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Sample records for pinctada imbricata mollusca

  1. Crecimiento y mortalidad de Pinctada imbricata (Mollusca: Pteridae en Guamachito, Península de Araya, Estado Sucre, Venezuela

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    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el crecimiento, la distribución de tallas y la mortalidad de una población de Pinctada imbricata en Guamachito, Península de Araya, Venezuela, entre enero y diciembre de 2000. Los muestreos se realizaron mensualmente sobre transeptos perpendiculares a la línea de la costa con una rastra artesanal, tomando también datos sobre temperatura, oxígeno disuelto y salinidad de la columna de agua. La distribución de tallas fue variable con un predominio de tallas entre 50 y 70 mm, que constituyeron el 75% de la población. La mayor cantidad de juveniles fue observada en marzo, cuando la longitud media en la población fue de 55.8 mm. Los promedios de los pesos húmedo y seco siguieron la misma tendencia, con valores mínimos en junio, julio, septiembre y octubre de 2000. Las relaciones longitud-peso húmedo y longitud-peso seco fueron altamente significativas (P < 0.05. Los parámetros de la ecuación de crecimiento estacionalizada de von Bertalanffy fueron L∞ = 85.15 mm; K = 1.42 año–1, ts = 0.2, y C = 0.20; indicando un crecimiento lento (WP = 0.42 en el periodo de julio a noviembre, asociado con los parámetros ambientales del área con una longevidad estimada en 3 años. La mortalidad total fue de 14.35 año para los individuos pequeños (10–36 mm y 3.45 año, para los individuos grandes (36–84 mm. La alta tasa de crecimiento de P. imbricata muestra ser una ventaja para considerarla como una especie con potencial para actividades de acuicultura en la región. El banco ostrícola presenta buenas condiciones para mantener una explotación pesquera sostenida, tomando en consideración parámetros pesqueros como la captura registrada, el esfuerzo óptimo, la talla mínima de extracción, la mortalidad por pesca y la mortalidad natural.

  2. Tinea imbricata or Tokelau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Archer-Dubon, Carla; Saúl, Amado

    2004-07-01

    Tinea imbricata (TI) or Tokelau is a superficial mycosis caused by Trichophyton concentricum, an anthropophilic dermatophyte. It is endemic in some islands of the South Pacific (Polynesia), South-East Asia, Central and South America, and Mexico, and is most often seen in individuals living in primitive and isolated conditions. The skin lesions are characteristically concentric and lamellar (imbricata: in Latin, tiled) plaques of scale. Predisposing conditions include humidity, inheritance, and immunologic factors. The diagnosis is usually made on clinical grounds, supported by skin scrapings and culture. Tokelau is a chronic and highly relapsing disease and, although no first-line treatment exists, best results are obtained with oral griseofulvin and terbinafine and a topical combination of keratolytic ointments, such as Whitfield's. TI is a disease model that allows the correlation of a series of environmental, genetic, immunologic, and therapeutic conditions.

  3. Tinea imbricata in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Vázquez-González, Denisse

    2011-04-01

    The aim is to provide an overview on tinea imbricata, or Tokelau, a superficial mycosis caused by Trichophyton concentricum, a strictly anthropophilic dermatophyte with a well-defined geographic distribution and predisposing factors that include genetic, racial and immunologic susceptibility patterns and a specific environment. This review covers the most interesting aspects of the infrequent disease tinea imbricata, including the historical background, the epidemiologic aspects, highlighting the genetic and racial patterns of susceptibility to the acquisition of the disease, and the immunologic aspects that help to explain its clinical behavior. We also present a clinical description of the disease, the differential diagnosis and how currently some other emerging diseases such as syphilis in immunocompromised patients can mimic tinea imbricata. The therapeutic options are still griseofulvin and nowadays terbinafine, but the access to the treatments in the endemic zones and the changes in habits of the affected population make control and prevention of the disease difficult. Tinea imbricata, or Tokelau, remains an infrequent superficial mycosis restricted to endemic zones in the South Pacific islands (Polynesia and Melanesia), South Asia and some specific areas of South America. Migration phenomena and global changes in the climate may modify the incidence and characteristics of the disease.

  4. Final critical habitat for the Hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) based on the description provided in...

  5. Final critical habitat for the Hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) based on the description provided in...

  6. New Isorhamnetin Derivatives from Salsola imbricata Forssk. Leaves with Distinct Anti-inflammatory Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, Samir M.; El Kashak, Walaa A.; Michael Wink; El Raey, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Salsola imbricata Forssk. is a shrub widely growing in Egypt, used as a camel food, traditionally, used as anti-inflammatory agent. Literature survey showed no report about the anti-inflammatory activity of S. imbricata. Aim of the Study: This work was designed to study the phenolic constituents and to provide evidence for the traditional use of S. imbricata as an anti-inflammatory agent. Materials and Methods: The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the total aqueous methanol ...

  7. One hundred years after Pinctada: an update on alien Mollusca in Tunisia

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    M. ANTIT

    2011-04-01

    The occurrence of aliens in Tunisia is balanced between presumably Lessepsian species of tropical Indo-Pacific origin, and species from other sources including species from the Tropical Atlantic introduced through shipping. Nevertheless there is a prevalence of Lessepsian species towards the Gulf of Gabes in the south, whereas the shipping activity in Tunis harbour may be the main pathway of introduction in the north.

  8. One hundred years after Pinctada: an update on alien Mollusca in Tunisia

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    M. ANTIT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrences of non-indigenous marine molluscs in Tunisia are reviewed, based booth on a literature survey and on original material. Species are accepted as established if there are two independent reports, either geographically separate or at least one month apart in time. On these grounds, 14 species are accepted (12 alien and 2 expanding their range from elsewhere in the Mediterranean, 3 aliens need confirmation but are likely to meet the standards for acceptation on a short future, and 5 records are rebutted or questioned. Two more species may be considered as cryptogenic, the reports are reliable but it is not clear indication that they are not indigenous. Two of the alien species are reported for the first time in Tunisian waters: the nudibranch Polycerella emertoni qualifies as established, and the bivalve Anadara transversa is tentatively identified from a juvenile live-taken specimen, which awaits further confirmation.The occurrence of aliens in Tunisia is balanced between presumably Lessepsian species of tropical Indo-Pacific origin, and species from other sources including species from the Tropical Atlantic introduced through shipping. Nevertheless there is a prevalence of Lessepsian species towards the Gulf of Gabes in the south, whereas the shipping activity in Tunis harbour may be the main pathway of introduction in the north.

  9. Kinds of nucleus for effective pearl cultivation of the pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata

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    Kanjanachatree, K.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Seeding is the most important aspect of pearl cultivation, and appropriate nucleus can determine the quality of a pearl : nacre secretion and accumulation around the nucleus. This affects harvest time, nucleus extrusion, survival rate of the pearl oysters and the production cost. In order to provide nuclei to substitute for those imported from China which are made from freshwater pearl oyster-shells, 3 kinds of the local shells of Pinctada fucata, Pteria penguin and Pinctada maxima were selected for seed production. The obtained nuclei have various diameters depend on the shell width at the hinge region. The average diameters are 5.44, 6.78, 7.54 and 6.10 mm, while their production costs are 5, 7.7, 18.5 and 7.5 baht per 1 nucleus, respectively, for Pinctada fucata, Pteria penguin, Pinctada maxima and freshwater pearl oysters (control group. After nucleus implantation into the gonad of culture pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata, and rearing in the sea, the obtained pearls using nuclei made from the shells of Pinctada fucata and Pinctada maxima (both belong to the same genus as the implanted culture pearl oysters have as good nacre formation as that from freshwater pearl oysters. In contrast, the pearl production using nuclei made from Pteria penguin-shells have significantly worse nacre formation. Survival rate of the culture oysters seeded with nuclei made from Pinctada fucata-shells is highest at 47%, nucleus extrusion 8% only, and harvest rate 31%; while with Pinctada maxima-shells, these values are 38%, 17.5% and 14%, respectively. So the nuclei made from local Pinctada fucata-shells are appropriate for pearl cultivation and are comparable to imported nuclei. Although the obtained pearls are small, the nuclei made from Pinctada fucata-shells have low cost, low nucleus extrusion and high productivity.

  10. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca - Bivalvia.

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    Araujo, Rafael; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. For the Mollusca-Bivalvia, data from 5 families (Margaritiferidae, Unionidae, Sphaeriidae, Cyrenidae, Dreissenidae) containing 55 species are included in this paper. European freshwater bivalves belong to the Orders Unionoida and Cardiida. All the European unionoids are included in the superfamily Unionoidea, the freshwater mussels or naiads. The European cardiids belong to the following three superfamilies: Cardioidea, Cyrenoidea and Dreissenoidea. Among the Unionoidea there are the most imperilled animal groups on the planet while the Cardioidea includes the cosmopolitan genus Pisidium, the Cyrenoidea the Asiatic clam (Corbiculafluminea) and the Dreissenoidea the famous invasive zebra mussel (Dreissenapolymorpha). Basic information is summarized on their taxonomy and biology. Tabulations include a complete list of the current estimated families, genera and species.

  11. PfSMAD4 plays a role in biomineralization and can transduce bone morphogenetic protein-2 signals in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mi; Shi, Yu; He, Maoxian; Huang, Xiande; Wang, Qi

    2016-04-26

    Mollusca is the second largest phylum in nature. The shell of molluscs is a remarkable example of a natural composite biomaterial. Biomineralization and how it affects mollusks is a popular research topic. The BMP-2 signaling pathway plays a canonical role in biomineralization. SMAD4 is an intracellular transmitter in the BMP signaling pathway in mammals, and some genomic data show SMAD4's involvement in BMP signaling in invertebrates, but whether SMAD4 plays a conservative role in pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata, still need to be tested. In this study, we identified a SMAD4 gene (hereafter designated PfSMAD4) in pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. Bioinformatics analysis of PfSMAD4 showed high identity with its orthologs. PfSMAD4 was located in the cytoplasm in immunofluorescence assays and analyses of PfSMAD4 mRNA in tissues and developmental stages showed high expression in ovaries and D-shaped larvae. An RNA interference experiment, performed by PfSMAD4 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) injection, demonstrated inhibition not only of nacre growth but also organic sheet formation with a decrease in PfSMAD4 expression. A knockdown experiment using PfBMP2 dsRNA showed decreased PfBMP2 and PfSMAD4 mRNA and irregular crystallization of the nacreous layer using scanning electron microscopy. In co-transfection experiments, PfBMP2-transactivated reporter constructs contained PfSMAD4 promoter sequences. Our results suggest that PfSMAD4 plays a role in biomineralization and can transduce BMP signals in P. fucata. Our data provides important clues about the molecular mechanisms that regulate biomineralization in pearl oyster.

  12. Photonic crystal type structure in bivalve ligament of Pinctada maxima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG GangSheng

    2007-01-01

    The dry ligament of Pinctada maxima normally appears black; however, it can exhibit striking blue structural colors after being wetted by water. The field-mission SEM investigation shows that the ligament is made of lamellae, which, about 35 μm thick, are made of proteins and aragonite fibers of about 78 nm in diameter. In each single lamella, the fibers are highly aligned characterized by a 2D photonic crystal type structure. According to measured reflective spectra and theoretical simulations, the dry and wet ligaments possess photonic stop band at ultraviolet and blue wavelengths, respectively, which are responsible for structural colorations of ligament.

  13. Production of Aneuploid Pinctada martensii Dunker in Tetraploid Induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何毛贤; 林岳光; 沈琪; 胡建兴; 姜卫国

    2001-01-01

    Aneuploidy embryos of Pinctada martensii Dunker are produced during tetraploid induction by inhibiting the first polar body in eggs from triploid fertilized with haploid sperms with cytochalasin B treatment. Chromosome analysis reveals that there are 88.18 ±6.79% aneuploidy embryos, and 28.70% aneuploids in pearl oysters of one-year age These aneuploids have five chromosomal conditions, such as 2n + 1(29), 2n + 2 (30), 3n-2 (40), 3n-1(41) and 3n + 1 (43). Results of growth measurement show that there is no significant difference between aneuploids (as a group) and diploids in body size and weight (p > 0.10), but the aneuploide is obviously different from triploid (p < 0.01). The mean body size and weight of aneuploids in diploid condition (2n ± 1 and 2n ± 2) are significantly smaller than those of diploids (p < 0.01),but aneuploids within triploid condition (3n ± 1 and 3n ± 2) are not smaller than diploids in body size and weight (p > 0.1).This study indicates Pinctada martensii Dunker could tolerate aneuploidy by 7 ~ 14% of the haploid genome, and that aneuploids of this species are viable under certain conditions.

  14. Patterns of sexual dimorphism in Mexican alligator lizards, Barisia imbricata

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    Dashevsky, Daniel; Meik, Jesse M; Mociño-Deloya, Estrella; Setser, Kirk; Schaack, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    We compare morphological characteristics of male and female Barisia imbricata, Mexican alligator lizards, and find that mass, head length, coloration, incidence of scars from conspecifics, tail loss, and frequency of bearing the color/pattern of the opposite sex are all sexually dimorphic traits. Overall size (measured as snout–vent length), on the other hand, is not different between the two sexes. We use data on bite scar frequency and fecundity to evaluate competing hypotheses regarding the selective forces driving these patterns. We contend that sexual selection, acting through male-male competition, may favor larger mass and head size in males, whereas large females are likely favored by natural selection for greater fecundity. In addition, the frequency of opposite-sex patterning in males versus females may indicate that the costs of agonistic interactions among males are severe enough to allow for an alternative mating strategy. Finally, we discuss how sexual and natural selective forces may interact to drive or mask the evolution of sexually dimorphic traits. PMID:23467394

  15. Antimicrobial and anticoagulant activities of the spine of stingray Himantura imbricata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaliyamoorthy Kalidasan; Velayudham Ravi; Sunil Kumar Sahu; Murugan Lakshmi Maheshwaran; Kathiresan Kandasamy

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the spine structure of stingray Himantura imbricata (H. imbricata) and to evaluate the anticoagulant properties of the spine extract obtained through various solvents extracts followed by antibacterial activity against human pathogens. Methods:Spines of H. imbricata were collected from Nagappattinam coast, Tamil Nadu, India and their spines were observed under the light microscope. The grounded spines were subjected to extraction of metabolites using methanol, ethanol, chloroform and acetone. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion technique against 10 human pathogens. Similarly, anticoagulant activity was also assessed by following United States Pharmacopeia method. Results:Light microscopic observation of spine revealed that the venom apparatus of the stingray H. imbricata consisted of two to three spines, glandular tissue and a sheath. The spine extract showed potent antibacterial activity against all tested pathogen. Maximum activity (14 mm) was found against Staphylococcus aureus. Crude extract showed 91.50 USP units/mg of anticoagulant activity. Conclusions: Microscopic observations gave new insight about the spine structure of the stingray. The spine extracts of H. imbricate showed potent activity against human pathogens revealed by the good zone of inhibition. Chloroform extracts conferred the most prominent antibacterial activity. The anticoagulant activity was also comparable with that of standard heparin.

