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Sample records for pinctada mazatlanica hanley

  1. Cambios en el uso de la ostra perlera Pinctada mazatlanica (Bivalvia: Pteriidae en el Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan Changes in the use of the pearl oyster Pinctada mazatlanica (Bivalvia: Pteriidae in the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan

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    Adrián Velázquez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available La concha del bivalvo panámico Pinctada mazatlanica fue ampliamente utilizada por las antiguas sociedades del México prehispánico; en las ofrendas enterradas en el Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan se han encontrado alrededor de 600 objetos elaborados con ella, la mayor parte de los cuales proceden de la etapa constructiva IV (1440-1481, lo que llama la atención, ya que para entonces los mexicas no habían logrado conquistar emplazamientos en la costa del Pacífico. En los sucesivos agrandamientos arquitectónicos es notable el descenso en los objetos de la referida ostra, lo cual en principio se explicó por la mayor destrucción que éstos habían sufrido; sin embargo, el hallazgo de varios ricos depósitos en el predio conocido como Casa de las Ajaracas, correspondientes al reinado de Moctezuma II (1502-1521, en los que prácticamente se encuentra ausente la Pinctada mazatlanica, da lugar a nuevas interpretaciones. En el presente trabajo se presentan 2 posibles hipótesis para explicar el hecho anterior.The nacreous shell of the tropical Pacific mollusc Pinctada mazatlanica was widely used by the ancient inhabitants of Mexico. Around 600 pieces made of this shell have been found in offerings buried in the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan. Most of these objects come from the IVth construction stage (1440-1481, prior to the conquest of the Pacific Coast by the Aztecs. It was previously thought that the considerably smaller numbers found in the following stages were due to the greater degree of destruction suffered by the temple. Nevertheless, the almost complete absence of this material in nine offerings found recently corresponding to the VIIth construction stage (1502-1521, raise other possibilities. In this work two different hypotheses are presented to explain this observation.

  2. Changes in the use of the pearl oyster Pinctada mazatlanica (Bivalvia: Pteriidae) in the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan

    OpenAIRE

    Velázquez, Adrián; Zúñiga-Arellano, Belem; Temple Sánchez-Gavito, John Joseph

    2007-01-01

    La concha del bivalvo panámico Pinctada mazatlanica fue ampliamente utilizada por las antiguas sociedades del México prehispánico; en las ofrendas enterradas en el Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan se han encontrado alrededor de 600 objetos elaborados con ella, la mayor parte de los cuales proceden de la etapa constructiva IV (1440-1481), lo que llama la atención, ya que para entonces los mexicas no habían logrado conquistar emplazamientos en la costa del Pacífico. En los sucesivos agrandamientos ...

  3. Crecimiento y mortalidad de la madreperla Pinctada mazatlanica en poblaciones naturales del litoral oriental de Baja California Sur, México

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    Humberto Wright-López

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La madreperla Pinctada mazatlanica esta en veda desde 1939 y considerada en peligro de extinción, cambiando su categoría a protección especial en 1994. El presente estudio estima su crecimiento y mortalidad en bancos naturales en el periodo 1992-93 y 1997-99. Se registró el alto de la concha de ostras en poblaciones desde el paralelo 28º a 23º LN del litoral oriental de Baja California Sur, abarcando 38 estaciones, 2 bahías y 6 islas. La longitud máxima estimada fue 187.22mm (179.83-195.81mm, P > 0.95. Las frecuencias de longitud se ordenaron en un "año virtual". Los parámetros de crecimiento de von Bertalanffy estimados con el programa ELEFAN I fueron: o = 193.31mm, k=0.54año-1, t0= -0.1805 años, C=0.49 y WP=0.75; el índice de desempeño del crecimiento fue’=4.305. La mortalidad total fue de Z=2.03 año-1 por longitud convertida a curva de captura. La regresión peso total y la altura tuvo la expresión W(i=0.0005418 * L(i2.7301. Los parámetros de crecimiento fueron similares a los de Pinctada margaritifera de bancos de mar abierto y diferentes a aquellos de ostras perleras en repoblamiento en bahía de La Paz. La mortalidad mostró valores parecidos a los estimados para Pinctada radiata del Mar Rojo.Growth and mortality of the mother-of-pearl Pinctada mazatlanica in natural populations of the east coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico. The Mexican Pacific mother-of-pearl Pinctada mazatlanica was placed in forbidden fisheries status for the Mexican Federal Government and considered in extinction danger since 1939. This decree was modified in 1994 to allow the capture of spat for research or marine culture. We estimated the growth and mortality of mother-of-pearl from the eastern littoral of South Baja California wild stock in the periods 1992-93 and 1997-99. We used 38 sample stations at 2 bays and 6 insular complexes. The maximum length was 187.22 mm (179.83-195.81 mm, P > 0.95. Seasonal von Bertalanffy growth (ELEFAN I routine

  4. Don't think about blue elephants! / Paul Hanley ; interv. Alina Lisina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanley, Paul

    2005-01-01

    "Guerrilla marketing'i" (partisani turundus) - hoolikalt kavandatud ja alternatiivseid kanaleid kasutav ebatraditsiooniline turundustegevus - tutvustus. Lisad: Paul Hanley; GM müüdid; 15 Guerrilla turunduse saladust

  5. The Last Seat in the House: The Story of Hanley Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, John

    Prior to the rush of live outdoor sound during the 1950s, a young, audio-savvy Bill Hanley recognized certain inadequacies within the widely used public address system marketplace. Hanley's techniques allowed him to construct systems of sound that changed what the audience heard during outdoor events. Through my research, I reveal a new insight into how Hanley and those who worked at his business (Hanley Sound) had a direct, innovative influence on specific sound applications, which are now widely used and often taken for granted. Hanley's innovations shifted an existing public address, oral-based sound industry into a new area of technology rich with clarity and intelligibility. What makes his story so unique is that, because his relationship with sound was so intimate, it superseded his immediate economic, safety, and political concerns. He acted selflessly and with extreme focus. As Hanley's reputation grew, so did audience and performer demand for clear, audible concert sound. Over time, he would provide sound for some of the largest antiwar peace rallies and concerts in American history. Hanley worked in the thickness of extreme civil unrest, not typical for the average soundman of the day. Conveniently, Hanley's passion for clarity in sound also happened to occur when popular music transitioned into an important conveyor of political message through festivals. Since May 2011 I have been exploring the life of Bill Hanley, an innovative leader in sound. I use interdisciplinary approaches to uncover cultural, historical, social, political, and psychological occasions in Hanley's life that were imperative to his ongoing development. Filmed action sequences, such as talking head interviews (friends, family members, and professional colleagues) and historical archival 8 mm footage, and family photos and music ephemera, help uncover this qualitative ethnographic analysis of not only Bill's development but also the world around him. Reflective, intimate interviews

  6. Kinds of nucleus for effective pearl cultivation of the pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata

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    Kanjanachatree, K.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Seeding is the most important aspect of pearl cultivation, and appropriate nucleus can determine the quality of a pearl : nacre secretion and accumulation around the nucleus. This affects harvest time, nucleus extrusion, survival rate of the pearl oysters and the production cost. In order to provide nuclei to substitute for those imported from China which are made from freshwater pearl oyster-shells, 3 kinds of the local shells of Pinctada fucata, Pteria penguin and Pinctada maxima were selected for seed production. The obtained nuclei have various diameters depend on the shell width at the hinge region. The average diameters are 5.44, 6.78, 7.54 and 6.10 mm, while their production costs are 5, 7.7, 18.5 and 7.5 baht per 1 nucleus, respectively, for Pinctada fucata, Pteria penguin, Pinctada maxima and freshwater pearl oysters (control group. After nucleus implantation into the gonad of culture pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata, and rearing in the sea, the obtained pearls using nuclei made from the shells of Pinctada fucata and Pinctada maxima (both belong to the same genus as the implanted culture pearl oysters have as good nacre formation as that from freshwater pearl oysters. In contrast, the pearl production using nuclei made from Pteria penguin-shells have significantly worse nacre formation. Survival rate of the culture oysters seeded with nuclei made from Pinctada fucata-shells is highest at 47%, nucleus extrusion 8% only, and harvest rate 31%; while with Pinctada maxima-shells, these values are 38%, 17.5% and 14%, respectively. So the nuclei made from local Pinctada fucata-shells are appropriate for pearl cultivation and are comparable to imported nuclei. Although the obtained pearls are small, the nuclei made from Pinctada fucata-shells have low cost, low nucleus extrusion and high productivity.

  7. Kinds of nucleus for effective pearl cultivation of the pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata

    OpenAIRE

    Kanjanachatree, K.; Piyathamrongrut, K.; Inthoncharoen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Seeding is the most important aspect of pearl cultivation, and appropriate nucleus can determine the quality of a pearl : nacre secretion and accumulation around the nucleus. This affects harvest time, nucleus extrusion, survival rate of the pearl oysters and the production cost. In order to provide nuclei to substitute for those imported from China which are made from freshwater pearl oyster-shells, 3 kinds of the local shells of Pinctada fucata, Pteria penguin and Pinctada maxima were selec...

  8. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Pinctada fucata martensii [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Pinctada fucata martensii 名詞 一般 *... * * * アコヤガイ アコヤガイ アコヤガイ Thesaurus2015 200906090725891437 C LS05 UNKNOWN_2 Pinctada fucata martensii

  9. Transcriptome analysis of the immune reaction of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata to xenograft from Pinctada maxima.

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    Wei, Jinfen; Fan, Sigang; Liu, Baosuo; Zhang, Bo; Su, Jiaqi; Yu, Dahui

    2017-08-01

    The pearl oyster Pinctada maxima exhibits great difficulty to culture pearls through nuclear insertion with an allograft, but it is easy for P. fucata to culture pearls after allografting. If P. fucata could be used as a surrogate mother to culture P. maxima pearls, it would benefit the pearl culture industry of P. maxima. However, this is blocked by the immune rejection of P. fucata against P. maxima mantle grafts. In this study, the immune responses of P. fucata hemocyte to allograft and xenograft were investigated after transplantation by transcriptome analysis. In total, 107.93 Gb clean reads were produced and assembled using the reference genome of P. fucata. Gene Ontology Term enrichment and KEGG enrichment analyses indicated that apoptosis, hippo signaling pathway, oxidation-reduction, MAPK signaling pathway, ribosome, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, purine metabolism, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, oxidative phosphorylation, Ras signaling pathway, and ubiquitin mediated proteolysis were involved in response to transplantation. Many genes related to oxidation-reduction reactions, the MAPK signaling pathway, and apoptosis were identified by comparison of the allograft group and the xenograft group at 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h post-transplantation. Among them, the expression levels of NADH dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and other dehydrogenases were increased significantly in the xenograft groups compared with allograft groups at 0 h post transplantation, indicating that a respiratory burst of neutrophils occurred immediately after xenograft transplantation. Additionally, HSP70 was highly expressed from 0 h to 96 h in the xenograft groups, indicating an oyster immune response to the xenograft. The genes enriched in the ribosome and hippo-signaling pathways were also identified, and expression patterns of these DEGs were different as compared between transplantation and control groups. Finally, altered

  10. Hatchery-scale trials using cryopreserved spermatozoa of black-lip pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Belinda; Vonau, Vincent; Moriceau, Jacques; Tetumu, Roger; Vanaa, Vincent; Demoy-schneider, Marina; Suquet, Marc; Le Moullac, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Cryopreservation is a valuable tool for genetic improvement programs. Several bivalve mollusc species have already been the subject of such programs and the Tahitian black pearl oyster industry is now planning the development of selective breeding for desirable traits in Pinctada margaritifera. The ability to cryopreserve spermatozoa would, therefore, offer significant benefits to the cultured black pearl industry. Spermatozoa were cryopreserved with CPA 0.7 M trehalose in 0.8 M Me2SO and...

  11. KARAKTERISTIK GENETIK POPULASI TIRAM MUTIARA (Pinctada margaritifera TERKAIT DENGAN DISTRIBUSI GEOGRAFISNYA DI PERAIRAN INDONESIA

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    Rini Susilowati

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk memetakan keragaman genetik lima populasi tiram mutiara di Indonesia (Sumbawa, Bali Utara, Selat Sunda, Belitung, Sulawesi Selatan dengan teknik mtDNA RFLP daerah amplifikasi Cytochrome Oxydase I (COI dan hubungan kekerabatannya. Lima puluh tiram mutiara (Pinctada margaritifera yang dianalisis menghasilkan DNA teramplifikasi sebesar 750 pb pada daerah COI mtDNA dengan teknik RFLP. Delapan belas komposit haplotipe terdeteksi dengan menggunakan tiga enzim restriksi: FokI, HaeIII, dan NlaIV. Diversitas haplotip rata-rata sebesar 0,255±0,093. Lima populasi tiram mutiara menghasilkan tiga kelompok dengan jarak genetik terendah adalah populasi Sumbawa dan Bali Utara (0,017 dan terjauh adalah populasi Sulawesi Selatan (0,142. Populasi Sulawesi Selatan merupakan populasi unik berdasarkan distribusi haplotipe BBCAA (60% dengan nilai keragaman genetik terendah (0,105 dibandingkan dengan populasi lainnya (0,177-0,328. The objectives of this study were to map the genetic diversity of five populations of pearl oyster in Indonesian waters using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of DNA COI gene and their genetic relationships. A total of 50 individual of pearl oysters (Pinctada margaritifera were analyzed for genetic variations within a 750-base pair region of the mitochondrial DNA COI gene using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. 18 composite haplotypes were detected following three digestions of endonuclease: FokI, HaeIII, and NlaIV. Five populations of pearl oysters formed three groups where the lowest values of Nei’s genetic distance were among Sumbawa and North Bali populations (0.017 and highest were among the South Sulawesi populations (0.142. The South Sulawesi populations possess uniqueness based on the haplotipe distribution of BBCAA (60% with the lowest values of genetic diversities (0.105 compared to other populations (0.177--0.328.

  12. Polarimetry of Pinctada fucata nacre indicates myostracal layer interrupts nacre structure.

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    Metzler, Rebecca A; Jones, Joshua A; D'Addario, Anthony J; Galvez, Enrique J

    2017-02-01

    The inner layer of many bivalve and gastropod molluscs consists of iridescent nacre, a material that is structured like a brick wall with bricks consisting of crystalline aragonite and mortar of organic molecules. Myostracal layers formed during shell growth at the point of muscle attachment to the shell can be found interspersed within the nacre structure. Little has been done to examine the effect the myostracal layer has on subsequent nacre structure. Here we present data on the structure of the myostracal and nacre layers from a bivalve mollusc, Pinctada fucata . Scanning electron microscope imaging shows the myostracal layer consists of regular crystalline blocks. The nacre before the layer consists of tablets approximately 400 nm thick, while after the myostracal layer the tablets are approximately 500 nm thick. A new technique, imaging polarimetry, indicates that the aragonite crystals within the nacre following the myostracal layer have greater orientation uniformity than before the myostracal layer. The results presented here suggest a possible interaction between the myostracal layer and subsequent shell growth.

  13. PERFORMA BENIH TIRAM MUTIARA (Pinctada maxima DARI HASIL PERSILANGAN INDUK ALAM

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    Ida Komang Wardana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tiram mutiara merupakan salah satu komoditas andalan dalam budidaya laut. Masalah utama yang dihadapi adalah pasok benih baik kuantitas maupun kualitas. Upaya perbaikan dilakukan dengan perkawinan silang antar varietas tiram dengan tujuan untuk memperbaiki kualitas benih Tiram Mutiara (Pinctada maxima baik secara fenotip maupun genotip. Induk yang disilangkan secara resiprokal mempunyai karakter nacre putih (P dan kuning (K baik populasi Bali maupun Maluku. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa persilangan dua populasi tersebut menghasilkan tiga varietas yaitu: varietas I (K x P, varietas II (K x K dan varietas III (P x K. Nilai SR pada fase pediveliger dari ketiga varietas menghasilkan sintasan berturut-turut 65%, 59%, dan 45%. Pertumbuhan varietas III menunjukkan pertumbuhan yang cukup baik dengan kisaran panjang cangkang 3,0-4,5 cm pada umur dua bulan pemeliharaan. Analisis genetik dengan RAPD-DNA menunjukkan bahwa induk-induk yang berhasil memijah mempunyai variasi genetik 0,3755; 0,3938; dan 0,1600. Sedangkan turunan F1 mempunyai variasi genetik lebih rendah yaitu: 0,2738; 0,2667; dan 0,0924.

  14. SELEKSI BENIH TIRAM MUTIARA (Pinctada maxima DARI HASIL PEMIJAHAN INDUK ALAM DENGAN KARAKTER NACRE PUTIH

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    Ida Komang Wardana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kualitas induk secara fenotip dan genotif berpengaruh terhadap kualitas benih tiram mutiara yang akan dihasilkan. Penggunaan induk yang berasal dari habitat yang berbeda dalam kegiatan pembenihan diharapkan dapat menghasilkan benih tiram mutiara dengan kualitas fenotip dan genotif yang baik. Salah satu sifat yang menarik untuk dijadikan target dalam program pemuliaan tiram mutiara adalah warna mutiara yang dihasilkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kualitas benih tiram mutiaram(Pinctada maxima hasil pemijahan induk alam dengan karakter nacre putih dari tiga habitat yang berbeda dan mengetahui keragaan genetik induk (F0 dan turunannya (F1. Induk yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah tiram dengan karakter nacre putih dari tiga lokasi perairan (Bali, Karawang, dan Dobo serta dilakukan pemijahan dari masing-masing populasi tersebut. Keragaan genetik dari semua populasi dianalisa dengan menggunakan PCR RFLP. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa masa inkubasi telur hasil pemijahan induk alam dengan karakter nacre putih terlihat lebih lama dibandingkan dengan tiram mutiara pada umumnya. Benih yang dihasilkan pertumbuhannya bervariasi, didominasi dengan benih berukuran sedang dengan sintasan berkisar 0,4-9%. Keragaan genetik F0 dan F1 berdasarkan nilai heterozigositas, tiram dari perairan Bali menunjukkan nilai keragaman yang paling baik (0,2726. Sementara karakter nacre dari benih yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa 48% memiliki nacre putih, 24% kuning dan warna lain sebanyak 28%.

  15. Arsenic Removal from Pinctada martensii Enzymatic Hydrolysate by Using Zr(Ⅳ)-Loaded Chelating Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaoman; DAI Wenjin; SUN Huili; PAN Jianyu

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the removal of inorganic arsenic from Pinctada martensii enzymatic hydrolysate through unmodified resin (D296) and Zr(Ⅳ)-loaded chelating resin (Zr-D401).By loading Zr to macroporous chelating resin D401,the as exchange adsorption active sites are generated.This transforms D401 from a material that does not have the arsenic adsorption capacity into a material that has excellent arsenic exchange adsorption capacity.The static adsorption experiments were conducted to investigate the optimal removal condition for D296 and Zr-D401.The experimental results show that:the optimum condition for D296 is that T=25℃,pH=5,resin additive amount=1 g(50mL)-1,and contact time=10h,the corresponding arsenic removal rate being 65.7%,and protein loss being 2.33%; the optimum condition for Zr-D401 is that T=25 ℃,pH=8,resin additive amount=1 g (50 mL)-1,and contact time=10 h,the corresponding arsenic removal rate being 70.3%,and protein loss being 4.65%.These results show that both of the two resins are effective in arsenic removal for preserving useful substance.Our research provides scientific evidence and advances in the processing technology for heavy metal removal in shellfish.

  16. Draft Genome of the Pearl Oyster Pinctada fucata: A Platform for Understanding Bivalve Biology

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    Takeuchi, Takeshi; Kawashima, Takeshi; Koyanagi, Ryo; Gyoja, Fuki; Tanaka, Makiko; Ikuta, Tetsuro; Shoguchi, Eiichi; Fujiwara, Mayuki; Shinzato, Chuya; Hisata, Kanako; Fujie, Manabu; Usami, Takeshi; Nagai, Kiyohito; Maeyama, Kaoru; Okamoto, Kikuhiko; Aoki, Hideo; Ishikawa, Takashi; Masaoka, Tetsuji; Fujiwara, Atushi; Endo, Kazuyoshi; Endo, Hirotoshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Asakawa, Shuichi; Watabe, Shugo; Satoh, Nori

    2012-01-01

    The study of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata is key to increasing our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in pearl biosynthesis and biology of bivalve molluscs. We sequenced ∼1150-Mb genome at ∼40-fold coverage using the Roche 454 GS-FLX and Illumina GAIIx sequencers. The sequences were assembled into contigs with N50 = 1.6 kb (total contig assembly reached to 1024 Mb) and scaffolds with N50 = 14.5 kb. The pearl oyster genome is AT-rich, with a GC content of 34%. DNA transposons, retrotransposons, and tandem repeat elements occupied 0.4, 1.5, and 7.9% of the genome, respectively (a total of 9.8%). Version 1.0 of the P. fucata draft genome contains 23 257 complete gene models, 70% of which are supported by the corresponding expressed sequence tags. The genes include those reported to have an association with bio-mineralization. Genes encoding transcription factors and signal transduction molecules are present in numbers comparable with genomes of other metazoans. Genome-wide molecular phylogeny suggests that the lophotrochozoan represents a distinct clade from ecdysozoans. Our draft genome of the pearl oyster thus provides a platform for the identification of selection markers and genes for calcification, knowledge of which will be important in the pearl industry. PMID:22315334

  17. A homeodomain transcription factor gene, PfMSX, activates expression of Pif gene in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.

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    Mi Zhao

    Full Text Available We reported pearl oyster Pinctada fucata cDNA and genomic characterization of a new homeobox-containing protein, PfMSX. The PfMSX gene encodes a transcription factor that was localized to the nucleus. Analyses of PfMSX mRNA in tissues and developmental stages showed high expressions in mantle or D-shaped larvae. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs PfMSX binded to MSX consensus binding sites in the 5' flanking region of the Pif promoter. In co-transfection experiment PfMSX transactivated reporter constructs containing Pif promoter sequences, and mutation of the MSX-binding sites attenuated transactivation. A knockdown experiment using PfMSX dsRNA showed decreased Pif mRNA and unregular crystallization of the nacreous layer using scanning electron microscopy. Our results suggested that PfMSX was a conserved homeodomain transcription factor gene, which can activate Pif gene expression through MSX binding site, and was then involved in the mineralization process in pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. Our data provided important clues about mechanisms regulating biomineralization in pearl oyster.

  18. A Homeodomain Transcription Factor Gene, PfMSX, Activates Expression of Pif Gene in the Pearl Oyster Pinctada fucata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mi; He, Maoxian; Huang, Xiande; Wang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    We reported pearl oyster Pinctada fucata cDNA and genomic characterization of a new homeobox-containing protein, PfMSX. The PfMSX gene encodes a transcription factor that was localized to the nucleus. Analyses of PfMSX mRNA in tissues and developmental stages showed high expressions in mantle or D-shaped larvae. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) PfMSX binded to MSX consensus binding sites in the 5′ flanking region of the Pif promoter. In co-transfection experiment PfMSX transactivated reporter constructs containing Pif promoter sequences, and mutation of the MSX-binding sites attenuated transactivation. A knockdown experiment using PfMSX dsRNA showed decreased Pif mRNA and unregular crystallization of the nacreous layer using scanning electron microscopy. Our results suggested that PfMSX was a conserved homeodomain transcription factor gene, which can activate Pif gene expression through MSX binding site, and was then involved in the mineralization process in pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. Our data provided important clues about mechanisms regulating biomineralization in pearl oyster. PMID:25099698

  19. A homeodomain transcription factor gene, PfMSX, activates expression of Pif gene in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mi; He, Maoxian; Huang, Xiande; Wang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    We reported pearl oyster Pinctada fucata cDNA and genomic characterization of a new homeobox-containing protein, PfMSX. The PfMSX gene encodes a transcription factor that was localized to the nucleus. Analyses of PfMSX mRNA in tissues and developmental stages showed high expressions in mantle or D-shaped larvae. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) PfMSX binded to MSX consensus binding sites in the 5' flanking region of the Pif promoter. In co-transfection experiment PfMSX transactivated reporter constructs containing Pif promoter sequences, and mutation of the MSX-binding sites attenuated transactivation. A knockdown experiment using PfMSX dsRNA showed decreased Pif mRNA and unregular crystallization of the nacreous layer using scanning electron microscopy. Our results suggested that PfMSX was a conserved homeodomain transcription factor gene, which can activate Pif gene expression through MSX binding site, and was then involved in the mineralization process in pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. Our data provided important clues about mechanisms regulating biomineralization in pearl oyster.

  20. Effect of ocean acidification on growth, calcification, and gene expression in the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenguang; Yu, Zonghe; Huang, Xiande; Shi, Yu; Lin, Jianshi; Zhang, Hua; Yi, Xuejie; He, Maoxian

    2017-09-01

    In this study, shell growth, shell microstructure, and expression levels of shell matrix protein genes (aspein, n16, and nacrein) that play a key role in the CaCO 3 crystal polymorphism (calcite and aragonite) of the shell were investigated in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata at pH 8.10, 7.70, and 7.40. We found that the shell length and total weight index did not vary significantly between oysters reared at pH 8.10 and 7.70, but was significantly lower at pH 7.40. Calcium content and shell hardness were not significantly different between pH 8.10 and 7.70, but were significantly different at pH 7.40. At pH 7.40, the shell exhibited a poorly organized nacreous microstructure, and showed an apparent loss of structural integrity in the nacreous layer. The prismatic layer appeared morphologically dissimilar from the samples at pH 8.10 and 7.70. The internal layer was corroded and had dissolved. At pH 7.40, the expression levels of nacrein, aspein, and n16 decreased on day 1, and remained low between days 2 and 42. The expression levels of these genes were significantly lower at pH 7.40 than at pH 8.10 and 7.70 during days 2-42. These results suggest that ocean acidification will have a limited impact on shell growth, calcification, and associated gene expression levels at a pH of 7.70, which is projected to be reached by the end of the century. The negative effects were found on calcification and gene expression occurred at the lowest experimental pH (7.40). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High carotenoids content can enhance resistance of selected Pinctada fucata families to high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zihao; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Baosuo; Li, Haimei; Fan, Sigang; Yu, Dahui

    2017-02-01

    Carotenoids are a class of natural antioxidants widely found in aquatic, and they have significant effects on the growth, survival, and immunity of these organisms. To investigate the mechanisms of carotenoids in high temperature resistance, we observed the immune response of selected pearl oyster Pinctada fucata (Akoya pearl oyster) families with different carotenoids contents to high temperature stress. The results indicated that the survival rate (SR) of P. fucata decreased significantly with increase in temperature from 26 °C to 34 °C and with the decrease of total carotenoids content (TCC); when the TCC was higher, the SR tended to be higher. TCC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) decreased significantly at 30 °C with increasing stress time. Correlation analysis indicated that TAC was positively and linearly correlated with TCC, and SR was S-type correlated with TCC and TAC. Immune analysis indicated that levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in selected families (with higher TCC) under temperature stress (at 30 °C) were generally significantly lower than in the control group (with lowest TCC) and from 0 to 96 h, the levels of each of these substances varied significantly. Levels of SOD, CAT, and MDA within each family first rose from 0 to 3 h, then decreased to their lowest point after 24 h, and then rose again to their highest levels at 96 h. When TCC was higher, the levels of SOD, CAT, and MDA tended to be lower. These findings indicated that carotenoids play an important role in improving survival rates of P. fucata under high temperature stress by enhancing animals' antioxidant system, and could serve as an index for breeding stress-resistant lines in selective breeding practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evidence of a Biological Control over Origin, Growth and End of the Calcite Prisms in the Shells of Pinctada margaritifera (Pelecypod, Pterioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Cuif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Consistently classified among the references for calcite simple prisms, the microstructural units that form the outer layer of the Pinctada margaritifera have been investigated through a series of morphological, crystallographical and biochemical characterizations. It is often said that the polygonal transverse shape of the prisms result from the competition for space between adjacent crystals. In contrast to this classical scheme the Pinctada prisms appear to be composed of four successive developmental stages from the concentrically growing disks on the internal side of the periostracum to the morphological, structural and compositional changes in both envelopes and mineral components at the end of the prisms. These latest structural and compositional changes predate nacre deposition, so that the end of prism growth is not caused by occurrence of nacre, but by metabolic changes in the secretory epithelium. This sequence makes obvious the permanent biological control exerted by the outer cell layer of the mantle in both organic envelopes and mineralizing organic phases.

