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Sample records for pinctada mazatlanica hanley

  1. Cambios en el uso de la ostra perlera Pinctada mazatlanica (Bivalvia: Pteriidae en el Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan Changes in the use of the pearl oyster Pinctada mazatlanica (Bivalvia: Pteriidae in the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Velázquez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available La concha del bivalvo panámico Pinctada mazatlanica fue ampliamente utilizada por las antiguas sociedades del México prehispánico; en las ofrendas enterradas en el Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan se han encontrado alrededor de 600 objetos elaborados con ella, la mayor parte de los cuales proceden de la etapa constructiva IV (1440-1481, lo que llama la atención, ya que para entonces los mexicas no habían logrado conquistar emplazamientos en la costa del Pacífico. En los sucesivos agrandamientos arquitectónicos es notable el descenso en los objetos de la referida ostra, lo cual en principio se explicó por la mayor destrucción que éstos habían sufrido; sin embargo, el hallazgo de varios ricos depósitos en el predio conocido como Casa de las Ajaracas, correspondientes al reinado de Moctezuma II (1502-1521, en los que prácticamente se encuentra ausente la Pinctada mazatlanica, da lugar a nuevas interpretaciones. En el presente trabajo se presentan 2 posibles hipótesis para explicar el hecho anterior.The nacreous shell of the tropical Pacific mollusc Pinctada mazatlanica was widely used by the ancient inhabitants of Mexico. Around 600 pieces made of this shell have been found in offerings buried in the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan. Most of these objects come from the IVth construction stage (1440-1481, prior to the conquest of the Pacific Coast by the Aztecs. It was previously thought that the considerably smaller numbers found in the following stages were due to the greater degree of destruction suffered by the temple. Nevertheless, the almost complete absence of this material in nine offerings found recently corresponding to the VIIth construction stage (1502-1521, raise other possibilities. In this work two different hypotheses are presented to explain this observation.

  2. Cambios en el uso de la ostra perlera Pinctada mazatlanica (Bivalvia: Pteriidae) en el Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan Changes in the use of the pearl oyster Pinctada mazatlanica (Bivalvia: Pteriidae) in the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adrián Velázquez; Belem Zúñiga-Arellano; John Joseph Temple Sánchez-Gavito

    2007-01-01

    ...; en las ofrendas enterradas en el Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan se han encontrado alrededor de 600 objetos elaborados con ella, la mayor parte de los cuales proceden de la etapa constructiva IV (1440-1481...

  3. Don't think about blue elephants! / Paul Hanley ; interv. Alina Lisina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanley, Paul

    2005-01-01

    "Guerrilla marketing'i" (partisani turundus) - hoolikalt kavandatud ja alternatiivseid kanaleid kasutav ebatraditsiooniline turundustegevus - tutvustus. Lisad: Paul Hanley; GM müüdid; 15 Guerrilla turunduse saladust

  4. Don't think about blue elephants! / Paul Hanley ; interv. Alina Lisina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanley, Paul

    2005-01-01

    "Guerrilla marketing'i" (partisani turundus) - hoolikalt kavandatud ja alternatiivseid kanaleid kasutav ebatraditsiooniline turundustegevus - tutvustus. Lisad: Paul Hanley; GM müüdid; 15 Guerrilla turunduse saladust

  5. The Last Seat in the House: The Story of Hanley Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, John

    Prior to the rush of live outdoor sound during the 1950s, a young, audio-savvy Bill Hanley recognized certain inadequacies within the widely used public address system marketplace. Hanley's techniques allowed him to construct systems of sound that changed what the audience heard during outdoor events. Through my research, I reveal a new insight into how Hanley and those who worked at his business (Hanley Sound) had a direct, innovative influence on specific sound applications, which are now widely used and often taken for granted. Hanley's innovations shifted an existing public address, oral-based sound industry into a new area of technology rich with clarity and intelligibility. What makes his story so unique is that, because his relationship with sound was so intimate, it superseded his immediate economic, safety, and political concerns. He acted selflessly and with extreme focus. As Hanley's reputation grew, so did audience and performer demand for clear, audible concert sound. Over time, he would provide sound for some of the largest antiwar peace rallies and concerts in American history. Hanley worked in the thickness of extreme civil unrest, not typical for the average soundman of the day. Conveniently, Hanley's passion for clarity in sound also happened to occur when popular music transitioned into an important conveyor of political message through festivals. Since May 2011 I have been exploring the life of Bill Hanley, an innovative leader in sound. I use interdisciplinary approaches to uncover cultural, historical, social, political, and psychological occasions in Hanley's life that were imperative to his ongoing development. Filmed action sequences, such as talking head interviews (friends, family members, and professional colleagues) and historical archival 8 mm footage, and family photos and music ephemera, help uncover this qualitative ethnographic analysis of not only Bill's development but also the world around him. Reflective, intimate interviews

  6. Kinds of nucleus for effective pearl cultivation of the pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata

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    Kanjanachatree, K.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Seeding is the most important aspect of pearl cultivation, and appropriate nucleus can determine the quality of a pearl : nacre secretion and accumulation around the nucleus. This affects harvest time, nucleus extrusion, survival rate of the pearl oysters and the production cost. In order to provide nuclei to substitute for those imported from China which are made from freshwater pearl oyster-shells, 3 kinds of the local shells of Pinctada fucata, Pteria penguin and Pinctada maxima were selected for seed production. The obtained nuclei have various diameters depend on the shell width at the hinge region. The average diameters are 5.44, 6.78, 7.54 and 6.10 mm, while their production costs are 5, 7.7, 18.5 and 7.5 baht per 1 nucleus, respectively, for Pinctada fucata, Pteria penguin, Pinctada maxima and freshwater pearl oysters (control group. After nucleus implantation into the gonad of culture pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata, and rearing in the sea, the obtained pearls using nuclei made from the shells of Pinctada fucata and Pinctada maxima (both belong to the same genus as the implanted culture pearl oysters have as good nacre formation as that from freshwater pearl oysters. In contrast, the pearl production using nuclei made from Pteria penguin-shells have significantly worse nacre formation. Survival rate of the culture oysters seeded with nuclei made from Pinctada fucata-shells is highest at 47%, nucleus extrusion 8% only, and harvest rate 31%; while with Pinctada maxima-shells, these values are 38%, 17.5% and 14%, respectively. So the nuclei made from local Pinctada fucata-shells are appropriate for pearl cultivation and are comparable to imported nuclei. Although the obtained pearls are small, the nuclei made from Pinctada fucata-shells have low cost, low nucleus extrusion and high productivity.

  7. Photonic crystal type structure in bivalve ligament of Pinctada maxima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG GangSheng

    2007-01-01

    The dry ligament of Pinctada maxima normally appears black; however, it can exhibit striking blue structural colors after being wetted by water. The field-mission SEM investigation shows that the ligament is made of lamellae, which, about 35 μm thick, are made of proteins and aragonite fibers of about 78 nm in diameter. In each single lamella, the fibers are highly aligned characterized by a 2D photonic crystal type structure. According to measured reflective spectra and theoretical simulations, the dry and wet ligaments possess photonic stop band at ultraviolet and blue wavelengths, respectively, which are responsible for structural colorations of ligament.

  8. Production of Aneuploid Pinctada martensii Dunker in Tetraploid Induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何毛贤; 林岳光; 沈琪; 胡建兴; 姜卫国

    2001-01-01

    Aneuploidy embryos of Pinctada martensii Dunker are produced during tetraploid induction by inhibiting the first polar body in eggs from triploid fertilized with haploid sperms with cytochalasin B treatment. Chromosome analysis reveals that there are 88.18 ±6.79% aneuploidy embryos, and 28.70% aneuploids in pearl oysters of one-year age These aneuploids have five chromosomal conditions, such as 2n + 1(29), 2n + 2 (30), 3n-2 (40), 3n-1(41) and 3n + 1 (43). Results of growth measurement show that there is no significant difference between aneuploids (as a group) and diploids in body size and weight (p > 0.10), but the aneuploide is obviously different from triploid (p < 0.01). The mean body size and weight of aneuploids in diploid condition (2n ± 1 and 2n ± 2) are significantly smaller than those of diploids (p < 0.01),but aneuploids within triploid condition (3n ± 1 and 3n ± 2) are not smaller than diploids in body size and weight (p > 0.1).This study indicates Pinctada martensii Dunker could tolerate aneuploidy by 7 ~ 14% of the haploid genome, and that aneuploids of this species are viable under certain conditions.

  9. Extensible byssus of Pinctada fucata: Ca2+-stabilized nanocavities and a thrombospondin-1 protein

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang Liu; Shiguo Li; Jingliang Huang; Yangjia Liu; Ganchu Jia; Liping Xie; Rongqing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The extensible byssus is produced by the foot of bivalve animals, including the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, and enables them to attach to hard underwater surfaces. However, the mechanism of their extensibility is not well understood. To understand this mechanism, we analyzed the ultrastructure, composition and mechanical properties of the P. fucata byssus using electron microscopy, elemental analysis, proteomics and mechanical testing. In contrast to the microstructures of Mytilus sp. byssu...

  10. The diversity of shell matrix proteins: genome-wide investigation of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Endo, Hirotoshi; Hashimoto, Naoki; Limura, Kurin; Isowa, Yukinobu; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Masaoka, Tetsuji; Miki, Takumi; Nakayama, Seiji; Nogawa, Chihiro; Notazawa, Atsuto; Ohmori, Fumito; Sarashina, Isao; Suzuki, Michio; Takagi, Ryousuke; Takahashi, Jun; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Yokoo, Naoki; Satoh, Nori; Toyohara, Haruhiko; Miyashita, Tomoyuki; Wada, Hiroshi; Samata, Tetsuro; Endo, Kazuyoshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Asakawa, Shuichi; Watabe, Shugo

    2013-10-01

    In molluscs, shell matrix proteins are associated with biomineralization, a biologically controlled process that involves nucleation and growth of calcium carbonate crystals. Identification and characterization of shell matrix proteins are important for better understanding of the adaptive radiation of a large variety of molluscs. We searched the draft genome sequence of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata and annotated 30 different kinds of shell matrix proteins. Of these, we could identified Perlucin, ependymin-related protein and SPARC as common genes shared by bivalves and gastropods; however, most gastropod shell matrix proteins were not found in the P. fucata genome. Glycinerich proteins were conserved in the genus Pinctada. Another important finding with regard to these annotated genes was that numerous shell matrix proteins are encoded by more than one gene; e.g., three ACCBP-like proteins, three CaLPs, five chitin synthase-like proteins, two N16 proteins (pearlins), 10 N19 proteins, two nacreins, four Pifs, nine shematrins, two prismalin-14 proteins, and 21 tyrosinases. This diversity of shell matrix proteins may be implicated in the morphological diversity of mollusc shells. The annotated genes reported here can be searched in P. fucata gene models version 1.1 and genome assembly version 1.0 ( http://marinegenomics.oist.jp/pinctada_fucata ). These genes should provide a useful resource for studies of the genetic basis of biomineralization and evaluation of the role of shell matrix proteins as an evolutionary toolkit among the molluscs.

  11. Soluble organic matrices of the calcitic prismatic shell layers of two Pteriomorphid bivalves. Pinna nobilis and Pinctada margaritifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, Yannicke

    2003-04-25

    The calcitic prisms of the shells of two bivalves, Pinna and Pinctada, are considered simple prisms according to some morphological and mineralogical characteristics. Scanning electron microscopic and atomic force microscopic studies show that the microstructures and nanostructures of these two shells are different. Pinna prisms are monocrystalline, whereas Pinctada prisms are not. Moreover, intraprismatic membranes are present only in the Pinctada prisms. The soluble organic matrices extracted from these prisms are acidic, but their bulk compositions differ. Ultraviolet and infrared spectrometries, fluorescence, high pressure liquid chromatography, and electrophoresis show that the sugar-protein ratios and the molecular weights are different. Sulfur is mainly associated with acidic sulfated sugars, not with amino acids, and the role of acidic sulfated sugars is still underestimated. Thus, the simple prism concept is not a relevant model for the biomineralization processes in the calcitic prismatic layer of mollusk shells.

  12. Characterization of the pearl oyster (Pinctada martensii) mantle transcriptome unravels biomineralization genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yaohua; Yu, Chengcheng; Gu, Zhifeng; Zhan, Xin; Wang, Yan; Wang, Aimin

    2013-04-01

    Pearl oyster, Pinctada martensii, is a marine bivalve species widely distributed in tropic and subtropic marine coasts. Mantle is the special tissue of P. martensii that secretes biomineralization proteins inducing shell deposition as well as iridescent nacre both in the inner shell and artificial nucleus. The pearl oyster is very efficient for artificial pearl production and is therefore an ideal organism for studies into the processes of biomineralization. However, deficiency of transcriptome information limits the insight into biomineralization mechanisms and pearl formation. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the P. martensii mantle transcriptome using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 25,723 unique transcripts were assembled from 220,824 quality reads, followed by annotation and Gene Ontology classification analysis. A total of 146 unique transcript segments homologous to 49 reference biomineralization genes were identified, including calcineurin-binding protein, amorphous calcium carbonate binding protein 1, calmodulin, calponin-like protein, carbonic anhydrase 1, glycine-rich shell matrix protein, lysine-rich matrix protein, mantle gene or protein, nacrein, pearlin, PIF, regucalcin, and shematrin. The sequence data enabled the identification of 10,285 potential single nucleotide polymorphism loci and 7,836 putative indels, providing a resource for molecular biomarker, population genetics, and functional genomic studies. A large number of candidate genes for biomineralization were identified, considerably enriching resources for the study of shell formation. These sequence data will notably advance biomineralization and transcriptome study in pearl oyster and other Pinctada species.

  13. Iridescent color of a shell of the mollusk pinctada margaritifera caused by diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Shigley, J; Hurwit, K

    1999-03-01

    Shells and pearls often show iridescent color. The cause of this phenomenon has been attributed to diffraction, both diffraction and interference, or interference alone. We used a shell of the mollusk Pinctada margaritifera, which shows very strong iridescent colors, to study how this color is produced in the layers of nacre in shells. From observations with a scanning electronic microscope (SEM), this particular shell exhibits a very fine scale diffraction grating structure. This suggests that the iridescent color is caused by diffraction, which was demonstrated by an experiment using an argon ion laser illuminating the shell to produce a distinct diffraction image. The strength of the iridescent color can be correlated to both the groove density of the diffraction grating formed by the shell, and the surface quality of the grooves themselves. A shell with a high groove density and a smooth groove surface produces a strong iridescent color.

  14. A galactose-specific lectin from the hemolymph of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata martensii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Mori, K

    1989-01-01

    1. A lectin in the serum of Pinctada fucata martensii was purified by a combination of affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B coupled with bovine submaxillary gland mucine, anion exchange chromatography on Mono Q and gel filtration on Superose 6. 2. The purified lectin was indicated to be homogeneous by polyacrylamide electrophoresis and rechromatography on Mono Q. 3. The purified lectin was approximately 440,000 in molecular weight and was composed of identical subunits with a molecular weight of approximately 20,000. 4. D-galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine gave a 50% inhibition of agglutination of horse erythrocytes by the lectin at 0.3 and 1.2 mM, respectively. 5. The antibody obtained from rabbit immunized with the purified lectin was monospecific to the lectin judged from the hemagglutination blocking test, immunoelectrophoresis and immunoblotting.

  15. Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Pinctada margaritifera calcifying mantle and shell: focus on biomineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gueguen Yannick

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The shell of the pearl-producing bivalve Pinctada margaritifera is composed of an organic cell-free matrix that plays a key role in the dynamic process of biologically-controlled biomineralization. In order to increase genomic resources and identify shell matrix proteins implicated in biomineralization in P. margaritifera, high-throughput Expressed Sequence Tag (EST pyrosequencing was undertaken on the calcifying mantle, combined with a proteomic analysis of the shell. Results We report the functional analysis of 276 738 sequences, leading to the constitution of an unprecedented catalog of 82 P. margaritifera biomineralization-related mantle protein sequences. Components of the current "chitin-silk fibroin gel-acidic macromolecule" model of biomineralization processes were found, in particular a homolog of a biomineralization protein (Pif-177 recently discovered in P. fucata. Among these sequences, we could show the localization of two other biomineralization protein transcripts, pmarg-aspein and pmarg-pearlin, in two distinct areas of the outer mantle epithelium, suggesting their implication in calcite and aragonite formation. Finally, by combining the EST approach with a proteomic mass spectrometry analysis of proteins isolated from the P. margaritifera shell organic matrix, we demonstrated the presence of 30 sequences containing almost all of the shell proteins that have been previously described from shell matrix protein analyses of the Pinctada genus. The integration of these two methods allowed the global composition of biomineralizing tissue and calcified structures to be examined in tandem for the first time. Conclusions This EST study made on the calcifying tissue of P. margaritifera is the first description of pyrosequencing on a pearl-producing bivalve species. Our results provide direct evidence that our EST data set covers most of the diversity of the matrix protein of P. margaritifera shell, but also that the

  16. Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Pinctada margaritifera calcifying mantle and shell: focus on biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Caroline; Piquemal, David; Marie, Benjamin; Manchon, Laurent; Pierrat, Fabien; Zanella-Cléon, Isabelle; Cochennec-Laureau, Nathalie; Gueguen, Yannick; Montagnani, Caroline

    2010-11-01

    The shell of the pearl-producing bivalve Pinctada margaritifera is composed of an organic cell-free matrix that plays a key role in the dynamic process of biologically-controlled biomineralization. In order to increase genomic resources and identify shell matrix proteins implicated in biomineralization in P. margaritifera, high-throughput Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) pyrosequencing was undertaken on the calcifying mantle, combined with a proteomic analysis of the shell. We report the functional analysis of 276 738 sequences, leading to the constitution of an unprecedented catalog of 82 P. margaritifera biomineralization-related mantle protein sequences. Components of the current "chitin-silk fibroin gel-acidic macromolecule" model of biomineralization processes were found, in particular a homolog of a biomineralization protein (Pif-177) recently discovered in P. fucata. Among these sequences, we could show the localization of two other biomineralization protein transcripts, pmarg-aspein and pmarg-pearlin, in two distinct areas of the outer mantle epithelium, suggesting their implication in calcite and aragonite formation. Finally, by combining the EST approach with a proteomic mass spectrometry analysis of proteins isolated from the P. margaritifera shell organic matrix, we demonstrated the presence of 30 sequences containing almost all of the shell proteins that have been previously described from shell matrix protein analyses of the Pinctada genus. The integration of these two methods allowed the global composition of biomineralizing tissue and calcified structures to be examined in tandem for the first time. This EST study made on the calcifying tissue of P. margaritifera is the first description of pyrosequencing on a pearl-producing bivalve species. Our results provide direct evidence that our EST data set covers most of the diversity of the matrix protein of P. margaritifera shell, but also that the mantle transcripts encode proteins present in P

  17. Partial Purification and Properties of an Acid Phosphatase from Pearl Oyster Pinctada Fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴云峰; 谢莉萍; 张荣庆

    2003-01-01

    Acid phosphatases (ACPs) are marker enzymes for the detection of lysosomes in cell fractions.However, ACPs in sea creatures are less studied than those on land.An acid phosphatase was partially purified from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata by chromatography on Sephadex G-150 and Con A-Sepharose 4B.The specific activity was 1719 U*mg-1 and with optimum pH (5.0) and temperature (60℃).The enzyme was strongly inhibited competitively by product analog WO3-4 and MoO3-4, but less inhibited by product analog AsO3-4.The enzyme could also be strongly inhibited by heavy metal ions, such as Ag+ and Cu2+, but was not affected by Pb2+.High concentrations of ethanol (64%) and NaF (10-3 mol·L-1) could inhibit the enzyme while low concentration of NaF (<10-4 mol·L-1) could slightly activate the enzyme.Other haloids (Cl-, Br-, I-) and EDTA did not have any effect on this enzyme, while tartrate and some chemical modification reagents (bromoacetic acid, formaldehyde and dithiothreitol) could inhibit the enzyme.It is concluded that the properties of the enzyme are different from many fresh water mollusks.

  18. Morphology and classification of hemocytes in Pinctada fucata and their responses to ocean acidification and warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiguo; Liu, Yangjia; Liu, Chuang; Huang, Jingliang; Zheng, Guilan; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-07-01

    Hemocytes play important roles in the innate immune response and biomineralization of bivalve mollusks. However, the hemocytes in pearl oysters are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the morphology and classification of hemocytes in the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata. Three types of hemocytes were successfully obtained by light microscopy, electron microscopy and flow cytometry methods: small hyalinocytes, large hyalinocytes and granulocytes. The small hyalinocytes are the major hemocyte population. Morphological analyses indicated that these hemocytes have species-specific characterizations. In addition, we assessed the potential effects of ocean acidification (OA) and ocean warming (OW) on the immune parameters and calcium homeostasis of the hemocytes. OA and OW (31 °C) altered pH value of hemolymph, increased the total hemocyte count, total protein content, and percentage of large hyalinocytes and granulocytes, while it decreased the neutral red uptake ability, suggesting active stress responses of P. fucata to these stressors. Exposure to OW (25 °C) resulted in no significant differences, indicating an excellent immune defense to heat stress at this level. The outflow of calcium from hemocytes to hemolymph was also determined, implying the potential impact of OA and OW on hemocyte-mediated biomineralization. This study, therefore, provides insight into the classification and characterization of hemocyte in the pearl oyster, P. fucata, and also reveals the immune responses of hemocytes to OA and OW, which are helpful for a comprehensive understanding of the effects of global climate change on pearl oysters.

  19. In-depth proteomic analysis of shell matrix proteins of Pinctada fucata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Li, Shiguo; Kong, Jingjing; Liu, Yangjia; Wang, Tianpeng; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-11-26

    The shells of pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata, are composed of calcite and aragonite and possess remarkable mechanical properties. These shells are formed under the regulation of macromolecules, especially shell matrix proteins (SMPs). Identification of diverse SMPs will lay a foundation for understanding biomineralization process. Here, we identified 72 unique SMPs using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of proteins extracted from the shells of P. fucata combined with a draft genome. Of 72 SMPs, 17 SMPs are related to both the prismatic and nacreous layers. Moreover, according to the diverse domains found in the SMPs, we hypothesize that in addition to controlling CaCO3 crystallization and crystal organization, these proteins may potentially regulate the extracellular microenvironment and communicate between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Immunohistological localization techniques identify the SMPs in the mantle, shells and synthetic calcite. Together, these proteomic data increase the repertoires of the shell matrix proteins in P. fucata and suggest that shell formation in P. fucata may involve tight regulation of cellular activities and the extracellular microenvironment.

  20. Draft genome of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata: a platform for understanding bivalve biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Takeshi; Kawashima, Takeshi; Koyanagi, Ryo; Gyoja, Fuki; Tanaka, Makiko; Ikuta, Tetsuro; Shoguchi, Eiichi; Fujiwara, Mayuki; Shinzato, Chuya; Hisata, Kanako; Fujie, Manabu; Usami, Takeshi; Nagai, Kiyohito; Maeyama, Kaoru; Okamoto, Kikuhiko; Aoki, Hideo; Ishikawa, Takashi; Masaoka, Tetsuji; Fujiwara, Atushi; Endo, Kazuyoshi; Endo, Hirotoshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Asakawa, Shuichi; Watabe, Shugo; Satoh, Nori

    2012-04-01

    The study of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata is key to increasing our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in pearl biosynthesis and biology of bivalve molluscs. We sequenced ~1150-Mb genome at ~40-fold coverage using the Roche 454 GS-FLX and Illumina GAIIx sequencers. The sequences were assembled into contigs with N50 = 1.6 kb (total contig assembly reached to 1024 Mb) and scaffolds with N50 = 14.5 kb. The pearl oyster genome is AT-rich, with a GC content of 34%. DNA transposons, retrotransposons, and tandem repeat elements occupied 0.4, 1.5, and 7.9% of the genome, respectively (a total of 9.8%). Version 1.0 of the P. fucata draft genome contains 23 257 complete gene models, 70% of which are supported by the corresponding expressed sequence tags. The genes include those reported to have an association with bio-mineralization. Genes encoding transcription factors and signal transduction molecules are present in numbers comparable with genomes of other metazoans. Genome-wide molecular phylogeny suggests that the lophotrochozoan represents a distinct clade from ecdysozoans. Our draft genome of the pearl oyster thus provides a platform for the identification of selection markers and genes for calcification, knowledge of which will be important in the pearl industry.

  1. Kinetic study of alkaline protease 894 for the hydrolysis of the pearl oyster Pinctada martensii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin; CHEN Hua; CAI Bingna; LIU Qingqin; SUN Huili

    2013-01-01

    A new enzyme (alkaline protease 894) obtained from the marine extremophile Flavobacterium yellowsea (YS-80-122) has exhibited strong substrate-binding and catalytic activity,even at low temperature,but the characteristics of the hydrolysis with this enzyme are still unclear.The pearl oyster Pinctada martensii was used in this study as the raw material to illustrate the kinetic properties ofprotease 894.After investigating the intrinsic relationship between the degree of hydrolysis and several factors,including initial reaction pH,temperature,substrate concentration,enzyme concentration,and hydrolysis time,the kinetics model was established.This study showed that the optimal conditions for the enzymatic hydrolysis were an initial reaction pH of 5.0,temperature of 30℃,substrate concentration of 10% (w/v),enzyme concentration of 2 500 U/g,and hydrolysis time of 160 min.The kinetic characteristics of the protease for the hydrolysis of P.martensii were obtained.The inactivation constant was found to be 15.16/min,and the average relative error between the derived kinetics model and the actual measurement was only 3.04%,which indicated a high degree of fitness.Therefore,this study provides a basis for the investigation of the concrete kinetic characteristics of the new protease,which has potential applications in the food industry.

  2. Association between novel EST-SNPs and commercial traits in Pinctada fucata martensii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Xin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate marker-assisted selection for genetic improvement of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata martensii, two novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers (A376C and A316C were screened from two shell matrix genes (prismalin-14 and N19 gene, and genotyped to investigate their correlations to five commercial traits, including shell width (SW, shell length (SL, shell height (SH, hinge length (HL and total weight (TW in 160 pearl oysters. Both of the two loci showed AC heterozygous. The highest trait values of the five commercial traits measured were the CC genotype in the A316C SNP locus and the AC genotype in the A376C SNP locus, respectively. Significant differences in the trait values were detected between AA- and AC-type individuals (P = 0.005 for SW, P = 0.037 for SH, P = 0.031 for HL and P = 0.007 for TW, but not for SL (P = 0.057 in the A376C locus. These results indicated that AC-type at locus A376C from prismalin-14 gene could be used as a preferred genotype for future selection in breeding program of pearl oyster.

  3. Effect of salinity changes on haemocyte of pearl oyster Pinctada martensii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Qiang Chen; Gang Yu; Zhen-Hua Ma; You-Ning Li; Kong-Wu Xing; Li Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of salinity changes in the rearing environment on the haemocyte activities of pearl oyster Pinctada martensii (P. martensii). Methods:Three salinity treatments including 12‰, 22‰, and 32‰were tested. Haemocyte mortality rate and neutral red retention (NRR) assay were used to investigate the impact of rearing salinity on the haemocyte activities of pearl oyster. Results:Results from the present study indicated that salinity significantly affected the haemocyte mortality rate of P. martensii. The highest haemocytes mortality rate was observed in the 12‰treatment, and the lowest mortality rate was observed in the 32‰treatment. NRR time was also significantly affected by the salinity. The highest NRR time was observed in the 32‰treatment, and the lowest NRR time was observed in the 12‰treatment. Conclusions:Results from the present study indicated that salinity<22‰had significant impact on the haemocyte mortality rate and NRR time. Reducing the environmental salinity will pose an additional stress and may also reduce the defense capacities of P. martensii and make them more susceptible to parasites and bacteria.

  4. Transcriptome and biomineralization responses of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata to elevated CO2 and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiguo; Liu, Chuang; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Yangjia; Zhang, Shuwen; Zheng, Guilan; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2016-01-06

    Ocean acidification and global warming have been shown to significantly affect the physiological performances of marine calcifiers; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, the transcriptome and biomineralization responses of Pinctada fucata to elevated CO2 (pH 7.8 and pH 7.5) and temperature (25 °C and 31 °C) are investigated. Increases in CO2 and temperature induced significant changes in gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, net calcification rates and relative calcium content, whereas no changes are observed in the shell ultrastructure. "Ion and acid-base regulation" related genes and "amino acid metabolism" pathway respond to the elevated CO2 (pH 7.8), suggesting that P. fucata implements a compensatory acid-base mechanism to mitigate the effects of low pH. Additionally, "anti-oxidation"-related genes and "Toll-like receptor signaling", "arachidonic acid metabolism", "lysosome" and "other glycan degradation" pathways exhibited responses to elevated temperature (25 °C and 31 °C), suggesting that P. fucata utilizes anti-oxidative and lysosome strategies to alleviate the effects of temperature stress. These responses are energy-consuming processes, which can lead to a decrease in biomineralization capacity. This study therefore is important for understanding the mechanisms by which pearl oysters respond to changing environments and predicting the effects of global climate change on pearl aquaculture.

  5. Amorphous calcium carbonate precipitation by cellular biomineralization in mantle cell cultures of Pinctada fucata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xiang

    Full Text Available The growth of molluscan shell crystals is generally thought to be initiated from the extrapallial fluid by matrix proteins, however, the cellular mechanisms of shell formation pathway remain unknown. Here, we first report amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC precipitation by cellular biomineralization in primary mantle cell cultures of Pinctada fucata. Through real-time PCR and western blot analyses, we demonstrate that mantle cells retain the ability to synthesize and secrete ACCBP, Pif80 and nacrein in vitro. In addition, the cells also maintained high levels of alkaline phosphatase and carbonic anhydrase activity, enzymes responsible for shell formation. On the basis of polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, we observed intracellular crystals production by mantle cells in vitro. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed the crystals to be ACC, and de novo biomineralization was confirmed by following the incorporation of Sr into calcium carbonate. Our results demonstrate the ability of mantle cells to perform fundamental biomineralization processes via amorphous calcium carbonate, and these cells may be directly involved in pearl oyster shell formation.

  6. Comparative Studies on the Toxicokinetics of Benzo[a]pyrene in Pinctada martensii and Perna viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haihua; Cui, Lili; Cheng, Huamin; Zhang, Yu; Diao, Xiaoping; Wang, Jun

    2017-05-01

    Research on the kinetics of Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) bioaccumulation in the clam Pinctada martensii and mussel Perna viridis showed that the initial rate of uptake was directly related to the PAH concentrations in the ambient environment. The uptake and depuration rate constants were different at the four B[a]P exposure levels, which indicated that the toxicokinetic rate constants mainly depended on the exposure levels of pollutants to the environment. In addition, the uptake rate constants of B[a]P were higher than the depuration rate constants in the entire experiment. The comparison demonstrated that mussels release B[a]P more rapidly than clams. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of B[a]P varied from 3335 to 12892 in the clam and 2373-6235 in the mussel. These findings on the bioaccumulation kinetics for petroleum hydrocarbons, in association with the critical body residue, will be valuable when choosing sensitive organisms to assess the potential ecotoxicological risk to the marine environment.

  7. Effect of Temperature on Gene Expression in the Pearl Oyster Pinctada fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wenguang; HUANG Xiande; LIN Jianshi; HE Maoxian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of elevated temperature on the expression patterns of genes, i.e., nacrein, irr, n16, n19, and hsp70 in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. The experiment was carried out at 4 temperatures, i.e., 20℃(ambient, control), 24, 28℃, and 32℃. The expression levels of target genes in P. fucata were assayed at 0, 6, 24, 48, and 96 h via real-time poly-merase chain reaction. Results showed that the expression levels of nacrein and irr had no significant variations among different time points below 28℃, but significantly increased over time at 32℃. The expression levels of n16 and n19 did not change mark-edly at 20℃. The former increased significantly at 6 h and 24 h while the latter substantially decreased during 6-96 h at 24, 28 and 32℃. Among different temperatures, the level of n16 was significantly lower at 20℃than at other temperatures during 6-96 h, and the level of n19 significantly varied among different temperatures at 48 h and 96 h. The expression level of hsp70 was significantly higher at 32℃than at 20, 24 and 28℃at 24 h. These results demonstrated that elevated temperature impacted the physiological processes of P. fucata and potentially influenced its adaptability to thermal stress.

  8. Extraction and Purification of Matrix Protein from the Nacre of Pearl Oyster Pinctada fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Caiping; ZHANG Cen; NIE Yancheng; XIE Liping; ZHANG Rongqing

    2005-01-01

    A soluble matrix protein P14 with an apparent molecular mass of 14.5 kDa was isolated from fragmented nacre of pearl oysters (Pinctada fucata) treated with 10% NaOH solution to investigate the nacre matrix proteins and their effect on the CaCO3 crystal. The protein was characterized by gel exclusion chromatography and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography after demineralization by 10% acetic acid. The X-ray diffraction pattern of P14 crystals indicates that P14 plays an important role in nacre biomineralization. P14 can induce aragonite formation, stimulate CaCO3 crystal formation, and accelerate aragonite precipitation. Heating of the acid insoluble nacre residue, which was named conchiolin, in 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate solution supplemented with 10% β-mercaptoethanol solution for 10-20 min at about 100(C gave two other soluble proteins having molecular masses of 19.4 kDa and 25.0 kDa. The present study suggests that these two proteins are linked to the insoluble organic matrix by disulfide bridges because the extraction yield increases when β-mercaptoethanol is added to the medium.

  9. Application of a bioenergetic growth model to larvae of the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Y.; Garen, P.; Pouvreau, S.

    2011-11-01

    We applied, for the first time, a dynamic energy budget (DEB) growth model to the larval phase in the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera var. cumingii (Linnaeus, 1758) to evaluate the impact of spatio-temporal variation in the atoll lagoon environment on its capacity for development. The specific parameters of the model, which represent ingestion, temperature effect and the relationship between length and biovolume of the larvae, were determined from experiments or taken from the literature. The interpretation of the values of these parameters allowed us to identify the underlying adaptive character trait: P. margaritifera larvae have a good capacity to exploit low food concentrations and a narrow range of thermal tolerance restricted to hydrobiological conditions found in the tropical oligotrophic waters of its distribution zone. Growth simulations show a good fit with the observations made on reared larvae under different conditions: fed on either cultured algae or natural plankton, and with growth data from a natural cohort. Finally, a first application of the model to a pearl-culture lagoon reveals the predominant effect of the vertical structure of trophic resources in determining spatial variation in larval growth.

  10. The structure-function relationship of MSI7, a matrix protein from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiaoli Feng; Zi Fang; Zhenguang Yan; Rui Xing; Liping Xie; Rongqing Zhang

    2009-01-01

    We previously identified a matrix protein, MSI7, from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. According to the struc-tural analysis, the DGD site in the N-terminal of MSI7 is crucial for its role in the shell formation. In this study, we expressed a series of recombinant MSI7 pro-teins, including the wild-type and several mutants directed at the DGD site, using an Escherichia coli expression system to reveal the structure-function relationship of MSI7. Furthermore, in vitro crystalliza-tion, crystallization speed assay, and circular dichroism spectrometry were carried out. Results indicated that wild-type MSI7 could induce the nucleation of arago-nite and inhibit the crystallization of calcite. However, none of the mutants could induce the nucleation of ara-gonite, but all of them could inhibit the crystallization of calcite to some extent. And all the proteins acceler-ated the crystallization process. Taken together, the results indicated that MSI7 could contribute to arago-nite crystallization by inducing the nucleation of arago-nite and inhibiting the crystallization of calcite, which agrees with our prediction about its role in the nacr-eous layer formation of the shell. The DGD site was critical for the induction of the nucleation of aragonite.

  11. Extensible byssus of Pinctada fucata: Ca2+-stabilized nanocavities and a thrombospondin-1 protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Li, Shiguo; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Yangjia; Jia, Ganchu; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-10-01

    The extensible byssus is produced by the foot of bivalve animals, including the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, and enables them to attach to hard underwater surfaces. However, the mechanism of their extensibility is not well understood. To understand this mechanism, we analyzed the ultrastructure, composition and mechanical properties of the P. fucata byssus using electron microscopy, elemental analysis, proteomics and mechanical testing. In contrast to the microstructures of Mytilus sp. byssus, the P. fucata byssus has an exterior cuticle without granules and an inner core with nanocavities. The removal of Ca2+ by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) treatment expands the nanocavities and reduces the extensibility of the byssus, which is accompanied by a decrease in the β-sheet conformation of byssal proteins. Through proteomic methods, several proteins with antioxidant and anti-corrosive properties were identified as the main components of the distal byssus regions. Specifically, a protein containing thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), which is highly expressed in the foot, is hypothesized to be responsible for byssus extensibility. Together, our findings demonstrate the importance of inorganic ions and multiple proteins for bivalve byssus extension, which could guide the future design of biomaterials for use in seawater.

  12. Extensible byssus of Pinctada fucata: Ca(2+)-stabilized nanocavities and a thrombospondin-1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Li, Shiguo; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Yangjia; Jia, Ganchu; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-10-08

    The extensible byssus is produced by the foot of bivalve animals, including the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, and enables them to attach to hard underwater surfaces. However, the mechanism of their extensibility is not well understood. To understand this mechanism, we analyzed the ultrastructure, composition and mechanical properties of the P. fucata byssus using electron microscopy, elemental analysis, proteomics and mechanical testing. In contrast to the microstructures of Mytilus sp. byssus, the P. fucata byssus has an exterior cuticle without granules and an inner core with nanocavities. The removal of Ca(2+) by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) treatment expands the nanocavities and reduces the extensibility of the byssus, which is accompanied by a decrease in the β-sheet conformation of byssal proteins. Through proteomic methods, several proteins with antioxidant and anti-corrosive properties were identified as the main components of the distal byssus regions. Specifically, a protein containing thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), which is highly expressed in the foot, is hypothesized to be responsible for byssus extensibility. Together, our findings demonstrate the importance of inorganic ions and multiple proteins for bivalve byssus extension, which could guide the future design of biomaterials for use in seawater.

  13. Cloning and Characterization of a Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Homolog from Pearl Oyster, Pinctada fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xunhao XIONG; Qiaoli FENG; Liping XIE; Rongqing ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) have fundamental roles in the posttranscriptional control of gene expression. Here, a cDNA encoding a presumed full-length RNA-binding protein was isolated from pearl oyster (Pinctadafucata) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers, and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA consists of 2737 bp with an open reading frame encoding a protein of 624 amino acids with a Predicted molecular weight of 69 kDa and isoelectric point of 8.7. The putative pearl oyster RNA-binding protein presents a molecular organization close to the hnRNPs, namely an acidic N-terminal followed by three RNA-recognition motifs and a Cterminal that contains RG/RGG repeated motifs. When transfected HeLa cells, the Pf-HRPH (Pinctada fucata hnRNP homolog) gene expression product was found only in nuclei, revealing that it is a nuclear protein. The expression pattern was also investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction,indicating that Pf-HRPH mRNA was abundantly expressed in gonad, gill, and viscera. As far as we know,the putative Pf-HRPH is the first hnRNP homolog cloned in mollusks. These data are significant for further study of the multiple functions of RNA-binding protein.

