it is not a product of a recent mutation and may have other adaptive significance within the species, possibly related to other abiotic or biotic stress factors. The identification of Cr4 in native populations of limber pine early in the invasion progress in this region provides useful information for predicting near-term impacts and structuring long-term management strategies.

  17. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Hu

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD. Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1, deciduous woody species (PFT2, herbs (PFT3, and ferns (PFT4. We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation.

  18. Impact of pine needle leachates from a mountain pine beetle infested watershed on groundwater geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryhoda, M.; Sitchler, A.; Dickenson, E.

    2013-12-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic in the northwestern United States is a recent indicator of climate change; having an impact on the lodgepole pine forest ecosystem productivity. Pine needle color can be used to predict the stage of a MPB infestation, as they change color from a healthy green, to red, to gray as the tree dies. Physical processes including precipitation and snowfall can cause leaching of pine needles in all infestation stages. Understanding the evolution of leachate chemistry through the stages of MPB infestation will allow for better prediction of the impact of MPBs on groundwater geochemistry, including a potential increase in soil metal mobilization and potential increases in disinfection byproduct precursor compounds. This study uses batch experiments to determine the leachate chemistry of pine needles from trees in four stages of MPB infestation from Summit County, CO, a watershed currently experiencing the MPB epidemic. Each stage of pine needles undergoes four subsequent leach periods in temperature-controlled DI water. The subsequent leaching method adds to the experiment by determining how leachate chemistry of each stage changes in relation to contact time with water. The leachate is analyzed for total organic carbon. Individual organic compounds present in the leachate are analyzed by UV absorption spectra, fluorescence spectrometry, high-pressure liquid chromatography for organic acid analysis, and size exclusion chromatography. Leachate chemistry results will be used to create a numerical model simulating reactions of the leachate with soil as it flows through to groundwater during precipitation and snowfall events.

  19. Seedling regeneration on decayed pine logs after the deforestation events caused by pine wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fukasawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coarse woody debris (CWD forms an important habitat suitable for tree seedling establishment, and the CWD decay process influences tree seedling community. In Japan, a severe dieback of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. caused by pine wilt disease (PWD damaged huge areas of pine stands but creates huge mass of pine CWD. It is important to know the factors influencing seedling colonization on pine CWD and their variations among geographical gradient in Japan to expect forest regeneration in post-PWD stands. I conducted field surveys on the effects of latitude, climates, light condition, decay type of pine logs, and log diameter on tree seedling colonization at ten geographically distinct sites in Japan. In total, 59 tree taxa were recorded as seedlings on pine logs. Among them, 13 species were recorded from more than five sites as adult trees or seedlings and were used for the analyses. A generalized linear model showed that seedling colonization of Pinus densiflora was negatively associated with brown rot in sapwood, while that of Rhus trichocarpa was positively associated with brown rot in heartwood. Regeneration of Ilex macropoda had no relationships with wood decay type but negatively associated with latitude and MAT, while positively with log diameter. These results suggested that wood decay type is a strong determinant of seedling establishment for certain tree species, even at a wide geographical scale; however, the effect is tree species specific.

  20. Methods and applications of electrical simulation in ground-water studies in the lower Arkansas and Verdigris River Valleys, Arkansas and Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Reed, J.E.; Wells, C.J.; Swafford, B.F.

    1970-01-01

    The Arkansas River Multiple-Purpose Plan will provide year-round navigation on the Arkansas River from near its mouth to Muskogee, Okla., and on the Verdigris River from Muskogee to Catoosa, Okla. The altered regimen in the Arkansas and Verdigris Rivers will affect ground-water conditions in the adjacent alluvial aquifers. In 1957 the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers entered into a cooperative agreement for a comprehensive ground-water study of the lower Arkansas and Verdigris River valleys. At the request of the Corps of Engineers, the Geological Survey agreed to provide (1) basic ground-water data before, during, and after construction of the Multiple-Purpose Plan and (2) interpretation and projections of postconstruction ground-water conditions. The data collected were used by the Corps of Engineers in preliminary foundation and excavation estimates and by the Geological Survey as the basis for defining the hydrologic properties of, and the ground-water conditions in, the aquifer. The projections of postconstruction ground-water conditions were used by the Corps of Engineers in the planning, design, construction, and operation of the Multiple-Purpose Plan. Analysis and projections of ground-water conditions were made by use of electrical analog models. These models use the analogy between the flow of electricity in a resistance-capacitance circuit and the flow of a liquid in a porous and permeable medium. Verification provides a test of the validity of the analog to perform as the aquifer would, within the range of historic forces. The verification process consists of simulating the action of historic forces which have acted upon the aquifer and of duplicating the aquifer response with the analog. The areal distribution of accretion can be treated as an unknown and can be determined by analog simulation of the piezometric surface in an aquifer. Comparison of accretion with depth to piezometric surface below land surface shows that

  1. Water resources of Clark, Cleveland, and Dallas Counties, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebuch, Raymond O.; Hines, Marion S.

    1969-01-01

    Clark, Cleveland, and Dallas counties constitute an area of 2,151 square miles in south-central Arkansas. The area is in two physiographic provinces--the Ouachita Mountains of the Ouachita province of the Interior Highlands, and the West Gulf Coastal Plain of the Coastal Plain province. The area is drained by the Ouachita, Saline, and Little Missouri Rivers and their tributaries. Although some of the streams in the project area can furnish dependable water supplies without storage, the amount of water available for use can be increased by the construction of reservoirs. The average surface-water yield in the area is about 1.4 cubic feet per second per square mile, or a total of about 3,000 cubic feet per second. Generally, the water quality is good; but water from some of the streams, particularly from the smaller tributaries, may require treatment for excessive iron content and high color. Ground-water yields in the project area vary considerably. The consolidated rocks in the Interior Highlands generally yield less than 10 gallons per minute to wells, precluding the development of large municipal or industrial groundwater supplies in that area. Of the 17 geologic units present in the Coastal Plain part of the project area, 12 yield water but in varying amounts. Among the formations of Cretaceous age, the Tokio yields good-quality water in the outcrop, but the quality deteriorates downdip; the Brownstown Marl yields small amounts of water for domestic purposes, mainly in the outcrop area ; the Ozan Formation yields a highly mineralized water that is generally unsuitable for most purposes; the Nacatoch Sand yields as much as 100 gallons per minute of good-quality water in and near the outcrop, but the water becomes very salty and corrosive at distances ranging from 2 miles downdip from the outcrop in northern Clark County to 17 miles downdip in the southern part of the county. The formations of Tertiary age offer the best possibilities for ground water

  2. Hydraulic adjustment of Scots pine across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Vilalta, J.; Cochard, H.; Mencuccini, M.; Sterck, F.J.; Herrero, A.; Korhonen, J.F.J.; Llorens, P.; Nikinmaa, E.; Nolè, A.; Poyatos, R.; Ripullone, F.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Zweifel, R.

    2009-01-01

    The variability of branch-level hydraulic properties was assessed across 12 Scots pine populations covering a wide range of environmental conditions, including some of the southernmost populations of the species. The aims were to relate this variability to differences in climate, and to study the po

  3. Status of Pituophis ruthveni (Louisiana pine snake)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; Ricky W. Maxey

    2006-01-01

    Extensive trapping surveys across the historical range of Pituophis ruthveni (Louisiana Pine Snake) suggest that extant populations are extremely small and limited to remnant patches of suitable habitat in a highly fragmented landscape. Evaluation of habitat at all known historical localities of P. ruthveni documents the widespread...

  4. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Andrew P; Pfammatter, Jesse A; Bentz, Barbara J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks.

  5. A Study of the School Principal Labor Market in Arkansas: Implications for Incentive-Based Compensation Policies to Improve Principal Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Marc Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Improving principal quality in Arkansas may be a partial solution to the public policy problem of low performing public schools. Just as policymakers in other states are beginning to explore incentive-based compensation policies to improve principal quality, education policymakers in Arkansas should look to these policies as a way to align goals…

  6. Sapwood Stored Resources Decline in Whitebark and Lodgepole Pines Attacked by Mountain Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Eleanor C; Sala, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Recent outbreaks of forest insects have been directly linked to climate change-induced warming and drought, but effects of tree stored resources on insects have received less attention. We asked whether tree stored resources changed following mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack and whether they affected beetle development. We compared initial concentrations of stored resources in the sapwood of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex. Louden) with resource concentrations one year later, in trees that were naturally attacked by beetles and trees that remained unattacked. Beetles did not select host trees based on sapwood resources-there were no consistent a priori differences between attacked versus unattacked trees-but concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC), lipids, and phosphorus declined in attacked trees, relative to initial concentrations and unattacked trees. Whitebark pine experienced greater resource declines than lodgepole pine; however, sapwood resources were not correlated with beetle success in either species. Experimental manipulation confirmed that the negative effect of beetles on sapwood and phloem NSC was not due to girdling. Instead, changes in sapwood resources were related to the percentage of sapwood with fungal blue-stain. Overall, mountain pine beetle attack affected sapwood resources, but sapwood resources did not contribute directly to beetle success; instead, sapwood resources may support colonization by beetle-vectored fungi that potentially accelerate tree mortality. Closer attention to stored resource dynamics will improve our understanding of the interaction between mountain pine beetles, fungi, and host trees, an issue that is relevant to our understanding of insect range expansion under climate change.

  7. Pine Gene Discovery Project - Final Report - 08/31/1997 - 02/28/2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whetten, R. W.; Sederoff, R. R.; Kinlaw, C.; Retzel, E.

    2001-04-30

    Integration of pines into the large scope of plant biology research depends on study of pines in parallel with study of annual plants, and on availability of research materials from pine to plant biologists interested in comparing pine with annual plant systems. The objectives of the Pine Gene Discovery Project were to obtain 10,000 partial DNA sequences of genes expressed in loblolly pine, to determine which of those pine genes were similar to known genes from other organisms, and to make the DNA sequences and isolated pine genes available to plant researchers to stimulate integration of pines into the wider scope of plant biology research. Those objectives have been completed, and the results are available to the public. Requests for pine genes have been received from a number of laboratories that would otherwise not have included pine in their research, indicating that progress is being made toward the goal of integrating pine research into the larger molecular biology research community.

  8. The effect of water limitation on volatile emission, tree defense response, and brood success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in two pine hosts, lodgepole and jack pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inka eLusebrink

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavigera and measured through monoterpene emission from tree boles and concentration of defensive compounds in phloem, needles, and necrotic tissues. Lodgepole pine generally emitted higher amounts of monoterpenes than jack pine; particularly from fungal-inoculated trees. Compared to non-inoculated trees, fungal inoculation increased monoterpene emission in both species, whereas water treatment had no effect on monoterpene emission. The phloem of both pine species contains (--α-pinene, the precursor of the beetle’s aggregation pheromone, however lodgepole pine contains two times as much as jack pine. The concentration of defensive compounds was 70-fold greater in the lesion tissue in jack pine, but only 10-fold in lodgepole pine compared to healthy phloem tissue in each species, respectively. Water-deficit treatment inhibited an increase of L-limonene as response to fungal inoculation in lodgepole pine phloem. The amount of myrcene in jack pine phloem was higher in water-deficit trees compared to ambient trees. Beetles reared in jack pine were not affected by either water or biological treatment, whereas beetles reared in lodgepole pine benefited from fungal inoculation by producing larger and heavier female offspring. Female beetles that emerged from jack pine bolts contained more fat than those that emerged from lodgepole pine, even though lodgepole pine phloem had a higher nitrogen content than jack pine phloem. These results suggest that jack pine chemistry

  9. Loess Bluffs NWR ROCSTAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Resources of Concern Selection Tool for Americas Refuges (ROCSTAR) was developed to assist national wildlife refuges, waterfowl production areas, wetland...

  10. Talent - for bluff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    »Talentet er blevet senkapitalismens alkymist,« skriver Susanne Ekman, der netop selv har modtaget en forskertalentpris.......»Talentet er blevet senkapitalismens alkymist,« skriver Susanne Ekman, der netop selv har modtaget en forskertalentpris....

  11. Influence of seedbed, light environment, and elevated night temperature on growth and carbon allocation in pitch pine (Pinus rigida) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Day; Jessica L. Schedlbauer; William H. Livingston; Michael S. Greenwood; Alan S. White; John C. Brissette

    2005-01-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) are two autecologically similar species that occupy generally disjunct ranges in eastern North America. Jack pine is boreal in distribution, while pitch pine occurs at temperate latitudes. The two species co-occur in a small number of stands along a 'tension...

  12. First report of the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola, infecting Pinus flexilis on Pine Mountain, Humboldt National Forest, Elko County, northeastern Nevada, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlev R. Vogler; Patricia E. Maloney; Tom Burt; Jacob W. Snelling

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, while surveying for five-needle white pine cone crops in northeastern Nevada, we observed white pine blister rust, caused by the rust pathogen Cronartium ribicola Fisch., infecting branches and stems of limber pines (Pinus flexilis James) on Pine Mountain (41.76975°N, 115.61622°W), Humboldt National Forest,...

  13. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions.