  3. Symbiotic relationship between the carapid fish Onuxodon fowleri (Ophidiiformes: Carapidae and the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pteriidae

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    Orphal Colleye

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available At Makemo Atoll (French Polynesia, the carapid fish Onuxodon fowleri lives in symbiosis with the black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera. Although the symbiont seems to live inside its host bivalve by using it as a shelter, additional data are still needed to better understand the exact nature of this association. For this purpose, we implemented an approach using stable isotope ratios of carbon (13C/12C and nitrogen (15N/14N. The δ13C and δ15N values were measured in tissues of the pearl oyster (gonads, gills, mantle and muscles, white muscle tissue from the fish and other food sources. This stable isotope approach was also complemented by the analysis of stomach contents in the carapid fish. Overall, the isotopic compositions measured in the present study support a commensal relationship between O. fowleri and P. margaritifera. In addition, our isotopic data bring new information about another guest living inside P. margaritifera, namely the palaemonid shrimp Conchodytes meleagrinae. Based on the δ13C and δ15N values, it appears that the shrimp might feed on the bivalve gonads.

  4. [Pharmacological mechanism analysis of oligopeptide from Pinctada fucata based on in silico proteolysis and protein interaction network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Kun; Qiao, Lian-Sheng; Huo, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Xu; Han, Na; Zhang, Yan-Ling

    2017-09-01

    Pinctada fucata oligopeptide is one of key pharmaceutical effective constituents of P. fucata. It is significant to analyze its pharmacological effect and mechanism. This study aims to discover the potential oligopeptides from P. fucata and analyze the mechanism of P. fucata oligopeptide based on in silico technologies and protein interaction network(PIN). First, main protein sequences of P. fucata were collected, and oligopeptides were obtained using in silico gastrointestinal tract proteolysis. Then, key potential targets of P. fucata oligopeptides were obtained through pharmacophore screening. The protein-protein interaction(PPI) of targets was achieved and implemented to construct PIN and analyze the mechanism of P. fucata oligopeptides. P. fucata oligopeptide database was constructed based on in silico technologies, including 458 oligopeptides. Twelve modules were identified from PIN by a graph theoretic clustering algorithm Molecular Complex Detection(MCODE) and analyzed by Gene ontology(GO) enrichment. The results indicated that P. fucata oligopeptides have an effect in treating neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. In silico proteolysis could be used to analyze the protein sequences of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM). According to the combination of in silico proteolysis and PIN, the biological activity of oligopeptides could be interpreted rapidly based on the known TCM protein sequence. The study provides the methodology basis for rapidly and efficiently implementing the mechanism analysis of TCM oligopeptides. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Natural cleaning of the black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera by butterflyfishes (Chaetodon) in French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Legraverant, Yohann; Berthe, Cécile; Brooker, Rohan M.; Lo, Cédrik; Lecchini, David

    2016-12-01

    Biofouling increases the operational and economic costs associated with pearl production. As current procedures for reducing oyster biofouling can be detrimental to survival and growth and may pollute the surrounding environment developing alternative, biologically-mediated, methods could potentially increase both production and ecological sustainability. With this in mind, the present study investigated natural cleaning of black-lipped pearl oysters, Pinctada margaritifera, by butterflyfishes (Chaetodon). The feeding behaviour of six butterflyfish species was examined at Rangiroa Atoll, French Polynesia: Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon citrinellus, Chaetodon ephippium, Chaetodon lunulatus, Chaetodon trifascialis and Chaetodon ulietensis. All species cleaned the surface of pearl oysters by removing epibionts (from 16% to 40% of total biomass), although dietary variation may explain different cleaning efficiencies. Generalist omnivores (C. auriga, C. citrinellus, C. ephippium and C. ulietensis) were the most efficient cleaners (% cleaning range: 26-40% of total biomass). Within this group, C. ephippium removed the most biomass (average of 41%) targeting algae and anemones. However, C. auriga targeted the most diverse range of epibionts, removing significant amounts of algae, sponges, tunicates, and anemones. These results suggest that foraging by butterflyfishes can substantially reduce biofouling on economically-important tropical bivalves.

  6. Study of the effects of gamma sterilization on a bio material potential bone substitute: the nacre of Pinctada radiata (Leach, 1814)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ammar, Rim

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we studied the effects of gamma irradiation at a dose of 25 kGy on physico-chemical properties of the nacre of the pearl oyster P. radiata Tunisian coast. The aim of our work is, after sterilizing the shell to gamma radiation, the study of its crystal structure, behavior and thermodynamics of the qualitative and quantitative composition of organic and inorganic matrices and compare them with those of the non-irradiated pearl . In addition, there has been interest in developing the method of sterilization with gamma irradiation to 25 kGy of the nacre of the pearl oyster Pinctada radiata.

  7. Police apathy on the rise / Monika Hanley

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanley, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Läti politseinike palkade samale tasemele jätmine on muutnud nad oma töö suhtes ükskõiksemaks. Siseminister Mareks Seglins'e sõnul anti politseinikele nende palgatõusu suhtes vale informatsiooni

  8. The Mendelian inheritance of rare flesh and shell colour variants in the black-lipped pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ky, Chin-Long; Nakasai, Seiji; Pommier, Steve; Sham Koua, Manaarii; Devaux, Dominique

    2016-10-01

    Pinctada margaritifera is French Polynesia's most economically important aquaculture species. This pearl oyster has the specific ability to produce cultured pearls with a very wide range of colours, depending on the colour phenotypes of donor oysters used. Its aquaculture is still based on natural spat collection from wild stocks. We investigated three rare colour variants of P. margaritifera - orange flesh, and red and white shell colour phenotypes - in comparison with the wild-type black flesh and shell commonly found in this species. The study aimed to assess the geographic distribution and genetic basis of these colour variants. Colour frequencies were evaluated during transfer and graft processes of pearl oyster seed captured at collector stations. Among the collection locations studied, Mangareva Island showed the highest rate of the orange flesh phenotype, whereas Takaroa and Takume atolls had relatively high rates of red and white shell phenotypes respectively. Broodstocks were made of these rare colour variants, and crosses were performed to produce first- and second-generation progenies to investigate segregation. The results were consistent with Mendelian ratios and suggest a distinct model with no co-dominance: (i) a two-allele model for flesh trait, whereby the orange allele is recessive to the black fleshed type, and (ii) a three-allele model for shell trait, whereby the black wild-type allele is dominant to the red coloration, which is dominant to the white shell. Furthermore, the proposed model provides the basis for producing selected donor pearl oyster lines through hatchery propagation. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  9. Larval dispersal modeling of pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera following realistic environmental and biological forcing in Ahe atoll lagoon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoann Thomas

    Full Text Available Studying the larval dispersal of bottom-dwelling species is necessary to understand their population dynamics and optimize their management. The black-lip pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera is cultured extensively to produce black pearls, especially in French Polynesia's atoll lagoons. This aquaculture relies on spat collection, a process that can be optimized by understanding which factors influence larval dispersal. Here, we investigate the sensitivity of P. margaritifera larval dispersal kernel to both physical and biological factors in the lagoon of Ahe atoll. Specifically, using a validated 3D larval dispersal model, the variability of lagoon-scale connectivity is investigated against wind forcing, depth and location of larval release, destination location, vertical swimming behavior and pelagic larval duration (PLD factors. The potential connectivity was spatially weighted according to both the natural and cultivated broodstock densities to provide a realistic view of connectivity. We found that the mean pattern of potential connectivity was driven by the southwest and northeast main barotropic circulation structures, with high retention levels in both. Destination locations, spawning sites and PLD were the main drivers of potential connectivity, explaining respectively 26%, 59% and 5% of the variance. Differences between potential and realistic connectivity showed the significant contribution of the pearl oyster broodstock location to its own dynamics. Realistic connectivity showed larger larval supply in the western destination locations, which are preferentially used by farmers for spat collection. In addition, larval supply in the same sectors was enhanced during summer wind conditions. These results provide new cues to understanding the dynamics of bottom-dwelling populations in atoll lagoons, and show how to take advantage of numerical models for pearl oyster management.

  10. Nacre formation by epithelial cell cultures from mantle of the black-lip pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasankar, Vidya; Vasudevan, Srinivasa Raghavan; Poulose, Suja C; Divipala, Indira

    2018-06-12

    Mantle tissue from the black-lip pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera, was cultured in vitro using sterilized seawater supplemented with 0.1% yeast extract as the culture medium. Granular and agranular epithelial cells, hyalinocytes, and fibroblast-like cells were observed in the initial stages of culture. Epithelial cells later formed pseudopodial cell networks containing clusters of granulated cells, which upon maturation released their colored granules. These granules induced formation of nacre crystal deposits on the bottom of the culture plate. Cultures comprised of only granulated epithelial cells were established through periodic sub-culturing of mantle cells and maintained for over 18 mo in a viable condition. Reverse transcriptase PCR of cultured cells demonstrated gene expression of the shell matrix protein, nacrein. To further evaluate the functional ability of cultured granulated epithelial cells, nuclear shell beads were incubated in culture medium containing these cells to induce nacre formation on the beads. Observation of the bead surface under a stereomicroscope at periodic intervals showed the gradual formation of blackish yellow colored nacre deposits. Examination of the bead surface by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis at periodic intervals revealed a distinct brick and mortar formation characteristic of nacre, comprised of aragonite platelets and matrix proteins. Calcium, carbon, and oxygen were the major elements in all stages examined. Our study shows that mantle epithelial cells in culture retain the ability to secrete nacre and can therefore form the basis for future studies on the biomineralization process and its application in development of sustainable pearl culture.

  11. Correlations between cultured pearl size parameters and PIF-177 biomarker expression in Pinctada margaritifera families reared in two contrasting environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Carole; Parrad, Sophie; Cabral, Philippe; Aiho, Vaite; Ky, Chin-Long

    2016-12-01

    The black-lipped pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera, produces the largest and most valuable coloured pearls in the world. Cultured pearl size remains one of the most important quality traits. Despite the great geographical area covered by pearl farms in the atolls of French Polynesia, little is known about the influence of grow-out site effects on pearl size attained. To explore the genetic and environmental impact on the size of pearls as well as the genetic × environment interaction, a uniform experimental graft was designed on two contrasting macro-geographical lagoons. Five biparental families of donor oysters were grafted and then reared at both sites. After 18 months of culture, phenotypic parameters corresponding to pearl size, i.e. nacre weight and thickness, were recorded among the harvested pearls. The expression of Pif-177 gene, a biomarker encoding protein in the aragonite nacreous layer, was analysed in the corresponding pearl sac. The results show a family effect for nacre weight and thickness on both sites, with family F058 producing the heaviest and thickest nacre, and F805 the lightest and thinnest. By contrast, inter-site comparison revealed no significant site effects for these two parameters. In addition, grow-out location did not modify the relative gene expression of Pif-177 in the pearl sac between donor families in either culture site. Both nacre weight and thickness were positively correlated with the level gene expression of Pif-177. These results suggest that pearl size parameters were not affected by the environment in the present study and this is supported by the relative gene expression of Pif-177 observed. This knowledge constitutes an initial step in the study of pearl size trait inheritance, which will be helpful in the near future for the diffusion of genetically selected donor oyster lines produced by hatchery systems throughout production sites.

  12. Spatial analysis of biomineralization associated gene expression from the mantle organ of the pearl oyster Pinctada maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Biomineralization is a process encompassing all mineral containing tissues produced within an organism. One of the most dynamic examples of this process is the formation of the mollusk shell, comprising a variety of crystal phases and microstructures. The organic component incorporated within the shell is said to dictate this architecture. However general understanding of how this process is achieved remains ambiguous. The mantle is a conserved organ involved in shell formation throughout molluscs. Specifically the mantle is thought to be responsible for secreting the protein component of the shell. This study employs molecular approaches to determine the spatial expression of genes within the mantle tissue to further the elucidation of the shell biomineralization. Results A microarray platform was custom generated (PmaxArray 1.0) from the pearl oyster Pinctada maxima. PmaxArray 1.0 consists of 4992 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) originating from mantle tissue. This microarray was used to analyze the spatial expression of ESTs throughout the mantle organ. The mantle was dissected into five discrete regions and analyzed for differential gene expression with PmaxArray 1.0. Over 2000 ESTs were determined to be differentially expressed among the tissue sections, identifying five major expression regions. In situ hybridization validated and further localized the expression for a subset of these ESTs. Comparative sequence similarity analysis of these ESTs revealed a number of the transcripts were novel while others showed significant sequence similarities to previously characterized shell related genes. Conclusions This investigation has mapped the spatial distribution for over 2000 ESTs present on PmaxArray 1.0 with reference to specific locations of the mantle. Expression profile clusters have indicated at least five unique functioning zones in the mantle. Three of these zones are likely involved in shell related activities including formation of nacre

  13. Crecimiento y mortalidad de Pinctada imbricata (Mollusca: Pteridae en Guamachito, Península de Araya, Estado Sucre, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el crecimiento, la distribución de tallas y la mortalidad de una población de Pinctada imbricata en Guamachito, Península de Araya, Venezuela, entre enero y diciembre de 2000. Los muestreos se realizaron mensualmente sobre transeptos perpendiculares a la línea de la costa con una rastra artesanal, tomando también datos sobre temperatura, oxígeno disuelto y salinidad de la columna de agua. La distribución de tallas fue variable con un predominio de tallas entre 50 y 70 mm, que constituyeron el 75% de la población. La mayor cantidad de juveniles fue observada en marzo, cuando la longitud media en la población fue de 55.8 mm. Los promedios de los pesos húmedo y seco siguieron la misma tendencia, con valores mínimos en junio, julio, septiembre y octubre de 2000. Las relaciones longitud-peso húmedo y longitud-peso seco fueron altamente significativas (P < 0.05. Los parámetros de la ecuación de crecimiento estacionalizada de von Bertalanffy fueron L∞ = 85.15 mm; K = 1.42 año–1, ts = 0.2, y C = 0.20; indicando un crecimiento lento (WP = 0.42 en el periodo de julio a noviembre, asociado con los parámetros ambientales del área con una longevidad estimada en 3 años. La mortalidad total fue de 14.35 año para los individuos pequeños (10–36 mm y 3.45 año, para los individuos grandes (36–84 mm. La alta tasa de crecimiento de P. imbricata muestra ser una ventaja para considerarla como una especie con potencial para actividades de acuicultura en la región. El banco ostrícola presenta buenas condiciones para mantener una explotación pesquera sostenida, tomando en consideración parámetros pesqueros como la captura registrada, el esfuerzo óptimo, la talla mínima de extracción, la mortalidad por pesca y la mortalidad natural.

  14. Phylogenetic, histological and age determination for investigation of non-native tropical black-lip pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera, settled in jeju, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chulhong; Kim, Jin-Kyoung; Son, Young-Baek; Ju, Se-Jong; Jeung, Hee-Do; Yang, Hyun-Sung; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Le Moullac, Gilles; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2017-12-01

    This study reports the first finding of tropical blacklip pearl (BLP) oyster, Pinctada margaritifera, in Korean waters. One BLP oyster was found and sampled from Beom-seom islet (33°13'N, 126°33'E) in the southern coast of Jeju Island, Korea in February, 2011. The taxonomic status of the specimen was confirmed by nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I and 28S ribosomal DNA. Oxygen isotopic analysis (δ18Osh) and histology were used to determine the specimen's age and reproductive stage, which were 3.5 years and ripe male, respectively. This BLP oyster most likely originated in an area in the subtropics or tropics, such as the Okinawa archipelagic or Micronesian regions. We suggest that intensive monitoring surveys are necessary for confirming the northward expansion of BLP oyster in Korean waters in the near future.

  15. A cDNA Cloning of a Novel Alpha-Class Tyrosinase of Pinctada fucata: Its Expression Analysis and Characterization of the Expressed Protein

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    Ryousuke Takgi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase plays an important role in the formation of the shell matrix and melanin synthesis in mollusks shells. A cDNA clone encoding a 47 kDa protein was isolated from the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. The cDNA was 1,957 base pairs long and encodes a 417 residue protein that has extensive sequence identity with tyrosinase (polyphenol oxidase: EC 1.14.18.1. This tyrosinase-like protein, termed PfTy, contains an N-terminal signal sequence and the two copper-binding domain signatures (CuA and CuB, suggesting that PfTy belongs to the α-subclass of type-3 copper proteins. Enzyme activity of PfTy was examined by a spectrophotometric method using the translation product derived from an S30 T7 high-yield protein expression system. Tyrosinase activity was seen in this recombinant product. RT-PCR analysis showed that PfTy mRNA was expressed in the mantle pallial, but not in the mantle edge. Therefore, PfTy may participate in insoluble shell matrix formation of the nacreous layer. PfTy expression was also observed in the foot, liver, and adductor muscle, suggesting that PfTy participates in the synthesis of melanins, which are effective scavengers of free radicals formed in multiple intracellular oxidative processes. This is the first report of a novel α-class tyrosinase from the pearl oyster P. fucata.

  16. Revisiting wild stocks of black lip oyster Pinctada margaritifera in the Tuamotu Archipelago: The case of Ahe and Takaroa atolls and implications for the cultured pearl industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréfouët, Serge; Thomas, Yoann; Dumas, Franck; Lo, Cédrik

    2016-12-01

    Spat collecting of the black lip oyster (Pinctada margaritifera) is the foundation of cultured black pearl production, the second source of income for French Polynesia. To understand spat collecting temporal and spatial variations, larval supply and its origin need to be characterized. To achieve this, it is necessary to account for the stock of oysters, its distribution and population characteristics (size distribution, sex-ratio). While the farmed stock in concessions can be easily characterized, the wild stock is elusive. Here, we investigate the distribution and population structure of the wild stock of Ahe and Takaroa atolls using fine-scale bathymetry and in situ census data. Stocks were surprisingly low (∼666,000 and ∼1,030,000 oysters for Ahe and Takaroa respectively) considering these two atolls have both been very successful spat collecting atolls in the past. Furthermore, in Ahe atoll, wild populations are aging with a dominant but small female population. Comparison with the cultured stock population (∼14 millions oysters) and its dominant young male population suggests that to maximize larval supply and spat collecting on the long term, it would be useful to increase the number of females in selected sanctuaries. We discuss the implication of our findings for the long-term management of stocks and for spat collection in pearl farming atolls, and for on-going numerical modelling studies on larval dispersal.

  17. The culture of pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata (Gould, 1850 in Phuket with temperature shock method and survival rates on various feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rativat, V.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine pearl farming at Phuket Island has exploited natural pearl oysters. In order to obtain sufficient pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata (Gould, 1850, the oyster cultivation was carried out to determine appropriate kinds of food and types of spat collectors. The male and female oysters were stimulated to spawn with this temperature shock method (treated with 32ºC and then with 26ºC. The fertilized eggs developed into the stages of polar body, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, trochophore and then D-shape larvae. At the ageof 19-26 hrs. the larvae were fed with three kinds of food: Isochrysis galbana, Chaetoceros calcitrans and the mixture of 1:1 I. galbana and C. calcitrans. Upon the first 30 days, shell lengths of the spats fed with I. Galbana, C. calcitrans and the mixture were 422.00±59.32, 221.33±12.46 and 347.33±67.98 μg, respectively. The 26-29th day spat stage settled to the collectors: saran net, plastic plates and wavy tile. Number of spats settling to saran net was the highest. But after being moved into the sea for 30 days, the survival rate was89.06% which was lower than for those settling to plastic plates (93.29% and wavy tile (93.99%.

  18. A high-density SNP genetic linkage map for the silver-lipped pearl oyster, Pinctada maxima: a valuable resource for gene localisation and marker-assisted selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David B; Jerry, Dean R; Khatkar, Mehar S; Raadsma, Herman W; Zenger, Kyall R

    2013-11-20

    The silver-lipped pearl oyster, Pinctada maxima, is an important tropical aquaculture species extensively farmed for the highly sought "South Sea" pearls. Traditional breeding programs have been initiated for this species in order to select for improved pearl quality, but many economic traits under selection are complex, polygenic and confounded with environmental factors, limiting the accuracy of selection. The incorporation of a marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding approach would greatly benefit pearl breeding programs by allowing the direct selection of genes responsible for pearl quality. However, before MAS can be incorporated, substantial genomic resources such as genetic linkage maps need to be generated. The construction of a high-density genetic linkage map for P. maxima is not only essential for unravelling the genomic architecture of complex pearl quality traits, but also provides indispensable information on the genome structure of pearl oysters. A total of 1,189 informative genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were incorporated into linkage map construction. The final linkage map consisted of 887 SNPs in 14 linkage groups, spans a total genetic distance of 831.7 centimorgans (cM), and covers an estimated 96% of the P. maxima genome. Assessment of sex-specific recombination across all linkage groups revealed limited overall heterochiasmy between the sexes (i.e. 1.15:1 F/M map length ratio). However, there were pronounced localised differences throughout the linkage groups, whereby male recombination was suppressed near the centromeres compared to female recombination, but inflated towards telomeric regions. Mean values of LD for adjacent SNP pairs suggest that a higher density of markers will be required for powerful genome-wide association studies. Finally, numerous nacre biomineralization genes were localised providing novel positional information for these genes. This high-density SNP genetic map is the first comprehensive linkage

  19. Nation may reinstate mandatory military service / Monika Hanley

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanley, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Eelarve kärpimine on viinud Läti kaitsekulutused kriitilise piirini, mistõttu arutletakse võimaluse üle asendada täisprofessionaalne kaitsevägi taas kohustusliku ajateenistusega kokkuhoiu eesmärgil

  20. Vike-Freiberga: capitalism is failing / Monika Hanley

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanley, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Läti endine president Vaira Vike-Freiberga sõnas oma kõnes Ameerika Kaubanduskoja lõunal, et majandusliku olukorra parandamiseks tuleb muuta kapitalistlikku majandussüsteemi ning kutsus Läti poliitikuid üles võitlema raske situatsiooniga riigis

  1. Parliamentarians call for resignation of Finance Minister / Monika Hanley

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanley, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Opositsiooni kuuluv erakond Uus Aeg leiab, et Läti rahandusminister Atis Slakteris peaks ebakompetentsuse tõttu tagasi astuma. Poliitikute arvates, ei ole Slakteris piisavalt aktiivselt püüdnud riigi finantsprobleeme lahendada

  2. Lethal effects of ichthyotoxic raphidophytes, Chattonella marina, C. antiqua, and Heterosigma akashiwo, on post-embryonic stages of the Japanese pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata martensii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basti, Leila; Nagai, Kiyohito; Go, Jiyoji; Okano, Sho; Oda, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Yuji; Nagai, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    The inimical effects of the ichthyotoxic harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming raphidophytes Heterosigma akashiwo, Chattonella marina, and Chattonella antiqua on the early-life stages of the Japanese pearl oyster Pinctada fucata martensii were studied. Fertilized eggs and developing embryos were not affected following exposure to the harmful raphidophytes; however, all three algal species severely affected trochophores and D-larvae, early-stage D-larvae, and late-stage pre-settling larvae. Exposure to C. marina (5×10 2 cellsml -1 ), C. antiqua (10 3 cellsml -1 ), and H. akashiwo (5×10 3 cellsml -1 ) resulted in decreased success of metamorphosis to the trochophore stage. A complete inhibition of trochophore metamorphosis was observed following exposure to C. antiqua at 5×10 3 cellsml -1 and C. marina at 8×10 3 cellsml -1 . In all experiments, more than 80% of newly formed trochophores were anomalous, and in the case of exposure to H. akashiwo at 10 5 cellsml -1 more than 70% of D-larvae were anomalous. The activity rates of D-larvae (1-day-old) were significantly reduced following exposure to C. antiqua (8×10 3 cellsml -1 , 24h), C. marina (8×10 3 cellsml -1 , 24h), and H. akashiwo (10 4 cellsml -1 , 24h). The activity rates of pre-settling larvae (21-day-old) were also significantly reduced following exposure to C. antiqua (10 3 cellsml -1 , 24h),C. marina (8×10 3 cellsml -1 , 24h), and H. akashiwo (5×10 4 cellsml -1 , 24h). Significant mortalities of both larval stages were induced by all three raphidophytes, with higher mortality rates registered for pre-settling larvae than D-larvae, especially following exposure to C. marina (5×10 2 -8×10 3 cellsml -1 , 48-86h) and C. antiqua (10 3 -8×10 3 cellsml -1 , 72-86h). Contact between raphidophyte cells and newly metamorphosed trochophores and D-larvae, 1-day-old D-larvae, and 21-day-old larvae resulted in microscopic changes in the raphidophytes, and then, in the motile early-life stages of pearl oysters. Upon

  3. Swept away: ocean currents and seascape features influence genetic structure across the 18,000 Km Indo-Pacific distribution of a marine invertebrate, the black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Monal M; Southgate, Paul C; Jerry, Dean R; Bosserelle, Cyprien; Zenger, Kyall R

    2017-01-10

    Genetic structure in many widely-distributed broadcast spawning marine invertebrates remains poorly understood, posing substantial challenges for their fishery management, conservation and aquaculture. Under the Core-Periphery Hypothesis (CPH), genetic diversity is expected to be highest at the centre of a species' distribution, progressively decreasing with increased differentiation towards outer range limits, as populations become increasingly isolated, fragmented and locally adapted. The unique life history characteristics of many marine invertebrates such as high dispersal rates, stochastic survival and variable recruitment are also likely to influence how populations are organised. To examine the microevolutionary forces influencing population structure, connectivity and adaptive variation in a highly-dispersive bivalve, populations of the black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera were examined across its ~18,000 km Indo-Pacific distribution. Analyses utilising 9,624 genome-wide SNPs and 580 oysters, discovered differing patterns of significant and substantial broad-scale genetic structure between the Indian and Pacific Ocean basins. Indian Ocean populations were markedly divergent (F st  = 0.2534-0.4177, p Pacific Ocean oysters, where basin-wide gene flow was much higher (F st  = 0.0007-0.1090, p Pacific Oceans respectively. Evaluation of genetic structure at adaptive loci for Pacific populations (89 SNPs under directional selection; F st  = 0.1012-0.4371, FDR = 0.05), revealed five clusters identical to those detected at neutral SNPs, suggesting environmental heterogeneity within the Pacific. Patterns of structure and connectivity were supported by Mantel tests of isolation by distance (IBD) and independent hydrodynamic particle dispersal simulations. It is evident that genetic structure and connectivity across the natural range of P. margaritifera is highly complex, and produced by the interaction of ocean currents, IBD and seascape

  4. Growth Hanley and production of Donax sordidus on an open sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1973; Trueman 1971). On South African shores only the large species, D. serra ... November 1975 a size range of animals was collected for determination of a ..... predation uneconomical. There does ... Behavioural adaptations of intertidal ...