  16. Antimicrobial and anticoagulant activities of the spine of stingray Himantura imbricata

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    Kaliyamoorthy Kalidasan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the spine structure of stingray Himantura imbricata (H. imbricata and to evaluate the anticoagulant properties of the spine extract obtained through various solvents extracts followed by antibacterial activity against human pathogens. Methods: Spines of H. imbricata were collected from Nagappattinam coast, Tamil Nadu, India and their spines were observed under the light microscope. The grounded spines were subjected to extraction of metabolites using methanol, ethanol, chloroform and acetone. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion technique against 10 human pathogens. Similarly, anticoagulant activity was also assessed by following United States Pharmacopeia method. Results: Light microscopic observation of spine revealed that the venom apparatus of the stingray H. imbricata consisted of two to three spines, glandular tissue and a sheath. The spine extract showed potent antibacterial activity against all tested pathogen. Maximum activity (14 mm was found against Staphylococcus aureus. Crude extract showed 91.50 USP units/mg of anticoagulant activity. Conclusions: Microscopic observations gave new insight about the spine structure of the stingray. The spine extracts of H. imbricate showed potent activity against human pathogens revealed by the good zone of inhibition. Chloroform extracts conferred the most prominent antibacterial activity. The anticoagulant activity was also comparable with that of standard heparin.

  17. Free radical scavenging property and antiproliferative activity of Rhodiola imbricata Edgew extracts in HT-29 human colon cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravichandran Senthilkumar; Thangaraj Parimelazhagan; Om Prakash Chaurasia; RB Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of rhizome extracts of Rhodiola imbricata (R. imbricata) in HT-29 human colon cancer cell line. Methods: The successively extracted rhizome of R. imbricata using various solvents was analyzed for their total phenolics, tannins and flavonoid contents. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by employing different assays, including DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging assays, FRAP, phosphomolybdenum reduction assay, superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical scavenging activities and metal chelating ability. Results: Acetone and methanol extracts recorded higher phenolic content and showed comparable antioxidant activity with standard reference. Additionally, they also inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells upon treatment at higher concentration (200 μg/mL) (acetone and methanol, 84% and 84%, respectively). On examination acetone extract exhibited antiproliferative activity in a concentration dependent manner whereas, methanol extract showed both dose dependent and time dependent inhibitory activity. Conclusions: The results obtained justify the traditional usage of R. imbricata from their promising antioxidant activity.

  18. Projeto de Turismo de Base Comunitária Tartaruga Imbricata, Brasil / Guiana Francesa Projet de tourisme à base communautaire Tartaruga Imbricata, Brésil /Guyane Tartaruga Imbricata community-based tourism project, Brazil / Guyana

    OpenAIRE

    Nádia Bandeira Sacenco Kornijezuk

    2012-01-01

    Em novembro de 2009, participei, durante nove dias, de uma experimentação de turismo chamada Projeto de Turismo de Base Comunitária Tartaruga Imbricata, numa rota de integração do Parque Nacional do Cabo Orange, no Brasil, com a Guiana Francesa. Essa viagem foi o primeiro trabalho de campo para a minha tese em Geografia e Gestão Ambiental (em andamento). Essa edição da experimentação visava propiciar a um grupo de gestores franceses, participantes de um seminário de cunho terapêutico chamado ...

  19. De tweekleppigen van het Noordzeekanaal (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaren, van T.; Tempelman, D.

    2006-01-01

    The bivalves of the Noordzeekanaal (Mollusca: Bivalvia) In recent years, the macrobenthos of the Noordzeekanaal area, west of Amsterdam, has been surveyed intensively. The area consists of a main, brackish channel and a set of deep sea harbours. It was discovered that several bivalve species were pr

  20. De weekdieren van de Nederlandse brakwatergebieden (Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The molluscs of the brackish waters in the Netherlands (Mollusca) The Netherlands is a river delta rich in brackish waters. The organisms in these waters need to be adapted to extreme conditions, especially large fluctuations in chlorinity. However, several species occur optimally in this habitat. I

  1. Effects of luteectomy in early pregnancy on the maintenance of gestation and plasma progesterone concentrations in the viviparous temperate lizard Barisia imbricata imbricata

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    Moreno-Fierros Leticia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown that the corpus luteum is the principal source of progesterone during the gravidity period in reptiles; however, its participation in the maintenance of gestation in the viviparous squamata is in dispute. The effects of ovariectomy or luteectomy vary according to the species and the time at which the procedure is performed. In this paper, we describe the effects of luteectomy during early pregnancy on the maintenance of gestation and progesterone concentrations in the temperate Mexican viviparous lizard Barisia imbricata imbricata. Methods Twenty-four lizards were subjected to three different treatments: luteectomy, sham luteectomy or non-surgical treatment, and blood samples were obtained before and after surgical treatment at different stages of gestation to determine the effects of luteectomy on the maintenance of gestation and progesterone concentrations. Results Spontaneous abortion was not observed in any of the females. However, luteectomy provoked abnormal parturition and a significant reduction in the number of young born alive. Parturition was normal in untreated females as well as those submitted to sham luteectomy. The surgical treatment also caused a significant reduction in progesterone concentrations in luteectomised females during early and middle gestation. However, no significant differences in hormone concentrations were observed among the three groups during late gestation or immediately post-parturition. Conclusions Our observations indicate that the presence of the corpus luteum is not necesary for the maintenance of gestation, but that it does participate in parturition control. Moreover, the corpus luteum of the viviparous lizard B. i. imbricata produces progesterone, at least during the first half of pregnancy, and that an extra-ovarian source of progesterone must maintain gestation in the absence of luteal tissue.

  2. Dendroecological potential of Fabiana imbricata shrub for reconstructing fire history at landscape scale in grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddi, Facundo; Ghermandi, Luciana; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2014-05-01

    Fire recurrently affects many of the terrestrial ecosystems causing major implications on the structure and dynamics of vegetation. In fire prone, it is particularly important to know the fire regime for which precise fire records are needed. Dendroecology offers the possibility of obtaining fire occurrence data from woody species and has been widely used in forest ecosystems for fire research. Grasslands are regions with no trees but shrubs could be used to acquire dendroecological information in order to reconstructing fire history at landscape scale. We studied the dendroecological potential of shrub F. imbricata to reconstruct fire history at landscape scale in a fire prone grassland of northwestern Patagonia. To do this, we combined spatio-temporal information of recorded fires within the study area with the age structure of F. imbricata shrublands derived by dendroecology. Sampling sites were located over 2500 ha in San Ramón ranch, 30 km east from Bariloche, Río Negro province, Argentina (latitude -41° 04'; longitude -70° 51'). Shrubland age structure correctly described how fires occurred in the past. Pulses of individuals' recruitment were associated with fire in time and space. A bi-variate analysis showed that F. imbricata recruits individuals during the two years after fire and spatial distribution of pulses coincided with the fire map. In sites without fire data, the age structure allowed the identification of two additional fires. Our results show that shrub F. imbricata can be employed with other data sources such as remote sensing and operational databases to improve knowledge on fire regime in northwestern Patagonia grasslands. In conclusion, we raise the possibility of utilizing shrubs as a dendroecological data source to study fire history in grasslands where tree cover is absent.

  3. Occurrence of jasmonates during cystocarp development in the red alga Grateloupia imbricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilar, Garcia-Jimenez; Olegario, Brito-Romano; Rafael, Robaina R

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we highlight the effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) on cystocarp development in the red macroscopic alga Grateloupia imbricata. In G. imbricata, jasmonate release is related to the reproductive state, as fertile thalli (i.e., those that have cystocarps) released significant amounts of this volatile compound (1.27 ± 0.20 mM · mg fw(-1)  · h(-1) ) compared with infertile thalli (0.95 ± 0.12 mM · mg fw(-1)  · h(-1) ). Treating G. imbricata thalli with MeJa revealed a significant increase in cystocarp number (1.5 ± 0.27 cystocarps · mm(-2) ), which was ~7.5-fold greater than in untreated thalli (0.2 ± 0.07 cystocarps · mm(-2) ). Maturation was completed within 48 h with MeJa treatment, a shortening of the typical >3-week maturation period, and included the opening of cystocarps and the presence of dehiscent cavities. Release rates of jasmonates after exogenous MeJa treatment were also modified based on the cystocarp maturation level. All of these effects were reduced in the presence of phenidone, which blocks MeJa production, indicating that the MeJa action is genuine. The effects of MeJa during cystocarp maturation were not replicated by derivatives of reactive oxygen species from the same jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathway, as the activities of scavenger enzymes and lipid peroxidation were unchanged between infertile and fertile thalli. Therefore, a reactive oxygen species-based mechanism is not involved during cystocarp development. We conclude that MeJa has an independent function as a growth regulator during G. imbricata reproduction. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  4. Spatial dynamics of Fabiana imbricata shrublands in northwestern Patagonia in relation to natural fires

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    L. Ghermandi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a critical disturbance in the structuring and functioning of most Mediterranean ecosystems. In northwestern Patagonia, vegetation patterns are strongly influenced by fire and environmental heterogeneity. Dendroecology, together with satellite imagery and GIS, have been demonstrated to be useful tools in studies that relate to fire effects with patches, patterns and species dynamics at landscape scale. Such studies can be approached from landscape ecology, which has evolved in the last years supported by the development of remote sensing and GIS technologies. This study evaluates the spatial dynamic of F. imbricata in response to fire using remote sensing, GIS and dendrochronology techniques, at landscape scale. Two sites were evaluated and one of them was affected by fire in the year 1999. The digital processing images (using the NBR spectral index and the dendroecological analysis verified this. A fire, occurring in 1978, was also detected by the analysis of F. imbricata growth rings. The relation between F. imbricata shrubland dynamics and spatial configuration with fire, land topography and hydrography was established in the study area.

  5. Spermiogenesis in the imbricate alligator lizard, Barisia imbricata (Reptilia, Squamata, Anguidae).

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    Gribbins, Kevin M; Rheubert, Justin L; Touzinsky, Katherine; Hanover, Jessica; Matchett, Caroline L; Granados-González, Gisela; Hernández-Gallegos, Oswaldo

    2013-06-01

    Although the events of spermiogenesis are commonly studied in amniotes, the amount of research available for Squamata is lacking. Many studies have described the morphological characteristics of mature spermatozoa in squamates, but few detail the ultrastructural changes that occur during spermiogenesis. This study's purpose is to gain a better understanding of the subcellular events of spermatid development within the Imbricate Alligator Lizard, Barisia imbricata. The morphological data presented here represent the first complete ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis within the family Anguidae. Samples of testes from four specimens collected on the northwest side of the Nevado de Toluca, México, were prepared using standard techniques for transmission electron microscopy. Many of the ultrastructural changes occurring during spermiogenesis within B. imbricata are similar to that of other squamates (i.e., early acrosome formation, chromatin condensation, flagella formation, annulus present, and a prominent manchette). However, there are a few unique characteristics within B. imbricata spermatids that to date have not been described during spermiogenesis in other squamates. For example, penetration of the acrosomal granule into the subacrosomal space to form the basal plate of the perforatorium during round spermatid development, the clover-shaped morphology of the developing nuclear fossa of the flagellum, and the bulbous shape to the perforatorium are all unique to the Imbricate Alligator Lizard. These anatomical character differences may be valuable nontraditional data that along with more traditional matrices (such as DNA sequences and gross morphological data) may help elucidate phylogenetic relationships, which are historically considered controversial within Squamata.

  6. Does the conceptus of the viviparous lizard Barisia imbricata imbricata participates in the regulation of progesterone production and the control of luteolysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Torres, Martín; Salcedo-Álvarez, Martha; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Carmen; Cárdenas-León, Mario; Luis, Juana; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia

    2014-08-01

    It is generally accepted that progesterone is necessary to maintain gestation; however, the mechanisms that control the production of this steroid remain unknown. The corpus luteum has been assigned a central role in the maintenance of gestation based on its capacity to produce progesterone. A pseudopregnancy model was performed in a viviparous lizard, Barisia imbricata imbricata, to determine whether the absence of embryos would affect the pattern of progesterone production or the corpus luteum histology. Blood samples were obtained prior to ovulation and at 8, 16, and 24 weeks after ovulation (pseudopregnant and pregnant lizards), as well as one day after parturition (pregnant lizards) or 32 weeks after ovulation (pseudopregnant lizards). The corpus luteum was surgically removed one day after blood samples were obtained. Blood aliquots from nongravid females were obtained at similar timepoints. We found a significant reduction in plasma progesterone concentrations at 24 and 32 weeks post-ovulation in pseudopregnant lizards compared with those observed at similar times in intact pregnant lizards, whereas the progesterone levels in non-gestant lizards remained significantly lower than in either pseudopregnant or pregnant lizards. Moreover, we observed that the histological appearance of the corpus luteum from pseudogestational females (obtained 24 and 32 weeks post-ovulation) differed from the corpora lutea from lizards in late gestation and intact parturient lizards. These observations suggest that the conceptus participates in the regulation of progesterone production in late gestation and also in luteolysis control.