  14. Potentiometric surfaces in the Cockfield and Wilcox aquifers of southern and northeastern Arkansas, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatts, Daniel S.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the results of water-level measurements made at wells in the Cockfield Formation and Wilcox Group of southern and northeastern Arkansas during 2003, and the water levels are displayed in potentiometric-surface maps and hydrographs. During March and April 2003, the water level was measured at 55 wells completed in the Cockfield aquifer, 13 wells completed in the Wilcox aquifer of southern Arkansas, and 43 wells completed in the Wilcox aquifer of northeastern Arkansas. The Cockfield Formation generally consists of discontinuous sand units interbedded with silt, clay, and lignite in southeastern Arkansas. Sand beds near the base of the Cockfield Formation constitute most of the Cockfield aquifer. Withdrawals from the Cockfield aquifer in the study area during 2000 totaled about 9 million gallons per day. The potentiometric surface of the Cockfield aquifer constructed from the 2003 water levels shows that regional direction of ground-water flow generally is towards the east and southeast, away from the outcrop, except in areas of intense ground-water withdrawals. Some local ground-water flow in the outcrop area is toward rivers that have eroded into the Cockfield Formation and deposited alluvium in south Bradley and Calhoun Counties (Ouachita River), and in north Dallas County (Saline River). An evaluation of 20 wells with water-level data from 1983 to 2003 shows that water levels in 15 wells have declined at a rate of -0.04 to -0.97 feet per year, and water levels in 5 wells have risen at a rate of 0.07 to 0.32 feet per year. An evaluation of the same 20 wells from 2000 to 2003 shows that water levels have declined in only 8 wells, and water levels have risen in 12 wells. The Wilcox Group is distributed throughout most of southern and eastern Arkansas. There are two study areas in southern and northeastern Arkansas. The Wilcox Group of the southern study area consists of interbedded clay, sandy clay, sand, and lignite. Thin discontinuous sand

  15. Air pollution and cardiovascular and respiratory emergency visits in Central Arkansas: A time-series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodopoulou, Sophia; Samoli, Evangelia; Chalbot, Marie-Cecile G.; Kavouras, Ilias G.

    2017-01-01

    Background Heart disease and stroke mortality and morbidity rates in Arkansas are among the highest in the U.S. While the effect of air pollution on cardiovascular health was identified in traffic-dominated metropolitan areas, there is a lack of studies for populations with variable exposure profiles, demographic and disease characteristics. Objective Determine the short-term effects of air pollution on cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity in the stroke and heart failure belt. Methods We investigated the associations of fine particles and ozone with respiratory and cardiovascular emergency room visits during the 2002–2012 period for adults in Central Arkansas using Poisson generalized models adjusted for temporal, seasonal and meteorological effects. We evaluated sensitivity of the associations to mutual pollutant adjustment and effect modification patterns by sex, age, race and season. Results We found effects on cardiovascular and respiratory emergencies for PM2.5 (1.52% [95%CI: −1.10, 4.20]; 1.45% [95%CI: −2.64, 5.72] per 10 μg/m3) and O3 (0.93% [95%CI: −0.87, 2.76]; 0.76 [95%CI: −1.92, 3.52] per 10 ppbv) during the cold period (October–March). The effects were stronger among whites, except for the respiratory effects of O3 that were higher among Blacks/African-Americans. Effect modification patterns by age and sex differed by association. Both pollutants were associated with increases in emergency room visits for hypertension, heart failure and asthma. Effects on cardiovascular and respiratory emergencies were observed during the cold period when particulate matter was dominated by secondary nitrate and wood burning. Conclusion Outdoor particulate pollution during winter had an effect of cardiovascular morbidity in central Arkansas, the region with high stroke and heart disease incidence rates. PMID:26232212

  16. Acousto-Convective Drying of Pine Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2014-07-01

    An experimental investigation of the process of drying pine nut grains has been carried out by three methods: acousto-convective, thermoconvective, and thermal. A qualitative and a quantitative comparison of the dynamics of the processes of moisture extraction from the nut grains for the considered drying methods have been made. To elucidate the mechanism of moisture extraction from the pine nut grains, we carried out a separate investigation of the process of drying the nut shell and the kernel. The obtained experimental data on the acousto-convective drying of nuts are well described by the relaxation model, the data on the thermoconvective drying are well described by the bilinear law, and the data on the thermal drying are well described by the combined method consisting of three time steps characterized by different kinetic regimes of drying.

  17. Whitebark pine, grizzly bears, and red squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.; Kendall, K.C.; Reinhart, D.P.; Tomback, D.F.; Arno, S.F.; Keane, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    Appropriately enough, much of this book is devoted to discussing management challenges and techniques. However, the impetus for action—the desire to save whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis)—necessarily arises from the extent to which we cherish it for its beauty and its connections with other things that we value. Whitebark pine is at the hub of a fascinating web of relationships. It is the stuff of great stories (cf. Quammen 1994). One of the more interesting of these stories pertains to the dependence of certain grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) populations on its seeds, and the role that red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) play as an agent of transfer between tree and bear.

  18. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Lerch, Andrew P.; Pfammatter, Jesse A.; Bentz, Barbara J.; Raffa, Kenneth F.

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined...

  19. [Testate amoebas of pine forests in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, A A; Krasil'nikov, P A

    2011-01-01

    The population of testate amoebas in the soils of pine forests in Mexico has been studied. In total, 68 species, varieties, and types of testate amoebas with cosmopolite distribution were found. The species diversity of the testate population includes hygrophilous species that differ from hygrophilous species with luvisols in higher andosols. Comparative analysis using the results of one available study of soil testate amoebas from Mexico has been carried out [Bonnet, 1977].

  20. Small Hardwoods Reduce Growth of Pine Overstory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles X. Grano

    1970-01-01

    Dense understory hardwoods materially decreased the growth of a 53-year-old and a 47-year-old stand of loblolly and shortleaf pines. Over a 14-year period, hardwood eradication with chemicals increased average annual yield from the 53-year-old stand by 14.3 cubic feet, or 123 board-feet per acre. In the 47-year-old stand the average annual treatment advantage was...

  1. Tree retention in boreal pine forest

    OpenAIRE

    Santaniello, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Tree retention forestry aims at increasing structural diversity in managed forests. In this study, I have investigated the influence of tree retention forestry on delivery of two ecosystem services (wood production and carbon sequestration) and dead wood (as a proxy for biodiversity). Furthermore, habitat requirements of lichens dependent on dead wood were investigated. The study was conducted in 15 Scots pine forest stands with five various tree retention levels, in which four...

  2. Aflatoxin in Tunisian aleppo pine nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutrif, E; Jemmali, M; Pohland, A E; Campbell, A D

    1977-05-01

    Twenty-six of 50 Aleppo pine nuts samples collected throughout Tunisia showed relatively high levels of contamination by aflatoxin. Some samples contained as much as 2000 ppb aflatoxin B1, and very few contained less than 100 ppb. Total aflatoxins as high as 7550 ppb were found. A traditional pudding, widely consumed in Tunisia, which was prepared from contaminated nuts still contained more than 80% of the aflatoxin originally present in the nuts.

  3. The biophysical controls on tree defense against attacking bark beetles in managed pine forests of the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, K. A.; Miniat, C. F.; Denham, S. O.; Ritger, H. M.; Williams, C.; Guldin, J. M.; Bragg, D.; Coyle, D.

    2013-12-01

    Bark beetles are highly damaging pests capable of destroying large areas of southern pine forests, with significant consequences for regional timber supply and forest ecosystem carbon dynamics. A number of recent studies have shown that following bark beetle outbreak, significant effects on ecosystem carbon and water cycling can occur. Relatively few studies have explored how ecosystem carbon and water cycling interact with other factors to control the hazard or risk of bark beetle outbreaks; these interactions, and their representation in conceptual model frameworks, are the focus of this study. Pine trees defend against bark beetle attacks through the exudation of of resin - a viscous compound that deters attacking beetles through a combination of chemical and physical mechanisms. Constitutive resin flow (CRF, representing resin produced before attack) is assumed to be directly proportional to the balance between gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) according to the Growth-Differentiation Balance theory (GDB). Thus, predictions for tree mortality and bark beetle dynamics under different management and climate regimes may be more accurate if a model framework describing the biophysical controls on resin production (e.g., GDB) were employed. Here, we synthesize measurements of resin flow, bark beetle dynamics, and ecosystem C flux from three managed loblolly pine forests in the Southeastern U.S.: the Duke Forest in Durham, NC; the Savannah River DOE site near Aiken, SC; and the Crossett Experimental Forest in southern Arkansas. We also explore the relationship between CRF and induced resin flow (IRF, representing the de novo synthesis of resin following stem wounding) in the latter two sites, where IRF was promoted by a novel tree baiting approach and prescribed fire, respectively. We assimilate observations within a hierarchical Bayesian framework to 1) test whether observations conform to the GDB hypothesis, and 2) explore effects

  4. Establishing Longleaf Pine Seedlings Under a Loblolly Pine Canopy (User’s Guide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    conditions for Pinus palustris seedlings underplanted in Pinus taeda forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 46: 902-913. Walker, J.L. and G.G...removal in longleaf pine savannas." Canadian Journal of Forest Research 31: 765-778. Mitchell, R. J., Hiers, J.K., O’Brien, J.J., Jack, S.B...pine forests of the southeastern United States." Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36: 2724-2736. Moser, W.K., Jackson, S.M., Podrazsky, V. and

  5. Habitat use of woodpeckers in the Big Woods of eastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementz, David G.; Lehnen, Sarah E.; Luscier, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    The Big Woods of eastern Arkansas contain some of the highest densities of woodpeckers recorded within bottomland hardwood forests of the southeastern United States. A better understanding of habitat use patterns by these woodpeckers is a priority for conservationists seeking to maintain these high densities in the Big Woods and the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley as a whole. Hence, we used linear mixed-effects and linear models to estimate the importance of habitat characteristics to woodpecker density in the Big Woods during the breeding seasons of 2006 and 2007 and the winter of 2007. Northern flicker Colaptes auratus density was negatively related to tree density both for moderate (. 25 cm diameter at breast height) and larger trees (>61 cm diameter at breast height). Red-headed woodpeckers Melanerpes erythrocephalus also had a negative relationship with density of large (. 61 cm diameter at breast height) trees. Bark disfiguration (an index of tree health) was negatively related to red-bellied woodpecker Melanerpes carolinus and yellow-bellied sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius densities. No measured habitat variables explained pileated woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus density. Overall, the high densities of woodpeckers observed in our study suggest that the current forest management of the Big Woods of Arkansas is meeting the nesting, roosting, and foraging requirements for these birds.

  6. 5th Bionanotox and Applications International Research Conference, Peabody, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabb, Taneicie; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2011-06-01

    "BioNanoTox and Toxicity: using Technology to Advance Discovery" was this year's theme at the 5th BioNanoTox and Applications International Research Conference held at the Peabody Hotel, Little Rock, Arkansas on November 4-5th, 2010. This year, the international participation in this conference increased to 25 countries spanning the globe. The conference began with opening remarks by Paul Howard, Associate Director of the National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas, United States. Two keynote speakers, Dr. Ananth V. Annapragada and Dr. Merle G. Paule presented lectures on "Toxicity of Novel Nanoparticles for CT imaging" and "The Biology of Neurotoxicity: using Technology to Advance Discovery", respectively. Teachers, students, faculty, and scientists presented oral and poster presentations on fundamental and translational research related to BioNanoTox and related fields of science. Six presentation sessions were held over the two-day conference. There were 31 presentations and 39 posters from disciplines ranging from biology to chemistry, toxicology, nanotechnology, computational sciences, mathematics, engineering, plant science, and biotechnology. Poster presentation awards were presented to three high school students, three high school teachers, and three college students. In addition to poster awards a memorial, travel, and BioNanoTox award were presented. This year's meeting paved the way for a more outstanding meeting for the future.

  7. Curriculum alignment and higher order thinking in introductory biology in Arkansas public two-year colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Elizabeth Diane

    This dissertation identified the cognitive levels of lecture objectives, lab objectives, and test questions in introductory majors' biology. The study group included courses offered by 27 faculty members at 18 of the 22 community colleges in Arkansas. Using Bloom's Taxonomy to identify cognitive levels, the median lecture learning outcomes were at level 2 (Comprehension) and test assessments at Level 1 (Knowledge). Lab learning outcomes were determined to have a median of level 3 (Analysis). A correlation analysis was performed using SPSS software to determine if there was an association between the Bloom's level of lecture objectives and test assessments. The only significant difference found was at the Analysis level, or Bloom's level 4 (p=.043). Correlation analyses were run for two other data sets. Years of college teaching experience and hours of training in writing objectives and assessments were compared to the Bloom's Taxonomy level of lecture objectives and test items. No significant difference was found for either of these independent variables. This dissertation provides Arkansas two-year college biology faculty with baseline information about the levels of cognitive skills that are required in freshman biology for majors courses. It can serve to initiate conversations about where we are compared to a national study, where we need to be, and how we get there.

  8. EPSPS gene amplification in glyphosate-resistant in Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) populations from Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass was detected in Arkansas, USA in 2007. In 2014, 45 populations were confirmed resistant in eight counties across the state. The level of resistance and resistance mechanisms in six populations was studied to assess the severity of the problem and identify altern...

  9. 33 CFR 207.275 - McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River navigation system: use, administration, and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River navigation system: use, administration, and navigation. 207.275 Section 207.275 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS §...

  10. 75 FR 65627 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule State Authorized Program Revision Approval: State of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule State Authorized Program Revision Approval: State of...'s approval, under regulations for Cross-Media Electronic Reporting, of the State of Arkansas's...

  11. The Effect of Performance-Pay in Little Rock, Arkansas on Student Achievement. Working Paper 2008-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Marcus; Greene, Jay P.; Ritter, Gary; Marsh, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines evidence from a performance-pay program implemented in five Little Rock, Arkansas elementary schools between 2004 and 2007. Using a differences-in-differences approach, the evidence shows that students whose teachers were eligible for performance pay made substantially larger test score gains in math, reading, and language than…

  12. Effects of habitat isolation on the recovery of fish assemblages in experimentally defaunated stream pools in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    David George Lonzarich; Melvin L. Warren; Mary Ruth Elger Lonzrich

    1998-01-01

    The authors removed fish from pools in two Arkansas streams to determine recolonization rates and the effects of isolation (i.e., riffle length, riffle depth, distance to large source pools, and location), pool area, and assemblage size on recovery. To determine pool-specific recovery rates, the authors repeatedly snorkeled 12 pools over a 40-day recovery period....

  13. Knowledge and Perceptions of Visual Communications Curriculum in Arkansas Secondary Agricultural Classrooms: A Closer Look at Experiential Learning Integrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Kristin; Calico, Carley; Edgar, Leslie D.; Edgar, Don W.; Johnson, Donald M.