  5. A Sperm Spawn-Inducing Pheromone in the Silver Lip Pearl Oyster (Pinctada maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A; Mills, D; Wang, T; Ntalamagka, N; Cummins, S F; Elizur, A

    2018-04-28

    Pheromones are considered to play an important role in broadcast spawning in aquatic animals, facilitating synchronous release of gametes. In oysters, the sperm has been implicated as a carrier for the spawn-inducing pheromone (SIP). In hatchery conditions, male pearl oysters (Pinctata maxima) can be stimulated to spawn through a variety of approaches (e.g. rapid temperature change), while females can only be induced to spawn through exposure to conspecific sperm, thus limiting development of targeted pairing, required for genetic research and management. The capacity for commercial production and improvement of genetic lines of pearl oysters could be greatly improved with access to a SIP. In this study, we prepared and sequenced crude and semi-purified P. maxima sperm extracts that were used in bioassays to localise the female SIP. We report that the P. maxima SIP is proteinaceous and extrinsically associated with the sperm membrane. Bioactivity from pooled RP-HPLC fractions, but not individual fractions, suggests that the SIP is multi-component. We conclude that crude sperm preparations, as described in this study, can be used as a sperm-free inducer of female P. maxima spawning, which enables for a more efficient approach to genetic breeding.

  6. STUDI KUALITAS PERAIRAN PADA KEGIATAN BUDIDAYA TIRAM MUTIARA (Pinctada maxima DI KECAMATAN GEROKGAK, KABUPATEN BULELENG, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    APRI. I. SUPII

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to know the effect of pearl oyster culture activities to the water quality(physical, chemical, biological parameters, and the sediment of culture site, waters quality status of pearloyster culture site as well.The research was done at 10 stations, which were 9 stations located around pearl oyster culture site, and1 station located at out of pearl oyster culture site (as control. Results showed that the sources of pollutionwere from pearl oyster feces and biofouling produced from cleaning of pocket and its shell. An in organicmatter of the feces produced (50.52-78.75 % was higher than the organic matter (21.25-49.48 %. The amountof biofoulling trash increased with the size and dominated by organic matter. Sea water quality observed wasunder sea water quality standard of marine organism (aquaculture decided by government, except phosphate.Twenty four species of plankton collected, consist of 4 phylum, that were Bacillarophyta (diatom,Protozoa, Arthropoda, and Mollusca. Plankton Diversity Index showed the level of low to high pollutioncondition indicated ecological suppression and decreasing of waters quality. The amount of total bacteria andVibrio spp. at all stations were normal, that was less than 106 cfu/ml.Integrated physical, chemical and biological parameters assessment found that pollution index was 2-3,mean of low pollution. Result of Cluster assessment indicate that there was real characteristic differentiationbetween first group (1-9 and second group (control. First group was around the pearl oyster culture waters,and second group was out of the pearl oyster culture waters. So the pearl oyster culture activities affected thewaters quality.

  7. One hundred years after Pinctada: an update on alien Mollusca in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ANTIT

    2011-04-01

    The occurrence of aliens in Tunisia is balanced between presumably Lessepsian species of tropical Indo-Pacific origin, and species from other sources including species from the Tropical Atlantic introduced through shipping. Nevertheless there is a prevalence of Lessepsian species towards the Gulf of Gabes in the south, whereas the shipping activity in Tunis harbour may be the main pathway of introduction in the north.

  8. Microplastics Affect Energy Balance and Gametogenesis in the Pearl Oyster Pinctada margaritifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardon, Tony; Reisser, Céline; Soyez, Claude; Quillien, Virgile; Le Moullac, Gilles

    2018-05-01

    Plastic pollution in the environment is increasing at global scale. Microplastics (MP) are derived from degradation of larger plastic items or directly produced in microparticles form (commercial interests, adult oysters were exposed to polystyrene microbeads (micro-PS of 6 and 10 μm) for 2 months. Three concentrations, 0.25, 2.5, and 25 μg L -1 , and a control were tested. Ingestion and respiration rate and assimilation efficiency were monitored on a metabolic measurement system to determine the individual energy balance (Scope For Growth, SFG). Effects on reproduction were also assessed. The assimilation efficiency decreased significantly according to micro-PS concentration. The SFG was significantly impacted by a dose-dependent decrease from 0.25 μg L -1 ( p balance of P. margaritifera, with negative repercussions on reproduction.

  9. Component Analysis and Identification of Black Tahitian Cultured Pearls From the Oyster Pinctada margaritifera Using Spectroscopic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L.; Wang, Y.; Liu, X.; Mao, J.

    2018-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy were used to characterize black Tahitian cultured pearls and imitations of these saltwater cultured pearls produced by γ-irradiation, and by coloring of cultured pearls with silver nitrate or organic dyes. Raman spectra indicated that aragonite was the major constituent of these four types of pearl. Using Raman spectroscopy at an excitation wavelength of 514 nm, black Tahitian cultured pearls exhibited characteristic 1100-1700 cm-1 bands. These bands were attributed to various organic components, including conchiolin and other black biological pigments. The peaks shown by saltwater cultured pearls colored with organic dyes varied with the type of dye used. Tahitian cultured and organic-dye-treated saltwater cultured pearls were easily identified by Raman spectroscopy. UV-Vis-NIR reflectance spectra showed bands at 408, 497, and 700 nm derived from porphyrin pigment and other black pigments. The spectra of dye-treated black saltwater pearls showed absorption peaks at 216, 261, 300, and 578 nm. The 261-nm absorption band disappeared from the spectra of γ-irradiated saltwater cultured pearls. This suggests the degradation of conchiolin in the γ-irradiated saltwater cultured pearls. XRF analysis revealed the presence of Ag on the surface of silver nitrate-dyed saltwater cultured pearls.

  10. Endocardial cushion defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 426. Kouchoukos NT, Blackstone EH, Hanley FL, Kirklin JK. Atrioventricular septal defect. In: Kouchoukos NT, Blackstone EH, Hanley FL, Kirklin JK, eds. Kirklin/Barratt- ...

  11. Comparative study on the antioxidant activity of peptides from pearl oyster ( Pinctada martensii) mantle type V collagen and tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) scale type I collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guanghua; Zhang, Xueying; Dong, Zhenghua; Shen, Xuanri

    2017-12-01

    In this study, Pearl oyster mantle type V collagen (POMC) and tilapia scale type I collagen (TSC) were extracted and hydrolyzed by various proteases in order to obtain peptides. The antioxidant activity of the peptides was investigated by DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging experiments and a dynamic digestion model in vitro. The results show that there are significant differences in amino acid composition between POMC and TSC. The collagen peptides obtained from pearl oyster mantle (POMCP) by treating with alkaline protease exhibited higher antioxidant activity than that from tilapia scale (TSCP) treated with papaya protease, and both of them showed greater DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity than other peptides. After being separated via Sephadex G-25 chromatography, the M1 fraction isolated from POMCP, and the S1 fraction from TSCP with which both had higher molecular weights showed the strongest antioxidant activity than other fractions, and the M1 fraction exhibited stronger antioxidant activity than the S1 fraction in scavenging free-radicals and protecting cells from the oxidation damage. Furthermore, after treating the dynamic digestion system model in vitro, the DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of the M1 fraction increased slightly. These results suggest that POMCP exhibits stronger antioxidant activity than TSCP, which means that PMOP may be a good candidate to be a potential natural antioxidant in the food-processing industry.

  12. Dicty_cDB: SSH182 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _1( DQ114789 |pid:none) Pinctada fucata lysine-rich matrix... 33 4.0 EU017233_1( EU017233 |pid:none) Trach...elium caeruleum hypothetical ... 32 9.0 CT573213_5346( CT573213 |pid:none) Frankia

  13. Bio-accumulation kinetics of radioruthenium in marine bivalves. Laboratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, D.H.; Yan, S.P.; Gu, Y.J.; Li, D.J.; Du, J.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Three kinds of marine bivalves (wild Saccostrea cucullata, aquacultured Perna viridis and aquacultured Pinctada martens), collected from Daya Bay, the South China Sea, were used to investigate the bio-accumulation of radioruthenium in the glass aquarium with natural seawater (pH 8.20, 35 per mille salinity, filtered by 0.45 μm) at ambient temperature under laboratory feeding conditions. The experimental results show that the stead-state of biology concentration factor (BCF, ml/g) of radioruthenium was approached around 6 days for most species of bivalves. The values of BCF in shells are the highest in organs all the three bivalves. The orders of BCF values (ml x g -1 ) are as: Perna viridis (33.2) < Saccostrea cucullata (47.0) < Pinctada martensi (208.4) for shells and Saccostrea cucullata (1.5) < Pinctada martensi (2.2) ∼ Perma viridis (2.4) for soft tissues, respectively, after exposed for 14 days. The rate constants of uptake and elimination of radioruthenium on marine bivalves were also discussed by first-order kinetics model. The Pinctada martensi may be applicable to be an indictor for monitoring radioruthenium among the three bivalves. (author)

  14. Delivering Innovation: The Joint Concept Development and Experimentation Campaign Plan FY2004-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-26

    Janushkowsky (STRATCOM), Maj Gen Stenner (SOUTHCOM), LTC Butts (TRANSCOM) Campaign Plan; J9 UpdateFace to Face Conference12 Feb 2003 COL (P) Verbeck (EUCOM... Stenner (SOUTHCOM), Ms. Young (TRANSCOM), MG Higgins (USFK), Dr. Hanley (OSD-OFT), RADM Gallagher (ACT) Combatant Commander Attendees IWS IWS VTC

  15. Preschool Life Skills: Recent Advancements and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmie, Tara A.; Luczynski, Kevin C.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have replicated and extended research on the preschool life skills (PLS) program developed by Hanley, Heal, Tiger, and Ingvarsson (2007). This review summarizes recent research with respect to maximizing skill acquisition, improving generality, evaluating feasibility and acceptability, and testing predictions of…

  16. An alternative fabrication method of the dart thrower's motion orthosis (also known as the dart orthosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    To allow safe early wrist motion after wrist injury, this author has modified an earlier version of a dart thrower's motion orthotic device using material that is currently available on the market and an inexpensive paper fastener as the rivet. - KristinValdes, OTD, OT, CHT, Practice Forum Editor. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Archaeological Investigations at 30 Historic Sites, Chief Joseph Dam Project, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Great Britain (Kovel and Kovel 1953:202), whose firm produced a quantity of earthenware, especially white graniteware, in Imitation of French china... unicorn emblem with "J & G MEAKIN/HANLEY/ENGLAND" printed below (Figure 7-19;a). Again, the word . "England" indicates a post-1891 date. Both trademarl,s

  18. Amsterdam Short-Term Memory test: a new procedure for the detection of feigned memory deficits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, S.; Schmand, B.; de Sterke, S.; Lindeboom, J.

    1997-01-01

    The validity of two malingering tests, the newly developed Amsterdam Short-Term Memory (ASTM) test and the Distraction test (Baker, Hanley, Jackson, Kimmance, & Slade, 1993) was examined in a group of patients with closed-head injury (CHI), a normal control group, and a control group with

  19. Tips from the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TESOL Journal, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Seven articles on classroom icebreakers are compiled: "Picture Stories and Other Opportunities" (Joy Egbert, Deborah Hanley, Rosemary Delaney); "Hey, What's Your Name" (Janet Leamy); "Surprise!" (Lynne Burgess); "Memory Game" (Sally Winn); "Picturesque" (Margaret Beiter); "The Name Game" (Jeanne-Marie Garcia); "Exercise the Body--And the Mind…

  20. Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Experienced Teachers in Physical Education: Functional Analysis of Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvazo, Shiri; Ward, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is the teacher's ability to pedagogically adapt content to students of diverse abilities. In this study, we investigated how teachers' adaptations of instruction for individual students differed when teaching stronger and weaker instructional units. We used functional analysis (Hanley, Iwata, & McCord, 2003) of…

  1. Unwrapping ADMM: Efficient Distributed Computing via Transpose Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    applications of the Split Bregman method: Segmen- tation and surface reconstruction. J. Sci. Comput., 45:272– 293, October 2010. [17] Stephen Boyd and...Garcia, Gretchen Greene, Fabrizia Guglielmetti, Christopher Hanley, George Hawkins , et al. The second-generation guide star cata- log: description

  2. 76 FR 1174 - Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study Implementation; Oral Prescription Drugs Offered for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... and 1962. FDA contracted with the National Academy of Science/National Research Council (NAS/NRC) to... Chlorpheniramine Maleate S.R. Capsules and Efedra-PA Tablets, and KV Pharmaceutical Co., 2503 South Hanley Rd., St.... On December 4, 2009, KV Pharmaceutical Co. also withdrew its hearing request. On February 15, 2010...

  3. 78 FR 75392 - American Beacon Funds, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... Asset Management LLC; (b) American Beacon Balanced Fund--the Manager, Barrow, Hanley, Mewhinney... Beacon Funds, et al.; Notice of Application December 5, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission...) (order). Applicants: American Beacon Funds and American Beacon Select Funds (collectively, the ``Trusts...

  4. Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health - Vol 13, No 1 (2001)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence And Detection Of Psychiatric Disorders Among Children And Adolescents Attending A Primary Health Care Clinic. BA Robertson, K Ensink, CDH Parry, D Chalton ... Case Study: Narrative Of A Psychotherapeutic Treatment Of Dissociative Identity Disorder In An Adolescent. Kathleen Hanley ...

  5. Control of Polychaetes by Dipping Infected Pearl Oyster on Different Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Hadiroseyani

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Dip treatment on pearl oysters (Pinctada maxima was conducted in different concentrations of saline water to eliminate boring polychaetes. Results shows that polychaetes leave the osyters which treated on saline water at 0 ppt, 45 ppt, and 60 ppt as long as 15 minutes each. It also shows that the oysters got high survival rate 7 days after the treatment. Key words : Polychaetes, pearl oyster, dipping, salinity   ABSTRAK Pengendalian polikaeta pengebor dengan menggunakan berbagai konsentrasi larutan garam telah dilakukan pada tiram mutiara (Pinctada maxima. Berdasarkan jumlah polikaeta yang keluar, hasil percobaan ini menunjukkan bahwa perendaman dengan konsentrasi garam 0 ppt. 45 ppt, dan 60 ppt selama 15 menit lebih efektif dibandingkan pada konsentrasi 15 dan 30 ppt. Tingkat kelangsungan hidup tiram mutiara yang diamati 7 hari setelah perendaman dalam larutan garam mencapai 100%. Kata kunci : Polikaeta. tiram mutiara, perendaman. salinitas

  6. A systems change: leading the way to meeting health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deisher, Mirella

    2013-01-01

    Demonstrating the efficacy of our practice requires a paradigm shift. Becoming an effective leader and clinician can facilitate opportunities for program development and clinical research. The use of strategic planning strategies, such as needs assessment and SWOT analysis, can help lead the way to such change. The following illustrates the use of strategic planning to develop The Carpal and Cubital Tunnel Syndrome Program (CCTSP) within a growing orthopedic practice. Copyright © 2013 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preschool life skills: Recent advancements and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmie, Tara A; Luczynski, Kevin C

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have replicated and extended research on the preschool life skills (PLS) program developed by Hanley, Heal, Tiger, and Ingvarsson (2007). This review summarizes recent research with respect to maximizing skill acquisition, improving generality, evaluating feasibility and acceptability, and testing predictions of the initial PLS study. For each area, we suggest directions for future research. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  8. Expectations About Civilian Labor Markets and Army Officer Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    the Annualized Cost of Leaving model and, more recently, dynamic programming models of retention (Warner and Asch, 1995; Goldberg , 2001; J. Hosek...reveals significant variation by state. For example, the U.S. unemployment rate in May 2011 was 9.1 percent. However, Nebraska, New Hampshire, North...www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR916.html Buddin, Richard, Daniel S. Levy, Janet M. Hanley, and Donald Waldman, Promotion Tempo and Enlisted

  9. An evaluation of multiple-schedule variations to reduce high-rate requests in the picture exchange communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Robin; Hanley, Gregory P

    2016-06-01

    Using procedures similar to those of Tiger, Hanley, and Heal (2006), we compared two multiple-schedule variations (S+/S- and S+ only) to treat high-rate requests for edible items in the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). Two individuals with autism participated, after they showed persistent requests for edible items after PECS training. Stimulus control was achieved only with the multiple schedule that involved presentation of a discriminative stimulus during reinforcement components and its removal during extinction components (S+ only). Discriminated requests were maintained for the 1 participant who experienced schedule thinning. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  10. Measuring hand function in the young child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Emily S

    2010-01-01

    Assessing outcomes is vital in any hand therapy practice setting, as it is the primary method of determining whether or not a treatment program is working. In the pediatric population, determining improvements in hand function can be challenging. The author describes using a developmental perspective to evaluate hand function for infants and young children. The utilization of a consistent approach to play along with standard toys is described in this article as a method to evaluate the quality of hand function throughout developmental grasp patterns. Copyright © 2010 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An evaluation of the generalization and maintenance of functional communication and self-control skills with preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczynski, Kevin C; Hanley, Gregory P; Rodriguez, Nicole M

    2014-01-01

    The preschool life skills (PLS) program (Hanley, Heal, Tiger, & Ingvarsson, 2007; Luczynski & Hanley, 2013) involves teaching social skills as a means of decreasing and preventing problem behavior. However, achieving durable outcomes as children transition across educational settings depend on the generalization and long-term maintenance of those skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate procedures for promoting generalization and long-term maintenance of functional communication and self-control skills for 6 preschool children. When the children's social skills decreased across repeated observations during a generalization assessment, we incorporated modifications to the teaching procedures. However, the effects of the modifications were variable across skills and children. Satisfactory generalization was observed only after the teacher was informed of the target skills and teaching strategies. Maintenance of most social skills was observed 3 months after teaching was discontinued. We discuss the importance of improving child and teacher behavior to promote generalization and maintenance of important social skills. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  12. “Lasso of Truth”: Rediscovering the Forgotten History of Wonder Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jurković

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In a period witnessing the increasing popularity of superhero franchises, comic book historian Tim Hanley sheds light on the forgotten history of the world’s most famous female superhero, Wonder Woman. Tim Hanley’s Wonder Woman Unbound: The Curious History of the World’s Most Famous Heroine, as its title suggests, aims to explore the curious path of Wonder Woman: from the creation of the character to her contemporary iconic status. The book is comprised of three sections that follow the eras of American comic books: Golden Age, Silver Age and Bronze Age. Hanley starts off with Wonder Woman’s origin story, associating it primarily with the life and work of her creator, psychologist William Marston. The story begins when an American pilot, Steve Trevor, crashes on the hidden Paradise Island and is found injured by Diana and her fellow Amazons. Paradise Island is the home of mythical Amazons guided by goddesses Aphrodite and Athena. Their world is an only-female utopia situated far away from the outside, violent, world of men. However, while Amazons live in peace, the outside world is bursting with war and Steve needs to return to America to fulfill his soldier duties. The Amazon goddesses decide to send a warrior, Diana, to help Steve through his journey. That warrior later becomes a superheroine known by the name of Wonder Woman.

  13. Growth history of cultured pearl oysters based on stable oxygen isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, R.; Furuta, N.; Suzuki, A.; Kawahata, H.; Shikazono, N.

    2007-12-01

    We investigated the oxygen isotopic ratio in shells of the pearl oyster Pinctada martensii cultivated in embayments in Mie Prefecture, central Japan, to evaluate the biomineralization of shell structures of the species and its pearls in response to environmental change. Microsamples for oxygen isotope analysis were collected from the surfaces of shells (outer, middle, and inner shell layers) and pearls. Water temperature variations were estimated from the oxygen isotope values of the carbonate. Oxygen isotope profiles of the prismatic calcite of the outer shell layer reflected seasonal variations of water temperature, whereas those of nacreous aragonites of the middle and inner shell layers and pearls recorded temperatures from April to November, June to September, and July to September, respectively. Lower temperatures in autumn and winter might slow the growth of nacreous aragonites. The oxygen isotope values are controlled by both variations of water temperature and shell structures; the prismatic calcite of this species is useful for reconstructing seasonal changes of calcification temperature.

  14. DNA fingerprinting of pearls to determine their origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana B Meyer

    Full Text Available We report the first successful extraction of oyster DNA from a pearl and use it to identify the source oyster species for the three major pearl-producing oyster species Pinctada margaritifera, P. maxima and P. radiata. Both mitochondrial and nuclear gene fragments could be PCR-amplified and sequenced. A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP assay in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region was developed and used to identify 18 pearls of unknown origin. A micro-drilling technique was developed to obtain small amounts of DNA while maintaining the commercial value of the pearls. This DNA fingerprinting method could be used to document the source of historic pearls and will provide more transparency for traders and consumers within the pearl industry.

  15. Specific toxic effect of dinoflagellate Heterocapsa circularisquama on the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D; Sato, Y; Oda, T; Muramatsu, T; Matsuyama, Y; Honjo, T

    2000-12-01

    Heterocapsa circularisquama (Dinophyceae), a noxious red tide dinoflagellate, is known to have a specifically lethal effect on shellfish, especially bivalves such as pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata), but no detrimental effects of this alga on fishes have not been observed so far. In this study, we found that H. circularisquama was toxic to a microzooplankton, a rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) in a cell concentration-dependent manner, while the cultured supernatant or ultrasonic ruptured H. circularisquama had no significant toxic effect on the rotifer. Since no such toxic effects on the rotifer were observed in Chattonella marina, Heterosigma akashiwo, or Cochlodinium polykrikoides, other species of harmful red tide plankton, H. circularisquama may have a strictly specific toxic mechanism against the rotifer as well as bivalves.

  16. Bio indicator for monitoring radioactive pollution in Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Assy, N.B.; Abdel Fattah, A.T.; EL-Shinawy, R.M.K.; Essa, M.W.A.

    1988-01-01

    Elseredie or pinctada radiatata bivalve oyster used as a food stuff in town of Suez; was found to be a good bio indicator for Co-60 and Cs-134. This laboratory study; under similar marine environment including ph, salinity and temperature; indicated that these oysters concentrate Cs-134 in the soft tissue higher than in the shell. This may be due to similarity between Cs and K. Contrary to Cs, co was concentrated in the shell more than in the soft tissue. This was attributed to physico-chemical adsorption of Co by shell. The release (loss) of Co-60 and Cs-134; carried out under the same conditions of the field environment; was found to follow the same trends of their uptake. Release of Cs-134 was fast and di phasic reaction whereas in case of Co-60 it is slow continuous and monophasic reaction

  17. Evidence for the involvement of a nonlexical route in the repetition of familiar words: A comparison of single and dual route models of auditory repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J Richard; Dell, Gary S; Kay, Janice; Baron, Rachel

    2004-03-01

    In this paper, we attempt to simulate the picture naming and auditory repetition performance of two patients reported by Hanley, Kay, and Edwards (2002), who were matched for picture naming score but who differed significantly in their ability to repeat familiar words. In Experiment 1, we demonstrate that the model of naming and repetition put forward by Foygel and Dell (2000) is better able to accommodate this pattern of performance than the model put forward by Dell, Schwartz, Martin, Saffran, and Gagnon (1997). Nevertheless, Foygel and Dell's model underpredicted the repetition performance of both patients. In Experiment 2, we attempt to simulate their performance using a new dual route model of repetition in which Foygel and Dell's model is augmented by an additional nonlexical repetition pathway. The new model provided a more accurate fit to the real-word repetition performance of both patients. It is argued that the results provide support for dual route models of auditory repetition.