  14. Polarimetry of Pinctada fucata nacre indicates myostracal layer interrupts nacre structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Rebecca A; Jones, Joshua A; D'Addario, Anthony J; Galvez, Enrique J

    2017-02-01

    The inner layer of many bivalve and gastropod molluscs consists of iridescent nacre, a material that is structured like a brick wall with bricks consisting of crystalline aragonite and mortar of organic molecules. Myostracal layers formed during shell growth at the point of muscle attachment to the shell can be found interspersed within the nacre structure. Little has been done to examine the effect the myostracal layer has on subsequent nacre structure. Here we present data on the structure of the myostracal and nacre layers from a bivalve mollusc, Pinctada fucata. Scanning electron microscope imaging shows the myostracal layer consists of regular crystalline blocks. The nacre before the layer consists of tablets approximately 400 nm thick, while after the myostracal layer the tablets are approximately 500 nm thick. A new technique, imaging polarimetry, indicates that the aragonite crystals within the nacre following the myostracal layer have greater orientation uniformity than before the myostracal layer. The results presented here suggest a possible interaction between the myostracal layer and subsequent shell growth.

  15. Transcriptome and biomineralization responses of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata to elevated CO2 and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiguo; Liu, Chuang; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Yangjia; Zhang, Shuwen; Zheng, Guilan; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification and global warming have been shown to significantly affect the physiological performances of marine calcifiers; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, the transcriptome and biomineralization responses of Pinctada fucata to elevated CO2 (pH 7.8 and pH 7.5) and temperature (25 °C and 31 °C) are investigated. Increases in CO2 and temperature induced significant changes in gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, net calcification rates and relative calcium content, whereas no changes are observed in the shell ultrastructure. “Ion and acid-base regulation” related genes and “amino acid metabolism” pathway respond to the elevated CO2 (pH 7.8), suggesting that P. fucata implements a compensatory acid-base mechanism to mitigate the effects of low pH. Additionally, “anti-oxidation”-related genes and “Toll-like receptor signaling”, “arachidonic acid metabolism”, “lysosome” and “other glycan degradation” pathways exhibited responses to elevated temperature (25 °C and 31 °C), suggesting that P. fucata utilizes anti-oxidative and lysosome strategies to alleviate the effects of temperature stress. These responses are energy-consuming processes, which can lead to a decrease in biomineralization capacity. This study therefore is important for understanding the mechanisms by which pearl oysters respond to changing environments and predicting the effects of global climate change on pearl aquaculture.

  16. Polarimetry of Pinctada fucata nacre indicates myostracal layer interrupts nacre structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Rebecca A.; Jones, Joshua A.; D'Addario, Anthony J.; Galvez, Enrique J.

    2017-02-01

    The inner layer of many bivalve and gastropod molluscs consists of iridescent nacre, a material that is structured like a brick wall with bricks consisting of crystalline aragonite and mortar of organic molecules. Myostracal layers formed during shell growth at the point of muscle attachment to the shell can be found interspersed within the nacre structure. Little has been done to examine the effect the myostracal layer has on subsequent nacre structure. Here we present data on the structure of the myostracal and nacre layers from a bivalve mollusc, Pinctada fucata. Scanning electron microscope imaging shows the myostracal layer consists of regular crystalline blocks. The nacre before the layer consists of tablets approximately 400 nm thick, while after the myostracal layer the tablets are approximately 500 nm thick. A new technique, imaging polarimetry, indicates that the aragonite crystals within the nacre following the myostracal layer have greater orientation uniformity than before the myostracal layer. The results presented here suggest a possible interaction between the myostracal layer and subsequent shell growth.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of the pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata) hemocytes in response to Vibrio alginolyticus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongliang; Wang, Bei; Chen, Gang; Jian, Jichang; Lu, Yishan; Xu, Youhou; Wu, Zaohe

    2016-01-10

    The pearl oyster Pinctada fucata is cultured widely for production of marine pearls in China, while mass mortalities, likely related to pathogenic infections, have occurred frequently in juvenile, mother and operated oysters. To address this issue, understanding host defense mechanisms of P. fucata against pathogenic challenge is extremely important. In the present study, a comparative analysis of hemocyte transcriptomes of P. fucata before and after Vibrio alginolyticus infection was conducted using the Illumina/Hiseq-2000 RNA-Seq technology. A total of 56,345,139 clean reads were generated and then assembled into 74,007 unigenes with an average length of 680 bp and an N50 of 1197 bp. Unigenes were annotated by comparing against non-redundant protein sequence (nr), non-redundant nucleotide (nt), Swiss-Prot, Pfam, Gene Ontology database (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases, and 29,615 unigenes (40.01%) were annotated in at least one database. There were 636 genes (518 up-regulated and 118 down-regulated) that were significantly differentially expressed after bacterial challenge, and among which 369 were associated with 122 pathways, including classical immune-related pathways, such as 'MAPK signaling pathway', 'Chemokine signaling pathway', 'Apoptosis' and 'Wnt signaling pathway'. These findings provide information on the pearl oyster innate immunity and may contribute to developing strategies for management of diseases and long-term sustainability of P. fucata culture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Survey of the studies on Pinctada maxima(Jameson)%大珠母贝的研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜因萍; 何毛贤

    2009-01-01

    珍珠是家喻户晓的高级名贵装饰品,而大型优质珍珠在世界上非常稀少,价格极其昂贵,它主要产自一种大型的海产双壳贝类——大珠母贝(Pinctada maxima Jameson)。大珠母贝隶属于软体动物门(Mollusca),双壳纲(Bivalvia),异柱目(Anisomyaria),

  19. ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC VARIATION OF PEARL OYSTER, Pinctada maxima, BASED ON THE ANALYSIS OF MITOCHONDRIAL CYTOCHROME OXIDASE SUBUNIT I GENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Sudradjat

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pearl oyster, Pinctada maxima is one of economical ly important species in aquaculture, particularly in pearl industry. Information on genetic variation of pearl oyster is required in order to be able to make a sound management of it’s natural populations and to utilize it to improve the quality of pearl culture. Five populations from different geographic locations of pearl oyster, Pinctada maxima, (Sumbawa, Bali, Selat Sunda, Belitung, and South Sulawesi were analyzed for genetic variation within a 750-base pair region of the Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (MtCOI gene using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP technique. The analysis of 25 pearl oyster samples, their haplotype diversity ranged from 0.0970 to 0.1939 and the number of haplotype in each population ranged from three to five haplotypes. Clustering of populations based on Nei’s genetic distances and constructed using unweighted pair-group method with Arithmetic mean (UPGMA showed that the populations were clustered into two groups: Belitung, Selat Sunda, Bali and Sumbawa in one group, while South Sulawesi in the second group.

  20. Identification of genes directly involved in shell formation and their functions in pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Fang

    Full Text Available Mollusk shell formation is a fascinating aspect of biomineralization research. Shell matrix proteins play crucial roles in the control of calcium carbonate crystallization during shell formation in the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata. Characterization of biomineralization-related genes during larval development could enhance our understanding of shell formation. Genes involved in shell biomineralization were isolated by constructing three suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH libraries that represented genes expressed at key points during larval shell formation. A total of 2,923 ESTs from these libraries were sequenced and gave 990 unigenes. Unigenes coding for secreted proteins and proteins with tandem-arranged repeat units were screened in the three SSH libraries. A set of sequences coding for genes involved in shell formation was obtained. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization assays were carried out on five genes to investigate their spatial expression in several tissues, especially the mantle tissue. They all showed a different expression pattern from known biomineralization-related genes. Inhibition of the five genes by RNA interference resulted in different defects of the nacreous layer, indicating that they all were involved in aragonite crystallization. Intriguingly, one gene (UD_Cluster94.seq.Singlet1 was restricted to the 'aragonitic line'. The current data has yielded for the first time, to our knowledge, a suite of biomineralization-related genes active during the developmental stages of P. fucata, five of which were responsible for nacreous layer formation. This provides a useful starting point for isolating new genes involved in shell formation. The effects of genes on the formation of the 'aragonitic line', and other areas of the nacreous layer, suggests a different control mechanism for aragonite crystallization initiation from that of mature aragonite growth.

  1. Pinctada margaritifera responses to temperature and pH: Acclimation capabilities and physiological limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moullac, Gilles; Soyez, Claude; Latchere, Oihana; Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Fremery, Juliette; Saulnier, Denis; Lo Yat, Alain; Belliard, Corinne; Mazouni-Gaertner, Nabila; Gueguen, Yannick

    2016-12-01

    The pearl culture is one of the most lucrative aquacultures worldwide. In many South Pacific areas, it depends on the exploitation of the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera and relies entirely on the environmental conditions encountered in the lagoon. In this context, assessing the impact of climatic stressors, such as global warming and ocean acidification, on the functionality of the resource in terms of renewal and exploitation is fundamental. In this study, we experimentally addressed the impact of temperature (22, 26, 30 and 34 °C) and partial pressure of carbon dioxide pCO2 (294, 763 and 2485 μatm) on the biomineralization and metabolic capabilities of pearl oysters. While the energy metabolism was strongly dependent on temperature, results showed its independence from pCO2 levels; no interaction between temperature and pCO2 was revealed. The energy metabolism, ingestion, oxygen consumption and, hence, the scope for growth (SFG) were maximised at 30 °C and dramatically fell at 34 °C. Biomineralization was examined through the expression measurement of nine mantle's genes coding for shell matrix proteins involved in the formation of calcitic prisms and/or nacreous shell structures; significant changes were recorded for four of the nine (Pmarg-Nacrein A1, Pmarg-MRNP34, Pmarg-Prismalin 14 and Pmarg-Aspein). These changes showed that the maximum and minimum expression of these genes was at 26 and 34 °C, respectively. Surprisingly, the modelled thermal optimum for biomineralization (ranging between 21.5 and 26.5 °C) and somatic growth and reproduction (28.7 °C) appeared to be significantly different. Finally, the responses to high temperatures were contextualised with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projections, which highlighted that pearl oyster stocks and cultures would be severely threatened in the next decade.

  2. cDNA Microarray Analysis Revealing Candidate Biomineralization Genes of the Pearl Oyster, Pinctada fucata martensii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yaohua; Zheng, Xing; Zhan, Xin; Wang, Aimin; Gu, Zhifeng

    2016-06-01

    Biomineralization is a common biological phenomenon resulting in strong tissue, such as bone, tooth, and shell. Pinctada fucata martensii is an ideal animal for the study of biomineralization. Here, microarray technique was used to identify biomineralization gene in mantle edge (ME), mantle center (MC), and both ME and MC (ME-MC) for this pearl oyster. Results revealed that 804, 306, and 1127 contigs expressed at least three times higher in ME, MC, and ME-MC as those in other tissues. Blast against non-redundant database showed that 130 contigs (16.17 %), 53 contigs (17.32 %), and 248 contigs (22.01 %) hit reference genes (E ≤ -10), among which 91 contigs, 48 contigs, and 168 contigs could be assigned to 32, 26, and 63 biomineralization genes in tissue of ME, MC, and ME-MC at a threshold of 3 times upregulated expression level. The ratios of biomineralization contigs to homologous contigs were similar at 3 times, 10 times, and 100 times of upregulated expression level in either ME, MC, or ME-MC. Moreover, the ratio of biomineralization contigs was highest in MC. Although mRNA distribution characters were similar to those in other studies for eight biomineralization genes of PFMG3, Pif, nacrein, MSI7, mantle gene 6, Pfty1, prismin, and the shematrin, most biomineralization genes presented different expression profiles from existing reports. These results provided massive fundamental information for further study of biomineralization gene function, and it may be helpful for revealing gene nets of biomineralization and the molecular mechanisms underlining formation of shell and pearl for the oyster.

  3. Effect of electrolysis treatment on the biomineralization capacities of pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latchere, Oïhana; Fievet, Julie; Lo, Cédrik; Schneider, Denis; Dieu, Stéphanie; Cabral, Philippe; Belliard, Corinne; Ky, Chin-Long; Gueguen, Yannick; Saulnier, Denis

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigated the effect of electrolysis on the biomineralization capacities of juveniles of the mollusk Pinctada margaritifera for the first time. Size-selected individuals from two groups, "Medium" and "Large", from a multi-parental family produced in a hatchery system were subjected to electrolysis under a low voltage current over a nine-week experimental period. The growth of the juveniles was individually monitored and assessed weekly by wet weight and shell height measurements. At the end of the experiment, mantle tissue was sampled for biomineralization-related gene expression analysis. Electrolysis significantly increased pearl oyster growth in terms of shell height and wet weight for Large juveniles from the 5th and the 2nd week, respectively, until the end of the experiment. However, differences were only significant for Medium individuals from the 7th week for shell height and from the 9th week for wet weight. Furthermore, transcriptional analysis of six known biomineralization genes coding for shell matrix proteins of calcitic prisms and/or nacreous shell structures revealed that five were significantly overexpressed in the mantle mineralizing tissue under electrolysis: three in common between the two size class groups and two that were expressed exclusively in one or the other group. Finally, we found no statistical difference of the shell thickness ratio between individuals undergoing electrolysis and control conditions. Taken together, our results indicate, for the first time in a calcifying marine organism, that electrolysis influences molecular mechanisms involved in biomineralization and may stimulate some parameters of pearl oyster growth rate.

  4. Cloning and expression pattern of a Smad3 homolog from the pearl oyster,Pinctada fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yujuan Zhou; Zuoxin He; Qing Li; Liping Xie; Rongqing Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Several transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) superfamily members have been identified from mollusks. The significant effects of TGFβ signaling pathways on bone formation in vertebrates give clues to the signal transduction mechanism and how the shell of oysters is formed. However, what kinds of mediators are involved in the molluscan TGFβ signaling pathways, and how they play their functions in mollusks has not been well explained due to a lack of genomic information and the failure to establish oyster cell lines.That is,if we knew the genome sequence we could search the TGFB superfamily members using the BLAST program(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/),and if we established the molluscan cell line.we could transfect the gene of interest to the cell and detect its influence on expression levels of other genes,such as the matrix proteins.Therefore,to investigate whether there are similar TGFβ pathways in mollusks,many important mediators should be identified.In this paper,we report a cDNA encoding a Smad3 homolog(designated Pf Smad3)that Was isolated from the pearl oyster,Pinctada fucata.Sequence alignment showed that Pf-Smad3 contains aDNA-binding MH1 domainanda Runx2/Cbfal-binding MH2 domain,and shares an extremely high similarity with Smad3 proteins in vertebrates.However,Smad proteins in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans are very different from other Smad3 proteins.Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results indicated that Pf-Smad3 mRNA was expressed ubiquitously in adult Pin.fucata and was expressed at different levels at different developmental stages.In situ hybridization results showed that Pf-Smad3 mRNA WaS expressed mainly at the outer epithelial ceHs of the middle fold and the inner epithdial cells of the outer fold,especially around the gutter.These results suggested that Pf-Smad3 might take part in many physiological processes,including biomineralization,in oysters.

  5. Molecular signatures discriminating the male and the female sexual pathways in the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera.

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    Vaihiti Teaniniuraitemoana

    Full Text Available The genomics of economically important marine bivalves is studied to provide better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying their different reproductive strategies. The recently available gonad transcriptome of the black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera is a novel and powerful resource to study these mechanisms in marine mollusks displaying hermaphroditic features. In this study, RNAseq quantification data of the P. margaritifera gonad transcriptome were analyzed to identify candidate genes in histologically-characterized gonad samples to provide molecular signatures of the female and male sexual pathway in this pearl oyster. Based on the RNAseq data set, stringent expression analysis identified 1,937 contigs that were differentially expressed between the gonad histological categories. From the hierarchical clustering analysis, a new reproduction model is proposed, based on a dual histo-molecular analytical approach. Nine candidate genes were identified as markers of the sexual pathway: 7 for the female pathway and 2 for the male one. Their mRNA levels were assayed by real-time PCR on a new set of gonadic samples. A clustering method revealed four principal expression patterns based on the relative gene expression ratio. A multivariate regression tree realized on these new samples and validated on the previously analyzed RNAseq samples showed that the sexual pathway of P. margaritifera can be predicted by a 3-gene-pair expression ratio model of 4 different genes: pmarg-43476, pmarg-foxl2, pmarg-54338 and pmarg-fem1-like. This 3-gene-pair expression ratio model strongly suggests only the implication of pmarg-foxl2 and pmarg-fem1-like in the sex inversion of P. margaritifera. This work provides the first histo-molecular model of P. margaritifera reproduction and a gene expression signature of its sexual pathway discriminating the male and female pathways. These represent useful tools for understanding and studying sex inversion

  6. Cloning and Characterization of a Homologous Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase PSKH1 from Pearl Oyster Pinctada fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Yiping; XIE Liping; XIONG Xunhao; CHEN Lei; FAN Weimin; ZHANG Rongqing

    2005-01-01

    Many of the effects of Ca2+ signaling are mediated through the Ca2+/calmodulin complex and its acceptors, the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, including PSKH1. Studies of the proteins involved in the calcium metabolism in oysters will help elucidate the pearl formation mechanism. This paper describes a full-length PSKH1 cDNA isolated from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. Oyster PSKH1 shares 65% homology with human PSKH1 and 48% similarity with rat CaM kinase I in the amino acid sequence, and contains a calmodulin-binding domain. The results of semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization revealed that oyster PSKH1 mRNA is highly expressed in the outer epithelial cells of the mantle pallial and in the gill epithelial cells. These studies provide important information describing the complex Ca2+ signaling mechanism in oyster calcium metabolism.

  7. Temperature and Food Influence Shell Growth and Mantle Gene Expression of Shell Matrix Proteins in the Pearl Oyster Pinctada margaritifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Caroline; Linard, Clémentine; Le Moullac, Gilles; Soyez, Claude; Saulnier, Denis; Teaniniuraitemoana, Vaihiti; Ky, Chin Long; Gueguen, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the combined effect of microalgal concentration and temperature on the shell growth of the bivalve Pinctada margaritifera and the molecular mechanisms underlying this biomineralization process. Shell growth was measured after two months of rearing in experimental conditions, using calcein staining of the calcified structures. Molecular mechanisms were studied though the expression of 11 genes encoding proteins implicated in the biomineralization process, which was assessed in the mantle. We showed that shell growth is influenced by both microalgal concentration and temperature, and that these environmental factors also regulate the expression of most of the genes studied. Gene expression measurement of shell matrix protein thereby appears to be an appropriate indicator for the evaluation of the biomineralization activity in the pearl oyster P. margaritifera under varying environmental conditions. This study provides valuable information on the molecular mechanisms of mollusk shell growth and its environmental control. PMID:25121605

  8. Temperature and food influence shell growth and mantle gene expression of shell matrix proteins in the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Joubert

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyzed the combined effect of microalgal concentration and temperature on the shell growth of the bivalve Pinctada margaritifera and the molecular mechanisms underlying this biomineralization process. Shell growth was measured after two months of rearing in experimental conditions, using calcein staining of the calcified structures. Molecular mechanisms were studied though the expression of 11 genes encoding proteins implicated in the biomineralization process, which was assessed in the mantle. We showed that shell growth is influenced by both microalgal concentration and temperature, and that these environmental factors also regulate the expression of most of the genes studied. Gene expression measurement of shell matrix protein thereby appears to be an appropriate indicator for the evaluation of the biomineralization activity in the pearl oyster P. margaritifera under varying environmental conditions. This study provides valuable information on the molecular mechanisms of mollusk shell growth and its environmental control.

  9. Assessment of Toxic Metals Concentration using Pearl Oyster, Pinctada radiate, as Bioindicator on the Coast of Persian Gulf, Iran

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    Asma Mohammad Karami

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Persian Gulf is a semi-closed environment which is affected by pollution from heavy metals. Entrance of heavy metals to the water column and binding to sediment particles can affect the benthic organisms that can accumulate these materials in their body. Noticing this ability, mussels are considered as bio-monitoring agents. Methods: The pearl oyster, Pinctada radiate, and sediment samples were collected from Lengeh Port and Qeshm Island. For measuring heavy metals, 0.5g of soft tissue and 1g of shell and sediment were digested by HNO3 (69% and hot block digester. The prepared samples were evaluated for Cd, Cu, and Zn using a flame AAS Model 67OG while for Pb a graphite furnace AAS was used. Results: Higher metal accumulations were observed in soft tissues. Positive correlations between Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu concentrations in sediments and soft tissues of oyster were observed. The use of soft tissue of P. radiata as an indicator showed the highest accumulations of Cd (9.76±0.59 and Zn (3142.60±477.10 in Lengeh Port, but there were no significant differences in Cu and Pb concentrations between the two stations. Conclusion: The higher concentrations of heavy metals in P. radiata’ soft tissue in comparison to shell suggested this material as a better heavy metals indicator than shell. Also, the correlation between heavy metals concentration in soft tissue and sediment improve this idea that soft tissue of Pinctada radiata can be considered as a biomonitoring agent for toxic metals pollutions. Hence, using this bioindicator showed Lengeh Port as more polluted station than Qeshm Island.

  10. Measures of Allometric Growth of Black-lip Pearl Oyster Pinctada margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758 Red Sea, Egypt

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    Somaya M. Taha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of regression analyses to explain the relationship between various biometric characters of pearl oyster P. margaritifera are found to be most suitable. It can be used to asses this pearl oyster which have been extensively exploited in Red Sea. Pinctada margaritifera is more wide spread among the Pinctada species, occurring across the Indian and Pacific Oceans and in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Coastal survey was done during the period from March 2005 to April 2007 covering area more than 600 km of the proper coast of Red Sea, Egypt. Collection of P. margaritifera was done using snorkeling and SCUBA diving in the studied area. The most abundant sites inhabited with the present studied species were divided into two parts, the Northern part which includes areas from Eash El-Malaha to the NIOF marine station near Hurghada city and the Southern area from Shalatein to Wadi El-Hour area. The Northern population of P. margaritifera consisted of larger shell sizes and weights than the Southern area. This was attributed to type of natural food and water quality. The relationship between the shell length and other shell dimensions is generally positive and linear, which indicates isometric growth pattern in the shell of P. margaritifera population of studied area. The length-weight relationship showed a strong positive correlation in a curvilinear pattern with isometric growth form. The results of the condition index indicated that larger values were achieved during summer months and it was expected to be related to the changes in gonad condition more than to the somatic growth of the animal. Seasonal variations in condition index also reflects the importance of seasonal changes in the metabolic activities of the species under study.

  11. Evidence of a Biological Control over Origin, Growth and End of the Calcite Prisms in the Shells of Pinctada margaritifera (Pelecypod, Pterioidea

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    Jean-Pierre Cuif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Consistently classified among the references for calcite simple prisms, the microstructural units that form the outer layer of the Pinctada margaritifera have been investigated through a series of morphological, crystallographical and biochemical characterizations. It is often said that the polygonal transverse shape of the prisms result from the competition for space between adjacent crystals. In contrast to this classical scheme the Pinctada prisms appear to be composed of four successive developmental stages from the concentrically growing disks on the internal side of the periostracum to the morphological, structural and compositional changes in both envelopes and mineral components at the end of the prisms. These latest structural and compositional changes predate nacre deposition, so that the end of prism growth is not caused by occurrence of nacre, but by metabolic changes in the secretory epithelium. This sequence makes obvious the permanent biological control exerted by the outer cell layer of the mantle in both organic envelopes and mineralizing organic phases.

  12. Cloning, Characterization, and Distribution of an mRNA Encoding a H+-ATPase α Subunit in the Mantle of Pearl Oyster, Pinctada fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial ATP synthase is responsible for the production of the majority of the cellular ATP,which is composed of two major units: F0 and F1. Although much is known about the active complex (5 subunits (αβγδε)), the role of the α subunit in the catalytic mechanism remains unclear, particularly in bivalve animals. This study first cloned and identified the full-length sequence of the mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase α subunit cDNA gene in Pinctada fucata using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)technique. The Pinctada fucata mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase α subunit contains 1991 nucleotides, with the translation start site at nt 48 (ATG) and the stop codon at nt 1660 (TAA), encoding a polypeptide 553 amino acids in length, which shares high similarity to that of other animals (81% identity to fruit fly, 82% to carp, and 83% to humans). Alignment analysis of the well-conserved amino acid domains in the ATPase α subunit, the α/β signal transduction domain, showed that two residues (Asp358 and Asn359) differ from any other ATP synthase α subunit. In situ hybridization analysis was used to reveal the wide-spread distribution of mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase in various tissues in Pinctada fucata. This work will help further research on pearl energy metabolism to increase the output and quality of pearls to more efficiently utilize our rich pearl oyster resources.

  13. Supplementation with bio-calcium from shells Pinctada maxima in postmenopausal women with decreased mineral bone density: Pilot study

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    Vujasinović-Stupar Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Treatment of osteoporosis, in addition to a specific antiresorptive or anabolic treatment, requires supplementation with calcium and vitamin D. Widespread cultivation of pearl shells has made pearls available for commercial use for a very reasonable price. The main chemical compound of pearls from shells Pinctada maxima is calcium-carbonate (CaCO3. Recently developed technologies applied in a micronisation process have provided increased gastrointestinal resorption of calcium, estimated at over 90% of calcium intake. Objective The paper is aimed at monitoring of efficacy and tolerance of six-month bio-calcium supplementation in postmenopausal women with reduced bone mineral density. Methods Group I (30 patients received, three times a day, capsules of pearl powder from shells Pinctada maxima (it is equal to 260 mg of elementary calcium; group II (20 patients received a daily dose of 500 mg inorganic CaCO3. Both groups received 666 IU of cholecalciferol per day. In all patients, bone mineral density (BMD of the spine or hip, serum blood and urine levels of Ca, phosphates and alkaline phosphatase, were measured before and after six months of the treatment. Results Group I/Group II: average age 61.7/61.7 years; beginning of menopause: 48.32 /48 years; menopause duration 13.4/13.7 years; average body mass index 27.2/27 kg/m2 . These two groups did not different significantly before supplementation. Six-month supplementation with CaCO3 of the biological origin led to the increase of BMD from 0.901 g/cm2 to 0.948 g/cm2 (p=0.067, while BMD remained the same in the group supplemented with inorganic CaCO3. Gastrointestinal tolerability of bio-calcium was excellent, without any adverse events. Conclusion These data could not strongly support the hypothesis of better efficacy of bio-calcium taking into account a small number of patients and a short follow-up period in this pilot study. Tolerance of CaCO3 of the biological origin was excellent

  14. 污损生物对合浦珠母贝Pinctada martensii生长和繁殖的影响%Effect of Biofouling on Growth and Reproduction of Pearl Oyster Pinctada martensii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖辉; 苏振霞

    2008-01-01

    主要研究定期清除污损生物的合浦珠母贝(Pinctada martensii)与不清除污损生物的合浦珠母贝在生长及繁殖上的差异,用以说明污损生物对合浦珠母贝的生长及繁殖的影响.结果表明,合浦珠母贝在悬挂了2个月之后,清除污损生物的实验组与不清除污损生物的实验组合浦珠母贝之间的各项生长指标差异不显著(P>0.05),而在悬挂3个月和悬挂4个月之后,清除污损的合浦珠母贝与不清除污损的合浦珠母贝之间的生长指标产生了显著差异(P<0.05).结果还显示污损生物对合浦珠母贝的繁殖周期没有影响.

  15. The mining of pearl formation genes in pearl oyster Pinctada fucata by cDNA suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Nomura, Naoko; Riho, Chihiro; Maeyama, Kaoru; Nagai, Kiyohito; Watabe, Shugo

    2012-04-01

    Recent researches revealed the regional preference of biomineralization gene transcription in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata: it transcribed mainly the genes responsible for nacre secretion in mantle pallial, whereas the ones regulating calcite shells expressed in mantle edge. This study took use of this character and constructed the forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries. A total of 669 cDNA clones were sequenced and 360 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) greater than 100 bp were generated. Functional annotation associated 95 ESTs with specific functions, and 79 among them were identified from P. fucata at the first time. In the forward SSH cDNA library, it recognized mass amount of nacre protein genes, biomineralization genes dominantly expressed in the mantle pallial, calcium-ion-binding genes, and other biomineralization-related genes important for pearl formation. Real-time PCR showed that all the examined genes were distributed in oyster mantle tissues with a consistence to the SSH design. The detection of their RNA transcripts in pearl sac confirmed that the identified genes were certainly involved in pearl formation. Therefore, the data from this work will initiate a new round of pearl formation gene study and shed new insights into molluscan biomineralization.

  16. Natural cleaning of the black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera by butterflyfishes (Chaetodon) in French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Legraverant, Yohann; Berthe, Cécile; Brooker, Rohan M.; Lo, Cédrik; Lecchini, David

    2016-12-01

    Biofouling increases the operational and economic costs associated with pearl production. As current procedures for reducing oyster biofouling can be detrimental to survival and growth and may pollute the surrounding environment developing alternative, biologically-mediated, methods could potentially increase both production and ecological sustainability. With this in mind, the present study investigated natural cleaning of black-lipped pearl oysters, Pinctada margaritifera, by butterflyfishes (Chaetodon). The feeding behaviour of six butterflyfish species was examined at Rangiroa Atoll, French Polynesia: Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon citrinellus, Chaetodon ephippium, Chaetodon lunulatus, Chaetodon trifascialis and Chaetodon ulietensis. All species cleaned the surface of pearl oysters by removing epibionts (from 16% to 40% of total biomass), although dietary variation may explain different cleaning efficiencies. Generalist omnivores (C. auriga, C. citrinellus, C. ephippium and C. ulietensis) were the most efficient cleaners (% cleaning range: 26-40% of total biomass). Within this group, C. ephippium removed the most biomass (average of 41%) targeting algae and anemones. However, C. auriga targeted the most diverse range of epibionts, removing significant amounts of algae, sponges, tunicates, and anemones. These results suggest that foraging by butterflyfishes can substantially reduce biofouling on economically-important tropical bivalves.

  17. Molecular Cloning and Distribution of a Plasma Membrane Calcium ATPase Homolog from the Pearl Oyster Pinctada fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue; FAN Weimin; XIE Liping; ZHANG Rongqing

    2008-01-01

    Plasma membrane calcium ATPaso (PMCA) plays a critical role in transporting Ca2 out of the cy- tosol across the plasma membrane which is essential both in keeping intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and in biomineralization.In this paper we cloned and localized a gene encoding PMCA from the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.This PMCA shares similarity with other published PMCAs within the functional domains.Reverse transcdption-polymerase chain reaction analysis shows that it is expressed ubiquitously.Furthermore,in situ hybridization reveals that it is expressed in the inner epithelial calls of the outer fold and in the outer epithelial calls of the middle fold,as well as the edge near the shell,which suggests that PMCA may be involved in calcified layer formation.The identification and characterization of oyster PMCA can help to further under-stand the structural and functional properties of molluscan PMCA,as well as the mechanism of maintaining Ca2+ homeostasis and the mechanism of mineralization in pead oyster.

  18. Interactive Effects of Seawater Acidification and Elevated Temperature on the Transcriptome and Biomineralization in the Pearl Oyster Pinctada fucata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiguo; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Chuang; Liu, Yangjia; Zheng, Guilan; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2016-02-02

    Interactive effects of ocean acidification and ocean warming on marine calcifiers vary among species, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. The present study investigated the combined effects of seawater acidification and elevated temperature (ambient condition: pH 8.1 × 23 °C, stress conditions: pH 7.8 × 23 °C, pH 8.1 × 28 °C, and pH 7.8 × 28 °C, exposure time: two months) on the transcriptome and biomineralization of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, which is an important marine calcifier. Transcriptome analyses indicated that P. fucata implemented a compensatory acid-base mechanism, metabolic depression and positive physiological responses to mitigate the effects of seawater acidification alone. These responses were energy-expensive processes, leading to decreases in the net calcification rate, shell surface calcium and carbon content, and changes in the shell ultrastructure. Elevated temperature (28 °C) within the thermal window of P. fucata did not induce significant enrichment of the sequenced genes and conversely facilitated calcification, which was detected to alleviate the negative effects of seawater acidification on biomineralization and the shell ultrastructure. Overall, this study will help elucidate the mechanisms by which pearl oysters respond to changing seawater conditions and predict the effects of global climate change on pearl aquaculture.

  19. The Effect of NF-κB Signalling Pathway on Expression and Regulation of Nacrein in Pearl Oyster, Pinctada fucata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sun

    Full Text Available Nacrein is the first identified and widely investigated molluscan matrix protein and is considered to play an important role in the shell formation of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata. Here, we investigate the effect of the NF-κB signalling pathway on Nacrein gene expression in P. fucata to elucidate the mechanisms involved in shell formation. Inhibition of NF-κB signalling decreased Nacrein promoter-dependent luciferase activity. However, co-transfection of the Nacrein promoter vector with Pf-IKK or Pf-Rel expression plasmids could enhance luciferase activity, thus proving NF-κB signalling could regulate the transcriptional activity of the Nacrein promoter. Gene silencing by RNA interference and subsequent observation of the inner surface of the nacreous layer of oyster shells by SEM, showed that suppression of the gene Pf-Rel lead to a partial inhibition of Nacrein expression, not only at the mRNA level but also at the protein level. The inner surface of the shells became abnormal. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs revealed that Pf-Rel could directly bind to the relative sites of the Nacrein promoter. These results confirm that an important component of the NF-κB signalling pathway, Pf-Rel, can directly bind the Nacrein promoter in P. fucata, and regulate its transcription and shell formation.

  20. Ca(2+) Mediates the Self-Assembly of the Foot Proteins of Pinctada fucata from the Nanoscale to the Microscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2016-10-10

    Bivalve animals such as mussels and pearl oysters secrete proteinaceous byssus from the foot to attach themselves to solid surfaces under seawater. Although the biomolecules of mussel byssus have been extensively studied, how they form insoluble threads underwater from soluble protein precursors and how they produce hierarchical microscale threads from biomolecules remains unclear. Here, using the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata as a model, metal ions rather than pH are found to play critical roles in the solidification process of the byssus. Particularly, Ca(2+) can induce self-assembly of the foot proteins and the byssal proteins, resulting in aggregate formation. At a concentration of 10 mM, protein fibers with a diameter of approximately 26 μm and a length ranging from 50 to 400 μm were formed. Moreover, the fibers are composed of 60-90 nm nanospheres, reminiscent of the ultrastructure sizes of threads. It is proposed that Ca(2+) can interact with byssal proteins such as thrombospondin-1 containing protein through phosphorylated serine and/or von Willebrand factor type A domains. This study provides insight into how the byssus forms from the soluble protein molecules into insoluble threads underwater and may inspire further biomaterial design for underwater use.

  1. A preliminary study for identification of candidate AFLP markers under artificial selection for shell color in pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Keshu; Zhang, Dianchang; Guo, Huayang; Zhu, Caiyan; Li, Min; Jiang, Shigui

    2014-05-25

    Pearl oyster Pinctada fucata is widely cultured to produce seawater pearl in South China, and the quality of pearl is significantly affected by its shell color. Thus the Pearl Oyster Selective Breeding Program (POSBP) was carried out for the shell color and growth traits. The black (B), gold (G), red (R) and white (W) shell strains with fast growth trait were achieved after five successive generation selection. In this study, AFLP technique was used to scan genome of four strains with different shell colors to identify the candidate markers under artificial selection. Eight AFLP primer combinations were screened and yielded 688 loci, 676 (98.26%) of which were polymorphic. In black, gold, red and white strains, the percentage of polymorphic loci was 90.41%, 87.79%, 93.60% and 93.31%, respectively, Nei's gene diversity was 0.3225, 0.2829, 0.3221 and 0.3292, Shannon's information index was 0.4801, 0.4271, 0.4825 and 0.4923, and the value of FST was 0.1805. These results suggested that the four different shell color strains had high genetic diversity and great genetic differentiation among strains, which had been subjected to the continuous selective pressures during the artificial selective breeding. Furthermore, six outlier loci were considered as the candidate markers under artificial selection for shell color. This study provides a molecular evidence for the inheritance of shell color of P. fucata.