    2015-01-01

    The University of Arkansas developed and integrated visual communications curriculum related to agricultural communications into secondary agricultural programs throughout the state. The curriculum was developed, pilot tested, revised, and implemented by selected secondary agriculture teachers. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate…

  14. Irrigation and cultivar effects in no-till, cover crop, and conventional tillage systems in Arkansas Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This field experiment was conducted in association with a long term tillage study established in fall 2007 at the Judd Hill Foundation Research Farm in Northeast Arkansas to assess agronomic and environmental impacts of conservation tillage systems. In component studies in 2016 we evaluated performa...

  15. 76 FR 67175 - Riverbank Hydro No. 2 LLC, Lock Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI, Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Engineers' (Corps) Joe Hardin Lock & Dam No. 3, located on the Arkansas River in Lincoln and Jefferson...), and operate run-of-river utilizing surplus water from the Joe Hardin Lock & Dam No. 3, as directed by... 196.358 GWh, and operate run-of-river utilizing surplus ] water from the Joe Hardin Lock & Dam No....

  16. Effect of pine foliage damage on the incidence of larval diapause in the pine caterpillar Dendrolimus punctatus(Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Li Huang; Guo-Hong Wang; Zhong He; Feng Ge

    2008-01-01

    The pine caterpillar Dendrolimus punctatus (Walker) with a larval facultative diapause is one of the most destructive insect pests of the pine tree Pinus massoniana in China. The larvae feeding on pine trees with different damage levels were studied to determine the induction of diapause under both laboratory and field conditions. Developmental duration of larvae before the third instar was the longest when fed with 75%-90%damaged needles, followed by 25%-40% damaged needles and intact pine needles, whereas mortalities did not differ among different treatments under the conditions of 25℃ and critical photoperiod 13.5:10.5 L:D. At 25℃, no diapause was induced under 15:9 L:D, whereas 100% diapause occurred under 12:12 L:D regardless of the levels of needle damage.Incidences of larvae entering diapause when they were fed with intact, 25%-40% and 75%90% damaged pine needles were 51.7%, 70.8% and 81% under 13.5:10.5 L:D, respectively.Similar results were obtained in the field experiment. Incidence of diapause was significantly different among the pine needle damage levels of pine trees when the photoperiod was close to the critical day length, indicating that the effect of host plants on diapause induction was dependent on the range of photoperiod. The content of amino acid and sugar decreased and tannin increased in pine needles after feeding by the pine caterpillars, suggesting that changed levels of nutrients in damaged needles or a particular substance emitted by damaged pine trees was perhaps involved in the diapause induction of the pine caterpillar.

  17. Silvicultural recommendations for the management of ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Alfonso Mendoza Briseno; Mary Ann Fajvan; Juan Manuel Chacon Sotelo; Alejandro Velazquez Martinez; Antonio Quinonez. Silva

    2014-01-01

    Ponderosa pines are the most important timber producing species in Mexico, and they also represent a major portion of the Usa and Canada timber production. These pines form near pure stands with simple and stable stand structure. They suffer only occasional disturbances, and they sustain a limited capacity to hold biodiversity and other senvironmental services. The...

  18. Herbaceous weed control in loblolly pine plantations using flazasulfuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew W. Ezell; Jimmie L. Yeiser

    2015-01-01

    A total of 13 treatments were applied at four sites (two in Mississippi and two in Texas) to evaluate the efficacy of flazasulfuron applied alone or in mixtures for providing control of herbaceous weeds. All sites were newly established loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations. Plots were evaluated monthly until 180 days after treatment. No phytotoxicity on pine...

  19. White pines, Ribes, and blister rust: a review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian W. Geils; Kim E. Hummer; Richard S. Hunt

    2010-01-01

    For over a century, white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) has linked white pines (Strobus) with currants and gooseberries (Ribes) in a complex and serious disease epidemic in Asia, Europe, and North America. Because of ongoing changes in climate, societal demands for forests and their amenities, and scientific advances in genetics and proteomics, our current...

  20. Interacting genes in the pine-fusiform rust forest pathosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.V. Amerson; T.L. Kubisiak; S.A. Garcia; G.C. Kuhlman; C.D. Nelson; S.E. McKeand; T.J. Mullin; B. Li

    2005-01-01

    Fusiform rust (FR) disease of pines, caused by Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme (Cqf), is the most destructive disease in pine plantations of the southern U. S. The NCSU fusiform rust program, in conjunction with the USDA-Forest Service in Saucier, MS and Athens, GA, has research underway to elucidate some of the genetic interactions in this...

  1. Virginia pine seed viable two months before natural cone opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W., Jr. Church; Edward I. Sucoff

    1960-01-01

    Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.) seed used in nurseries and for forest seeding ordinarily is collected from standing or felled trees in autumn. Some questions that concern the seed collector are: How early in the season does Virginia pine seed ripen? How does seed viability change if the cones are left on the felled trees?

  2. Photosynthesis and growth of selected scotch pine seed sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Gordon; Gordon E. Gatherum

    1968-01-01

    A number of problems related to the culture of Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) arose following the increased planting of this species in Iowa. Therefore, a program of controlled-environment experiments to determine the effects of genetic and environmental factors on physiological processes important to the culture of Scotch pine was begun by the...

  3. 78 FR 30847 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of two meetings. ] SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka,...

  4. 77 FR 58095 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka, Nevada....

  5. 76 FR 41451 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka, Nevada....

  6. 77 FR 45331 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of two meetings. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka, Nevada....

  7. 76 FR 48800 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting cancellation. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee meeting scheduled in...

  8. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Whey Cheese with Pine Nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a value-added whey cheese through addition of pine nuts. Therefore, different concentrations of pine nuts [2, 4, 6 and 8% (w/w] were added to whey cheese. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of pine nuts on physicochemical and sensory properties of whey cheese. The addition of pine nuts resulted in an increase in fat content and total solids and a decrease in moisture content. However, no statistically significant difference was found in pH values. Sensory analysis was performed using the 9-point hedonic scale, with selected assessors. The whey cheese sample with 4% pine nuts was the most appreciated (7.6 points, followed by the classic whey cheese, whey cheese with 6 and 8% pine nuts (7.4 points, and whey cheese with 2% pine nuts (7.3 points. Nevertheless, the sensory characteristics of whey cheese were not significantly influenced by the addition of pine nuts. Whey cheese sensory profiling was successful in differential characterization of whey cheese samples.

  9. Financial performance of loblolly and longleaf pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven D. Mills; Charles T. Stiff

    2013-01-01

    The financial performance of selected management regimes for loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and longleaf pine (P. palustris Mill.) plantations were compared for four cases, each with low- and high-site productivity levels and each evaluated using 5 and 7 percent real discount rates. In all cases, longleaf pine was considered both with...

  10. Some metals in aboveground biomass of Scots pine in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varnagiryte-Kabašinskiene, Iveta; Armolaitis, Kestutis; Stupak, Inge;

    2014-01-01

    The stocks of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and aluminium (Al) in different compartments of the aboveground tree biomass were estimated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Lithuania. Simulated removals of metals due to the forest biomass extraction in a model Scots pine stands...

  11. Cacogeusia following pine nut ingestion: a six patient case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Rachael L; Scully, Crispian; Gandhi, Shan; Raber-Durlacher, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective case series of 6 patients complaining of a bad taste (cacogeusia) specifically metallogeusia, following the ingestion of pine nuts.(1) The taste arose always within 48h of ingestion, and in all but one patient spontaneously resolved within 14 days. Pine nuts also have a potential for triggering anaphylaxis.(2).

  12. Anaphylaxis to pine nut: cross-reactivity to Artemisia vulgaris?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Alves, R; Pregal, A; Pereira-Santos, M C; Branco-Ferreira, M; Lundberg, M; Oman, H; Pereira-Barbosa, M

    2008-01-01

    The use of pine nuts, the seeds of Pinus pinea, is on the increasing in the modern Mediterranean diet. Little more than 20 cases of allergy to this tree nut have been published, and cross-reactivity with pine pollen, peanut and almond has already been reported. We describe the case of a young boy with several episodes of anaphylaxis after pine nut ingestion. Specific IgE to pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris was demonstrated by skin prick tests and in vitro determination of specific IgE, although no IgE to pine pollen or other nuts was detected. Immunoblotting of Artemisia vulgaris and pine nut revealed two matching diffuse bands, just below 14 kDa and 30 kDa. The ImmunoCAP inhibition assays showed complete inhibition of pine nut specific IgE after serum incubation with Artemisia vulgaris extract. As far as we know, this is the first reported case of documented cross-reactivity between pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris.

  13. Impact of a Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak on Young Lodgepole Pine Stands in Central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalesh Dhar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current mountain pine beetle (MPB (Dendroctonous ponderosae Hopkins epidemic has severely affected pine forests of Western Canada and killed millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. forest. Generally, MPB attack larger and older (diameter > 20 cm or >60 years of age trees, but the current epidemic extends this limit with attacks on even younger and smaller trees. The study’s aim was to investigate the extent of MPB attack in young pine stands and its possible impact on stand dynamics. Although MPB attacks were observed in trees as small as 7.5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH and as young as 13 years old, the degree of MPB attack (percent stems ha−1 increased with increasing tree diameter and age class (13–20, 21–40, 41–60, and 61–80 years old (6.4%, 49.4%, 62.6%, and 69.5% attack, respectively, by age class which is greater than that reported from previous epidemics for stands of this age. The mean density of surviving residual structure varied widely among age classes and ecological subzones. Depending on age class, 65% to 77% of the attacked stands could contribute to mid-term timber supply. The surviving residual structure of young stands offers an opportunity to mitigate the effects of MPB-attack on future timber supply, increase age class diversity, and enhance ecological resilience in younger stands.

  14. An innovative aerial assessment of Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem mountain pine beetle-caused whitebark pine mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, William W; Logan, Jesse A; Kern, Wilson R

    2013-03-01

    An innovative aerial survey method called the Landscape Assessment System (LAS) was used to assess mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae)-caused mortality of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) across the species distribution in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE; 894 774 ha). This large-scale implementation of the LAS method consisted of 8673 km of flight lines, along which 4653 geo-tagged, oblique aerial photos were captured at the catchment level (a subset of 12-digit USGS hydrologic units) and geographic information system (GIS) processed. The Mountain Pine Beetle-caused Mortality Rating System, a landscape-scale classification system designed specifically to measure the cumulative effects of recent and older MPB attacks on whitebark pine, was used to classify mortality with a rating from 0 to 6 based on the amount of red (recent attack) and gray (old attack) trees visible. The approach achieved a photo inventory of 79% of the GYE whitebark pine distribution. For the remaining 21%, mortality levels were estimated based on an interpolated surface. Results that combine the photo-inventoried and interpolated mortality indicate that nearly half (46%) of the GYE whitebark pine distribution showed severe mortality (3-4 or 5.3-5.4 rating), 36% showed moderate mortality (2-2.9 rating), 13% showed low mortality (1-1.9 rating), and 5% showed trace levels of mortality (0-0.9). These results reveal that the proliferation of MPB in the subalpine zone of the GYE due to climate warming has led to whitebark pine mortality that is more severe and widespread than indicated from either previous modeling research or USDA Forest Service Aerial Detection surveys. Sixteen of the 22 major mountain ranges of the GYE have experienced widespread moderate-to-severe mortality. The majority of catchments in the other six mountain ranges show low-to-moderate mortality. Refugia from MPB outbreaks, at least for now, also exist and correspond to locations that have colder

  15. EuroPineDB: a high-coverage web database for maritime pine transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantón Francisco R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pinus pinaster is an economically and ecologically important species that is becoming a woody gymnosperm model. Its enormous genome size makes whole-genome sequencing approaches are hard to apply. Therefore, the expressed portion of the genome has to be characterised and the results and annotations have to be stored in dedicated databases. Description EuroPineDB is the largest sequence collection available for a single pine species, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine, since it comprises 951 641 raw sequence reads obtained from non-normalised cDNA libraries and high-throughput sequencing from adult (xylem, phloem, roots, stem, needles, cones, strobili and embryonic (germinated embryos, buds, callus maritime pine tissues. Using open-source tools, sequences were optimally pre-processed, assembled, and extensively annotated (GO, EC and KEGG terms, descriptions, SNPs, SSRs, ORFs and InterPro codes. As a result, a 10.5× P. pinaster genome was covered and assembled in 55 322 UniGenes. A total of 32 919 (59.5% of P. pinaster UniGenes were annotated with at least one description, revealing at least 18 466 different genes. The complete database, which is designed to be scalable, maintainable, and expandable, is freely available at: http://www.scbi.uma.es/pindb/. It can be retrieved by gene libraries, pine species, annotations, UniGenes and microarrays (i.e., the sequences are distributed in two-colour microarrays; this is the only conifer database that provides this information and will be periodically updated. Small assemblies can be viewed using a dedicated visualisation tool that connects them with SNPs. Any sequence or annotation set shown on-screen can be downloaded. Retrieval mechanisms for sequences and gene annotations are provided. Conclusions The EuroPineDB with its integrated information can be used to reveal new knowledge, offers an easy-to-use collection of information to directly support experimental work (including

  16. Native ectomycorrhizal fungi of limber and whitebark pine: Necessary for forest sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathy L. Cripps; Robert K. Antibus

    2011-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are an important component of northern coniferous forests, including those of Pinus flexilis (limber pine) and P. albicaulis (whitebark pine) which are being decimated by white pine blister rust and mountain pine beetles. Ectomycorrhizal fungi are known to promote seedling establishment, tree health, and may play a role in forest sustainability....

  17. Options for the management of white pine blister rust in the Rocky Mountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly S. Burns; Anna W. Schoettle; William R. Jacobi; Mary F. Mahalovich

    2008-01-01

    This publication synthesizes current information on the biology, distribution, and management of white pine blister rust (WPBR) in the Rocky Mountain Region. In this Region, WPBR occurs within the range of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), limber pine (P. flexilis), and whitebark pine (P. albicaulis...