  18. The advantages and disadvantages of using high technology in hand rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanon, Yafi

    2013-01-01

    A brief review of the history of occupational therapy shows that the relationship between health and activity was of great concern to the founders of the Occupational Therapy (OT) field, and continues to be of concern to today's occupational therapists. Today, computers and Virtual Reality (VR) take the place of clay and the weaving loom. The goal of this article is to describe both known and innovative computerized equipment being used in interventions for hand rehabilitation and evaluations, as well as answer the question: 'what are the advantages and disadvantages of using technology in hand rehabilitation?' Our conclusion, based on clinical experience and supported by the literature, appears to emphasize that advanced technology can enrich treatment and help patients who are unable to visit the clinic regularly, to get appropriate treatment. However, advanced technology has not been found to be superior to traditional treatment and cannot replace the occupational therapist. Copyright © 2013 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of wrist and interphalangeal thumb movement on zone T2 flexor pollicis longus tendon tension in a human cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Patricia O; Thoreson, Andrew R; Yang, Tai-Hua; Reisdorf, Ramona L; Rappaport, Stephen M; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    Therapy after flexor pollicis longus (FPL) repair typically mimics finger flexor management, but this ignores anatomic and biomechanical features unique to the FPL. We measured FPL tendon tension in zone T2 to identify biomechanically appropriate exercises for mobilizing the FPL. Eight human cadaver hands were studied to identify motions that generated enough force to achieve FPL movement without exceeding hypothetical suture strength. With the carpometacarpal and metacarpophalangeal joints blocked, appropriate forces were produced for both passive interphalangeal (IP) motion with 30° wrist extension and simulated active IP flexion from 0° to 35° with the wrist in the neutral position. This work provides a biomechanical basis for safely and effectively mobilizing the zone T2 FPL tendon. Our cadaver study suggests that it is safe and effective to perform early passive and active exercise to an isolated IP joint. NA. Copyright © 2015 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reliability of infrared thermometric measurements of skin temperature in the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packham, Tara L; Fok, Diana; Frederiksen, Karen; Thabane, Lehana; Buckley, Norman

    2012-01-01

    Clinical measurement study. Skin temperature asymmetries (STAs) are used in the diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), but little evidence exists for reliability of the equipment and methods. This study examined the reliability of an inexpensive infrared (IR) thermometer and measurement points in the hand for the study of STA. ST was measured three times at five points on both hands with an IR thermometer by two raters in 20 volunteers (12 normals and 8 CRPS). ST measurement results using IR thermometers support inter-rater reliability: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) estimate for single measures 0.80; all ST measurement points were also highly reliable (ICC single measures, 0.83-0.91). The equipment demonstrated excellent reliability, with little difference in the reliability of the five measurement sites. These preliminary findings support their use in future CRPS research. Not applicable. Copyright © 2012 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Community-based health efforts for the prevention of falls in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Hanley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alan Hanley1, Carmel Silke2, John Murphy31Department of Medicine, Letterkenny General Hospital, Letterkenny, Co Donegal, Ireland; 2Department of Rheumatology, Our Lady's Hospital Manorhamilton, Manorhamilton, Co Leitrim, Ireland; 3Department of Medicine, Castlebar, Co Mayo, IrelandAbstract: Falls are a major public health problem in the elderly population. The associated health care cost is great. It has therefore become an important public health matter to evaluate those interventions that might be effective in reducing the risk of falls. Risk factors that predict an increased risk of falling are described. We discuss interventions that can be employed in the community to reduce the risk of falls and associated injuries by discipline, including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and physician-led interventions. We also discuss the cost-effectiveness of such interventions.Keywords: fall, fracture, prevention, public health

  2. Dimensionality of the human electroencephalogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer-Kress, G.; Layne, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    The goal was to evaluate anesthetic depth in patients by dimensional analysis. Although it was difficult to obtain clean EEG records from the operating room due to noise of electrocautery and movement of the patient's head by operating room personnel. The results are presented on one case of our calculations, followed by a discussion of problems associated with dimensional analysis of the EEG. We consider only two states: aware but quiet, and medium anesthesia. The EEG data we use comes from Hanley and Walts. It was selected because anesthesia was induced by a single agent, and because of its uninterrupted length and lack of artifacts. 26 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Selective preservation of memory for people in the context of semantic memory disorder: patterns of association and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Frances; Kay, Janice; Hanley, J Richard; Haslam, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    A number of single cases in the literature demonstrate that person-specific semantic knowledge can be selectively impaired after acquired brain damage compared with that of object categories. However, there has been little unequivocal evidence for the reverse dissociation, selective preservation of person-specific semantic knowledge. Recently, three case studies have been published which provide support for the claim that such knowledge can be selectively preserved [Kay, J., & Hanley, J. R. (2002). Preservation of memory for people in semantic memory disorder: Further category-specific semantic dissociation. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 19, 113-134; Lyons, F., Hanley, J. R., & Kay, J. (2002). Anomia for common names and geographical names with preserved retrieval of names of people: A semantic memory disorder. Cortex, 38, 23-35; Thompson, S. A, Graham, K. S., Williams, G., Patterson, K., Kapur, N., & Hodges, J. R. (2004). Dissociating person-specific from general semantic knowledge: Roles of the left and right temporal lobes. Neuropsychologia, 42, 359-370]. In this paper, we supply further evidence from a series of 18 patients with acquired language disorder. Of this set, a number were observed to be impaired on tests of semantic association and word-picture matching using names of object categories (e.g. objects, animals and foods), but preserved on similar tests using names of famous people. Careful methodology was applied to match object and person-specific categories for item difficulty. The study also examined whether preservation of person-specific semantic knowledge was associated with preservation of knowledge of 'biological categories' such as fruit and vegetables and animals, or with preservation of 'token' knowledge of singular categories such as countries. The findings are discussed in the context of a variety of accounts that examine whether semantic memory has a categorical structure.

  4. Uncharted waters: Bivalves of midway atoll and integrating mathematics into biology education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, Kristin M.

    To protect and conserve the Earth's biodiversity and ecosystem services, it is important not only to understand and conserve species and ecosystems, but also to instill an understanding and appreciation for biodiversity and ecosystem services in the next generations of both scientists and citizens. Thus, this dissertation combines research into the ecology and identity of large bivalves at Midway Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) with research on pedagogical strategies for integrating mathematics into undergraduate biology education. The NWHI is one of the few remaining large, mainly intact, predator-dominated coral reef ecosystems and one of the world's largest marine protected areas. Previous bivalve studies focused on the black-lipped pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera, which was heavily harvested in the late 1920s, has not recovered, and is now a candidate species for restoration. First, I combined remote sensing, geographic information systems, SCUBA, and mathematical modeling to quantify the abundance, spatial distributions, and filtration capacity of large epifaunal bivalves at Midway Atoll. These bivalves are most abundant on the forereef outside the atoll, but densities are much lower than reported on other reefs, and Midway's bivalves are unlikely to affect plankton abundance and productivity inside the lagoon. Second, I used molecular techniques and phylogenetic reconstructions to identify pearl oysters (Pinctada) from Midway Atoll as P. maculata , a species not previously reported in Hawaii. As a small morphologically cryptic species, P. maculata may be a native species that has not been collected previously, a native species that has been identified incorrectly as the morphologically similar P. radiata, or it may be a recent introduction or natural range extension from the western Pacific. Finally, I review science education literature integrating mathematics into undergraduate biology curricula, and then present and evaluate a

  5. Laser Imaging Polarimetry of Nacre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joshua A; Metzler, Rebecca A; D'Addario, Anthony J; Burgess, Carrie; Regan, Brian; Spano, Samantha; Cvarch, Ben A; Galvez, Enrique J

    2018-03-25

    Nacre is a complex biomaterial made of aragonite-tablet bricks and organic mortar that is considerably resilient against breakage. Nacre has been studied with a wide range of laboratory techniques, leading to understanding key fundamentals, and informing the creation of bio-inspired materials. In this article we present an optical polarimetric technique to investigate nacre, taking advantage of the translucence and birefringence of its micro-components. We focus our study on three classes of mollusks that have nacreous shells: bivalve (Pinctada fucata), gastropod (Haliotis asisina and Haliotis rufescens) and cephalopod (Nautilus pompilius). We sent polarized light from a laser through thin samples of nacre and did imaging polarimetry of the transmitted light. We observed clear distinctions between the structures of bivalve and gastropod, due to the spatial variation of their birefringence. The patterns for cephalopod were more similar to bivalve than gastropod. Bleaching of the samples disrupted the transmitted light. Subsequent refilling of the bivalve and gastropod nacre samples with oil produced optical patterns similar to those of unbleached samples. In cephalopod samples we found that bleaching produced irreversible changes in the optical pattern. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. A radioactivity study of mollusca distributed along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Ammar, I.; Mamish, S.; Haleem, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, radioactivity has been studied in several Mollusca collected from four selected sites (Al Basset, Latakia, Banise and Tartous) along the Syrian coast. Concentration Factors (CF) of radionuclides (Lead-210, Polonium-210, Uranium Isotopes, Potassium-40 and Cesium-137) in mussels and shells of Mollusca have been calculated in order to determine the species that could be used as Bioindicators for these isotopes. Statistical analysis of the results using the box plot method showed that the mussels of Spondylus gaederopus spinosus and Chama pacifica can be used as biomonitor for the studied radionuclides in addition to shell of Strombus decorus persicus and Spondylus gaederopus spinosus. While the mussels of Brachidonta variabilis and Spondylus gaederopus spinosus have shown good selectivity for Cd and Pb and Pinctada radiate for Zn and Thais haemostoma for Cu. In addition, the migrant Mullusca from the Red Sea, Strombus decoruspersicus, can be used as biomonitor for lead, Zn and Cu, Cd, while the shell of Thais haemostoma for lead. However, the importance of the results of the present study that are considered as a baseline data for radionuclides in Mullusca distributed along the Syria coast and it is the only study in the eastern Mediterranean basin, that defined the Mollusca species which could be use as biomonitors for radionuclides. (Authors)

  7. Assessment of heavy metals pollution in the gulf of Gabes (Tunisia using four mollusk species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. RABAOUI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the establishment of the ‘Tunisian Chemical Group’ in Gabes city, Tunisia, no serious investigations were carried out about the heavy metal pollution in Gabes gulf.  In the present study, the contents of four heavy metals were assessed in four mollusk species (two gastropods, Gibbula ardens and Patella caerulea, and two bivalves, Pinctada radiata and Pinna nobilis, collected from twelve coastal stations. The results obtained showed generally that high concentrations of heavy metals were recorded in the central area of Gabes gulf, nearer to Gabes city; the low concentrations were in contrast found at the edges of this gulf, which is probably due to the chemical pollution generated from the huge industry of phosphoric acid in Gabes city. Comparing the results found with the four examined species, the lowest concentrations were noted with the two bivalve species P. radiata and P. nobilis. The highest heavy metals’ concentrations, noted during this study, are comparable to the findings of other authors in other areas, but they are considerably beyond the standards. A remediation action is necessarily needed either by reducing the amount of heavy metals in the phosphgypums quantities thrown directly in the sea or by stopping completely this harmful industry to protect the marine life in the area. A remediation action is necessarily needed to protect the marine life in the area.

  8. A radioactivity study of mollusca distributed along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Ammar, I.; Mamish, S.; Haleem, M. A.

    2006-10-01

    In the present work, radioactivity has been studied in several Mollusca collected from four selected sites(Al Basset, Lattakia, Banise and Tartous) along the Syrian coast. Concentration Factors (CF) of radionuclides (Lead-210, Polonium-210, Uranium Isotopes, Potassium-40 and Cesium-137) in mussels and shells of Mollusca have been calculated in order to determine the species that could be used as Bioindicators for these isotopes. Statistical analysis of the results using the box plot method showed that the mussels of Spondylus spinosus and Chama pacifica can be used as biomonitor for the studied radionuclides in addition to shell of Strombus persicus and Spondylus spinosus. While the mussels of Brachidonta variabilis and Spondylus spinosus have shown good selectivity for Cd and Pb and Pinctada radiate for Zn and Thais haemostoma for Cu. In addition, the migrant Mullusca from the Red Sea, Strombus persicus, can be used as biomonitor for lead, Zn and Cu, Cd, while the shell of Thais haemostoma for lead. However, the importance of the results of the present study that are considered as a baseline data for radionuclides in Mullusca distributed along the Syria coast and it is the only study in the eastern Mediterranean basin, that defined the Mollusca species which could be use as biomonitors for radionuclides. (Authors)

  9. Lipids from the nacreous and prismatic layers of two Pteriomorpha Mollusc shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farre, B.; Dauphin, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Mollusc shells are the best-known Ca-carbonate biominerals. They are commonly described as a mineralized two layered structure: an outer layer composed of calcite prismatic units, and an internal layer composed of tablets of aragonite: the nacreous layer. An external organic layer (periostracum) is present in most taxa. However, the most common structure in the Mollusc shell is the aragonite crossed lamellar layer, but aragonite prisms, calcite foliated layers and homogeneous layers have been also described by Boggild (1930) in all the Mollusc orders. Since, more detailed descriptions of Bivalve shells have been done (Taylor et al., 1969, 1973). Despite the nacroprismatic arrangement is rare, calcite prismatic and aragonite nacreous layers are the best studied because of their simple 3D structure and large units. Among these Molluscs, some Bivalve species composed of these two layers are of commercial interest, such as the pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera, cultivated in French Polynesia to produce black pearls. It is well established that Mollusc shells are composite structures of organic and inorganic components (Hatchett, 1799; Grégoire et al., 1955; Beedham, 1958; Simkiss, 1965; Mutvei, 1969; Cuif et al., 1980; Berman et al., 1993; Kobayashi and Samata, 2006). Numerous studies are concerned with the organic matrix of the shell. Organic components are commonly obtained after a strong or mild decalcification process. They are said to consist of both a soluble and insoluble fraction. The main part of studies is dedicated to the soluble components, and among them, proteins (Grégoire et al., 1955; Grégoire, 1961; Krampitz et al., 1976; Samata et al., 1980, 2004; Weiner, 1983; Miyamoto et al., 2006). Despite the pioneering work of Wada (1980) sugars are usually neglected despite their role in biomineralization. The third component of the organic matrix of calcareous biominerals is lipids. To date, there is a paucity of information concerning the presence

  10. Deep sequencing of ESTs from nacreous and prismatic layer producing tissues and a screen for novel shell formation-related genes in the pearl oyster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeharu Kinoshita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite its economic importance, we have a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying shell formation in pearl oysters, wherein the calcium carbonate crystals, nacre and prism, are formed in a highly controlled manner. We constructed comprehensive expressed gene profiles in the shell-forming tissues of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata and identified novel shell formation-related genes candidates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed the GS FLX 454 system and constructed transcriptome data sets from pallial mantle and pearl sac, which form the nacreous layer, and from the mantle edge, which forms the prismatic layer in P. fucata. We sequenced 260477 reads and obtained 29682 unique sequences. We also screened novel nacreous and prismatic gene candidates by a combined analysis of sequence and expression data sets, and identified various genes encoding lectin, protease, protease inhibitors, lysine-rich matrix protein, and secreting calcium-binding proteins. We also examined the expression of known nacreous and prismatic genes in our EST library and identified novel isoforms with tissue-specific expressions. CONCLUSIONS: We constructed EST data sets from the nacre- and prism-producing tissues in P. fucata and found 29682 unique sequences containing novel gene candidates for nacreous and prismatic layer formation. This is the first report of deep sequencing of ESTs in the shell-forming tissues of P. fucata and our data provide a powerful tool for a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms of molluscan biomineralization.

  11. A Novel Acidic Matrix Protein, PfN44, Stabilizes Magnesium Calcite to Inhibit the Crystallization of Aragonite*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Cong; Fang, Dong; Xu, Guangrui; Liang, Jian; Zhang, Guiyou; Wang, Hongzhong; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium is widely used to control calcium carbonate deposition in the shell of pearl oysters. Matrix proteins in the shell are responsible for nucleation and growth of calcium carbonate crystals. However, there is no direct evidence supporting a connection between matrix proteins and magnesium. Here, we identified a novel acidic matrix protein named PfN44 that affected aragonite formation in the shell of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. Using immunogold labeling assays, we found PfN44 in both the nacreous and prismatic layers. In shell repair, PfN44 was repressed, whereas other matrix proteins were up-regulated. Disturbing the function of PfN44 by RNAi led to the deposition of porous nacreous tablets with overgrowth of crystals in the nacreous layer. By in vitro circular dichroism spectra and fluorescence quenching, we found that PfN44 bound to both calcium and magnesium with a stronger affinity for magnesium. During in vitro calcium carbonate crystallization and calcification of amorphous calcium carbonate, PfN44 regulated the magnesium content of crystalline carbonate polymorphs and stabilized magnesium calcite to inhibit aragonite deposition. Taken together, our results suggested that by stabilizing magnesium calcite to inhibit aragonite deposition, PfN44 participated in P. fucata shell formation. These observations extend our understanding of the connections between matrix proteins and magnesium. PMID:24302723

  12. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Full-Length cDNA of Calmodulin Gene from Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing-Xia; Yu, Wen-Chao; Cai, Zhong-Qiang; He, Cheng; Wei, Na; Wang, Xiao-Tong; Yue, Xi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The shell of the pearl oyster ( Pinctada fucata ) mainly comprises aragonite whereas that of the Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas ) is mainly calcite, thereby suggesting the different mechanisms of shell formation between above two mollusks. Calmodulin (CaM) is an important gene for regulating the uptake, transport, and secretion of calcium during the process of shell formation in pearl oyster. It is interesting to characterize the CaM in oysters, which could facilitate the understanding of the different shell formation mechanisms among mollusks. We cloned the full-length cDNA of Pacific oyster CaM (cgCaM) and found that the cgCaM ORF encoded a peptide of 113 amino acids containing three EF-hand calcium-binding domains, its expression level was highest in the mantle, hinting that the cgCaM gene is probably involved in shell formation of Pacific oyster, and the common ancestor of Gastropoda and Bivalvia may possess at least three CaM genes. We also found that the numbers of some EF hand family members in highly calcified species were higher than those in lowly calcified species and the numbers of these motifs in oyster genome were the highest among the mollusk species with whole genome sequence, further hinting the correlation between CaM and biomineralization.

  13. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Full-Length cDNA of Calmodulin Gene from Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Xia Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The shell of the pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata mainly comprises aragonite whereas that of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas is mainly calcite, thereby suggesting the different mechanisms of shell formation between above two mollusks. Calmodulin (CaM is an important gene for regulating the uptake, transport, and secretion of calcium during the process of shell formation in pearl oyster. It is interesting to characterize the CaM in oysters, which could facilitate the understanding of the different shell formation mechanisms among mollusks. We cloned the full-length cDNA of Pacific oyster CaM (cgCaM and found that the cgCaM ORF encoded a peptide of 113 amino acids containing three EF-hand calcium-binding domains, its expression level was highest in the mantle, hinting that the cgCaM gene is probably involved in shell formation of Pacific oyster, and the common ancestor of Gastropoda and Bivalvia may possess at least three CaM genes. We also found that the numbers of some EF hand family members in highly calcified species were higher than those in lowly calcified species and the numbers of these motifs in oyster genome were the highest among the mollusk species with whole genome sequence, further hinting the correlation between CaM and biomineralization.

  14. Inventory of alien marine species of Cyprus (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An updated inventory of alien marine species from coastal and offshore waters of Cyprus is presented. Records were compiled based on the existing scientific and grey literature, including HCMR database of Mediterranean alien species, technical reports, scientific congresses, academic dissertations, and websites, as well as on unpublished/personal observations. The listed species were classified in one of five categories: established, invasive, casual, cryptogenic, and questionable. The mode of introduction and the year of first sighting were also reported for each species. Eight new records based on personal observations of the authors were reported (Chondria coerulescens, Neosiphonia sphaerocarpa, Enchelycore anatina, Lagocephalus spadiceus, Lagocephalus suezensis, Scomberomorus commerson, Sillago sihama, and Sphoeroides pachygaster. Nine species, previously reported as aliens in Cypriot waters, were excluded from the inventory for various reasons. Ten established species were characterized as invasive (Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea, Cerithium scabridum, Strombus persicus, Trochus erythraeus, Brachidontes pharaonis, Pinctada radiata, Fistularia commersonii, Lagocephalus sceleratus, Siganus luridus, and Siganus rivulatus as they have a substantial impact on biodiversity and/or local economy. The impact of alien marine species in Cyprus is expected to grow in the close future, and further effort directed towards recording alien invasions and their impact will be needed.

  15. Larval connectivity of pearl oyster through biophysical modelling; evidence of food limitation and broodstock effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Yoann; Dumas, Franck; Andréfouët, Serge

    2016-12-01

    The black-lip pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera) is cultured extensively to produce black pearls, especially in French Polynesia atoll lagoons. This aquaculture relies on spat collection, a process that experiences spatial and temporal variability and needs to be optimized by understanding which factors influence recruitment. Here, we investigate the sensitivity of P. margaritifera larval dispersal to both physical and biological factors in the lagoon of Ahe atoll. Coupling a validated 3D larval dispersal model, a bioenergetics larval growth model following the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory, and a population dynamics model, the variability of lagoon-scale connectivity patterns and recruitment potential is investigated. The relative contribution of reared and wild broodstock to the lagoon-scale recruitment potential is also investigated. Sensitivity analyses pointed out the major effect of the broodstock population structure as well as the sensitivity to larval mortality rate and inter-individual growth variability to larval supply and to the subsequent settlement potential. The application of the growth model clarifies how trophic conditions determine the larval supply and connectivity patterns. These results provide new cues to understand the dynamics of bottom-dwelling populations in atoll lagoons, their recruitment, and discuss how to take advantage of these findings and numerical models for pearl oyster management.

  16. Toward sustainable pearl-oyster culture, in a changing environment: Recent findings and issues from the POLYPERL project (2012-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; Le Moullac, Gilles

    2016-12-01

    The pearl industry, using the black-lip oyster, Pinctada margaritifera, is a central economic issue for French Polynesia. Initially developed in the early 1990s, after a brief'golden age', the pearl industry faced a decade of decline. As described in Gueguen et al., several research programs were therefore conducted to better analyze the functioning of this industry and to attempt to identifyissuesrelated to the improving the quality of the pearls as well as the functioning of lagoons. To complete this knowledge, during a 4 year period, the POLYPERL project, funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR), was a federative initiative that focused, simultaneously and for the first time, on socio-ecological and economic aspects of the pearl industry. The originality of the POLYPERL project consists of successfully implementing an integrated and multidisciplinary research-action approach in close association with both pearl farmers and the Polynesian authority in charge of management of the pearl industry (Direction des Ressources Marines et Minières de Polynésie, DRMM).

  17. New Mediterranean Marine biodiversity records (December, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BILECENOGLU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on recent biodiversity studies carried out in different parts of the Mediterranean, the following 19 species are included as new records on the floral or faunal lists of the relevant ecosystems: the green algae Penicillus capitatus (Maltese waters; the nemertean Amphiporus allucens (Iberian Peninsula, Spain; the salp Salpa maxima (Syria; the opistobranchs Felimida britoi and Berghia coerulescens (Aegean Sea, Greece; the dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus (central-west Mediterranean and Ionian Sea, Italy; Randall’s threadfin bream Nemipterus randalli, the broadbanded cardinalfish Apogon fasciatus and the goby Gobius kolombatovici (Aegean Sea, Turkey; the reticulated leatherjack Stephanolepis diaspros and the halacarid Agaue chevreuxi (Sea of Marmara, Turkey; the slimy liagora Ganonema farinosum, the yellowstripe barracuda Sphyraena chrysotaenia, the rayed pearl oyster Pinctada imbricata radiata and the Persian conch Conomurex persicus (south-eastern Crete, Greece; the blenny Microlipophrys dalmatinus and the bastard grunt Pomadasys incisus (Ionian Sea, Italy; the brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey; the blue-crab Callinectes sapidus (Corfu, Ionian Sea, Greece. In addition, the findings of the following rare species improve currently available biogeographical knowledge: the oceanic pufferfish Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Malta; the yellow sea chub Kyphosus incisor (Almuñécar coast of Spain; the basking shark Cetorhinus maximus and the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey.

  18. Co-Option and De Novo Gene Evolution Underlie Molluscan Shell Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Felipe; McDougall, Carmel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Molluscs fabricate shells of incredible diversity and complexity by localized secretions from the dorsal epithelium of the mantle. Although distantly related molluscs express remarkably different secreted gene products, it remains unclear if the evolution of shell structure and pattern is underpinned by the differential co-option of conserved genes or the integration of lineage-specific genes into the mantle regulatory program. To address this, we compare the mantle transcriptomes of 11 bivalves and gastropods of varying relatedness. We find that each species, including four Pinctada (pearl oyster) species that diverged within the last 20 Ma, expresses a unique mantle secretome. Lineage- or species-specific genes comprise a large proportion of each species’ mantle secretome. A majority of these secreted proteins have unique domain architectures that include repetitive, low complexity domains (RLCDs), which evolve rapidly, and have a proclivity to expand, contract and rearrange in the genome. There are also a large number of secretome genes expressed in the mantle that arose before the origin of gastropods and bivalves. Each species expresses a unique set of these more ancient genes consistent with their independent co-option into these mantle gene regulatory networks. From this analysis, we infer lineage-specific secretomes underlie shell diversity, and include both rapidly evolving RLCD-containing proteins, and the continual recruitment and loss of both ancient and recently evolved genes into the periphery of the regulatory network controlling gene expression in the mantle epithelium. PMID:28053006

  19. Three STATs are involved in the regulation of the expression of antimicrobial peptides in the triangle sail mussel, Hyriopsis cumingii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yun-Jia; Hui, Kai-Min; Zhang, Ying-Hao; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yu-Qing; Zhao, Li-Juan; Lin, Li; Chai, Lian-Qin; Wei, Shun; Lan, Jiang-Feng

    2017-04-01

    Janus kinase (Jak) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway is associated in antiviral and antibacterial immune response. Previous studies primarily investigated the function of STATs in mammals. For most invertebrates, only one STAT was found in each species, such as STAT92E was found in Drosophila melanogaster. The studies, which focus on the functional difference between various STATs in the same species of invertebrate, are limited. In the present study, three STATs (HcSTAT1, HcSTAT2 and HcSTAT3) were identified in triangle shell pearl mussel, Hyriopsis cumingii. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HcSTAT1 and HcSTAT3 were clustered with Homo sapiens STAT5, and HcSTAT2 was clustered with Pinctada fucata STAT and Crassostea gigas STAT6. All three STATs could be detected in all tested tissues (hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gill, mantle and foot), and were induced expression when challenged with Staphylococcus aureus or Aeromonas hydrophilia in hemocytes and hepatopancreas. HcSTAT1 regulated the expression of HcDef, HcWAP, HcThe and HcTNF. The expression of HcWAP and HcTNF was down-regulated in HcSTAT2-RNAi mussel. And HcSTAT3 affected the expression of HcTNF. The study is the first report of different functions in antibacterial immune responses between STATs in mollusks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Water soluble bioactives of nacre mediate antioxidant activity and osteoblast differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Chaturvedi

    Full Text Available The water soluble matrix of nacre is a proven osteoinductive material. In spite of the differences in the biomolecular compositions of nacre obtained from multiple species of oysters, the common biochemical properties of those principles substantiate their biological activity. However, the mechanism by which nacre stimulates bone differentiation remains largely unknown. Since the positive impact of antioxidants on bone metabolism is well acknowledged, in this study we investigated the antioxidant potential of a water soluble matrix (WSM obtained from the nacre of the marine oyster Pinctada fucata, which could regulate its osteoblast differentiation activity. Enhanced levels of ALP activity observed in pre-osteoblast cells upon treatment with WSM, suggested the induction of bone differentiation events. Furthermore, bone nodule formation and up-regulation of bone differentiation marker transcripts, i.e. collagen type-1 and osteocalcin by WSM confirmed its ability to induce differentiation of the pre-osteoblasts into mature osteoblasts. Remarkably, same WSM fraction upon pre-treatment lowered the H2O2 and UV-B induced oxidative damages in keratinocytes, thus indicating the antioxidant potential of WSM. This was further confirmed from the in vitro scavenging of ABTS and DPPH free radicals and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by WSM. Together, these results indicate that WSM poses both antioxidant potential and osteoblast differentiation property. Thus, bioactivities associated with nacre holds potential in the development of therapeutics for bone regeneration and against oxidative stress induced damages in cells.