  7. Spirorchiids (Digenea: Spirorchiidae infecting a Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus 1758 from Brazil Spirorchiids (Digenea: Spirorchiidae infectando uma tartaruga marinha de pente Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus 1758 no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Werneck

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Amphiorchis caborojoensis Fischthal & Acholonu 1976 and Carettacola stunkardi Martin & Bamberger 1952 in a young specimen of Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus 1758 in Brazil was reported. Five A. caborojoensis trematodes were found in the small intestine (n=2 and liver (n=3, and two adult C. stunkardi specimens were collected from body wash. This is the first report of parasites of E. imbricata in Brazilian waters and Southwestern Atlantic Ocean and the second report of members of the Spirorchiidae family in that region. In addition, E. imbricata is a new host recorded for C. stunkardi.Relata-se a ocorrência de Amphiorchis caborojoensis Fischthal & Acholonu 1976 e Carettacola stunkardi Martin e Bamberger 1952, em um exemplar juvenil de tartaruga marinha de pente Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus 1758 no Brasil. Foram coletados cinco trematódeos da espécie A. caborojoensis, dois no intestino delgado e três no fígado e dois exemplares adultos de C. stunkardi no lavado corporal. Destes apenas a espécie A. caborojoensis já tinha sido relatada como parasita dessa espécie de quelônio marinho. Esta é a primeira descrição de parasitas em E. imbricata em águas brasileiras e na área do Atlântico Sul Ocidental, e o segundo relato de membros da família Spirorchiidae na mesma região.

  8. [Gonadic histology and phenotypical maturation criteria in the marine turtles Chelonia mydas and Eretmochelys imbricata (Testudines: Chelonidae) from Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Emir; Ruiz, Ariel; Espinosa, Georgina; Lee, Idania

    2010-03-01

    Gonad maturity is usually evaluated through macroscopic analysis of the gonads. In sea turtles, the maturation stages are associated with body size, depending on the studied marine stock. Fishermen classify turtles bigger than 65.0 cm as sexually mature. If they have secondary sex characters they are recorded as breeding males. We compared body size with macroscopic and microscopic gonad characteristics in two Cuban turtles. Eighteen individuals of C. mydas and twenty of E. imbricata was obtained from the legal fishery stock of Jardines del Rey Archipelago (Cuba), from October 2005 and 2006. In males, breeding condition (maximum spermiogenesis) was checked by histological analysis of the testes. In females, sexual maturity was identified by the presence of vitellogenic follicles or ovarian corpora. Most males were immature (C. mydas: 79.0 cm; E. imbricata: 73.1+/-4.9 cm, n=3) and lacked secondary sex characters. Some E. imbricata without a developed penis were in spermatogenic stages II to IV (i.e. pubescent). Most females were immature (C. mydas: 79.6+/-7.7 cm, n=17; E. imbricata: 69.0+/-7.1 cm, n=16; i.e.prepubescent and pubescent. The prepubescent females had ovaries with previtellogenic follicles near 1.0 mm in a compact and yellowish stroma. The pubescent females had ovaries with previtellogenic follicles between 2.0 and 3.0 mm. The stroma was more loosened and irrigated than in prepubescent turtles. The finding of spermatogenic activity in pubescent males indicates asynchrony between testicular and penial development in E. imbricata. The current phenotypical approach used by fishermen is not enough to determine sexual maturation in these turtles. The minimal size tentatively should be changed to: C. mydas: above 93.0 cm and E. imbricata above 79.0 cm.

  9. Chemometric profile of root extracts of Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. with hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometric technique.

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    Amol B Tayade

    Full Text Available Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. (Rose root or Arctic root or Golden root or Shrolo, belonging to the family Crassulaceae, is an important food crop and medicinal plant in the Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert. Chemometric profile of the n-hexane, chloroform, dichloroethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and 60% ethanol root extracts of R. imbricata were performed by hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS technique. GC/MS analysis was carried out using Thermo Finnigan PolarisQ Ion Trap GC/MS MS system comprising of an AS2000 liquid autosampler. Interpretation on mass spectrum of GC/MS was done using the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Database, with NIST MS search program v.2.0g. Chemometric profile of root extracts revealed the presence of 63 phyto-chemotypes, among them, 1-pentacosanol; stigmast-5-en-3-ol, (3β,24S; 1-teracosanol; 1-henteracontanol; 17-pentatriacontene; 13-tetradecen-1-ol acetate; methyl tri-butyl ammonium chloride; bis(2-ethylhexyl phthalate; 7,8-dimethylbenzocyclooctene; ethyl linoleate; 3-methoxy-5-methylphenol; hexadecanoic acid; camphor; 1,3-dimethoxybenzene; thujone; 1,3-benzenediol, 5-pentadecyl; benzenemethanol, 3-hydroxy, 5-methoxy; cholest-4-ene-3,6-dione; dodecanoic acid, 3-hydroxy; octadecane, 1-chloro; ethanone, 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl; α-tocopherol; ascaridole; campesterol; 1-dotriacontane; heptadecane, 9-hexyl were found to be present in major amount. Eventually, in the present study we have found phytosterols, terpenoids, fatty acids, fatty acid esters, alkyl halides, phenols, alcohols, ethers, alkanes, and alkenes as the major group of phyto-chemotypes in the different root extracts of R. imbricata. All these compounds identified by GC/MS analysis were further investigated for their biological activities and it was found that they possess a diverse range of positive pharmacological actions. In future, isolation of individual phyto-chemotypes and subjecting them to biological activity will definitely prove fruitful

  10. Extensible byssus of Pinctada fucata: Ca2+-stabilized nanocavities and a thrombospondin-1 protein

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang Liu; Shiguo Li; Jingliang Huang; Yangjia Liu; Ganchu Jia; Liping Xie; Rongqing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The extensible byssus is produced by the foot of bivalve animals, including the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, and enables them to attach to hard underwater surfaces. However, the mechanism of their extensibility is not well understood. To understand this mechanism, we analyzed the ultrastructure, composition and mechanical properties of the P. fucata byssus using electron microscopy, elemental analysis, proteomics and mechanical testing. In contrast to the microstructures of Mytilus sp. byssu...

  11. Projeto de Turismo de Base Comunitária Tartaruga Imbricata, Brasil / Guiana Francesa

    OpenAIRE

    Kornijezuk, Nádia Bandeira Sacenco

    2012-01-01

    Em novembro de 2009, participei, durante nove dias, de uma experimentação de turismo chamada Projeto de Turismo de Base Comunitária Tartaruga Imbricata, numa rota de integração do Parque Nacional do Cabo Orange, no Brasil, com a Guiana Francesa. Essa viagem foi o primeiro trabalho de campo para a minha tese em Geografia e Gestão Ambiental (em andamento). Essa edição da experimentação visava propiciar a um grupo de gestores franceses, participantes de um seminário de cunho terapêutico chamado ...

  12. The diversity of shell matrix proteins: genome-wide investigation of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Endo, Hirotoshi; Hashimoto, Naoki; Limura, Kurin; Isowa, Yukinobu; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Masaoka, Tetsuji; Miki, Takumi; Nakayama, Seiji; Nogawa, Chihiro; Notazawa, Atsuto; Ohmori, Fumito; Sarashina, Isao; Suzuki, Michio; Takagi, Ryousuke; Takahashi, Jun; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Yokoo, Naoki; Satoh, Nori; Toyohara, Haruhiko; Miyashita, Tomoyuki; Wada, Hiroshi; Samata, Tetsuro; Endo, Kazuyoshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Asakawa, Shuichi; Watabe, Shugo

    2013-10-01

    In molluscs, shell matrix proteins are associated with biomineralization, a biologically controlled process that involves nucleation and growth of calcium carbonate crystals. Identification and characterization of shell matrix proteins are important for better understanding of the adaptive radiation of a large variety of molluscs. We searched the draft genome sequence of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata and annotated 30 different kinds of shell matrix proteins. Of these, we could identified Perlucin, ependymin-related protein and SPARC as common genes shared by bivalves and gastropods; however, most gastropod shell matrix proteins were not found in the P. fucata genome. Glycinerich proteins were conserved in the genus Pinctada. Another important finding with regard to these annotated genes was that numerous shell matrix proteins are encoded by more than one gene; e.g., three ACCBP-like proteins, three CaLPs, five chitin synthase-like proteins, two N16 proteins (pearlins), 10 N19 proteins, two nacreins, four Pifs, nine shematrins, two prismalin-14 proteins, and 21 tyrosinases. This diversity of shell matrix proteins may be implicated in the morphological diversity of mollusc shells. The annotated genes reported here can be searched in P. fucata gene models version 1.1 and genome assembly version 1.0 ( http://marinegenomics.oist.jp/pinctada_fucata ). These genes should provide a useful resource for studies of the genetic basis of biomineralization and evaluation of the role of shell matrix proteins as an evolutionary toolkit among the molluscs.

  13. First record of hybridization between green Chelonia mydas and hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata sea turtles in the Southeast Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelez, Shaleyla; Velez-Zuazo, Ximena; Pacheco, Aldo S

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization among sea turtle species has been widely reported in the Atlantic Ocean, but their detection in the Pacific Ocean is limited to just two individual hybrid turtles, in the northern hemisphere. Herein, we report, for the first time in the southeast Pacific, the presence of a sea turtle hybrid between the green turtle Chelonia mydas and the hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata. This juvenile sea turtle was captured in northern Peru (4°13'S; 81°10'W) on the 5(th) of January, 2014. The individual exhibited morphological characteristics of C. mydas such as dark green coloration, single pair of pre-frontal scales, four post-orbital scales, and mandibular median ridge, while the presence of two claws in each frontal flipper, and elongated snout resembled the features of E. imbricata. In addition to morphological evidence, we confirmed the hybrid status of this animal using genetic analysis of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I, which revealed that the hybrid individual resulted from the cross between a female E. imbricata and a male C. mydas. Our report extends the geographical range of occurrence of hybrid sea turtles in the Pacific Ocean, and is a significant observation of interspecific breeding between one of the world's most critically endangered populations of sea turtles, the east Pacific E. imbricata, and a relatively healthy population, the east Pacific C. mydas.

  14. First record of hybridization between green Chelonia mydas and hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata sea turtles in the Southeast Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaleyla Kelez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybridization among sea turtle species has been widely reported in the Atlantic Ocean, but their detection in the Pacific Ocean is limited to just two individual hybrid turtles, in the northern hemisphere. Herein, we report, for the first time in the southeast Pacific, the presence of a sea turtle hybrid between the green turtle Chelonia mydas and the hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata. This juvenile sea turtle was captured in northern Peru (4°13′S; 81°10′W on the 5th of January, 2014. The individual exhibited morphological characteristics of C. mydas such as dark green coloration, single pair of pre-frontal scales, four post-orbital scales, and mandibular median ridge, while the presence of two claws in each frontal flipper, and elongated snout resembled the features of E. imbricata. In addition to morphological evidence, we confirmed the hybrid status of this animal using genetic analysis of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I, which revealed that the hybrid individual resulted from the cross between a female E. imbricata and a male C. mydas. Our report extends the geographical range of occurrence of hybrid sea turtles in the Pacific Ocean, and is a significant observation of interspecific breeding between one of the world’s most critically endangered populations of sea turtles, the east Pacific E. imbricata, and a relatively healthy population, the east Pacific C. mydas.

  15. Soluble organic matrices of the calcitic prismatic shell layers of two Pteriomorphid bivalves. Pinna nobilis and Pinctada margaritifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, Yannicke

    2003-04-25

    The calcitic prisms of the shells of two bivalves, Pinna and Pinctada, are considered simple prisms according to some morphological and mineralogical characteristics. Scanning electron microscopic and atomic force microscopic studies show that the microstructures and nanostructures of these two shells are different. Pinna prisms are monocrystalline, whereas Pinctada prisms are not. Moreover, intraprismatic membranes are present only in the Pinctada prisms. The soluble organic matrices extracted from these prisms are acidic, but their bulk compositions differ. Ultraviolet and infrared spectrometries, fluorescence, high pressure liquid chromatography, and electrophoresis show that the sugar-protein ratios and the molecular weights are different. Sulfur is mainly associated with acidic sulfated sugars, not with amino acids, and the role of acidic sulfated sugars is still underestimated. Thus, the simple prism concept is not a relevant model for the biomineralization processes in the calcitic prismatic layer of mollusk shells.

  16. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and toxic potential of extracts and triterpenes isolated from Maytenus imbricata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Vanessa G.; Duarte, Lucienir P.; Silva, Gracia D.F.; Silva, Fernando C.; Goes, Jefferson V.; Takahashi, Jacqueline A.; Pimenta, Lucia P.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Vieira Filho, Sidney A., E-mail: vanessa.greg@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Escola de Farmacia. Dept. de Farmacia

    2012-07-01

    The phyto chemical study of hexane/ethyl ether (1:1) extract of the roots of M. imbricata, Celastraceae, resulted in the isolation and characterization of six known triterpenes: 11{alpha}-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-3-one, previously isolated from this species besides, 3{beta},11{alpha}-di-hydroxylup-20(29)-ene, 3,7-dioxofriedelane, 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane, tingenone and 6-oxo-tingenol. The chemical structures of these triterpenes were established by spectrometric data (IR, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR) and through comparison with literature data. The hexane/ethyl ether (1:1), ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, and 11{alpha}-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-3-one, tingenone and 6-oxo-tingenol, showed antimicrobial properties on in vitro assays. All extracts and triterpenes, except 3{beta},11{alpha}-di-hydroxylup-20(29)-ene, presented toxicity demonstrated by the larvicidal effect test using Artemia salina. (author)

  17. Predator-prey interactions and community structure: chironomids, mosquitoes and copepods in Heliconia imbricata (Musaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Shahid

    1988-11-01

    Evidence from both field observations and experimental work indicates that predation by larvae of a midge, Pentaneura n. sp. (Chironomidae), causes the low densities of mosquito larvae (Culicidae) found in the water filled bracts of Heliconia imbricata (Musaceae), microhabitats typically colonized by mosquitoes. This predation affects 2 species of mosquitoes, Wyeomyia pseudopecten, a resident species, and Trichoprosopon digitatum, a non-resident species. Predation keeps resident mosquito densities low while completely excluding the nonresident mosquito from the habitat. Both these effects of predation depend on the presence of an abundant alternative prey, an undescribed species of harpacticoid copepod found in the bracts. These copepod prey sustain chironomids when resident mosquito densities are low, permiting predator densities to remain high enough to exclude the non-resident mosquito. I discuss the evolutionary and ecological implications of predation structuring communities.