  18. Prediction and identification of Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin as a food allergen (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Pine nut allergy cases have been reported, but pine nut allergens remain to be identified and characterized. Korean pine nut is one of the major varieties of pine nuts that are widely consumed. Vicilins belong to one of a few protein families that contain more than 85% of the known food a...

  19. A method for estimating white pine blister rust canker age on limber pine in the central Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly S. J. Kearns; William R. Jacobi; Brian W. Geils

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of white pine blister rust on limber pine require a temporal component to explain variations in incidence of infection and mortality. Unfortunately, it is not known how long the pathogen has been present at various sites in the central Rocky Mountains of North America. Canker age, computed from canker length and average expansion rate, can be...

  20. Southern pine beetle-induced mortality of pines with natural and artificial red-cockaded woodpecker cavities in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; Robert N. Coulson

    1998-01-01

    Southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) infestation is the major cause of mortality for red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity trees in loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. echinata) pines. Recent intensive management for red-cockaded woodpeckers includes the use of artificial cavity inserts. Between 1991 and 1996 the authors examined southern...

  1. The resin composition of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) attacked by the roundheaded pine beetle (Dendroctonus adjunctus) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa J. Fischer; Kristen M. Waring; Richard W. Hofstetter; Thomas E. Kolb

    2008-01-01

    Dendroctonus adjunctus is an aggressive bark beetle species that attacks several species of pine throughout its range from southern Utah and Colorado south to Guatemala. A current outbreak of D. adjunctus provided a unique opportunity to study the relationship between this beetle and pine resin chemistry in northern Arizona. We...

  2. Biochemical Assay Detects Feeding Damage to Loblolly Pine Seeds Caused by the Leaffooted Pine Seed Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron G. Lait; Daniel R. Miller; Sarah L. Bates; John H. Borden; Allison R. Kermode

    2003-01-01

    A large number of proteins in salivary gland extracts of the leaffooted pine seed bug, Leptoglossus corculus Say, were strongly recognized by a polyclonal antibody-based assay developed for detecting saliva of the western conifer seed bug, Lepfoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, in lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var...

  3. NMR analysis of oils from pine nuts ( Pinus sibirica) and seeds of common pine ( Pinus silvestris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakovskii, E. D.; Tychinskaya, L. Yu.; Gaidukevich, O. A.; Klyuev, A. Yu.; Kulakova, A. N.; Petlitskaya, N. M.; Rykove, S. V.

    2007-07-01

    We studied the fatty-acid composition of oils from pine nuts and seeds of common pine using PMR and 13C NMR and gas chromatography. We found that the main components of the glycerides are palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, γ-linolenic, pinolenic, and cis-9-eicosenoic acids. The oils contain about 2% sn-1,2-diacylglycerides in addition to triglycerides.

  4. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  5. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan P Keville

    Full Text Available Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP (Pinus albicaulis ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH₄⁺ concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  6. Modeling Pine Plantation NEP Using Landsat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, R. H.; Potter, C. S.; Blinn, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    The CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) ecosystem process model predicts terrestrial ecosystem fluxes using satellite-based inputs at a maximum geographic resolution of 30 meters to infer variability in forest carbon fluxes. We are using CASA to model pine plantation net ecosystem production (NEP) under a range of standard silvicultural prescriptions, primarily thinning by fertilization interactions. Landsat scenes from WRS path/row 14/35, 21/37, and 16/34 are being used. Within each frame, all available cloud-free scenes within a two- to three-year period have been obtained from the USGS EROS Data Center processed to L1T, and subsequently converted to top-of-atmosphere reflectance using standard methods and the latest calibration parameter files. Atmospheric amelioration started with dark object subtraction (band minimum) and only proceeded to more complex techniques as necessary. Subsequent to preprocessing, the reduced simple ratio (RSR; using global min/max) was calculated for all images for each WRS path/row. Pure pine pixels in each frame were identified using unsupervised classification of the most recent leaf-off scene. We developed four age classes using two decades of Landsat data over each WRS path/row. CASA runs, which require soil parameters, and gridded climate/solar radiation in addition to satellite-derived vegetation indices, are now complete. Soil respiration and productivity estimates are being evaluated using a regionwide network of validation sites spanning the range of loblolly pine (Texas to Virginia). Preliminary results indicate that Landsat-based process modeling (1) is necessary for the scale at which land is actually managed and (2) produces estimates with an accuracy and precision affording improved understanding and management of forest ecosystems.

  7. Geodatabase of the available top and bottom surface datasets that represent the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase contains the spatial datasets that represent the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system in the States of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Included are: (1)...

  8. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ground Pine Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izanloo, S Nasseri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by pine cone was conducted in batch conditions. Kinetic data and equilibrium removal isotherms were obtained. The influence of different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of cadmium, pine cone mass and particle size, and temperature on the kinetics of cadmium removal was studied. Results showed that the main parameters that played an important role in removal phenomenon were initial cadmium concentration, particle size and pine cone mass. The necessary time to reach equilibrium was between 4 and 7 hours based on the initial concentration of cadmium. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium increased with the decrease of pine cone particle size. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium by pine cone increased with the quantity of pine cone introduced (1–4 g/L. Temperature in the range of 20-30°C showed a restricted effect on the removal kinetics (13.56 mg/g at 20°C and a low capacity of adsorption about 11.48 mg/g at 30°C. The process followed pseudo second-order kinetics. The cadmium uptake of pine cone was quantitatively evaluated using adsorption isotherms. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data in comparison with the Freundlich equation.

  9. Repeated Raking of Pine Plantations Alters Soil Arthropod Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly K. Ober

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial arthropods in forests are engaged in vital ecosystem functions that ultimately help maintain soil productivity. Repeated disturbance can cause abrupt and irreversible changes in arthropod community composition and thereby alter trophic interactions among soil fauna. An increasingly popular means of generating income from pine plantations in the Southeastern U.S. is annual raking to collect pine litter. We raked litter once per year for three consecutive years in the pine plantations of three different species (loblolly, Pinus taeda; longleaf, P. palustris; and slash, P. elliottii. We sampled arthropods quarterly for three years in raked and un-raked pine stands to assess temporal shifts in abundance among dominant orders of arthropods. Effects varied greatly among orders of arthropods, among timber types, and among years. Distinct trends over time were apparent among orders that occupied both high trophic positions (predators and low trophic positions (fungivores, detritivores. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that raking caused stronger shifts in arthropod community composition in longleaf and loblolly than slash pine stands. Results highlight the role of pine litter in shaping terrestrial arthropod communities, and imply that repeated removal of pine straw during consecutive years is likely to have unintended consequences on arthropod communities that exacerbate over time.

  10. Wind noise under a pine tree canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspet, Richard; Webster, Jeremy

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that infrasonic wind noise levels are lower for arrays placed in forests and under vegetation than for those in open areas. In this research, the wind noise levels, turbulence spectra, and wind velocity profiles are measured in a pine forest. A prediction of the wind noise spectra from the measured meteorological parameters is developed based on recent research on wind noise above a flat plane. The resulting wind noise spectrum is the sum of the low frequency wind noise generated by the turbulence-shear interaction near and above the tops of the trees and higher frequency wind noise generated by the turbulence-turbulence interaction near the ground within the tree layer. The convection velocity of the low frequency wind noise corresponds to the wind speed above the trees while the measurements showed that the wind noise generated by the turbulence-turbulence interaction is near stationary and is generated by the slow moving turbulence adjacent to the ground. Comparison of the predicted wind noise spectrum with the measured wind noise spectrum shows good agreement for four measurement sets. The prediction can be applied to meteorological estimates to predict the wind noise under other pine forests.

  11. Oceanic heat sources to Pine Island Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloff, M. R.; Gilroy, A. R.; Gille, S. T.; Subramanian, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    The rapid melting of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica has been attributed to increased basal melting of its grounded ice-shelf. Recent work suggests that an increased ocean heat supply to Pine Island Bay (PIB) is responsible for this increased melting. There is no consensus, however, on the origin of this increased ocean heat. We use a 2008-2010 state estimate of the Southern Ocean to diagnose the heat budget on the PIB continental shelf. In times of minimal sea-ice coverage, air-sea fluxes dominate the budget. Sea-ice is present over much of the year, however, and on average advection and parameterized small-scale mixing are equally important. The average air-sea fluxes and small scale mixing both act to cool the continental shelf waters, while advection by the large-scale circulation tends to warm these waters. The warmest waters are found on the eastern PIB continental shelf where bathymetric features cause increased advective fluxes and mixing. The average circulation along the PIB continental shelf is eastward consisting of approximately 1 Sv along shelf flow augmented by 1 Sv of across shelf flow to be balanced by a 2 Sv outflow along the eastern PIB shelf. Numerical simulations of passive tracer releases reveal the advective pathways of these waters that reach the continental shelf.

  12. Fire structures pine serotiny at different scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Serrano, Ana; Verdú, Miguel; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Pausas, Juli G

    2013-12-01

    Serotiny (delayed seed release with the consequent accumulation of a canopy seedbank) confers fitness benefits in environments with crown-fire regimes. Thus, we predicted that serotiny level should be higher in populations recurrently subjected to crown-fires than in populations where crown-fires are rare. In addition, under a high frequency of fires, space and resources are recurrently available, permitting recruitment around each mother to follow the seed rain shadow. Thus, we also predicted spatial aggregation of serotiny within populations. We compared serotiny, considering both the proportion and the age of serotinous cones, in populations living in contrasting fire regimes for two iconic Mediterranean pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster). We framed our results by quantitatively comparing the strength of the fire-serotiny relationship with previous studies worldwide. For the two species, populations living under high crown-fire recurrence regimes had a higher serotiny level than those populations where the recurrence of crown-fires was low. For P. halepensis (the species with higher serotiny), populations in high fire recurrence regimes had higher fine-scale spatial aggregation of serotiny than those inhabiting low fire recurrence systems. The strength of the observed fire-serotiny relationship in P. halepensis is among the highest in published literature. Fire regime shapes serotiny level among populations, and in populations with high serotiny, recurrent fires maintain a significant spatial structure for this trait. Consequently, fire has long-term evolutionary implications at different scales, emphasizing its prominent role in shaping the ecology of pines.

  13. Hope, Arkansas to Hope, Albania: naivete and idealism to reality and tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, B C

    2000-06-01

    The wars in Croatia, Bosnia and Kosovo were perpretrated by a radical nationalist Serbian cultural political consciousness that the American cultural political consciousness and leadership had difficulty responding to and understanding. There is a great cultural divide between a 'pathology' in Serbian culture, Milosević's radical nationalism, and a humane 'naivete' in American cultural consciousness. I discuss why, finally, American political leadership, Bill Clinton from Hope, Arkansas, responded to the tragedy of these wars. However, we are still left with the question of good vs evil: What is the course of human history; psychotic political leadership causing repetitive human tragedy or can there be a higher humane and moral order to human cultural events?

  14. Geochemical and geostatistical evaluation, Arkansas Canyon Planning Unit, Fremont and Custer Counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, E.F.; Connors, R.A.; Robinson, M.L.; Lindemann, J.W.; Meyer, W.T.

    1982-01-01

    A mineral assessment of the Arkansas Canyon Planning Unit was undertaken by Barringer Resources Inc., under the terms of contract YA-553-CTO-100 with the Bureau of Land Management, Colorado State Office. The study was based on a geochemical-geostatistical survey in which 700 stream sediment samples were collected and analyzed for 25 elements. Geochemical results were interpreted by statistical processing which included factor, discriminant, multiple regression and characteristic analysis. The major deposit types evaluated were massive sulfide-base metal, sedimentary and magmatic uranium, thorium vein, magmatic segregation, and carbonatite related deposits. Results of the single element data and multivariate geostatistical analysis indicate that limited potential exists for base metal mineralization near the Horseshoe, El Plomo, and Green Mountain Mines. Thirty areas are considered to be anomalous with regard to one or more of the geochemical parameters evaluated during this study. The evaluation of carbonatite related mineralization was restricted due to the lack of geochemical data specific to this environment.

  15. Chesterian davidsoniacean and orthotetacean brachiopods, Ozark region of Arkansas and Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, T.W.; Gordon, M.

    1985-01-01

    Three species of orthotetaceans and one species of davidsoniacean are among the strophomenid brachiopods from Chesterian (Upper Mississippian) rocks of northern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma. Type material from the Fayetteville Shale, Orthotetes subglobosus and O. subglobosus var. protensus, is figured for the first time. We regard these species, and O. subglobosus var. batesvillensis Girty from the Batesville Sandstone, as distinct species, for which we are selecting lectotypes. We describe a fourth species, O. stenopsis n.sp., from the Pitkin Limestone. Another species, described from the Pitkin as Streptorhynchus suspectum, has an impunctate shell and is thus not an orthotetacean. This bizarre species generally has a long twisted beak, high interarea, and large forked cardinal process; a myophragm may occur in either valve, but more commonly is in the brachial valve alone. We designate a lectotype for this species and propose a new genus Adectorhynchus and a new family Adectorhynchidae, under the Davidsoniacea, for this taxon.-from Authors

  16. Altitude of the top of the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand in three areas of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Aaron L.; Westerfield, Paul W.; Gonthier, Gerard; Poynter, David T.

    1998-01-01

    The Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand form the second most productive aquifer in Arkansas. The Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand range in thick- ness from 0 to 900 feet, consisting of fine- to medium-grained sands interbedded with layers of silt, clay, shale, and minor amounts of lignite. Within the three areas of interest, the top surface of the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand dips regionally east and southeast towards the axis of the Mississippi Embayment syncline and Desha Basin. Local variations in the top surface may be attributed to a combination of continued development of structural features, differential compaction, localized faulting, and erosion of the surface prior to subsequent inundation and deposition of younger sediments.