  1. Structure and expression of an unusually acidic matrix protein of pearl oyster shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Daiki; Sarashina, Isao; Endo, Kazuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    We report identification and characterization of the unusually acidic molluscan shell matrix protein Aspein, which may have important roles in calcium carbonate biomineralization. The Aspein gene (aspein) encodes a sequence of 413 amino acids, including a high proportion of Asp (60.4%), Gly (16.0%), and Ser (13.2%), and the predicted isoelectric point is 1.45; this is the most acidic of all the molluscan shell matrix proteins sequenced so far, or probably even of all known proteins on earth. The main body of Aspein is occupied by (Asp) 2-10 sequences punctuated with Ser-Gly dipeptides. RT-PCR demonstrated that the transcript of aspein is expressed at the outer edge of the mantle, corresponding to the calcitic prismatic layer, but not at the inner part of the mantle, corresponding to the aragonitic nacreous layer. Our findings and previous in vitro experiments taken together suggest that Aspein is responsible for directed formation of calcite in the shell of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata

  2. Mercury pollution for marine environment at Farwa Island, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana, Adel A S; Mohamed, R M S Radin; Al-Gheethi, A A S

    2016-01-01

    Farwa is an Island in Libya receives petrochemical wastes generated from General Company of Chemical Industries (GCCI) since more than 40 years. The present work aimed to determine the concentrations of mercury (Hg(+2)) in fish, marine plants and sediment collected from Farwa lagoon to evaluate effect of industrial wastewater from GCCI on the marine environment. Hundred and twelve samples of fish, pearl oyster, cuttlefish sediments and marine plants were analyzed to determine Hg(2+) concentration during the period from January to August 2014 by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The highest concentration of Hg(2+) was detected in Pinctada radiata (11.67 ± 3.30 μgg (-1)) followed by Serranus scriba (6.37 ± 0.11 μg g (-1)) and Epinephelus marginatus (6.19 ± 0.02 μg g (-1)). About 75 % of marine plants contained the maximum contaminations during the summer season. In fish samples Hg(2+) concentrations exceeded the levels provided by international standards. The fish at Farwa lagoon is heavily contaminated with Hg(2+) which may represent a source for mercury poisoning for human.

  3. INVENTORY AND DISTRIBUTION OF MOLLUSC IN CORAL REEF OF BACAN ISLAND WATERS, NORTH MALUKU PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik A.W. Cappenberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacan Island waters of North Maluku Province consisted of three main tropical ecosystems, namely mangrove, seagrass, and coral reef with the highest marine biodiversity. Mollusc is a group of marine fauna that most of them associated with coral reef.  However, little is known about their information in the Bacan Island due to lack of study conducted there. The purpose of this study is to observe the diversity and distribution of mollusc fauna in the coral reef flat of Bacan Island. Mollusc inventory was done using Rapid Reef Resource Assessment (RRA method by snorkling in the reefs of east coast (25 sites and west coast (10 sites of Bacan Island. The molluscs found were directly identified into species level and recorded.  Results of inventory show that there are 47 species belong to 19 families with the family of Muricidae is the highest diversity (6 species, while the lowest are Buccinidae, Bursidae, Haliotidae, Olividae, Cardiidae, Isognomonidae and Spondylidae, respectively with only 1 species in each of those families. The highest species number of mollusc was distributed along the east coast of the island (40 species, and the lowest one was in the west coast (37 species. Some species such as Tridacna spp., Pinctada margaritifera and Pteria penguin are important species, because they have economical values. Keywords:       biodiversity, molluscs, coral reef, Bacan Island, North Maluku

  4. Análise de um modelo de risco pré-operatório específico para cirurgia valvar e a relação com o tempo de internação em unidade de terapia intensiva Analysis of specific pre-operative model to valve surgery and relationship with the length of stay in intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Montes Pena

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O tempo de internação prolongado após cirurgia cardíaca é associado a resultados imediatos ruins e aumento dos custos. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o poder preditor do escore de Ambler na previsão do tempo de internação em unidade de terapia intensiva. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte retrospectiva com dados coletados de 110 pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de troca valvar isolada ou associada. Os valores do escore aditivo e logístico do escore de Ambler e as performances preditivas do escore de Ambler foram obtidos por meio da curva ROC. A estadia em unidade de terapia intensiva definiu-se como normal 3 dias. A área sobre as curvas dos modelos aditivo e logístico foram comparadas por meio do teste de Hanley-MacNeil. RESULTADOS: A média de permanência em unidade de terapia intensiva foi de 4,2 dias. Sessenta e três pacientes pertenciam ao sexo masculino. O modelo logístico apresentou área sob a curva ROC de 0,73 e 0,79 para internação >3 dias e 3 dias e OBJECTIVES: The length of stay after prolonged cardiac surgery has been associated with poor immediate outcomes and increased costs. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive power of the Ambler Score to anticipate the length of stay in the intensive care unit. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study based on data collected from 110 patients undergoing valve replacement surgery alone or in combination with other procedures. Additive and logistic Ambler Scores were obtained and their predictive performances calculated using the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. The normal length stay in the intensive care unit was assumed to be 3 days. The areas under the receiver operating curves for both the additive and logistic models were compared using the Hanley-MacNeil test. RESULTS: The mean intensive care unit length of stay was 4.2 days. Sixty-three patients were male. The logistic model showed areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0

  5. Reliability and validity of selected measures associated with increased fall risk in females over the age of 45 years with distal radius fracture - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Saurabh P; MacDermid, Joy C; Richardson, Julie; MacIntyre, Norma J; Grewal, Ruby

    2015-01-01

    Clinical measurement. This study examined test-retest reliability and convergent/divergent construct validity of selected tests and measures that assess balance impairment, fear of falling (FOF), impaired physical activity (PA), and lower extremity muscle strength (LEMS) in females >45 years of age after the distal radius fracture (DRF) population. Twenty one female participants with DRF were assessed on two occasions. Timed Up and Go, Functional Reach, and One Leg Standing tests assessed balance impairment. Shortened Falls Efficacy Scale, Activity-specific Balance Confidence scale, and Fall Risk Perception Questionnaire assessed FOF. International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity were administered to assess PA level. Chair stand test and isometric muscle strength testing for hip and knee assessed LEMS. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) examined the test-retest reliability of the measures. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) examined concurrent relationships between the measures. The results demonstrated fair to excellent test-retest reliability (ICC between 0.50 and 0.96) and low to moderate concordance between the measures (low if r ≤ 0.4; moderate if r = 0.4-0.7). The results provide preliminary estimates of test-retest reliability and convergent/divergent construct validity of selected measures associated with increased risk for falling in the females >45 years of age after DRF. Further research directions to advance knowledge regarding fall risk assessment in DRF population have been identified. Copyright © 2015 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Kinesio taping and manual pressure release: Short-term effects in subjects with myofasical trigger point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu Wen; Lin, Jiu Jenq; Yang, Jing Lan; Wang, Wendy Tzyy-Jiuan

    2016-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial. Myofascial pain syndrome is characterized by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) and fascia tenderness. We investigated the effects of manual pressure release (MPR) alone or in combination with taping (MPR/MKT) in subjects with MTrPs. Fifteen and 16 subjects received MPR and MPR/MKT respectively. Outcomes including Pressure pain threshold, muscle stiffness, mechanomyography were assessed at baseline, post-intervention and 7-days later. Pressure pain threshold improved significantly (d = 1.79, p < 0.005) in both groups. Significant improvement in muscle stiffness in the MPR/MKT group (0.27-0.49 mm) as compared to the MPR group (-0.02-0.23 mm). Mechanomyography amplitude in the MPR/MKT group was significantly higher than that of the MPR group (p < 0.05). MPR and MPR/MKT are effective in reducing pain in these subjects. MPR/MKT has a greater effect on muscle stiffness and contraction amplitude. IV. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A retrospective outcomes study examining the effect of interactive metronome on hand function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Tracy M; Harron, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Interactive Metronome (IM, The Interactive Metronome Company, Sunrise, Florida, USA) is a computer-based modality marketed to rehabilitation professionals who want to improve outcomes in areas of coordination, motor skills, self-regulation behaviors, and cognitive skills. This retrospective study examined the efficacy of IM training on improving timing skills, hand function, and parental report of self-regulatory behaviors. Forty eight children with mixed motor and cognitive diagnoses completed an average of 14 one-hour training sessions over an average of 8.5 weeks in an outpatient setting. Each child was assessed before and after training with the Interactive Metronome Long Form Assessment, the Jebsen Taylor Test of Hand Function, and a parent questionnaire. All three measures improved with statistical significance despite participants having no direct skill training. These results suggest an intimate relationship between cognition and motor skills that has potential therapeutic value. Level 4, Retrospective Case Series. Copyright © 2015 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Geoscientist/Educator Partnerships at the University of Colorado: Strategies and Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, S. M.; Hare, J.; Healy, G.

    2005-05-01

    According to a study about the factors that engage and hinder scientists' involvement in education and outreach (Andrews et.al., 2005), the presence of a dedicated outreach coordinator who can provide a point of contact and lessen the burden on scientists is one of the keys to success. For the past nine years, research scientists at the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) have worked in partnership with just such a coordinating team, the CIRES Education and Outreach group. As funding agency emphasis on education and social impacts has increased, so have the opportunities to develop educational projects intrinsically linked to current geoscience research. One such effort is Ocean Interactions, a project which began as a ship-shore student communication opportunity at the initiation of the researcher. The roles of each contributor to the partnership will be described, along with the framework through which CIRES supports scientist/educator partnerships of this sort. Andrews, Elisabeth, Alexandra Weaver, Daniel Hanley, Jeff Hovermill, Ginger Melton. 2005. "Scientists and Public Outreach: Participation, Motivations and Impediments." Journal of Geoscience Education in press May 2005.

  9. Orthotic intervention incorporating the dart-thrower's motion as part of conservative management guidelines for treatment of scapholunate injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Hamish; Hoy, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Case series. This paper describes conservative guidelines for the management of scapho-lunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) injury including fabrication of an orthosis that restricts active wrist movement to the dart-throwers (DTM) plane. The dart throwers' orthosis (DTO) was designed as a response to biomechanical studies suggesting that restraining motion to the DTM would off-load a deficient SLIL. After six weeks of wearing the DTO, the 5 patients in this case series initiated an exercise program that incorporated wrist proprioceptive training and specific muscle strengthening. The DTO was designed to incorporate controlled movement in order to better integrate the secondary wrist stabilizers in wrists that had a deficient SLIL. The orthosis and the exercise program harnessed proprioceptive influences using active motion within the DTM plane, and stimulated mechanoreceptors so as to enhance stability. All patients demonstrated improvement in subjective and objective outcomes including self-reported pain and function. Orthotic intervention that controls motion within the DTM, combined with an appropriate proprioceptive rehabilitation program, may provide a viable conservative treatment option for patients with a similar clinical presentation. 4. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. LEVANTAMENTO DA FLORA MELÍFERA DE INTERESSE APÍCOLA NO MUNICÍPIO DE PETROLINA-PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Francisco Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study had the objective of surveying the apicultural potential in the municipality of Petrolina flora (9o9'S; 40o22'W, aiming at identifying the nectariferous or polliniferous species visited by Apis mellifera. The observations were carried out from January 2004 to May 2005, in areas of hyperxerophilous Caatinga native vegetation and of irrigated fruit crops of Embrapa Tropical Semi-Arid. Fifty one species were observed, belonging to 42 genera and 25 botanic families. The families Leguminosae, Anacardiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Rubiaceae and Sterculiaceae were the most visited species by Apis mellifera, including 47.08% of the total visited plants. Among the species visited by Apis mellifera, 41.17% are herbaceous, showing the importance of this stratum as an apicultural source. Regarding the flora resource used as food source by the bees, it was found that A. mellifera made several visits for exclusive nectar extraction to 72.55% of the plants considered nectariferous. Among the remaining plants, it was found that in 19.60% the bee collecte pollen, being these species considered polliniferous, and in 7.85% there was pollen and nectar withdrawal. Among the herbaceous species, Borreria verticillata (L. G.Mey., Diodia teres Walter (Rubiaceae, Waltheria rotundifolia Schrank (Sterculiaceae, Merremia aegyptia (L. Hallier, Jacquemontia confusa Meisn. (Convolvulaceae, Hypenia salzmanni (Benth. Hanley (Lamiaceae distinguished as nectariferous source during the raining season, while the arboreal species Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl. and Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão. are considered apicultural source for the dry season.

  11. Psychosocial reactions to upper extremity limb salvage: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposato, Lindsay; Yancosek, Kathleen; Lospinoso, Josh; Cancio, Jill

    2017-08-09

    Descriptive cross-sectional survey study. Limb salvage spares an extremity at risk for amputation after a major traumatic injury. Psychosocial recovery for individuals with lower extremity limb salvage has been discussed in the literature. However, to date, psychosocial reactions for individuals with upper extremity (UE) limb salvage have not been examined. To determine which factors may influence psychosocial adaptation to UE limb salvage. Participants (n = 30; 28 males) were adults (mean, 30.13; range, 18-61) who sustained an UE limb salvage from a traumatic event. Adaptation was measured using a modified version of the Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory. A linear mixed-effects regression found that worse psychosocial adaptation was associated with having less than a college degree, being less than 6 months post-injury, being older than 23 years, and having more pain. Dominant hand injuries were found to influence poor adaptation on the denial Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory subscale only. The results of this study indicate that there is potential for nonadaptive reactions and psychological distress with certain variables in UE limb salvage. Therapists may use these results to anticipate which clients may be at risk for poor psychosocial outcomes. This study indicates the need for early consideration to factors that affect psychological prognosis for the UE limb salvage population. However, future research is indicated to better understand the unique psychosocial challenges and needs of these individuals. 4. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. KSC-05PD-0807

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. After arrival at NASAs Kennedy Space Center, the STS-114 crew members are greeted by KSC officials. Seen from left are Deputy Director Woodrow Whitlow Jr., Commander Eileen Collins, Mission Specialists Charles Camarda (behind Collins) and Andrew Thomas, astronaut Jerry Ross, who is chief of the Vehicle Integration Test (VIT) office, VIT Lead for STS-114 Robert Hanley, Shuttle Launch Director Mike Leinbach and Center Director Jim Kennedy. Crew members are taking part in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) over the next three days. The TCDT is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight. It provides the crew of each mission an opportunity to participate in simulated countdown activities. The test ends with a mock launch countdown culminating in a simulated main engine cutoff. The crew also spends time undergoing emergency egress training exercises at the launch pad. STS-114 is the first Return to Flight mission to the International Space Station. The launch window extends July 13 through July 31.

  13. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson-Hanley C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR; in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. Keywords: autism, repetitive behaviors, exergaming, exercise, executive function

  14. Social facilitation in virtual reality-enhanced exercise: competitiveness moderates exercise effort of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson-Hanley C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cay Anderson-Hanley1,2, Amanda L Snyder1, Joseph P Nimon1, Paul J Arciero1,21Healthy Aging and Neuropsychology Lab, Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA; 2Health and Exercise Sciences Department, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY, USAAbstract: This study examined the effect of virtual social facilitation and competitiveness on exercise effort in exergaming older adults. Fourteen exergaming older adults participated. Competitiveness was assessed prior to the start of exercise. Participants were trained to ride a “cybercycle;” a virtual reality-enhanced stationary bike with interactive competition. After establishing a cybercycling baseline, competitive avatars were introduced. Pedaling effort (watts was assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant group (high vs low competitiveness X time (pre- to post-avatar interaction (F[1,12] = 13.1, P = 0.003. Virtual social facilitation increased exercise effort among more competitive exercisers. Exercise programs that match competitiveness may maximize exercise effort.Keywords: exercise, aging, virtual reality, competitiveness, social facilitation, exercise intensity

  15. Factors affecting functional recovery after surgery and hand therapy in patients with Dupuytren's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrand, Christina; Krevers, Barbro; Kvist, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Prospective cohort study. The evidence of the relationship between functional recovery and impairment after surgery and hand therapy are inconsistent. To explore factors that were most related to functional recovery as measured by DASH in patients with Dupuytren's disease. Eighty-one patients undergoing surgery and hand therapy were consecutively recruited. Functional recovery was measured by the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire. Explanatory variables: range of motion of the finger joints, five questions regarding safety and social issues of hand function, and health-related quality of life (Euroqol). The three variables "need to take special precautions", "avoid using the hand in social context", and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D index) explained 62.1% of the variance in DASH, where the first variable had the greatest relative effect. Safety and social issues of hand function and quality of life had an evident association with functional recovery. IV. Copyright © 2015 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Differences in active range of motion measurements in the upper extremity of patients with writer's cramp compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivanitchapoom, Prachaya; Shamim, Ejaz A; Diomi, Pierre; Hattori, Takaaki; Pandey, Sanjay; Vorbach, Sherry; Park, Jung E; Wu, Tianxia; Auh, Sungyoung; Hallett, Mark

    Exploratory case-control study. Writer's cramp (WC) is a type of focal hand dystonia. The central nervous system plays a role in its pathophysiology, but abnormalities in the affected musculoskeletal components may also be relevant. We compared the active range of motion (ROM) in patients with WC and healthy volunteers (HVs) and correlated the findings with disease duration and severity. Affected limb joints were measured with goniometers. Patients were assessed at least 3 months after their last botulinum toxin (botulinum neurotoxin) injection, and strength was clinically normal. t tests were used to compare the ROMs of WC with matched HVs. The Spearman correlation coefficient assessed the relationship of active ROMs to the disease duration and handwriting subscore of the Dystonia Disability Scale. ROMs of D1 metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint extension as well as D2 and D5 MCP flexion were significantly smaller in WC, and distal interphalangeal joint extension in D3 and D5 was significantly greater compared with HVs. There were negative correlations between D2 MCP flexion and disease duration and with Dystonia Disability Scale. Abnormalities in ROMs in WC were found. Severity and disease duration correlated with reduced D2 MCP flexion. This may be related to intrinsic biomechanical abnormalities, co-contraction of muscles, or a combination of subclinical weakness and atrophy from repeated botulinum neurotoxin injections. Hand biomechanical properties should not be ignored in the pathophysiology of WC. 2c. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. All rights reserved.

  17. Patients' views on early sensory relearning following nerve repair-a Q-methodology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikström, Pernilla; Carlsson, Ingela; Rosén, Birgitta; Björkman, Anders

    2017-09-26

    Descriptive study. Early sensory relearning where the dynamic capacity of the brain is used has been shown to improve sensory outcome after nerve repair. However, no previous studies have examined how patients experience early sensory relearning. To describe patient's views on early sensory relearning. Statements' scores were analyzed by factor analysis. Thirty-seven consecutive adult patients with median and/or ulnar nerve repair who completed early sensory relearning were included. Three factors were identified, explaining 45% of the variance: (1) "Believe sensory relearning is meaningful, manage to get an illusion of touch and complete the sensory relearning"; (2) "Do not get an illusion of touch easily and need support in their sensory relearning" (3) "Are not motivated, manage to get an illusion of touch but do not complete sensory relearning". Many patients succeed in implementing their sensory relearning. However, a substantial part of the patient population need more support, have difficulties to create illusion of touch, and lack motivation to complete the sensory relearning. To enhance motivation and meaningfulness by relating the training clearly to everyday occupations and to the patient's life situation is a suggested way to proceed. The three unique factors indicate motivation and sense of meaningfulness as key components which should be taken into consideration in developing programs for person-centered early sensory relearning. 3. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A taxonomic review of the Norwegian species of Raphitoma (Gastropoda: Conoidea: Raphitomidae

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    Tore Høisæter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The problematic conoidean genus Raphitoma s.l. in inshore Norwegian waters is revised based on fresh material from all along the coast of Norway. This largely shallow water group is represented by at least six species in Norwegian waters of which two, Raphitoma obesa n.sp. and R. maculosa n.sp. are described as new, and another Raphitoma aequalis (Jeffreys, 1867 is reported from Norway for the first time. The taxonomic and nomenclatural status of R. reticulata (sensu Jeffreys 1867 and R. asperrima (sensu Forbes & Hanley 1853 are discussed. Empty shells of several additional species indicate that the number of Raphitoma-species living in the North East Atlantic will be further increased in the future. The morphological variability of each species is described if possible. Shell morphology, including microsculpture and protoconch details as deduced from LM photographs, are used for distinguishing the species. Some easily observable behaviour and soft part morphology features were found to bepromising areas for further studies.

  19. Learning to live with a hand nerve disorder: A constructed grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwood, Mark; Jerosch-Herold, Christina; Shepstone, Lee

    2017-11-29

    Grounded theory. The broader perspective of health offered by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health has had a significant bearing on how we view the measurement of health outcomes after surgical or therapy interventions for peripheral nerve disorders affecting the hand. The value of the patient's perspective is now recognized and outcomes which reflect this are being advocated in the clinical management and support of this population. This qualitative study sought to explore the lived experience of a hand nerve disorder and in particular the impact on body structure/function, activities, and participation. In depth, one-to-one interviews with 14 people with a range of hand nerve disorders were conducted. Constructivist grounded theory methods were used to collect and analyze the data. Patients were also given the option of taking photographs to visually represent what it is like to live with a nerve disorder, to bring with them for discussion during the interview. The impact of hand nerve disorders forms part of a wider narrative on adaptation. A process of "struggling" and then "overcoming" was experienced. This was followed by an interior aspect of adaptation described as "accepting." This gave rise to participants "transforming," being changed as a result of the journey that they had been on. This study provides an explanatory theory on the adaptive process following a hand nerve disorder which may inform future patient-therapist interactions. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The use of joint mobilization to improve clinical outcomes in hand therapy: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Rick; O'Brien, Virginia H; Schwartz, Deborah A

    2013-01-01

    Systematic review. Joint mobilizations are used as an intervention for improving range of motion, decreasing pain and ultimately improving function in patients with a wide variety of upper extremity diagnoses. However, there are only a limited number of studies describing this treatment for conditions affecting the elbow, wrist, and hand. Furthermore, it is unclear as to the most effective joint mobilization technique utilized and the most beneficial functional outcomes gained. Examine the current evidence describing joint mobilizations for treatment of conditions of the elbow, wrist and hand, and offer informative practical clinical guidance. Twenty-two studies dated between 1980 and 2011 were included in the systematic review for analysis. The current evidence provides moderate support for the inclusion of joint mobilizations in the treatment of lateral epicondylalgia (LE). In particular, mobilization with movement as described by Mulligan is supported with evidence from nine randomized clinical trials as an effective technique for the treatment of pain. Other described techniques include those known as Kaltenborn, Cyriax physical therapy, and Maitland, but the evidence for these techniques is limited. There is also limited evidence for the joint mobilizations in the treatment of wrist and hand conditions. The current literature offers limited support for joint mobilizations of the wrist and hand, and moderate support for joint mobilizations of the elbow for LE. There is moderate support for mobilization with movement. . Copyright © 2013 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Examination of the PROMIS upper extremity item bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Man; Voss, Maren W; Bounsanga, Jerry; Crum, Anthony B; Tyser, Andrew R

    Clinical measurement. The psychometric properties of the PROMIS v1.2 UE item bank were tested on various samples prior to its release, but have not been fully evaluated among the orthopaedic population. This study assesses the performance of the UE item bank within the UE orthopaedic patient population. The UE item bank was administered to 1197 adult patients presenting to a tertiary orthopaedic clinic specializing in hand and UE conditions and was examined using traditional statistics and Rasch analysis. The UE item bank fits a unidimensional model (outfit MNSQ range from 0.64 to 1.70) and has adequate reliabilities (person = 0.84; item = 0.82) and local independence (item residual correlations range from -0.37 to 0.34). Only one item exhibits gender differential item functioning. Most items target low levels of function. The UE item bank is a useful clinical assessment tool. Additional items covering higher functions are needed to enhance validity. Supplemental testing is recommended for patients at higher levels of function until more high function UE items are developed. 2c. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantification of hand function by power grip and pinch strength force measurements in ulnar nerve lesion simulated by ulnar nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Nikolaus Johannes; Mentzel, Martin; Krischak, Gert D; Gülke, Joachim

    2017-06-24

    In the assessment of hand and upper limb function, grip strength is of the major importance. The measurement by dynamometers has been established. In this study, the effect of a simulated ulnar nerve lesion on different grip force measurements was evaluated. In 25 healthy volunteers, grip force measurement was done by the JAMAR dynamometer (Fabrication Enterprises Inc, Irvington, NY) for power grip and by a pinch strength dynamometer for tip pinch strength, tripod grip, and key pinch strength. A within-subject research design was used in this prospective study. Each subject served as the control by preinjection measurements of grip and pinch strength. Subsequent measurements after ulnar nerve block were used to examine within-subject change. In power grip, there was a significant reduction of maximum grip force of 26.9% with ulnar nerve block compared with grip force without block (P force could be confirmed. However, the assessment of other dimensions of hand strength as tip pinch, tripod pinch and key pinch had more relevance in demonstrating hand strength changes resulting from an distal ulnar nerve lesion. The measurement of tip pinch, tripod grip and key pinch can improve the follow-up in hand rehabilitation. II. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Discriminant validity of a new measure of self-efficacy for reaching movements after stroke-induced hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuya; Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Winstein, Carolee J