  18. Plasma biochemical and PCV ranges for healthy, wild, immature hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, S D; Guinea, M L; Fomiatti, K; Flint, M; Limpus, C J

    2014-06-14

    In recent years, the use of blood chemistry as a diagnostic tool for sea turtles has been demonstrated, but much of its effectiveness relies on reference intervals. The first comprehensive blood chemistry values for healthy wild hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) sea turtles are presented. Nineteen blood chemistry analytes and packed cell volume were analysed for 40 clinically healthy juvenile hawksbill sea turtles captured from a rocky reef habitat in northern Australia. We used four statistical approaches to calculate reference intervals and to investigate their use with non-normal distributions and small sample sizes, and to compare upper and lower limits between methods. Eleven analytes were correlated with curved carapace length indicating that body size should be considered when designing future studies and interpreting analyte values.

  19. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and toxic potential of extracts and triterpenes isolated from Maytenus imbricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa G. Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical study of hexane/ethyl ether (1:1 extract of the roots of M. imbricata, Celastraceae, resulted in the isolation and characterization of six known triterpenes: 11α-hydroxylup-20(29-en-3-one, previously isolated from this species besides, 3β,11α-di-hydroxylup-20(29-ene, 3,7-dioxofriedelane, 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane, tingenone and 6-oxo-tingenol. The chemical structures of these triterpenes were established by spectrometric data (IR, ¹H and 13C NMR and through comparison with literature data. The hexane/ethyl ether (1:1, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, and 11α-hydroxylup-20(29-en-3-one, tingenone and 6-oxo-tingenol, showed antimicrobial properties on in vitro assays. All extracts and triterpenes, except 3β,11α-di-hydroxylup-20(29-ene, presented toxicity demonstrated by the larvicidal effect test using Artemia salina.

  20. Factors affecting hematology and plasma biochemistry in the southwest carpet python (Morelia spilota imbricata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Gillian L; Fleming, Patricia A; Twomey, Leanne; Warren, Kristin A

    2012-04-01

    Despite increased worldwide popularity of keeping reptiles as pets, we know little about hematologic and biochemical parameters of most reptile species, or how these measures may be influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Blood samples from 43 wild-caught pythons (Morelia spilota imbricata) were collected at various stages of a 3-yr ecological study in Western Australia. Reference intervals are reported for 35 individuals sampled at the commencement of the study. As pythons were radiotracked for varying lengths of time (radiotransmitters were surgically implanted), repeated sampling was undertaken from some individuals. However, because of our ad hoc sampling design we cannot be definitive about temporal factors that were most important or that exclusively influenced blood parameters. There was no significant effect of sex or the presence of a hemogregarine parasite on blood parameters. Erythrocyte measures were highest for pythons captured in the jarrah forest and at the stage of radiotransmitter implantation, which was also linked with shorter time in captivity. Basophil count, the only leukocyte influenced by the factors tested, was highest when the python was anesthetized, as was globulin concentration. Albumin and the albumin:globulin ratio were more concentrated in summer (as was phosphorous) and at the initial stage of radiotransmitter placement (as was calcium). No intrinsic or extrinsic factors influenced creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, uric acid, or total protein. This study demonstrates that factors including season, location, surgical radiotransmitter placement, and anesthetic state can influence blood parameters of M. s. imbricata. For accurate diagnosis, veterinarians should be aware that the current reference intervals used to identify the health status of individuals for this species are outdated and the interpretation and an understanding of the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors are limited.

  1. Tinea imbricata: autosomal dominant pattern of susceptibility in a polygamous indigenous family of the Nahuatl zone in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, A; Araiza, J; Koffman-Alfaro, Susana; Paredes-Solis, Vanessa; Cuevas-Covarrubias, S; Rivera, M R

    2004-08-01

    We report on 9 confirmed cases of tinea imbricata (Tokelau, infection due to Trichophyton concentricum) out of 16 family members. They had a common mother with three different fathers. The genetic analysis of the family suggests an autosomal dominant pattern of susceptibility. Most cases (8/9) were presented as concentric and lamellar forms. One patient also had onychomycosis due to T. concentricum. Only two out of nine cases had a positive response to trichophytin.

  2. Characterization of the pearl oyster (Pinctada martensii) mantle transcriptome unravels biomineralization genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yaohua; Yu, Chengcheng; Gu, Zhifeng; Zhan, Xin; Wang, Yan; Wang, Aimin

    2013-04-01

    Pearl oyster, Pinctada martensii, is a marine bivalve species widely distributed in tropic and subtropic marine coasts. Mantle is the special tissue of P. martensii that secretes biomineralization proteins inducing shell deposition as well as iridescent nacre both in the inner shell and artificial nucleus. The pearl oyster is very efficient for artificial pearl production and is therefore an ideal organism for studies into the processes of biomineralization. However, deficiency of transcriptome information limits the insight into biomineralization mechanisms and pearl formation. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the P. martensii mantle transcriptome using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 25,723 unique transcripts were assembled from 220,824 quality reads, followed by annotation and Gene Ontology classification analysis. A total of 146 unique transcript segments homologous to 49 reference biomineralization genes were identified, including calcineurin-binding protein, amorphous calcium carbonate binding protein 1, calmodulin, calponin-like protein, carbonic anhydrase 1, glycine-rich shell matrix protein, lysine-rich matrix protein, mantle gene or protein, nacrein, pearlin, PIF, regucalcin, and shematrin. The sequence data enabled the identification of 10,285 potential single nucleotide polymorphism loci and 7,836 putative indels, providing a resource for molecular biomarker, population genetics, and functional genomic studies. A large number of candidate genes for biomineralization were identified, considerably enriching resources for the study of shell formation. These sequence data will notably advance biomineralization and transcriptome study in pearl oyster and other Pinctada species.

  3. FMRFamide and related peptides in the phylum mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vera, Estuardo; Aguilar, Manuel B; Heimer de la Cotera, Edgar P

    2008-02-01

    FMRFamide is one of the well-known peptides studied within the phylum Mollusca. It was first isolated from the clam Macrocallista nimbosa during the end of the 1960s. Since then, a number of reports related to FMRFamide have been published from different experimental approaches, revealing that it and its related peptides (FaRPs) are implicated in a variety of physiological processes. As this year is the 30th anniversary since its discovery, this review focuses on diverse findings related to both FMRFamide and FaRPs in the phylum Mollusca.

  4. Projeto de Turismo de Base Comunitária Tartaruga Imbricata, Brasil / Guiana Francesa Projet de tourisme à base communautaire Tartaruga Imbricata, Brésil /Guyane Tartaruga Imbricata community-based tourism project, Brazil / Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Bandeira Sacenco Kornijezuk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Em novembro de 2009, participei, durante nove dias, de uma experimentação de turismo chamada Projeto de Turismo de Base Comunitária Tartaruga Imbricata, numa rota de integração do Parque Nacional do Cabo Orange, no Brasil, com a Guiana Francesa. Essa viagem foi o primeiro trabalho de campo para a minha tese em Geografia e Gestão Ambiental (em andamento. Essa edição da experimentação visava propiciar a um grupo de gestores franceses, participantes de um seminário de cunho terapêutico chamado “Descobrir-se em terras desconhecidas”, a oportunidade de viver alguns dias em condições materiais rudimentares em uma natureza inóspita, convivendo com comunidades locais. A experiência incluiu: travessias em catraias, trechos em botes infláveis, viagens de camionete em rodovias perigosas, e o melhor: longos trechos de rio a bordo do barco Peixe – Boi, que se tornaria nosso hotel, meio de transporte, refeitório e palco de intensas sessões do seminário Se découvrir en terres inconnues. De forma geral a experimentação mostrou resultado positivo. Concluí que o turismo de base comunitária, da forma como foi realizado no Parque Nacional do Cabo Orange, teve dois efeitos principais: a experiência singular de conviver com comunidades ribeirinhas e o  aprofundamento das relações entre o parque nacional e o seu entorno. Ao final, anexei trechos de entrevistas realizadas com moradores de comunidades ribeirinhas vizinhas do parque nacional e também de um documento raro encontrado nesta viagem: um levantamento sócio-cultural de uma das comunidades, realizado por professores de História e alunos da escola da Vila Velha do Cassiporé.En novembre 2009, j’ai participé, pendant neuf jours, à un projet appelé “Projet de tourisme à base communautaire Tartaruga Imbricata”, un parcours intégré entre le Parc National Cabo Orange au Brésil et la Guyane française. Ce voyage a été le premier travail de terrain pour ma thèse en

  5. Population Study of the Hawksbill Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (Cheloniidae in the Southern Pacific region of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tobón-López

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine biological and ecological population characteristics of the hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata found in the southern Colombian Pacific department of Cauca. Morphometric measurements were recorded, the health status of individuals was reviewed, and blood samples were taken for a biochemistry assessment. During the seven months of the investigation, 25 hawksbill turtles were caught (16 different individuals on the reefs of Gorgona Natural National Park. Forty-six percent of the total numbers of turtles assessed were recaptured during the study period. While no obvious health problems were noted, most animals possessed epibionts and filamentous algae covering the carapace, some parts of the limbs, as well as on their neck. Curved carapace length (CCL showed the highest proportion of individuals were between 37 and 45 cm. Sixteen individuals captured in Gorgona Natural National Park were compared with 11 individuals captured in the coastal zone of the department of Cauca. Using the Mann-Whitney U test, a significant difference in CCL was found between these two groups; the animals from Gorgona National Park were larger than those present on the coast of the mainland (Z = -2.59, p = 0.007. Uric acid concentrations were found to be higher than previously referenced values. ESTUDIO POBLACIONAL DE LA TORTUGA CAREY Eretmochelys imbricata (CHELONIIDAE EN EL PACÍFICO SUR DE COLOMBIAEl objetivo de esta investigación fue conocer aspectos poblacionales, biológicos y ecológicos de las tortugas carey (Eretmochelys imbricata presentes en el Pacífico sur de Colombia (Departamento del Cauca, para esto se tomó información de morfometría, se revisó el estado de salud de los individuos y  se tomaron muestras de sangre para valoración de química sanguínea. Durante siete meses de muestreo se capturaron 25 tortugas carey (16 individuos diferentes en los arrecifes del Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona

  6. De nauwe korfslak Vertigo angustior in Nederland (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyne, de R.

    2002-01-01

    The narrow whorlsnail Vertigo angustior in the Netherlands (Mollusca: Gastropoda) In June and July 2001, a special survey was held in several coastal areas in the province of Zuid- Holland, the Netherlands. The main objective was retrieving additional data on the occurrence of Vertigo angustior

  7. The Holocene and Recent marine Bivalve Mollusca of Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1968-01-01

    As the preparation of an annotated check list of the marine Mollusca of Surinam (Dutch Guiana) will take some more years, it was thought appropriate to publish a preliminary report on the bivalves. This report consists of a list of 126 species with a few notes containing, i.a., the description of se

  8. Bibliographie der Flussperlmuschel Margaritifera Margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungbluth, J.H.; Coomans, H.E.; Grohs, H.

    1985-01-01

    Bibliography of the freshwater Pearlmussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda] The freshwater pearlmussel, described by Linnaeus as Mya margaritifera is one of the most important molluscs existing. It belongs with only a few congeneric fossil and recent species to the

  9. Efficient establishment of primary fibroblast cultures from the hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Tomokazu; Kurita, Jun; Saito, Tomomi; Yuasa, Kei; Kurita, Masanobu; Donai, Kenichiro; Nitto, Hiroshi; Soichi, Makoto; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Uchida, Takafumi; Isogai, Emiko; Onuma, Manabu; Sone, Hideko; Oseko, Norihisa; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2012-12-01

    The hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) is a critically endangered species at a risk of extinction. Preservation of the genomic and cellular information of endangered animals is important for future genetic and biological studies. Here, we report the efficient establishment of primary fibroblast cultures from skin tissue of the hawksbill sea turtle. We succeeded in establishing 19 primary cultures from 20 hawksbill sea turtle individuals (a success rate of 95%). These cells exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology and grew optimally at a temperature of 26°C, but experienced a loss of viability when cultured at 37°C. Chromosomal analysis using the primary cells derived here revealed that hawksbill sea turtles have a 2n = 56 karyotype. Furthermore, we showed that our primary cell cultures are free of several fish-related viruses, and this finding is important for preservation purposes. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe primary cell cultures established from normal tissues of the hawksbill sea turtle. The results will contribute to the preservation of biodiversity, especially for the sea turtles that are critically endangered owing to human activities.

  10. Iridescent color of a shell of the mollusk pinctada margaritifera caused by diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Shigley, J; Hurwit, K

    1999-03-01

    Shells and pearls often show iridescent color. The cause of this phenomenon has been attributed to diffraction, both diffraction and interference, or interference alone. We used a shell of the mollusk Pinctada margaritifera, which shows very strong iridescent colors, to study how this color is produced in the layers of nacre in shells. From observations with a scanning electronic microscope (SEM), this particular shell exhibits a very fine scale diffraction grating structure. This suggests that the iridescent color is caused by diffraction, which was demonstrated by an experiment using an argon ion laser illuminating the shell to produce a distinct diffraction image. The strength of the iridescent color can be correlated to both the groove density of the diffraction grating formed by the shell, and the surface quality of the grooves themselves. A shell with a high groove density and a smooth groove surface produces a strong iridescent color.