  17. Interpreting temporal variations in river response functions: an example from the Arkansas River, Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, A. E.; Stotler, R. L.; Reboulet, E. C.

    2017-02-01

    Groundwater/surface-water interactions can play an important role in management of water quality and quantity, but the temporal and spatial variability of these interactions makes them difficult to incorporate into conceptual models. There are simple methods for identifying the presence of groundwater/surface-water interactions; however, identifying flow mechanisms and pathways can be challenging. More complex methods are available to better identify these mechanisms and pathways but are often too time consuming or costly. In this work, a simple method for interpreting and identifying flow mechanisms and sources using temporal variations of river response functions is presented. This approach is demonstrated using observations from two sites along the Arkansas River in Kansas, USA. A change in flow mechanisms between the rising and falling limbs of river hydrographs was identified, along with a second surface-water source to the aquifer, a finding that was validated with stable isotope analyses.

  18. Interpreting temporal variations in river response functions: an example from the Arkansas River, Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, A. E.; Stotler, R. L.; Reboulet, E. C.

    2017-08-01

    Groundwater/surface-water interactions can play an important role in management of water quality and quantity, but the temporal and spatial variability of these interactions makes them difficult to incorporate into conceptual models. There are simple methods for identifying the presence of groundwater/surface-water interactions; however, identifying flow mechanisms and pathways can be challenging. More complex methods are available to better identify these mechanisms and pathways but are often too time consuming or costly. In this work, a simple method for interpreting and identifying flow mechanisms and sources using temporal variations of river response functions is presented. This approach is demonstrated using observations from two sites along the Arkansas River in Kansas, USA. A change in flow mechanisms between the rising and falling limbs of river hydrographs was identified, along with a second surface-water source to the aquifer, a finding that was validated with stable isotope analyses.

  19. Ultrasound-associated extraction of seed oil of Korean pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYing; WANGZhen-yu; CHENXiao-qiang

    2005-01-01

    Experiment on ultrasound- associated extraction of seed oil of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) was conducted in Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China. The factors affecting extraction yield, such as ultrasonic frequency, extracting temperature, extracting time and the ratio of material to liquid (ratio of Korean pine seed to absolute alcohol), were analyzed under specific condition and the optimal extracting parameters were obtained as the ultrasonic frequency 32 000 Hz, the extracting temperature 80℃, the extracting time 50 rain, and the ratio of material to liquid 1: 30. The study demonstrates that ultrasound is a reliable and great efficiency tool for the fast extraction of Korean pine seed oil。

  20. Sessile Animals on an Artificial Fish Reef with Pine Tree

    OpenAIRE

    吉永, 圭輔; ヨシナガ, ケイスケ; YOSHINAGA, Keisuke

    1999-01-01

    This study was carried out to reveal the sessile animals attached to a pine tree reef. The artificial reef was placed off the coast of Ibusuki City in Kagoshima Bay on 21 December 1995. A piece of pine log was recovered from this reef on 30 October 1998, and animal community attached to the pine log was examined. Abundant ship-worms, Teredo navalis japonica, burrowed their ways from the cut end to the core. Sessile animals clung to the bark. There were also observed many other animals within ...

  1. A New Flavonoid in Pine Needles of Cedrus deodara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong-yan; SHI Xiao-feng; WANG Dong-dong; MA Qu-huan; ZHANG Jun-min; LI Chong

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents of flavonoids in pine needles of Cedrus deodara.Methods Flavonoids were isolated and purified from ethyl acetate extract of pine needles by chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20.Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence.Results Five flavonoids were isolated and purified.Their structures were identified as cedrusone A(1),myricetin(2),2R,3R-dihydromyricetin(3),quercctin(4),and 2R,3R-dihydroquercetin(5).Conclusion Compound 1 is a new compound.Compounds 2-5 are isolated from pine needles of this genus for the first time.

  2. Changes in school environments with implementation of Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Martha M; Raczynski, James M; West, Delia S; Pulley, LeaVonne; Bursac, Zoran; Gauss, C Heath; Walker, Jada F

    2010-02-01

    Changes in school nutrition and physical activity policies and environments are important to combat childhood obesity. Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003 was among the first and most comprehensive statewide legislative initiatives to combat childhood obesity through school-based change. Annual surveys of principals and superintendents have been analyzed to document substantial and important changes in school environments, policies, and practices. For example, results indicate that schools are more likely to require that healthy options be provided for student parties (4.5% in 2004, 36.9% in 2008; P students in cafeterias (white milk: 26.1% in 2004, 41.0% in 2008, P chocolate milk: 9.0% in 2004, 24.0% in 2008, P Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003 is associated with a number of changes in school environments and policies, resulting from both statewide and local initiatives spawned by the Act.

  3. The road to tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis elimination in Arkansas; a re-examination of risk groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Berzkalns

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to generate knowledge useful for developing public health interventions for more effective tuberculosis control in Arkansas. METHODS: The study population included 429 culture-confirmed reported cases (January 1, 2004-December 31, 2010. Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotyping data were used to identify cases likely due to recent transmission (clustered versus reactivation (non-clustered. Poisson regression models estimated average decline rate in incidence over time and assessed the significance of differences between subpopulations. A multinomial logistic model examined differences between clustered and non-clustered incidence. RESULTS: A significant average annual percent decline was found for the overall incidence of culture-confirmed (9%; 95% CI: 5.5%, 16.9%, clustered (6%; 95% CI: 0.5%, 11.6%, and non-clustered tuberculosis cases (12%; 95% CI: 7.6%, 15.9%. However, declines varied among demographic groups. Significant declines in clustered incidence were only observed in males, non-Hispanic blacks, 65 years and older, and the rural population. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the Arkansas tuberculosis control program must target both traditional and non-traditional risk groups for successful tuberculosis elimination. The present study also demonstrates that a thorough analysis of TB trends in different population subgroups of a given geographic region or state can lead to the identification of non-traditional risk factors for TB transmission. Similar studies in other low incidence populations would provide beneficial data for how to control and eventually eliminate TB in the U.S.

  4. On the relative contributions of wind vs. animals to seed dispersal of four Sierra Nevada pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wall, Stephen B

    2008-07-01

    Selective pressures that influence the form of seed dispersal syndromes are poorly understood. Morphology of plant propagules is often used to infer the means of dispersal, but morphology can be misleading. Several species of pines, for example, have winged seeds adapted for wind dispersal but owe much of their establishment to scatter-hoarding animals. Here the relative importance of wind vs. animal dispersal is assessed for four species of pines of the eastern Sierra Nevada that have winged seeds but differed in seed size: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta murrayana, 8 mg); ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa ponderosa, 56 mg); Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi, 160 mg); and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana, 231 mg). Pre-dispersal seed mortality eliminated much of the ponderosa pine seed crop (66%), but had much less effect on Jeffrey pine (32% of seeds destroyed), lodgepole pine (29%), and sugar pine (7%). When cones opened most filled seeds were dispersed by wind. Animals removed > 99% of wind-dispersed Jeffrey and sugar pine seeds from the ground within 60 days, but animals gathered only 93% of lodgepole pine seeds and 38% of ponderosa pine seeds during the same period. Animals gathered and scatter hoarded radioactively labeled ponderosa, Jeffrey, and sugar pine seeds, making a total of 2103 caches over three years of study. Only three lodgepole pine caches were found. Caches typically contained 1-4 seeds buried 5-20 mm deep, depths suitable for seedling emergence. Although Jeffrey and sugar pine seeds are initially wind dispersed, nearly all seedlings arise from animal caches. Lodgepole pine is almost exclusively wind dispersed, with animals acting as seed predators. Animals treated ponderosa pine in an intermediate fashion. Two-phased dispersal of large, winged pine seeds appears adaptive; initial wind dispersal helps to minimize pre-dispersal seed mortality whereas scatter hoarding by animals places seeds in sites with a higher probability of seedling establishment.

  5. Host deception: predaceous fungus, Esteya vermicola, entices pine wood nematode by mimicking the scent of pine tree for nutrient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A nematophagous fungus, Esteya vermicola, is recorded as the first endoparasitic fungus of pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in last century. E. vermicola exhibited high infectivity toward PWN in the laboratory conditions and conidia spraying of this fungus on Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, seedlings in the field protected the pine trees from pine wilt disease to some extent, indicating that it is a potential bio-control agent against PWN. Previous research had demonstrated that the living fungal mycelia of E. vermicola continuously produced certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs, which were responsible for the PWN attraction. However, identity of these VOCs remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we report the identification of α-pinene, β-pinene, and camphor produced by living mycelia of E. vermicola, the same volatile compounds emitted from PWN host pine tree, as the major VOCs for PWN attraction using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. In addition, we also confirmed the host deception behavior of E. vermicola to PWN by using synthetic VOCs in a straightforward laboratory bioassay. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This research result has demonstrated that the endoparasitic nematophagous fungus, E. vermicola, mimics the scent of PWN host pine tree to entice PWN for the nutrient. The identification of the attractive VOCs emitted from the fungus E. vermicola is of significance in better understanding parasitic mechanism of the fungus and the co-evolution in the two organisms and will aid management of the pine wilt disease.

  6. Suitability of pines and other conifers as hosts for the invasive Mediterranean pine engraver (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jana C; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J

    2008-06-01

    The invasive Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), was detected in North America in 2004, and it is currently distributed in the southern Central Valley of California. It originates from the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and Asia, and it reproduces on pines (Pinus spp.). To identify potentially vulnerable native and adventive hosts in North America, no-choice host range tests were conducted in the laboratory on 22 conifer species. The beetle reproduced on four pines from its native Eurasian range--Aleppo, Canary Island, Italian stone, and Scots pines; 11 native North American pines--eastern white, grey, jack, Jeffrey, loblolly, Monterey, ponderosa, red, Sierra lodgepole, singleleaf pinyon, and sugar pines; and four native nonpines--Douglas-fir, black and white spruce, and tamarack. Among nonpines, fewer progeny developed and they were of smaller size on Douglas-fir and tamarack, but sex ratios of progeny were nearly 1:1 on all hosts. Last, beetles did not develop on white fir, incense cedar, and coast redwood. With loblolly pine, the first new adults emerged 42 d after parental females were introduced into host logs at temperatures of 20-33 degrees C and 523.5 or 334.7 accumulated degree-days based on lower development thresholds of 13.6 or 18 degrees C, respectively.

  7. Closed-Loop Flow Control of the Coupled Wake Dynamics and Aerodynamic Loads of a Freely-Pivoting 3-DOF Bluff Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, T.; Vukasinovic, B.; Glezer, A.

    2016-11-01

    The motion of an axisymmetric bluff body model that is free to pivot in pitch, yaw, and roll in a uniform stream in response to flow-induced aerodynamic loads is controlled in wind tunnel experiments using fluidic actuation. The model is attached to an upstream, wire-supported short streamwise sting through a low-friction hinge, and each of the support wires is individually-controlled by a servo actuator through an in-line load cell. The aerodynamic loads on the body, and thereby its motion, are controlled through fluidic modification of its aerodynamic coupling to its near wake using four independent aft mounted synthetic jet actuators that effect azimuthally-segmented flow attachment over the model's tail end. The effects of actuation-induced, transitory changes in the model's aerodynamic loads are measured by its motion response using motion tracking, while the coupled evolution of the near-wake is captured by high-speed stereo PIV. Flow control authority is demonstrated by feedback-controlled manipulation of the model's dynamic response, and dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) of the wake is used to characterize changes in the wake structure and stability. It is shown that this flow control approach can modify the stability and damping of the model's motion (e.g., suppression or amplification of its natural oscillations), and impose desired directional attitude. Supported by the ARO.

  8. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, M. J.; Singleton, I.

    2015-11-01

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP.

  9. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. J., E-mail: m.sweet@derby.ac.uk [University of Derby, Environmental Sustainability Research Centre, College of Life and Natural Sciences (United Kingdom); Singleton, I. [Newcastle University, School of Biology (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP.

  10. Ecology of whitebark pine populations in relation to white pine blister rust infection in subalpine forests of the Lake Tahoe Basin: Implications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia E. Maloney; Detlev R. Vogler; Camille E. Jensen; Annette. Delfino Mix

    2012-01-01

    For over a century, white pine blister rust (WPBR), caused by the introduced fungal pathogen, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch., has affected white pine (Subgenus Strobus) individuals, populations, and associated forest communities in North America. We surveyed eight populations of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) across a range of environmental conditions in...

  11. Prey handling and diet of Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis ruthveni) and black pine snakes (P. melanoleucus lodingi), with comparisons to other selected colubrid snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; Richard N. Conner; Christopher S. Collins; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; Toni Trees; C. Michael Duran; Marc Ealy; John G. Himes

    2002-01-01

    Diet and prey handling behavior were determined for Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis ruthveni) and black pine snakes (P. melanoleucus lodingi). Louisiana pine snakes prey heavily on Baird's pocket gophers (Geomys breviceps), with which they are sympatric, and exhibit specialized behaviors that facilitate...

  12. Pine nut use in the Early Holocene and beyond: The danger cave archaeobotanical record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, D.; Madsen, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    Nuts of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) from Early Holocene strata in Danger Cave, Utah, are distinguishable by seed-coat sculpturing from pine nuts of single-needled pinyon (Pinus monophylla), which occur in strata dating nuts in archaeological sites, but the morphology of the pine nuts in Danger Cave strongly indicate they were deposited by human foragers who brought small quantities with them for food for at least the last 7500 years. Large-scale transport of pine nuts to Danger Cave from distant hinterlands is unlikely, however. The seamless transition from limber pine to pinyon pine nuts in the Danger Cave record suggests that foragers who had utilized limber pine as a food resource easily switched to using pinyon pine nuts when pinyon pine migrated into the region at the close of the Early Holocene.

  13. Potentiometric Surfaces and Water-Level Trends in the Cockfield and Wilcox Aquifers of Southern and Northeastern Arkansas, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, T.P.