  2. Differentially expressed immune-related genes in hemocytes of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata against allograft identified by transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jinfen; Liu, Baosuo; Fan, Sigang; Li, Haimei; Chen, Mingqiang; Zhang, Bo; Su, Jiaqi; Meng, Zihao; Yu, Dahui

    2017-03-01

    The pearl oyster Pinctada fucata is commonly cultured for marine pearls in China. To culture pearls, a mantle piece from a donor pearl oyster is grafted with a nucleus into a receptor. This transplanted mantle piece may be rejected by the immune system of the recipient oyster, thus reducing the success of transplantation. However, there have been limited studies about the oyster's immune defense against allograft. In this study, hemocyte transcriptome analysis was performed to detect the immune responses to allograft in P. fucata at 0 h and 48 h after a transplant. The sequencing reaction produced 92.5 million reads that were mapped against the reference genome sequences of P. fucata. The Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) were used to identify all immune-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Compared with patterns at 0 h, a total of 798 DEGs were identified, including 410 up-regulated and 388 down-regulated genes at 48 h. The expression levels of interleukin receptor and toll-like receptor in hemocytes were increased significantly 48 h post-transplant, indicating that the oyster immune response was induced. Finally, altered levels of 18 randomly selected immune-related DEGs were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results provide the basis for further analysis of the immune rejection of allotransplantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Studies on rickettsia-like organism(RLO)disease of tropical marine pearl oyster--Epidemiologicai investigation of RLO disease in juvenile populations of maricultured Pinctada maxima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinzhong Wu; Dengfeng Li; Jinpei Pan; Jingbo Jiang

    2003-01-01

    The death which occurred in juvenile population was a severe problem in the course ofPinctada maxima artificial culture. With the methods of field investigation, histological study andstatistic analyses, the epidemiological study was carried out on the disease and death in juvenile popula-tions of Pinctada maxima in the Xinying Pearl Oyster Mariculture Farm of Lingao County (for the A,B and C batches of cultured juveniles hanged in the sea) and the Xincun Pearl Oyster Mariculture Farmof Lingshui County (for the D batch of cultured juvenile hanged in the pond), Hainan Province fromNovember 1993 to April 1995. The results show that the deaths which occurred in juvenile populations of Pinctada maxima pre-sented an outbreak pattern. The peak of mortality rates, in general, occurred in 4-to 6-month old pearloyster juveniles, and the mortality rates gradully declined with the extention of pearl oyster age after cul-turing 8 months. The correlation between the mortality rates of juvenile populations and mean bodylengths of juvenile populations show that the mortality rate become higher under 4 cm of mean bodylengths of juvenile population and become obvious declined over 5 cm of mean body lengths. The peak ofmortality rate occurred in 1 ~3 cm of mean body lengths. The results of histological observation showedthat rickettsia-like organism inclusions were common, histological widespread infective agent among ev-ery batches (A, B, C and D) of cultured juvenile populations. The mean severity indices (SI) of rick-ettsia-like organism (RLO) infection were positively correlated with mortality rates of juvenile popula-tions. After or within every peaks of RLO infection were all accompanied with the peaks of mortalityrates of host populations and the mortality rates declined with decreased RLO infection. So the evidencesof histological observation and epidemiology in this study indicated that rickettsia-like organism (RLO)may be as an important pathogenic organism of disease

  4. Reliving the Barricade days / Monika Hanley

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanley, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Riias asutatud Barrikaadide Muuseumist, mis loodi 1991. jaanuaris Lätis toimunud sündmuste mälestuseks, mil rahvas otsustas meeleavaldusel kaitsta Riiat Nõukogude eriüksuse (OMON) eest barrikaadidega

  5. Police apathy on the rise / Monika Hanley

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanley, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Läti politseinike palkade samale tasemele jätmine on muutnud nad oma töö suhtes ükskõiksemaks. Siseminister Mareks Seglins'e sõnul anti politseinikele nende palgatõusu suhtes vale informatsiooni

  6. Police apathy on the rise / Monika Hanley

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanley, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Läti politseinike palkade samale tasemele jätmine on muutnud nad oma töö suhtes ükskõiksemaks. Siseminister Mareks Seglins'e sõnul anti politseinikele nende palgatõusu suhtes vale informatsiooni

  7. Victory Day passes smoothly / Monika Hanley

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanley, Monika

    2009-01-01

    9. mail toimusid Riias pidulikud üritused vabastaja mälestusmärgi juures, mille käigus politsei arreteeris 136 korrarikkujat. Tallinnas paigutas kunstnik Kristina Norman pronkssõduri endisesse asupaika kuldseks võõbatud pronkssõdurit meenutava kuju, mis peatselt politsei poolt ka platsilt eemaldati

  8. Inhibition of Alkaline Phosphatase from Pearl Oyster Pinctada fucata by o-Phthalaldehyde: Involvement of Lysine and Histidine Residues at the Active Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hongtao; XIE Liping; YU Zhenyan; ZHANG Rongqing

    2005-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase from Pinctada fucata was inactivated by o-phthalaldehyde (OPA). The inactivation followed pseudo first-order kinetics with a second rate constant of 0.167 (mmol/L)-1·min-1 at pH 7.5 and 25°C. A Tsou's plot analysis showed that inactivation occurred upon formation of one isoindole group. The OPA-modified enzyme lost the ability to bind with the specific affinity column and the presence of substrates or competitive inhibitors protected the enzyme from inactivation. The results revealed that the OPA-reaction site was at the enzyme substrate binding site. Prior modification of the enzyme by lysine or histidine specific reagent abolished formation of the isoindole derivatives, suggesting that lysine and histidine residues were involved in the OPA-induced inactivation. Taken together, OPA inactivated the alkaline phosphatase from Pinctada fucata by cross-linking lysine and histidine residues at the active site and formed an isoindole group at the substrate binding site of the enzyme.

  9. Influence of the Depth on the Shape and Thickness of Nacre Tablets of Pinctada margaritifera Pearl Oyster, and on Oxygen Isotopic Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthe Rousseau

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nacre, or mother of pearl, is composed of aragonite tablets and is produced by some mollusks. Because of the highly organized internal structure, chemical complexity, mechanical properties and optical effects of nacre, its formation is among the best-studied examples of calcium carbonate biomineralization. The pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera is harvested in French Polynesia for pearl farming. The quality of the pearl depends on the quality of the nacre on its surface and its iridescent colors are affected by the thickness of the layers. Here we report on an experimental study conducted to influence the shape and the thickness of nacre tablets by keeping pearl oysters at four different depths (7, 20, 30 and 39 m for one week. Scanning electron microscopy was used to measure the thickness of the nacre tablets and to analyze their final shape. The shape of the tablets changed from hexagonal to rhomboid at a depth of 39 m. The change in shape led to a change in size. The thickness of the tablets was reduced by between 16 and 30% on average. We also measured the oxygen isotopic composition using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. In this study, we demonstrated that depth can modify the size, shape and thickness of nacre tablets, but not the d18O. This environmental modification is important for the biomineralization of the shell of the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera.

  10. The Mendelian inheritance of rare flesh and shell colour variants in the black-lipped pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ky, Chin-Long; Nakasai, Seiji; Pommier, Steve; Sham Koua, Manaarii; Devaux, Dominique

    2016-10-01

    Pinctada margaritifera is French Polynesia's most economically important aquaculture species. This pearl oyster has the specific ability to produce cultured pearls with a very wide range of colours, depending on the colour phenotypes of donor oysters used. Its aquaculture is still based on natural spat collection from wild stocks. We investigated three rare colour variants of P. margaritifera - orange flesh, and red and white shell colour phenotypes - in comparison with the wild-type black flesh and shell commonly found in this species. The study aimed to assess the geographic distribution and genetic basis of these colour variants. Colour frequencies were evaluated during transfer and graft processes of pearl oyster seed captured at collector stations. Among the collection locations studied, Mangareva Island showed the highest rate of the orange flesh phenotype, whereas Takaroa and Takume atolls had relatively high rates of red and white shell phenotypes respectively. Broodstocks were made of these rare colour variants, and crosses were performed to produce first- and second-generation progenies to investigate segregation. The results were consistent with Mendelian ratios and suggest a distinct model with no co-dominance: (i) a two-allele model for flesh trait, whereby the orange allele is recessive to the black fleshed type, and (ii) a three-allele model for shell trait, whereby the black wild-type allele is dominant to the red coloration, which is dominant to the white shell. Furthermore, the proposed model provides the basis for producing selected donor pearl oyster lines through hatchery propagation. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  11. Construction of cDNA subtractive library from pearl oyster ( Pinctada fucata Gould) with red color shell by SSH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yunyan; Huang, Liangmin; He, Maoxian

    2011-05-01

    The molecular basis of color polymorphism in the shells of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata is largely unknown. We developed a red-shelled family line and used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to screen for differentially expressed genes in red- and non-red-shelled pearl oysters. We constructed forward and reverse cDNA subtractive libraries consisting of 2 506 and 797 clones, respectively. Among 343 randomly selected clones in the forward library, 304 sequences were identified in GenBank using BLASTx and BLASTn. Of the 304 sequences, 13 showed no similarity to known sequences and 291 were matched with known genes of the pearl oyster, including shematrin-1, shematrin-2, shematrin-6, shematrin-7, nacrein, nacrein-like protein, aspein for shell matrix protein, glycine-rich protein, mantle gene 5, 28S, EST00031, EST00036, 16S, and COI. In the reverse library, 7 clones were sequenced and analyzed by BLAST. Two sequences shared similarity with EST00036 from the P. fucata subtraction cDNA library, four with the P. fucata mitochondrial gene for 16S rRNA and 1 with P. fucata shematrin-2. We evaluated the expression of 12 genes from the forward library using RT PCR. Two sequences matched with 16S and COI so were considered to be false positives. The remaining 10 sequences were differentially expression in the red-shelled pearl oysters. Our results suggest that differential expression of these genes may be related to color variation in the red-shelled family line of the pearl oyster.

  12. Larval dispersal modeling of pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera following realistic environmental and biological forcing in Ahe atoll lagoon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoann Thomas

    Full Text Available Studying the larval dispersal of bottom-dwelling species is necessary to understand their population dynamics and optimize their management. The black-lip pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera is cultured extensively to produce black pearls, especially in French Polynesia's atoll lagoons. This aquaculture relies on spat collection, a process that can be optimized by understanding which factors influence larval dispersal. Here, we investigate the sensitivity of P. margaritifera larval dispersal kernel to both physical and biological factors in the lagoon of Ahe atoll. Specifically, using a validated 3D larval dispersal model, the variability of lagoon-scale connectivity is investigated against wind forcing, depth and location of larval release, destination location, vertical swimming behavior and pelagic larval duration (PLD factors. The potential connectivity was spatially weighted according to both the natural and cultivated broodstock densities to provide a realistic view of connectivity. We found that the mean pattern of potential connectivity was driven by the southwest and northeast main barotropic circulation structures, with high retention levels in both. Destination locations, spawning sites and PLD were the main drivers of potential connectivity, explaining respectively 26%, 59% and 5% of the variance. Differences between potential and realistic connectivity showed the significant contribution of the pearl oyster broodstock location to its own dynamics. Realistic connectivity showed larger larval supply in the western destination locations, which are preferentially used by farmers for spat collection. In addition, larval supply in the same sectors was enhanced during summer wind conditions. These results provide new cues to understanding the dynamics of bottom-dwelling populations in atoll lagoons, and show how to take advantage of numerical models for pearl oyster management.

  13. Construction of cDNA subtractive library from pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata Gould) with red color shell by SSH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Yunyan; HUANG Liangmin; HE Maoxian

    2011-01-01

    The molecular basis of color polymorphism in the shells of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata is largely unknown. We developed a red-shelled family line and used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to screen for differentially expressed genes in red- and non-red-shelled pearl oysters. We constructed forward and reverse cDNA subtractive libraries consisting of 2 506 and 797 clones, respectively.Among 343 randomly selected clones in the forward library, 304 sequences were identified in GenBank using BLASTx and BLASTn. Of the 304 sequences, 13 showed no similarity to known sequences and 291 were matched with known genes of the pearl oyster, including shematrin-1, shematrin-2, shematrin-6,shematrin-7, nacrein, nacrein-like protein, aspein for shell matrix protein, glycine-rich protein, mantle gene 5, 28S, EST00031, EST00036, 16S, and COI. In the reverse library, 7 clones were sequenced and analyzed by BLAST. Two sequences shared similarity with EST00036 from the P. fucata subtraction cDNA library, four with the P. fucata mitochondrial gene for 16S rRNA and 1 with P. fucata shematrin-2. We evaluated the expression of 12 genes from the forward library using RT PCR. Two sequences matched with 16S and COI so were considered to be false positives. The remaining 10 sequences were differentially expression in the red-shelled pearl oysters. Our results suggest that differential expression of these genes may be related to color variation in the red-shelled family line of the pearl oyster.

  14. Cloning, Characterization, and Expression Patterns of Three Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase Isoforms from Pearl Oyster (Pinctada fucata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A large amount of calcium is required for mollusk biomineralization. Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) is a well-known protein with the function of sustaining the calcium homeostasis. How does it possibly function in the process of pearl oyster biomineralization? Three SERCA isoforms, namely PSERA, PSERB, and PSERC were cloned from the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata. The cDNAs of the three isoforms were isolated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. PSERA consisted of 3568 bp encoding 1007 amino acids, PSERB included 3953 bp encoding 1024 amino acids, and PSERC comprised of 3450 bp encoding 1000 amino acids.The three isoforms showed high homology (65%-87%) with SERCAs from other species. Consistent with the results from other invertebrates, Southern blot analysis revealed that the three isoforms originated from a single gene that was also related to SERCA1, SERCA2, and SERCA3 of vertebrates. The splicing mechanism of the three isoforms was similar to that of isoforms of vertebrate SERCA3. Semiquantitative RT-PCR was carried out to study the expression patterns of the three isoforms. The results showed that PSERB was ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues and was a potential "housekeeping" SERCA isoform; PSERA was expressed in the adductor muscle and foot and was likely to be a muscle-specific isoform, and PSERC was expressed in the other tissues except the adductor muscle or foot with the highest expression levels in the gill and mantle, indicating that it was a non-muscle-specific isoform and might be involved in calcium homeostasis during pearl oyster biomineralization.

  15. Dual Roles of the Lysine-Rich Matrix Protein (KRMP-3 in Shell Formation of Pearl Oyster, Pinctada fucata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liang

    Full Text Available Matrix proteins play important roles in shell formation. Our group firstly isolated three cDNAs encoding lysine-rich matrix protein from Pinctada fucata in 2006. However, the functions of KRMPs are not fully understood. In addition, KRMPs contain two functional domains, the basic domain and the Gly/Tyr domain respectively. Based on the modular organization, the roles of their two domains were poorly characterized. Furthermore, KRMPs were then reported in other two species, P. maxima and P. margaritifera, which indicated that KRMPs might be very important for shell formation. In this study, the characterization and function of KRMP-3 and its two functional domains were studied in vitro through purification of recombinant glutathione S-transferase tagged KRMP-3 and two KRMP-3 deletion mutants. Western blot and immunofluorescence revealed that native KRMP-3 existed in the EDTA-insoluble matrix of the prismatic layer and was located in the organic sheet and the prismatic sheath. Recombinant KRMP-3 (rKRMP-3 bound tightly to chitin and this binding capacity was duo to the Gly/Tyr-rich region. rKRMP-3 inhibited the precipitation of CaCO3, affected the crystal morphology of calcite and inhibited the growth of aragonite in vitro, which was almost entirely attributed to the lysine-rich region. The results present direct evidence of the roles of KRMP-3 in shell biomineralization. The functional rBR region was found to participate in the growth control of crystals and the rGYR region was responsible to bind to chitin.

  16. Genetic mapping and QTL analysis of growth-related traits in Pinctada fucata using restriction-site associated DNA sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoguo Li

    Full Text Available The pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata (P. fucata, is one of the marine bivalves that is predominantly cultured for pearl production. To obtain more genetic information for breeding purposes, we constructed a high-density linkage map of P. fucata and identified quantitative trait loci (QTL for growth-related traits. One F1 family, which included the two parents, 48 largest progeny and 50 smallest progeny, was sampled to construct a linkage map using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq. With low coverage data, 1956.53 million clean reads and 86,342 candidate RAD loci were generated. A total of 1373 segregating SNPs were used to construct a sex-average linkage map. This spanned 1091.81 centimorgans (cM, with 14 linkage groups and an average marker interval of 1.41 cM. The genetic linkage map coverage, Coa, was 97.24%. Thirty-nine QTL-peak loci, for seven growth-related traits, were identified using the single-marker analysis, nonparametric mapping Kruskal-Wallis (KW test. Parameters included three for shell height, six for shell length, five for shell width, four for hinge length, 11 for total weight, eight for soft tissue weight and two for shell weight. The QTL peak loci for shell height, shell length and shell weight were all located in linkage group 6. The genotype frequencies of most QTL peak loci showed significant differences between the large subpopulation and the small subpopulation (P<0.05. These results highlight the effectiveness of RAD-Seq as a tool for generation of QTL-targeted and genome-wide marker data in the non-model animal, P. fucata, and its possible utility in marker-assisted selection (MAS.

  17. Larval Dispersal Modeling of Pearl Oyster Pinctada margaritifera following Realistic Environmental and Biological Forcing in Ahe Atoll Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Yoann; Dumas, Franck; Andréfouët, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Studying the larval dispersal of bottom-dwelling species is necessary to understand their population dynamics and optimize their management. The black-lip pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera) is cultured extensively to produce black pearls, especially in French Polynesia's atoll lagoons. This aquaculture relies on spat collection, a process that can be optimized by understanding which factors influence larval dispersal. Here, we investigate the sensitivity of P. margaritifera larval dispersal kernel to both physical and biological factors in the lagoon of Ahe atoll. Specifically, using a validated 3D larval dispersal model, the variability of lagoon-scale connectivity is investigated against wind forcing, depth and location of larval release, destination location, vertical swimming behavior and pelagic larval duration (PLD) factors. The potential connectivity was spatially weighted according to both the natural and cultivated broodstock densities to provide a realistic view of connectivity. We found that the mean pattern of potential connectivity was driven by the southwest and northeast main barotropic circulation structures, with high retention levels in both. Destination locations, spawning sites and PLD were the main drivers of potential connectivity, explaining respectively 26%, 59% and 5% of the variance. Differences between potential and realistic connectivity showed the significant contribution of the pearl oyster broodstock location to its own dynamics. Realistic connectivity showed larger larval supply in the western destination locations, which are preferentially used by farmers for spat collection. In addition, larval supply in the same sectors was enhanced during summer wind conditions. These results provide new cues to understanding the dynamics of bottom-dwelling populations in atoll lagoons, and show how to take advantage of numerical models for pearl oyster management. PMID:24740288

  18. Correlations between cultured pearl size parameters and PIF-177 biomarker expression in Pinctada margaritifera families reared in two contrasting environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Carole; Parrad, Sophie; Cabral, Philippe; Aiho, Vaite; Ky, Chin-Long

    2016-12-01

    The black-lipped pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera, produces the largest and most valuable coloured pearls in the world. Cultured pearl size remains one of the most important quality traits. Despite the great geographical area covered by pearl farms in the atolls of French Polynesia, little is known about the influence of grow-out site effects on pearl size attained. To explore the genetic and environmental impact on the size of pearls as well as the genetic × environment interaction, a uniform experimental graft was designed on two contrasting macro-geographical lagoons. Five biparental families of donor oysters were grafted and then reared at both sites. After 18 months of culture, phenotypic parameters corresponding to pearl size, i.e. nacre weight and thickness, were recorded among the harvested pearls. The expression of Pif-177 gene, a biomarker encoding protein in the aragonite nacreous layer, was analysed in the corresponding pearl sac. The results show a family effect for nacre weight and thickness on both sites, with family F058 producing the heaviest and thickest nacre, and F805 the lightest and thinnest. By contrast, inter-site comparison revealed no significant site effects for these two parameters. In addition, grow-out location did not modify the relative gene expression of Pif-177 in the pearl sac between donor families in either culture site. Both nacre weight and thickness were positively correlated with the level gene expression of Pif-177. These results suggest that pearl size parameters were not affected by the environment in the present study and this is supported by the relative gene expression of Pif-177 observed. This knowledge constitutes an initial step in the study of pearl size trait inheritance, which will be helpful in the near future for the diffusion of genetically selected donor oyster lines produced by hatchery systems throughout production sites.

  19. Spatial analysis of biomineralization associated gene expression from the mantle organ of the pearl oyster Pinctada maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leavesley David

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomineralization is a process encompassing all mineral containing tissues produced within an organism. One of the most dynamic examples of this process is the formation of the mollusk shell, comprising a variety of crystal phases and microstructures. The organic component incorporated within the shell is said to dictate this architecture. However general understanding of how this process is achieved remains ambiguous. The mantle is a conserved organ involved in shell formation throughout molluscs. Specifically the mantle is thought to be responsible for secreting the protein component of the shell. This study employs molecular approaches to determine the spatial expression of genes within the mantle tissue to further the elucidation of the shell biomineralization. Results A microarray platform was custom generated (PmaxArray 1.0 from the pearl oyster Pinctada maxima. PmaxArray 1.0 consists of 4992 expressed sequence tags (ESTs originating from mantle tissue. This microarray was used to analyze the spatial expression of ESTs throughout the mantle organ. The mantle was dissected into five discrete regions and analyzed for differential gene expression with PmaxArray 1.0. Over 2000 ESTs were determined to be differentially expressed among the tissue sections, identifying five major expression regions. In situ hybridization validated and further localized the expression for a subset of these ESTs. Comparative sequence similarity analysis of these ESTs revealed a number of the transcripts were novel while others showed significant sequence similarities to previously characterized shell related genes. Conclusions This investigation has mapped the spatial distribution for over 2000 ESTs present on PmaxArray 1.0 with reference to specific locations of the mantle. Expression profile clusters have indicated at least five unique functioning zones in the mantle. Three of these zones are likely involved in shell related activities

  20. Crecimiento y mortalidad de Pinctada imbricata (Mollusca: Pteridae en Guamachito, Península de Araya, Estado Sucre, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el crecimiento, la distribución de tallas y la mortalidad de una población de Pinctada imbricata en Guamachito, Península de Araya, Venezuela, entre enero y diciembre de 2000. Los muestreos se realizaron mensualmente sobre transeptos perpendiculares a la línea de la costa con una rastra artesanal, tomando también datos sobre temperatura, oxígeno disuelto y salinidad de la columna de agua. La distribución de tallas fue variable con un predominio de tallas entre 50 y 70 mm, que constituyeron el 75% de la población. La mayor cantidad de juveniles fue observada en marzo, cuando la longitud media en la población fue de 55.8 mm. Los promedios de los pesos húmedo y seco siguieron la misma tendencia, con valores mínimos en junio, julio, septiembre y octubre de 2000. Las relaciones longitud-peso húmedo y longitud-peso seco fueron altamente significativas (P < 0.05. Los parámetros de la ecuación de crecimiento estacionalizada de von Bertalanffy fueron L∞ = 85.15 mm; K = 1.42 año–1, ts = 0.2, y C = 0.20; indicando un crecimiento lento (WP = 0.42 en el periodo de julio a noviembre, asociado con los parámetros ambientales del área con una longevidad estimada en 3 años. La mortalidad total fue de 14.35 año para los individuos pequeños (10–36 mm y 3.45 año, para los individuos grandes (36–84 mm. La alta tasa de crecimiento de P. imbricata muestra ser una ventaja para considerarla como una especie con potencial para actividades de acuicultura en la región. El banco ostrícola presenta buenas condiciones para mantener una explotación pesquera sostenida, tomando en consideración parámetros pesqueros como la captura registrada, el esfuerzo óptimo, la talla mínima de extracción, la mortalidad por pesca y la mortalidad natural.

  1. Identification of the immune expressed sequence tags of pearl oyster (Pinctada martensii, Dunker 1850) responding to Vibrio alginolyticus challenge by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhong; Fu, Dingkun; Luo, Peng; He, Xiaocui

    2012-09-01

    One hemolymph subtracted cDNA library of pearl oyster (Pinctada martensii, Dunker 1837) was constructed using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) in response to Vibrio alginolyticus. A total of 1089 clones were sequenced. All the consensuses were recognized based on the BLAST searches in NCBI, and revealed that 376 (58%) of them had no significant matches to reported sequences in the database. 267 ESTs were in significant matches after homologous sequence searches. Hypothesized genes inferred from EST sequences were categorized into six groups according to their putative biological functions: replication, transcription and translation; cellular processes; responded to stimuli; metabolism and biosynthesis; signal transduction genes; "other" category. The five genes, pearlin gene promoter PGPPm, serine/threonine kinase STKPm, limbic system-associated membrane protein LSAMPPm, nacrein gene intron 6 NGIPm6 and ferritin-like protein FLPPm, were analyzed using real-time PCR. All these genes were significantly expressed after V. alginolyticus challenge.

  2. Etude comparative des caractères biométriques chez l'huitre perlière "Pinctada radiata" des iles de Kerkennah (sud tunisien)

    OpenAIRE

    Derbali, A.; O. JARBOUI; Ghorbel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Le présent travail porte sur l’étude des caractères biométriques de l’huître perlière Pinctada radiata des îles de Kerkennah pour la différenciation entre les populations des deux sites El Kraten et El Jorf à partir d’un pouvoir discriminant des caractères métriques et méristiques. Durant l’année 2007, un total de 2360 et 2422 individus ont été collectés respectivement dans les sites d’El Kraten et d’El Jorf. Les résultats des comparaisons des moyennes et des variances des caractères bi...

  3. PfSMAD4 plays a role in biomineralization and can transduce bone morphogenetic protein-2 signals in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mi; Shi, Yu; He, Maoxian; Huang, Xiande; Wang, Qi

    2016-04-26

    Mollusca is the second largest phylum in nature. The shell of molluscs is a remarkable example of a natural composite biomaterial. Biomineralization and how it affects mollusks is a popular research topic. The BMP-2 signaling pathway plays a canonical role in biomineralization. SMAD4 is an intracellular transmitter in the BMP signaling pathway in mammals, and some genomic data show SMAD4's involvement in BMP signaling in invertebrates, but whether SMAD4 plays a conservative role in pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata, still need to be tested. In this study, we identified a SMAD4 gene (hereafter designated PfSMAD4) in pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. Bioinformatics analysis of PfSMAD4 showed high identity with its orthologs. PfSMAD4 was located in the cytoplasm in immunofluorescence assays and analyses of PfSMAD4 mRNA in tissues and developmental stages showed high expression in ovaries and D-shaped larvae. An RNA interference experiment, performed by PfSMAD4 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) injection, demonstrated inhibition not only of nacre growth but also organic sheet formation with a decrease in PfSMAD4 expression. A knockdown experiment using PfBMP2 dsRNA showed decreased PfBMP2 and PfSMAD4 mRNA and irregular crystallization of the nacreous layer using scanning electron microscopy. In co-transfection experiments, PfBMP2-transactivated reporter constructs contained PfSMAD4 promoter sequences. Our results suggest that PfSMAD4 plays a role in biomineralization and can transduce BMP signals in P. fucata. Our data provides important clues about the molecular mechanisms that regulate biomineralization in pearl oyster.

  4. Genomic structure of the α-amylase gene in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata and its expression in response to salinity and food concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guiju; Guo, Yihui; Li, Lu; Fan, Sigang; Yu, Ziniu; Yu, Dahui

    2016-08-01

    Amylase is one of the most important digestive enzymes for phytophagous animals. In this study, the cDNA, genomic DNA, and promoter region of the α-amylase gene of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata were cloned by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), rapid amplification of cDNA ends, and genome-walking methods. The full-length cDNA sequence was 1704bp long and consisted of a 5'-untranslated region of 17bp, a 3'-untranslated region of 118bp, and a 1569-bp open reading frame encoding a 522-aa polypeptide with a 20-aa signal peptide. Sequence alignment revealed that P. fucata α-amylase (Pfamy) shared the highest identity (91.6%) with Pinctada maxima. The phylogenetic tree showed that it was closely related to P. maxima, based on the amino acid sequences. The genomic DNA was 10850bp and contained nine exons, eight introns, and a promoter region of 3932bp. Several transcriptional factors such as GATA-1, AP-1, and SP1 were predicted in the promoter region. Quantitative RT-PCR assay indicated that the relative expression level of Pfamy was significantly higher in the digestive gland than in other tissues (gonad, gills, muscle, and mantle) (Pfood concentration was 16×10(4)cells/mL, which was significantly lower than the level observed at 8×10(4)cells/mL and 20×10(4) cells/mL (P<0.05). Our findings provide a genetic basis for further research on Pfamy activity and will facilitate studies on the growth mechanisms and genetic improvement of the pearl oyster P. fucata. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Biologie, abondance et cartographie de deux espèces de bivalves : l’huitre perlière <Pinctada radiata> et la coque glauque dans le golfe de Gabes

    OpenAIRE

    Derbali, Abdelkarim

    2011-01-01

    The pearl oyster Pinctada radiata and the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum are among the most abundant bivalve molluscs in southern Tunisian waters. These species are not currently subject to any investigation despite their important economic value in the world. For this reason, their biological parameters, their spatial distribution and their stock assessment were undertaken in the Gulf of Gabes. The reproductive cycle was studied in relation to variations of the environment parameters. The sp...

  6. 虾青素对马氏珠母贝存活和机体生化指标的影响%Effects of Astaxanthin on the Survival and Biochemistry Parameters of Pinctada martensii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马孝甜; 纪丽丽; 宋文东

    2011-01-01

    用扁藻和虾青素投喂马氏珠母贝(Pinctada martensii),研究虾青素对马氏珠母贝死亡率、外套膜组织生化指标的影响,以及贝体是否对虾青素有积累能力.结果表明,投喂虾青素后,实验组死亡率明显降低;外套膜组织中谷草转氨酶(AST)、白蛋白(ALB)、球蛋白(GLB)、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、Ca和Mg含量显著增加(P<0.05),尿素氮(BUN)、肌酐(Cr)、尿酸(UA)和P含量显著降低(P<0.05);马氏珠母贝可以积累虾青素.%By feeding with astaxanthin and Tetraselmis chui, the effects to motality, mantle tissue biochemistry paprameters and its accumulation were investigated in Pinctada martensii. The results showed that the motality was significantly decreased after feeding with astaxanthin. In the mantle tissue, the content of AST, ALB, CLB, ALP, Ca and Mg were significantly increased(P<0.05), and the BUN, Cr, UA and P were significantly decreased(P<0.05). Thus, the astaxanthin could be accumulated in Pinctada martensii.

  7. Forming nacreous layer of the shells of the bivalves Atrina rigida and Pinctada margaritifera: an environmental- and cryo-scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nudelman, Fabio; Shimoni, Eyal; Klein, Eugenia; Rousseau, Marthe; Bourrat, Xavier; Lopez, Evelyne; Addadi, Lia; Weiner, Steve

    2008-05-01

    A key to understanding control over mineral formation in mollusk shells is the microenvironment inside the pre-formed 3-dimensional organic matrix framework where mineral forms. Much of what is known about nacre formation is from observations of the mature tissue. Although these studies have elucidated several important aspects of this process, the structure of the organic matrix and the microenvironment where the crystal nucleates and grows are very difficult to infer from observations of the mature nacre. Here, we use environmental- and cryo-scanning electron microscopy to investigate the organic matrix structure at the onset of mineralization in the nacre of two mollusk species: the bivalves Atrina rigida and Pinctada margaritifera. These two techniques allow the visualization of hydrated biological materials coupled with the preservation of the organic matrix close to physiological conditions. We identified a hydrated gel-like protein phase filling the space between two interlamellar sheets prior to mineral formation. The results are consistent with this phase being the silk-like proteins, and show that mineral formation does not occur in an aqueous solution, but in a hydrated gel-like medium. As the tablets grow, the silk-fibroin is pushed aside and becomes sandwiched between the mineral and the chitin layer.

  8. The culture of pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata (Gould, 1850 in Phuket with temperature shock method and survival rates on various feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rativat, V.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine pearl farming at Phuket Island has exploited natural pearl oysters. In order to obtain sufficient pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata (Gould, 1850, the oyster cultivation was carried out to determine appropriate kinds of food and types of spat collectors. The male and female oysters were stimulated to spawn with this temperature shock method (treated with 32ºC and then with 26ºC. The fertilized eggs developed into the stages of polar body, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, trochophore and then D-shape larvae. At the ageof 19-26 hrs. the larvae were fed with three kinds of food: Isochrysis galbana, Chaetoceros calcitrans and the mixture of 1:1 I. galbana and C. calcitrans. Upon the first 30 days, shell lengths of the spats fed with I. Galbana, C. calcitrans and the mixture were 422.00±59.32, 221.33±12.46 and 347.33±67.98 μg, respectively. The 26-29th day spat stage settled to the collectors: saran net, plastic plates and wavy tile. Number of spats settling to saran net was the highest. But after being moved into the sea for 30 days, the survival rate was89.06% which was lower than for those settling to plastic plates (93.29% and wavy tile (93.99%.

  9. A cDNA Cloning of a Novel Alpha-Class Tyrosinase of Pinctada fucata: Its Expression Analysis and Characterization of the Expressed Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryousuke Takgi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase plays an important role in the formation of the shell matrix and melanin synthesis in mollusks shells. A cDNA clone encoding a 47 kDa protein was isolated from the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. The cDNA was 1,957 base pairs long and encodes a 417 residue protein that has extensive sequence identity with tyrosinase (polyphenol oxidase: EC 1.14.18.1. This tyrosinase-like protein, termed PfTy, contains an N-terminal signal sequence and the two copper-binding domain signatures (CuA and CuB, suggesting that PfTy belongs to the α-subclass of type-3 copper proteins. Enzyme activity of PfTy was examined by a spectrophotometric method using the translation product derived from an S30 T7 high-yield protein expression system. Tyrosinase activity was seen in this recombinant product. RT-PCR analysis showed that PfTy mRNA was expressed in the mantle pallial, but not in the mantle edge. Therefore, PfTy may participate in insoluble shell matrix formation of the nacreous layer. PfTy expression was also observed in the foot, liver, and adductor muscle, suggesting that PfTy participates in the synthesis of melanins, which are effective scavengers of free radicals formed in multiple intracellular oxidative processes. This is the first report of a novel α-class tyrosinase from the pearl oyster P. fucata.

  10. Revisiting wild stocks of black lip oyster Pinctada margaritifera in the Tuamotu Archipelago: The case of Ahe and Takaroa atolls and implications for the cultured pearl industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréfouët, Serge; Thomas, Yoann; Dumas, Franck; Lo, Cédrik

    2016-12-01

    Spat collecting of the black lip oyster (Pinctada margaritifera) is the foundation of cultured black pearl production, the second source of income for French Polynesia. To understand spat collecting temporal and spatial variations, larval supply and its origin need to be characterized. To achieve this, it is necessary to account for the stock of oysters, its distribution and population characteristics (size distribution, sex-ratio). While the farmed stock in concessions can be easily characterized, the wild stock is elusive. Here, we investigate the distribution and population structure of the wild stock of Ahe and Takaroa atolls using fine-scale bathymetry and in situ census data. Stocks were surprisingly low (∼666,000 and ∼1,030,000 oysters for Ahe and Takaroa respectively) considering these two atolls have both been very successful spat collecting atolls in the past. Furthermore, in Ahe atoll, wild populations are aging with a dominant but small female population. Comparison with the cultured stock population (∼14 millions oysters) and its dominant young male population suggests that to maximize larval supply and spat collecting on the long term, it would be useful to increase the number of females in selected sanctuaries. We discuss the implication of our findings for the long-term management of stocks and for spat collection in pearl farming atolls, and for on-going numerical modelling studies on larval dispersal.

  11. Production and characterization of Iturinic lipopeptides as antifungal agents and biosurfactants produced by a marine pinctada martensii-derived Bacillus mojavensis B0621A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zongwang; Hu, Jiangchun

    2014-06-01

    Bacillus mojavensis B0621A was isolated from a pearl oyster Pinctada martensii collected from South China Sea. While screening for cyclic lipopeptides potentially useful as lead compounds for biological control against soil-bone fungal plant pathogens, three lipopeptides were isolated and purified from the fermentation broth of B. mojavensis B0621A via vacuum flash chromatography coupled with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The structural characterization and identification of these cyclic lipopeptides were performed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis as well as chemical degradation. These lipopeptides were finally characterized as homologues of mojavensins, which contained identical amino acids back bones of asparagine1, tyrosine2, asparagine3, glutamine4, proline5, asparagine6, and asparagine7 and differed from each other by their saturated β-amino fatty acid chain residues, namely, iso-C14 mojavensin, iso-C16 mojavensin, and anteiso-C17 mojavensin, respectively. All lipopeptide isomers, especially iso-C16 mojavensin and anteiso-C17 mojavensin, displayed moderate antagonism and dose-dependent activity against several formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum and presented surface tension activities. These properties demonstrated that the lipopeptides produced by B. mojavensis B0621A may be useful as biological control agent to fungal plant pathogens.

  12. Pm-miR-133 hosting in one potential lncRNA regulates RhoA expression in pearl oyster Pinctada martensii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhe; Huang, RongLian; Tian, RongRong; Jiao, Yu; Du, Xiaodong

    2016-10-15

    Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) are abundant in the genome of higher forms of eukaryotes and implicated in regulating the diversity of biological processes partly because they host microRNAs (miRNAs), which are repressors of target gene expression. In vertebrates, miR-133 regulates the differentiation and proliferation of cardiac and skeletal muscles. Pinctada martensii miR-133 (pm-miR-133) was identified in our previous research through Solexa deep sequencing. In the present study, the precise sequence of mature pm-miR-133 was validated through miR-RACE. Stem loop qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that mature pm-miR-133 was constitutively expressed in the adductor muscle, gonad, hepatopancreas, mantle, foot, and gill of P. martensii. Among these tissues, the adductor muscle exhibited the highest pm-miR-133 expression. Target analysis indicated that pm-RhoA was the potential regulatory target of pm-miR-133. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that a potential LncRNA (designated as Lnc133) with a mature pm-miR-133 could generate a hairpin structure that was highly homologous to that of Lottia gigantea. Lnc133 was also highly expressed in the adductor muscle, gill, hepatopancreas, and gonad. Phylogenetic analysis further showed that the miR-133s derived from chordate and achordate were separated into two classes. Therefore, Lnc133 hosting pm-miR-133 could be involved in regulating the cell proliferation of adductor muscles by targeting pm-RhoA.

  13. Culture site dependence on pearl size realization in Pinctada margaritifera in relation to recipient oyster growth and mantle graft biomineralization gene expression using the same donor phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pabic, Lore; Parrad, Sophie; Sham Koua, Manaarii; Nakasai, Seiji; Saulnier, Denis; Devaux, Dominique; Ky, Chin-Long

    2016-12-01

    Size is the most important and valuable quality of the cultured black-lip pearl, Pinctada margaritifera. As this pearl aquaculture is carried out at numerous grow-out sites, this study analyzes the environmental influence on pearl size parameters (nacre weight and thickness) in relation to the recipient oyster biometric parameters (shell thickness, height, width, and oyster weight) at harvest time. Toward this end, an experimental graft was designed by using a homogeneous donor oyster phenotype. The recipient oysters were randomly and equally transferred and reared in five commercial and contrasting grow-out locations. Overall inter-site comparisons revealed that the cultured pearl size (N = 2168) and the biometric parameters of the recipient oysters were highest for sites with warmer temperatures with low seasonal variation in comparison to the southern latitude sites. These results were supported by positive correlations between pearl nacre thickness and recipient oyster shell thickness, height, and width. In parallel, the biomineralization potential of the mantle graft was screened through four genes encoding aragonite (Pif 177, MSI60) and calcite (shematrin 9, aspein). As the gene expression levels were the same among all the donor oysters, this finding demonstrates that: 1) the pearl sac that originated from the mantle graft was not isolated from environmental variations during the culture period and 2) the phenotypic expressions of the two biomineralizing tissues in the recipient oyster were consistent (shell and pearl). In the near future, this knowledge will be helpful at the production sites of genetically selected donor oyster lines for growth produced in hatchery systems.

  14. Cloning and characterization of Prisilkin-39, a novel matrix protein serving a dual role in the prismatic layer formation from the oyster Pinctada fucata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yawei; Jing, Gu; Yan, Zhenguang; Li, Changzhong; Gong, Ningping; Zhu, Fangjie; Li, Dongxian; Zhang, Yaorun; Zheng, Guilan; Wang, Hongzhong; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2009-04-17

    Molluscs form their shells out of CaCO(3) and a matrix of biomacromolecules. Understanding the role of matrices may shed some light on the mechanism of biomineralization. Here, a 1401-bp full-length cDNA sequence encoding a novel matrix protein was cloned from the mantle of the bivalve oyster, Pinctada fucata. The deduced protein (Prisilkin-39), which has a molecular mass of 39.3 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.83, was fully characterized, and its role in biomineralization was demonstrated using both in vivo and in vitro crystal growth assays. Prisilkin-39 is a highly repetitive protein with an unusual composition of Gly, Tyr, and Ser residues. Expression of Prisilkin-39 was localized to columnar epithelial cells of the mantle edge, corresponding to the calcitic prismatic layer formation. Immunostaining in situ and immunodetection in vitro revealed the presence of a characteristic pattern of Prisilkin-39 in the organic sheet and in sheaths around the prisms. Prisilkin-39 binds tightly with chitin, an insoluble polysaccharide that forms the highly structured framework of the shell. Antibody injection in vivo resulted in dramatic morphological deformities in the inner shell surface structure, where large amounts of CaCO(3) were deposited in an uncontrolled manner. Moreover, Prisilkin-39 strictly prohibited the precipitation of aragonite in vitro. Taken together, Prisilkin-39 is the first protein shown to have dual function, involved both in the chitinous framework building and in crystal growth regulation during the prismatic layer mineralization. These observations may extend our view on the rare group of basic matrices and their functions during elaboration of the molluscan shell.