  11. A galactose-specific lectin from the hemolymph of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata martensii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Mori, K

    1989-01-01

    1. A lectin in the serum of Pinctada fucata martensii was purified by a combination of affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B coupled with bovine submaxillary gland mucine, anion exchange chromatography on Mono Q and gel filtration on Superose 6. 2. The purified lectin was indicated to be homogeneous by polyacrylamide electrophoresis and rechromatography on Mono Q. 3. The purified lectin was approximately 440,000 in molecular weight and was composed of identical subunits with a molecular weight of approximately 20,000. 4. D-galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine gave a 50% inhibition of agglutination of horse erythrocytes by the lectin at 0.3 and 1.2 mM, respectively. 5. The antibody obtained from rabbit immunized with the purified lectin was monospecific to the lectin judged from the hemagglutination blocking test, immunoelectrophoresis and immunoblotting.

  12. Fire affects size and shape of Fabiana imbricata Shurblands in northwestern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddi, Facundo; Ghermandi, Luciana

    2010-05-01

    Fire is a major environmental ecological agent acting in the landscape configuration and a factor that models vegetation in Mediterranean environments. Fire impacts differently in the landscape due to the intrinsic heterogeneity of the environments and the characteristics associated with each fire event. After fire, density of patches may be increased and the size of them may be reduced because fire generates areas of different successional stages. Landscape ecology seems to be the ideal theoretical approach to study the fire impact in fire prone environments. Landscape ecology has been greatly favoured by a significant progress in the last years of geographic information technologies (GIT) (remote sensing, GIS, GPS). The study area of this work is the San Ramon ranch (22,000 ha) located in Northwester Patagonia in the ecotone between the sub Antarctic forest in the West and the Patagonian steppe in the East. We studied sectors of the ranch with different fire recurrence in the last 40 years and we mapped Fabiana imbricata shrubland with GPS. This specie is a native shrub characteristic of Northwester Patagonia grasslands and its dynamic is not very known. Shrublands compete for the space with palatable grasses that are used for forage and livestock production, the main economic resource of the region. We analysed the mapped patches with GIS software, and we assessed landscape metrics to determine differences between sites with different fire recurrence. In the future we foresee the integrated use of satellite imagery with different resolution to add to GIS other important spatial variables (topography, hydrography, aspect, soil) to develop models that can explain landscape metrics, spatial configuration and the potential shrub invasion in the grassland.

  13. Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Pinctada margaritifera calcifying mantle and shell: focus on biomineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gueguen Yannick

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The shell of the pearl-producing bivalve Pinctada margaritifera is composed of an organic cell-free matrix that plays a key role in the dynamic process of biologically-controlled biomineralization. In order to increase genomic resources and identify shell matrix proteins implicated in biomineralization in P. margaritifera, high-throughput Expressed Sequence Tag (EST pyrosequencing was undertaken on the calcifying mantle, combined with a proteomic analysis of the shell. Results We report the functional analysis of 276 738 sequences, leading to the constitution of an unprecedented catalog of 82 P. margaritifera biomineralization-related mantle protein sequences. Components of the current "chitin-silk fibroin gel-acidic macromolecule" model of biomineralization processes were found, in particular a homolog of a biomineralization protein (Pif-177 recently discovered in P. fucata. Among these sequences, we could show the localization of two other biomineralization protein transcripts, pmarg-aspein and pmarg-pearlin, in two distinct areas of the outer mantle epithelium, suggesting their implication in calcite and aragonite formation. Finally, by combining the EST approach with a proteomic mass spectrometry analysis of proteins isolated from the P. margaritifera shell organic matrix, we demonstrated the presence of 30 sequences containing almost all of the shell proteins that have been previously described from shell matrix protein analyses of the Pinctada genus. The integration of these two methods allowed the global composition of biomineralizing tissue and calcified structures to be examined in tandem for the first time. Conclusions This EST study made on the calcifying tissue of P. margaritifera is the first description of pyrosequencing on a pearl-producing bivalve species. Our results provide direct evidence that our EST data set covers most of the diversity of the matrix protein of P. margaritifera shell, but also that the

  14. Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Pinctada margaritifera calcifying mantle and shell: focus on biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Caroline; Piquemal, David; Marie, Benjamin; Manchon, Laurent; Pierrat, Fabien; Zanella-Cléon, Isabelle; Cochennec-Laureau, Nathalie; Gueguen, Yannick; Montagnani, Caroline

    2010-11-01

    The shell of the pearl-producing bivalve Pinctada margaritifera is composed of an organic cell-free matrix that plays a key role in the dynamic process of biologically-controlled biomineralization. In order to increase genomic resources and identify shell matrix proteins implicated in biomineralization in P. margaritifera, high-throughput Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) pyrosequencing was undertaken on the calcifying mantle, combined with a proteomic analysis of the shell. We report the functional analysis of 276 738 sequences, leading to the constitution of an unprecedented catalog of 82 P. margaritifera biomineralization-related mantle protein sequences. Components of the current "chitin-silk fibroin gel-acidic macromolecule" model of biomineralization processes were found, in particular a homolog of a biomineralization protein (Pif-177) recently discovered in P. fucata. Among these sequences, we could show the localization of two other biomineralization protein transcripts, pmarg-aspein and pmarg-pearlin, in two distinct areas of the outer mantle epithelium, suggesting their implication in calcite and aragonite formation. Finally, by combining the EST approach with a proteomic mass spectrometry analysis of proteins isolated from the P. margaritifera shell organic matrix, we demonstrated the presence of 30 sequences containing almost all of the shell proteins that have been previously described from shell matrix protein analyses of the Pinctada genus. The integration of these two methods allowed the global composition of biomineralizing tissue and calcified structures to be examined in tandem for the first time. This EST study made on the calcifying tissue of P. margaritifera is the first description of pyrosequencing on a pearl-producing bivalve species. Our results provide direct evidence that our EST data set covers most of the diversity of the matrix protein of P. margaritifera shell, but also that the mantle transcripts encode proteins present in P

  15. Nesting Ecology of Hawksbill Sea Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) on Utila, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damazo, Lindsey Renee Eggers

    The hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) has a circumtropical distribution and plays an important role in maintaining the health of coral reefs. Unfortunately, hawksbill populations have been decimated, and estimated numbers in the Caribbean are less than 10% of populations a century ago. The hawksbill is considered Critically Endangered, and researchers are coordinating worldwide efforts to protect this species. One country where we lack knowledge regarding hawksbills is Honduras. This study aimed to increase our understanding of hawksbill nesting ecology in Caribbean Honduras. Characteristics of hawksbill nesting activity and a nesting beach on the island of Utila were elucidated using satellite telemetry, beach profiling, vegetation surveys, beach monitoring, and nest temperature profiles. We affixed satellite transmitters to two nesting hawksbills, and found the turtles migrated to different countries. One turtle traveled 403 km to a bay in Mexico, and the other traveled 181 km to a Marine Protected Area off Belize. This study presents the first description of hawksbill migration routes from Honduras, facilitating protection efforts for turtles that traverse international waters. To investigate nesting beach and turtle characteristics, we conducted beach monitoring during the 2012 nesting season. Nesting turtle carapace sizes were similar to worldwide values, but hatchlings were heavier. To measure nest temperatures, we placed thermocouple data loggers in four nests and four pseudo-nests. Data suggested metabolic heating may be maintaining nest temperatures above the pivotal temperature. However, large temperature fluctuations corresponding to rainfall from Hurricane Ernesto (as determined using a time series cross-correlation analysis) make it difficult to predict sex ratios, and underscore the impact stochastic events can have on nest temperatures. We created topographic and substrate profiles of the beach, and found it was 475 m long, yet hawksbills

  16. Cambios en el uso de la ostra perlera Pinctada mazatlanica (Bivalvia: Pteriidae en el Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan Changes in the use of the pearl oyster Pinctada mazatlanica (Bivalvia: Pteriidae in the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Velázquez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available La concha del bivalvo panámico Pinctada mazatlanica fue ampliamente utilizada por las antiguas sociedades del México prehispánico; en las ofrendas enterradas en el Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan se han encontrado alrededor de 600 objetos elaborados con ella, la mayor parte de los cuales proceden de la etapa constructiva IV (1440-1481, lo que llama la atención, ya que para entonces los mexicas no habían logrado conquistar emplazamientos en la costa del Pacífico. En los sucesivos agrandamientos arquitectónicos es notable el descenso en los objetos de la referida ostra, lo cual en principio se explicó por la mayor destrucción que éstos habían sufrido; sin embargo, el hallazgo de varios ricos depósitos en el predio conocido como Casa de las Ajaracas, correspondientes al reinado de Moctezuma II (1502-1521, en los que prácticamente se encuentra ausente la Pinctada mazatlanica, da lugar a nuevas interpretaciones. En el presente trabajo se presentan 2 posibles hipótesis para explicar el hecho anterior.The nacreous shell of the tropical Pacific mollusc Pinctada mazatlanica was widely used by the ancient inhabitants of Mexico. Around 600 pieces made of this shell have been found in offerings buried in the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan. Most of these objects come from the IVth construction stage (1440-1481, prior to the conquest of the Pacific Coast by the Aztecs. It was previously thought that the considerably smaller numbers found in the following stages were due to the greater degree of destruction suffered by the temple. Nevertheless, the almost complete absence of this material in nine offerings found recently corresponding to the VIIth construction stage (1502-1521, raise other possibilities. In this work two different hypotheses are presented to explain this observation.

  17. Partial Purification and Properties of an Acid Phosphatase from Pearl Oyster Pinctada Fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴云峰; 谢莉萍; 张荣庆

    2003-01-01

    Acid phosphatases (ACPs) are marker enzymes for the detection of lysosomes in cell fractions.However, ACPs in sea creatures are less studied than those on land.An acid phosphatase was partially purified from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata by chromatography on Sephadex G-150 and Con A-Sepharose 4B.The specific activity was 1719 U*mg-1 and with optimum pH (5.0) and temperature (60℃).The enzyme was strongly inhibited competitively by product analog WO3-4 and MoO3-4, but less inhibited by product analog AsO3-4.The enzyme could also be strongly inhibited by heavy metal ions, such as Ag+ and Cu2+, but was not affected by Pb2+.High concentrations of ethanol (64%) and NaF (10-3 mol·L-1) could inhibit the enzyme while low concentration of NaF (<10-4 mol·L-1) could slightly activate the enzyme.Other haloids (Cl-, Br-, I-) and EDTA did not have any effect on this enzyme, while tartrate and some chemical modification reagents (bromoacetic acid, formaldehyde and dithiothreitol) could inhibit the enzyme.It is concluded that the properties of the enzyme are different from many fresh water mollusks.

  18. Morphology and classification of hemocytes in Pinctada fucata and their responses to ocean acidification and warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiguo; Liu, Yangjia; Liu, Chuang; Huang, Jingliang; Zheng, Guilan; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-07-01

    Hemocytes play important roles in the innate immune response and biomineralization of bivalve mollusks. However, the hemocytes in pearl oysters are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the morphology and classification of hemocytes in the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata. Three types of hemocytes were successfully obtained by light microscopy, electron microscopy and flow cytometry methods: small hyalinocytes, large hyalinocytes and granulocytes. The small hyalinocytes are the major hemocyte population. Morphological analyses indicated that these hemocytes have species-specific characterizations. In addition, we assessed the potential effects of ocean acidification (OA) and ocean warming (OW) on the immune parameters and calcium homeostasis of the hemocytes. OA and OW (31 °C) altered pH value of hemolymph, increased the total hemocyte count, total protein content, and percentage of large hyalinocytes and granulocytes, while it decreased the neutral red uptake ability, suggesting active stress responses of P. fucata to these stressors. Exposure to OW (25 °C) resulted in no significant differences, indicating an excellent immune defense to heat stress at this level. The outflow of calcium from hemocytes to hemolymph was also determined, implying the potential impact of OA and OW on hemocyte-mediated biomineralization. This study, therefore, provides insight into the classification and characterization of hemocyte in the pearl oyster, P. fucata, and also reveals the immune responses of hemocytes to OA and OW, which are helpful for a comprehensive understanding of the effects of global climate change on pearl oysters.

  19. In-depth proteomic analysis of shell matrix proteins of Pinctada fucata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Li, Shiguo; Kong, Jingjing; Liu, Yangjia; Wang, Tianpeng; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-11-26

    The shells of pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata, are composed of calcite and aragonite and possess remarkable mechanical properties. These shells are formed under the regulation of macromolecules, especially shell matrix proteins (SMPs). Identification of diverse SMPs will lay a foundation for understanding biomineralization process. Here, we identified 72 unique SMPs using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of proteins extracted from the shells of P. fucata combined with a draft genome. Of 72 SMPs, 17 SMPs are related to both the prismatic and nacreous layers. Moreover, according to the diverse domains found in the SMPs, we hypothesize that in addition to controlling CaCO3 crystallization and crystal organization, these proteins may potentially regulate the extracellular microenvironment and communicate between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Immunohistological localization techniques identify the SMPs in the mantle, shells and synthetic calcite. Together, these proteomic data increase the repertoires of the shell matrix proteins in P. fucata and suggest that shell formation in P. fucata may involve tight regulation of cellular activities and the extracellular microenvironment.