    2007-01-01

    The Cockfield Formation of Claiborne Group and the Wilcox Group contain aquifers that provide sources of ground water in southern and northeastern Arkansas. In 2000, about 9.9 million gallons per day was withdrawn from the Cockfield Formation of Claiborne Group and about 22.2 million gallons per day was withdrawn from the Wilcox Group. Major withdrawals from the aquifers were for industrial and public water supplies. A study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission and the Arkansas Geological Survey to determine the water level associated with the aquifers in the Cockfield Formation of Claiborne Group and the Wilcox Group in southern and northeastern Arkansas. During February and March 2006, 56 water-level measurements were made in wells completed in the Cockfield aquifer and 59 water-level measurements were made in wells completed in the Wilcox aquifer, 16 in southwestern and 43 in northeastern Arkansas. This report presents the results as potentiometric-surface maps and as long-term water-level hydrographs. The regional direction of ground-water flow in the Cockfield Formation of Claiborne Group generally is towards the east and southeast, away from the outcrop, except in areas of intense ground-water withdrawals, such as western Drew County, southeastern Lincoln County, southwestern Calhoun County, and near Crossett in Ashley County. There are three cones of depression indicated by relatively low water-level altitudes in southeastern Lincoln County, southwestern Calhoun County, and near Crossett in Ashley County. The lowest water-level altitude measured was 44 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 in Lincoln County; the highest water-level altitude measured was 346 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 in Columbia County at the outcrop area. Hydrographs from 40 wells with historical water levels from 1986 to 2006 were evaluated using linear regression to

  14. Statistical summary of selected water-quality data (water years 1975 through 1985) for Arkansas rivers and streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Descriptive statistics were calculated for selected water quality data for 116 water quality stations on Arkansas rivers and streams. Water quality properties summarized included pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity, total hardness, common dissolved constituents, phosphorus, nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand, bacteria, turbidity, suspended sediment, and several trace metals. Regression equations and related statistics describing the relation between specific conductance and total alkalinity and several dissolved constituents also were calculated. Typical water quality (based upon median values at individual stations) of physiographic sections and major rivers of Arkansas also is discussed. Discernible differences in water quality exist between sections and major rivers. The regression analysis indicated that the usefulness of specific conductance as a predictor of other water quality values is variable. The relation between specific conductance and the other property is not statistically significant (p>0.05) about 30% of the time. (USGS)

  15. Turtles From an Arkadelphia Formation—Midway Group Lag Deposit (Maastrichtian—Paleocene, Hot Spring County, Arkansas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Becker

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Arkadelphia Formation—Midway Group (Maastrichtian—Paleocene contact near Malvern, Arkansas preserves a K-Pg boundary assemblage of turtle species consisting of skull, shell, and non-shell postcranial skeletal elements. The Malvern turtles are preserved within a coquina lag deposit that comprises the basalmost Midway Group and also contains an abundance of other reptiles, as well as chondrichthyans, osteichthyans, and invertebrates. This coquina lag deposit records a complex taphonomic history of exhumation and reburial of vertebrate skeletal elements along a dynamic ancestral shoreline in southwestern Arkansas during the late Cretaceous-early Paleocene. Based on stratigraphic occurrence, the Malvern turtle assemblage indicates that these marine reptiles were living at or near the time of the K-Pg mass extinction and represent some of the latest Cretaceous turtles yet recovered from the Gulf Coastal Plain of the United States.

  16. Do Place and Time Make a Difference? Examining Quality of Life Among Homeless Persons in Northwest Arkansas and Birmingham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Gail; Fitzpatrick, Kevin

    2016-07-26

    This study examines the role that life chances and choices play in determining quality of life among homeless people. Given the prominent negative impact of homelessness, this paper specifically examines the impact of length of time homeless and location on adverse quality of life. OLS regression examined quality of life among 264 homeless adults living in Northwest Arkansas and Birmingham, Alabama. Analysis shows no significant impact of life choices on quality of life but a significant impact of life chances including strong social ties and mastery of fate, on adverse quality of life. Length of time homeless was related to adverse quality of life, but location was not, indicating that the homeless experience with regards to subjective quality of life did not vary significantly between Birmingham and Northwest Arkansas.

  17. Examining pine spectral separability using hyperspectral data from an airborne sensor : an extension of field-based results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Aardt, JAN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Three southern USA forestry species, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana), and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata), were previously shown to be spectrally separable (83% accuracy) using data from a full-range spectro...

  18. Interim Report - Assess Wet Pine Savanna Response to Refuge Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Interim report provides the summary of plant inventory within a pine savanna on the MS Sandhill Crane NWR in 2011. 136 species of plants were noted in the survey.

  19. "Reversed" intraguild predation: red fox cubs killed by pine marten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeziński, Marcin; Rodak, Lukasz; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps deployed at a badger Meles meles set in mixed pine forest in north-eastern Poland recorded interspecific killing of red fox Vulpes vulpes cubs by pine marten Martes martes. The vixen and her cubs settled in the set at the beginning of May 2013, and it was abandoned by the badgers shortly afterwards. Five fox cubs were recorded playing in front of the den each night. Ten days after the first recording of the foxes, a pine marten was filmed at the set; it arrived in the morning, made a reconnaissance and returned at night when the vixen was away from the set. The pine marten entered the den several times and killed at least two fox cubs. It was active at the set for about 2 h. This observation proves that red foxes are not completely safe from predation by smaller carnivores, even those considered to be subordinate species in interspecific competition.

  20. Isolation and characterization of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) convicilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tengchuan; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yu-Wei; Albillos, Silvia M; Kothary, Mahendra H; Fu, Tong-Jen; Tankersley, Boyce; McHugh, Tara H; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2014-07-01

    A vicilin-like globulin seed storage protein, termed convicilin, was isolated for the first time from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis). SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that Korean pine convicilin was post-translationally processed. The N-terminal peptide sequences of its components were determined. These peptides could be mapped to a protein translated from an embryo abundant transcript isolated in this study. Similar to vicilin, native convicilin appeared to be homotrimeric. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses revealed that this protein is less resistant to thermal treatment than Korean pine vicilin. Its transition temperature was 75.57 °C compared with 84.13 °C for vicilin. The urea induced folding-unfolding equilibrium of pine convicilin monitored by intrinsic fluorescence could be interpreted in terms of a two-state model, with a Cm of 4.41 ± 0.15 M.

  1. Vegetation - Pine Creek WA and Fitzhugh Creek WA [ds484

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This fine-scale vegetation classification and map of the Pine Creek and Fitzhugh Creek Wildlife Areas, Modoc County, California was created following FGDC and...

  2. Economic Impact of Recreation Businesses in Counties Along the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System: Hydroelectric Power Generation." IWR Research Report 77-R4 I7.) "A River, A Region and A Research Problem...not to pester owner-operators, but we did try to contact a business at least two different times before we gave up trying to get an interview. Most...hurting Keystone; Kaw was built for recreation, which makes Keystone a power lake Cowskin Bay is neglected; it needs more businesses, road repair, and

  3. Testicular histology and germ cell cytology during spermatogenesis in the Mississippi map turtle, Graptemys pseudogeographica kohnii, from Northeast Arkansas

    OpenAIRE

    Lancaster, Kelsey; Trauth, Stanley E; Gribbins, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    The testicular histology and cytology of spermatogenesis in Graptemys pseudogeographica kohnii were examined using specimens collected between July 1996 and May 2004 from counties in northeastern Arkansas. A histological examination of the testes and germ cell cytology indicates a postnuptial testicular cycle of spermatogenesis and a major fall spermiation event. The majority of the germ cell populations in May and June specimens are represented by resting spermatogonia, type A spermatogonia,...

  4. Seed release in serotinous lodgepole pine forests after mountain pine beetle outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teste, François P; Lieffers, Victor J; Landhausser, Simon M

    2011-01-01

    There are concerns that large-scale stand mortality due to mountain pine beetle (MPB) could greatly reduce natural regeneration of serotinous Rocky Mountain (RM) lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) because the closed cones are held in place without the fire cue for cone opening. We selected 20 stands (five stands each of live [control], 3 years since MPB [3-yr-MPB], 6 years since MPB [6-yr-MPB], and 9 years since MPB [9-yr-MPB] mortality) in north central British Columbia, Canada. The goal was to determine partial loss of serotiny due to fall of crown-stored cones via breakage of branches and in situ opening of canopy cones throughout the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. We also quantified seed release by the opening of forest-floor cones, loss of seed from rodent predation, and cone burial. Trees killed by MPB three years earlier dropped approximately 3.5 times more cones via branch breakage compared to live stands. After six years, MPB-killed stands had released 45% of their canopy seed bank through cone opening, cone fall due to breakage, and squirrel predation. Further losses of canopy seed banks are expected with time since we found 9-yr-MPB stands had 38% more open canopy cones. This was countered by the development of a modest forest-floor seed bank (6% of the original canopy seed bank) from burial of cones; this seed bank may be ecologically important if a fire or anthropogenic disturbance reexposes these cones. If adequate levels of regeneration are to occur, disturbances to create seedbeds must occur shortly after tree mortality, before the seed banks are lost. Our findings also suggest that the sustained seed rain (over at least nine years) after MPB outbreak may be beneficial for population growth of ground-foraging vertebrates. Our study adds insight to the seed ecology of serotinous pines under a potentially continental-wide insect outbreak, threatening vast forests adapted to regeneration after fire. Key words: biotic disturbance; cone

  5. Vermicompost enhances germination of the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lazcano, Cristina; Sampedro, Luis; Zas Arregui, Rafael; Domínguez, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of vermicompost on the germination and early development of six different progenies of the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). We compared the effects of incorporating solid vermicompost into the potting media to those of vermicompost water extract to asses the extent of not physically-mediated positive effects. The incorporation of vermicompost in the growing media of maritime pine increased germination by 16%, and particularly, addition of vermicom...

  6. Wild Pigs: inciting factor in southern pine decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori G. Eckhardt; Roger D. Menard; Stephen S. Ditchkoff

    2016-01-01

    During an investigation into southern pine decline at Fort Benning Georgia, the possibility of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) as an inciting factor became evident. Their rooting activity caused significant root damage on sites showing symptoms of pine decline. It was thought that perhaps the pigs may be moving around pathogenic fungi during their rooting activity in Pinus...

  7. Evaluating first-year pine seedling survival plateau in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar N. Khana; Thomas J. Dean; Scott D. Roberts; Donald L. Grebner

    2016-01-01

    First-year seeding survival has been a continuing problem since the start of commercial pine plantation forestry in the 1950s. First-year survival of bare-root loblolly pine seedlings on intensively prepared sites in Louisiana has maintained a survival plateau between 79 to 89 percent with an average of about 82 percent. The specific objectives of this study were to...

  8. Allergy to pine nuts in a bird fancier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, A; Vermeulen, A; Dieges, P H; van Toorenenbergen, A W

    1996-10-01

    A patient is described with the bird-egg syndrome who experienced an anaphylactic reaction after eating some of her parrot's food (pine nuts: Pinus pinea). Specific IgE against this nut and another pine nut (P. cembra) was demonstrated by RAST. Cross-reactivity between these botanically related seeds was shown by RAST inhibition. Besides avian antigens, bird food antigens should be taken into consideration when symptoms of allergy occur on exposure to birds.

  9. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in

  10. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Clark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  11. Additions to the aquatic diptera (Chaoboridae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Tabanidae, Tipulidae) fauna of the White River National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chordas, Stephen W.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Chapman, Eric G.

    2004-01-01

    The dipteran fauna of Arkansas is generally poorly known. A previous study of the Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the White River National Wildlife Refuge, the largest refuge in Arkansas, reported only 12 diptera taxa out of 219 taxa collected (Chordas et al., 1996). Most of the dipterans from this study were identified only to the family level. The family Chironomidae is a large, diverse group and was predicted to be much more diverse in the refuge than indicated by previous studies. In this study, Chironomidae were targeted, with other aquatic or semiaquatic dipterans also retained, in collections designed to better define the dipteran fauna of the White River National Wildlife Refuge. Adult dipterans were collected from 22 sites within the refuge using sweep-nets, two types of blacklight traps, and lighted fan traps in June of 2001. Specimens from previous studies were retrieved and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. A total of 4,917 specimens representing 122 taxa was collected. The 122 taxa were comprised of the following: two chaoborids, 83 chironomids, 15 culicids, nine tabanids, and 13 tipulids. Of these, 46 species are new state records for Arkansas. Nine undescribed species of chironomids were collected, and eight species records represent significant range extensions.

  12. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in pine needles from Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlikowska, A.; Falandysz, J.; Bochentin, I. [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Univ. of Gdansk (Poland); Hanari, N.; Wyrzykowska, B.; Yamashita, N. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), EMTECH, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are a group of 75 compounds, which have been commercially produced and used in a wide range of industrial applications for the sake of their specific chemical properties. They are recognized as good electrical insulators and also as water and flame resistant materials. Technical PCNs formulations were mainly used as capacitor dielectrics, engine oil additives, electroplating stop-off compounds, in wire insulations and as paper, wood and fabric preservatives. Moreover, they have been formed during production of PCBs formulations. Although recently most countries have stopped synthesis of PCNs, they still are widely distributed in the environment. Nowadays the principal sources of these compounds are municipal solid wastes incineration, metallurgical and chloro-alkali processes. In last years PCNs concentrations in the environment have posed the cynosure of big group of scientists in the whole world. The relatively high concentrations are regarded as an environmental problem. Because they are persistent, toxic and lipophilic they might be bioaccumulated in living organisms and generate the danger for animals and humans. It is essentially to monitor their levels in air, regional transport, as well as estimate specific sources. It is possible by using as a biomonitors pine tree needles. These trees are considered as the very suitable passive indicators for monitoring of PCNs concentrations in the troposphere. This is because the surface wax layer of the needles poses an ability to absorb these lipophilic compounds from the surrounding air. In the current study pine needles were employed as biomonitors of PCNs concentrations in the ambient air of Poland. This country with its past history of production and use of different applications including these compounds, as well as with its location in the centre of Europe, presents the interesting region to these researches.