  15. Molecular characterization, expression and function analysis of a five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dianchang; Ma, Jianjun; Jiang, Shigui

    2014-03-01

    Serine proteinase inhibitors represent an expanding superfamily of endogenous inhibitors that are regulate proteolytic events and involved in a variety of physiological and immunological processes. A five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (poKSPI) was identified and characterized from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata based on expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis. The full-length cDNA was 737 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) 660 bp encoding a 219 amino acid protein a theoretical molecular weight (Mw) of 23.3 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.40. A putative signal peptide of 19 amino acid residues and five tandem Kazal domains were identified. Four of the Kazal domains had the highly conserved motif sequences with six cysteine residues responsible for the formation of disulfide bridges. The deduced amino acid sequence of the poKSPI shared high homology with KSPIs from Hirudo medicinalis. The poKSPI mRNA could be detected in all examined tissues, the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA was the highest in mantle and gonad, while the lowest in haemocyte and intestine. After LPS challenge, the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA in digestive gland was significantly up-regulated at 4 h post-challenge and reached the peak at 12 h post-challenge, which was 4.23-fold higher than control group; the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA in gill was also significantly up-regulated at 8 and 12 h post-challenge, which were 4.48 and 2.26-fold higher than control group. After Vibrio alginolyticus challenge, the expression levels of the poKSPI mRNA in digestive gland were significantly up-regulated at 8, 12, 48 and 72 h post-challenge, which were 1.70, 1.79, 3.89 and 5.69-fold higher than control group, respectively; the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA in gill was significantly up-regulated at 24 h post-challenge, which was 5.30-fold higher than control group. The recombinant poKSPI protein could inhibit chymotrypsin and trypsin activities in dose

  16. Studies on rickettsia-like organism (RLO)disease of tropical marine pearl oyster--Epidemiological investigation of RLO disease in larvae populations of maricultured Pinctada maxima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xinzhong; Li Dengfeng; Pan Jinpei

    2001-01-01

    The epidemiological investigations on the disease and death in mature eggs, embryonic developmental periods and larvae populations [ including oocytes, fertilized ovum, early embryonic phase larvae (6 h), D- shaped phase larvae (24 h), early umbo phase larvae, umbo phase larvae, post umbo phase larvae and eyespot phase larvae] in the Luhuitou Pearl Oyster Mariculture Farm of Sanya City,Hainan Province in April 1995 showed that there were two peaks of mortality rates which occurred in early umbo phase or umbo phase and post umbo phase (Figs 3 ~ 5 and Table 1 ) respectively from preembryonic developmental periods to larvae phases. It indicated that the onset and death of Pinctada maxima larvae populations followed a pattern of outbreak. Between the prevalence, intensity of RLO infection and the mortality rates of larvae populations were of obvious positively correlations. Generally,every peak of RLO infection is always followed by a peak of mortality rate of larvae hosts, and the mortality rates of larvae hosts declined with the decreased RLO infection (see Figs 3~5). Under the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), no rickettsia-like organisms were discovered in oocytes, fertilized ovum and early embryonic phase larvae (6 h). The RLO inclusions occurred first in the D - shaped phase larvae (24 h) under histological examination. Absences of RLO in transmission electron examination of oocytes of RLO- infected adult females, fertilized ovum and early embryonic phase larvae (6h) indicated that RLO may not be transmitted transovarially. But RLO for host infection may be transmitted by contact transmission since RLO inclusions were first identified regularly in D - shaped phase larvae (24 h), while these D- shaped phase larvae were still unable to take food during hatching 24 hours. In addition, the result of epidemiological investigation showed that no observable death occurred in D- shaped larvae populations, but early obvious death occurred in larvae populations

  17. Le contrôle des croisements chez l’huître perlière Pinctada margaritifera : La maturation ovocytaire in vitro et l’induction de la ponte

    OpenAIRE

    Le Moullac, Gilles; Rouxel, Catherine; Vonau, Vincent; Ledu, Christophe; Cochard, Jean-Claude

    2003-01-01

    Afin de mener à bien le programme Maîtrise de la Reproduction chez l’huître perlière Pinctada margaritifera dont la perspective est l’amélioration génétique, il est essentiel de contrôler les croisements au niveau individuel. Ces croisements ne pourront être contrôlés que dans la mesure où les gamètes mâles et femelles sont obtenus séparément. Ceci permettra aussi de valider les travaux en cryoconservation des spermatozoïdes et de faciliter la production de polyploïdes. Ces travaux répondent ...

  18. Nation may reinstate mandatory military service / Monika Hanley

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanley, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Eelarve kärpimine on viinud Läti kaitsekulutused kriitilise piirini, mistõttu arutletakse võimaluse üle asendada täisprofessionaalne kaitsevägi taas kohustusliku ajateenistusega kokkuhoiu eesmärgil

  19. Obama backs U.S. bill condemning Soviets / Monika Hanley

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanley, Monika

    2008-01-01

    USA senat võttis vastu resolutsiooni, mille kohaselt tuleb Ameerika Ühendriikide presidendil nõuda Venemaa valitsuselt Nõukogude okupatsiooni tunnistamist Lätis, Eestis ja Leedus. Resolutsiooni poolt hääletas ka USA presidendikandidaat Barack Obama

  20. Parliamentarians call for resignation of Finance Minister / Monika Hanley

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanley, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Opositsiooni kuuluv erakond Uus Aeg leiab, et Läti rahandusminister Atis Slakteris peaks ebakompetentsuse tõttu tagasi astuma. Poliitikute arvates, ei ole Slakteris piisavalt aktiivselt püüdnud riigi finantsprobleeme lahendada

  1. Vike-Freiberga: capitalism is failing / Monika Hanley

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanley, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Läti endine president Vaira Vike-Freiberga sõnas oma kõnes Ameerika Kaubanduskoja lõunal, et majandusliku olukorra parandamiseks tuleb muuta kapitalistlikku majandussüsteemi ning kutsus Läti poliitikuid üles võitlema raske situatsiooniga riigis

  2. Parliamentarians call for resignation of Finance Minister / Monika Hanley

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanley, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Opositsiooni kuuluv erakond Uus Aeg leiab, et Läti rahandusminister Atis Slakteris peaks ebakompetentsuse tõttu tagasi astuma. Poliitikute arvates, ei ole Slakteris piisavalt aktiivselt püüdnud riigi finantsprobleeme lahendada

  3. Obama backs U.S. bill condemning Soviets / Monika Hanley

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanley, Monika

    2008-01-01

    USA senat võttis vastu resolutsiooni, mille kohaselt tuleb Ameerika Ühendriikide presidendil nõuda Venemaa valitsuselt Nõukogude okupatsiooni tunnistamist Lätis, Eestis ja Leedus. Resolutsiooni poolt hääletas ka USA presidendikandidaat Barack Obama

  4. Vike-Freiberga: capitalism is failing / Monika Hanley

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanley, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Läti endine president Vaira Vike-Freiberga sõnas oma kõnes Ameerika Kaubanduskoja lõunal, et majandusliku olukorra parandamiseks tuleb muuta kapitalistlikku majandussüsteemi ning kutsus Läti poliitikuid üles võitlema raske situatsiooniga riigis

  5. 马氏珠母贝饥饿补偿生长的初步研究%Preliminary study on compensatory growth in pearl oyster Pinctada martensi Dunker,following starvation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何毛贤; 袁涛; 黄良民

    2010-01-01

    采取饥饿处理时间不等(3、6、9和12d)、但总持续时间相等的方法研究马氏珠母贝Pinctada martensi (Dunker)稚贝在饥饿处理后的生长和存活.结果表明,S12组(饥饿12d)的存活率最低,恢复期的壳长和体重最小,表明饥饿强度大会对其生长和存活造成较大的影响;饥饿处理后的稚贝都表现出补偿生长现象,S9组(饥饿9d)的特定生长率最高,S3组(饥饿3d)的最低,但饥饿组间的差异不明显,其壳长和体重大小排列为S3>S6>S9>S12,恢复期延长,其生长恢复到正常水平.

  6. 马氏珠母贝肌肉提取蛋白热变性动力学%Kinetics of heat denaturation of proteins extracted from Pinctada martensii meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑惠娜; 章超桦; 秦小明; 吉宏武; 黄锦华

    2013-01-01

    South China Sea pearls are well known worldwide, and the pearl oyster Pinctada martensii is cultured for pearl production in China. Following the development of the pearl industry, Pinctada martensii is now cultured at very large scale specifically for pearl production, with the oyster meat left aside as a typically unused byproduct of the pearl industry. However, Pearl oyster meat is a good source of shellfish protein (74.9%protein/dry basis) at a low cost. Recently, the influence of food protein processing, storage and heat treatment is an area of growing interest. In particular, some thermal processing has a significant impact on animal muscle protein structure, enzymatic properties etc. Proteins are the most important ingredients in the food. They are not only important in nutrition, but also affect the texture and flavor of the food. Muscle proteins are generally classified into sarcoplasmic proteins, myofibrillar proteins (myosin, actin and actomyosin) and connective tissue or stromal proteins (collagen).This paper studied the kinetics of thermal denaturation of proteins (water-soluble and salt-soluble protein ) extracted from Pinctada martensii meat in order to understand the thermal denaturation discipline of aquatic protein and make better use of their functional properties. Due to differences in the structure and composition, the two protein fractions denaturation was best described by assuming an apparent reaction order of 1.1 and 1.3, respectively. D values, the time required to reduce the protein by 90%, were 33 333、12 500、3 333、1 667 and 769 s for the water-soluble protein fraction and 50 000、12 500、5 000、2 000 and 1250s for the salt-soluble protein fraction at 60, 70, 80, 90, 100℃ respectively. There was significant difference of the two proteins for D value except at 70℃. This may be due to an easier to form gel for the salt-soluble protein under the condition of 65-70℃. The results showed that the thermal denaturation rate of two

  7. Growth Characteristics of Pearl Oyster Pinctada Maxiam Seeds with Broodstocks Introduced from Indonesia Cultured in the Xuwen Sea of Zhanjiang%广东徐闻海域印尼产大珠母贝的生长特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁飞龙; 谢绍河; 符韶; 邓岳文

    2011-01-01

    为将印尼产的大珠母贝作为我国海水珍珠养殖的新品种,分别于2010年6月4日、7月20日和10月28日,利用从印度尼西亚引进的大珠母贝作为亲本培育了3批苗种,在广东湛江徐闻承梧海区进行了养殖试验,实验期间水温14~32℃,盐度28.4~36.9.结果表明:除了2010年10月28日出池的第3批苗,养殖11个月,成活率为1.3±0.5%外.经过12个月养殖,第一、二批苗的贝体平均壳高、壳长、体质量和成活率分别为59.56±10.2mm,60.39±10.5mm,25.62±6.5g,10.6%±1.8%和54.84±6.1mm,55.96±12.4mm,18.40±6.1g,25.10%±2.6%.%During the period of June 2010 to September 2011, three batches of pearl oyster Pinctada maxima were obtained with breeder introduced from Indonesia and then cultured in the Chengwu sea area of Xuwen, Zhanjiang City of Guangdong Province. Growth of the three groups was evaluated on the basis of shell height, shell length and total weight measurement at ages. During the experimental period, temperature was 14.0-32.0℃ and salinity of seawater was 28.4-36.9, respectively. Except for the third batch spat of pearl oyster Pinctada maxima, which started to be cultured at low temperature in winter, the survival rate was 1.3%±0.5% after culture for llmonths. After culturing in the sea area for 12 months, the mean value of shell height, shell length , body weight and survival rate of the first and second batch spat was 59.56 mm, 60.39 mm, 25.62 g and 10.6%; 54.84 mm, 55.96 mm, 18.40 g and 25.10%, respectively. The results showed that low temperature in winter had significant effect on the growth rate and survival rate of small oysters of P. Maxima.

  8. Impacts of ocean acidification on the development of Pinctada martensii embryo and early larva%海洋酸化对马氏珠母贝胚胎和早期幼虫发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何盛毅; 林传旭; 何毛贤; 严岩

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impacts of ocean acidification projected to occur by the year 2100 on the development of Pinctada martensii embryo and early larva. Artificially fertilized eggs were cultured in the seawater with pH 7. 70 ( acidified by CO2, acidified group) and pH 8. 10 ( control group) . After treated for 8 h, no obvious difference was observed in the quantitative distribution of embryo in its different development stages between acidified group and control group. After 24 h, 16. 6% ±12. 0% of the embryo in acidified group developed into D-shaped veliger larvae, and the percentage of teratogenic larvae was 48. 2% ±9. 1% , as compared 44. 8% ± 7.4% and 18. 6% ±11.5% in control group, respectively. After 48 h. 23. 0% ±9. 6% of the embryo in acidified group developed into D-shaped veliger larvae, and the percentage of teratogenic larvae was 63. 2% ±14. 1% , while the corresponding values in control group were 59. 4% ± 13. 0% and 26. 6% ±14. 5% , respectively. Comparing with those in control group, the shell length and height of D-larvae in acidified group were obviously lesser, and the development of the larvae was much slower. This study indicated that ocean acidification in the future would give negative effects on the larval development of calcifying marine organisms, such as P. martensii.%研究当前预测2100年海洋将达到的酸化程度对马氏珠母贝(Pinctada martensii)胚胎和早期幼虫发育的影响.人工受精卵置于pH=7.70的CO2酸化海水(酸化组)和pH=8.10的对照海水(对照组)中进行胚胎和幼虫发育试验.结果表明:人工受精8 h后,酸化组和对照组胚胎在各发育时期的数量分布没有明显的差异;24 h后,酸化组16.6%±12.0%发育至D型幼虫,且畸形个体百分比为48.2%±9.1%;而对照组44.8%±7.4%发育至D型幼虫,畸形个体百分比仅为18.6%±11.5%.48 h后,酸化组D型幼虫百分比23.0%±9.6%.畸形个体比例高达63.2%±14.1%;

  9. 大珠母贝CCT-eta基因cDNA克隆及其冷应激表达%cDNA cloning ofCCT-etagene fromPinctada maximaand expression analysis under cold stress condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛艾涛; 唐啸尘; 刘志刚

    2015-01-01

    The cDNA sequence ofPinctada maxima CCT-eta (PmCCT-eta) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends method (RACE) and bioinformatics analysis ofPmCCT-eta was conducted. The distribution ofPmCCT-eta in various tissues and the induced expression ofPmCCT-eta under cold stress inPinctada maxima were studied by real-time PCR. The results showed that the full length ofPmCCT-eta cDNA was 1895 bp, which contained a 1632 bp ORF encoding 543 aa. Three CCT-eta signature sequences (37RTTLGPRGMDKLI49,58ISNDGATILKTLDIVHP74,86QDAEVGDGT94) and three functional structure domains (Equatorial domain, Apical domain, Intermediate domain) were found in the deduced protein of PmCCT-eta. Homology analysis indicated that the deduced protein of PmCCT-eta had 83.2%, 80.1% and 79.3% similarity with CCT-eta of Crassostrea gigas, Danio rerio andHomo sapiens,respectively.PmCCT-eta mRNA expression in all tissues was observed, with highest expression in adductor muscle and lower expression in heart and hepatopancreas. ThePmCCT-eta mRNA expression was up-regulated in adductor muscle, heart and hepatopancreas ofPinctada maxima under cold stress condition. However, different tissues had distinct response patterns; heart and hepatopancreas responded faster than adductor muscle, suggesting that CCT-eta plays an important role in resisting cold stress in internal organs such as heart and hepatopancreas.%利用cDNA末端快速扩增技术(rapid amplification of cDNA ends, RACE)克隆了大珠母贝CCT-eta cDNA全长。利用多种生物信息学软件对大珠母贝CCT-eta cDNA和预测的氨基酸序列进行了分析,并采用实时荧光定量PCR对其组织表达谱和冷应激下的表达模式进行了分析。结果显示,大珠母贝CCT-eta cDNA全长为1895bp,其中开放阅读框(ORF)为1632bp,编码543个氨基酸残基,含有CCT家族的3个签名序列:37RTTLGPRGMDKLI49、58ISNDGATILKTLDIVHP74、86QDAEVGDGT94,具有3个保守的功能结构域:赤道结构域、顶端结构域和中

  10. 大珠母贝(Pinctada maxima)α-淀粉酶基因cDNA及内含子克隆分析%Cloning and characterization of alpha amylase cDNA and its introns in the pearl oyster Pinctada maxima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘俐玲; 黄桂菊; 成书营; 王晓宁; 喻达辉

    2013-01-01

    α-淀粉酶广泛分布于动物、植物和微生物中,是贝类软体动物的主要消化酶,对贝类生长有重要影响。文章首次获得大珠母贝α-淀粉酶基因(命名为pmAMY, Pictada maxima alpha amylase),其cDNA全长1732bp,其中5'UTR 25bp,ORF 1554bp,编码518个氨基酸,3'UTR 153bp,分子量为57.7KDa,等电点7.63。氨基酸序列分析表明,pmAMY 的氨基酸序列包括16个氨基酸组成的信号肽序列(MLLIVCSIAFFHSVYG)、8个半胱氨酸位点(Cys46、Cys104、Cys157、Cys176、Cys392、Cys398、Cys464、Cys476)、3个活性催化位点(Asp213、Glu249、Asp314)、4个钙结合位点(Asn118、Arg174、Asp183、His217)、3个氯离子结合位点(Arg211、Asn312、Arg350)和4段保守序列(Ile111-Val116、Val207-Ala215、Phe247-Val251、Val308-Asn315)。pmAMY的氨基酸序列与企鹅珍珠贝(Pteria penguin)同一性最高,为82%;与超嗜热古菌(Thermococcus hydrothermalis)同一性最低仅为27%;与其他物种的同一性在57%-79%之间。克隆获得大珠母贝pmAMY基因的2个内含子,长度分别为846bp、162bp。2个内含子都起始于GT,终止于AG,符合内含子共同剪接位点序列。组织表达分析表明pmAMY只在肝胰脏中表达。本研究为α-淀粉酶基因的功能分析、单核苷酸多态性(SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism)位点分离及其与生长性状的关联分析奠定了基础。%Alpha amylase is widely distributed in animals, plants and bacteria, and is one of the important digestive enzymes and has a significant effect on the growth of mollusk. It is the first time the alpha amylase gene in silver lipped pearl oyster Pinctada maxima is cloned. The full length of the cDNA (named as pmAMY) is consisted of 1732 bp, including a 5′UTR of 25 bp, an open reading frame (ORF) of 1554 bp encoding 518 amino acids and a 3′UTR of 153bp. The estimated isoelectric point and molecular mass of deduced amino acid residues are 7.63 and 57.7 kD, respectively

  11. 引进印尼种大珠母贝繁育F1母贝植核育珠研究%Pearl Production from the Pearl Oyster Pinctada Maxima Progeny Stocks Produced by the Breeders Introduced from Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢绍河; 谭楚勤; 邓岳文; 符韶; 梁飞龙; 杜晓东; 林伟财; 王钦贵; 邱壮炮; 方昂松

    2013-01-01

    以印度尼西亚引进大珠母贝亲本繁育的子代F1群体进行植核育珠,育珠贝数量8086只,在海区休养20 d后,统计育珠母贝的成活率与留核率,比较3月与4月植核手术育珠贝的育珠性状差异。结果表明:休养期结束后,育珠贝的成活率与留核率分别为97.57%和90.69%;育珠期3个月时(6月17日)育珠贝的成活率为81.22%;4月植核育珠母贝的留核率与成活率明显高于在3月的植核育珠母贝,但两者之间差异不具统计学意义(P>0.05)。%In March and April of 2013, nucleus-inserting operation was conducted with the donor and host oysters sampled from the progeny stocks produced by the introduced breeders from Indonesia. The total number of host oyster was 8086. Retention rate and survival rate were estimated after the host oysters were recuperated for 20 days in the sea. Survival rates were calculated at culturing times. Differences in retention rate and survival rate of the host oysters treated in March and April were also evaluated. The results showed that mean values of retention rate and survival rate were 97.57% and 90.69%, respectively, after host oysters were recuperated for 20 days in the sea. Mean survival rate of the host oysters was 81.22%, when they were cultured for approximately 3months. The host oysters treated in April showed higher retention rate and survival rate than those treated in March. However, the differences were not significant between the two groups (P>0.05). The present results are helpful for pearl production by pearl oyster Pinctada maxima.

  12. Reproduction de l’huître perlière : évaluation des besoins en acides gras et stérols au cours de l’ovogenèse chez l’huître perlière Pinctada margaritifera

    OpenAIRE

    Le Moullac, Gilles; Vairuha-lechat, Isabelle; Bianchini, Jean Pierre; Le Coz, Jean-rene; Tiapari, Jerome; Laure, Frédéric; Mitermite, Yves

    2004-01-01

    Cette étude financée par le Ministère de l’Outre-Mer est une collaboration de l’Ifremer avec l’Université de Polynésie Française et l’Institut Louis Malardé. Cette étude a permis l’acquisition de connaissances nouvelles sur la nutrition de l’huître perlière Pinctada margaritifera dans le milieu naturel, et ainsi, de mieux envisager les besoins nutritionnels pendant la reproduction. Les besoins en lipides, acides gras et stérols, ont été spécifiquement étudiés. La composition en acides gra...

  13. 海洋酸化对马氏珠母贝受精及早期发育的影响%Effect of ocean acidification on fertilization and early development of the pearl oyster Pinctada martensii Dunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文广; 林坚士

    2012-01-01

    自2010年7月1日至3日,在pH值为8.1、7.7和7.4条件下研究了海洋酸化对马氏珠母贝(PinctadamartensiiDunker)受精及早期发育的影响。结果显示,海洋酸化对不同pH值下马氏珠母贝的受精率无显著影响。pH8.1、pH7.7和pH7.4试验纽幼虫的壳长、壳高的值逐渐增大,pH8.1组幼虫的壳长、壳高的值大于同期其他两组的值,且在实验的第24、36、48小时与其他两组同期幼虫的壳长、壳高的值差异显著,这表明海洋酸化显著影响马氏珠母91幼虫的生长。实验期间,pH8.1试验组幼虫的存活率和畸形率没有显著变化,而pH7.7和pH7.4组幼虫的存活率显著低于pH8.1组。pH7.4组幼虫的畸形率显著高于同期pH8.1和pH7.7组幼虫的畸形率,表明在海洋酸化的环境中幼虫的发育受到影响。本文将为海洋酸化的相关研究提供基础数据。%Effects of ocean acidification on fertilization and early development ofPinctada martensii were investi- gated at pH 8.1, 7.7 and 7.4 from July 1 to July 3 in 2010. The results indicated that COz-driven ocean acidification had no significant effect on fertilization. The shell lengths and heights in the groups ofpH 8.1, 7.7 and 7.4 increased gradually, and showed significant differences between the group of PH 8.1 and the other two groups. This indicated that ocean acidification influenced the growth of t3. martensii. During the experiment, the survival rate and the rate of abnormal larvae showed no significant difference in the pH 8.1 group. The survival rates in the pH 7.7 and 7.4 group were significantly lower than that in the pH 8.1 group. The rate of abnormal larvae in the pH 7.4 group was significantly higher than those in the other two groups. The development of the larvae was influenced by ocean acidification. The study provided basic information for exploring the effect of ocean acidification on growth and development of pearl oyster.

  14. Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of PmCHST9 Gene from Sulfotransferase of Pinctada martensii%马氏珠母贝磺基转移酶PmCHST9基因的分子特征与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝瑞娟; 郑哲; 王庆恒; 邓岳文; 焦钰; 杜晓东

    2015-01-01

    糖胺聚糖在抗病毒、消炎和抗氧化等免疫反应发挥重要作用.磺基转移酶(sulfotransferase)是糖胺聚糖生物合成的关键酶,Carbohydrate sulfotransferase 9 (CHST9)可以将磺酸基从3’-磷酸腺苷酰-5’磷酸硫酸盐(PAPS)转移到半乳糖残基非还原末端的4位碳上.为研究CHST9在马氏珠母贝免疫调节中的作用,本研究克隆得到马氏珠母贝CHST9 (Pinctada martensii CHST9,PmCHST9) cDNA全长序列并检测其在不同组织中的表达模式.利用RACE技术,得出PmCHST9序列全长l 388 bp,其中5'UTR为122 bp,3'UTR为192 bp,开放阅读框(ORE)为1 074 bp,编码357个氨基酸;PmCHST9氨基酸序列分子量为42 889.2 Da,等电点为9.28,脂溶性系数为81.32,总平均亲水性为-0.493;氨基酸序列分析得出PmCHST9具有典型的磺基转移酶-2结构域和一个跨膜结构域;多序列比对结果显示PmCHST9与其它物种的CHST9同源性较低;荧光定量PCR检测结果表明PmCHST9在鳃中表达量最高,其次是足和肝胰腺.综上所述,PmCHST9可能参与马氏珠母贝的免疫调节作用,为进一步阐述PmCHST9在马氏珠母贝中的免疫机制提供基础资料.

  15. One hundred years after Pinctada: an update on alien Mollusca in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ANTIT

    2011-04-01

    The occurrence of aliens in Tunisia is balanced between presumably Lessepsian species of tropical Indo-Pacific origin, and species from other sources including species from the Tropical Atlantic introduced through shipping. Nevertheless there is a prevalence of Lessepsian species towards the Gulf of Gabes in the south, whereas the shipping activity in Tunis harbour may be the main pathway of introduction in the north.

  16. Soluble silk-like organic matrix in the nacreous layer of the bivalve Pinctada maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Mouriès, Lucilia; Almeida, Maria-José; Ribeiro, Cristina; Peduzzi, Jean; Barthélemy, Michel; Milet, Christian; Lopez, Evelyne

    2002-10-01

    Nacre organic matrix has been conventionally classified as both 'water-soluble' and 'water-insoluble', based on its solubility in aqueous solutions after decalcification with acid or EDTA. Some characteristics (aspartic acid-rich, silk-fibroin-like content) were specifically attributed to either one or the other. The comparative study on the technique of extraction (extraction with water alone vs. demineralization with EDTA) presented here, seems to reveal that this generally accepted classification may need to be reconsidered. Actually, the nondecalcified soluble organic matrix, extracted in ultra-pure water, displays many of the characteristics of what until now has been called 'insoluble matrix'. We present the results obtained on this extract and on a conventional EDTA-soluble matrix, with various characterization methods: fractionation by size-exclusion and anion-exchange HPLC, amino acid analysis, glycosaminoglycan and calcium quantification, SDS/PAGE and FTIR spectroscopy. We propose that the model for the interlamellar matrix sheets of nacre given by Nakahara [In: Biomineralization and Biological Metal Accumulation, Westbroek, P. & deJong, E.W., eds, (1983) pp. 225-230. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland] and Weiner and Traub [Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B (1984) 304, 425-434] may no longer be valid. The most recent model, proposed by Levi-Kalisman et al. [J. Struct. Biol. (2001) 135, 8-17], seemed to be more in accordance with our findings.

  17. STUDI KUALITAS PERAIRAN PADA KEGIATAN BUDIDAYA TIRAM MUTIARA (Pinctada maxima DI KECAMATAN GEROKGAK, KABUPATEN BULELENG, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    apri i supi'i

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to know the effect of pearl oyster culture activities to the water quality(physical, chemical, biological parameters, and the sediment of culture site, waters quality status of pearloyster culture site as well.The research was done at 10 stations, which were 9 stations located around pearl oyster culture site, and1 station located at out of pearl oyster culture site (as control. Results showed that the sources of pollutionwere from pearl oyster feces and biofouling produced from cleaning of pocket and its shell. An in organicmatter of the feces produced (50.52-78.75 % was higher than the organic matter (21.25-49.48 %. The amountof biofoulling trash increased with the size and dominated by organic matter. Sea water quality observed wasunder sea water quality standard of marine organism (aquaculture decided by government, except phosphate.Twenty four species of plankton collected, consist of 4 phylum, that were Bacillarophyta (diatom,Protozoa, Arthropoda, and Mollusca. Plankton Diversity Index showed the level of low to high pollutioncondition indicated ecological suppression and decreasing of waters quality. The amount of total bacteria andVibrio spp. at all stations were normal, that was less than 106 cfu/ml.Integrated physical, chemical and biological parameters assessment found that pollution index was 2-3,mean of low pollution. Result of Cluster assessment indicate that there was real characteristic differentiationbetween first group (1-9 and second group (control. First group was around the pearl oyster culture waters,and second group was out of the pearl oyster culture waters. So the pearl oyster culture activities affected thewaters quality.

  18. One hundred years after Pinctada: an update on alien Mollusca in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ANTIT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrences of non-indigenous marine molluscs in Tunisia are reviewed, based booth on a literature survey and on original material. Species are accepted as established if there are two independent reports, either geographically separate or at least one month apart in time. On these grounds, 14 species are accepted (12 alien and 2 expanding their range from elsewhere in the Mediterranean, 3 aliens need confirmation but are likely to meet the standards for acceptation on a short future, and 5 records are rebutted or questioned. Two more species may be considered as cryptogenic, the reports are reliable but it is not clear indication that they are not indigenous. Two of the alien species are reported for the first time in Tunisian waters: the nudibranch Polycerella emertoni qualifies as established, and the bivalve Anadara transversa is tentatively identified from a juvenile live-taken specimen, which awaits further confirmation.The occurrence of aliens in Tunisia is balanced between presumably Lessepsian species of tropical Indo-Pacific origin, and species from other sources including species from the Tropical Atlantic introduced through shipping. Nevertheless there is a prevalence of Lessepsian species towards the Gulf of Gabes in the south, whereas the shipping activity in Tunis harbour may be the main pathway of introduction in the north.

  19. Characterization of organic matrix components of pearl oyster ,Pinctada fucata and their implications in shell formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mollusks make their shells by biomineralization using Ca2+ and CO32- from natural environment.In molluscan shells,two types of CaCO3 crystal which are aragonite and calcite form the species-dependent microstructures.It is believed that shell organic matrices act for control of the crystal types and microstructures.Shell of Pinetada fucata is divided into aragonitic nacreous layer and calcitic prismtic layer.In the recent years,several novel matrix components have been identified in pearl oyster shells by subsequent solubilization of the insoluble matrix,even in the nacreous layer which abounds in the data.In them,we focused our attention on a component,of which the N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined,and attempted cloning genes encoding it.As a result,several clones with typical sequence for the ORF (open reading frame) region were identified and the amino acid sequences were deduced.Further analysis of northern hybridization clarified the tissue specific expressions of the transcripts of the identified genes.

  20. Cloning and characterization of 37 kDa laminin receptor precursor in pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaopeng Fu; Liping Xie; Rongqing Zhang

    2008-01-01

    A 1063 bp cDNA clone encoding a putative 37 kDa laminin receptor precursor (37 kDa LRP) is isolated from the mantle tissue of pearl oyster, Pinctadafucata. The amino acid sequence predicted from the cDNA sequence is 301 residues long, with a calculated molecular mass of 33.5 kDa. RT-PCR analysis shows that 37 kDa LRP mRNA is especially highly expressed in the mantle while widely expressed in several tissues. In situ hybridization analysis reveals that 37 kDa LRP is expressed in the outer epithelial cells of the mantle edge, suggesting its involvement in cell proliferation and secretion in P. Fucata. The identification and characterization of 37 kDa LRP in the pearl oyster will help us to further understand the signal transduction in the processes of mantle epithelial cell proliferation and tissue formation.

  1. Pf-Rel, a Rel/Nuclear Factor-κB Homolog Identified from the Pearl Oyster, Pinctada fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi WU; Xunhao XIONG; Liping XIE; Rongqing ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Transcription factor Rel/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) has been the focus of many studies since its discovery in 1986. Different homologs of Rel/NF-κB have been found in both vertebrate and invertebrate.A cDNA clone encoding a putative Rel/NF-κB homolog (designated Pf-Rel) was isolated from the pearl oyster, Pinctadafucata. The sequence of Pf-Rel consists of the Rel homology domain, IPT NF-κB domain and C-terminal transactivation domain. Sequence analysis of Pf-Rel shows that it shares high similarity with other Rel/NF-κB family proteins, especially within the conserved domains. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that Pf-Rel mRNA was expressed ubiquitously. Further in situ hybridization analysis showed that Pf-Rel mRNA was expressed mainly at the outer epithelial cells of the middle fold and the inner epithelial cells of the outer fold. The identification and characterization of pearl oyster Pf-Rel help to further investigate the involvement of Rel/NF-κB in oyster immunity and other biological processes.

  2. Identification and Characterization of the Lysine-Rich Matrix Protein Family in Pinctada fucata: Indicative of Roles in Shell Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jian; Xie, Jun; Gao, Jing; Xu, Chao-Qun; Yan, Yi; Jia, Gan-Chu; Xiang, Liang; Xie, Li-Ping; Zhang, Rong-Qing

    2016-12-01

    Mantle can secret matrix proteins playing key roles in regulating the process of shell formation. The genes encoding lysine-rich matrix proteins (KRMPs) are one of the most highly expressed matrix genes in pearl oysters. However, the expression pattern of KRMPs is limited and the functions of them still remain unknown. In this study, we isolated and identified six new members of lysine-rich matrix proteins, rich in lysine, glycine and tyrosine, and all of them are basic matrix proteins. Combined with four members of the KRMPs previously reported, all these proteins can be divided into three subclasses according to the results of phylogenetic analyses: KRMP1-3 belong to subclass KPI, KRMP4-5 belong to KPII, and KRMP6-10 belong to KPIII. Three subcategories of lysine-rich matrix proteins are highly expressed in the D-phase, the larvae and adult mantle. Lysine-rich matrix proteins are involved in the shell repairing process and associated with the formation of the shell and pearl. What's more, they can cause abnormal shell growth after RNA interference. In detail, KPI subgroup was critical for the beginning formation of the prismatic layer; both KPII and KPIII subgroups participated in the formation of prismatic layer and nacreous layer. Compared with different temperatures and salinity stimulation treatments, the influence of changes in pH on KRMPs gene expression was the greatest. Recombinant KRMP7 significantly inhibited CaCO3 precipitation, changed the morphology of calcite, and inhibited the growth of aragonite in vitro. Our results are beneficial to understand the functions of the KRMP genes during shell formation.

  3. Gene : CBRC-TTRU-01-0026 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rix protein [Pinctada fucata] 4e-97 52% MRQCLQRAQCQARRRCSMNASCHGDGECDGECDDGDEEEDTDDDDGEGDDEEDSDDGDDGGDGDDEEDSDDGDDGGDGDDEEDSDD...DDDGEGDDGDDKDSDDDDDDSDGDDEEDSDDDDDDGGDGDDEDSDDDDDDSDGDDEEDSDDDDGDGDDEEEIDDDDDGECDDGDGDDEDSDDDDGDDDGEGDDEDSDD...GDDDGQCDDGDGEGEEEEDSDDGDDGECDDGDSDEEDSDDDEEEDSDDGDDGECDDGDGDEEDSDDDDDGECDDGDGDEEDSDD...DDGDDDGEGDDEEDSDDDDGDDDGEGDEEEDSDDGDDGECDDSDGDEEDSDDDDDGGV ...

  4. Study on optimum artificial breeding technology of Pinctada margaritifera%珠母贝人工繁育优化技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    劳赞; 黄海立; 符韶; 邓陈茂; 刘志刚

    2009-01-01

    The metamorphosis of settled larvae and survival of young shellfish were investigated after different operations: changing ponds, different kinds of settlement media, light intensive, water current and washing. The results showed that changing ponds increased the metamorphosis of settled larvae and survival of young shellfish with survival density 0.41 shells/cm~2±0.08 shells/cm~2 of 20 d young shellfish when the larvae settlement density was 2.18 shells/cm~2±0.50 shells/cm~2. Metamorphic larvae density on settlement board, chord, net and small stone were 0.70 shells/cm~2±0.08 shells/cm~2, 1.38 shells/cm~2±0.15 shells/cm~2 0.97 shells/cm~2±0.12 shells/cm~2 and 1.04 shells/cm~2±0.28 shells/cm~2, respectively. And the young shellfish survival densities were 0.36 shells/cm~2±0.06 shells/cm~2, 0.62 shells/cm~2±0.07 shells/cm~2, 0.45 shells/cm~2±0.07 shells/cm~2 and 0.60 shells/cm~2±0.08 shells/cm~2. Settlement chord increased signifi-cantly the larval metamorphosis and young shellfish survival. The metamorphic larvae density was 0.87 shells/cm~2 ±0.07 shells/cm~2 and the young shellfish survival density was 0.45 shells/cm~2±0.08 shells/cm~2 when light intensity is 300 Ix to 600 Ix. High light intensity was harmful to larval metamorphosis and young shellfish survival. The larval metamorphic density was 1.08 shells/cm~2±0.07 shells/cm~2 and 20 d young shellfish survival density was 0.87 shells/cm~2±0.07 shells/cm~2. After washing, the larval metamorphic density was 1.64 shells/cm~2±0.19 shells/cm~2 and 20 d young shellfish survival density was 1.00 shells/cm~2±0.12 shells/cm~2. Water current and washing increased significantly the larval metamorphosis and young shellfish survival.%在室内水泥池分别进行了移池培育、不同种类附着器、光照强度、水流和冲洗对珠母贝附着幼虫变态和稚贝存活的研究,结果表明:附着密度为2.18个/cm~2±0.50个/cm~2时,移池培育,其变态幼虫密度为0.95个/cm~2±0.13个/cm~2,20 d稚贝存活密度0.41个/~2±0.08个/cm~2,移池培育显著提高附着幼虫变态和稚贝存活;附着板、附着绳、网片、小石块变态幼虫密度分别为0.70个/cm~2±0.08个/cm~2、1.38个/cm~2±0.15个/cm~2、0.97个/cm~2±0.12个/cm~2、1.04个/cm~2±0.28个/cm~2,稚贝存活密度分别为0.36个/cm~2±0.06个/cm~2、0.62个/cm~2±0.07个/cm~2、0.45个/cm~2±0.07个/cm~2、0.60个/cm~2±0.08个/cm~2,附着绳显著提高附着幼虫变态和稚贝存活;光照强度为300~600 lx时变态幼虫密度为0.87个/cm~2±0.07个/cm~2,20 d稚贝存活密度0.45个/cm~2±0.08个/cm~2,强光不利于幼虫的变态和稚贝存活;水流速为2.3 cm/s时变态幼虫密度为1.08个/cm~2±0.07个/cm~2,20 d稚贝存活密度0.87个/cm~2±0.07个/cm~2,冲洗的变态幼虫密度为1.64个/cm~2±0.19个/cm~2,20 d稚贝存活密度1.00个/cm~2±0.12个/cm~2,水流或冲洗显著提高附着幼虫变态和稚贝存活.