    2013-01-01

    Case-control study. After stroke, difficulties in motor control mediate spontaneous paretic arm use in real life. Along with the obvious motor impairments, self-efficacy has been shown to be an important modifier for physical function. However, a self-efficacy measure for arm reaching is lacking. The aim of this study was to develop such a measure and to examine its validity. Fifteen participants with hemiparesis and ten control participants were recruited. A measure of reaching self-efficacy (RSE) was developed using a two-dimensional center-out target array. For the control group, RSE was significantly correlated with target distance (r = -0.657) and location (r = -0.545), respectively. Additionally, average RSE was lower for the non-dominant than the dominant hand (p RSE was significantly correlated with target distance (r = -0.603) and location (r = -0.378), respectively. Finally, average RSE was lower for the paretic than the non-paretic hand (p validity for this new measure of reaching self-efficacy. 3b. Copyright © 2013 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Upper extremity function in stroke subjects: relationships between the international classification of functioning, disability, and health domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria-Fortini, Iza; Michaelsen, Stella Maris; Cassiano, Janine Gomes; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi

    2011-01-01

    Upper limb (UL) impairments are the most common disabling deficits after stroke and have complex relationships with activity and participation domains. However, relatively few studies have applied the ICF model to identify the contributions of specific UL impairments, such as muscular weakness, pain, and sensory loss, as predictors of activity and participation. The purposes of this predictive study were to evaluate the relationships between UL variables related to body functions/structures, activity, and participation domains and to determine which would best explain activity and participation with 55 subjects with chronic stroke. Body functions/structures were assessed by measures of grip, pinch, and UL strength, finger tactile sensations, shoulder pain, and cognition (MMSE); activity domain by measures of observed performance (BBT, NHPT, and TEMPA); and participation by measures of quality of life (SSQOL). Upper-limb and grip strength were related to all activity measures (0.52 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional incapacity related to rotator cuff syndrome in workers. Is it influenced by social characteristics and medical management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Romain; Bodin, Julie; Fouquet, Natacha; Roquelaure, Yves; Petit, Audrey

    2017-12-04

    Survey. Rotator cuff syndrome (RCS) is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders reported in workers. The functional incapacity related to RCS may vary according to the sociodemographic context and to the medical management. The purpose of this is to analyze the RCS-related functional incapacity assessed by the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaires in workers according to their sociodemographic characteristics and the use of care. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a French sample of workers diagnosed with RCS. The DASH and DASH-work scores were studied according to the sociodemographic factors, musculoskeletal symptoms, and RCS medical management during the preceding 12 months. Two hundred seven workers who suffered from RCS filled out the questionnaire of which 80% were still working. The DASH score was significantly higher in women (24.0 vs 17.4; P 0.6). The demographic factors and the RCS medical management influenced the overall incapacity assessed by the DASH questionnaire. Work incapacity was more especially related to the use of care for RCS. The sociodemographic and medical parameters added to other established predictors could help guide clinicians in managing their patients. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Crecimiento y mortalidad de la concha nácar Pteria sterna en bancos silvestres de Baja California Sur, México

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    Humberto Wright-López

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La concha nácar Pteria sterna sustenta los perlicultivos en México, y es la base de producción de perlas en el continente Americano. Está bajo protección especial desde 1994, y solo puede capturarse semilla natural para cultivo e investigación. Determinamos su crecimiento y mortalidad en bancos silvestres, registrando la altura de ostras de Santa Rosalía, Mulegé y Bahía de Loreto (1997-99. La longitud máxima estimada fue 130.35 mm (124.22-136.48 mm, P>0.95. Las frecuencias de longitudes se ordenaron en un "año virtual" (Guanco 1991. Los parámetros de crecimiento de von Bertalanffy estimados con el programa ELEFAN I fueron: L∞= 156.02 mm, k=0.48año-1, t0=-0.216 años, C= 0.43 y WP = 0.73; el índice de desempeño de crecimiento fue Φ’ = 4.068. La mortalidad total fue de Z = 3.34 año -1por longitud convertida a curva de captura. La regresión del peso total y la altura tuvo la expresión W = 0.000756 * L(i2.7075 (r²=0.90, n=233. Mostramos la diferencia entre los parámetros de crecimiento en condiciones de repoblamiento experimental y aquellos de individuos silvestres de P. sterna. El valor de mortalidad total es comparable a aquellos de Pinctada fucata en el mar Rojo o P. radiata en el mar Mediterráneo.Growht and mortality of the mollusk Pteria sterna in wild banks of Southern Baja California, Mexico. The Gulf of California nacre shell Pteria sterna is an important marine resource in Mexico, and the main species for "half" and round pearl production in the American continent. Wild spat can only be extracted legally for research or culture activities. This study calculates growth and mortality parameters for wild stocks in the eastern coast of Southern Baja California. Height’s data (353 dorso-ventral measurements were taken from 1997 to 1999 at Santa Rosalía, Mulegé and Loreto Bay coast. The maximum length was estimated at 130.35 mm (124.22-136.48 mm, p>0.95. The length frequency data were set in a "virtual year

  7. Structure-based function prediction of the expanding mollusk tyrosinase family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ronglian; Li, Li; Zhang, Guofan

    2017-11-01

    Tyrosinase (Ty) is a common enzyme found in many different animal groups. In our previous study, genome sequencing revealed that the Ty family is expanded in the Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas). Here, we examine the larger number of Ty family members in the Pacific oyster by high-level structure prediction to obtain more information about their function and evolution, especially the unknown role in biomineralization. We verified 12 Ty gene sequences from Crassostrea gigas genome and Pinctada fucata martensii transcriptome. By using phylogenetic analysis of these Tys with functionally known Tys from other molluscan species, eight subgroups were identified (CgTy_s1, CgTy_s2, MolTy_s1, MolTy-s2, MolTy-s3, PinTy-s1, PinTy-s2 and PviTy). Structural data and surface pockets of the dinuclear copper center in the eight subgroups of molluscan Ty were obtained using the latest versions of prediction online servers. Structural comparison with other Ty proteins from the protein databank revealed functionally important residues (HA1, HA2, HA3, HB1, HB2, HB3, Z1-Z9) and their location within these protein structures. The structural and chemical features of these pockets which may related to the substrate binding showed considerable variability among mollusks, which undoubtedly defines Ty substrate binding. Finally, we discuss the potential driving forces of Ty family evolution in mollusks. Based on these observations, we conclude that the Ty family has rapidly evolved as a consequence of substrate adaptation in mollusks.

  8. Molecular phylogeny of pearl oysters and their relatives (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pterioidea

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    Tëmkin Ilya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily Pterioidea is a morphologically and ecologically diverse lineage of epifaunal marine bivalves distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical continental shelf regions. This group includes commercially important pearl culture species and model organisms used for medical studies of biomineralization. Recent morphological treatment of selected pterioideans and molecular phylogenetic analyses of higher-level relationships in Bivalvia have challenged the traditional view that pterioidean families are monophyletic. This issue is examined here in light of molecular data sets composed of DNA sequences for nuclear and mitochondrial loci, and a published character data set of anatomical and shell morphological characters. Results The present study is the first comprehensive species-level analysis of the Pterioidea to produce a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for nearly all extant taxa. The data were analyzed for potential biases due to taxon and character sampling, and idiosyncracies of different molecular evolutionary processes. The congruence and contribution of different partitions were quantified, and the sensitivity of clade stability to alignment parameters was explored. Conclusions Four primary conclusions were reached: (1 the results strongly supported the monophyly of the Pterioidea; (2 none of the previously defined families (except for the monotypic Pulvinitidae were monophyletic; (3 the arrangement of the genera was novel and unanticipated, however strongly supported and robust to changes in alignment parameters; and (4 optimizing key morphological characters onto topologies derived from the analysis of molecular data revealed many instances of homoplasy and uncovered synapomorphies for major nodes. Additionally, a complete species-level sampling of the genus Pinctada provided further insights into the on-going controversy regarding the taxonomic identity of major pearl culture species.

  9. Molecular phylogeny of pearl oysters and their relatives (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pterioidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The superfamily Pterioidea is a morphologically and ecologically diverse lineage of epifaunal marine bivalves distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical continental shelf regions. This group includes commercially important pearl culture species and model organisms used for medical studies of biomineralization. Recent morphological treatment of selected pterioideans and molecular phylogenetic analyses of higher-level relationships in Bivalvia have challenged the traditional view that pterioidean families are monophyletic. This issue is examined here in light of molecular data sets composed of DNA sequences for nuclear and mitochondrial loci, and a published character data set of anatomical and shell morphological characters. Results The present study is the first comprehensive species-level analysis of the Pterioidea to produce a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for nearly all extant taxa. The data were analyzed for potential biases due to taxon and character sampling, and idiosyncracies of different molecular evolutionary processes. The congruence and contribution of different partitions were quantified, and the sensitivity of clade stability to alignment parameters was explored. Conclusions Four primary conclusions were reached: (1) the results strongly supported the monophyly of the Pterioidea; (2) none of the previously defined families (except for the monotypic Pulvinitidae) were monophyletic; (3) the arrangement of the genera was novel and unanticipated, however strongly supported and robust to changes in alignment parameters; and (4) optimizing key morphological characters onto topologies derived from the analysis of molecular data revealed many instances of homoplasy and uncovered synapomorphies for major nodes. Additionally, a complete species-level sampling of the genus Pinctada provided further insights into the on-going controversy regarding the taxonomic identity of major pearl culture species. PMID:21059254

  10. Growth and survival of the pearl oyster Pteria hirundo (L.,1758 in an intermediate stage of culture in Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    MCP Albuquerque

    Full Text Available There are no records in Brazil for the culture of Pteridae family oysters, genus Pteria and Pinctada. The intermediate culture can be considered one of the critical stages during the oyster farming. The changes in life conditions from a semi-closed environment provided by the collector to the structures utilized for the growth represents a considerable stress factor to which the animals are subjected. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the growth and survival of the pearl oyster Pteria hirundo (Linnaeus, 1758 kept in intermediate lanterns. Seeds of P. hirundo, obtained through larviculture carried out at the Marine Molluscs Laboratory (UFSC, southern Brazil were detached from the collectors, transferred and kept in an intermediate culture system (oyster lantern. During 6 months, growth (dorso-ventral height - DVH in mm and survival (% were evaluated. Two size classes were tested: medium (M, between 3.4 and 4.4 mm, and large (L, bigger than 4.5 mm. The density of occupation in each floor of the lantern was 50%. At the end of the experiment, the survivals observed were 90 and 94% for the sizes M and L, respectively. Medium juveniles of Pteria hirundo had an average (Std increase of 16.1 (±4.38 mm in the dorso-ventral height, and large juveniles an average increase of 11.4 (±3.77 mm after six months of experiment. The results observed during the intermediate stage of cultivation indicate that Pteria hirundo presents survival and growth similar to other species of pearl oysters traditionally used in the pearl industry in several countries.

  11. Growth and survival of the pearl oyster Pteria hirundo (L.,1758) in an intermediate stage of culture in Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, M C P; Alves, R; Zanandrea, A C V; Ferreira, J F; Melo, C M R; Magalhães, A R M

    2012-02-01

    There are no records in Brazil for the culture of Pteridae family oysters, genus Pteria and Pinctada. The intermediate culture can be considered one of the critical stages during the oyster farming. The changes in life conditions from a semi-closed environment provided by the collector to the structures utilized for the growth represents a considerable stress factor to which the animals are subjected. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the growth and survival of the pearl oyster Pteria hirundo (Linnaeus, 1758) kept in intermediate lanterns. Seeds of P. hirundo, obtained through larviculture carried out at the Marine Molluscs Laboratory (UFSC), southern Brazil were detached from the collectors, transferred and kept in an intermediate culture system (oyster lantern). During 6 months, growth (dorso-ventral height - DVH in mm) and survival (%) were evaluated. Two size classes were tested: medium (M), between 3.4 and 4.4 mm, and large (L), bigger than 4.5 mm. The density of occupation in each floor of the lantern was 50%. At the end of the experiment, the survivals observed were 90 and 94% for the sizes M and L, respectively. Medium juveniles of Pteria hirundo had an average (Std) increase of 16.1 (±4.38) mm in the dorso-ventral height, and large juveniles an average increase of 11.4 (±3.77) mm after six months of experiment. The results observed during the intermediate stage of cultivation indicate that Pteria hirundo presents survival and growth similar to other species of pearl oysters traditionally used in the pearl industry in several countries.

  12. Evolution and functional analysis of the Pif97 gene of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas

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    Xiaotong WANG, Xiaorui SONG, Tong WANG, Qihui ZHU, Guoying MIAO, Yuanxin CHEN, Xiaodong FANG, Huayong QUE, Li LI, Guofan ZHANG

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mollusc shell matrix proteins (SMPs are important functional components embedded in the shell and play a role in shell formation. A SMP (Pif177 was identified previously from the nacreous layer of the Japanese pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, and its cleavage products (named pfPif97 and pfPif80 proteins were found to bind to the chitin framework and induce aragonite crystal formation and orient the c axis. In this study, a homologue of pfPif177 was cloned from the mantle of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, containing the homologue of pfPif97 only and not pfPif80. This finding hints at the large divergence in gene structure between the two species. This homologue (cgPif97 shares characteristics with pfPif97, and suggests that the biological functions of these two proteins may be similar. The expression pattern of cgPif97 in different tissues and development stages indicates that it may play an important role in shell formation of the adult oyster. The morphology of the inner shell surface was affected by injected siRNA of cgPif97 and the calcite laths of the shell became thinner and narrower when the siRNA dose increased, suggesting that the cgPif97 gene plays an important role in calcite shell formation in C. gigas. In conclusion, we found evidence that the Pif177 gene evolved very fast but still retains a similar function among species [Current Zoology 59 (1: 109–115, 2013].

  13. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (April 2015

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    Α. ΖΕΝΕΤΟΣ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of native and alien species respectively. The new records of native fish species include: the slender sunfish Ranzania laevis and the scalloped ribbonfish Zu cristatus in Calabria; the Azores rockling Gaidropsarus granti in Calabria and Sicily; the agujon needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis in the Northern Aegean; and the amphibious behaviour of Gouania willdenowi in Southern Turkey. As regards molluscs, the interesting findings include Ischnochiton usticensis in Calabria and Thordisa filix in the bay of Piran (Slovenia. The stomatopod Parasquilla ferussaci was collected from Lesvos island (Greece; the isopod Anilocra frontalis was observed parasitizing the alien Pteragogus trispilus in the Rhodes area. The asteroid Tethyaster subinermis and the butterfly ray Gymnura altavela were reported from several localities in the Greek Ionian and Aegean Seas. The new records of alien species include: the antenna codlet Bregmaceros atlanticus in Saronikos Gulf; three  new fish records and two decapods from Egypt; the establishment of the two spot cardinal fish Cheilodipterus novemstriatus and the first record of the Indo-Pacific marble shrimp Saron marmoratus in semi-dark caves along the Lebanese coastline; the finding of Lagocephalus sceleratus, Sargocentron rubrum, Fistularia commersonii and Stephanolepis diaspros around Lipsi island (Aegean Sea, Greece; the decapod Penaeus hathor in Aegean waters; the decapod Penaeus aztecus and the nudibranch Melibe viridis in the Dodecanese islands; the finding of Pinctada imbricata radiata in the Mar Grande of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy and the Maliakos Gulf (Greece.

  14. Review of the RNA Interference Pathway in Molluscs Including Some Possibilities for Use in Bivalves in Aquaculture

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    Leigh Owens

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Generalised reviews of RNA interference (RNAi in invertebrates, and for use in aquaculture, have taken for granted that RNAi pathways operate in molluscs, but inspection of such reviews show little specific evidence of such activity in molluscs. This review was to understand what specific research had been conducted on RNAi in molluscs, particularly with regard to aquaculture. There were questions of whether RNAi in molluscs functions similarly to the paradigm established for most eukaryotes or, alternatively, was it more similar to the ecdozoa and how RNAi may relate to disease control in aquaculture? RNAi in molluscs appears to have been only investigated in about 14 species, mostly as a gene silencing phenomenon. We can infer that microRNAs including let-7 are functional in molluscs. The genes/proteins involved in the actual RNAi pathways have only been rudimentarily investigated, so how homologous the genes and proteins are to other metazoa is unknown. Furthermore, how many different genes for each activity in the RNAi pathway are also unknown? The cephalopods have been greatly overlooked with only a single RNAi gene-silencing study found. The long dsRNA-linked interferon pathways seem to be present in molluscs, unlike some other invertebrates and could be used to reduce disease states in aquaculture. In particular, interferon regulatory factor genes have been found in molluscs of aquacultural importance such as Crassostrea, Mytilus, Pinctada and Haliotis. Two possible aquaculture scenarios are discussed, zoonotic norovirus and ostreid herpesvirus 1 to illustrate the possibilities. The entire field of RNAi in molluscs looks ripe for scientific exploitation and practical application.

  15. Cathepsin L is an immune-related protein in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)--Purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian-Dong; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Yan, Long-Jie; Du, Cui-Hong; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Ke, Caihuan; Cao, Min-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Cathepsin L, an immune-related protein, was purified from the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) by ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatographies of SP-Sepharose and Sephacryl S-200 HR. Purified cathepsin L appeared as two bands with molecular masses of 28.0 and 28.5 kDa (namely cathepsin La and Lb) on SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions, suggesting that it is a glycoprotein. Peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) analysis revealed that peptide fragments of 95 amino acid residues was high similarity to cathepsin L of pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata). The optimal temperature and pH of cathepsin L were 35 °C and pH 5.5. Cathepsin L was particularly inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors of E-64 and leupeptin, while it was activated by metalloproteinase inhibitors EDTA and EGTA. The full-length cathepsin L cDNA was further cloned from the hepatopancreas by rapid PCR amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The open reading frame of the enzyme was 981 bp, encoding 327 amino acid residues, with a conserved catalytic triad (Cys134, His273 and Asn293), a potential N-glycosylation site and conserved ERFNIN, GNYD, and GCGG motifs, which are characteristics of cathepsin L. Western blot and proteinase activity analysis revealed that the expression and enzyme activity of cathepsin L were significantly up-regulated in hepatopancreas at 8 h following Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection, demonstrating that cathepsin L is involved in the innate immune system of abalone. Our present study for the first time reported the purification, characterization, molecular cloning, and tissue expression of cathepsin L in abalone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pain-related psychological issues in hand therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, Tokiko; Pelletier, René; Bourbonnais, Daniel; Harris, Patrick; Choinière, Manon

    Literature review. Pain is a subjective experience that results from the modulation of nociception conveyed to the brain via the nervous system. Perception of pain takes place when potential or actual noxious stimuli are appraised as threats of injury. This appraisal is influenced by one's cognitions and emotions based on her/his pain-related experiences, which are processed in the forebrain and limbic areas of the brain. Unarguably, patients' psychological factors such as cognitions (eg, pain catastrophizing), emotions (eg, depression), and pain-related behaviors (eg, avoidance) can influence perceived pain intensity, disability, and treatment outcomes. Therefore, hand therapists should address the patient pain experience using a biopsychosocial approach. However, in hand therapy, a biomedical perspective predominates in pain management by focusing solely on tissue healing. This review aims to raise awareness among hand therapists of the impact of pain-related psychological factors. This literature review allowed to describe (1) how the neurophysiological mechanisms of pain can be influenced by various psychological factors, (2) several evidence-based interventions that can be integrated into hand therapy to address these psychological issues, and (3) some approaches of psychotherapy for patients with maladaptive pain experiences. Restoration of sensory and motor functions as well as alleviating pain is at the core of hand therapy. Numerous psychological factors including patients' beliefs, cognitions, and emotions alter their pain experience and may impact on their outcomes. Decoding the biopsychosocial components of the patients' pain is thus essential for hand therapists. Copyright © 2018 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative study of millennials' (age 20-34 years) grip and lateral pinch with the norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Elizabeth; Weatherford, Cara

    Cross-sectional research design. Clinical practice continues to use normative data for grip and pinch measurements that were established in 1985. There is no updated norms despite different hand usage patterns in today's society. Measuring and comparing grip and pinch strengths with normative data is a valid method to determine hand function. This research was implemented to compare the grip and pinch measurements obtained from healthy millennials to the established norms and to describe hand usage patterns for millennials. Grip and lateral pinch measurements were obtained from a sample of 237 healthy millennials (ages 20-34 years). Strength scores were statistically lower that older normative data in all millennial grip strengths, with the exception of the women in the age group of 30-34 years. Specifically, this statistically significant trend was observed in all male grip strengths, as well as in women in the age group of 20-24 years (bilateral grip) and 25-29 years (right grip). However, the lateral pinch data reflected was similar to the older norms with variances of 0.5-1 kg. Current data reflect statistically significant differences from the norms for all male grip measurements, as well as for women in the age group of 20-24 years (bilateral grip) and 25-29 years (right grip). No statistical significance was observed in the independent-sample t tests for the lateral pinch in men of all age groups. Statistical significance was noted for lateral pinch for female age groups for the left hand (20-24 years) and for bilateral lateral pinches (30-34 years). IV. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Immediate effect of a functional wrist orthosis for children with cerebral palsy or brain injury: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Michelle; Novak, Iona; Lannin, Natasha; Galea, Claire

    2017-10-28

    Two-group randomized controlled trial. Upper limb orthoses worn during functional tasks are commonly used in pediatric neurologic rehabilitation, despite a paucity of high-level evidence. The purpose of this study was to investigate if a customized functional wrist orthosis, when placed on the limb, leads to an immediate improvement in hand function for children with cerebral palsy or brain injury. A 2-group randomized controlled trial involving 30 children was conducted. Participants were randomized to either receive a customized functional wrist orthosis (experimental, n = 15) or not receive an orthosis (control, n = 15). The box and blocks test was administered at baseline and repeated 1 hour after experimental intervention, with the orthosis on if randomized to the orthotic group. After intervention, there were no significant differences on the box and blocks test between the orthotic group (mean, 10.13; standard deviation, 11.476) and the no orthotic group (mean, 14.07; standard deviation, 11.106; t[28], -0.954; P = .348; and 95% confidence interval, -12.380 to 4.513). In contrast to the findings of previous studies, our results suggest that a functional wrist orthosis, when supporting the joint in a 'typical' position, may not lead to an immediate improvement in hand function. Wearing a functional wrist orthosis did not lead to an immediate improvement in the ability of children with cerebral palsy or brain injury to grasp and release. Further research is needed combining upper limb orthoses with task-specific training and measuring outcomes over the medium to long term. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. All rights reserved.

  19. ISO 14000: Origin, Structure, and Potential Barriers to Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casto; Ellisen; Trnovec; Kross; Ginter

    1996-04-01

    The ISO 14000 is likely to become the international standard for environmental management. At present, it is an evolving series of individual voluntary standards and guideline reference documents that provide business management with the structure for managing environmental impacts. These encompass environmental management systems, environmental audits, eco-labeling, environmental performance evaluations, life-cycle assessment, and environmental aspects in product standards. The authors present the rationale for the ISO 14000 and the steps in its evolution so far, as well as its present provisions and their implications and its position with regard to regulatory agencies. Particular attention is paid to the consequences of voluntary disclosure and correction of violations. Hanley & Belfus, Inc. Int J Occup Environ Health 1077-3525 2 2 1996 April/June Perspectives on Rural Environmental Health in Central Europe 125 134 EN Tomas Trnovec Burton C. Kross CIREH-Room 352, International Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Emil Ginter Life expectancy is about five to seven years less in Central European countries than in comparable countries in Western Europe. Environmental and occupational health risk factors, along with the socioeconomic and political conditions that have prevailed in this region for the past 40 years, are suspected contributing factors to this condition. The initial impression among observers was that environmental pollution by industry was the primary source of contamination leading to human health effects. Current thinking by the authors recognizes that combinations of personal habits, local environmental emissions (home heating), and occupational risk factors are more likely to be influencing the health of this region, particularly in rural areas. A predictive model for standard mortality rates determined that only three potential risk factors were statistically significant: consumption of alcoholic beverages, consumption of citrus

  20. Psychosocial reactions to upper extremity limb salvage: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposato, Lindsay; Yancosek, Kathleen; Cancio, Jill

    2017-11-30

    Case series. A salvaged limb is one that has undergone a major traumatic injury, followed by repeated surgical attempts in order to avoid amputation. Psychological recovery for individuals with lower extremity limb salvage has been examined in a number of studies. However, psychosocial reactions for individuals with upper extremity (UE) limb salvage are understudied in the literature. The purpose of this study was to explore the process of psychosocial adaptation for 3 trauma cases after UE limb salvage. The Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory was used to assess psychosocial adaptation. Physical function outcomes (pain, range of motion, edema, sensation, and dexterity) are presented. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand measure was used to assess perceived disability. Medical and rehabilitation history are discussed for each case, in order to provide in-depth understanding of the impact of these injuries. Reactions to injury varied across the cases; however, outcomes suggest that psychosocial adaptation may be influenced by the experience of pain, the ability to participate in valued roles and activities, and having a supportive social network. For this population, therapists may consider emphasizing pain management, focusing on client-centered goals and interventions, and facilitating peer support. Providers should closely monitor patients for signs of poor adaptation, such as hand-hiding behaviors. This study is among the first to examine psychological outcomes for the UE limb salvage population. Future research would be beneficial to provide deeper understanding of the psychosocial challenges for these individuals. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of a phosphocitrate analogue on osteophyte, subchondral bone advance, and bone marrow lesions in Hartley guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y; Kiraly, A J; Sun, A R; Cox, M; Mauerhan, D R; Hanley, E N

    2018-02-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to examine osteophyte formation, subchondral bone advance, and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) in osteoarthritis (OA)-prone Hartley guinea pigs; and 2) to assess the disease-modifying activity of an orally administered phosphocitrate 'analogue', Carolinas Molecule-01 (CM-01). Young Hartley guinea pigs were divided into two groups. The first group (n = 12) had drinking water and the second group (n = 9) had drinking water containing CM-01. Three guinea pigs in each group were euthanized at age six, 12, and 18 months, respectively. Three guinea pigs in the first group were euthanized aged three months as baseline control. Radiological, histological, and immunochemical examinations were performed to assess cartilage degeneration, osteophyte formation, subchondral bone advance, BMLs, and the levels of matrix metalloproteinse-13 (MMP13) protein expression in the knee joints of hind limbs. In addition to cartilage degeneration, osteophytes, subchondral bone advance, and BMLs increased with age. Subchondral bone advance was observed as early as six months, whereas BMLs and osteophytes were both observed mainly at 12 and 18 months. Fibrotic BMLs were found mostly underneath the degenerated cartilage on the medial side. In contrast, necrotic BMLs were found almost exclusively in the interspinous region. Orally administered CM-01 decreased all of these pathological changes and reduced the levels of MMP13 expression. Subchondral bone may play a role in cartilage degeneration. Subchondral bone changes are early events; formation of osteophytes and BMLs are later events in the OA disease process. Carolinas Molecule-01 is a promising small molecule candidate to be tested as an oral disease-modifying drug for human OA therapy. Cite this article : Y. Sun, A. J. Kiraly, A. R. Sun, M. Cox, D. R. Mauerhan, E. N. Hanley Jr. Effects of a phosphocitrate analogue on osteophyte, subchondral bone advance, and bone marrow lesions in Hartley guinea