  13. Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor effects of pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Moon, Sung Chae; Lee, Mee Sook

    2006-01-01

    Pine needles (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini) have long been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. To investigate their potential anticancer effects, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor activities were assessed in vitro and/or in vivo. Pine needle ethanol extract (PNE) significantly inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl radical in vitro. PNE markedly inhibited mutagenicity of 2-anthramine, 2-nitrofluorene, or sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 or TA100 in Ames tests. PNE exposure effectively inhibited the growth of cancer cells (MCF-7, SNU-638, and HL-60) compared with normal cell (HDF) in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In in vivo antitumor studies, freeze-dried pine needle powder supplemented (5%, wt/wt) diet was fed to mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 cells or rats treated with mammary carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 50 mg/kg body weight). Tumorigenesis was suppressed by pine needle supplementation in the two model systems. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in pine needle-supplemented rats in the DMBA-induced mammary tumor model. These results demonstrate that pine needles exhibit strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and also antitumor effects in vivo and point to their potential usefulness in cancer prevention.

  14. An allelopathic substance in red pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Fushimi, Yoshiko; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2009-03-01

    Aqueous methanol extracts of red pine (Pinus densiflora) needles inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), timothy (Pheleum pratense), Digitaria sanguinalis and Echinochloa crus-galli. Increasing the extract concentration increased inhibition, suggesting that the pine needles may have growth inhibitory substances and possess allelopathic potential. The aqueous methanol extract of the pine needles was purified, and a main inhibitory substance was isolated and determined by spectral data as 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid. This substance inhibited root and shoot growth of cress and Echinochloa crus-galli seedlings at concentrations greater than 0.1 mM. The endogenous concentration of the substance was 0.13 mmol/kg pine needle. These results suggest that 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid may contribute to the growth inhibitory effect of the pine needles and may play an important role in the allelopathy of red pine.

  15. Fire, red squirrels, whitebark pine, and Yellowstone grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podruzny, Shannon; Reinhart, D.P.; Mattson, David J.

    1999-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) habitats are important to Yellowstone grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) as refugia and sources of food. Ecological relationships between whitebark pine, red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), and grizzly bear use of pine seeds on Mt. Washburn in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, were examined during 1984-86. Following large-scale fires in 1988, we repeated the study in 1995-97 to examine the effects of fire on availability of whitebark pine seed in red squirrel middens and on bear use of middens. Half of the total length of the original line transects burned. We found no red squirrel middens in burned areas. Post-fire linear-abundance (no./km) of active squirrel middens that were pooled from burned and unburned areas decreased 27% compared to pre-fire abundance, but increased in unburned portions of some habitat types. Mean size of active middens decreased 54% post-fire. Use of pine seeds by bears (linear abundance of excavated middens) in pooled burned and unburned habitats decreased by 64%, likely due to the combined effects of reduced midden availability and smaller midden size. We discourage any further large-scale losses of seed producing trees from management-prescribed fires or timber harvesting until the effects of fire on ecological relationships in the whitebark pine zone are better understood.

  16. Localized spatial and temporal attack dynamics of the mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, B.J.; Powell, J.A.; Logan, J.A.

    1996-12-01

    Colonization of a host tree by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) involves chemical communication that enables a massive aggregation of beetles on a single resource, thereby ensuring host death and subsequent beetle population survival. Beetle populations have evolved a mechanism for termination of colonization on a lodgepole pine tree at optimal beetle densities, with a concomitant switch of attacks to nearby trees. Observations of the daily spatial and temporal attack process of mountain pine beetles (nonepidemic) attacking lodgepole pine suggest that beetles switch attacks to a new host tree before the original focus tree is fully colonized, and that verbenone, an antiaggregating pheromone, may be acting within a tree rather than between trees.

  17. Biomass and nutrient cycle in fertilized and unfertilized pine, mixed birch and pine and spruce stands on a drained mire.

    OpenAIRE

    Finér, Leena

    1989-01-01

    Biomass, biomass increment and nutrient cycling were studied in (1) a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand, (2) a Norway spruce (Picea abies) stand and (3) a mixed birch (Betula pubescens)/pine stand on a drained mire at Ilomantsi, eastern Finland in 1979-85. In addition, the effect of NPK and micronutrient fertilizer treatment was studied. Above-ground and root measurements were taken. These data formed the basis of stand biomass and nutrient cycle simulations of fertilized and unfertilized s...

  18. Long-term benefits to the growth of ponderosa pines from controlling southwestern pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael R; Chen, Zhong

    2004-12-01

    The southwestern pine tip moth, Rhyacionia neomexicana (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a native forest pest that attacks seedlings and saplings of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws, in the southwestern United States. Repeated attacks can cause severe deformation of host trees and significant long-term growth loss. Alternatively, effective control of R. neomexicana, vegetative competition, or both in young pine plantations may increase survival and growth of trees for many years after treatments are applied. We test the null hypothesis that 4 yr of R. neomexicana and weed control with insecticide, weeding, and insecticide plus weeding would not have any residual effect on survival and growth of trees in ponderosa pine plantation in northern Arizona 14 yr post-treatment, when the trees were 18 yr old. Both insecticide and weeding treatment increased tree growth and reduced the incidence of southwestern pine tip moth damage compared with the control. However, weeding alone also significantly increased tree survival, whereas insecticide alone did not. The insecticide plus weeding treatment had the greatest tree growth and survival, and the lowest rate of tip moth damage. Based on these results, we rejected our null hypothesis and concluded that there were detectable increases in the survival and growth of ponderosa pines 14 yr after treatments applied to control R. neomexicana and weeds.

  19. Effect of experience with pine (Pituophis melanoleucus) and king (Lampropeltis getulus) snake odors on Y-maze behavior of pine snake hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J; Boarman, W; Kurzava, L; Gochfeld, M

    1991-01-01

    The abilities of hatchling pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) and king snakes (Lampropeltis getulus) to discriminate the chemical trails of pine and king snakes was investigated inY-maze experiments. Pine snakes were housed for 17 days either with shavings impregnated with pine snake odor, king snake odor, or no odor to test for the effect of experience on choice. Both pine and king snake hatchlings entered the arm with the pine snake odor and did not enter the arm with the king snake odor. The data support the hypothesis that hatchlings of both species can distinguish conspecific odors from other odors and that our manipulation of previous experience was without effect for pine snake hatchlings.

  20. Habitat quality and recruitment success of cui-ui in the Truckee River downstream of Marble Bluff Dam, Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoppettone, G. Gary; Rissler, Peter H.; Salgado, J. Antonio; Harry, Beverly

    2013-01-01

    We compared cui-ui (Chasmistes cujus) recruitment from two reaches of the Truckee River with histories of severe erosional downcutting caused by a decline in Pyramid Lake surface elevation. In 1975, Marble Bluff Dam (MBD) was constructed 5 kilometers upstream of the extant mouth of the Truckee River to stabilize the upstream reach of the river; the downstream reach of the river remained unstable and consequently unsuitable for cui-ui recruitment. By the early 2000s, there was a decrease in the Truckee River’s slope from MBD to Pyramid Lake after a series of wet years in the 1990s. This was followed by changes in river morphology and erosion abatement. These changes led to the question as to cui-ui recruitment potential in the Truckee River downstream of MBD. In 2012, more than 7,000 cui-ui spawners were passed upstream of MBD, although an indeterminate number of cui-ui spawned downstream of MBD. In this study, we compared cui-ui recruitment upstream and downstream of MBD during a Truckee River low-flow year (2012). Cui-ui larvae emigration to Pyramid Lake began earlier and ended later downstream of MBD. A greater number of cui-ui larvae was produced downstream of MBD than upstream. This also was true for native Tahoe sucker (Catostomus tahoensis) and Lahontan redside (Richardsonius egregius). The improved Truckee River stability downstream of MBD and concomitant cui-ui recruitment success is attributed to a rise in Pyramid Lake's surface elevation. A decline in lake elevation may lead to a shift in stream morphology and substrate composition to the detriment of cui-ui reproductive success as well as the reproductive success of other native fishes.

  1. Occurrence of organic wastewater and other contaminants in cave streams in northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Joseph R.; Becker, C.; Hensley, S.; Stark, R.; Meyer, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of organic wastewater compounds in surface waters of the United States has been reported in a number of recent studies. In karstic areas, surface contaminants might be transported to groundwater and, ultimately, cave ecosystems, where they might impact resident biota. In this study, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCISs) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in six caves and two surface-water sites located within the Ozark Plateau of northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas in order to detect potential chemical contaminants in these systems. All caves sampled were known to contain populations of the threatened Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae). The surface-water site in Oklahoma was downstream from the outfall of a municipal wastewater treatment plant and a previous study indicated a hydrologic link between this stream and one of the caves. A total of 83 chemicals were detected in the POCIS and SPMD extracts from the surface-water and cave sites. Of these, 55 chemicals were detected in the caves. Regardless of the sampler used, more compounds were detected in the Oklahoma surface-water site than in the Arkansas site or the caves. The organic wastewater chemicals with the greatest mass measured in the sampler extracts included sterols (cholesterol and ??-sitosterol), plasticizers [diethylhexylphthalate and tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate], the herbicide bromacil, and the fragrance indole. Sampler extracts from most of the cave sites did not contain many wastewater contaminants, although extracts from samplers in the Oklahoma surfacewater site and the cave hydrologically linked to it had similar levels of diethylhexyphthalate and common detections of carbamazapine, sulfamethoxazole, benzophenone, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), and octophenol monoethoxylate. Further evaluation of this system is warranted due to potential ongoing transport of wastewaterassociated chemicals into the cave. Halogenated organics

  2. Using Paid Radio Advertisements to Promote Physical Activity Among Arkansas Tweens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appathurai Balamurugan, MD, MPH

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The level of physical activity among children is a growing concern. Evidence shows that many children aged 9 to 13 years (tweens do not participate in any organized physical activity during their nonschool hours, and some do not engage in any free-time physical activity. Physical inactivity is associated with a host of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Paid media advertisements have been an effective method of promoting physical activity. Methods From March 10, 2003, through June 29, 2003, we aired paid radio advertisements in six major Arkansas metropolitan areas to promote physical activity among tweens. In September 2003, we surveyed 295 Arkansas tweens by telephone to assess their exposure to the advertisements and the impact of the advertisements on their intent to participate in physical activity. In the same telephone survey, we also asked questions about the respondents’ physical activity level. The data were weighted so that the results would be representative of the areas surveyed. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS, version 11.5 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill. Results Of the tweens surveyed, 56.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.7%–62.1% reported hearing the radio advertisements. Of the tweens who heard the advertisement messages, 76.1% (95% CI, 69.4%–82.8% said the messages made them more likely to get involved in physical activity. Younger tweens (aged 9 and 10 years were less likely to have heard the advertisements than older tweens (aged 11 to 13 years. However, the advertisements were more likely to cause younger tweens to want to get involved in physical activity (odds ratio [OR] = 6.89, P = .003 than older tweens. Of the tweens surveyed, 74.9% (95% CI, 70.0%–79.8% reported that they were involved in nonschool-sponsored sports, and 45.3% (95% CI, 39.6%–51.0% were involved in school-sponsored sports. Conclusion Paid media advertisements may be an effective way to

  3. Factors related to achievement in sophomore organic chemistry at the University of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Harriet Arlene

    The purpose of this study was to identify the significant cognitive and non-cognitive variables that related to achievement in the first semester of organic chemistry at the University of Arkansas. Cognitive variables included second semester general chemistry grade, ACT composite score, ACT English, mathematics, reading, and science reasoning subscores, and spatial ability. Non-cognitive variables included anxiety, confidence, effectance motivation, and usefulness. Using a correlation research design, the individual relationships between organic chemistry achievement and each of the cognitive variables and non-cognitive variables were assessed. In addition, the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and combinations of these independent variables were explored. Finally, gender- and instructor-related differences in the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and the independent variables were investigated. The samples consisted of volunteers from the Fall 1999 and Fall 2000 sections of Organic Chemistry I at the University of Arkansas. All students in each section were asked to participate. Data for spatial ability and non-cognitive independent variables were collected using the Purdue Visualization of Rotations test and the modified Fennema-Sherman Attitude Scales. Data for other independent variables, including ACT scores and second semester general chemistry grades, were obtained from the Office of Institutional Research. The dependent variable, organic chemistry achievement, was measured by each student's accumulated points in the course and consisted of scores on quizzes and exams in the lecture section only. These totals were obtained from the lecture instructor at the end of each semester. Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to measure the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and the independent variables. Prior performance in chemistry as measured by second semester general

  4. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Functions of Forested Wetlands in the Delta Region of Arkansas, Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    70  Function 3: Cycle nutrients ...to import, store, cycle, and export nutrients (Brinson et al. 1980, Wharton et al. 1982). Although these conditions have changed dramatically in...explorations of the Arkansas Delta in the 16th century, natural levees of the Mississippi and Arkansas Rivers were extensively used for maize agriculture by

  5. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT DNA ISOLATION METHODS FROM PINE HONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Çöl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Honey is a sweet food made by bees and some other insects. Pine honey is a type of honey which is produced by honey bees from the sugary secretions made by the some insect species, such as Marchalina hellenica, living on the pine trees. Pine honey is mostly produced in the Mediterranean countries such as Turkey and some regions of Greece. Honey is a highly consumed natural food product and it is associated with numerous health benefits. The knowledge of physiochemical and biological properties of honey as well as its floral origin is very important. Knowing the diversity of pollens, microorganism content of honey or ensuring its GMO (genetically modified organisms status is significant both in terms of health and economy. To obtain such information, one of the most effective ways is to analyze the DNA of pine honey and identify the biological species it contains.  Due to the nature of pine honey such as its viscosity and the presence of inhibitors, there is not a perfect reliable convincing DNA isolation method available to date.  In this study, we collected pine honey samples from Mugla region (Turkey and isolated DNA from the precipitated pollens of the honey using three different DNA isolation approaches. These methods include a modified CTAB method, manual silica dioxide approach and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. DNA extraction protocols were compared in terms of DNA yield and purity. We demonstrate that the use of DNeasy plant kit has given relatively better results under the conditions of the current study for the Pine honey of Muğla.