  5. Impact of pCO2 on the energy, reproduction and growth of the shell of the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moullac, G.; Soyez, C.; Vidal-Dupiol, J.; Belliard, C.; Fievet, J.; Sham-Koua, M.; Lo-Yat, A.; Saulnier, D.; Gaertner-Mazouni, N.; Gueguen, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The possible consequences of acidification on pearl farming are disruption of oyster metabolism and change in growth. In the laboratory, we studied the impact of pCO2 (3540, 1338 and 541 μatm) on the physiology of pearl oysters exposed for 100 days. This experiment was repeated after an interval of one year. Several physiological compartments were examined in pearl oysters: the scope for growth by measuring ingestion, assimilation and oxygen consumption, gametogenesis by means of histological observations, shell growth by measurement and observation by optical and electronic microscopy, and at molecular level by measuring the expression of nine genes of mantle cells implied in the biomineralisation process. Results from both experiments showed that high pCO2 had no effect on scope for growth and gametogenesis. High pCO2 (3540 μatm) significantly slowed down the shell deposit rate at the ventral side and SEM observations of the inside of the shell found signs of chemical dissolution. Of the nine examined genes high pCO2significantly decreased the expression level of one gene (Pmarg-PUSP 6). This study showed that shell growth of the pearl oyster would be slowed down without threatening the species since the management of energy and reproduction functions appeared to be preserved. Further investigations should be conducted on the response of offspring to acidification.

  6. Nutrient regeneration in the water column and at the sediment-water interface in pearl oyster culture (Pinctada margaritifera) in a deep atoll lagoon (Ahe, French Polynesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoste, Élise; Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to provide a first estimation of the overall contribution of pearl oyster culture to nutrient regeneration in a deep atoll lagoon. Nutrient release by pearl oyster culture in the water column and nutrient fluxes at the sediment-water interface were compared in two contrasted conditions (i.e. under the influence or not of pearl oyster farming) in the Ahe atoll (French Polynesia). Nitrogen flux intensity was higher in the water column than at the benthic interface. Nitrogen was released at a rate of 31.36 μmol h-1 m-2 in the water column and 12.05 μmol h-1 m-2 at the sediment-water interface. Average phosphorus flux was 2.85 μmol h-1 m-2 at the sediment-water interface and 2.16 μmol h-1 m-2 in the water column. In this deep lagoon, pearl oyster culture exerted more influence in the pelagic compartment than at the benthic interface where flux rate seemed not to be influenced by the presence of pearl oyster culture. These results demonstrate that it is essential to study these two interfaces in concert when assessing the impact of suspended shellfish farming on nutrient dynamics. Overall, the impact of pearl oyster culture may stimulate phytoplankton growth near cultivation areas through the rapid recycling of inorganic nutrients.

  7. Cloning and Expression of TOR Gene from Pinctada martensii%马氏珠母贝TOR基因cDNA的克隆与组织表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田群莉; 邓岳文; 杜晓东; 焦钰; 黄荣莲; 王庆恒

    2014-01-01

    TOR (target of rapamycin)是一类进化上非常保守的蛋白激酶,参与调节多种生化代谢,协调蛋白质的生物合成和降解.本研究采用cDNA末端快速扩增技术(RACE),克隆获得了马氏珠母贝TOR基因cDNA全长序列(pm-TOR);同时利用荧光定量技术检测了pm-TOR基因mRNA在马氏珠母贝各个组织中的表达含量.结果表明:pm-TOR基因cDNA序列全长9 220 bp,开放阅读框(ORF)长7 488 bp,编码2 495个氨基酸,5'非翻译区(5' UTR)长157 bp,3'UTR长1 575 bp.氨基酸序列同源比对分析显示pm-TOR氨基酸序列与其他物种具有较高的保守性,与牡蛎(Crassostrea gigas)的TOR的序列相似度为79%.荧光定量PCR数据分析显示,TOR基因的mRNA在马氏珠母贝血液、性腺、肝胰脏、外套膜、闭壳肌和鳃组织中均有表达,其中肝胰脏和性腺中表达量较高,血液中表达量较低.本研究为进一步阐述TOR在马氏珠母贝中生长和发育调控中的作用提供理论基础.

  8. Evaluation of Low-Pressure Drop Antimicrobial and Hybrid Air Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Pass Bioaerosol Removal Efficiencies of a Room Air Cleaner,” Karin K. Foarde, James T. Hanley, David S. Ensor , Peter Roessler Aerosol Science...Karin K. Foarde, James T. Hanley, Alan C. Veeck ASHRAE Journal 52-58 (2000) “Determine the Efficacy of Antimicrobial Treatments of Fibrous...Air Filters,” Karin K. Foarde, James T. Hanley ASHRAE Transactions: Research 4429 (RP-909): 156–170. “Development of a Method for Measuring Single

  9. Genus Donax in the Peruvian coast (Bivalvia: Telllnoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the species of Donax Linnaeus, 1758 in Peru are reviewed. The presence of 7 out of the 11 species is confirmed: D. asper Hanley. 1845; D. caelatus rothi Coan, 1983; D. obesulus Reeve, 1854; D. carinatus Hanley, 1843; D. transversus Sowerby 1,1825; D. californicus Conrad, 1837 and D. marincovichi Coan, 1983; in addition, one is recorded for the first time (D. punctatostriatus Hanley, 1843 in Peruvian waters. Information on the distribution geographical and some ecological relations is presented.

  10. 海洋酸化对马氏珠母贝珍珠层形成的影响%Effects of ocean acidification on nacre formation and expres-sion of related genes inPinctada martensii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董冰冰; 黄荣莲; 王庆恒; 郑哲; 焦钰; 邓岳文; 杜晓东

    2015-01-01

    分析了酸化环境对马氏珠母贝珍珠层形成的影响。在温度为28℃,盐度为31的条件下,分别在pH 8.2(对照组, CG)、pH 7.7(实验一组, E1)和pH 7.4(实验二组, E2)的海水中养殖马氏珠母贝,观察贝壳珍珠层结晶形貌的变化,并检测珍珠层形成相关的矿化基因(pif177、nacrein及pearlin)在外套膜中央区(mantle center, MC)的表达。结果表明:(1)通过扫描电镜观察贝壳,比较对照组与实验组贝壳晶体形貌变化,发现 E1组贝壳珍珠层低倍镜下,生长阶梯明显,高倍镜下超微结构规则,六边形棱角不明显,但边界清晰;而E2组出现板块边界不明显,生长排列不规则等现象,说明了海水酸化影响了马氏珠母贝的钙沉积,引起珍珠层形貌特征的变化;(2)实验设定条件下,pif177、nacrein及pearlin基因表达量整体上呈现随pH降低而降低的变化趋势。其中, E1组与CG组间均无显著性差异(P>0.05), E2组均较CG组显著下调(P0.05), while the gene expression levels in E2 group were sig-nificantly lower than those in CG group (P<0.05).

  11. Computer-Assisted Instruction and Its Application to Air Force Civil Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    used to the marvels of televi- sion, cinema and video arcade games (62). However, Hanley summrized the results of a meta-analy- sis review of 48 such...increases the fidelity or realism of nearly every simulation" (12:166-68). Finally, Alessi and Trollip reco mend the use of color to provide emphasis in

  12. An Example of Discovery Research Involving the Transfer of Stimulus Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2005-01-01

    The initial purpose of the present study was to replicate procedures for teaching preschool children to recruit attention at appropriate times by having an experimenter signal the availability and unavailability of attention (i.e., arrange a multiple schedule involving reinforcement and extinction; Tiger & Hanley, 2004). Following the development…

  13. Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Experienced Teachers in Physical Education: Functional Analysis of Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvazo, Shiri; Ward, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is the teacher's ability to pedagogically adapt content to students of diverse abilities. In this study, we investigated how teachers' adaptations of instruction for individual students differed when teaching stronger and weaker instructional units. We used functional analysis (Hanley, Iwata, & McCord, 2003) of…

  14. Association between sexually transmitted disease and church membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørup, Alex Kappel; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Christensen, René dePont

    2016-01-01

    were diagnosed with gonorrhoea, when 3.4 events were expected, which, according to Hanley's 'rule of three', is a significant difference. No SDA or Baptist was diagnosed with syphilis. CONCLUSIONS: The cohort shows significant lower incidence of STD, most likely including human papillomavirus, which...

  15. Sleight of hand: magic, therapy and motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Daniel; Spencer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Finding creative therapeutic activities to help patients regain range of motion and strength in fun ways are keys aspects to many rehabilitation programs. These authors examine the use of magic tricks as a way to enhance a hand therapy program - Victoria Priganc, PhD, OTR, CHT, CLT, Practice Forum Editor. Copyright © 2014 Hanley & Belfus. All rights reserved.

  16. Calibration of Knollenberg FSSP Light-Scattering Counters for Measurement of Cloud Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    ATTN: DRXRO-GS (Dr. Leo Alpert ) John Hopkins Road P.O. Box 12211 Laurell, MD 20810 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 Dr. Stephen T. Hanley Comnander...Seagraves, "Another Method for Estimating Clear Column Radiances," ECOM-5803, October 1976. 40. Blanco, Abel J., and Larry E. Taylor, "Artillery

  17. 78 FR 57444 - Eagle Fund III, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Eagle Fund III, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Eagle Fund III, L.P., 101 S. Hanley Road, Suite 1250, St... Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations. Eagle Fund III, L.P., provided debt and...

  18. 78 FR 57444 - Eagle Fund III-A, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Eagle Fund III-A, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Eagle Fund III-A, L.P., 101 S. Hanley Road, Suite 1250, St... Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations. Eagle Fund III-A, L.P., provided debt and...

  19. Macrofauna Settlement on Pearl Oyster Collectors in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Collection of pearl oyster seed using artificial collectors is a critical step in the production of cultured ... settled on spat collectors set to collect Pinctada margaritifera and Pteria penguin seed in shallow ... experiments conducted in Kenya between 2002 and. 2005. ..... the macrofauna and the bivalves follow a similar.

  20. An evaluation of the generalization and maintenance of functional communication and self-control skills with preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczynski, Kevin C; Hanley, Gregory P; Rodriguez, Nicole M

    2014-01-01

    The preschool life skills (PLS) program (Hanley, Heal, Tiger, & Ingvarsson, 2007; Luczynski & Hanley, 2013) involves teaching social skills as a means of decreasing and preventing problem behavior. However, achieving durable outcomes as children transition across educational settings depend on the generalization and long-term maintenance of those skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate procedures for promoting generalization and long-term maintenance of functional communication and self-control skills for 6 preschool children. When the children's social skills decreased across repeated observations during a generalization assessment, we incorporated modifications to the teaching procedures. However, the effects of the modifications were variable across skills and children. Satisfactory generalization was observed only after the teacher was informed of the target skills and teaching strategies. Maintenance of most social skills was observed 3 months after teaching was discontinued. We discuss the importance of improving child and teacher behavior to promote generalization and maintenance of important social skills.

  1. Breast Cancer in Three Dimensions: Revealing Telomere Dysfunction in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    complexes at the E-box sequences of two myc target genes: DHFR and NPY ." 24) Hanley-Hyde, J., Reed, S. I., Mai, S. "The 5’ flanking region of cyclin D2...of chromosomal rearrangements involving telomeric sequences threefold [Peitl et al., 2002]. However, it is not known whether these rearrangements...subtelomeric sequences are recombination and dupli- cation hot spots [Linardopoulou et al., 2005]. Subtelomeric sequences are involved in inter

  2. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson-Hanley C; Tureck K; Schneiderman RL

    2011-01-01

    Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Ex...

  3. Turbulent Flow and Large Surface Wave Events in the Marine Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    Belcher, S. E., A. A. L. M. Grant, K. E. Hanley, B. Fox- Kemper , L. Van Roekel, P. P. Sullivan, W. G. Large, A. Brown, A. Hines, D. Calvert, A...Meteorological Society, [in press]. Van Roekel, L. P., B. Fox- Kemper , P. P. Sullivan, P. E. Hamlington, & S. R. Haney, 2012: The form and orientation of...Fox- Kemper , B., P. E. Hamlington, L. Van Roekel & P.P. Sullivan, 2012: Parameterization of submesoscale and Langmuir-scale processes and

  4. A systems change: leading the way to meeting health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deisher, Mirella

    2013-01-01

    Demonstrating the efficacy of our practice requires a paradigm shift. Becoming an effective leader and clinician can facilitate opportunities for program development and clinical research. The use of strategic planning strategies, such as needs assessment and SWOT analysis, can help lead the way to such change. The following illustrates the use of strategic planning to develop The Carpal and Cubital Tunnel Syndrome Program (CCTSP) within a growing orthopedic practice. Copyright © 2013 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nuevos registros de bivalvos marinos para el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Seis especies de Bivalvia: Adrana sowerbyana (Orbigny, 1845; Malletia goniura Dall, 1890; Mytilus strigatus Hanley, 1843; Leiosolenus spatiosa (Carpenter, 1857; Pinna rugosa G.B. Sowerby I, 1835 y Delectopecten zacae (Hertlein, 1935 se reportan por primera vez para aguas peruanas. Se da información sobre la distribución, el hábitat y comentarios relevantes de cada una de las especies.

  6. Diagnostic Approach to Acute Diarrheal Illness in a Military Population on Training Exercises in Thailand, a Region of Campylobacter Hyperendemicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Campylobacter 67 55 Nontyphoidal Salmonella 15 25 Plesiomonas shigelloides 9 6 Noninvasive bacteria (ETEC, eae-positive E. coli) 11 14 Viral...bacterial gastroenteritis in devel- oped and resource-poor countries. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:365–375. 16. Hanley, J. A., and B. J. McNeil. 1982. The...1423–1428. 25. Iijima, Y., N. T. Asako, M. Aihara, and K. Hayashi. 2004. Improvement in the detection rate of diarrhoeagenic bacteria in human stool

  7. An evaluation of multiple-schedule variations to reduce high-rate requests in the picture exchange communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Robin; Hanley, Gregory P

    2016-06-01

    Using procedures similar to those of Tiger, Hanley, and Heal (2006), we compared two multiple-schedule variations (S+/S- and S+ only) to treat high-rate requests for edible items in the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). Two individuals with autism participated, after they showed persistent requests for edible items after PECS training. Stimulus control was achieved only with the multiple schedule that involved presentation of a discriminative stimulus during reinforcement components and its removal during extinction components (S+ only). Discriminated requests were maintained for the 1 participant who experienced schedule thinning. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  8. “Lasso of Truth”: Rediscovering the Forgotten History of Wonder Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Jurković

    2015-01-01

    In a period witnessing the increasing popularity of superhero franchises, comic book historian Tim Hanley sheds light on the forgotten history of the world’s most famous female superhero, Wonder Woman. Tim Hanley’s Wonder Woman Unbound: The Curious History of the World’s Most Famous Heroine, as its title suggests, aims to explore the curious path of Wonder Woman: from the creation of the character to her contemporary iconic status. The book is comprised of three sections that follow the eras ...

  9. “Lasso of Truth”: Rediscovering the Forgotten History of Wonder Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Jurković

    2015-01-01

    In a period witnessing the increasing popularity of superhero franchises, comic book historian Tim Hanley sheds light on the forgotten history of the world’s most famous female superhero, Wonder Woman. Tim Hanley’s Wonder Woman Unbound: The Curious History of the World’s Most Famous Heroine, as its title suggests, aims to explore the curious path of Wonder Woman: from the creation of the character to her contemporary iconic status. The book is comprised of three sections that follow the eras ...

  10. Benefits, Harms, and Costs of Osteoporosis Screening in Male Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    International 2010, 21(4):647-653. 3. Papaioannou A, Kennedy CC, Cranney A, Hawker G, Brown JP, Kaiser SM, Leslie WD, O’Brien CJ, Sawka AM, Khan A et...Papaioannou A, Morin S, Cheung AM, Atkinson S, Brown JP, Feldman S, Hanley DA, Hodsman A, Jamal SA, Kaiser SM et al: 2010 clinical practice guidelines for the...Amgen, and UCB and receives research support from Amgen, Novartis, and Kirin Pharmaceuticals. Dr. Lyles is co-inventors of US pat - ent applications

  11. Command and Control in a Complex World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    19 William  Welsh , “Nelson at Trafalgar:  He Did His Duty,” Military History 22, no. 7 (Oct 2005):  38‐44.  20 Lord...Co, 2005. Hanley, Brian. “The Enduring Relevance of the Battle for Stalingrad.” Joint Forces Quarterly Issue 43 (4th Qtr 2006): 92. Irvine ...William S. “Network-Enabled Battle Command.” Military Review (May/Jun 2005): 2-3. Welsh , William. “Nelson at Trafalgar: He Did His Duty

  12. Structural distortion of biogenic aragonite in strongly textured mollusc shell layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chateigner, D., E-mail: daniel.chateigner@ensicaen.f [CRISMAT-ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, 6 Bd. M. Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Ouhenia, S. [CRISMAT-ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, 6 Bd. M. Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Lab. De Physique, Faculte des Sciences Exactes, Bejaia 06000 (Algeria); Krauss, C. [CRISMAT-ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, 6 Bd. M. Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Belkhir, M. [Lab. De Physique, Faculte des Sciences Exactes, Bejaia 06000 (Algeria); Morales, M. [CIMAP-ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, 6 Bd. M. Juin, 14050 Caen (France)

    2010-02-15

    The stabilisation of strong textures in mollusc shells has for long been a strong drawback towards precise structural determinations of these natural biocomposites. We demonstrate here on several crossed lamellar and nacre layers from two gastropods (Charonia lampas lampas and Haliotis tuberculata tuberculata) and one bivalve (Pinctada maxima), that on real specimens (without grinding or specific preparation), the textural information can be used efficiently for precise structural determination of the biogenic aragonite. This is done through the combination of orientation distribution function and cyclic Rietveld refinements on several hundreds to thousands of diffractions diagrams.

  13. 光合细菌对鱼虾贝促长防病作用的初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何筱洁; 于方兆; 郑晓东; 沈江波; 马庆涛; 梁洲; 吴勇胜

    1997-01-01

    应用光合细菌(PSB)对花鲈(Lateolabrax japonicus)、白鲢(Hyop hthalmichthys molitrix)、斑节对虾(Penaeus monodon)、罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)、马氏珠母贝(Pinctada martensii)等分别进行试验,旨在对其在促长、运输、防病等方面所起作用进行初探,结果取得良好效果。用PSB10-30ppm,对幼体花鲈饲养20天,

  14. “Lasso of Truth”: Rediscovering the Forgotten History of Wonder Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jurković

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In a period witnessing the increasing popularity of superhero franchises, comic book historian Tim Hanley sheds light on the forgotten history of the world’s most famous female superhero, Wonder Woman. Tim Hanley’s Wonder Woman Unbound: The Curious History of the World’s Most Famous Heroine, as its title suggests, aims to explore the curious path of Wonder Woman: from the creation of the character to her contemporary iconic status. The book is comprised of three sections that follow the eras of American comic books: Golden Age, Silver Age and Bronze Age. Hanley starts off with Wonder Woman’s origin story, associating it primarily with the life and work of her creator, psychologist William Marston. The story begins when an American pilot, Steve Trevor, crashes on the hidden Paradise Island and is found injured by Diana and her fellow Amazons. Paradise Island is the home of mythical Amazons guided by goddesses Aphrodite and Athena. Their world is an only-female utopia situated far away from the outside, violent, world of men. However, while Amazons live in peace, the outside world is bursting with war and Steve needs to return to America to fulfill his soldier duties. The Amazon goddesses decide to send a warrior, Diana, to help Steve through his journey. That warrior later becomes a superheroine known by the name of Wonder Woman.

  15. Moisture Absorption and Retention of Plysaccharides from Four Marine Shellfishes%4种海洋贝类多糖提取和保湿性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓一清; 童银洪; 陈小丽; 梁飞龙; 杜晓东

    2012-01-01

    Polysaccharides were obtained from the whole viscera of marine shellfishes Pinctada martensii, Pteria penguin, Perna viridis and Crassostrea rivularis by hot water extraction. Moisture absorption of the polysaccharidc extractions from the four shellfishes were evaluated in contrast with traditional humectants such as glycerol, 1,3-butanediol, propanediol, PEG-400. At a relative humidity of 44%, the order of moisture absorption rate at 12 hours of the humectants was as follows: Pinctada martensii < Crassostrea rivularis< Pteria penguin < Perna viridis < PEG-400 < 1, 3-butanediol < glycerol < propanediol. At a relative humidity of 80%, the order of moisture absorption rate at 12 hours of the humectants listed as follows: Crassostrea rivularis < Pinctada martensii < Pteria penguin < 1,3-butanediol < Perna viridis < PEG-400 < glycerol Perna viridis > Pinctada martensii> Pteria penguin > glycerol > 1, 3-butanediol> propanediol > PEG-400. Moisture absorption rate of polysaccharide from Perna viridis was superior to the other shellfishes, and inferior to traditional humectants. Moisturizing retention rate of polysaccharide of Perna viridis was inferior to oyster, and superior to the others.%以马氏珠母贝(Pinctada martensii)、企鹅珍珠贝(Pteria penguin)、翡翠贻贝(Perna viridis)和近江牡蛎(oyster)的内脏团为原料提取、纯化多糖,与甘油、聚乙二醇400( PEG-400)、丙二醇和1,3-丁二醇四种常规保湿剂进行比较.结果表明,在相对湿度为44%时,前12h吸湿率顺序为:马氏珠母贝<近江牡蛎<企鹅珍珠贝<翡翠贻贝< PEG-400<1,3-丁二醇<甘油<丙二醇;在相对湿度为80%时,前12h吸湿率顺序为:近江牡蛎<马氏珠母贝<企鹅珍珠贝<1,3-丁二醇<翡翠贻贝< PEG-400<甘油<丙二醇.前12h的保湿率顺序为:近江牡蛎>翡翠贻贝>马氏珠母贝>企鹅珍珠贝>甘油>1,3-丁二醇>丙二醇> PEG-400.翡翠

  16. Treating stereotypy in adolescents diagnosed with autism by refining the tactic of "using stereotypy as reinforcement".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Jacqueline N; Hanley, Gregory P; Augustine, Matotopa; Clay, Casey J; Phelps, Meredith C

    2013-01-01

    Use of automatically reinforced stereotypy as reinforcement has been shown to be successful for increasing socially desirable behaviors in persons with intellectual disabilities (Charlop, Kurtz, & Casey, 1990; Hanley, Iwata, Thompson, & Lindberg, 2000; Hung, 1978). A component analysis of this treatment was conducted with 3 adolescents who had been diagnosed with autism, and then extended by (a) progressively increasing the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the response requirement to earn access to stereotypy, (b) arranging objective measures of client preference for contingent access to stereotypy compared to other relevant treatments for their automatically reinforced stereotypy, and (c) assessing the social validity of this treatment with other relevant stakeholders. Implications for addressing stereotypy and increasing the leisure skills of adolescents with autism are discussed.

  17. Association between sexually transmitted disease and church membership. A retrospective Cohort study of two Danish Religious minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørup, Alex Kappel; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Christensen, René dePont

    2016-01-01

    was to investigate the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among Danish SDAs and Baptists as a proxy for cancers related to sexual behaviour.  Methods: We followed the Danish Cohort of Religious Societies from 1977 to 2009, and linked it with national registers of all inpatient and outpatient care...... expected a total of 32.4 events of STD, and observed only 9. Female SDAs and Baptists aged 20-39 years had significant lower incidence of chlamydia (both p... were diagnosed with gonorrhoea, when 3.4 events were expected, which, according to Hanley's 'rule of three', is a significant difference. No SDA or Baptist was diagnosed with syphilis.  Conclusions: The cohort shows significant lower incidence of STD, most likely including human papillomavirus, which...

  18. A Low Temperature Eutectic Methane-Ethane Liquid: A Potential Geologic Fluid in the Outermost Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Garrett Leland; Hanley, Jennifer; Grundy, Will; Tegler, Stephen C.; Roe, Henry G.; Lindberg, Gerrick Eugene; Trilling, David E.

    2016-10-01

    Many icy bodies and moons in the solar system contain methane and ethane, including Titan, Triton, Pluto, Eris, Makemake, and likely others. The material properties of these species and their interactions with one another are still inadequately characterized. To provide insight into the behaviors of these species we conducted a series of laboratory experiments to map the liquidus line as a function of temperature and composition. The interaction of ethane and methane yields a eutectic mixture and depresses the freezing point to ~72 K, almost 20 K colder than the normal freezing points of either pure species. The eutectic composition is 64% CH4 and 36% C2H6. This phenomenon may enable geological processes involving liquids in the near surface environments of bodies once thought too cold and/or that have surface pressures too low to support liquid phases. The addition of other cosmochemically abundant species may suppress freezing points even further (see Hanley et al., this conference).

  19. Community-based health efforts for the prevention of falls in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Hanley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alan Hanley1, Carmel Silke2, John Murphy31Department of Medicine, Letterkenny General Hospital, Letterkenny, Co Donegal, Ireland; 2Department of Rheumatology, Our Lady's Hospital Manorhamilton, Manorhamilton, Co Leitrim, Ireland; 3Department of Medicine, Castlebar, Co Mayo, IrelandAbstract: Falls are a major public health problem in the elderly population. The associated health care cost is great. It has therefore become an important public health matter to evaluate those interventions that might be effective in reducing the risk of falls. Risk factors that predict an increased risk of falling are described. We discuss interventions that can be employed in the community to reduce the risk of falls and associated injuries by discipline, including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and physician-led interventions. We also discuss the cost-effectiveness of such interventions.Keywords: fall, fracture, prevention, public health

  20. Laboratory measurements of the 5-20 cm wavelength opacity of ammonia, water vapor, and methane under simulated conditions for the deep jovian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, Amadeo; Steffes, Paul G.; Chinsomboom, Garrett

    2016-12-01

    Over the past decade, several extensive laboratory studies have been conducted of the microwave opacity of ammonia and water vapor in preparation for interpretation of the precise measurements of jovian microwave emission to be made with the Microwave Radiometer (MWR) instrument aboard the NASA Juno Mission. (See, e.g., Hanley et al. [2009] Icarus, 202, 316-335; Karpowicz and Steffes [2011a] Icarus 212, 210-223; Karpowicz and Steffes [2011b] Icarus 214, 783; Devaraj et al. [2014] Icarus, 241, 165-179) These works included models for the opacity of these constituents valid over the pressure and temperature ranges measured in the laboratory experiments (temperatures up to 500 K and pressures up to 100 bars). However, studies of the microwave emission made using these models indicate that significant contributions to the emission at the 24-cm and 50-cm wavelengths to be measured by the Juno MWR will be made by layers of the atmosphere with temperatures at or exceeding 600 K. While the ammonia opacity models described by Hanley et al. (2009) and Devraj et al. (2014) give consistent results at temperatures up to 500 K (within 6%), they diverge significantly at temperatures and pressures exceeding 550 K and 50 bars, respectively. Similarly, at temperatures above 500 K, the model for water vapor opacity developed by Karpowicz and Steffes (2011a,b) exhibits non-physical attributes. To resolve these ambiguities, we have conducted laboratory measurements of the microwave opacity of ammonia at temperatures up to 600 K and that for water vapor at temperatures up to 600 K. Additionally, since the microwave opacity of ammonia is influenced by pressure-broadening from methane (a significant constituent in jovian atmospheres), measurements of the effects of methane on the ammonia absorption spectrum have also been conducted. These measurements have resulted in updated models for the opacities of ammonia and water vapor under conditions of the deep jovian atmosphere.

  1. Revealing crystalline domains in a mollusc shell single-crystalline prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropietro, F.; Godard, P.; Burghammer, M.; Chevallard, C.; Daillant, J.; Duboisset, J.; Allain, M.; Guenoun, P.; Nouet, J.; Chamard, V.

    2017-09-01

    Biomineralization integrates complex processes leading to an extraordinary diversity of calcareous biomineral crystalline architectures, in intriguing contrast with the consistent presence of a sub-micrometric granular structure. Hence, gaining access to the crystalline architecture at the mesoscale, that is, over a few granules, is key to building realistic biomineralization scenarios. Here we provide the nanoscale spatial arrangement of the crystalline structure within the `single-crystalline' prisms of the prismatic layer of a Pinctada margaritifera shell, exploiting three-dimensional X-ray Bragg ptychography microscopy. We reveal the details of the mesocrystalline organization, evidencing a crystalline coherence extending over a few granules. We additionally prove the existence of larger iso-oriented crystalline domains, slightly misoriented with respect to each other, around one unique rotation axis, and whose shapes are correlated with iso-strain domains. The highlighted mesocrystalline properties support recent biomineralization models involving partial fusion of oriented nanoparticle assembly and/or liquid droplet precursors.

  2. Pearl formation: persistence of the graft during the entire process of biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud-Haond, S; Goyard, E; Vonau, V; Herbaut, C; Prou, J; Saulnier, D

    2007-01-01

    Most bivalves species of the genus Pinctada are well known throughout the world for production of white or black pearls of high commercial value. For cultured pearl production, a mantle allograft from a donor is implanted into the gonad of a recipient oyster, together with a small inorganic bead. Because of the dedifferentiation of cells during the first steps of the host oyster's immunological reaction, so far the fate of the graft and its exact role in the process of pearl formation could not be determined via classical histological methods. Here we report the first molecular evidence of the resilience of the graft in the recipient organism by showing that cells containing genome from the donor are still present at the end of pearl formation. These results suggest the existence of a unique biological cooperation leading to the successful biomineralization process of nacreous secretion in pearl formation.

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of nacrein gene in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas)%长牡蛎nacrein基因的克隆、结构及进化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋小瑞; 王晓通; 李莉; 张国范

    2015-01-01

    首次在长牡蛎(Crassostrea gigas)中克隆得到一种新的贝壳基质蛋白nacrein-like protein F3的全长cDNA序列。nacrein-like protein F3基因cDNA全长1499bp,其中编码区长度为1242bp,编码一条含413个氨基酸残基的多肽链。氨基酸序列比对和结构域分析均表明其为合浦珠母贝(Pinctada fu-cata)nacrein的同源蛋白,含有1个保守的α-碳酸酐酶结构域,但由于重复结构域的插入,α-碳酸酐酶结构域被间隔成2个亚结构域。系统进化分析显示nacrein-like protein F3与贻贝(Mytilus californianus) nacrein-like protein进化关系最近。此外,在软体动物中,双壳纲nacrein-like proteins进化速度相对较快,推测与寒武纪时期剧烈的环境变化有关,如影响贝壳形成的海水化学变化。%The full length cDNA sequence of nacrein-like protein F3 was cloned from Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) for the first time. Nacrein-like protein F3 cDNA has 1499 bp, containing a 1242 bp CDS that encod a peptide of 413 amino acids. Multiple alignment and conserved domain analysis showed that this peptide is a homolog of nacrein (Pinctada fucata), containing a carbonic anhydrase (CA) domain, which is flanked by inserted repeat se-quences. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that nacrein-like protein F3 is more closely related to nacrein-like protein inMytilus californianus than other nacrein-like proteins. Moreover, the nacrein-like proteins in bivalves seem to evolve relatively fast, which is presumably caused by the fast changing Cambrian environment, especially the ma-rine chemical composition, which can affect shell biomineralization.

  4. THE ORIENTATION OF CaCO3 ARAGONITE CRYSTALS FROM SEVERAL ORGANISMS%几种生物CaCO3霰石结晶的取向性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋新农; 李敬之; 徐学红

    2001-01-01

    The CaCO3 crystals are widely distributed in organisms. Thecalcite, aragonite and vaterite are the main crystal polymorphisms of CaCO3. In this paper, CaCO3 crystals were obtained from the nacreous layers of Hyriopsis cumingii Lea and Pinctada martensii Dunker, the internal shell of a cuttlefish and the otolith of Pseudosciaena crocea. X-ray diffraction measurement was used to analyze the crystal orientation of CaCO3 crystals: The results showed that each kind of natural CaCO3 crystal has an orientation on specific plane. In detail, the crystal orientations of the nacreous layers are higher than the internal shell, and the orientation of the otolith is the lowest. Except the nacreous layers of Pinctada martensii, whose highest peak is on the crystal plane (312), all the other three natural samples have the highest peak on the crystal plane (012). As to ground CaCO3 crystals, the differences between their corresponding d values are very small, so each ground sample has the CaCO3 aragonite structure characterized by the JCPDS card (5-0453).%CaCO3结晶广泛分布于生物界,其主要结晶形式为方解石、霰石及球霰石。用X-射线衍射法对三角帆蚌及合浦珍珠母贝的珍珠层、墨鱼骨和大黄鱼耳石的CaCO3结晶进行测定,发现各样品均有一定取向性,以三角帆蚌和合浦珍珠母贝珍珠层的取向性为最强,墨鱼骨的取向性次之,大黄鱼耳石的取向性最小,以上材料粉末样的衍射分析表明,各样品对应d值间差异极小,均为X射线衍射卡(5-0453)所表征的CaCO3霰石结构。

  5. Diagnostic value of clinical grind test for carpometacarpal osteoarthritis of the thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Melissa M; Roddey, Toni S; Costello, Charles; Olson, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Clinical Measurement. Thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) osteoarthritis is a frequent cause of thumb pain. To evaluate the interrater reliability and the criterion validity of the grind test for thumb CMC osteoarthritis. Radiological evaluation was used as the gold standard. Seventy thumbs of 54 persons with various hand disorders were included in the study. The grind test was performed by two physical therapists, and radiographs were evaluated by a certified hand surgeon, all blinded to the participants' diagnosis and other test results. Interrater reliability was compared with a kappa statistic, and the sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and predictive values were calculated from a 232 table. A kappa value of 0.48 was calculated as the interrater reliability. The sensitivity of the grind test was 42% and 53%, depending on tester. The specificity of the grind test was 80% and 93%, depending on tester. The positive likelihood ratio was 2.65 and 6.00, and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.59 and 0.62. The positive predictive value was 91% and 96%, depending on tester. The negative predictive value was 68% and 70%, depending on tester. The grind test has moderate reliability and accurately confirms the diagnosis of CMC osteoarthritis and identifies those who do not have CMC osteoarthritis. However, a negative grind test does not necessarily reflect negative radiographic evidence of thumb CMC osteoarthritis. n/a. Copyright © 2010 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Awareness during general anesthesia: An Indian viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambulkar, Reshma P; Agarwal, Vandana; Ranganathan, Priya; Divatia, Jigeeshu V

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of intra-operative awareness with explicit recall in the Western world has been reported to be between 0.1% and 0.2% in the general surgical population and up to 1-2% of patients at high risk for this complication. Awareness in the Indian population has never been studied; we therefore wanted to detect the incidence of awareness in patients who were at high risk of experiencing awareness during surgery in our population. We conducted a prospective single-center observational study at a 600-bedded tertiary cancer care referral hospital. We recruited adult patients posted for major cancer surgery who were considered to be at high risk for awareness. These patients were interviewed at three time-points using the structured modified Brice interview questionnaire. The primary outcome studied was the incidence of definite intra-operative awareness. A total of 934 patients were included in the final analysis of which none reported awareness. Using the rule of three (Hanley and Lippman-Hand) we conclude that the upper 95% confidence interval for the incidence of awareness in this population is Awareness under anesthesia is a distressing complication with a potential for long-term psychological consequences, and every effort should be undertaken to prevent it. It is reassuring though that our data in Indian cancer patients at high risk for intra-operative awareness suggests that it is an uncommon occurrence.

  7. Lessons Learned at CIRES: Building Bridges from Research to Education and Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, S. M.

    2005-12-01

    The CIRES Education and Outreach program collaborates on geoscience research projects and proposals in support of researcher needs for broader social impacts and educational aspects of the research project. The program also provides services to various educational communities which require time and effort from researchers and other volunteers. Building bridges that work between these communities requires flexibility, a thorough understanding of the needs, language and motivations of each group, and tenacity. This talk will describe the types of bridge-building projects that exist at CIRES and describe strategies to increase success in these endeavors. Some of these strategies are supported by a study about the factors that engage and hinder scientists' involvement in education and outreach (Andrews et.al., 2005), while others are based upon experiences gained since agencies started to place more emphasis on the integration of research and education. Andrews, Elisabeth, Alexandra Weaver, Daniel Hanley, Jeff Hovermill, Ginger Melton. 2005. "Scientists and Public Outreach: Participation, Motivations and Impediments." Journal of Geoscience Education May 2005.

  8. Detection of merger and splitting of extra-tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, Sarah; Hanley, John

    2013-04-01

    Results from the project IMILAST (Intercomparison of mid-latitude storm diagnostics) show that, despite a wide variety in the 15 cyclone identification and tracking techniques considered, a reasonable agreement on tracks of intense cyclones can be reached, at least in the central intensifying stage of the cyclone life cycle. In contrast, diagnostics of cyclone genesis and lysis events show reduced agreement amongst the methods with genesis and lysis density maps exhibiting coherence over smaller spatial scales. Recent work by Hanley and Caballero claims that multi-centre cyclones occur more frequently as storm intensity increases, with an associated increase in the probability of spurious splittings by single-centre tracking routines. We investigate whether the methodological differences in handling of cyclone merger and splitting are responsible for the range in genesis/lysis outcomes exhibited in IMILAST results or whether other factors, such as cyclone definition, have more influence over the spread. The study is focussed on a number of selected cases of intense cyclones that undergo a clear merger or splitting. Of the methods contributing to the IMILAST project, three explicitly handle cyclone merger and splitting. In demonstrating the differences between the techniques, we explore what each approach has to offer.

  9. Geoscientist/Educator Partnerships at the University of Colorado: Strategies and Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, S. M.; Hare, J.; Healy, G.