  20. Draft genome of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata: a platform for understanding bivalve biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Takeshi; Kawashima, Takeshi; Koyanagi, Ryo; Gyoja, Fuki; Tanaka, Makiko; Ikuta, Tetsuro; Shoguchi, Eiichi; Fujiwara, Mayuki; Shinzato, Chuya; Hisata, Kanako; Fujie, Manabu; Usami, Takeshi; Nagai, Kiyohito; Maeyama, Kaoru; Okamoto, Kikuhiko; Aoki, Hideo; Ishikawa, Takashi; Masaoka, Tetsuji; Fujiwara, Atushi; Endo, Kazuyoshi; Endo, Hirotoshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Asakawa, Shuichi; Watabe, Shugo; Satoh, Nori

    2012-04-01

    The study of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata is key to increasing our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in pearl biosynthesis and biology of bivalve molluscs. We sequenced ~1150-Mb genome at ~40-fold coverage using the Roche 454 GS-FLX and Illumina GAIIx sequencers. The sequences were assembled into contigs with N50 = 1.6 kb (total contig assembly reached to 1024 Mb) and scaffolds with N50 = 14.5 kb. The pearl oyster genome is AT-rich, with a GC content of 34%. DNA transposons, retrotransposons, and tandem repeat elements occupied 0.4, 1.5, and 7.9% of the genome, respectively (a total of 9.8%). Version 1.0 of the P. fucata draft genome contains 23 257 complete gene models, 70% of which are supported by the corresponding expressed sequence tags. The genes include those reported to have an association with bio-mineralization. Genes encoding transcription factors and signal transduction molecules are present in numbers comparable with genomes of other metazoans. Genome-wide molecular phylogeny suggests that the lophotrochozoan represents a distinct clade from ecdysozoans. Our draft genome of the pearl oyster thus provides a platform for the identification of selection markers and genes for calcification, knowledge of which will be important in the pearl industry.

  1. Kinetic study of alkaline protease 894 for the hydrolysis of the pearl oyster Pinctada martensii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin; CHEN Hua; CAI Bingna; LIU Qingqin; SUN Huili

    2013-01-01

    A new enzyme (alkaline protease 894) obtained from the marine extremophile Flavobacterium yellowsea (YS-80-122) has exhibited strong substrate-binding and catalytic activity,even at low temperature,but the characteristics of the hydrolysis with this enzyme are still unclear.The pearl oyster Pinctada martensii was used in this study as the raw material to illustrate the kinetic properties ofprotease 894.After investigating the intrinsic relationship between the degree of hydrolysis and several factors,including initial reaction pH,temperature,substrate concentration,enzyme concentration,and hydrolysis time,the kinetics model was established.This study showed that the optimal conditions for the enzymatic hydrolysis were an initial reaction pH of 5.0,temperature of 30℃,substrate concentration of 10% (w/v),enzyme concentration of 2 500 U/g,and hydrolysis time of 160 min.The kinetic characteristics of the protease for the hydrolysis of P.martensii were obtained.The inactivation constant was found to be 15.16/min,and the average relative error between the derived kinetics model and the actual measurement was only 3.04%,which indicated a high degree of fitness.Therefore,this study provides a basis for the investigation of the concrete kinetic characteristics of the new protease,which has potential applications in the food industry.

  2. Association between novel EST-SNPs and commercial traits in Pinctada fucata martensii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Xin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate marker-assisted selection for genetic improvement of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata martensii, two novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers (A376C and A316C were screened from two shell matrix genes (prismalin-14 and N19 gene, and genotyped to investigate their correlations to five commercial traits, including shell width (SW, shell length (SL, shell height (SH, hinge length (HL and total weight (TW in 160 pearl oysters. Both of the two loci showed AC heterozygous. The highest trait values of the five commercial traits measured were the CC genotype in the A316C SNP locus and the AC genotype in the A376C SNP locus, respectively. Significant differences in the trait values were detected between AA- and AC-type individuals (P = 0.005 for SW, P = 0.037 for SH, P = 0.031 for HL and P = 0.007 for TW, but not for SL (P = 0.057 in the A376C locus. These results indicated that AC-type at locus A376C from prismalin-14 gene could be used as a preferred genotype for future selection in breeding program of pearl oyster.

  3. Effect of salinity changes on haemocyte of pearl oyster Pinctada martensii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Qiang Chen; Gang Yu; Zhen-Hua Ma; You-Ning Li; Kong-Wu Xing; Li Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of salinity changes in the rearing environment on the haemocyte activities of pearl oyster Pinctada martensii (P. martensii). Methods:Three salinity treatments including 12‰, 22‰, and 32‰were tested. Haemocyte mortality rate and neutral red retention (NRR) assay were used to investigate the impact of rearing salinity on the haemocyte activities of pearl oyster. Results:Results from the present study indicated that salinity significantly affected the haemocyte mortality rate of P. martensii. The highest haemocytes mortality rate was observed in the 12‰treatment, and the lowest mortality rate was observed in the 32‰treatment. NRR time was also significantly affected by the salinity. The highest NRR time was observed in the 32‰treatment, and the lowest NRR time was observed in the 12‰treatment. Conclusions:Results from the present study indicated that salinity<22‰had significant impact on the haemocyte mortality rate and NRR time. Reducing the environmental salinity will pose an additional stress and may also reduce the defense capacities of P. martensii and make them more susceptible to parasites and bacteria.

  4. Transcriptome and biomineralization responses of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata to elevated CO2 and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiguo; Liu, Chuang; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Yangjia; Zhang, Shuwen; Zheng, Guilan; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2016-01-06

    Ocean acidification and global warming have been shown to significantly affect the physiological performances of marine calcifiers; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, the transcriptome and biomineralization responses of Pinctada fucata to elevated CO2 (pH 7.8 and pH 7.5) and temperature (25 °C and 31 °C) are investigated. Increases in CO2 and temperature induced significant changes in gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, net calcification rates and relative calcium content, whereas no changes are observed in the shell ultrastructure. "Ion and acid-base regulation" related genes and "amino acid metabolism" pathway respond to the elevated CO2 (pH 7.8), suggesting that P. fucata implements a compensatory acid-base mechanism to mitigate the effects of low pH. Additionally, "anti-oxidation"-related genes and "Toll-like receptor signaling", "arachidonic acid metabolism", "lysosome" and "other glycan degradation" pathways exhibited responses to elevated temperature (25 °C and 31 °C), suggesting that P. fucata utilizes anti-oxidative and lysosome strategies to alleviate the effects of temperature stress. These responses are energy-consuming processes, which can lead to a decrease in biomineralization capacity. This study therefore is important for understanding the mechanisms by which pearl oysters respond to changing environments and predicting the effects of global climate change on pearl aquaculture.

  5. Amorphous calcium carbonate precipitation by cellular biomineralization in mantle cell cultures of Pinctada fucata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xiang

    Full Text Available The growth of molluscan shell crystals is generally thought to be initiated from the extrapallial fluid by matrix proteins, however, the cellular mechanisms of shell formation pathway remain unknown. Here, we first report amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC precipitation by cellular biomineralization in primary mantle cell cultures of Pinctada fucata. Through real-time PCR and western blot analyses, we demonstrate that mantle cells retain the ability to synthesize and secrete ACCBP, Pif80 and nacrein in vitro. In addition, the cells also maintained high levels of alkaline phosphatase and carbonic anhydrase activity, enzymes responsible for shell formation. On the basis of polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, we observed intracellular crystals production by mantle cells in vitro. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed the crystals to be ACC, and de novo biomineralization was confirmed by following the incorporation of Sr into calcium carbonate. Our results demonstrate the ability of mantle cells to perform fundamental biomineralization processes via amorphous calcium carbonate, and these cells may be directly involved in pearl oyster shell formation.

  6. Comparative Studies on the Toxicokinetics of Benzo[a]pyrene in Pinctada martensii and Perna viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haihua; Cui, Lili; Cheng, Huamin; Zhang, Yu; Diao, Xiaoping; Wang, Jun

    2017-05-01

    Research on the kinetics of Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) bioaccumulation in the clam Pinctada martensii and mussel Perna viridis showed that the initial rate of uptake was directly related to the PAH concentrations in the ambient environment. The uptake and depuration rate constants were different at the four B[a]P exposure levels, which indicated that the toxicokinetic rate constants mainly depended on the exposure levels of pollutants to the environment. In addition, the uptake rate constants of B[a]P were higher than the depuration rate constants in the entire experiment. The comparison demonstrated that mussels release B[a]P more rapidly than clams. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of B[a]P varied from 3335 to 12892 in the clam and 2373-6235 in the mussel. These findings on the bioaccumulation kinetics for petroleum hydrocarbons, in association with the critical body residue, will be valuable when choosing sensitive organisms to assess the potential ecotoxicological risk to the marine environment.

  7. Effect of Temperature on Gene Expression in the Pearl Oyster Pinctada fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wenguang; HUANG Xiande; LIN Jianshi; HE Maoxian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of elevated temperature on the expression patterns of genes, i.e., nacrein, irr, n16, n19, and hsp70 in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. The experiment was carried out at 4 temperatures, i.e., 20℃(ambient, control), 24, 28℃, and 32℃. The expression levels of target genes in P. fucata were assayed at 0, 6, 24, 48, and 96 h via real-time poly-merase chain reaction. Results showed that the expression levels of nacrein and irr had no significant variations among different time points below 28℃, but significantly increased over time at 32℃. The expression levels of n16 and n19 did not change mark-edly at 20℃. The former increased significantly at 6 h and 24 h while the latter substantially decreased during 6-96 h at 24, 28 and 32℃. Among different temperatures, the level of n16 was significantly lower at 20℃than at other temperatures during 6-96 h, and the level of n19 significantly varied among different temperatures at 48 h and 96 h. The expression level of hsp70 was significantly higher at 32℃than at 20, 24 and 28℃at 24 h. These results demonstrated that elevated temperature impacted the physiological processes of P. fucata and potentially influenced its adaptability to thermal stress.

  8. Extraction and Purification of Matrix Protein from the Nacre of Pearl Oyster Pinctada fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Caiping; ZHANG Cen; NIE Yancheng; XIE Liping; ZHANG Rongqing

    2005-01-01

    A soluble matrix protein P14 with an apparent molecular mass of 14.5 kDa was isolated from fragmented nacre of pearl oysters (Pinctada fucata) treated with 10% NaOH solution to investigate the nacre matrix proteins and their effect on the CaCO3 crystal. The protein was characterized by gel exclusion chromatography and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography after demineralization by 10% acetic acid. The X-ray diffraction pattern of P14 crystals indicates that P14 plays an important role in nacre biomineralization. P14 can induce aragonite formation, stimulate CaCO3 crystal formation, and accelerate aragonite precipitation. Heating of the acid insoluble nacre residue, which was named conchiolin, in 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate solution supplemented with 10% β-mercaptoethanol solution for 10-20 min at about 100(C gave two other soluble proteins having molecular masses of 19.4 kDa and 25.0 kDa. The present study suggests that these two proteins are linked to the insoluble organic matrix by disulfide bridges because the extraction yield increases when β-mercaptoethanol is added to the medium.

  9. Application of a bioenergetic growth model to larvae of the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Y.; Garen, P.; Pouvreau, S.

    2011-11-01

    We applied, for the first time, a dynamic energy budget (DEB) growth model to the larval phase in the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera var. cumingii (Linnaeus, 1758) to evaluate the impact of spatio-temporal variation in the atoll lagoon environment on its capacity for development. The specific parameters of the model, which represent ingestion, temperature effect and the relationship between length and biovolume of the larvae, were determined from experiments or taken from the literature. The interpretation of the values of these parameters allowed us to identify the underlying adaptive character trait: P. margaritifera larvae have a good capacity to exploit low food concentrations and a narrow range of thermal tolerance restricted to hydrobiological conditions found in the tropical oligotrophic waters of its distribution zone. Growth simulations show a good fit with the observations made on reared larvae under different conditions: fed on either cultured algae or natural plankton, and with growth data from a natural cohort. Finally, a first application of the model to a pearl-culture lagoon reveals the predominant effect of the vertical structure of trophic resources in determining spatial variation in larval growth.

  10. The structure-function relationship of MSI7, a matrix protein from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiaoli Feng; Zi Fang; Zhenguang Yan; Rui Xing; Liping Xie; Rongqing Zhang

    2009-01-01

    We previously identified a matrix protein, MSI7, from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. According to the struc-tural analysis, the DGD site in the N-terminal of MSI7 is crucial for its role in the shell formation. In this study, we expressed a series of recombinant MSI7 pro-teins, including the wild-type and several mutants directed at the DGD site, using an Escherichia coli expression system to reveal the structure-function relationship of MSI7. Furthermore, in vitro crystalliza-tion, crystallization speed assay, and circular dichroism spectrometry were carried out. Results indicated that wild-type MSI7 could induce the nucleation of arago-nite and inhibit the crystallization of calcite. However, none of the mutants could induce the nucleation of ara-gonite, but all of them could inhibit the crystallization of calcite to some extent. And all the proteins acceler-ated the crystallization process. Taken together, the results indicated that MSI7 could contribute to arago-nite crystallization by inducing the nucleation of arago-nite and inhibiting the crystallization of calcite, which agrees with our prediction about its role in the nacr-eous layer formation of the shell. The DGD site was critical for the induction of the nucleation of aragonite.

  11. Extensible byssus of Pinctada fucata: Ca2+-stabilized nanocavities and a thrombospondin-1 protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Li, Shiguo; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Yangjia; Jia, Ganchu; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-10-01

    The extensible byssus is produced by the foot of bivalve animals, including the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, and enables them to attach to hard underwater surfaces. However, the mechanism of their extensibility is not well understood. To understand this mechanism, we analyzed the ultrastructure, composition and mechanical properties of the P. fucata byssus using electron microscopy, elemental analysis, proteomics and mechanical testing. In contrast to the microstructures of Mytilus sp. byssus, the P. fucata byssus has an exterior cuticle without granules and an inner core with nanocavities. The removal of Ca2+ by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) treatment expands the nanocavities and reduces the extensibility of the byssus, which is accompanied by a decrease in the β-sheet conformation of byssal proteins. Through proteomic methods, several proteins with antioxidant and anti-corrosive properties were identified as the main components of the distal byssus regions. Specifically, a protein containing thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), which is highly expressed in the foot, is hypothesized to be responsible for byssus extensibility. Together, our findings demonstrate the importance of inorganic ions and multiple proteins for bivalve byssus extension, which could guide the future design of biomaterials for use in seawater.