  6. Quaternary geology of the Duck Hawk Bluffs, southwest Banks Island, Arctic Canada: a re-investigation of a critical terrestrial type locality for glacial and interglacial events bordering the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David J. A.; England, John H.; La Farge, Catherine; Coulthard, Roy D.; Lakeman, Thomas R.; Vaughan, Jessica M.

    2014-05-01

    Duck Hawk Bluffs, southwest Banks Island, is a primary section (8 km long and 60 m high) in the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago exposing a long record of Quaternary sedimentation adjacent to the Arctic Ocean. A reinvestigation of Duck Hawk Bluffs demonstrates that it is a previously unrecognized thrust-block moraine emplaced from the northeast by Laurentide ice. Previous stratigraphic models of Duck Hawk Bluffs reported a basal unit of preglacial fluvial sand and gravel (Beaufort Fm, forested Arctic), overlain by a succession of three glaciations and at least two interglacials. Our observations dismiss the occurrence of preglacial sediments and amalgamate the entire record into three glacial intervals and one prominent interglacial. The first glacigenic sedimentation is recorded by an ice-contact sandur containing redeposited allochthonous organics previously assigned to the Beaufort Fm. This is overlain by fine-grained sediments with ice wedge pseudomorphs and well-preserved bryophyte assemblages corresponding to an interglacial environment similar to modern. The second glacial interval is recorded by ice-proximal mass flows and marine rhythmites that were glacitectonized when Laurentide ice overrode the site from Amundsen Gulf to the south. Sediments of this interval have been reported to be magnetically reversed (>780 ka). The third interval of glacigenic sedimentation includes glacifluvial sand and gravel recording the arrival of Laurentide ice that overrode the site from the northeast (island interior) depositing a glacitectonite and constructing the thrust block moraine that comprises Duck Hawk Bluffs. Sediments of this interval have been reported to be magnetically normal (ice from the interior of Banks Island coalesced with an ice stream in Amundsen Gulf, depositing the interlobate Sachs Moraine that contains shells as young as ˜24 cal ka BP (Late Wisconsinan). During deglaciation, meltwater emanating from these separating ice lobes deposited outwash

  7. Pine as Fast Food: Foraging Ecology of an Endangered Cockatoo in a Forestry Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, William D.; Hugh Finn; Jackson Parker; Ken Dods

    2013-01-01

    Pine plantations near Perth, Western Australia have provided an important food source for endangered Carnaby's Cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) since the 1940s. Plans to harvest these plantations without re-planting will remove this food source by 2031 or earlier. To assess the impact of pine removal, we studied the ecological association between Carnaby's Cockatoos and pine using behavioural, nutritional, and phenological data. Pine plantations provided high densities of seed (158,025...

  8. Growth and performance of loblolly pine genetic planting stock through eight years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall J. Rousseau; Scott D. Roberts; Billy L. Herrin

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the need in the pine market is to develop higher sawtimber quality trees. The pine biomass and pulpwood market supports the low end of the product chain. However, we must improve on the quality of the southern pine for construction lumber if the southern region is expected to capture the shortfall of the sawtimber market expected in the future. Various pine...

  9. Entrepreneurial orientation of eastern white pine primary producers and secondary manufacturers: A regional phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2011-01-01

    Eastern white pine (EWP) and red pine make up nearly 8.5 percent of the total sawtimber volume in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Lake States regions. The majority of white pine growing stock is found in the Mid-Atlantic and Lake State regions; however, the center of eastern white pine production and markets is in New England. EWP is produced in both hardwood...

  10. Hydrogeology and Physical Characteristics of Water Samples at the Red River Aluminum Site, Stamps, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, J. B.; Stanton, G. P.; Freiwald, D. A.

    2001-12-01

    The Red River Aluminum site near Stamps, Arkansas, contains waste piles of salt cake and metal byproducts from the smelting of aluminum. The waste piles are subjected to about 50 inches of rainfall a year, resulting in the dissolution of the salts and metal. To assess the potential threat to underlying ground-water resources at the site, its hydrogeology was characterized by measuring water levels and field parameters of water quality in 23 wells and at 2 surface-water sites. Seventeen of these monitor wells were constructed at various depths for this study to allow for the separate characterization of the shallow and deep ground-water systems, the calculation of vertical gradients, and the collection of water samples at different depths within the flow system. Lithologic descriptions from drill-hole cuttings and geophysical logs indicate the presence of interbedded sands, gravels, silts, and clays to depths of 65 feet. The regionally important Sparta aquifer underlies the site. Water levels in shallow wells indicate radial flow away from the salt-cake pile located near the center of the site. Flow in the deep system is to the west and southwest toward Bodcau Creek. Water-level data from eight piezometer nests indicate a downward hydraulic gradient from the shallow to deep systems across the site. Values of specific conductance (an indicator of dissolved salts) ranged from 215 to 196,200 microsiemens per centimeter and indicate that saline waters are being transported horizontally and vertically downward away from the site.

  11. Baylisascaris procyonis roundworm infection patterns in raccoons (Procyon lotor from Missouri and Arkansas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Warid H. S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Baylisascaris procyonis is a helminth parasite of raccoons Procyon lotor and represents a health concern in paratenic hosts, including humans and diverse domestic and wildlife species. In North America the helminth is expanding its geographic range. To better understand patterns of infection in the Ozark region of the USA, raccoons (n = 61 were collected in 2013-2014 from five counties in Missouri and Arkansas, USA and necropsied. We documented B. procyonis in all surveyed locations. The overall prevalence of B. procyonis was 44.3 % (95 % CI = 31.9 - 57.4 and was significantly higher in females than males. There were also significant differences in prevalence among raccoons sampled north and south of the Missouri River. Mean intensity was 9.9 (CI = 5.44 - 17.22, and parasites were highly aggregated among hosts such that approximately 20 % of hosts harbor 90 % of parasites. These levels of parasitism indicate that B. procyonis is common in the region and its impacts on paratenic hosts could be qualitatively similar to effects observed in other localities.

  12. Straczekite, a new calcium barium potassium vanadate mineral from Wilson Springs, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, H.T.; Nord, G.; Marinenko, J.; Milton, C.

    1984-01-01

    Straczekite occurs as a rare secondary mineral in fibrous seams, along with other V minerals (A.M. 64-713), in ore from the vanadium mine in Wilson Springs (formerly Potash Sulfur Springs), Garland County, Arkansas. It forms soft, thin laths of dark greenish black crystals up to 0.5 mm in length. Indexed XRD data are tabulated; strongest lines 3.486(100), 10.449(50), 1.8306(50), 1.9437(15) A; a 11.679, b 3.6608, c 10.636 A, beta 100.53o; space group C2/m, C2 or Cm. Chemical analysis gave V2O5 66.4, V2O4 15.3, Fe2O3 0.9, Na2O 0.4, K2O 1.8, CaO 2.5, BaO 5.5, H2O 7.2, = 100.0, leading to the formula (Ca0.39Ba0.31K0.33Na0.11)- 196(V4+1.59V5+6.31Fe3+0.10)O20.02(H2O)2.9; Dcalc. 3.21 g/cm3. A possible layer structure is discussed. The name is for J. A. Straczek, Chief Geologist at Union Carbide Corp.-R.A.H.

  13. Bacteria and Turbidity Survey for Blue Mountain Lake, Arkansas, Spring and Summer, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, A. Dwight

    1995-01-01

    Introduction Blue Mountain Lake darn is located at river mile 74.4 on the Petit Jean River in Logan and Yell Counties in west-central Arkansas (fig. 1). Drainage area above the darn is 488 square miles. Blue Mountain Lake is located between two national forests-the Ozark National Forest and the Ouachita National Forest. The primary purpose for Blue Mountain Lake is flood control, but the lake is used for a variety of recreational purposes. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.s. Army Corps of Engineers, Little Rock District, conducted a bacterial and turbidity study of the Blue Mountain Lake Basin during the spring and suri1mer 1994. Samples were collected weekly at 11 locations within the lake basin from May through September 1994. Eight sampling sites were located on tributaries to the lake and three sampling sites were located on the lake with one of the sites located at a swim beach (fig. 2; table 1).

  14. Helminth parasites of the raccoon (Procyon lotor) from north-central Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D J; Owen, W B; Snyder, D E

    1992-02-01

    Twenty-three species of helminths (4 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 14 nematodes, and 3 acanthocephalans) were found in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, pancreas, tongue, urinary bladder, and subcutaneous tissues of 30 live-trapped or hunter-shot raccoons from north-central Arkansas between November 1989 and April 1990. Helminths were not detected in the brain, diaphragm, gallbladder, heart, liver, reproductive system, or trachea. Each raccoon examined was infected with 3 or more of the following helminths: Brachylaima virginiana, Eurytrema procyonis, Fibricola cratera, Pharyngostomoides procyonis, Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides spp., Arthrocephalus lotoris, Capillaria aerophila, Capillaria plica, Capillaria procyonis, Capillaria putorii, Crenosoma goblei, Cruzia americana, Dirofilaria tenuis, Dracunculus insignis, Enterobius sp., Gnathostoma procyonis, Molineus barbatus, Physaloptera rara, Trichinella spiralis, Centrorhynchus wardae, Macracanthorhynchus ingens, and Oligacanthorhynchus tortuosa. All helminths collected with the exception of D. insignis constitute new geographic distribution records. Occurrences of C. aerophila, C. wardae, and O. tortuosa are new host records. One nymphal pentastome, Porocephalus crotali, was found in the liver of 1 raccoon, constituting a new host record.

  15. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Six. Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Arkansas governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  16. Detection of Lead (Pb) in Three Environmental Matrices of the Cache River Watershed, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Mary K; Bouldin, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    Water bodies contaminated with lead (Pb) represent a considerable threat to both human and environmental health. The Cache River, located in northeastern Arkansas has been listed as impaired on the 303(d) list due to Pb contamination. However, historical data for the watershed is limited in both sampled waterways and analyses performed. This study measures concentrations of Pb in three environmental matrices of the Cache River Watershed; dissolved in the water column, total Pb (dissolved + particulate), and sediment-bound Pb. A variety of waterways were sampled including main channel and tributary sites. Frequency of detection and mean concentrations were compared to values for the entire Lower Mississippi Watershed. In general, no significant differences were found for the CRW when compared to the LMRW, with the exception of total Pb which was detected more frequently but at lower concentrations in the CRW than in the LMRW, and sediment Pb, which was detected at a significantly lower frequency in the CRW than the LMRW.

  17. Preparing Future Physics Faculty at the University of Arkansas: Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Gay B.

    2000-04-01

    When we embarked upon an NSF supported curriculum development project, it became clear that the first and greatest need for educational reform to be embraced and sustained was for our future faculty to be prepared to be as professional about their roles as educators as their roles as researchers. A new college faculty member may find themselves preparing to teach a class for the first time, with little or no guidance. The biggest complaints employers have about those hired for ``pure" research positions involve interpersonal skills. Also, more researchers are being called upon to do outreach. Teaching and participating in outreach activities develop these skills. Our focus at this stage is to add these kinds of activities to the graduate program, with the same sort of mentoring that accompanies the development of research skills, without extending the time needed to complete a degree. Also, a new masters degree for those that find themselves insufficiently motivated to do research, but still loving physics, provides a route straight into teaching for these students at very low resource cost. Progress made toward these goals so far at the University of Arkansas will be presented.

  18. Nocturnal field use by fall migrating American woodcock in the Delta of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementz, David G.; Crossett, Richard; Lehnen, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    The American woodcock (Scolopax minor) population has declined since the late 1960s across its range and is now considered a species of special concern. Research on woodcock habitat use during migration and migratory routes through the Central Flyway has been limited. We assessed woodcock phenology, estimated density, and nocturnal habitat use in fields on public lands in the lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley portion of Arkansas during November and December of 2010 and 2011. We used all-terrain vehicles to survey woodcock along transects in 67 fields of 8 field types. We analyzed data using hierarchical distance sampling. We detected woodcock from the first week in November through the third week in December but in low numbers. We did not detect woodcock in millet or rice fields, whereas woodcock had the highest estimated densities in unharvested soybeans. All other crop type-post-harvest management combinations had low woodcock densities. We did not detect woodcock in fields 40 ha. Woodcock in the lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley may benefit from management for unharvested soybean fields of moderate size (approx. 8-40ha).

  19. Geology of the van Buren and Lavaca quadrangles, Arkansas and Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, B.R.; Hendricks, T.A.

    1971-01-01

    Van Buren and Lavaca quadrangles cover an area of about 488 sq miles in E.-central Oklahoma and W.-central Arkansas. Rocks of Middle Pennsylvanian age and unconsolidated alluvial deposits of Quaternary age are exposed at the surface, and rocks of Ordovician to Middle Pennsylvanian age have been penetrated by wells drilled in the area. The rocks have been folded into E.-trending broad, gentle folds whose limbs have been broken by N.- or S.-dipping normal faults. Displacement across the faults is generally less than 1,500 ft, but may be as much as 2,500 ft. The Atoka, McAlester, and Savanna formations contain coal beds. The Lower Hartshorne coal bed, near the base of the McAlester Formation, and the Charleston coal bed, near the base of the Savanna Formation, have been the most economically important. Natural gas has been found in rocks of Silurian, Devonian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian age. Most of the gas is in rocks of Pennsylvanian age, in the Atoka Formation. The gas in Pennsylvanian rocks is lithologically entrapped, and structure appears to have had little influence on the location or extent of gas accumulation. (30 refs.)

  20. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Arkansas. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.