  2. [Comparison of the "Trigger" tool with the minimum basic data set for detecting adverse events in general surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Zapata, A I; Gutiérrez Samaniego, M; Rodríguez Cuéllar, E; Gómez de la Cámara, A; Ruiz López, P

    Surgery is a high risk for the occurrence of adverse events (AE). The main objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of the Trigger tool with the Hospital National Health System registration of Discharges, the minimum basic data set (MBDS), in detecting adverse events in patients admitted to General Surgery and undergoing surgery. Observational and descriptive retrospective study of patients admitted to general surgery of a tertiary hospital, and undergoing surgery in 2012. The identification of adverse events was made by reviewing the medical records, using an adaptation of "Global Trigger Tool" methodology, as well as the (MBDS) registered on the same patients. Once the AE were identified, they were classified according to damage and to the extent to which these could have been avoided. The area under the curve (ROC) were used to determine the discriminatory power of the tools. The Hanley and Mcneil test was used to compare both tools. AE prevalence was 36.8%. The TT detected 89.9% of all AE, while the MBDS detected 28.48%. The TT provides more information on the nature and characteristics of the AE. The area under the curve was 0.89 for the TT and 0.66 for the MBDS. These differences were statistically significant (P<.001). The Trigger tool detects three times more adverse events than the MBDS registry. The prevalence of adverse events in General Surgery is higher than that estimated in other studies. Copyright © 2017 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of KinesioTape on the treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Hassan; Soleimanifar, Manijeh; Arab, A M; Hamneshin Behbahani, Shirin

    Randomized clinical trial. KinesioTape (KT) is a noninvasive method to treat pain and muscular dysfunction. To investigate the effect of KT with and without tension on pain intensity, pain pressure threshold, grip strength and disability in individuals with lateral epicondylitis, and myofacial trigger points in forearm muscles. Thirty women with lateral epicondylitis and myofacial trigger point in forearm muscles were randomly assigned to KT with tension and placebo (KT without tension). The treatment was provided 3 times in one week, and outcome measures were assess pre-post treatment. The mean score of visual analogue scale (VAS) during activity decreased significantly from 6.4 and 6 pretest to 2.53 and 4.66 posttest, respectively, for the KT with and without tension groups. The mean score of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand decreased significantly from 16.82 and 22.79 pretest to 8.65 and 8.29 posttest, respectively, for the KT with and without tension groups. A paired t-test revealed a significant reduction in VAS during activity and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand before and after treatment in both groups (P < .05). Pain pressure threshold, grip strength, and VAS using an algometer revealed no significant differences. The study showed no significant difference in variables immediately after intervention. Improvements in functional disability were superior when KT was used with tension, than obtained with a placebo-no tension application. The application of KT produces an improvement in pain intensity and upper extremity disability in subjects with LE and MTP in forearm muscles, and KT with tension was more effective than placebo group. NA. 100-216. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hand rest and wrist support are effective in preventing fatigue during prolonged typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegari, Bianca; de Resende, Marília Maniglia; da Silva Filho, Manoel

    Case series (longitudinal). Only few reports concerning the efficacy of commonly used strategies for preventing upper limb occupational disorders associated with prolonged typing exist. We aimed to investigate whether the duration of typing and the use of 2 strategies (hand rest and wrist support) changes muscle physiological response and therefore the electromyography records. We enrolled 25 volunteers, who were unfamiliar with the task and did not have musculoskeletal disorders. The subjects underwent 3 prolonged typing protocols to investigate the efficacy of the 2 adopted strategies in reducing the trapezius, biceps brachii, and extensor digitorum communis fatigue. Typing for 1 hour induced muscular fatigue (60%-67% of the subjects). The extensor digitorum communis muscle exhibited the highest percentage of fatigue (72%-84%) after 1 and 4 hours of typing (1 hour, P = .04; 4 hours, P = .02). Fatigue levels in this muscle were significantly reduced (24%) with the use of pause typing (4 hours, P = .045), whereas biceps brachii muscle fatigue was reduced (32%) only with the use of wrist supports (P = .02, after 4 hours). Trapezius muscle fatigue was unaffected by the tested occupational strategies (1 hour, P = .62; 4 hours, P = .85). Despite presenting an overall tendency for fatigue detected during the application of the protocols, the assessed muscles exhibited different behavior patterns, depending on both the preventive strategy applied and the muscle mechanical role during the task. Hand rest and wrist support can successfully reduce muscle fatigue in specific upper limb muscles during prolonged typing, leading to a muscle-selective reduction in the occurrence of fatigue and thus provide direct evidence that they may prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders. N/A. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Scientists and Faith Communities in Dialogue - Finding Common Ground to Care for our Common Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    World-wide, faith communities are a key place for education and outreach to the general adult population. The sacred responsibility to care for the earth, living sustainability and concern for the poor are nearly universal priorities across faith communities. Scientists and people of faith share in common experiences of awe and wonder and ethical roles as citizens. The majority of faith communities have statements on climate changes, environmental justice, and stewardship, and respond with education, action plans and advocacy. People of faith are increasingly seeking science expertise to better understand the science and best solutions to implement. Transformation of point of view often requires heart-felt motivation (domain of religion) as well as knowledge (science). Scientists can participate in alleviating environmental justice by providing data and education to communities. Expert testimony is a critical service. Pope Francis' environmental encyclical Laudato si, engaged diverse scientists in its writing and outreach. Francis invites our continued dialogue with people of faith and goodwill of all societal sectors and fields to achieve an integral ecology that integrates science, economics, and impacts on the poor. For scientists to be most effective in sharing expertise, and building understanding and trust in scientific findings, skill- building is needed in: communication, finding common ground, intercultural competency, working with diverse populations and religious literacy. Educational initiatives bridging scientists and faith-communities will be highlighted including within: the Ecological Society of America, American Assn for Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, faith-based & Environmental Justice networks, Nature centers, Higher Education (including Seminary) Initiatives and the Hanley Sustainability Institute, and interfaith religious organizations engaged with scientists. Bridge-building and ongoing partnerships of scientists, EJ

  6. Developmental surface and phonological dyslexia in both Greek and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Andreas; Hanley, J Richard

    2017-11-01

    The hallmark of developmental surface dyslexia in English and French is inaccurate reading of words with atypical spelling-sound correspondences. According to Douklias, Masterson and Hanley (2009), surface dyslexia can also be observed in Greek (a transparent orthography for reading that does not contain words of this kind). Their findings suggested that surface dyslexia in Greek can be characterized by slow reading of familiar words, and by inaccurate spelling of words with atypical sound-spelling correspondences (Greek is less transparent for spelling than for reading). In this study, we report seven adult cases whose slow reading and impaired spelling accuracy satisfied these criteria for Greek surface dyslexia. When asked to read words with atypical grapheme-phoneme correspondences in English (their second language), their accuracy was severely impaired. A co-occurrence was also observed between impaired spelling of words with atypical phoneme-grapheme correspondences in English and Greek. These co-occurrences provide strong evidence that surface dyslexia genuinely exists in Greek and that slow reading of real words in Greek reflects the same underlying impairment as that which produces inaccurate reading of atypical words in English. Two further individuals were observed with impaired reading and spelling of nonwords in both languages, consistent with developmental phonological dyslexia. Neither of the phonological dyslexics read words slowly. In terms of computational models of reading aloud, these findings suggest that slow reading by dyslexics in transparent orthographies is the consequence of a developmental impairment of the lexical (Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Zeigler, 2001; Perry, Ziegler, & Zorzi, 2010) or semantic reading route (Plaut, McClelland, Seidenberg, & Patterson, 1996). This outcome provides evidence that the neurophysiological substrate(s) that support the lexical/semantic and the phonological pathways that are involved in reading

  7. Best waveform score for diagnosing keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Luz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To test whether corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF can discriminate between keratoconus and normal eyes and to evaluate whether the averages of two consecutive measurements perform differently from the one with the best waveform score (WS for diagnosing keratoconus. METHODS: ORA measurements for one eye per individual were selected randomly from 53 normal patients and from 27 patients with keratoconus. Two groups were considered the average (CH-Avg, CRF-Avg and best waveform score (CH-WS, CRF-WS groups. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate whether the variables had similar distributions in the Normal and Keratoconus groups. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves were calculated for each parameter to assess the efficacy for diagnosing keratoconus and the same obtained for each variable were compared pairwise using the Hanley-McNeil test. RESULTS: The CH-Avg, CRF-Avg, CH-WS and CRF-WS differed significantly between the normal and keratoconus groups (p<0.001. The areas under the ROC curve (AUROC for CH-Avg, CRF-Avg, CH-WS, and CRF-WS were 0.824, 0.873, 0.891, and 0.931, respectively. CH-WS and CRF-WS had significantly better AUROCs than CH-Avg and CRF-Avg, respectively (p=0.001 and 0.002. CONCLUSION: The analysis of the biomechanical properties of the cornea through the ORA method has proved to be an important aid in the diagnosis of keratoconus, regardless of the method used. The best waveform score (WS measurements were superior to the average of consecutive ORA measurements for diagnosing keratoconus.

  8. Executive function and self-regulated exergaming adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cay eAnderson-Hanley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The rise in dementia and the evidence of cognitive benefits of exercise for the older adult population together make salient the research into variables affecting cognitive benefit and exercise behavior. One promising avenue for increasing exercise participation has been the introduction of exergaming, a type of exercise that works in combination with virtual reality to enhance both the exercise experience and health outcomes. Past research has revealed that executive function (EF was related to greater use of self-regulatory strategies, which in turn was related to greater adherence to exercise following an intervention (McAuley et al., 2011. Best et al. (2014 found improvement in EF related to adherence to exercise post- intervention. Anderson-Hanley et al. (2012 found that for older adults aerobic exergaming yielded greater cognitive benefit than traditional exercise alone; however, questions remain as to the possible impact of greater cognitive benefit and other factors on participants’ involvement in exercise following the end of an intervention. The current study presents follow-up data exploring the relationship between change in EF, self-regulation, and exercise adherence in the post-intervention (naturalistic period. Herein, it was predicted that improvement in EF during an exercise intervention, would predict subsequent exercise with an exergame during the naturalistic window. Contrary to expectations, results suggest that those with EF decline during the intervention used the exergame more frequently. The results of this study contradict previous literature, but suggest an interesting relationship between change in executive function, self-regulation, and exercise behaviors when exergaming is employed, particularly with older adults with some cognitive decline. We hypothesize that other factors may be at work; perhaps expectation of cognitive benefit might act as a unique motivator or caregivers may be instrumental in adherence.

  9. Barriers and Solutions to Fieldwork Education in Hand Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Nathan; Sample, Shelby; Murphy, Malachi; Austin, Brittany; Glass, Jillian

    2017-08-09

    specialty clinical rotations. N/A. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between sexually transmitted disease and church membership. A retrospective cohort study of two Danish religious minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kørup, Alex Kappel; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Christensen, René dePont; Johansen, Christoffer; Søndergaard, Jens; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Studies comprising Danish Seventh-day Adventists (SDAs) and Danish Baptists found that members have a lower risk of chronic diseases including cancer. Explanations have pointed to differences in lifestyle, but detailed aetiology has only been sparsely examined. Our objective was to investigate the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among Danish SDAs and Baptists as a proxy for cancers related to sexual behaviour. Methods We followed the Danish Cohort of Religious Societies from 1977 to 2009, and linked it with national registers of all inpatient and outpatient care contacts using the National Patient Register. We compared the incidence of syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia among members of the cohort with the general population. Results The cohort comprised 3119 SDA females, 1856 SDA males, 2056 Baptist females and 1467 Baptist males. For the entire cohort, we expected a total of 32.4 events of STD, and observed only 9. Female SDAs and Baptists aged 20–39 years had significant lower incidence of chlamydia (both p<0.001). Male SDAs and Baptists aged 20–39 years also had significant lower incidence of chlamydia (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). No SDA members were diagnosed with gonorrhoea, when 3.4 events were expected, which, according to Hanley's ‘rule of three’, is a significant difference. No SDA or Baptist was diagnosed with syphilis. Conclusions The cohort shows significant lower incidence of STD, most likely including human papillomavirus, which may partly explain the lower incidence of cancers of the cervix, rectum, anus, head and neck. PMID:27016243

  11. In search of ancient biomarkers: Using femtosecond - Laser Desorption Post Ionization - Mass Spectrometry (fs-LDPI-MS) to map organic compounds within ca. 2.7 Ga samples from the Abitibi greenstone belt, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterski, M. J.; Barry, G.; Hanley, L.; Kenig, F. P. H.

    2016-12-01

    One of the major challenges within the field of organic geochemistry is to determine whether an observed biomarker signature was emplaced during sedimentation (indigenous), after sedimentation via the post-depositional migration of fluids (non-indigenous), or during sampling, storage, or analysis (contaminant). Current geochemical techniques (e.g. gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS and GCxGC-MS) can effectively determine the composition and structure of the organic constituents of a sample. However, because of the multiple preparatory steps necessary prior to GC-MS analysis (sample crushing, solvent extraction, organic fraction separation) it is impossible to precisely determine the spatial relationship between the host sample and the organic molecules within. We used an MS imaging method developed by Prof. Luke Hanley at the University of Illinois at Chicago, femtosecond-laser desorption post ionization-MS (fs-LDPI-MS), to map the organics within previously characterized ca.2.7 billion year old (Ga) metasediments from the Abitibi greenstone belt near Timmins, ON, Canada. We then compared the MS images to petrographic observations that displayed the distribution of mineral species with well constrained mineralization ages as well as fluid inclusions within the samples. Fluid inclusions are formed during mineralization and have the ability to remain intact over long timescales (up to billions of years), protecting the fluids inside from the introduction of non-indigenous and contaminant biomarkers. Although migrating post-depositional fluids can remineralize sediments, fluid inclusions associated with secondary additions are focused along grain boundaries and microfractures (secondary inclusions), thus, inclusions which are located within grain boundaries can be considered primary and the age of their formation can be determined relative to the host rock. Preliminary results indicate that previously observed biomarkers may be linked to a series of

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation Questionnaire on lateral elbow tendinopathy for French-speaking patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaux, Jean-François; Delvaux, François; Schaus, Jean; Demoulin, Christophe; Locquet, Médéa; Buckinx, Fanny; Beaudart, Charlotte; Dardenne, Nadia; Van Beveren, Julien; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Bruyère, Olivier

    tendinopathy. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A systematic review of prognostic factors for return to work following work-related traumatic hand injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiyun; Sinden, Kathryn; MacDermid, Joy C; Walton, David; Grewal, Ruby

    2014-01-01

    Systematic review. Traumatic hand injuries are frequent cause of work related injuries and can result in prolonged durations of time loss from work. To systematically review available evidence to determine which prognostic factors predict return-to-work (RTW) following work-related traumatic hand injuries. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO from 1980 to September 2013 and reference lists of articles. Studies investigating any prognostic factors of RTW after traumatic hand injury were included. Two reviewers performed study selection, assessment of methodological quality and data extraction independently of each other. Identified factors were grouped into conceptual prognostic factor categories. We assessed 8 studies, which addressed 11 potential prognostic factors (i.e., sociodemographic factors, occupation, work compensation status, treatment related factors, impairment severity, location of injury, etc.). The quality of the studies was low to moderate. Across all included studies, RTW (original or modified work) occurred in over 60% of individuals by 6 months. There was consistent low-moderate quality evidence that individuals with more severe impairments and lower pre-injury income were less likely to RTW, and low-moderate quality evidence that age, gender and level of education had no impact on RTW. Evidence on other commonly cited prognostic factors were limited in the literature. Impairment severity and lower pre-injury income showed a consistent association with RTW following occupational hand injury, while other factors demonstrated no or variable effects across studies. Additional high-quality studies are warranted toward improving our understanding of the complex factors that mediate RTW following a traumatic work-related hand injury. 2a. Copyright © 2014 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and reliability of the rating of compensatory movements in upper limb prosthesis wearers during work-related tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Tallie M J; Postema, Sietke G; Reneman, Michiel F; Bongers, Raoul M; van der Sluis, Corry K

    2018-02-10

    Reliability study. Quantifying compensatory movements during work-related tasks may help to prevent musculoskeletal complaints in individuals with upper limb absence. (1) To develop a qualitative scoring system for rating compensatory shoulder and trunk movements in upper limb prosthesis wearers during the performance of functional capacity evaluation tests adjusted for use by 1-handed individuals (functional capacity evaluation-one handed [FCE-OH]); (2) to examine the interrater and intrarater reliability of the scoring system; and (3) to assess its feasibility. Movement patterns of 12 videotaped upper limb prosthesis wearers and 20 controls were analyzed. Compensatory movements were defined for each FCE-OH test, and a scoring system was developed, pilot tested, and adjusted. During reliability testing, 18 raters (12 FCE experts and 6 physiotherapists/gait analysts) scored videotapes of upper limb prosthesis wearers performing 4 FCE-OH tests 2 times (2 weeks apart). Agreement was expressed in % and kappa value. Feasibility (focus area's "acceptability", "demand," and "implementation") was determined by using a questionnaire. After 2 rounds of pilot testing and adjusting, reliability of a third version was tested. The interrater reliability for the first and second rating sessions were к = 0.54 (confidence interval [CI]: 0.52-0.57) and к = 0.64 (CI: 0.61-0.66), respectively. The intrarater reliability was к = 0.77 (CI: 0.72-0.82). The feasibility was good but could be improved by a training program. It seems possible to identify compensatory movements in upper limb prosthesis wearers during the performance of FCE-OH tests reliably by observation using the developed observational scoring system. Interrater reliability was satisfactory in most instances; intrarater reliability was good. Feasibility was established. Copyright © 2018 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Arsenic and arsenic species in shellfish and finfish from the western Arabian Gulf and consumer health risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnakumar, Periyadan K., E-mail: kkumarpk@kfupm.edu.sa [Center for Environment and Water, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Qurban, Mohammad A. [Center for Environment and Water, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Stiboller, Michael [Institute of Chemistry-Analytical Chemistry, NAWI Graz, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Nachman, Keeve E. [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Joydas, Thadickal V.; Manikandan, Karuppasamy P.; Mushir, Shemsi Ahsan [Center for Environment and Water, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Francesconi, Kevin A. [Institute of Chemistry-Analytical Chemistry, NAWI Graz, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the levels of total arsenic and arsenic species in marine biota such as clams (Meretrix meretrix; N = 21) and pearl oyster (Pinctada radiata; N = 5) collected from nine costal sites in Jan 2014, and cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis; N = 8), shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus; N = 1), and seven commercially important finfish species (N = 23) collected during Apr–May 2013 from seven offshore sites in the western Arabian Gulf. Total As and As species such as dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), arsenobetaine (AB), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), arsenocholine (AC), tetramethylarsonium ion (Tetra), arsenosugar-glycerol (As-Gly) and inorganic As (iAs) were determined by using ICPMS and HPLC/ICPMS. In bivalves, the total As concentrations ranged from 16 to 118 mg/kg dry mass; the toxic iAs fraction contributed on average less than 0.8% of the total As, while the nontoxic AB fraction formed around 58%. Total As concentrations for the remaining seafood (cuttlefish, shrimp and finfish) ranged from 11 to 134 mg/kg dry mass and the iAs and AB fractions contributed on average 0.03% and 81% respectively of the total As. There was no significant relationship between the tissue concentrations of total As and iAs in the samples. There was also no significant relationship between As levels in seafood and geographical location or salinity of the waters from which samples were collected. Based on our results, we recommend introducing a maximum permissible level of arsenic in seafood from the Gulf based on iAs content rather than based on total As. Our analyses of cancer risks and non-cancer hazards identified non-negligible risks and the potential for hazards; the greatest risks were identified for expatriate consumers of bivalves and high-end consumers of seafood. Despite this, many uncertainties remain that would be best addressed by further analyses. - Highlights: • Arabian Gulf seafood contains relatively high concentrations of total arsenic. • Non-toxic arsenobetaine forms

  16. Biofouling evaluation in the seawater cooling circuit of an operating coastal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, P.S.; Veeramani, P.; Ershath, M.I.M.; Venugopalan, V.P. [BARC Facilities, Water and Steam Chemistry Div., Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-07-01

    Chlorination is the most commonly used method of biofouling control in cooling water systems of coastal power stations. In the present study, we report results of extensive sampling in different sections of the cooling water system of an operating power station undertaken during three consecutive maintenance shutdowns. The power plant employed continuous low level chlorination (0.2 ± 0.1 mg L{sup -1} TRO) with twice-a-week booster dosing (0.4 ± 0.1 mg L-1 TRO for 8 hours). In addition, the process seawater heat exchangers received supplementary dosing of bromide treatment (0.2 ± 0.1 mg L{sup -1} TRO for 1 hour in every 8 h shift). Biofouling samples were collected from the cooling water conduits, heat exchanger water boxes, pipelines, heated discharge conduits and outfall section during the annual maintenance shutdown of the plant in the years 2007, 2008 and 2009. Simultaneous monitoring of biofouling on test coupons in coastal waters enabled direct comparison of fouling situation on test panels and that in the cooling system. The data showed significant reduction in biofouling inside the cooling circuit as compared to the coastal waters. However, significant amount of fouling was still evident at several places, indicating inadequacy of the biocide treatment regime. The maximum load of 31.3 kg m{sup 2} y{sup -1} was observed in the conduits leading to the process seawater heat exchangers (PSW-HX) and the minimum of 1.3 kg m{sup 2} y{sup -1} was observed in the outfall section. Fouling loads of 12.2 - 14.7 kg m{sup 2} y{sup -1} were observed in the concrete conduits feeding the main condensers. Bromide treatment ahead of the PSW-HX could marginally reduce the fouling load in the downstream section of the dosing point; the HX inlets still showed good biofouling. Species diversity across the cooling water system showed the pre-condenser section to be dominated by green mussels (Perna viridis), pearl oysters (Pinctada sp.) and edible oysters (Crassostrea sp

  17. Study on the bioaccumulation of Polonium-210 on bivalve indicator organisms of Tamilnadu and Pondicherry coast (East Coast of India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Mohamed, H.E.; Sadiq Bukhari, A.; Meeramaideen, M.; Masilamani, V.; Shamsudin, Mohamed; Shahul Hameed, P.

    2012-01-01

    210 Po is a major contributor (90%) of the natural radiation dose from alpha-emitting radionuclides, received by most marine organisms. Among marine organisms, benthic fauna are superior to many other biological groups, since they could be monitored due to their sedentary habits and then must either adapt to environmental stress or perish. They also reflect the water conditions not only at the time of sampling but also for some past time as well. The affinity of 210 Po for protein enables it to pass through the food chain, and increased body burdens of 210 Po have been found where diets include protein-rich meat and seafood. The present study was launched to evaluate the rate of accumulation of 210 Po in the benthic bivalve molluscs such as Perna indica, P.viridis, Meretrix casta, Cardium coronatum, Gafrarium tumidum, Paphia textrix, Vellorita cyprinodea and Pinctada sp., of Tamilnadu and Pondicherry coast. Water samples, sediments and bivalves were collected from Gulf of Mannar (6 sampling stations), Palk Strait (8 sampling stations) of Tamilnadu and Pondicherry (6 sampling stations). 210 Po determination as made was as per standard protocols. The results showed that 210 Po concentration in coastal waters of Gulf of Mannar, Palk Strait and Pondicherry ranged 0.5 - 2.83 mBq/l (mean 1.33 mBq/I), 2.14 - 32.14 mBq/l (mean 15.3 mBq/l) and 1.36 - 2.0 mBq/1 (mean 1.59 mBq/1) respectively. The sediments maintained higher level of 210 Po (mean value of 3.62 Bq/kg in Gulf of Mannar, 107.9 Bq/kg in Palk Strait and 3.0 Bq/kg in Pondicherry) than water. The 210 Po rich sediment therefore serves as a vital link in the transfer of Polonium from water to the marine organisms. The concentration of 210 Po in eight species of bivalves collected from the study area, recorded a maximum level ranging from 65.2 to 2668.9 Bq/kg in soft tissues and from 1.19 to 15.3 Bq/kg in shells. The bioaccumulation ability in bivalve species with reference to 210 Po was observed to be highly variable

  18. Arsenic and arsenic species in shellfish and finfish from the western Arabian Gulf and consumer health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnakumar, Periyadan K.; Qurban, Mohammad A.; Stiboller, Michael; Nachman, Keeve E.; Joydas, Thadickal V.; Manikandan, Karuppasamy P.; Mushir, Shemsi Ahsan; Francesconi, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the levels of total arsenic and arsenic species in marine biota such as clams (Meretrix meretrix; N = 21) and pearl oyster (Pinctada radiata; N = 5) collected from nine costal sites in Jan 2014, and cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis; N = 8), shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus; N = 1), and seven commercially important finfish species (N = 23) collected during Apr–May 2013 from seven offshore sites in the western Arabian Gulf. Total As and As species such as dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), arsenobetaine (AB), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), arsenocholine (AC), tetramethylarsonium ion (Tetra), arsenosugar-glycerol (As-Gly) and inorganic As (iAs) were determined by using ICPMS and HPLC/ICPMS. In bivalves, the total As concentrations ranged from 16 to 118 mg/kg dry mass; the toxic iAs fraction contributed on average less than 0.8% of the total As, while the nontoxic AB fraction formed around 58%. Total As concentrations for the remaining seafood (cuttlefish, shrimp and finfish) ranged from 11 to 134 mg/kg dry mass and the iAs and AB fractions contributed on average 0.03% and 81% respectively of the total As. There was no significant relationship between the tissue concentrations of total As and iAs in the samples. There was also no significant relationship between As levels in seafood and geographical location or salinity of the waters from which samples were collected. Based on our results, we recommend introducing a maximum permissible level of arsenic in seafood from the Gulf based on iAs content rather than based on total As. Our analyses of cancer risks and non-cancer hazards identified non-negligible risks and the potential for hazards; the greatest risks were identified for expatriate consumers of bivalves and high-end consumers of seafood. Despite this, many uncertainties remain that would be best addressed by further analyses. - Highlights: • Arabian Gulf seafood contains relatively high concentrations of total arsenic. • Non-toxic arsenobetaine forms

  19. Developing a national spat collection program for pearl oysters in the Fiji Islands supporting pearl industry development and livelihoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranesh Kishore

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultured pearl farming in Fiji relies on wild spat collection to supply the oysters used for pearl production. This supply can be inconsistent and a research program was implemented to determine recruitment of pearl oysters to spat collectors at sites throughout Fiji as a basis for developing a national spat collection program to improve reliability of oyster supply to the industry. Twenty-nine sites across Fiji were used in this study. Spat collectors consisted of a 100 m longline from which 310 individual spat collectors were suspended. Spat collectors were deployed for a period of 10–15 months when the number of pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera and Pteria penguin spat attached to each collector was counted and shell size recorded. A total of 5478 P. margaritifera juveniles were collected from all sites with the highest number of recruits (693 and the highest number of recruits per collector (2.10 ± 0.17 occurring at Nacobau (Vanua Levu. The largest mean dorso-ventral measurement (DVM of P. margaritifera at any site was 8.61 ± 0.30 cm while the smallest was 4.26 ± 0.13 cm. Some sites did not record any P. margaritifera recruitment during the study and these were generally sites with relatively turbid water. A total of 4224 Pt. penguin were collected from all sites, with the highest number of recruits (495 recorded from Namarai (Viti Levu. The mean DVM of Pt. penguin ranged from 7.53 cm to 13.62 cm across sites. Results indicate that Pt. penguin have greater tolerance of more turbid inshore sites than P. margaritifera based on greater levels of recruitment at these sites. Results identified sites supporting high levels of pearl oyster recruitment as a basis for an ongoing national spat collection program, and support better targeting of spat collection activities that maximise oyster supply to the Fijian pearl industry. The national spat collection program will generate significant livelihood benefits across

  20. Biofouling evaluation in the seawater cooling circuit of an operating coastal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, P.S.; Veeramani, P.; Ershath, M.I.M.; Venugopalan, V.P.