    2005-05-01

    According to a study about the factors that engage and hinder scientists' involvement in education and outreach (Andrews et.al., 2005), the presence of a dedicated outreach coordinator who can provide a point of contact and lessen the burden on scientists is one of the keys to success. For the past nine years, research scientists at the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) have worked in partnership with just such a coordinating team, the CIRES Education and Outreach group. As funding agency emphasis on education and social impacts has increased, so have the opportunities to develop educational projects intrinsically linked to current geoscience research. One such effort is Ocean Interactions, a project which began as a ship-shore student communication opportunity at the initiation of the researcher. The roles of each contributor to the partnership will be described, along with the framework through which CIRES supports scientist/educator partnerships of this sort. Andrews, Elisabeth, Alexandra Weaver, Daniel Hanley, Jeff Hovermill, Ginger Melton. 2005. "Scientists and Public Outreach: Participation, Motivations and Impediments." Journal of Geoscience Education in press May 2005.

  10. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson-Hanley C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR; in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. Keywords: autism, repetitive behaviors, exergaming, exercise, executive function

  11. Diagnostics of nonlocal plasmas: advanced techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafaev, Alexander; Grabovskiy, Artiom; Strakhova, Anastasiya; Soukhomlinov, Vladimir

    2014-10-01

    This talk generalizes our recent results, obtained in different directions of plasma diagnostics. First-method of flat single-sided probe, based on expansion of the electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in series of Legendre polynomials. It will be demonstrated, that flat probe, oriented under different angles with respect to the discharge axis, allow to determine full EVDF in nonlocal plasmas. It is also shown, that cylindrical probe is unable to determine full EVDF. We propose the solution of this problem by combined using the kinetic Boltzmann equation and experimental probe data. Second-magnetic diagnostics. This method is implemented in knudsen diode with surface ionization of atoms (KDSI) and based on measurements of the magnetic characteristics of the KDSI in presence of transverse magnetic field. Using magnetic diagnostics we can investigate the wide range of plasma processes: from scattering cross-sections of electrons to plasma-surface interactions. Third-noncontact diagnostics method for direct measurements of EVDF in remote plasma objects by combination of the flat single-sided probe technique and magnetic polarization Hanley method.

  12. Normative data on functional grip strength of elderly in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Jais, Ita Suzana; Chan, Kai Li; Loke, Mun Kitt Austin; Abdul Rahim, Saleem; Tay, Shian Chao

    2017-02-21

    Cross-sectional study for clinical measurement. Most daily tasks require individuals to exert grip strength with torque, which can be challenging for elderly as their strength diminishes with age. We postulate that to assess the functional capacity of an individual, it is important to evaluate the functional grip strength instead of the maximal static grip strength. The objective of this cross-sectional study is to establish normative data for the functional grip strength of elderly aged 60 years and older in the Singapore population. In this study, 233 healthy subjects aged 60 years and older were recruited. Using a custom-made hand strength measurement device, the following measurements were recorded: grip strength at neutral position, grip strength with resistive pronation torque, and grip strength with resistive supination torque. Grip strengths measured for both genders decreased by 13% and 16% for males and females respectively, when pronation torque was exerted, and with supination torque, the strength decreased by 18% and 17% for males and females respectively. Normative data for the elderly population in Singapore had been established. The findings from this study can complement the existing ergonomic hand data in designing better assistive tools to improve the independent living of elderly. NA. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevention of problem behavior by teaching functional communication and self-control skills to preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczynski, Kevin C; Hanley, Gregory P

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of the preschool life skills program (PLS; Hanley, Heal, Tiger, & Ingvarsson, 2007) on the acquisition and maintenance of functional communication and self-control skills, as well as its effect on problem behavior, of small groups of preschoolers at risk for school failure. Six children were taught to request teacher attention, teacher assistance, and preferred materials, and to tolerate delays to and denial of those events during child-led, small-group activities. Teaching strategies included instruction, modeling, role play, and differential reinforcement. Six additional children randomly assigned to similarly sized control groups participated in small-group activities but did not experience the PLS program. Within-subject and between-groups designs showed that the PLS teaching procedures were functionally related to the improvements and maintenance of the skills and prevention of problem behavior. Stakeholder responses on a social acceptability questionnaire indicated that they were satisfied with the form of the targeted social skills, the improvements in the children's performance, and the teaching strategies. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. FIRST PRECISION LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS OF THE NEGLECTED EXTREME MASS RATIO SOLAR-TYPE BINARY HR BOOTIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samec, Ronald G. [Faculty Research Associate, Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute, One Pari Drive, Rosman, NC 28772 (United States); Benkendorf, Barry; Dignan, James B. [Astronomy Group, Physics and Engineering Department, Bob Jones University, 1700 Wade Hampton Boulevard, Greenville, SC 29614 (United States); Robb, Russell [University of Victoria and Guest Observer, Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (Canada); Kring, James [Physics Department, Auburn University, 206 Allison Lab, Auburn, Alabama, 36849 (United States); Faulkner, Danny R. [University of South Carolina, Lancaster, 476 Hubbard Drive, Lancaster, SC 29720 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    HR Bootis is a neglected binary that is found to be a solar-type (G2V) extreme mass ratio binary (EMRB). It was discovered by Hanley and Shapley in 1940. Surprisingly, little has been published in the intervening years. In 1999 it was characterized by a 0.31587 day orbital period. Since that time it has been observed by various observers who have determined ∼20 timings of minimum light over the past ∼15,000 orbits. Our observations in 2012 represent the first precision curves in the BVR{sub c}I{sub c} Johnson–Cousins wavelength bands. The light curves have rather low amplitudes, averaging some 0.5 magnitudes, yet they exhibit total eclipses, which is typical of the rare group of solar-type EMRBs. An improved linear ephemeris was computed along with a quadratic ephemeris showing a decaying orbit, which indicates magnetic breaking may be occurring. The light curve solution reveals that HR Boo is a contact system with a somewhat low 21% Roche-lobe fill-out but a mass ratio of q = 4.09 (0.2444), which defines it as an EMRB. Two spots, both hot, were allowed to iterate to fit the light curve asymmetries. Their radii are 32° and 16°. Both are high-latitude polar spots indicative of strong magnetic activity. The shallow contact yet nearly equal component temperatures makes it an unusual addition to this group.

  15. First dorsal interosseous muscle contraction results in radiographic reduction of healthy thumb carpometacarpal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Corey; O'Brien, Virginia; Van Nortwick, Sara; Adams, Julie; Van Heest, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Hand therapists selectively strengthen the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) to stabilize arthritic joints yet the role of the FDI has not yet been radiographically validated. To determine if FDI contraction reduces radial subluxation (RS) of the thumb metacarpal (MC). Fluoroscopy was used to obtain true anterior-posterior radiographs of non-arthritic CMC joints: 1) at rest, 2) while stressed and 3) while stressed with maximal FDI contraction. Maximal FDI strength during CMC stress and thumb MC RS and trapezial articular width were measured. The ratio of RS to the articular width was calculated. Seventeen participants (5 male, 12 female) participated. Subluxation of a stressed CMC significantly reduced and the subluxation to articular width ratio significantly improved after FDI activation. Contraction of the FDI appears to radiographically reduce subluxation of the healthy thumb CMC joint. Further exploration on the FDI's reducibility and its carry-over effects in arthritic thumbs is needed. 4. Copyright © 2015 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Steady shear flow thermodynamics based on a canonical distribution approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tooru; Morriss, Gary P

    2004-11-01

    A nonequilibrium steady-state thermodynamics to describe shear flow is developed using a canonical distribution approach. We construct a canonical distribution for shear flow based on the energy in the moving frame using the Lagrangian formalism of the classical mechanics. From this distribution, we derive the Evans-Hanley shear flow thermodynamics, which is characterized by the first law of thermodynamics dE=TdS-Qdgamma relating infinitesimal changes in energy E, entropy S, and shear rate gamma with kinetic temperature T. Our central result is that the coefficient Q is given by Helfand's moment for viscosity. This approach leads to thermodynamic stability conditions for shear flow, one of which is equivalent to the positivity of the correlation function for Q. We show the consistency of this approach with the Kawasaki distribution function for shear flow, from which a response formula for viscosity is derived in the form of a correlation function for the time-derivative of Q. We emphasize the role of the external work required to sustain the steady shear flow in this approach, and show theoretically that the ensemble average of its power W must be non-negative. A nonequilibrium entropy, increasing in time, is introduced, so that the amount of heat based on this entropy is equal to the average of W. Numerical results from nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulation of two-dimensional many-particle systems with soft-core interactions are presented which support our interpretation.

  17. Entre a História e a Transcendência: Padre Guadalupe Carney e a luta pela Reforma Agrária em Honduras

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    Kevin P Coleman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante a Guerra Fria na América Central, o padre James Hanley Carney escreveu um livro que foi sua história de vida e uma crônica detalhada do movimento camponês em Honduras. Este ensaio analisa e contextualiza o conteúdo da autobiografia de Carney, e ao mesmo tempo reflete sobre a ideologia que é codificada no gênero autobiográfico. Sua autobiografia e as cartas que ele escreveu para sua família, juntamente com os documentos dos movimentos de trabalhadores são as fontes utilizadas. Sua tentativa de entender os camponeses hondurenhos com quem conviveu e trabalhou o levou a questionar as condições históricas e estruturais da pobreza naquele país durante o enfrentamento de Guerra Fria. Este encontro prolongado levou-o a repensar sua fé anticomunista e seus compromissos cristãos.

  18. The carboxyl terminus of RAP30 is similar in sequence to region 4 of bacterial sigma factors and is required for function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, K P; Serizawa, H; Hanley, J P; Bradsher, J N; Tsuboi, A; Arai, N; Yokota, T; Arai, K; Conaway, R C; Conaway, J W

    1992-11-25

    Transcription factor beta gamma (RAP30/74) from rat liver was previously shown in biochemical studies to control the binding of RNA polymerase II to promoters by a mechanism analogous to that utilized by bacterial sigma factors, by decreasing the affinity of polymerase for nonpromoter sites on DNA and by increasing the affinity of the enzyme for the preinitiation complex (Conaway, R. C., Garrett, K. P., Hanley, J. P., and Conaway, J. W. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 6205-6209). By constructing and analyzing mutants of beta gamma, we have identified a novel functional domain located in the carboxyl terminus of the gamma (RAP30) subunit. This domain shares sequence similarity with region 4 of bacterial sigma factors; in particular, it exhibits striking similarity to the carboxyl-terminal regions 4.1 and 4.2 of SpoIIIC (Bacillus subtilis sigma k). Evidence from biochemical studies argues that a mutant gamma (RAP30), lacking amino acid sequences similar to sigma homology region 4.2, is able to assemble with the beta (RAP74) subunit to form a mutant beta gamma (RAP30/74) with impaired ability to interact with RNA polymerase II.

  19. Self-management strategies used by patients who are hypersensitive to cold following a hand injury. A prospective study with two years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaksvik, Tone; Kjeken, Ingvild; Holm, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Prospective cohort study. Knowledge of the strategies used by patients with injuries of the hand to manage cold hypersensitivity should guide information given by health-care workers. To explore the use of cold-associated self-management strategies in patients with severe hand injuries. Seventy patients being cold hypersensitive following a hand injury, reported use of strategies to limit cold-induced symptoms in the injured hand(s) and the severity of cold-associated activity limitations one and two years after surgery. The patients used several strategies, including clothing (100%), use of own body (movement/use of muscles to produce heat or massage of the fingers) (94%), and heating aids (48%), but were still limited in valued cold-associated activities two years after surgery. The number of patients staying indoors, using heating aids and hand wear indoors and during summer-time increased with severity of cold hypersensitivity. Patients both implemented and discontinued different strategies after the first year, but for most strategies, the proportions of users were quite stable. The most common strategies used to limit cold-induced symptoms in the injured hand(s) were clothing and use of own body. Many patients also seemed to benefit from using heating aids. After one year, a number of patients still experimented in finding the best strategies and were still limited in valued cold-associated activities. 2b. Copyright © 2015 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. New ecological and taxonomical data on some Ptenoglossa (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda from the Gulf of Catania (Ionian Sea

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    Danilo Scuderi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ptenoglossans, well known as parasites of marine invertebrates, are one of the less common and less studiedgroups of caenogastropods. Most of the α-taxonomy of their Mediterranean representatives is still source ofdebate and very few data are known on their ecology. A considerable amount of fresh and living material ofseveral ptenoglossan from the Gulf of Catania was available for study. Based on this material we here provideinformation on the distribution and ecology (e.g. habitat and host preference of some relevant ptenoglossanspecies. In particular the distribution of Similiphora similior (Bouchet & Guillemot, 1978, Pogonodonpseudocanarica (Bouchet, 1985, Cerithiopsis ladae Prkic & Buzzurro, 2007, Epitonium pseudonanum Bouchet& Warén, 1986, Melanella lubrica Monterosato, 1890, and Pelseneeria minor Koehler & Vaney, 1908 wereextended to the Ionian Sea and the host is reported for: two triphorids, one cerithiopsid, one epitoniid, threeMelanella Bowdich, 1822 and other two eulimids. The particularly good conditions of the material studied alsoallowed some novel and important observations on the morphology to be made and provided the opportunity todiscuss the taxonomy of some groups. Descriptions of the head-foot colour pattern were provided for onetriphorid, three species of Cerithiopsis Forbes & Hanley, 1851, one epitoniid and three eulimids.

  1. Inventory of alien marine species of Cyprus (2009

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    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An updated inventory of alien marine species from coastal and offshore waters of Cyprus is presented. Records were compiled based on the existing scientific and grey literature, including HCMR database of Mediterranean alien species, technical reports, scientific congresses, academic dissertations, and websites, as well as on unpublished/personal observations. The listed species were classified in one of five categories: established, invasive, casual, cryptogenic, and questionable. The mode of introduction and the year of first sighting were also reported for each species. Eight new records based on personal observations of the authors were reported (Chondria coerulescens, Neosiphonia sphaerocarpa, Enchelycore anatina, Lagocephalus spadiceus, Lagocephalus suezensis, Scomberomorus commerson, Sillago sihama, and Sphoeroides pachygaster. Nine species, previously reported as aliens in Cypriot waters, were excluded from the inventory for various reasons. Ten established species were characterized as invasive (Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea, Cerithium scabridum, Strombus persicus, Trochus erythraeus, Brachidontes pharaonis, Pinctada radiata, Fistularia commersonii, Lagocephalus sceleratus, Siganus luridus, and Siganus rivulatus as they have a substantial impact on biodiversity and/or local economy. The impact of alien marine species in Cyprus is expected to grow in the close future, and further effort directed towards recording alien invasions and their impact will be needed.

  2. Toward sustainable pearl-oyster culture, in a changing environment: Recent findings and issues from the POLYPERL project (2012-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; Le Moullac, Gilles

    2016-12-01

    The pearl industry, using the black-lip oyster, Pinctada margaritifera, is a central economic issue for French Polynesia. Initially developed in the early 1990s, after a brief'golden age', the pearl industry faced a decade of decline. As described in Gueguen et al., several research programs were therefore conducted to better analyze the functioning of this industry and to attempt to identifyissuesrelated to the improving the quality of the pearls as well as the functioning of lagoons. To complete this knowledge, during a 4 year period, the POLYPERL project, funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR), was a federative initiative that focused, simultaneously and for the first time, on socio-ecological and economic aspects of the pearl industry. The originality of the POLYPERL project consists of successfully implementing an integrated and multidisciplinary research-action approach in close association with both pearl farmers and the Polynesian authority in charge of management of the pearl industry (Direction des Ressources Marines et Minières de Polynésie, DRMM).

  3. Assessment of heavy metals pollution in the gulf of Gabes (Tunisia using four mollusk species

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    L. RABAOUI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the establishment of the ‘Tunisian Chemical Group’ in Gabes city, Tunisia, no serious investigations were carried out about the heavy metal pollution in Gabes gulf.  In the present study, the contents of four heavy metals were assessed in four mollusk species (two gastropods, Gibbula ardens and Patella caerulea, and two bivalves, Pinctada radiata and Pinna nobilis, collected from twelve coastal stations. The results obtained showed generally that high concentrations of heavy metals were recorded in the central area of Gabes gulf, nearer to Gabes city; the low concentrations were in contrast found at the edges of this gulf, which is probably due to the chemical pollution generated from the huge industry of phosphoric acid in Gabes city. Comparing the results found with the four examined species, the lowest concentrations were noted with the two bivalve species P. radiata and P. nobilis. The highest heavy metals’ concentrations, noted during this study, are comparable to the findings of other authors in other areas, but they are considerably beyond the standards. A remediation action is necessarily needed either by reducing the amount of heavy metals in the phosphgypums quantities thrown directly in the sea or by stopping completely this harmful industry to protect the marine life in the area. A remediation action is necessarily needed to protect the marine life in the area.

  4. Reproduction-related genes in the pearl oyster genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshie; Masaoka, Tetsuji; Fujiwara, Atsushi; Nakamura, Yoji; Satoh, Nori; Awaji, Masahiko

    2013-10-01

    Molluscan reproduction has been a target of biological research because of the various reproductive strategies that have evolved in this phylum. It has also been studied for the development of fisheries technologies, particularly aquaculture. Although fundamental processes of reproduction in other phyla, such as vertebrates and arthropods, have been well studied, information on the molecular mechanisms of molluscan reproduction remains limited. The recently released draft genome of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata provides a novel and powerful platform for obtaining structural information on the genes and proteins involved in bivalve reproduction. In the present study, we analyzed the pearl oyster draft genome to screen reproduction-related genes. Analysis was mainly conducted for genes reported from other molluscs for encoding orthologs of reproduction-related proteins in other phyla. The gene search in the P. fucata gene models (version 1.1) and genome assembly (version 1.0) were performed using Genome Browser and BLAST software. The obtained gene models were then BLASTP searched against a public database to confirm the best-hit sequences. As a result, more than 40 gene models were identified with high accuracy to encode reproduction-related genes reported for P. fucata and other molluscs. These include vasa, nanos, doublesex- and mab-3-related transcription factor, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors, vitellogenin, estrogen receptor, and others. The set of reproduction-related genes of P. fucata identified in the present study constitute a new tool for research on bivalve reproduction at the molecular level.

  5. Use of Natural Antimicrobial Peptides and Bacterial Biopolymers for Cultured Pearl Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Colin, Christelle; Gueguen, Yannick; Bachere, Evelyne; Kouzayha, Achraf; Saulnier, Denis; Gayet, Nicolas; Guezennec, Jean

    2015-06-11

    Cultured pearls are the product of grafting and rearing of Pinctada margaritifera pearl oysters in their natural environment. Nucleus rejections and oyster mortality appear to result from bacterial infections or from an inappropriate grafting practice. To reduce the impact of bacterial infections, synthetic antibiotics have been applied during the grafting practice. However, the use of such antibiotics presents a number of problems associated with their incomplete biodegradability, limited efficacy in some cases, and an increased risk of selecting for antimicrobial resistant bacteria. We investigated the application of a marine antimicrobial peptide, tachyplesin, which is present in the Japanese horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus, in combination with two marine bacterial exopolymers as alternative treatment agents. In field studies, the combination treatment resulted in a significant reduction in graft failures vs. untreated controls. The combination of tachyplesin (73 mg/L) with two bacterial exopolysaccharides (0.5% w/w) acting as filming agents, reduces graft-associated bacterial contamination. The survival data were similar to that reported for antibiotic treatments. These data suggest that non-antibiotic treatments of pearl oysters may provide an effective means of improving oyster survival following grafting procedures.

  6. Mollusk shell nacre ultrastructure correlates with environmental temperature and pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Ian C; Kozdon, Reinhard; Valley, John W; Gilbert, Pupa U P A

    2012-05-02

    Nacre, or mother-of-pearl, the tough, iridescent biomineral lining the inner side of some mollusk shells, has alternating biogenic aragonite (calcium carbonate, CaCO(3)) tablet layers and organic sheets. Nacre has been common in the shells of mollusks since the Ordovician (450 million years ago) and is abundant and well-preserved in the fossil record, e.g., in ammonites. Therefore, if any measurable physical aspect of the nacre structure was correlated with environmental temperatures, one could obtain a structural paleothermometer of ancient climates. Using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, Photoelectron emission spectromicroscopy (PEEM), and X-ray linear dichroism we acquired polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC) maps of pristine nacre in cross-section. The new PIC-map data reveal that the nacre ultrastructure (nacre tablet width, thickness, and angle spread) is species-specific in at least eight mollusk species from completely different environments: Nautilus pompilius, Haliotis iris, Haliotis rufescens, Bathymodiolus azoricus, Atrina rigida, Lasmigona complanata, Pinctada margaritifera, and Mytilus californianus. Nacre species-specificity is interpreted as a result of adaptation to diverging environments. We found strong correlation between nacre crystal misorientations and environmental temperature, further supported by secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements of in situ δ(18)O in the nacre of one shell. This has far-reaching implications: nacre texture may be used as a paleothermometer of ancient climate, spanning 450 million years of Earth's history. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  7. Repertoire and evolution of TNF superfamily in Crassostrea gigas: implications for expansion and diversification of this superfamily in Mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dahai; Qiu, Limei; Gao, Qiang; Hou, Zhanhui; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2015-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) members represent a group of cytokines participating in diverse immunological, pathological and developmental pathways. However, compared with deuterostomia and cnidaia, the composition and evolution of TNF homologous in protostomia are still not well understood. In the present study, a total of 81 TNF superfamily (TNFSF) genes from 15 mollusk species, including 23 TNFSF genes from Crassostrea gigas, were surveyed by genome-wide bioinformatics analysis. The phylogenetic analysis showed that 14 out of 23 C. gigas TNFSF genes in five clades exhibited orthologous relationships with Pinctada fucata TNFSF genes. Moreover, there were 15 C. gigas TNFSF genes located in oyster-specific clusters, which were contributed by small-scaled tandem and/or segmental duplication events in oyster. By comparing the sequences of duplicated TNFSF pairs, exon loss and variant in exon/intron length were revealed as the major modes of divergence in gene structure. Most of the duplicated C. gigas TNFSF pairs were evolved under purifying selection with consistent tissue expression patterns, implying functional constraint shaped diversification. This study demonstrated the expansion and early divergence of TNF superfamily in C. gigas, which provides potential insight into revealing the evolution and function of this superfamily in mollusk.

  8. Deep sequencing of ESTs from nacreous and prismatic layer producing tissues and a screen for novel shell formation-related genes in the pearl oyster.

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    Shigeharu Kinoshita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite its economic importance, we have a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying shell formation in pearl oysters, wherein the calcium carbonate crystals, nacre and prism, are formed in a highly controlled manner. We constructed comprehensive expressed gene profiles in the shell-forming tissues of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata and identified novel shell formation-related genes candidates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed the GS FLX 454 system and constructed transcriptome data sets from pallial mantle and pearl sac, which form the nacreous layer, and from the mantle edge, which forms the prismatic layer in P. fucata. We sequenced 260477 reads and obtained 29682 unique sequences. We also screened novel nacreous and prismatic gene candidates by a combined analysis of sequence and expression data sets, and identified various genes encoding lectin, protease, protease inhibitors, lysine-rich matrix protein, and secreting calcium-binding proteins. We also examined the expression of known nacreous and prismatic genes in our EST library and identified novel isoforms with tissue-specific expressions. CONCLUSIONS: We constructed EST data sets from the nacre- and prism-producing tissues in P. fucata and found 29682 unique sequences containing novel gene candidates for nacreous and prismatic layer formation. This is the first report of deep sequencing of ESTs in the shell-forming tissues of P. fucata and our data provide a powerful tool for a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms of molluscan biomineralization.

  9. A novel acidic matrix protein, PfN44, stabilizes magnesium calcite to inhibit the crystallization of aragonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Cong; Fang, Dong; Xu, Guangrui; Liang, Jian; Zhang, Guiyou; Wang, Hongzhong; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2014-01-31

    Magnesium is widely used to control calcium carbonate deposition in the shell of pearl oysters. Matrix proteins in the shell are responsible for nucleation and growth of calcium carbonate crystals. However, there is no direct evidence supporting a connection between matrix proteins and magnesium. Here, we identified a novel acidic matrix protein named PfN44 that affected aragonite formation in the shell of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. Using immunogold labeling assays, we found PfN44 in both the nacreous and prismatic layers. In shell repair, PfN44 was repressed, whereas other matrix proteins were up-regulated. Disturbing the function of PfN44 by RNAi led to the deposition of porous nacreous tablets with overgrowth of crystals in the nacreous layer. By in vitro circular dichroism spectra and fluorescence quenching, we found that PfN44 bound to both calcium and magnesium with a stronger affinity for magnesium. During in vitro calcium carbonate crystallization and calcification of amorphous calcium carbonate, PfN44 regulated the magnesium content of crystalline carbonate polymorphs and stabilized magnesium calcite to inhibit aragonite deposition. Taken together, our results suggested that by stabilizing magnesium calcite to inhibit aragonite deposition, PfN44 participated in P. fucata shell formation. These observations extend our understanding of the connections between matrix proteins and magnesium.

  10. Localization of intracrystalline organic macromolecules in mollusk shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Michio; Okumura, Taiga; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2011-12-01

    As a crucial first step for understanding the organic-inorganic interaction in biomineralization of mollscan shells, localization of the intracrystalline organic macromolecules in biogenic calcium carbonate crystals of the nacreous, prismatic ( Pinctada fucata) and foliated ( Cellana toreuma) microstructures were investigated using Fresnel contrast analysis in a transmission electron microscope. Spherular Fresnel contrasts in the crystals correspond to organic substances, which was confirmed by the detection of 1s→π * (CC) transition peak at 284 eV in electron energy loss spectroscopy. Nano-sized (5-10 nm) spherules in the aragonite tablets constituting the nacreous layer of P. fucata specifically concentrate in the vicinity of the interlamellar membrane between the aragonite tablets. The dominant sizes of the organic macromolecules extracted by dissolving the aragonite tablets in the nacreous layer of P. fucata were estimated using the gel-filtration analysis to be roughly 10 and 4 nm, which dimensionally corresponds to the sizes observed by Fresnel contrast imaging in the tablets. These results will serve for understanding the functions of intracrystalline organic macromolecules in mollusk shells.

  11. 渔业生态环境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    991393 珠母贝:作为阿拉伯湾卡塔尔水体中金属污染监测的指示生物=Pinctada,ra-diata(Pearl oyster):A bioindicator for met-al pollution monitoring in the Qatari waters(Arabian gulf)[刊,英]/Al-Madfa H∥Envi-ron.Abst..—1998,28(5).—18试验于1992和1993年期间从整个波斯湾的10个站位中所采集的珠母贝(Pinctadaradiata)作为波斯湾金属污染的指示生物进行研究。结果发现珠母贝金属富集量大体上与水体中的金属浓度有密切关系,即采自输油作业附近海区的珠母贝体内的钒和镍浓度较高,但工业废水排放海区、冷水海区以及船舶航行频繁的海区中的珠母贝体内铅水平高,珠母贝体内铜浓度在所有站位均比较低,镉水平一般也较低。从以上结果表明珠母贝

  12. Water soluble bioactives of nacre mediate antioxidant activity and osteoblast differentiation.

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    Ratna Chaturvedi

    Full Text Available The water soluble matrix of nacre is a proven osteoinductive material. In spite of the differences in the biomolecular compositions of nacre obtained from multiple species of oysters, the common biochemical properties of those principles substantiate their biological activity. However, the mechanism by which nacre stimulates bone differentiation remains largely unknown. Since the positive impact of antioxidants on bone metabolism is well acknowledged, in this study we investigated the antioxidant potential of a water soluble matrix (WSM obtained from the nacre of the marine oyster Pinctada fucata, which could regulate its osteoblast differentiation activity. Enhanced levels of ALP activity observed in pre-osteoblast cells upon treatment with WSM, suggested the induction of bone differentiation events. Furthermore, bone nodule formation and up-regulation of bone differentiation marker transcripts, i.e. collagen type-1 and osteocalcin by WSM confirmed its ability to induce differentiation of the pre-osteoblasts into mature osteoblasts. Remarkably, same WSM fraction upon pre-treatment lowered the H2O2 and UV-B induced oxidative damages in keratinocytes, thus indicating the antioxidant potential of WSM. This was further confirmed from the in vitro scavenging of ABTS and DPPH free radicals and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by WSM. Together, these results indicate that WSM poses both antioxidant potential and osteoblast differentiation property. Thus, bioactivities associated with nacre holds potential in the development of therapeutics for bone regeneration and against oxidative stress induced damages in cells.

  13. Sedimentary dynamics and ecological state of Nakta tidal flat (littoral), South of Sfax, Gulf of Gabès, Tunisia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gargouri-Ben Ayed Z.; Souissi R.; Soussi M.; Abdeljaouad S.; Zouari K.

    2007-01-01

    The tidal flat of Nakta is located in the northern part of the gulf of Gabes and in the southern coast of Sfax. It corresponds to a flat reef protected from less topography, with a slope ranging between 2° and 4°, which borders the Gargour Wadi. The study sector is renowned to have moderate hydrodynamics which lasts almost for two millenary (14C isotopic dating).The sedimentological study of the Nakta tidal flat revealed different facies: fine-grained sand in the intertidal zone and carbonated muddy sand in the infratidal zone.Equilibrium state of the Nakta ecosystem depends entirely on tide currents, which mainly inhibit drift currents. The Nakta tidal flat is characterized by a variety of faunal species (Cerastoderma glaucum, Arca noe, Cardita antiquatus, Chlamys varied, Ruditapes deccussatus, Tapes rhomboids, Pinctada radiate, etc.) and floristic diversities (Halocnemum strobilacum, Halimione portulacoides, Enteromorpha linza, Ulva rigida, Cymodocea nodosa, Posidonia oceanica). The species are abundant in the infratidal zone, while in its intertidal zone, faunal species remain little diversified and are dominated by limivorous diggering.The paleogeographic study of the Nakta tidal flat showed the alternation of regression and transgression periods.

  14. Effects of ocean acidification on the metabolic rates of three species of bivalve from southern coast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wenguang; HE Maoxian

    2012-01-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide results in a decrease in seawater pH,a process known as “ocean acidification”.The pearl oyster Pinctada fucata,the noble scallop Chlamys nobilis,and the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis are species of economic and ecological importance along the southern coast of China.We evaluated the effects of seawater acidification on clearance,respiration,and excretion rates in these three species.The animals were reared in seawater at pH 8.1 (control),7.7,or 7.4.The clearance rate was highest at pH 7.7 for P.fucata and at pH 8.1 for C.nobilis and P.viridis.The pH had little effect on the respiration rate of P.fucata and P.viridis.In contrast,the respiration rate was significantly lower at pH 7.4 in C.nobilis.The excretion rate was significantly lower at pH 7.4 than pH 8.1 for all species.The results indicate that the reduction in seawater pH likely affected the metabolic process (food intake,oxygen consumption,and ammonia excretion) of these bivalves.Different species respond differently to seawater acidification.Further studies are needed to demonstrate the exact mechanisms for this effect and evaluate adaptability of these bivalves to future acidified oceans.

  15. Identification of two carbonic anhydrases in the mantle of the European Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Gastropoda, Haliotidae): phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LE Roy, Nathalie; Marie, Benjamin; Gaume, Béatrice; Guichard, Nathalie; Delgado, Sidney; Zanella-Cléon, Isabelle; Becchi, Michel; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Sire, Jean-Yves; Marin, Frédéric

    2012-07-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) represent a diversified family of metalloenzymes that reversibly catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide. They are involved in a wide range of functions, among which is the formation of CaCO(3) skeletons in metazoans. In the shell-forming mantle tissues of mollusks, the location of the CA catalytic activity is elusive and gives birth to contradicting views. In the present paper, using the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata, a key model gastropod in biomineralization studies, we identified and characterized two CAs (htCA1 and htCA2) that are specific of the shell-forming mantle tissue. We analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. Combining various approaches, including proteomics, activity tests, and in silico analyses, we showed that htCA1 is secreted but is not incorporated in the organic matrix of the abalone shell and that htCA2 is transmembrane. Together with previous studies dealing with molluskan CAs, our findings suggest two possible modes of action for shell mineralization: the first mode applies to, for example, the bivalves Unio pictorum and Pinctada fucata, and involves a true CA activity in their shell matrix; the second mode corresponds to, for example, the European abalone, and does not include CA activity in the shell matrix. Our work provides new insight on the diversity of the extracellular macromolecular tools used for shell biomineralization study in mollusks.

  16. New Mediterranean Marine biodiversity records (December, 2013

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    M. BILECENOGLU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on recent biodiversity studies carried out in different parts of the Mediterranean, the following 19 species are included as new records on the floral or faunal lists of the relevant ecosystems: the green algae Penicillus capitatus (Maltese waters; the nemertean Amphiporus allucens (Iberian Peninsula, Spain; the salp Salpa maxima (Syria; the opistobranchs Felimida britoi and Berghia coerulescens (Aegean Sea, Greece; the dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus (central-west Mediterranean and Ionian Sea, Italy; Randall’s threadfin bream Nemipterus randalli, the broadbanded cardinalfish Apogon fasciatus and the goby Gobius kolombatovici (Aegean Sea, Turkey; the reticulated leatherjack Stephanolepis diaspros and the halacarid Agaue chevreuxi (Sea of Marmara, Turkey; the slimy liagora Ganonema farinosum, the yellowstripe barracuda Sphyraena chrysotaenia, the rayed pearl oyster Pinctada imbricata radiata and the Persian conch Conomurex persicus (south-eastern Crete, Greece; the blenny Microlipophrys dalmatinus and the bastard grunt Pomadasys incisus (Ionian Sea, Italy; the brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey; the blue-crab Callinectes sapidus (Corfu, Ionian Sea, Greece. In addition, the findings of the following rare species improve currently available biogeographical knowledge: the oceanic pufferfish Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Malta; the yellow sea chub Kyphosus incisor (Almuñécar coast of Spain; the basking shark Cetorhinus maximus and the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey.

  17. Ubiquitylation functions in the calcium carbonate biomineralization in the extracellular matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Fang

    Full Text Available Mollusks shell formation is mediated by matrix proteins and many of these proteins have been identified and characterized. However, the mechanisms of protein control remain unknown. Here, we report the ubiquitylation of matrix proteins in the prismatic layer of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata. The presence of ubiquitylated proteins in the prismatic layer of the shell was detected with a combination of western blot and immunogold assays. The coupled ubiquitins were separated and identified by Edman degradation and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS. Antibody injection in vivo resulted in large amounts of calcium carbonate randomly accumulating on the surface of the nacreous layer. These ubiquitylated proteins could bind to specific faces of calcite and aragonite, which are the two main mineral components of the shell. In the in vitro calcium carbonate crystallization assay, they could reduce the rate of calcium carbonate precipitation and induce the calcite formation. Furthermore, when the attached ubiquitins were removed, the functions of the EDTA-soluble matrix of the prismatic layer were changed. Their potency to inhibit precipitation of calcium carbonate was decreased and their influence on the morphology of calcium carbonate crystals was changed. Taken together, ubiquitylation is involved in shell formation. Although the ubiquitylation is supposed to be involved in every aspect of biophysical processes, our work connected the biomineralization-related proteins and the ubiquitylation mechanism in the extracellular matrix for the first time. This would promote our understanding of the shell biomineralization and the ubiquitylation processes.

  18. Novel genes participating in the formation of prismatic and nacreous layers in the pearl oyster as revealed by their tissue distribution and RNA interference knockdown.

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    Daisuke Funabara

    Full Text Available In our previous publication, we identified novel gene candidates involved in shell formation by EST analyses of the nacreous and prismatic layer-forming tissues in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. In the present study, 14 of those genes, including two known genes, were selected and further examined for their involvement in shell formation using the RNA interference. Molecular characterization based on the deduced amino acid sequences showed that seven of the novel genes encode secretory proteins. The tissue distribution of the transcripts of the genes, as analyzed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, was mostly consistent with those obtained by the EST analysis reported previously. Shells in the pearl oysters injected with dsRNAs targeting genes 000027, 000058, 000081, 000096, 000113 (nacrein, 000118, 000133 and 000411 (MSI60, which showed expression specific to the nacreous layer forming tissues, showed abnormal surface appearance in this layer. Individuals injected with dsRNAs targeting genes 000027, 000113 and 000133 also exhibited abnormal prismatic layers. Individuals injected with dsRNAs targeting genes 000031, 000066, 000098, 000145, 000194 and 000200, which showed expression specific to prismatic layer forming tissues, displayed an abnormal surface appearance in both the nacreous and prismatic layers. Taken together, the results suggest that the genes involved in prismatic layer formation might also be involved in the formation of the nacreous layers.

  19. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Full-Length cDNA of Calmodulin Gene from Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Xia Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The shell of the pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata mainly comprises aragonite whereas that of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas is mainly calcite, thereby suggesting the different mechanisms of shell formation between above two mollusks. Calmodulin (CaM is an important gene for regulating the uptake, transport, and secretion of calcium during the process of shell formation in pearl oyster. It is interesting to characterize the CaM in oysters, which could facilitate the understanding of the different shell formation mechanisms among mollusks. We cloned the full-length cDNA of Pacific oyster CaM (cgCaM and found that the cgCaM ORF encoded a peptide of 113 amino acids containing three EF-hand calcium-binding domains, its expression level was highest in the mantle, hinting that the cgCaM gene is probably involved in shell formation of Pacific oyster, and the common ancestor of Gastropoda and Bivalvia may possess at least three CaM genes. We also found that the numbers of some EF hand family members in highly calcified species were higher than those in lowly calcified species and the numbers of these motifs in oyster genome were the highest among the mollusk species with whole genome sequence, further hinting the correlation between CaM and biomineralization.

  20. Use of Natural Antimicrobial Peptides and Bacterial Biopolymers for Cultured Pearl Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Colin, Christelle; Gueguen, Yannick; Bachere, Evelyne; Kouzayha, Achraf; Saulnier, Denis; Gayet, Nicolas; Guezennec, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Cultured pearls are the product of grafting and rearing of Pinctada margaritifera pearl oysters in their natural environment. Nucleus rejections and oyster mortality appear to result from bacterial infections or from an inappropriate grafting practice. To reduce the impact of bacterial infections, synthetic antibiotics have been applied during the grafting practice. However, the use of such antibiotics presents a number of problems associated with their incomplete biodegradability, limited efficacy in some cases, and an increased risk of selecting for antimicrobial resistant bacteria. We investigated the application of a marine antimicrobial peptide, tachyplesin, which is present in the Japanese horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus, in combination with two marine bacterial exopolymers as alternative treatment agents. In field studies, the combination treatment resulted in a significant reduction in graft failures vs. untreated controls. The combination of tachyplesin (73 mg/L) with two bacterial exopolysaccharides (0.5% w/w) acting as filming agents, reduces graft-associated bacterial contamination. The survival data were similar to that reported for antibiotic treatments. These data suggest that non-antibiotic treatments of pearl oysters may provide an effective means of improving oyster survival following grafting procedures. PMID:26110895

  1. Use of Natural Antimicrobial Peptides and Bacterial Biopolymers for Cultured Pearl Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Simon-Colin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultured pearls are the product of grafting and rearing of Pinctada margaritifera pearl oysters in their natural environment. Nucleus rejections and oyster mortality appear to result from bacterial infections or from an inappropriate grafting practice. To reduce the impact of bacterial infections, synthetic antibiotics have been applied during the grafting practice. However, the use of such antibiotics presents a number of problems associated with their incomplete biodegradability, limited efficacy in some cases, and an increased risk of selecting for antimicrobial resistant bacteria. We investigated the application of a marine antimicrobial peptide, tachyplesin, which is present in the Japanese horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus, in combination with two marine bacterial exopolymers as alternative treatment agents. In field studies, the combination treatment resulted in a significant reduction in graft failures vs. untreated controls. The combination of tachyplesin (73 mg/L with two bacterial exopolysaccharides (0.5% w/w acting as filming agents, reduces graft-associated bacterial contamination. The survival data were similar to that reported for antibiotic treatments. These data suggest that non-antibiotic treatments of pearl oysters may provide an effective means of improving oyster survival following grafting procedures.