  12. Extensible byssus of Pinctada fucata: Ca(2+)-stabilized nanocavities and a thrombospondin-1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Li, Shiguo; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Yangjia; Jia, Ganchu; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-10-08

    The extensible byssus is produced by the foot of bivalve animals, including the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, and enables them to attach to hard underwater surfaces. However, the mechanism of their extensibility is not well understood. To understand this mechanism, we analyzed the ultrastructure, composition and mechanical properties of the P. fucata byssus using electron microscopy, elemental analysis, proteomics and mechanical testing. In contrast to the microstructures of Mytilus sp. byssus, the P. fucata byssus has an exterior cuticle without granules and an inner core with nanocavities. The removal of Ca(2+) by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) treatment expands the nanocavities and reduces the extensibility of the byssus, which is accompanied by a decrease in the β-sheet conformation of byssal proteins. Through proteomic methods, several proteins with antioxidant and anti-corrosive properties were identified as the main components of the distal byssus regions. Specifically, a protein containing thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), which is highly expressed in the foot, is hypothesized to be responsible for byssus extensibility. Together, our findings demonstrate the importance of inorganic ions and multiple proteins for bivalve byssus extension, which could guide the future design of biomaterials for use in seawater.

  13. Cloning and Characterization of a Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Homolog from Pearl Oyster, Pinctada fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xunhao XIONG; Qiaoli FENG; Liping XIE; Rongqing ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) have fundamental roles in the posttranscriptional control of gene expression. Here, a cDNA encoding a presumed full-length RNA-binding protein was isolated from pearl oyster (Pinctadafucata) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers, and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA consists of 2737 bp with an open reading frame encoding a protein of 624 amino acids with a Predicted molecular weight of 69 kDa and isoelectric point of 8.7. The putative pearl oyster RNA-binding protein presents a molecular organization close to the hnRNPs, namely an acidic N-terminal followed by three RNA-recognition motifs and a Cterminal that contains RG/RGG repeated motifs. When transfected HeLa cells, the Pf-HRPH (Pinctada fucata hnRNP homolog) gene expression product was found only in nuclei, revealing that it is a nuclear protein. The expression pattern was also investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction,indicating that Pf-HRPH mRNA was abundantly expressed in gonad, gill, and viscera. As far as we know,the putative Pf-HRPH is the first hnRNP homolog cloned in mollusks. These data are significant for further study of the multiple functions of RNA-binding protein.

  14. Polarimetry of Pinctada fucata nacre indicates myostracal layer interrupts nacre structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Rebecca A; Jones, Joshua A; D'Addario, Anthony J; Galvez, Enrique J

    2017-02-01

    The inner layer of many bivalve and gastropod molluscs consists of iridescent nacre, a material that is structured like a brick wall with bricks consisting of crystalline aragonite and mortar of organic molecules. Myostracal layers formed during shell growth at the point of muscle attachment to the shell can be found interspersed within the nacre structure. Little has been done to examine the effect the myostracal layer has on subsequent nacre structure. Here we present data on the structure of the myostracal and nacre layers from a bivalve mollusc, Pinctada fucata. Scanning electron microscope imaging shows the myostracal layer consists of regular crystalline blocks. The nacre before the layer consists of tablets approximately 400 nm thick, while after the myostracal layer the tablets are approximately 500 nm thick. A new technique, imaging polarimetry, indicates that the aragonite crystals within the nacre following the myostracal layer have greater orientation uniformity than before the myostracal layer. The results presented here suggest a possible interaction between the myostracal layer and subsequent shell growth.

  15. Transcriptome and biomineralization responses of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata to elevated CO2 and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiguo; Liu, Chuang; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Yangjia; Zhang, Shuwen; Zheng, Guilan; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification and global warming have been shown to significantly affect the physiological performances of marine calcifiers; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, the transcriptome and biomineralization responses of Pinctada fucata to elevated CO2 (pH 7.8 and pH 7.5) and temperature (25 °C and 31 °C) are investigated. Increases in CO2 and temperature induced significant changes in gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, net calcification rates and relative calcium content, whereas no changes are observed in the shell ultrastructure. “Ion and acid-base regulation” related genes and “amino acid metabolism” pathway respond to the elevated CO2 (pH 7.8), suggesting that P. fucata implements a compensatory acid-base mechanism to mitigate the effects of low pH. Additionally, “anti-oxidation”-related genes and “Toll-like receptor signaling”, “arachidonic acid metabolism”, “lysosome” and “other glycan degradation” pathways exhibited responses to elevated temperature (25 °C and 31 °C), suggesting that P. fucata utilizes anti-oxidative and lysosome strategies to alleviate the effects of temperature stress. These responses are energy-consuming processes, which can lead to a decrease in biomineralization capacity. This study therefore is important for understanding the mechanisms by which pearl oysters respond to changing environments and predicting the effects of global climate change on pearl aquaculture.

  16. Polarimetry of Pinctada fucata nacre indicates myostracal layer interrupts nacre structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Rebecca A.; Jones, Joshua A.; D'Addario, Anthony J.; Galvez, Enrique J.

    2017-02-01

    The inner layer of many bivalve and gastropod molluscs consists of iridescent nacre, a material that is structured like a brick wall with bricks consisting of crystalline aragonite and mortar of organic molecules. Myostracal layers formed during shell growth at the point of muscle attachment to the shell can be found interspersed within the nacre structure. Little has been done to examine the effect the myostracal layer has on subsequent nacre structure. Here we present data on the structure of the myostracal and nacre layers from a bivalve mollusc, Pinctada fucata. Scanning electron microscope imaging shows the myostracal layer consists of regular crystalline blocks. The nacre before the layer consists of tablets approximately 400 nm thick, while after the myostracal layer the tablets are approximately 500 nm thick. A new technique, imaging polarimetry, indicates that the aragonite crystals within the nacre following the myostracal layer have greater orientation uniformity than before the myostracal layer. The results presented here suggest a possible interaction between the myostracal layer and subsequent shell growth.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of the pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata) hemocytes in response to Vibrio alginolyticus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongliang; Wang, Bei; Chen, Gang; Jian, Jichang; Lu, Yishan; Xu, Youhou; Wu, Zaohe

    2016-01-10

    The pearl oyster Pinctada fucata is cultured widely for production of marine pearls in China, while mass mortalities, likely related to pathogenic infections, have occurred frequently in juvenile, mother and operated oysters. To address this issue, understanding host defense mechanisms of P. fucata against pathogenic challenge is extremely important. In the present study, a comparative analysis of hemocyte transcriptomes of P. fucata before and after Vibrio alginolyticus infection was conducted using the Illumina/Hiseq-2000 RNA-Seq technology. A total of 56,345,139 clean reads were generated and then assembled into 74,007 unigenes with an average length of 680 bp and an N50 of 1197 bp. Unigenes were annotated by comparing against non-redundant protein sequence (nr), non-redundant nucleotide (nt), Swiss-Prot, Pfam, Gene Ontology database (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases, and 29,615 unigenes (40.01%) were annotated in at least one database. There were 636 genes (518 up-regulated and 118 down-regulated) that were significantly differentially expressed after bacterial challenge, and among which 369 were associated with 122 pathways, including classical immune-related pathways, such as 'MAPK signaling pathway', 'Chemokine signaling pathway', 'Apoptosis' and 'Wnt signaling pathway'. These findings provide information on the pearl oyster innate immunity and may contribute to developing strategies for management of diseases and long-term sustainability of P. fucata culture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Survey of the studies on Pinctada maxima(Jameson)%大珠母贝的研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜因萍; 何毛贤

    2009-01-01

    珍珠是家喻户晓的高级名贵装饰品,而大型优质珍珠在世界上非常稀少,价格极其昂贵,它主要产自一种大型的海产双壳贝类——大珠母贝(Pinctada maxima Jameson)。大珠母贝隶属于软体动物门(Mollusca),双壳纲(Bivalvia),异柱目(Anisomyaria),

  19. Composite Electrode using Graphite and Opuntia imbricata to Develop an Anodophilic Biofilm in a Microbial Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Guerrrero-Rangel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the use of a composite electrode in the anodic compartment to increase energy output and reduce the cost of Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC. In order to transfer electrons by conduction by electrogenic microorganisms to the electrode this have to be in direct contact with the electrode, being this a limitation to MFC due to limited surface area available in electrode. A two-chamber MFC was used, with graphite electrodes, anodic electrode was inserted in a small piece of coyonoztle (Opuntia imbricata. MFC was operated in fedbatch mode during a period of 60 days, using glucose as carbon source glucose (3 g/L, three external loads were used (5.5 KΩ, 1 KΩ and 560 Ω. Maximum voltage, current and power density was obtained for the case of 1 KΩ; 205.88 mV, 139.33 A y 3.43 W.cm2, respectably.

  20. Recent sightings of the Hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus, 1757 on the coast of Northern Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L.N Murthy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The coast of Northern Andhra Pradesh has predominantly rocky and sandy shores with sporadic nesting sites of olive ridley turtles Lepidochelys olivacea. However, there have been rare sightings of hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata along this coast in the past couple of decades and their nesting is seldom observed. Carcasses of two adult hawksbill turtles were observed on 29/12/2010 and 07/03/2011 along the coast of Visakhapatnam in Northern Andhra Pradesh, India. These sightings of dead hawksbill turtles along this coast come recently after a long gap of several years and emphasize on the need to carry out surveys in the area for devising effective long term conservation management strategies.

  1. Phenolic Profiling and Evaluation of Contraceptive Effect of the Ethanolic Extract of Salsola imbricata Forssk. in Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglaa Gamil Shehab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reported researches dealing with either composition or bioactivity of Salsola imbricata are limited. This study was conducted aiming to investigate the phenolic composition of the plant and evaluate its efficacy as male contraceptive. Polyphenols, namely, phenolic acids and flavonoids, were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed by RP-HPLC in the hydrolysed methanol extract using two different wavelengths, 280 and 330 nm. The efficiency of different solvents in extracting the plant phenolics was assessed via spectrophotometric determination of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Acute toxicity study was carried out on the ethanolic extract to ascertain its safety prior to biological evaluation. The contraceptive effect was assessed, in male rats, by oral administration of the extract at two doses (250 and 500 mg/kg b. wt., over a period of 65 days. HPLC analyses allowed the identification and quantification of a total of 13 and 8 components in the hydrolysed-methanol extract; the overall phenolic composition was dominated by quercitrin (12.692% followed by coumaric acid (4.251%. Prolonged oral administration of the ethanolic extract caused slight reduction in the testis weight only. A significant decrease in the sperm count was observed (P<0.01 in the two treated groups while significant decrease in the epididymal sperm motility was only observed in the high dose group. Morphological abnormalities were observed in sperms of treated animals. No distinct change in serum FSH, LH, and testosterone concentration was recorded. The histopathological findings supported to a high extent these results. The male contraceptive activity of Salsola imbricata could be ascribed to its phenolic components, especially quercitrin.

  2. Types of Cenozoic Mollusca from Java in the Martin Collection of Naturalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leloux, J.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2009-01-01

    An updated type catalogue of the Martin Collection (fossil Mollusca, predominantly from the Cenozoic of Java, Indonesia) is presented. Type specimen data, updated locality data, and illustrations are given.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC VARIATION OF PEARL OYSTER, Pinctada maxima, BASED ON THE ANALYSIS OF MITOCHONDRIAL CYTOCHROME OXIDASE SUBUNIT I GENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Sudradjat

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pearl oyster, Pinctada maxima is one of economical ly important species in aquaculture, particularly in pearl industry. Information on genetic variation of pearl oyster is required in order to be able to make a sound management of it’s natural populations and to utilize it to improve the quality of pearl culture. Five populations from different geographic locations of pearl oyster, Pinctada maxima, (Sumbawa, Bali, Selat Sunda, Belitung, and South Sulawesi were analyzed for genetic variation within a 750-base pair region of the Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (MtCOI gene using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP technique. The analysis of 25 pearl oyster samples, their haplotype diversity ranged from 0.0970 to 0.1939 and the number of haplotype in each population ranged from three to five haplotypes. Clustering of populations based on Nei’s genetic distances and constructed using unweighted pair-group method with Arithmetic mean (UPGMA showed that the populations were clustered into two groups: Belitung, Selat Sunda, Bali and Sumbawa in one group, while South Sulawesi in the second group.

  4. Identification of genes directly involved in shell formation and their functions in pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Fang

    Full Text Available Mollusk shell formation is a fascinating aspect of biomineralization research. Shell matrix proteins play crucial roles in the control of calcium carbonate crystallization during shell formation in the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata. Characterization of biomineralization-related genes during larval development could enhance our understanding of shell formation. Genes involved in shell biomineralization were isolated by constructing three suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH libraries that represented genes expressed at key points during larval shell formation. A total of 2,923 ESTs from these libraries were sequenced and gave 990 unigenes. Unigenes coding for secreted proteins and proteins with tandem-arranged repeat units were screened in the three SSH libraries. A set of sequences coding for genes involved in shell formation was obtained. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization assays were carried out on five genes to investigate their spatial expression in several tissues, especially the mantle tissue. They all showed a different expression pattern from known biomineralization-related genes. Inhibition of the five genes by RNA interference resulted in different defects of the nacreous layer, indicating that they all were involved in aragonite crystallization. Intriguingly, one gene (UD_Cluster94.seq.Singlet1 was restricted to the 'aragonitic line'. The current data has yielded for the first time, to our knowledge, a suite of biomineralization-related genes active during the developmental stages of P. fucata, five of which were responsible for nacreous layer formation. This provides a useful starting point for isolating new genes involved in shell formation. The effects of genes on the formation of the 'aragonitic line', and other areas of the nacreous layer, suggests a different control mechanism for aragonite crystallization initiation from that of mature aragonite growth.