    2010-01-01

    Chlorination is the most commonly used method of biofouling control in cooling water systems of coastal power stations. In the present study, we report results of extensive sampling in different sections of the cooling water system of an operating power station undertaken during three consecutive maintenance shutdowns. The power plant employed continuous low level chlorination (0.2 ± 0.1 mg L -1 TRO) with twice-a-week booster dosing (0.4 ± 0.1 mg L-1 TRO for 8 hours). In addition, the process seawater heat exchangers received supplementary dosing of bromide treatment (0.2 ± 0.1 mg L -1 TRO for 1 hour in every 8 h shift). Biofouling samples were collected from the cooling water conduits, heat exchanger water boxes, pipelines, heated discharge conduits and outfall section during the annual maintenance shutdown of the plant in the years 2007, 2008 and 2009. Simultaneous monitoring of biofouling on test coupons in coastal waters enabled direct comparison of fouling situation on test panels and that in the cooling system. The data showed significant reduction in biofouling inside the cooling circuit as compared to the coastal waters. However, significant amount of fouling was still evident at several places, indicating inadequacy of the biocide treatment regime. The maximum load of 31.3 kg m 2 y -1 was observed in the conduits leading to the process seawater heat exchangers (PSW-HX) and the minimum of 1.3 kg m 2 y -1 was observed in the outfall section. Fouling loads of 12.2 - 14.7 kg m 2 y -1 were observed in the concrete conduits feeding the main condensers. Bromide treatment ahead of the PSW-HX could marginally reduce the fouling load in the downstream section of the dosing point; the HX inlets still showed good biofouling. Species diversity across the cooling water system showed the pre-condenser section to be dominated by green mussels (Perna viridis), pearl oysters (Pinctada sp.) and edible oysters (Crassostrea sp.), whereas the post-condenser section and heat

  1. Investigating differences between proper and common nouns using novel word learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Romanova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies have shown higher rates of tip-of-the-tongue states for proper nouns, in comparison to common nouns, in non-brain-damaged speakers (e.g., Valentine & Moore, 1995, and higher retrieval failure rates for proper nouns relative to common nouns in people with aphasia (e.g., Semenza, 2009. Some authors suggest the source of these differences lies in logical properties (e.g., Semenza, 2009. That is, common nouns refer to a category of beings or objects that share certain semantic properties, while proper nouns designate specific individual beings or objects with unique features. Other authors attribute the distinction in processing to a number of statistical properties that differ across common and proper nouns (Kay, Hanley, & Miles, 2001. The aims of the present study were: 1 to dissociate the effects of logical and statistical properties by using novel words with equal statistical properties; 2 to determine whether people with aphasia show disproportionate impairments in learning proper nouns relative to common nouns, compared to aged-matched subjects. Methods We tested young (n=16 and elderly (n=14 adult non-brain-damaged participants and people with aphasia (n=2. Items-to-be-learnt were given as representatives of an unknown species (n=10 in the common noun condition, or as individual creatures (n=10 in the proper noun condition. The experiment consisted of 5 sessions. Each session included a learning phase and a test phase with naming and word-picture verification tasks. Results and Discussion Preliminary analysis showed learning of both common and proper nouns for both younger (F(4=140.68, p<.01 and elderly (F(4=34.87, p<.01 non-brain-damaged participants, with learning being significantly better for the younger group (F(4=6.5, p<.01. Contrary to expectations, performance on proper nouns was better than that for common nouns for both young and elderly subjects (F(1=6.47, p=.02 and F(1=9.75, p<.01, respectively, possibly due to

  2. Moisture transport and Atmospheric circulation in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Cian; Caballero, Rodrigo

    2013-04-01

    Arctic. We investigate an Arctic trajectory dataset and provide a phenomenological/descriptive analysis of these trajectories, including key meteorological variables carried along trajectories. The trajectory climatology is linked to a previously established cyclone climatology dataset from Hanley and Caballero (2011). We associate trajectories and the meteorological variables they are carrying to cyclones in this dataset. A climatology of 'Arctic-influencing' cyclones is constructed from the cyclone dataset. The resilience of the polar vortex and its effect on circulation, via blocking and breaking, is examined in relation to our trajectory climatology.

  3. Robot training for hand motor recovery in subacute stroke patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Roldán, Giovana Femat; Sánchez-Villavicencio, Israel; Palafox, Lorena; Leder, Ronald; Sucar, Luis Enrique; Hernández-Franco, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of superiority of robot training for the hand over classical therapies in stroke patients remains controversial. During the subacute stage, hand training is likely to be the most useful. To establish whether robot active assisted therapies provides any additional motor recovery for the hand when administered during the subacute stage (robot based therapies for hand recovery will show significant differences at subacute stages. A randomized clinical trial. A between subjects randomized controlled trial was carried out on subacute stroke patients (n = 17) comparing robot active assisted therapy (RT) with a classical occupational therapy (OT). Both groups received 40 sessions ensuring at least 300 repetitions per session. Treatment duration was (mean ± std) 2.18 ± 1.25 months for the control group and 2.44 ± 0.88 months for the study group. The primary outcome was motor dexterity changes assessed with the Fugl-Meyer (FMA) and the Motricity Index (MI). Both groups (OT: n = 8; RT: n = 9) exhibited significant improvements over time (Non-parametric Cliff's delta-within effect sizes: dwOT-FMA = 0.5, dwOT-MI = 0.5, dwRT-FMA = 1, dwRT-MI = 1). Regarding differences between the therapies; the Fugl-Meyer score indicated a significant advantage for the hand training with the robot (FMA hand: WRS: W = 8, p hand prehension for RT with respect to OT but failed to reach significance (MI prehension: W = 17.5, p = 0.080). No harm occurred. Robotic therapies may be useful during the subacute stages of stroke - both endpoints (FM hand and MI prehension) showed the expected trend with bigger effect size for the robotic intervention. Additional benefit of the robotic therapy over the control therapy was only significant when the difference was measured with FM, demanding further investigation with larger samples. Implications of this study are important for decision making during therapy administration and resource allocation. Copyright © 2016 Hanley

  4. Effects of a phosphocitrate analogue on osteophyte, subchondral bone advance, and bone marrow lesions in Hartley guinea pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraly, A. J.; Sun, A. R.; Cox, M.; Mauerhan, D. R.; Hanley, E. N.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were: 1) to examine osteophyte formation, subchondral bone advance, and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) in osteoarthritis (OA)-prone Hartley guinea pigs; and 2) to assess the disease-modifying activity of an orally administered phosphocitrate ‘analogue’, Carolinas Molecule-01 (CM-01). Methods Young Hartley guinea pigs were divided into two groups. The first group (n = 12) had drinking water and the second group (n = 9) had drinking water containing CM-01. Three guinea pigs in each group were euthanized at age six, 12, and 18 months, respectively. Three guinea pigs in the first group were euthanized aged three months as baseline control. Radiological, histological, and immunochemical examinations were performed to assess cartilage degeneration, osteophyte formation, subchondral bone advance, BMLs, and the levels of matrix metalloproteinse-13 (MMP13) protein expression in the knee joints of hind limbs. Results In addition to cartilage degeneration, osteophytes, subchondral bone advance, and BMLs increased with age. Subchondral bone advance was observed as early as six months, whereas BMLs and osteophytes were both observed mainly at 12 and 18 months. Fibrotic BMLs were found mostly underneath the degenerated cartilage on the medial side. In contrast, necrotic BMLs were found almost exclusively in the interspinous region. Orally administered CM-01 decreased all of these pathological changes and reduced the levels of MMP13 expression. Conclusion Subchondral bone may play a role in cartilage degeneration. Subchondral bone changes are early events; formation of osteophytes and BMLs are later events in the OA disease process. Carolinas Molecule-01 is a promising small molecule candidate to be tested as an oral disease-modifying drug for human OA therapy. Cite this article: Y. Sun, A. J. Kiraly, A. R. Sun, M. Cox, D. R. Mauerhan, E. N. Hanley Jr. Effects of a phosphocitrate analogue on osteophyte, subchondral bone advance, and

  5. Reliability, validity, and minimal detectable change of the push-off test scores in assessing upper extremity weight-bearing ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Saurabh P; George, Hannah R; Goering, Christian A; Shafer, Danielle R; Koester, Alan; Novotny, Steven

    2017-11-01

    responsiveness and discriminant validity of the POT in patients with wrist conditions. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical data management: Current status, challenges, and future directions from industry perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwu Lu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Zhengwu Lu1, Jing Su21Smith Hanley Consulting, Houston, Texas; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USAAbstract: To maintain a competitive position, the biopharmaceutical industry has been facing the challenge of increasing productivity both internally and externally. As the product of the clinical development process, clinical data are recognized to be the key corporate asset and provide critical evidence of a medicine’s efficacy and safety and of its potential economic value to the market. It is also well recognized that using effective technology-enabled methods to manage clinical data can enhance the speed with which the drug is developed and commercialized, hence enhancing the competitive advantage. The effective use of data-capture tools may ensure that high-quality data are available for early review and rapid decision-making. A well-designed, protocol-driven, standardized, site workflow-oriented and documented database, populated via efficient data feed mechanisms, will ensure regulatory and commercial questions receive rapid responses. When information from a sponsor’s clinical database or data warehouse develops into corporate knowledge, the value of the medicine can be realized. Moreover, regulators, payer groups, patients, activist groups, patient advocacy groups, and employers are becoming more educated consumers of medicine, requiring monetary value and quality, and seeking out up-todate medical information supplied by biopharmaceutical companies. All these developments in the current biopharmaceutical arena demand that clinical data management (CDM is at the forefront, leading change, influencing direction, and providing objective evidence. Sustaining an integrated database or data repository for initial product registration and subsequent postmarketing uses is a long-term process to maximize return on investment for organizations. CDM should be the owner of driving clinical data

  7. Peer Communication in Online Mental Health Forums for Young People: Directional and Nondirectional Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Julie; Hanley, Terry; Ujhelyi, Katalin

    2017-08-02

    individuals making an explicit suggestion of what they believe the poster should do. This study adds to the research exploring what young people discuss within online forums and provides insights into how these communications take place. Furthermore, it highlights the challenge that organizations may encounter in mediating support that is multidimensional in nature (informational-emotional, directive-nondirective). ©Julie Prescott, Terry Hanley, Katalin Ujhelyi. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 02.08.2017.

  8. Enhancement of Carbon Sequestration in west coast Douglas-fir Forests with Nitrogen Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.; Jassal, R.; Black, A.; Brummer, C.; Spittlehouse, D.; Nesic, Z.

    2008-12-01

    Fertilization is one of the eligible management practices for C sequestering and hence reducing CO2 emissions under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol. In the coastal regions of British Columbia, which have very little nitrogen (N) deposition from pollution sources owing to their remote location, and soils deficient in N (Hanley et al., 1996), Douglas-fir stands respond to N fertilization (Brix, 1981; Fisher and Binkley, 2000; Chapin et al., 2002). However, a major concern with N fertilization is the potential loss from the soil surface of the highly potent greenhouse gas N2O, and little is known about such losses in N-fertilized forest soils. While it is necessary to determine and quantify the effects of N fertilization on stand C sequestration, it is also important to address environmental concerns by measuring N2O emissions to determine the net greenhouse gas (GHG) global warming potential (GWP). The GWP of N2O is 296 times (100-year time horizon) greater than that of CO2 (Ehhalt and Prather, 2001), yet there is little information on its net radiative forcing as a result of forest fertilization. We report two years of results on the effects of N fertilization in a chronosequence of three Douglas-fir stands (7, 19 and 58 years old, hereafter referred to as HDF00, HDF88 and DF49, respectively) on net C sequestration or net primary productivity measured using the eddy-covariance technique. DF49 (110 ha) and HDF88 (20 ha) were aerially fertilized with urea at 200 kg N ha-1 on Jan 13 and Feb 17, 2007, respectively, while due to its young age and competing understory, fertilizer to HDF00 (5 ha) was manually applied at 80 g urea/tree (60 kg N ha-1) along the tree drip line on Feb 13-14, 2007. Additionally, we calculate the net change in GHG GWP resulting from fertilization of DF49 by accounting for N2O emissions and energy costs of fertilizer production, transport, and application. We also compare polymer-coated slow-release urea (Environmentally Smart Nitrogen (ESN

  9. The push-off test: development of a simple, reliable test of upper extremity weight-bearing capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Joshua I; MacDermid, Joy C; Michlovitz, Susan L; Rafuse, Richard; Wells-Rowsell, Christina; Wong, Owen; Bisbee, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    administered quantitative measure of ability to bear the load through an injured arm. Preliminary evidence supports a moderate relationship between loading bearing measured by the POT and upper extremity function measured by the DASH. 1b. Copyright © 2014 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of the effectiveness of orthotic intervention, kinesiotaping, and paraffin treatments in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: A single-blind and randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansiz Kaplan, Basak; Akyuz, Gulseren; Kokar, Serdar; Yagci, Ilker

    2018-02-17

    The aim of the study was to compare different conservative treatments in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). A single-blind randomized controlled study. Patients (n = 169) diagnosed with mild or moderate CTS were screened; 110 met study requirements. The patients were randomized into 3 groups. The control (CON) comparison provided to all patients was a fabricated night orthotic which held the wrist in a neutral position. The second group received adjunctive kinesiotaping (KIN) and the third group received paraffin (PARA). All patients were evaluated clinically, electrophysiologically, and ultrasonographically before treatment and at 3 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. There were 36 patients in CON, 37 in KIN, and 37 in PARA. Pain reduction in KIN was better than the other groups at 3 weeks (mean difference [MD] in CON 2.4 ± 2.5, KIN 3.7 ± 2.0, PARA 2.7 ± 2.3; P < .01) and 6 months (MD in CON 3.4 ± 3.0, KIN 4.9 ± 3.1, PARA 3.7 ± 2.9; P < .05). KIN pain reduction was better than CON at 3 months (MD in CON 3.8 ± 2.8, KIN 5.0 ± 2.5; P < .05). Reduction of the cross-sectional area of median nerve at the level of radioulnar joint was greater for KIN than CON at 3 weeks (MD in CON 0.0 ± 0.5, KIN 0.3 ± 0.7; P < .01) than PARA at 3 months (MD in KIN 0.3 ± 0.8, PARA 0.0 ± 0.8; P < .05) and both groups at 6 months (MD in CON 0.1 ± 0.8, KIN 0.5 ± 0.9, PARA 0.0 ± 1.0 P < .05). Adding KIN to night use of an orthotic was more effective in achieving symptomatic and structural improvements than either the orthotic alone or adjunctive use of paraffin in patients with mild and moderate CTS. Copyright © 2018 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental Demonstration of the Formation of Liquid Brines under Martian Polar Conditions in the Michigan Mars Environmental Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Erik; Martinez, German; Elliott, Harvey; Borlina, Caue; Renno, Nilton

    2014-05-01

    observed within the Martian diurnal cycle. This greatly diminishes the possibility of liquid brine formation without water ice contact and has strong implications on future robotic and manned missions searching for liquid water on Mars. Acknowledgement: This research is supported by a grant from the NASA Astrobiology Program: Exobiology and Evolutionary Biology. Award #09-EXOB09-0050. References: [1] Martínez, G. M. and Renno, N. O. (2013), Water and Brines on Mars: Current Evidence and Implications for MSL, Space Sci. Rev., 175, 29-51. [2] Rennó, N. O., et al. (2009), Possible physical and thermodynamical evidence for liquid water at the Phoenix landing site, J. Geophys. Res., 114, E00E03. [3] Zorzano, M.-P., et al., Stability of liquid saline water on present day Mars, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L20201. [4] Hanley, J. et al. (2009), Low Temperature Aqueous Perchlorate Solutions on the Surface of Mars, Proceedings 40th Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, The Woodlands, TX, USA. [5] Marion, G. M. et al. (2010), Modeling Aqueous Perchlorate Chemistries with Applications to Mars, Icarus, 207, 675-685.

  12. Role of Combining Peripheral with Sublingual Perfusion on Evaluating Microcirculation and Predicting Prognosis in Patients with Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pan; Liu, Da-Wei; Su, Long-Xiang; He, Huai-Wu; Wang, Xiao-Ting; Yu, Chao

    2018-05-20

    Measurement of general microcirculation remains difficult in septic shock patients. The peripheral perfusion index (PI) and sublingual microcirculation monitoring are thought to be possible methods. This study was performed to determine whether assessing microcirculation by PI and a new parameter, proportion of perfusion vessel change rate (△PPV) from sublingual microcirculation monitoring, can be associated with patients' outcome. A prospective observational study was carried out, including 74 patients with septic shock in a mixed intensive care unit. Systemic hemodynamic variables were obtained at T0 and 6 h after (T6). PI and sublingual microcirculation indicators were obtained using a bedside monitor and a sidestream dark-field device, respectively. The t-test, analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis with the Hanley-McNeil test, survival curves using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test were used to statistical analysis. Systemic hemodynamics and microcirculation data were obtained and analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups based on whether the first 6 h lactate clearance (LC) was ≥20%; PI and △PPV were lower at T6 in the LC <20% group compared with LC ≥20% (PI: 1.52 [0.89, 1.98] vs. 0.79 [0.44, 1,81], Z = -2.514, P = 0.012; △PPV: 5.9 ± 15.2 vs. 17.9 ± 20.0, t = -2.914, P = 0.005). The cutoff values of PI and △PPV were 1.41% and 12.1%, respectively. The cutoff value of the combined indicators was 1.379 according to logistic regression. Area under the curve demonstrated 0.709 (P < 0.05), and the sensitivity and specificity of using combined indicators were 0.622 and 0.757, respectively. Based on the PI and △PPV cutoff, all the participants were divided into the following groups: (1) high PI and high △PPV group, (2) high PI and low △PPV group, (3) low PI and high △PPV group, and (4) low PI and low △PPV group. The highest Sequential

  13. Exchange transfusion with fluorocarbon for studying synaptically evoked optical signal in rat cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Y; Fujii, F; Sato, C; Nemoto, M; Tamura, M

    2000-02-01

    . Zieglgansberger, The intrinsic optical signal evoked by chiasm stimulation in the rat suprachiasmatic nuclei exhibits GABAergic day-night variation, Eur. J. Neurosci. 8 (1996) 319-328] [3] [9] [13] [24]. A spectral fitting method with three components is used for the analysis of intrinsic optical signal [M. Nemoto, Y. Nomura, C. Sato, M. Tamura, K. Houkin, I. Koyanagi, H. Abe, Analysis of optical signals evoked by peripheral nerve stimulation in rat somatosensory cortex: dynamic changes in hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 19 (1999) 246-259] [17]. In order to validate the analysis, we need the knowledge on contribution of signal resulted from hemoglobin to total intrinsic optical signal. The exchange transfusion with fluorocarbon has the advantage that can change the spectral contribution of hemoglobin [M. Ferrari, M.A. Williams, D.A. Wilson, N.V. Thakor, R.J. Traystman, D.F. Hanley, Cat brain cytochrome-c oxidase redox changes induced by hypoxia after blood-fluorocarbon exchange transfusion, Am. J. Physiol. 269 (1995) H417-H424; A.L. Sylvia, C.A. Piantadosi, O(2) dependence of in vivo brain cytochrome redox responses and energy metabolism in bloodless rats, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 8 (1988) 163-172] [6] [23]. Here we describe a new method of the reduction of hemoglobin signal from somatosensory evoked optical intrinsic signal in rat cortex by the combination of exchange transfusion with fluorocarbon and imaging system of thinned skull cranial window. The method allows for the study of the synaptically evoked changes in light scattering as well as fluorescence of calcium indicator or voltage-sensitive dye without absorption of hemoglobin.

  14. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Sandy River Delta, Technical Report 2000-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocklage, Ann; Ratti, John

    2002-02-01

    requisites (e.g., food and nesting cover) for that species. These variables are evaluated with vegetation sampling, and/or through the interpretation of aerial photographs and the like. Variable values are assigned a numerical score. The score may be based on a categorical rating (e.g . , different vegetation types receive different scores based on their importance for that species) or may be the result of a linear relationship (e.g., the score increases with the variable value; Figure 1). Variable scores are then input into a mathematical formula, which results in an HSI score. The HSI score ranges from 0-1, with 0 representing poor-quality habitat and 1 optimal habitat. HSI models assume a positive, linear relationship between wildlife-species density and the HSI score. For example, with an HSI score of 1, we assume that a species will be present at its highest density. Models can be projected into the future by changing variable values and observing the corresponding changes in HSI scores. Most models are relatively simple, but some are complex. These models have come under considerable scrutiny in the last several years, particularly concerning the validity of model assumptions (Van Horne 1983, Laymon and Barrett 1986, Hobbs and Hanley 1990, Kellner et al. 1992). Regardless of criticisms, these models may be used with success when there is an understanding and acceptance of model limitations. Each model should be evaluated as to its applicability in a given situation. Model validation, where results have on-the-ground verification, is highly recommended. Specific objectives of this project were to (1) conduct avian surveys and measure the present vegetation at the Sandy River Delta, (2) input the vegetation data into HSI models for 5 avian species, (3) evaluate the current habitat suitability for these species, and (4) predict species responses to potential changes in vegetation, resulting from the removal of reed canarygrass and/or Himalayan blackberry.

  15. High-temperature carbonates in the Stillwater Complex, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, H. M.; Boudreau, A. E.

    2012-12-01

    by Cl-rich fluids [4]. The association of high-temperature carbonates with sulphides beneath the J-M reef supports the hydromagmatic theory which involves a late-stage chloride-carbonate fluid percolating upwards, dissolving PGE and sulphides and redepositing them at a higher stratigraphic level. [1] Anovitz, L.M., and Essene, E.J., 1987, Phase Equilibria in the System CaCO3-MgCO3-FeCO3: Journal of Petrology, v. 28, p. 389-414. [2] Hanley, J.J., Mungall, J.E., Pettke, T., Spooner, E.T.C., and Bray, C.J., 2008, Fluid and Halide Melt Inclusions of Magmatic Origin in the Ultramafic and Lower Banded Series, Stillwater Complex, Montana, USA: Journal of Petrology, v. 49, p. 1133-1160. [3] Boudreau, A.E., and McCallum, I.S., 1989, Investigations of the Stillwater Complex: Part V. Apatites as indicators of evolving fluid composition: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 102, p. 138-153. [4] Newton, R.C., and Manning, C.E., 2002, Experimental determination of calcite solubility in H2O-NaCl solutions at deep crust/upper mantle pressures and temperature: implications for metasomatic processes in shear zones: American Mineralogist, v. 87, p. 1401-1409.

  16. Bilimsel Toplantı Duyuruları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adli Tıp Uzmanları Derneği ATUD

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available ACLM Conference "Current Concepts in Legal Medicine" 2.-4. March 2007 Orlando, Florida, U.S.A. Contact: World Association for Medical Law American College of Legal Medicine 1111 N. Plaza Drive, Suite 550 Schaumburg, IL 60173-4950 USA Web: www.aclm.org SAFCON-2007 South Asian And VII. Annual National Conference Of Indian Congress Of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology March 24-25, 2007 Contact: www.icfmt.orgwww.forensicindia.com E-mail: safcon2007@forensicindia.com 7th Annual Forensic Science and Law Conference: The Science and Law of Investigating Mass Disasters 29-31 March 2007 Bayer Learning Center at Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, PA. Contact: The Cyril H. Wecht Institute of Forensic Science and Law Duquesne University School of Law Edward J. Hanley Hall 900 Locust St. Pittsburgh, PA 15282-0700 E-mail: wechtinstitute@duq.edu Web: www.forensics.duq.edu VII. Adli Bilimler Sempozyumu 24-27 Mayıs 2007 Gaziantep, Türkiye İletişim: Yrd.Doç.Dr.Aysun Baransel Isırr Gaziantep Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Adli Tıp Anabilim Dalı E-posta: aysunbaransel@yahoo.com Web: atud.org.tr 6th International Congress of the Baltic Medico-Legal Association 14.-16. June 2007 Vilnius - Lithuania Contact: Mykolas Romeris University Institute of Forensic Medicine S. îukausko 12 LT-08234 Vilnius, Lithuania Tel: +370 5 278 90 48 Fax: +370 5 278 90 47 E-mail: congress@bmla2007.org Web: www.bmla2007.org III Mediterranean Academy of Forensic Sciences Congress V Latin-American Congress of Medical Law III Iberian Congress of Legal Medicine 21-23 June 2007 Porto, Portugal Contact: Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal Delegaçâo do Porto Jardim Carrilho Videira 4050-167 Porto, Portugal Phone: +351 22 2073850 Fax:\t+351\t22\t2083978 e-mail: portocongresses2007@dpinml.mj.pt Web: www.inml.mj.pt/portocongresses2007 Human Identification: Laboratory Methods in Forensic Anthropology July 9-14, 2007 Forensic Anthropology Center University of Tennessee Knoxville, Tennessee