  2. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 May 2009-31 July 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almany, Glenn R; DE Arruda, Maurício P; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Atallah, Z K; Beissinger, Steven R; Berumen, Michael L; Bogdanowicz, S M; Brown, S D; Bruford, Michael W; Burdine, C; Busch, Jeremiah W; Campbell, Nathan R; Carey, D; Carstens, Bryan C; Chu, K H; Cubeta, Marc A; Cuda, J P; Cui, Zhaoxia; Datnoff, L E; Dávila, J A; Davis, Emily S; Davis, R M; Diekmann, Onno E; Eizirik, Eduardo; Fargallo, J A; Fernandes, Fabiano; Fukuda, Hideo; Gale, L R; Gallagher, Elizabeth; Gao, Yongqiang; Girard, Philippe; Godhe, Anna; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C; Gouveia, Licinia; Grajczyk, Amber M; Grose, M J; Gu, Zhifeng; Halldén, Christer; Härnström, Karolina; Hemmingsen, Amanda H; Holmes, Gerald; Huang, C H; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Hudman, S P; Jones, Geoffrey P; Kanetis, Loukas; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani; Keyghobadi, Nusha; Klosterman, S J; Klug, Page E; Koch, J; Koopman, Margaret M; Köppler, Kirsten; Koshimizu, Eriko; Krumböck, Susanne; Kubisiak, T; Landis, J B; Lasta, Mario L; Lee, Chow-Yang; Li, Qianqian; Li, Shou-Hsien; Lin, Rong-Chien; Liu, M; Liu, Na; Liu, W C; Liu, Yuan; Loiseau, A; Luan, Weisha; Maruthachalam, K K; McCormick, Helen M; Mellick, Rohan; Monnahan, P J; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Murray, Tomás E; Narum, Shawn R; Neufeld, Katie; De Nova, P J G; Ojiambo, Peter S; Okamoto, Nobuaki; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Overholt, W A; Pardini, Renata; Paterson, Ian G; Patty, Olivia A; Paxton, Robert J; Planes, Serge; Porter, Carolyn; Pratchett, Morgan S; Püttker, Thomas; Rasic, Gordana; Rasool, Bilal; Rey, O; Riegler, Markus; Riehl, C; Roberts, John M K; Roberts, P D; Rochel, Elisabeth; Roe, Kevin J; Rossetto, Maurizio; Ruzzante, Daniel E; Sakamoto, Takashi; Saravanan, V; Sarturi, Cladinara Roberts; Schmidt, Anke; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Schuler, Hannes; Serb, Jeanne M; Serrão, Ester T A; Shi, Yaohua; Silva, Artur; Sin, Y W; Sommer, Simone; Stauffer, Christian; Strüssmann, Carlos Augusto; Subbarao, K V; Syms, Craig; Tan, Feng; Tejedor, Eugenio Daniel; Thorrold, Simon R; Trigiano, Robert N; Trucco, María I; Tsuchiya-Jerep, Mirian Tieko Nunes; Vergara, P; Van De Vliet, Mirjam S; Wadl, Phillip A; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Hongxia; Wang, R X; Wang, Xinwang; Wang, Yan; Weeks, Andrew R; Wei, Fuwen; Werner, William J; Wiley, E O; Williams, D A; Wilkins, Richard J; Wisely, Samantha M; With, Kimberly A; Wu, Danhua; Yao, Cheng-Te; Yau, Cynthia; Yeap, Beng-Keok; Zhai, Bao-Ping; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Zhang, Guo-Yan; Zhang, S Y; Zhao, Ru; Zhu, Lifeng

    2009-11-01

    This article documents the addition of 512 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alcippe morrisonia morrisonia, Bashania fangiana, Bashania fargesii, Chaetodon vagabundus, Colletes floralis, Coluber constrictor flaviventris, Coptotermes gestroi, Crotophaga major, Cyprinella lutrensis, Danaus plexippus, Fagus grandifolia, Falco tinnunculus, Fletcherimyia fletcheri, Hydrilla verticillata, Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus, Leavenworthia alabamica, Marmosops incanus, Miichthys miiuy, Nasua nasua, Noturus exilis, Odontesthes bonariensis, Quadrula fragosa, Pinctada maxima, Pseudaletia separata, Pseudoperonospora cubensis, Podocarpus elatus, Portunus trituberculatus, Rhagoletis cerasi, Rhinella schneideri, Sarracenia alata, Skeletonema marinoi, Sminthurus viridis, Syngnathus abaster, Uroteuthis (Photololigo) chinensis, Verticillium dahliae, Wasmannia auropunctata, and Zygochlamys patagonica. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Chaetodon baronessa, Falco columbarius, Falco eleonorae, Falco naumanni, Falco peregrinus, Falco subbuteo, Didelphis aurita, Gracilinanus microtarsus, Marmosops paulensis, Monodelphis Americana, Odontesthes hatcheri, Podocarpus grayi, Podocarpus lawrencei, Podocarpus smithii, Portunus pelagicus, Syngnathus acus, Syngnathus typhle,Uroteuthis (Photololigo) edulis, Uroteuthis (Photololigo) duvauceli and Verticillium albo-atrum. This article also documents the addition of nine sequencing primer pairs and sixteen allele specific primers or probes for Oncorhynchus mykiss and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha; these primers and assays were cross-tested in both species.

  3. Effects of ocean acidification on the metabolic rates of three species of bivalve from southern coast of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenguang; He, Maoxian

    2012-03-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide results in a decrease in seawater pH, a process known as "ocean acidification". The pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, the noble scallop Chlamys nobilis, and the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis are species of economic and ecological importance along the southern coast of China. We evaluated the effects of seawater acidification on clearance, respiration, and excretion rates in these three species. The ammals were reared in seawater at pH 8.1 (control), 7.7, or 7.4. The clearance rate was highest at pH 7.7 for P. fucata and at pH 8.1 for C. nobilis and P. viridis. The pH had little effect on the respiration rate of P. fucata and P. viridis. In contrast, the respiration rate was significantly lower at pH 7.4 in C. nobilis. The excretion rate was significantly lower at pH 7.4 than pH 8.1 for all species. The results indicate that the reduction in seawater pH likely affected the metabolic process (food intake, oxygen consumption, and ammonia excretion) of these bivalves. Different species respond differently to seawater acidification. Further studies are needed to demonstrate the exact mechamsms for this effect and evaluate adaptability of these bivalves to future acidified oceans.

  4. Larval connectivity of pearl oyster through biophysical modelling; evidence of food limitation and broodstock effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Yoann; Dumas, Franck; Andréfouët, Serge

    2016-12-01

    The black-lip pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera) is cultured extensively to produce black pearls, especially in French Polynesia atoll lagoons. This aquaculture relies on spat collection, a process that experiences spatial and temporal variability and needs to be optimized by understanding which factors influence recruitment. Here, we investigate the sensitivity of P. margaritifera larval dispersal to both physical and biological factors in the lagoon of Ahe atoll. Coupling a validated 3D larval dispersal model, a bioenergetics larval growth model following the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory, and a population dynamics model, the variability of lagoon-scale connectivity patterns and recruitment potential is investigated. The relative contribution of reared and wild broodstock to the lagoon-scale recruitment potential is also investigated. Sensitivity analyses pointed out the major effect of the broodstock population structure as well as the sensitivity to larval mortality rate and inter-individual growth variability to larval supply and to the subsequent settlement potential. The application of the growth model clarifies how trophic conditions determine the larval supply and connectivity patterns. These results provide new cues to understand the dynamics of bottom-dwelling populations in atoll lagoons, their recruitment, and discuss how to take advantage of these findings and numerical models for pearl oyster management.

  5. New Mediterranean Marine biodiversity records (December, 2013

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    M. BILECENOGLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on recent biodiversity studies carried out in different parts of the Mediterranean, the following 19 species are included as new records on the floral or faunal lists of the relevant ecosystems: the green algae Penicillus capitatus (Maltese waters; the nemertean Amphiporus allucens (Iberian Peninsula, Spain; the salp Salpa maxima (Syria; the opistobranchs Felimida britoi and Berghia coerulescens (Aegean Sea, Greece; the dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus (central-west Mediterranean and Ionian Sea, Italy; Randall’s threadfin bream Nemipterus randalli, the broadbanded cardinalfish Apogon fasciatus and the goby Gobius kolombatovici (Aegean Sea, Turkey; the reticulated leatherjack Stephanolepis diaspros and the halacarid Agaue chevreuxi (Sea of Marmara, Turkey; the slimy liagora Ganonema farinosum, the yellowstripe barracuda Sphyraena chrysotaenia, the rayed pearl oyster Pinctada imbricata radiata and the Persian conch Conomurex persicus (south-eastern Crete, Greece; the blenny Microlipophrys dalmatinus and the bastard grunt Pomadasys incisus (Ionian Sea, Italy; the brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey; the blue-crab Callinectes sapidus (Corfu, Ionian Sea, Greece. In addition, the findings of the following rare species improve currently available biogeographical knowledge: the oceanic pufferfish Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Malta; the yellow sea chub Kyphosus incisor (Almuñécar coast of Spain; the basking shark Cetorhinus maximus and the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey.

  6. Inventory of alien marine species of Cyprus (2009

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    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An updated inventory of alien marine species from coastal and offshore waters of Cyprus is presented. Records were compiled based on the existing scientific and grey literature, including HCMR database of Mediterranean alien species, technical reports, scientific congresses, academic dissertations, and websites, as well as on unpublished/personal observations. The listed species were classified in one of five categories: established, invasive, casual, cryptogenic, and questionable. The mode of introduction and the year of first sighting were also reported for each species. Eight new records based on personal observations of the authors were reported (Chondria coerulescens, Neosiphonia sphaerocarpa, Enchelycore anatina, Lagocephalus spadiceus, Lagocephalus suezensis, Scomberomorus commerson, Sillago sihama, and Sphoeroides pachygaster. Nine species, previously reported as aliens in Cypriot waters, were excluded from the inventory for various reasons. Ten established species were characterized as invasive (Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea, Cerithium scabridum, Strombus persicus, Trochus erythraeus, Brachidontes pharaonis, Pinctada radiata, Fistularia commersonii, Lagocephalus sceleratus, Siganus luridus, and Siganus rivulatus as they have a substantial impact on biodiversity and/or local economy. The impact of alien marine species in Cyprus is expected to grow in the close future, and further effort directed towards recording alien invasions and their impact will be needed.

  7. EFFECTS OF CO-CULTURE AND SALINITY ON THE GROWTH AND AGAR YIELD OF GRACILARIA TENUISTIPITATA VAR LIUI ZHANG ET XIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺丽虹; 吴汪黔生; 钱培元; 朱明远

    2002-01-01

    Gracilaria tenuistipitata var Liui were mono-cultivated and co-cultiv ated with Pinctada martensii under high (33) and low (21) salinity conditions in laboratory. The daily growth rate of the alga was determined. Tissue carbon and nitrogen contents, the yield and fractional compos ition of agar were analyzed. Results showed that: 1. Gracilaria grew better under low salinity conditions, the daily growth rate was twice that under high salinity conditions. Co-cultivated algae grew fa ster than mono-cultivated algae under low salinity conditions, the daily growth rate was about 37.6% highe r. 2. Compared with mono-cultivated algae, tissue nitrogen contents of co-cultivated algae were hi gher, while the C:N ratios were much lower. 3. The agar yields of co-cultivated algae were much lower than those of mono-cultivated algae. Agar yield was found to be negatively correlated to the tissue nitrogen contents, and positively correlated to the C:N ratios. 4. The highest fractional yields obtain ed from co-cultivated algae were extracted with 40% ethanol, while from mono-cultivated algae, the highest fractional yields obtained were extracted with distilled water at room temperature.

  8. Caught in speciation? A new host for Conchodytes meleagrinae Peters, 1852 (Decapoda, Caridea, Palaemonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Charles H J M; Reijnen, Bastian T

    2013-01-01

    During fieldwork in 2009 at Ternate, Indonesia, a pair of a pontoniine shrimp species belonging to the genus Conchodytes was collected from a bivalve mollusk of the genus Spondylus. This constitutes the first record of a species of the genus Conchodytes associated with a spondylid host. The specimens can be distinguished from other known Conchodytes species based on both morphology and colour pattern. Its COI barcode however, strongly resembles those obtained from three specimens of C. meleagrinae and is nested in the C. meleagrinae clade of the reconstructed phylogeny. Based on morphology and colouration only the specimens associated with the Spondylus bivalve would have been described as a species new to science. The modest conflicting molecular data have lead the authors to fully describe and figure the Spondylus associated specimens and compare them with the Pinctada associated specimens. Based on the present information it is decided not to give the Spondylus associated specimens the status as a distinct species but regard them as host-related (colour)morph of Conchodytes meleagrinae.

  9. Localization of calmodulin and calmodulin-like protein and their functions in biomineralization in P. fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi Fang; Zhenguang Yan; Shuo Li; Qin Wang; Weizhong Cao; Guangrui Xu; Xunhao Xiong; Liping Xie; Rongqing Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) and calmodulin-like protein (CaLP) are two proteins involved in biomineralization. Their localizations in Pinct-ada fucata mantle epithelia were studied by Western blot (WB) analysis of the nuclear/cytosol fraction of primary cultured P. fucata mantle cells and immunogold electron microscopy. The results showed a completely different distribution of these two proteins at the subcellular level. CaM was distributed throughout both the nucleus and cytoplasm of the mantle epithelium but CaLP was distributed only in the cytoplasm. The functions of these two proteins in biomineralization were investigated by shell regeneration. During this process, the expressions of CaM and CaLP were greatly enhanced in different organelles of the mantle epithelium. Overexpression of these two proteins and a mutant of calmodulin-like protein (M-CaLP) that lacks an extra C-terminal tail in MC3T3-E1 promoted the mRNA expression of osteopontin, a biomineralization marker for osteoblasts. All of the results indicated that CaM and CaLP have completely different distributions in the mantle epithelium and affect the biomineralization process at different levels. The extra C-terminal tail of CaLP is important for its functions in biomineralization in P. fucata.

  10. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Full-Length cDNA of Calmodulin Gene from Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing-Xia; Yu, Wen-Chao; Cai, Zhong-Qiang; He, Cheng; Wei, Na

    2016-01-01

    The shell of the pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata) mainly comprises aragonite whereas that of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is mainly calcite, thereby suggesting the different mechanisms of shell formation between above two mollusks. Calmodulin (CaM) is an important gene for regulating the uptake, transport, and secretion of calcium during the process of shell formation in pearl oyster. It is interesting to characterize the CaM in oysters, which could facilitate the understanding of the different shell formation mechanisms among mollusks. We cloned the full-length cDNA of Pacific oyster CaM (cgCaM) and found that the cgCaM ORF encoded a peptide of 113 amino acids containing three EF-hand calcium-binding domains, its expression level was highest in the mantle, hinting that the cgCaM gene is probably involved in shell formation of Pacific oyster, and the common ancestor of Gastropoda and Bivalvia may possess at least three CaM genes. We also found that the numbers of some EF hand family members in highly calcified species were higher than those in lowly calcified species and the numbers of these motifs in oyster genome were the highest among the mollusk species with whole genome sequence, further hinting the correlation between CaM and biomineralization. PMID:27703977

  11. Study of Binding Interaction between Pif80 Protein Fragment and Aragonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yuan-Peng; Chang, Hsun-Hui; Yang, Sheng-Yu; Huang, Shing-Jong; Tsai, Yu-Ju; Huang, Joseph Jen-Tse; Chan, Jerry Chun Chung

    2016-08-01

    Pif is a crucial protein for the formation of the nacreous layer in Pinctada fucata. Three non-acidic peptide fragments of the aragonite-binding domain (Pif80) are selected, which contain multiple copies of the repeat sequence DDRK, to study the interaction between non-acidic peptides and aragonite. The polypeptides DDRKDDRKGGK (Pif80-11) and DDRKDDRKGGKDDRKDDRKGGK (Pif80-22) have similar binding affinity to aragonite. Solid-state NMR data indicate that the backbones of Pif80-11 and Pif80-22 peptides bound on aragonite adopt a random-coil conformation. Pif80-11 is a lot more effective than Pif80-22 in promoting the nucleation of aragonite on the substrate of β-chitin. Our results suggest that the structural arrangement at a protein-mineral interface depends on the surface structure of the mineral substrate and the protein sequence. The side chains of the basic residues, which function as anchors to the aragonite surface, have uniform structures. The role of basic residues as anchors in protein-mineral interaction may play an important role in biomineralization.

  12. Assessment of heavy metals pollution in the gulf of Gabes (Tunisia using four mollusk species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. RABAOUI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the establishment of the ‘Tunisian Chemical Group’ in Gabes city, Tunisia, no serious investigations were carried out about the heavy metal pollution in Gabes gulf.  In the present study, the contents of four heavy metals were assessed in four mollusk species (two gastropods, Gibbula ardens and Patella caerulea, and two bivalves, Pinctada radiata and Pinna nobilis, collected from twelve coastal stations. The results obtained showed generally that high concentrations of heavy metals were recorded in the central area of Gabes gulf, nearer to Gabes city; the low concentrations were in contrast found at the edges of this gulf, which is probably due to the chemical pollution generated from the huge industry of phosphoric acid in Gabes city. Comparing the results found with the four examined species, the lowest concentrations were noted with the two bivalve species P. radiata and P. nobilis. The highest heavy metals’ concentrations, noted during this study, are comparable to the findings of other authors in other areas, but they are considerably beyond the standards. A remediation action is necessarily needed either by reducing the amount of heavy metals in the phosphgypums quantities thrown directly in the sea or by stopping completely this harmful industry to protect the marine life in the area. A remediation action is necessarily needed to protect the marine life in the area.

  13. Pif97, a von Willebrand and Peritrophin Biomineralization Protein, Organizes Mineral Nanoparticles and Creates Intracrystalline Nanochambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Eric P; Evans, John Spencer

    2015-09-01

    The formation of the mollusk nacre layer involves the assembly and organization of mineral nanoparticles into fracture-toughened mesoscale-sized aragonite tablets that possess intracrystalline nanoporosities. At least one nacre protein family, known as the framework proteome, is strategically located as part of a macromolecular coating around each nacre tablet and is believed to participate in tablet formation. Here, we report new studies of a recombinant form (rPif97) of a unique Japanese pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata) nacre framework biomineralization protein, Pif97. This unique protein possesses both a von Willlebrand factor type A domain (vWA, F23-Y161) and a Peritrophin A chitin-binding domain (PAC, E234-D298). rPif97 self-associates or aggregates to form amorphous protein phases that organize both amorphous and single-crystal calcium carbonate nanoparticles in vitro. Further, in the presence of nucleating calcite crystals, rPif97 protein phases deposit onto these crystals and become occluded over time, forming nanochambers within the crystal interior. The formation of these mineral-modifying amorphous protein phases is linked to the presence of intrinsic disorder and amyloid-like cross-β-strand aggregation-prone regions, and three-dimensional modeling indicates that both the vWA and PAC domains are accessible for intermolecular interactions. Thus, the vWA- and PAC-containing Pif97 protein exhibits key functionalities that would allow its participation in mollusk nacre layer tablet assembly and porosity formation.

  14. 三维MR影像对前交叉韧带损伤诊断价值的研究%Evaluation of anterior cruciate ligament ruptures by three dimension MR imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程瑾; 刘霞; 杜湘珂

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the diagnosic performance of conventional 2D and 3D Cube MR imaging to identify complete and partial tears of anterior cruciate ligament(ACL).Methods Farty patients suspected of having tears of anterior cruciate ligament were prospectively studied by 3.0 T conventional 2D and 3D Cube MR imaging and arthroscopy.MR images were interpreted in consensus by two experienced radiologists,and the ACL was diagnosed as being normal,partially torn,or completely torn.Diagnostic accuracy of 2D and 3D Cube MR for the detection of both complete and partial tears of ACL was calculated using arthroscopy as the standard of reference.Area under curve (AUC) of both methods were calculated using ROC curves and were compared using Hanley& McNeil curve comparisions.Results Sixteen patients had intact ACL,12 had complete tear,and 12 had partial tear of the ACL at arthroscopy.For complete ACL tear,AUC of 2D MR and 3D Cube was 0.839 and 0.923 respectively,and there was no significant difference on ROC curves (Z =1.245,P =0.213).For partial ACL tears,AUC of 2D and 3D Cube MR were 0.643 and 0.881 respectively,and there was significant difference on ROC curves (Z =2.384,P =0.017).Conclusions Both 2D MR and 3D Cube MR have high sensitivity and specificity for identifying the complete ruptures of ACL.3D Cube MRI appears to be superior inidentifying partial rupture of ACL.%目的 比较常规2D及3D超长回波链采集FSE序列(3D Cube T2WI) MRI对前交叉韧带(ACL)损伤的诊断价值.方法 40例膝关节外伤患者先后行常规2D MR及3D Cube T2WI MR检查并分别作出ACL损伤的诊断,包括ACL完整、部分撕裂及完全撕裂.以关节镜检查结果作为ACL损伤的金标准.应用ROC法计算2种影像检查对ACL部分撕裂及完全撕裂诊断的曲线下面积(AUC)值并应用Hanley&McNeil检验比较两者在统计学上的差异.结果 40例经关节镜证实的膝关节损伤患者中,ACL完整者16例,双束完全撕裂为12

  15. [Comparison of the "Trigger" tool with the minimum basic data set for detecting adverse events in general surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Zapata, A I; Gutiérrez Samaniego, M; Rodríguez Cuéllar, E; Gómez de la Cámara, A; Ruiz López, P

    Surgery is a high risk for the occurrence of adverse events (AE). The main objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of the Trigger tool with the Hospital National Health System registration of Discharges, the minimum basic data set (MBDS), in detecting adverse events in patients admitted to General Surgery and undergoing surgery. Observational and descriptive retrospective study of patients admitted to general surgery of a tertiary hospital, and undergoing surgery in 2012. The identification of adverse events was made by reviewing the medical records, using an adaptation of "Global Trigger Tool" methodology, as well as the (MBDS) registered on the same patients. Once the AE were identified, they were classified according to damage and to the extent to which these could have been avoided. The area under the curve (ROC) were used to determine the discriminatory power of the tools. The Hanley and Mcneil test was used to compare both tools. AE prevalence was 36.8%. The TT detected 89.9% of all AE, while the MBDS detected 28.48%. The TT provides more information on the nature and characteristics of the AE. The area under the curve was 0.89 for the TT and 0.66 for the MBDS. These differences were statistically significant (P<.001). The Trigger tool detects three times more adverse events than the MBDS registry. The prevalence of adverse events in General Surgery is higher than that estimated in other studies. Copyright © 2017 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. A clinical trial of tension and compression orthoses for Dupuytren contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauns, Annelien; Van Nuffel, Maarten; De Smet, Luc; Degreef, Ilse

    Randomized clinical trial on 2 patient groups with Dupuytren's disease. Despite an unpredictable outcome, surgery remains an important treatment for Dupuytren's disease. Orthotic devices are a controversial noninvasive treatment method to influence the myofibroblasts in the nodules. To detect how much improvement 2 types of orthotic device (tension and compression) as only treatment intervention can provide on a Dupuytren's contracture. Is a compression orthosis better than a tension orthosis? Thirty patients with measurable flexion contractures of the fingers were identified. Both primary and recurrence cases were included. Patients were randomized in 2 groups of 15 patients. One group had a standard tension orthosis (Levame), the other group a newly designed silicon compression orthotic device. Patients were instructed to wear the orthotic devices 20 hours a day during 3 months. Data were collected at first visit and after 3 months of orthotic treatment. Primary outcomes were active extension deficit of each joint and total active extension (TAE) of the digit. Secondary outcome was patient satisfaction. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score of function and esthetics (0-10 points) were recorded at the start and after 3 months. Flexion contracture was reduced at least 5 degrees in all patients. After 3 months, TAE was significantly reduced in both groups (both P Dupuytren's disease in both early proliferative untreated hands and aggressive postsurgery recurrence. Although there is no statistically significant difference, compression orthoses appear to be more effective and are better tolerated. Nevertheless, adjustment of orthotic design and research on long-term results are needed. I (Randomized controlled trial, Therapeutic study). Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative study of millennials' (age 20-34 years) grip and lateral pinch with the norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Elizabeth; Weatherford, Cara

    Cross-sectional research design. Clinical practice continues to use normative data for grip and pinch measurements that were established in 1985. There is no updated norms despite different hand usage patterns in today's society. Measuring and comparing grip and pinch strengths with normative data is a valid method to determine hand function. This research was implemented to compare the grip and pinch measurements obtained from healthy millennials to the established norms and to describe hand usage patterns for millennials. Grip and lateral pinch measurements were obtained from a sample of 237 healthy millennials (ages 20-34 years). Strength scores were statistically lower that older normative data in all millennial grip strengths, with the exception of the women in the age group of 30-34 years. Specifically, this statistically significant trend was observed in all male grip strengths, as well as in women in the age group of 20-24 years (bilateral grip) and 25-29 years (right grip). However, the lateral pinch data reflected was similar to the older norms with variances of 0.5-1 kg. Current data reflect statistically significant differences from the norms for all male grip measurements, as well as for women in the age group of 20-24 years (bilateral grip) and 25-29 years (right grip). No statistical significance was observed in the independent-sample t tests for the lateral pinch in men of all age groups. Statistical significance was noted for lateral pinch for female age groups for the left hand (20-24 years) and for bilateral lateral pinches (30-34 years). IV. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Best waveform score for diagnosing keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Luz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To test whether corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF can discriminate between keratoconus and normal eyes and to evaluate whether the averages of two consecutive measurements perform differently from the one with the best waveform score (WS for diagnosing keratoconus. METHODS: ORA measurements for one eye per individual were selected randomly from 53 normal patients and from 27 patients with keratoconus. Two groups were considered the average (CH-Avg, CRF-Avg and best waveform score (CH-WS, CRF-WS groups. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate whether the variables had similar distributions in the Normal and Keratoconus groups. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves were calculated for each parameter to assess the efficacy for diagnosing keratoconus and the same obtained for each variable were compared pairwise using the Hanley-McNeil test. RESULTS: The CH-Avg, CRF-Avg, CH-WS and CRF-WS differed significantly between the normal and keratoconus groups (p<0.001. The areas under the ROC curve (AUROC for CH-Avg, CRF-Avg, CH-WS, and CRF-WS were 0.824, 0.873, 0.891, and 0.931, respectively. CH-WS and CRF-WS had significantly better AUROCs than CH-Avg and CRF-Avg, respectively (p=0.001 and 0.002. CONCLUSION: The analysis of the biomechanical properties of the cornea through the ORA method has proved to be an important aid in the diagnosis of keratoconus, regardless of the method used. The best waveform score (WS measurements were superior to the average of consecutive ORA measurements for diagnosing keratoconus.

  19. The effect of shoulder position on inferior glenohumeral mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Dexter W; Talbott, Nancy R

    2017-03-09

    Cross-sectional clinical measurement study. Inferior mobilizations are used to treat patients with shoulder dysfunctions. Common positions recommended for promoting an inferior glide include: (1) an open-packed position (OPP) in which the shoulder is in 55° of abduction, 30° of horizontal adduction, and no rotation; (2) neutral position (NP) of the shoulder; and (3) position of 90° of shoulder abduction (ABDP). Studies comparing the impact of position on inferior mobilization are lacking. To determine the effect of shoulder position on humeral movement and mobilization force during inferior mobilizations. Twenty-three subjects were tested bilaterally. Subjects were placed in the OPP, and an ultrasound transducer placed over the superior glenohumeral joint. As inferior mobilization forces were applied through a dynamometer, ultrasound images were taken at rest and during 3 grades of inferior mobilization. This process was repeated in the NP and the ABDP. In the NP, movements during grade 1, 2, and 3 mobilizations were 1.8, 3.8, and 4.5 mm, respectively. Movements measured in the OPP (1.0, 2.4, and 3.6 mm, respectively) and in the ABDP (1.0, 2.2, and 2.3 mm, respectively) were less. Forces were higher in the NP during grade 1, 2, and 3 mobilizations (51.8, 138.7, and 202.1 N, respectively) than in the OPP (37.2, 91.2, and 139.9 N, respectively) and the ABPD (42.5, 115.3, and 165.5 N, respectively). Mobilization position altered the movement and force during inferior mobilizations. Shoulder position should be considered when utilizing inferior mobilizations. NA. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between sexually transmitted disease and church membership. A retrospective cohort study of two Danish religious minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kørup, Alex Kappel; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Christensen, René dePont; Johansen, Christoffer; Søndergaard, Jens; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Studies comprising Danish Seventh-day Adventists (SDAs) and Danish Baptists found that members have a lower risk of chronic diseases including cancer. Explanations have pointed to differences in lifestyle, but detailed aetiology has only been sparsely examined. Our objective was to investigate the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among Danish SDAs and Baptists as a proxy for cancers related to sexual behaviour. Methods We followed the Danish Cohort of Religious Societies from 1977 to 2009, and linked it with national registers of all inpatient and outpatient care contacts using the National Patient Register. We compared the incidence of syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia among members of the cohort with the general population. Results The cohort comprised 3119 SDA females, 1856 SDA males, 2056 Baptist females and 1467 Baptist males. For the entire cohort, we expected a total of 32.4 events of STD, and observed only 9. Female SDAs and Baptists aged 20–39 years had significant lower incidence of chlamydia (both p<0.001). Male SDAs and Baptists aged 20–39 years also had significant lower incidence of chlamydia (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). No SDA members were diagnosed with gonorrhoea, when 3.4 events were expected, which, according to Hanley's ‘rule of three’, is a significant difference. No SDA or Baptist was diagnosed with syphilis. Conclusions The cohort shows significant lower incidence of STD, most likely including human papillomavirus, which may partly explain the lower incidence of cancers of the cervix, rectum, anus, head and neck. PMID:27016243

  1. Readability of online materials for Dupuytren's contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Pauline Joy F; Daar, David A; Badeau, Austin; Leis, Amber

    2017-08-23

    Descriptive. Dupuytren's contracture is a common disorder involving fibrosis of the palmar fascia. As patients are increasingly using online materials to gather health care information, it is imperative to assess the readability and appropriateness of this content. The recommended grade level for patient educational materials is seventh to eighth grade according to the National Institutes of Health. This study aims to assess the readability and content of online patient resources for Dupuytren's contracture. Evaluate readability of online patient education materials for Dupuytren's contracture. The largest public search engine, Google, was queried using the term "Dupuytren's contracture surgery" on February 26, 2016. Location filters were disabled, and sponsored results were excluded to avoid any inadvertent search bias. The 10 most popular Web sites were identified, and all relevant patient-directed information within 1 click from the original site was downloaded and saved as plain text. Readability was analyzed using 6 established analyses (Readable.io, Added Bytes, Ltd, UK). Analysis of 10 Web sites demonstrates an average grade level of at least 11th grade (Flesch-Kincaid grade level, 10.2; Gunning-Fog grade level, 13.1; Coleman-Liau grade level, 14.4; Simple Measure of Gobbledygook grade level, 10.0; automated readability grade level, 9.7; and average grade level, 11.5). Overall Flesch-Kincaid reading ease index was 46.4, which is difficult. No single article was at the recommended reading level. Online materials available for treatment of Dupuytren's contracture are above recommended reading levels and do not include a comprehensive explanation of treatment options, which may negatively impact decision making in patients seeking treatment for this condition. Surgeons and hand therapists alike should be cognizant of available online patient materials and make efforts to develop and provide more appropriate materials. V. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus

  2. Stable isotopes in bivalves as indicators of nutrient source in coastal waters in the Bocas del Toro Archipelago, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graniero, Lauren E; Grossman, Ethan L; O'Dea, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    To examine N-isotope ratios ((15)N/(14)N) in tissues and shell organic matrix of bivalves as a proxy for natural and anthropogenic nutrient fluxes in coastal environments, Pinctada imbricata, Isognomon alatus, and Brachidontes exustusbivalves were live-collected and analyzed from eight sites in Bocas del Toro, Panama. Sites represent a variety of coastal environments, including more urbanized, uninhabited, riverine, and oceanic sites. Growth under differing environmental conditions is confirmed by δ (18)O values, with open ocean Escudo de Veraguas shells yielding the highest average δ (18)O (-1.0‰) value and freshwater endmember Rio Guarumo the lowest (-1.7‰). At all sites there is no single dominant source of organic matter contributing to bivalve δ (15)N and δ (13)C values. Bivalve δ (15)N and δ (13)C values likely represent a mixture of mangrove and seagrass N and C, although terrestrial sources cannot be ruled out. Despite hydrographic differences between end-members, we see minimal δ (15)N and δ (13)C difference between bivalves from the river-influenced Rio Guarumo site and those from the oceanic Escudo de Veraguas site, with no evidence for N from open-ocean phytoplankton in the latter. Populated sites yield relative (15)N enrichments suggestive of anthropogenic nutrient input, but low δ (15)N values overall make this interpretation equivocal. Lastly, δ (15)N values of tissue and shell organic matrix correlate significantly for pterioideans P. imbricata and I. alatus. Thus for these species, N isotope studies of historical and fossil shells should provide records of ecology of past environments.

  3. Structure-based function prediction of the expanding mollusk tyrosinase family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ronglian; Li, Li; Zhang, Guofan

    2017-01-01

    Tyrosinase (Ty) is a common enzyme found in many different animal groups. In our previous study, genome sequencing revealed that the Ty family is expanded in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas). Here, we examine the larger number of Ty family members in the Pacific oyster by high-level structure prediction to obtain more information about their function and evolution, especially the unknown role in biomineralization. We verified 12 Ty gene sequences from Crassostrea gigas genome and Pinctada fucata martensii transcriptome. By using phylogenetic analysis of these Tys with functionally known Tys from other molluscan species, eight subgroups were identified (CgTy_s1, CgTy_s2, MolTy_s1, MolTy-s2, MolTy-s3, PinTy-s1, PinTy-s2 and PviTy). Structural data and surface pockets of the dinuclear copper center in the eight subgroups of molluscan Ty were obtained using the latest versions of prediction online servers. Structural comparison with other Ty proteins from the protein databank revealed functionally important residues (HA1, HA2, HA3, HB1, HB2, HB3, Z1-Z9) and their location within these protein structures. The structural and chemical features of these pockets which may related to the substrate binding showed considerable variability among mollusks, which undoubtedly defines Ty substrate binding. Finally, we discuss the potential driving forces of Ty family evolution in mollusks. Based on these observations, we conclude that the Ty family has rapidly evolved as a consequence of substrate adaptation in mollusks.

  4. A nacre protein, n16.3, self-assembles to form protein oligomers that dimensionally limit and organize mineral deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovic, Iva; Chang, Eric P; Lui, Michael; Rao, Ashit; Cölfen, Helmut; Evans, John Spencer

    2014-04-29

    The mollusk shell is a complex biological material that integrates mineral phases with organic macromolecular components such as proteins. The role of proteins in the formation of the nacre layer (aragonite mineral phase) is poorly understood, particularly with regard to the organization of mineral deposits within the protein extracellular matrix and the identification of which proteins are responsible for this task. We report new experiments that provide insight into the role of the framework nacre protein, n16.3 (Pinctada fucata), as an organizer or assembler of calcium carbonate mineral clusters. Using a combination of biophysical techniques, we find that recombinant n16.3 (r-n16.3) oligomerizes to form amorphous protein films and particles that possess regions of disorder and mobility. These supramolecular assemblies possess an intrinsically disordered C-terminal region (T64-W98) and reorganize in the presence of Ca(2+) ions to form clustered protein oligomers. This Ca(2+)-induced reorganization leads to alterations in the molecular environments of Trp residues, the majority of which reside in putative aggregation-prone cross-β strand regions. Potentiometric Ca(2+) titrations reveal that r-n16.3 does not significantly affect the formation of prenucleation clusters in solution, and this suggests a role for this protein in postnucleation mineralization events. This is verified in subsequent in vitro mineralization assays in which r-n16.3 demonstrates its ability to form gel-like protein phases that organize and cluster nanometer-sized single-crystal calcite relative to protein-deficient controls. We conclude that the n16 nacre framework proteome creates a protein gel matrix that organizes and dimensionally limits mineral deposits. This process is highly relevant to the formation of ordered, nanometer-sized nacre tablets in the mollusk shell.

  5. Evolution and functional analysis of the Pif97 gene of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaotong WANG; Xiaorui SONG; Tong WANG; Qihui ZHU; Guoying MIAO; Yuanxin CHEN; Xiaodong FANG

    2013-01-01

    Mollusc shell matrix proteins (SMPs) are important functional components embedded in the shell and play a role in shell formation.A SMP (Pif177) was identified previously from the nacreous layer of the Japanese pearl oyster Pinctada fucata,and its cleavage products (named pfPif97 and pfPif80 proteins) were found to bind to the chitin framework and induce aragonite crystal formation and orient the c axis.In this study,a homologue ofpfPifl77 was cloned from the mantle of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas,containing the homologue of pfPif97 only and not pfPif80.This finding hints at the large divergence in gene structure between the two species.This homologue (cgPif97) shares characteristics with pfPif97,and suggests that the biological functions of these two proteins may be similar.The expression pattern of cgPif97 in different tissues and development stages indicates that it may play an important role in shell formation of the adult oyster.The morphology of the inner shell surface was affected by injected siRNA of cgPif97 and the calcite laths of the shell became thinner and narrower when the siRNA dose increased,suggesting that the cgPif97 gene plays an important role in calcite shell formation in C.gigas.In conclusion,we found evidence that the Pif177 gene evolved very fast but still retains a similar function among species [Current Zoology 59 (1):109-115,2013].

  6. Growth and survival of the pearl oyster Pteria hirundo (L.,1758 in an intermediate stage of culture in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MCP Albuquerque

    Full Text Available There are no records in Brazil for the culture of Pteridae family oysters, genus Pteria and Pinctada. The intermediate culture can be considered one of the critical stages during the oyster farming. The changes in life conditions from a semi-closed environment provided by the collector to the structures utilized for the growth represents a considerable stress factor to which the animals are subjected. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the growth and survival of the pearl oyster Pteria hirundo (Linnaeus, 1758 kept in intermediate lanterns. Seeds of P. hirundo, obtained through larviculture carried out at the Marine Molluscs Laboratory (UFSC, southern Brazil were detached from the collectors, transferred and kept in an intermediate culture system (oyster lantern. During 6 months, growth (dorso-ventral height - DVH in mm and survival (% were evaluated. Two size classes were tested: medium (M, between 3.4 and 4.4 mm, and large (L, bigger than 4.5 mm. The density of occupation in each floor of the lantern was 50%. At the end of the experiment, the survivals observed were 90 and 94% for the sizes M and L, respectively. Medium juveniles of Pteria hirundo had an average (Std increase of 16.1 (±4.38 mm in the dorso-ventral height, and large juveniles an average increase of 11.4 (±3.77 mm after six months of experiment. The results observed during the intermediate stage of cultivation indicate that Pteria hirundo presents survival and growth similar to other species of pearl oysters traditionally used in the pearl industry in several countries.

  7. Daily oscillation of gene expression associated with nacreous layer formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Three major organic matrix components,nacrein,MSI60 and N16 have been reported from the nacreous layer of Japanese pearl oyster,Pinctada fucata.Though several in vitro experiments have been carried out to elucidate the functions of these molecules details have not yet been clarified.In this report,we tempt to clarify the gene expression levels encoding the above three proteins between samples of 1) summer and winter seasons and 2) ocean and aquarium environments by using realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR).It was confirmed that the biomineralization process of P.fucata is mainly influenced by the circatidal rhythm of the ocean environment.The gene expressions coding for N16 and MSI60 increased at the time of high tide,while that of nacrein increased at the time of low tide.The similar tendency observed in N16 and MSI60 showed the possibility that both components are secreted simultaneously,supporting a hypothesis that N16 forms crosslinkage with MSI60 to form the membrane.The expressions of MSI60,N16 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) genes were remarkable in winter season,while no variation was found in the expression level of the nacrein gene in summer and winter season.The study is the first attempt regarding the seasonal and circadian rhythms observed on gene expressions incorporated into molluscan shell formation.The results will give a new insight into the relationship between molluscan physiology and the mechanism of shell formation.

  8. Molecular phylogeny of pearl oysters and their relatives (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pterioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tëmkin Ilya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily Pterioidea is a morphologically and ecologically diverse lineage of epifaunal marine bivalves distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical continental shelf regions. This group includes commercially important pearl culture species and model organisms used for medical studies of biomineralization. Recent morphological treatment of selected pterioideans and molecular phylogenetic analyses of higher-level relationships in Bivalvia have challenged the traditional view that pterioidean families are monophyletic. This issue is examined here in light of molecular data sets composed of DNA sequences for nuclear and mitochondrial loci, and a published character data set of anatomical and shell morphological characters. Results The present study is the first comprehensive species-level analysis of the Pterioidea to produce a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for nearly all extant taxa. The data were analyzed for potential biases due to taxon and character sampling, and idiosyncracies of different molecular evolutionary processes. The congruence and contribution of different partitions were quantified, and the sensitivity of clade stability to alignment parameters was explored. Conclusions Four primary conclusions were reached: (1 the results strongly supported the monophyly of the Pterioidea; (2 none of the previously defined families (except for the monotypic Pulvinitidae were monophyletic; (3 the arrangement of the genera was novel and unanticipated, however strongly supported and robust to changes in alignment parameters; and (4 optimizing key morphological characters onto topologies derived from the analysis of molecular data revealed many instances of homoplasy and uncovered synapomorphies for major nodes. Additionally, a complete species-level sampling of the genus Pinctada provided further insights into the on-going controversy regarding the taxonomic identity of major pearl culture species.

  9. Evolution and functional analysis of the Pif97 gene of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotong WANG, Xiaorui SONG, Tong WANG, Qihui ZHU, Guoying MIAO, Yuanxin CHEN, Xiaodong FANG, Huayong QUE, Li LI, Guofan ZHANG

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mollusc shell matrix proteins (SMPs are important functional components embedded in the shell and play a role in shell formation. A SMP (Pif177 was identified previously from the nacreous layer of the Japanese pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, and its cleavage products (named pfPif97 and pfPif80 proteins were found to bind to the chitin framework and induce aragonite crystal formation and orient the c axis. In this study, a homologue of pfPif177 was cloned from the mantle of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, containing the homologue of pfPif97 only and not pfPif80. This finding hints at the large divergence in gene structure between the two species. This homologue (cgPif97 shares characteristics with pfPif97, and suggests that the biological functions of these two proteins may be similar. The expression pattern of cgPif97 in different tissues and development stages indicates that it may play an important role in shell formation of the adult oyster. The morphology of the inner shell surface was affected by injected siRNA of cgPif97 and the calcite laths of the shell became thinner and narrower when the siRNA dose increased, suggesting that the cgPif97 gene plays an important role in calcite shell formation in C. gigas. In conclusion, we found evidence that the Pif177 gene evolved very fast but still retains a similar function among species [Current Zoology 59 (1: 109–115, 2013].

  10. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (April 2015

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    Α. ΖΕΝΕΤΟΣ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of native and alien species respectively. The new records of native fish species include: the slender sunfish Ranzania laevis and the scalloped ribbonfish Zu cristatus in Calabria; the Azores rockling Gaidropsarus granti in Calabria and Sicily; the agujon needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis in the Northern Aegean; and the amphibious behaviour of Gouania willdenowi in Southern Turkey. As regards molluscs, the interesting findings include Ischnochiton usticensis in Calabria and Thordisa filix in the bay of Piran (Slovenia. The stomatopod Parasquilla ferussaci was collected from Lesvos island (Greece; the isopod Anilocra frontalis was observed parasitizing the alien Pteragogus trispilus in the Rhodes area. The asteroid Tethyaster subinermis and the butterfly ray Gymnura altavela were reported from several localities in the Greek Ionian and Aegean Seas. The new records of alien species include: the antenna codlet Bregmaceros atlanticus in Saronikos Gulf; three  new fish records and two decapods from Egypt; the establishment of the two spot cardinal fish Cheilodipterus novemstriatus and the first record of the Indo-Pacific marble shrimp Saron marmoratus in semi-dark caves along the Lebanese coastline; the finding of Lagocephalus sceleratus, Sargocentron rubrum, Fistularia commersonii and Stephanolepis diaspros around Lipsi island (Aegean Sea, Greece; the decapod Penaeus hathor in Aegean waters; the decapod Penaeus aztecus and the nudibranch Melibe viridis in the Dodecanese islands; the finding of Pinctada imbricata radiata in the Mar Grande of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy and the Maliakos Gulf (Greece.  

  11. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (April 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Α. ΖΕΝΕΤΟΣ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of native and alien species respectively. The new records of native fish species include: the slender sunfish Ranzania laevis and the scalloped ribbonfish Zu cristatus in Calabria; the Azores rockling Gaidropsarus granti in Calabria and Sicily; the agujon needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis in the Northern Aegean; and the amphibious behaviour of Gouania willdenowi in Southern Turkey. As regards molluscs, the interesting findings include Ischnochiton usticensis in Calabria and Thordisa filix in the bay of Piran (Slovenia. The stomatopod Parasquilla ferussaci was collected from Lesvos island (Greece; the isopod Anilocra frontalis was observed parasitizing the alien Pteragogus trispilus in the Rhodes area. The asteroid Tethyaster subinermis and the butterfly ray Gymnura altavela were reported from several localities in the Greek Ionian and Aegean Seas. The new records of alien species include: the antenna codlet Bregmaceros atlanticus in Saronikos Gulf; three  new fish records and two decapods from Egypt; the establishment of the two spot cardinal fish Cheilodipterus novemstriatus and the first record of the Indo-Pacific marble shrimp Saron marmoratus in semi-dark caves along the Lebanese coastline; the finding of Lagocephalus sceleratus, Sargocentron rubrum, Fistularia commersonii and Stephanolepis diaspros around Lipsi island (Aegean Sea, Greece; the decapod Penaeus hathor in Aegean waters; the decapod Penaeus aztecus and the nudibranch Melibe viridis in the Dodecanese islands; the finding of Pinctada imbricata radiata in the Mar Grande of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy and the Maliakos Gulf (Greece.

  12. Review of the RNA Interference Pathway in Molluscs Including Some Possibilities for Use in Bivalves in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Owens

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Generalised reviews of RNA interference (RNAi in invertebrates, and for use in aquaculture, have taken for granted that RNAi pathways operate in molluscs, but inspection of such reviews show little specific evidence of such activity in molluscs. This review was to understand what specific research had been conducted on RNAi in molluscs, particularly with regard to aquaculture. There were questions of whether RNAi in molluscs functions similarly to the paradigm established for most eukaryotes or, alternatively, was it more similar to the ecdozoa and how RNAi may relate to disease control in aquaculture? RNAi in molluscs appears to have been only investigated in about 14 species, mostly as a gene silencing phenomenon. We can infer that microRNAs including let-7 are functional in molluscs. The genes/proteins involved in the actual RNAi pathways have only been rudimentarily investigated, so how homologous the genes and proteins are to other metazoa is unknown. Furthermore, how many different genes for each activity in the RNAi pathway are also unknown? The cephalopods have been greatly overlooked with only a single RNAi gene-silencing study found. The long dsRNA-linked interferon pathways seem to be present in molluscs, unlike some other invertebrates and could be used to reduce disease states in aquaculture. In particular, interferon regulatory factor genes have been found in molluscs of aquacultural importance such as Crassostrea, Mytilus, Pinctada and Haliotis. Two possible aquaculture scenarios are discussed, zoonotic norovirus and ostreid herpesvirus 1 to illustrate the possibilities. The entire field of RNAi in molluscs looks ripe for scientific exploitation and practical application.

  13. PTH-analogs: comparable or different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaar, H J J; Lems, W F

    2009-01-01

    Because no comparative studies exist, no clear pronouncements can be made about the potential differences in effectiveness and safety between PTH 1-34 and PTH 1-84. As regards the efficacy, a convincing reduction of vertebral fractures was shown in both cases [Neer, R.M., Arnaud, C.D., Zanchetta, J.R., Prince, R., Gaich, G.A., Reginster, J.Y., Hodsman, A.B., Eriksen, E.F., Ish-Shalom, S., Genant, H.K., Wang, O., Mitlak, B.H., 2001. Effect of parathyroid hormone (1-34) on fractures and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 344, 1434-1441; Greenspan, S.L., Bone, H.G., Ettinger, M.P., Hanley, D.A., Lindsay, R., Zanchetta, J.R., Blosch, C.M., Mathisen, A.L., Morris, S.A., Marriott, T.B., Treatment of Osteoporosis with Parathyroid Hormone Study Group, 2007. Effect of recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-84) on vertebral fracture and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: a randomized trial. Ann. Intern. Med. 146, 326-339]. A reduction of non-vertebral fractures was shown in the case of PTH 1-34 only. Another significant resemblance is that both medicines have a strong anabolic action; this mechanism of action is essentially different from the bisphosphonates and strontium ranelate. Both medicines constitute a welcome addition to the therapeutic arsenal for patients with severe osteoporosis. More data from literature (including information on follow-up data and use in men) are available for PTH 1-34 because it has been available for longer. As regards the side effect profile, PTH 1-84 appears to have a higher incidence of hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria and nausea than teriparatide. Here, too, no comparative study exists: the differences may therefore be based on an actual difference in side effects, or it may be ascribed to differences in definitions and/or patient populations.

  14. Revising the "Rule of Three" for inferring seizure freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, M Brandon; Cormier, Justine; Bianchi, Matt T; Shafi, Mouhsin; Kilbride, Ronan; Cole, Andrew J; Cash, Sydney S

    2012-02-01

    How long after starting a new medication must a patient go without seizures before they can be regarded as seizure-free? A recent International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) task force proposed using a "Rule of Three" as an operational definition of seizure freedom, according to which a patient should be considered seizure-free following an intervention after a period without seizures has elapsed equal to three times the longest preintervention interseizure interval over the previous year. This rule was motivated in large part by statistical considerations advanced in a classic 1983 paper by Hanley and Lippman-Hand. However, strict adherence to the statistical logic of this rule generally requires waiting much longer than recommended by the ILAE task force. Therefore, we set out to determine whether an alternative approach to the Rule of Three might be possible, and under what conditions the rule may be expected to hold or would need to be extended. Probabilistic modeling and application of Bayes' rule. We find that an alternative approach to the problem of inferring seizure freedom supports using the Rule of Three in the way proposed by the ILAE in many cases, particularly in evaluating responses to a first trial of antiseizure medication, and to favorably-selected epilepsy surgical candidates. In cases where the a priori odds of success are less favorable, our analysis requires longer seizure-free observation periods before declaring seizure freedom, up to six times the average preintervention interseizure interval. The key to our approach is to take into account not only the time elapsed without seizures but also empirical data regarding the a priori probability of achieving seizure freedom conferred by a particular intervention. In many cases it may be reasonable to consider a patient seizure-free after they have gone without seizures for a period equal to three times the preintervention interseizure interval, as proposed on pragmatic grounds in a recent ILAE

  15. Revising the Rule Of Three For Inferring Seizure Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, M. Brandon; Cormier, Justine; Bianchi, Matt T.; Shafi, Mouhsin; Kilbride, Ronan; Cole, Andrew J.; Cash, Sydney S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Purpose How long after starting a new medication must a patient go without seizures before they can be regarded as seizure free? A recent ILAE task force proposed using a “Rule of Three” as an operational definition of seizure freedom, according to which a patient should be considered seizure-free following an intervention after a period without seizures has elapsed equal to three times the longest pre-intervention inter-seizure interval over the previous year. This rule was motivated in large part by statistical considerations advanced in a classic 1983 paper by Hanley and Lippman-Hand. However, strict adherence to the statistical logic of this rule generally requires waiting much longer than recommended by the ILAE task force. Therefore, we set out to determine whether an alternative approach to the Rule of Three might be possible, and under what conditions the rule may be expected to hold or would need to be extended. Methods Probabilistic modeling and application of Bayes’ rule. Key Findings We find that an alternative approach to the problem of inferring seizure freedom supports using the Rule of Three in the way proposed by the ILAE in many cases, particularly in evaluating responses to a first trial of anti-seizure medication, and to favorably-selected epilepsy surgical candidates. In cases where the a priori odds of success are less favorable, our analysis requires longer seizure-free observation periods before declaring seizure freedom, up to six times the average pre-intervention insterseizure interval. The key to our approach is to take into account not only the time elapsed without seizures but also empirical data regarding the a priori probability of achieving seizure freedom conferred by a particular intervention. Significance In many cases it may be reasonable to consider a patient seizure free after they have gone without seizures for a period equal to three times the pre-intervention inter-seizure interval, as proposed on pragmatic

  16. Clinical data management: Current status, challenges, and future directions from industry perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwu Lu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Zhengwu Lu1, Jing Su21Smith Hanley Consulting, Houston, Texas; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USAAbstract: To maintain a competitive position, the biopharmaceutical industry has been facing the challenge of increasing productivity both internally and externally. As the product of the clinical development process, clinical data are recognized to be the key corporate asset and provide critical evidence of a medicine’s efficacy and safety and of its potential economic value to the market. It is also well recognized that using effective technology-enabled methods to manage clinical data can enhance the speed with which the drug is developed and commercialized, hence enhancing the competitive advantage. The effective use of data-capture tools may ensure that high-quality data are available for early review and rapid decision-making. A well-designed, protocol-driven, standardized, site workflow-oriented and documented database, populated via efficient data feed mechanisms, will ensure regulatory and commercial questions receive rapid responses. When information from a sponsor’s clinical database or data warehouse develops into corporate knowledge, the value of the medicine can be realized. Moreover, regulators, payer groups, patients, activist groups, patient advocacy groups, and employers are becoming more educated consumers of medicine, requiring monetary value and quality, and seeking out up-todate medical information supplied by biopharmaceutical companies. All these developments in the current biopharmaceutical arena demand that clinical data management (CDM is at the forefront, leading change, influencing direction, and providing objective evidence. Sustaining an integrated database or data repository for initial product registration and subsequent postmarketing uses is a long-term process to maximize return on investment for organizations. CDM should be the owner of driving clinical data

  17. Moisture transport and Atmospheric circulation in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Cian; Caballero, Rodrigo

    2013-04-01

    Arctic. We investigate an Arctic trajectory dataset and provide a phenomenological/descriptive analysis of these trajectories, including key meteorological variables carried along trajectories. The trajectory climatology is linked to a previously established cyclone climatology dataset from Hanley and Caballero (2011). We associate trajectories and the meteorological variables they are carrying to cyclones in this dataset. A climatology of 'Arctic-influencing' cyclones is constructed from the cyclone dataset. The resilience of the polar vortex and its effect on circulation, via blocking and breaking, is examined in relation to our trajectory climatology.

  18. Nature and origin of RSL: Spectroscopy and detectability of liquid brines in the near-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Marion; Beck, Pierre; Schmitt, Bernard; Pommerol, Antoine; McEwen, Alfred; Chevrier, Vincent; Brissaud, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    If water has likely flowed on Mars in its early history, the current presence of liquid water is debatable. However, some recently discovered fea-tures named "Recurrent Slope Lineae" (RSL) suggest that superficial liquid can occur on present day Mars in a transient state [McEwen et al., 2011]. RSL are dark (up to 40% darker than the surrounding areas), narrow (0.5-5 m) and are mostly found in the southern mid-latitudes. Repeated MRO/HiRISE images reveal that they appear and grow during warm seasons and fade and disappear during cold seasons. They develop on steep slopes (25°-40°), favoring equator-facing slopes, times and places with peak temperatures of ~250-300K. The most likely formation process of RSL involves the presence of liquid brines near the surface. Brines are more stable on Mars than pure water [e.g. Chevrier et al., 2009] because salts can depress the freezing point of water by up to 70 K. However, this hypothesis suffers from the lack of clear identification of brines with the high resolution CRISM spectra. The mineralogical characterization of RSL is challenging because RSL are much smaller than the ~18 m pixel scale of CRISM data but spectral features diagnostic of water or brines [Hanley et al., 2010] are not observable even on the largest RSL. The goal of our study is to reproduce with laboratory experiments some hydration and dehydration cycles of different kind of brines mixed with basaltic soil. These experiments aim to understand the spectroscopic behavior of brines during these processes and to determine the diagnostic spectral features that we can expected to find for Martian RSL. We found that, if the surface displays a low albedo from the beginning of the hydration to the end of the dehydration, diagnostic brines absorption bands are only observed when the liquid film is formed. This is consistent with our current RSL observations. In the future, we need to acquire some new CRISM data when the formation of liquid brines is the most

  19. Linking of the Patient Rated Elbow Evaluation (PREE) and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons - Elbow questionnaire (pASES-e) to the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) and Hand Core Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Joshua I; MacDermid, Joy C; King, Graham J W; Grewal, Ruby

    2015-01-01

    framework and the core sets for hand conditions. The ICF Core Set devised for hand conditions may also be useful for elbow conditions. 1b. Copyright © 2015 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Response of fouling brown mussel, Perna perna (L.), to chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, S; Venugopalan, V P; van der Velde, G; Jenner, H A

    2003-04-01

    Perna perna (L.), the edible brown mussel, is very widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions and is commonly found in rocky shores. Apart from being a candidate for commercial cultivation, P. perna is also a common pest organism in cooling water systems of coastal power stations. Therefore, a lethal and sublethal response of this mussel to commonly used antifouling biocides is of considerable interest to the industry. Mortality pattern (LT(50) and LT(100)) and physiological activities (oxygen consumption, filtration rate, foot activity index, and byssus thread production) of different size groups (9-34 mm shell lengths) of P. perna were studied in the laboratory under different residual chlorine concentrations (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 mg/L for sublethal responses and 1, 2, 3, and 5 mg/L for mortality). Results showed that exposure time for 100% mortality of mussels significantly decreased with increasing residual chlorine concentration. For example, mussels of 9 mm size group exposed to 1 mg/L chlorine residual took 384 h (16 days) to reach 100% mortality, whereas those exposed to 5 mg/L chlorine took 84 h (4 days). The effect of mussel size on mortality was significant between 1 mg/L and 5 mg/L residual chlorine, with larger mussels showing greater resistance than smaller ones. For example, at 2 mg/L residual chlorine, 9 mm and 34 mm size group mussels took 228 h (10 days) and 304 h (13 days), respectively, to achieve 100% mortality. All size groups of P. perna showed progressive reduction in physiological activities, when chlorine residuals were gradually increased from 0 to 1 mg/L. Reduction in physiological activities was strongly correlated with the residual level. A comparison of present data with data available for other common fouling organisms suggests that P. perna is relatively less tolerant to chlorine than Perna viridis (L.) and Brachidontes striatulus (Hanley), which also cause fouling problems in tropical coastal waters.

  1. Responsiveness of three Patient Report Outcome (PRO) measures in patients with hand fractures: A preliminary cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock-Zlotnick, Gwen; Page, Carol; Ghomrawi, Hassan M K; Wolff, Aviva L

    2015-01-01

    to describe functional limitations in this cohort of patients with hand fractures. In capturing improvement over time they demonstrated comparable responsiveness in assessing change in patients with hand fractures. 2c. Copyright © 2015 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Robot training for hand motor recovery in subacute stroke patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Roldán, Giovana Femat; Sánchez-Villavicencio, Israel; Palafox, Lorena; Leder, Ronald; Sucar, Luis Enrique; Hernández-Franco, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of superiority of robot training for the hand over classical therapies in stroke patients remains controversial. During the subacute stage, hand training is likely to be the most useful. To establish whether robot active assisted therapies provides any additional motor recovery for the hand when administered during the subacute stage (stroke. Compared to classical occupational therapy, robot based therapies for hand recovery will show significant differences at subacute stages. A randomized clinical trial. A between subjects randomized controlled trial was carried out on subacute stroke patients (n = 17) comparing robot active assisted therapy (RT) with a classical occupational therapy (OT). Both groups received 40 sessions ensuring at least 300 repetitions per session. Treatment duration was (mean ± std) 2.18 ± 1.25 months for the control group and 2.44 ± 0.88 months for the study group. The primary outcome was motor dexterity changes assessed with the Fugl-Meyer (FMA) and the Motricity Index (MI). Both groups (OT: n = 8; RT: n = 9) exhibited significant improvements over time (Non-parametric Cliff's delta-within effect sizes: dwOT-FMA = 0.5, dwOT-MI = 0.5, dwRT-FMA = 1, dwRT-MI = 1). Regarding differences between the therapies; the Fugl-Meyer score indicated a significant advantage for the hand training with the robot (FMA hand: WRS: W = 8, p Robotic therapies may be useful during the subacute stages of stroke - both endpoints (FM hand and MI prehension) showed the expected trend with bigger effect size for the robotic intervention. Additional benefit of the robotic therapy over the control therapy was only significant when the difference was measured with FM, demanding further investigation with larger samples. Implications of this study are important for decision making during therapy administration and resource allocation. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigating differences between proper and common nouns using novel word learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Romanova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies have shown higher rates of tip-of-the-tongue states for proper nouns, in comparison to common nouns, in non-brain-damaged speakers (e.g., Valentine & Moore, 1995, and higher retrieval failure rates for proper nouns relative to common nouns in people with aphasia (e.g., Semenza, 2009. Some authors suggest the source of these differences lies in logical properties (e.g., Semenza, 2009. That is, common nouns refer to a category of beings or objects that share certain semantic properties, while proper nouns designate specific individual beings or objects with unique features. Other authors attribute the distinction in processing to a number of statistical properties that differ across common and proper nouns (Kay, Hanley, & Miles, 2001. The aims of the present study were: 1 to dissociate the effects of logical and statistical properties by using novel words with equal statistical properties; 2 to determine whether people with aphasia show disproportionate impairments in learning proper nouns relative to common nouns, compared to aged-matched subjects. Methods We tested young (n=16 and elderly (n=14 adult non-brain-damaged participants and people with aphasia (n=2. Items-to-be-learnt were given as representatives of an unknown species (n=10 in the common noun condition, or as individual creatures (n=10 in the proper noun condition. The experiment consisted of 5 sessions. Each session included a learning phase and a test phase with naming and word-picture verification tasks. Results and Discussion Preliminary analysis showed learning of both common and proper nouns for both younger (F(4=140.68, p<.01 and elderly (F(4=34.87, p<.01 non-brain-damaged participants, with learning being significantly better for the younger group (F(4=6.5, p<.01. Contrary to expectations, performance on proper nouns was better than that for common nouns for both young and elderly subjects (F(1=6.47, p=.02 and F(1=9.75, p<.01, respectively, possibly due to

  4. Biofouling evaluation in the seawater cooling circuit of an operating coastal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, P.S.; Veeramani, P.; Ershath, M.I.M.; Venugopalan, V.P. [BARC Facilities, Water and Steam Chemistry Div., Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-07-01

    Chlorination is the most commonly used method of biofouling control in cooling water systems of coastal power stations. In the present study, we report results of extensive sampling in different sections of the cooling water system of an operating power station undertaken during three consecutive maintenance shutdowns. The power plant employed continuous low level chlorination (0.2 ± 0.1 mg L{sup -1} TRO) with twice-a-week booster dosing (0.4 ± 0.1 mg L-1 TRO for 8 hours). In addition, the process seawater heat exchangers received supplementary dosing of bromide treatment (0.2 ± 0.1 mg L{sup -1} TRO for 1 hour in every 8 h shift). Biofouling samples were collected from the cooling water conduits, heat exchanger water boxes, pipelines, heated discharge conduits and outfall section during the annual maintenance shutdown of the plant in the years 2007, 2008 and 2009. Simultaneous monitoring of biofouling on test coupons in coastal waters enabled direct comparison of fouling situation on test panels and that in the cooling system. The data showed significant reduction in biofouling inside the cooling circuit as compared to the coastal waters. However, significant amount of fouling was still evident at several places, indicating inadequacy of the biocide treatment regime. The maximum load of 31.3 kg m{sup 2} y{sup -1} was observed in the conduits leading to the process seawater heat exchangers (PSW-HX) and the minimum of 1.3 kg m{sup 2} y{sup -1} was observed in the outfall section. Fouling loads of 12.2 - 14.7 kg m{sup 2} y{sup -1} were observed in the concrete conduits feeding the main condensers. Bromide treatment ahead of the PSW-HX could marginally reduce the fouling load in the downstream section of the dosing point; the HX inlets still showed good biofouling. Species diversity across the cooling water system showed the pre-condenser section to be dominated by green mussels (Perna viridis), pearl oysters (Pinctada sp.) and edible oysters (Crassostrea sp

  5. 5-HT对马氏珠母贝卵体外促熟的影响及5-HT受体的细胞学定位%Effect of 5-HT on maturation of oocyte stripped from the pearl oyster Pinc tada fuc ata and cellular localization of 5-HT receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦; 何毛贤

    2015-01-01

    研究了5-羟色胺(5-HT)对马氏珠母贝解剖获得卵母细胞的促熟作用及5-HT受体(5-HTpf)在其性腺中的分布情况。通过体外浸泡的方法处理马氏珠母贝卵母细胞使其成熟,结果表明一定浓度的5-HT可显著促使马氏珠母贝卵母细胞生发泡破裂,并使已经发生生发泡破裂的卵母细胞进一步成熟,同时可诱导5-HT受体基因的表达。用原位杂交的方法对5-HT受体在马氏珠母贝性腺中的分布的研究结果揭示,卵巢中次级卵母细胞和卵细胞均存在5-HT受体,有阳性信号出现;精巢中仅滤泡壁及精母细胞中有少量表达。以上结果表明马氏珠母贝的卵母细胞不仅能产生5-HT并且可表达5-HT受体。%To investigate the effect of 5-HT on the maturation of oocyte stripped from the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, oocytes were treated with 5-HT solution in vitro. Results showed that 5-HT was able to induce not only the Germinal Vesicle Breakdown (GVBD) of the oocytes remarkably, but also the maturation of the oocytes already GVBD. Gene expression of the 5-HT receptor was able to be induced at the same time. Distribution of 5-HT receptor (5-HTpf) within gonads of P. fucata was also studied using in situ hybridization (ISH) technique. The results revealed that 5-HT receptor 5-HTpf existed in the oocytes of different development stages and in the spermatocytes, and the reactive substances of 5-HTpf distributed along the cytoplasm and membrane of oocytes and showed blue. The above results indicate that the oocytes of P.fucata can not only produce 5-HT, but also express its receptor.

  6. Arsenic and arsenic species in shellfish and finfish from the western Arabian Gulf and consumer health risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnakumar, Periyadan K., E-mail: kkumarpk@kfupm.edu.sa [Center for Environment and Water, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Qurban, Mohammad A. [Center for Environment and Water, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Stiboller, Michael [Institute of Chemistry-Analytical Chemistry, NAWI Graz, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Nachman, Keeve E. [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Joydas, Thadickal V.; Manikandan, Karuppasamy P.; Mushir, Shemsi Ahsan [Center for Environment and Water, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Francesconi, Kevin A. [Institute of Chemistry-Analytical Chemistry, NAWI Graz, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the levels of total arsenic and arsenic species in marine biota such as clams (Meretrix meretrix; N = 21) and pearl oyster (Pinctada radiata; N = 5) collected from nine costal sites in Jan 2014, and cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis; N = 8), shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus; N = 1), and seven commercially important finfish species (N = 23) collected during Apr–May 2013 from seven offshore sites in the western Arabian Gulf. Total As and As species such as dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), arsenobetaine (AB), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), arsenocholine (AC), tetramethylarsonium ion (Tetra), arsenosugar-glycerol (As-Gly) and inorganic As (iAs) were determined by using ICPMS and HPLC/ICPMS. In bivalves, the total As concentrations ranged from 16 to 118 mg/kg dry mass; the toxic iAs fraction contributed on average less than 0.8% of the total As, while the nontoxic AB fraction formed around 58%. Total As concentrations for the remaining seafood (cuttlefish, shrimp and finfish) ranged from 11 to 134 mg/kg dry mass and the iAs and AB fractions contributed on average 0.03% and 81% respectively of the total As. There was no significant relationship between the tissue concentrations of total As and iAs in the samples. There was also no significant relationship between As levels in seafood and geographical location or salinity of the waters from which samples were collected. Based on our results, we recommend introducing a maximum permissible level of arsenic in seafood from the Gulf based on iAs content rather than based on total As. Our analyses of cancer risks and non-cancer hazards identified non-negligible risks and the potential for hazards; the greatest risks were identified for expatriate consumers of bivalves and high-end consumers of seafood. Despite this, many uncertainties remain that would be best addressed by further analyses. - Highlights: • Arabian Gulf seafood contains relatively high concentrations of total arsenic. • Non-toxic arsenobetaine forms

  7. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Sandy River Delta, Technical Report 2000-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocklage, Ann; Ratti, John

    2002-02-01

    requisites (e.g., food and nesting cover) for that species. These variables are evaluated with vegetation sampling, and/or through the interpretation of aerial photographs and the like. Variable values are assigned a numerical score. The score may be based on a categorical rating (e.g . , different vegetation types receive different scores based on their importance for that species) or may be the result of a linear relationship (e.g., the score increases with the variable value; Figure 1). Variable scores are then input into a mathematical formula, which results in an HSI score. The HSI score ranges from 0-1, with 0 representing poor-quality habitat and 1 optimal habitat. HSI models assume a positive, linear relationship between wildlife-species density and the HSI score. For example, with an HSI score of 1, we assume that a species will be present at its highest density. Models can be projected into the future by changing variable values and observing the corresponding changes in HSI scores. Most models are relatively simple, but some are complex. These models have come under considerable scrutiny in the last several years, particularly concerning the validity of model assumptions (Van Horne 1983, Laymon and Barrett 1986, Hobbs and Hanley 1990, Kellner et al. 1992). Regardless of criticisms, these models may be used with success when there is an understanding and acceptance of model limitations. Each model should be evaluated as to its applicability in a given situation. Model validation, where results have on-the-ground verification, is highly recommended. Specific objectives of this project were to (1) conduct avian surveys and measure the present vegetation at the Sandy River Delta, (2) input the vegetation data into HSI models for 5 avian species, (3) evaluate the current habitat suitability for these species, and (4) predict species responses to potential changes in vegetation, resulting from the removal of reed canarygrass and/or Himalayan blackberry.

  8. The Comparison of Whole Body Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and Bone Scintigraphy in Detection of Bone Metastasis%MR全身弥散加权成像与核素骨扫描对骨转移瘤诊断价值的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文文; 马强华; 杨晓萍; 叶建军; 陈纲; 安建平; 赵辉

    2011-01-01

    素骨扫描共检出病灶157个,以受累区域为单位,WB-DWI诊断骨转移瘤的灵敏度为87.3%,特异度为92.7%,曲线下面积为0.900;核素骨扫描诊断骨转移瘤的灵敏度为84.1%,特异度为90.5%,曲线面积为0.873,采用Hanley-McNeil检验对曲线下面积行差异性检验,Z值=1.582,P>0.05,其差异无显著统计学意义.结论 WB-DWI与核素骨扫描诊断骨转移瘤的效能无明显差异,WB-DWI可作为一种新的、无辐射的检查方法应用于骨转移瘤的诊断.

  9. Comparison of Mid-latitude Cyclones in Sea Level Pressure, Gepotential Height and Vorticity Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, Christoph C.; Blender, Richard; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    finding is that the number of cyclones based on Z1000 is increased comparing the winter and summer season as the number of heat lows increases in summer. However, the behavior is vice versa for cyclones based on SLP. References: Blender R., K. Fraedrich, and F. Lunkeit, 1997: Identification of cyclone-track regimes in the North Atlantic. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 123, 727-741. Neu, U., M. G. Akperov, N. Bellenbaum, R. Benestad, R. Blender, R. Caballero, A. Cocozza, H. F. Dacre, Y. Feng, K. Fraedrich, J. Grieger, S. Gulev, J. Hanley, T. Hewson, M. Inatsu, K. Keay, S. F. Kew, I. Kindem, G. C. Leckebusch, M. L. R. Liberato, P. Lionello, I. I. Mokhov, J. G. Pinto, C. C. Raible, M. Reale, I. Rudeva, M. Schuster, I. Simmonds, M. Sinclair, M. Sprenger, N. D. Tilinina, I. F. Trigo, S. Ulbrich, U. Ulbrich, X. L. Wang, H. Wernli, 2012: IMILAST - a community effort to intercompare extratropical cyclone detection and tracking algorithms: assessing method-related uncertainties, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, in press. Raible, C. C., P. Della-Marta, C. Schwierz, H. Wernli, and R. Blender, 2008: Northern Hemisphere extratropical cyclones: A comparison of detection and tracking methods and different reanalyses, Mon. Wea. Rev., 136 880-897.

  10. Evidence for variable crystallinity in bivalve shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, D. E.; Wehrmeister, U.

    2012-04-01

    Bivalve shells are used as important palaeoclimate proxy archives and monitor regional climate variations. The shells mostly exist of two crystalline polymorphic phases of calcium carbonate calcite (rombohedric) and aragonite (orthorhombic). Calcite is the most stable polymorph at standard conditions, whereas vaterite (hexagonal) is the least stable and only rarely found in these structures. Shells are characterized by organized structures and several micro architectures of mollusc shell structures have been identified: Nacre shows different types: columnar and bricked forms and consists of composite inorganic- organic at the nano-scale. They are well known to display a "brick and mortar" structure. By AFM and FIB/TEM methods it could be shown, that its nanostructure consists of the structures in the range of 50 - 100 nm [1, 2]. These structures are vesicles, consisting of CaCO3 and are individually coated by a membrane. Most probably, the mantle epithelian cells of the bivalve extrude CaCO3 vesicles. By Raman spectroscopic investigations the crystalline CaCO3 polymorphs calcite, aragonite and vaterite, as well as ACC were determined. For some species (Diplodon chilensis patagonicus, Hyriopsis cumingii) pure ACC (i.e. not intermingled with a crystalline phase) could be identified. The presence of an amorphous phase is generally deduced from the lack of definite lattice modes, whereas a broad Raman band in this region is to observe. In most of the cultured pearls (Pinctada maxima and genus Hyriopsis) the ν1-Raman band of ACC clearly displays an asymmetric shape and splits into two different bands according to a nanocrystalline and an amorphous fraction. The FWHMs of most of the crystalline fractions are too high for well crystallized materials and support the assumption of nanocrystalline calcium carbonate polymorph clusters in ACC. They are primarily composed of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) which is later transformed into a crystalline modification [3

  11. Embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, J D; Kilburn, K H

    2001-01-01

    mitochondria, lysosomes, and the endoplasmic reticulum. The alterations in enzymatic activity persisted 4 mo following birth. In addition, formaldehyde caused metabolic acidosis, which was augmented by iron deficiency. Furthermore, newborns exposed to formaldehyde in utero had abnormal performances in open-field tests. Disparities in teratogenic effects of toxic chemicals are not unusual. For example, chlorpyrifos has not produced teratogenic effects in rats when mothers are exposed on days 6-15 (Katakura Y, et al. Br J Ind Med 1993, pp 176-82 [reference 5 herein]) of gestation (Breslin WJ, et al. Fund Appl Toxicol 1996, pp 119-30; and Hanley TR, et al. Toxicol Sci 2000, pp 100-08 [references 6 and 7, respectively, herein]). However, either changing the endpoints for measurement or exposing neonates during periods of neurogenesis (days 1-14 following birth) and during subsequent developmental periods produced adverse effects. These effects included neuroapoptosis, decreased deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid synthesis, abnormalities in adenylyl cyclase cascade, and neurobehavioral effects (Johnson DE, et al. Brain Res Bull 1998, pp 143-47; Lassiter TL, et al. Toxicol Sci 1999, pp 92-100; Chakraborti TK, et al. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1993, pp 219-24; Whitney KD, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharm 1995, pp 53-62; Chanda SM, et al. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1996, pp 771-76; Dam K, et al. Devel Brain Res 1998, pp 39-45; Campbell CG, et al. Brain Res Bull 1997, pp 179-89; and Xong X, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharm 1997, pp 158-74 [references 8-15, respectively, herein]). Furthermore, the terata caused by thalidomide is a graphic human example in which the animal model and timing of exposure were key factors (Parman T, et al. Natl Med 1999, pp 582-85; and Brenner CA, et al. Mol Human Repro 1998, pp 887-92 [references 16 and 17, respectively, herein]). Thus, it appears that more sensitive endpoints (e.g., enzyme activity, generation of reactive oxygen species, timing of exposure) for the