  5. Pinctada margaritifera responses to temperature and pH: Acclimation capabilities and physiological limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moullac, Gilles; Soyez, Claude; Latchere, Oihana; Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Fremery, Juliette; Saulnier, Denis; Lo Yat, Alain; Belliard, Corinne; Mazouni-Gaertner, Nabila; Gueguen, Yannick

    2016-12-01

    The pearl culture is one of the most lucrative aquacultures worldwide. In many South Pacific areas, it depends on the exploitation of the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera and relies entirely on the environmental conditions encountered in the lagoon. In this context, assessing the impact of climatic stressors, such as global warming and ocean acidification, on the functionality of the resource in terms of renewal and exploitation is fundamental. In this study, we experimentally addressed the impact of temperature (22, 26, 30 and 34 °C) and partial pressure of carbon dioxide pCO2 (294, 763 and 2485 μatm) on the biomineralization and metabolic capabilities of pearl oysters. While the energy metabolism was strongly dependent on temperature, results showed its independence from pCO2 levels; no interaction between temperature and pCO2 was revealed. The energy metabolism, ingestion, oxygen consumption and, hence, the scope for growth (SFG) were maximised at 30 °C and dramatically fell at 34 °C. Biomineralization was examined through the expression measurement of nine mantle's genes coding for shell matrix proteins involved in the formation of calcitic prisms and/or nacreous shell structures; significant changes were recorded for four of the nine (Pmarg-Nacrein A1, Pmarg-MRNP34, Pmarg-Prismalin 14 and Pmarg-Aspein). These changes showed that the maximum and minimum expression of these genes was at 26 and 34 °C, respectively. Surprisingly, the modelled thermal optimum for biomineralization (ranging between 21.5 and 26.5 °C) and somatic growth and reproduction (28.7 °C) appeared to be significantly different. Finally, the responses to high temperatures were contextualised with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projections, which highlighted that pearl oyster stocks and cultures would be severely threatened in the next decade.

  6. cDNA Microarray Analysis Revealing Candidate Biomineralization Genes of the Pearl Oyster, Pinctada fucata martensii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yaohua; Zheng, Xing; Zhan, Xin; Wang, Aimin; Gu, Zhifeng

    2016-06-01

    Biomineralization is a common biological phenomenon resulting in strong tissue, such as bone, tooth, and shell. Pinctada fucata martensii is an ideal animal for the study of biomineralization. Here, microarray technique was used to identify biomineralization gene in mantle edge (ME), mantle center (MC), and both ME and MC (ME-MC) for this pearl oyster. Results revealed that 804, 306, and 1127 contigs expressed at least three times higher in ME, MC, and ME-MC as those in other tissues. Blast against non-redundant database showed that 130 contigs (16.17 %), 53 contigs (17.32 %), and 248 contigs (22.01 %) hit reference genes (E ≤ -10), among which 91 contigs, 48 contigs, and 168 contigs could be assigned to 32, 26, and 63 biomineralization genes in tissue of ME, MC, and ME-MC at a threshold of 3 times upregulated expression level. The ratios of biomineralization contigs to homologous contigs were similar at 3 times, 10 times, and 100 times of upregulated expression level in either ME, MC, or ME-MC. Moreover, the ratio of biomineralization contigs was highest in MC. Although mRNA distribution characters were similar to those in other studies for eight biomineralization genes of PFMG3, Pif, nacrein, MSI7, mantle gene 6, Pfty1, prismin, and the shematrin, most biomineralization genes presented different expression profiles from existing reports. These results provided massive fundamental information for further study of biomineralization gene function, and it may be helpful for revealing gene nets of biomineralization and the molecular mechanisms underlining formation of shell and pearl for the oyster.

  7. Effect of electrolysis treatment on the biomineralization capacities of pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latchere, Oïhana; Fievet, Julie; Lo, Cédrik; Schneider, Denis; Dieu, Stéphanie; Cabral, Philippe; Belliard, Corinne; Ky, Chin-Long; Gueguen, Yannick; Saulnier, Denis

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigated the effect of electrolysis on the biomineralization capacities of juveniles of the mollusk Pinctada margaritifera for the first time. Size-selected individuals from two groups, "Medium" and "Large", from a multi-parental family produced in a hatchery system were subjected to electrolysis under a low voltage current over a nine-week experimental period. The growth of the juveniles was individually monitored and assessed weekly by wet weight and shell height measurements. At the end of the experiment, mantle tissue was sampled for biomineralization-related gene expression analysis. Electrolysis significantly increased pearl oyster growth in terms of shell height and wet weight for Large juveniles from the 5th and the 2nd week, respectively, until the end of the experiment. However, differences were only significant for Medium individuals from the 7th week for shell height and from the 9th week for wet weight. Furthermore, transcriptional analysis of six known biomineralization genes coding for shell matrix proteins of calcitic prisms and/or nacreous shell structures revealed that five were significantly overexpressed in the mantle mineralizing tissue under electrolysis: three in common between the two size class groups and two that were expressed exclusively in one or the other group. Finally, we found no statistical difference of the shell thickness ratio between individuals undergoing electrolysis and control conditions. Taken together, our results indicate, for the first time in a calcifying marine organism, that electrolysis influences molecular mechanisms involved in biomineralization and may stimulate some parameters of pearl oyster growth rate.

  8. Trace elements distribution in hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtle (Chelonia mydas) tissues on the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macêdo, Gustavo R; Tarantino, Taiana B; Barbosa, Isa S; Pires, Thaís T; Rostan, Gonzalo; Goldberg, Daphne W; Pinto, Luis Fernando B; Korn, Maria Graças A; Franke, Carlos Roberto

    2015-05-15

    Concentrations of elements (As, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, V, Zn) were determined in liver, kidneys and bones of Eretmochelys imbricata and Chelonia mydas specimens found stranded along the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil. Results showed that the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in the liver and kidneys of juvenile C. mydas were the highest found in Brazil. We also observed a significant difference (p<0.05) on the bioaccumulation of trace elements between the two species: Al, Co, Mo, Na and Se in the liver; Al, Cr, Cu, K, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr and V in the kidneys; and Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and V in the bones. This study represents the first report on the distribution and concentration of trace elements in E. imbricata in the Brazilian coast.

  9. Cloning and expression pattern of a Smad3 homolog from the pearl oyster,Pinctada fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yujuan Zhou; Zuoxin He; Qing Li; Liping Xie; Rongqing Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Several transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) superfamily members have been identified from mollusks. The significant effects of TGFβ signaling pathways on bone formation in vertebrates give clues to the signal transduction mechanism and how the shell of oysters is formed. However, what kinds of mediators are involved in the molluscan TGFβ signaling pathways, and how they play their functions in mollusks has not been well explained due to a lack of genomic information and the failure to establish oyster cell lines.That is,if we knew the genome sequence we could search the TGFB superfamily members using the BLAST program(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/),and if we established the molluscan cell line.we could transfect the gene of interest to the cell and detect its influence on expression levels of other genes,such as the matrix proteins.Therefore,to investigate whether there are similar TGFβ pathways in mollusks,many important mediators should be identified.In this paper,we report a cDNA encoding a Smad3 homolog(designated Pf Smad3)that Was isolated from the pearl oyster,Pinctada fucata.Sequence alignment showed that Pf-Smad3 contains aDNA-binding MH1 domainanda Runx2/Cbfal-binding MH2 domain,and shares an extremely high similarity with Smad3 proteins in vertebrates.However,Smad proteins in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans are very different from other Smad3 proteins.Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results indicated that Pf-Smad3 mRNA was expressed ubiquitously in adult Pin.fucata and was expressed at different levels at different developmental stages.In situ hybridization results showed that Pf-Smad3 mRNA WaS expressed mainly at the outer epithelial ceHs of the middle fold and the inner epithdial cells of the outer fold,especially around the gutter.These results suggested that Pf-Smad3 might take part in many physiological processes,including biomineralization,in oysters.

  10. Molecular signatures discriminating the male and the female sexual pathways in the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaihiti Teaniniuraitemoana

    Full Text Available The genomics of economically important marine bivalves is studied to provide better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying their different reproductive strategies. The recently available gonad transcriptome of the black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera is a novel and powerful resource to study these mechanisms in marine mollusks displaying hermaphroditic features. In this study, RNAseq quantification data of the P. margaritifera gonad transcriptome were analyzed to identify candidate genes in histologically-characterized gonad samples to provide molecular signatures of the female and male sexual pathway in this pearl oyster. Based on the RNAseq data set, stringent expression analysis identified 1,937 contigs that were differentially expressed between the gonad histological categories. From the hierarchical clustering analysis, a new reproduction model is proposed, based on a dual histo-molecular analytical approach. Nine candidate genes were identified as markers of the sexual pathway: 7 for the female pathway and 2 for the male one. Their mRNA levels were assayed by real-time PCR on a new set of gonadic samples. A clustering method revealed four principal expression patterns based on the relative gene expression ratio. A multivariate regression tree realized on these new samples and validated on the previously analyzed RNAseq samples showed that the sexual pathway of P. margaritifera can be predicted by a 3-gene-pair expression ratio model of 4 different genes: pmarg-43476, pmarg-foxl2, pmarg-54338 and pmarg-fem1-like. This 3-gene-pair expression ratio model strongly suggests only the implication of pmarg-foxl2 and pmarg-fem1-like in the sex inversion of P. margaritifera. This work provides the first histo-molecular model of P. margaritifera reproduction and a gene expression signature of its sexual pathway discriminating the male and female pathways. These represent useful tools for understanding and studying sex inversion

  11. Cloning and Characterization of a Homologous Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase PSKH1 from Pearl Oyster Pinctada fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Yiping; XIE Liping; XIONG Xunhao; CHEN Lei; FAN Weimin; ZHANG Rongqing

    2005-01-01

    Many of the effects of Ca2+ signaling are mediated through the Ca2+/calmodulin complex and its acceptors, the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, including PSKH1. Studies of the proteins involved in the calcium metabolism in oysters will help elucidate the pearl formation mechanism. This paper describes a full-length PSKH1 cDNA isolated from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. Oyster PSKH1 shares 65% homology with human PSKH1 and 48% similarity with rat CaM kinase I in the amino acid sequence, and contains a calmodulin-binding domain. The results of semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization revealed that oyster PSKH1 mRNA is highly expressed in the outer epithelial cells of the mantle pallial and in the gill epithelial cells. These studies provide important information describing the complex Ca2+ signaling mechanism in oyster calcium metabolism.

  12. Temperature and Food Influence Shell Growth and Mantle Gene Expression of Shell Matrix Proteins in the Pearl Oyster Pinctada margaritifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Caroline; Linard, Clémentine; Le Moullac, Gilles; Soyez, Claude; Saulnier, Denis; Teaniniuraitemoana, Vaihiti; Ky, Chin Long; Gueguen, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the combined effect of microalgal concentration and temperature on the shell growth of the bivalve Pinctada margaritifera and the molecular mechanisms underlying this biomineralization process. Shell growth was measured after two months of rearing in experimental conditions, using calcein staining of the calcified structures. Molecular mechanisms were studied though the expression of 11 genes encoding proteins implicated in the biomineralization process, which was assessed in the mantle. We showed that shell growth is influenced by both microalgal concentration and temperature, and that these environmental factors also regulate the expression of most of the genes studied. Gene expression measurement of shell matrix protein thereby appears to be an appropriate indicator for the evaluation of the biomineralization activity in the pearl oyster P. margaritifera under varying environmental conditions. This study provides valuable information on the molecular mechanisms of mollusk shell growth and its environmental control. PMID:25121605

  13. Temperature and food influence shell growth and mantle gene expression of shell matrix proteins in the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Joubert

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyzed the combined effect of microalgal concentration and temperature on the shell growth of the bivalve Pinctada margaritifera and the molecular mechanisms underlying this biomineralization process. Shell growth was measured after two months of rearing in experimental conditions, using calcein staining of the calcified structures. Molecular mechanisms were studied though the expression of 11 genes encoding proteins implicated in the biomineralization process, which was assessed in the mantle. We showed that shell growth is influenced by both microalgal concentration and temperature, and that these environmental factors also regulate the expression of most of the genes studied. Gene expression measurement of shell matrix protein thereby appears to be an appropriate indicator for the evaluation of the biomineralization activity in the pearl oyster P. margaritifera under varying environmental conditions. This study provides valuable information on the molecular mechanisms of mollusk shell growth and its environmental control.

  14. A national checklist of marine Mollusca in Spanish waters

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    Serge Gofas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of marine Mollusca recorded in Spanish jurisdictional waters is presented, based on a thorough literature search and a limited input of recent field work. The list is detailed according to the five demarcations of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (NOR, Spanish north coast; SUR, Spanish coast of the Gulf of Cádiz; ESAL, Strait of Gibraltar and Alboran Sea; LEBA, East coast of Spain and Balearic Islands; CAN, the Canary Islands. The list differentiates coastal species living from the supralittoral zone to the shelf break, deep-sea benthic or demersal species, and holoplanktonic species, and also distinguishes between non-indigenous species and species endemic to a particular demarcation. A total of 2466 marine Mollusca species have been reported from Spanish waters, of which 1126 are recorded only from waters surrounding the Iberian Peninsula, 498 are recorded from the Canaries only, and 842 are shared. That total number represents around 5.5% of the global marine molluscan richness. Shore and shelf species are the most numerous (1837, followed by deep-sea benthic species (490 and pelagic species (139, but the contribution of the deep-sea species is most noteworthy in NOR. All eight molluscan classes were represented, but solenogastres and scaphopods were notably more represented than usual in NOR. Species richness in SUR and ESAL was higher than would be expected from their areas, supporting the claim that Andalusian waters have an exceptionally diverse molluscan fauna. Thirteen species collected from INDEMARES cruises are here reported for the first time in Spanish waters. The species recorded in Spanish seas represent more than half of the 4340 species of Mollusca recorded within the scope of the European Register of Marine Species, making this the highest species count in European seas. The Canary Islands demarcation holds by far the largest number of endemic species (127, but special mention is needed regarding the ca. 20

  15. STUDI KUALITAS PERAIRAN PADA KEGIATAN BUDIDAYA TIRAM MUTIARA (Pinctada maxima DI KECAMATAN GEROKGAK, KABUPATEN BULELENG, BALI

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    apri i supi'i

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to know the effect of pearl oyster culture activities to the water quality(physical, chemical, biological parameters, and the sediment of culture site, waters quality status of pearloyster culture site as well.The research was done at 10 stations, which were 9 stations located around pearl oyster culture site, and1 station located at out of pearl oyster culture site (as control. Results showed that the sources of pollutionwere from pearl oyster feces and biofouling produced from cleaning of pocket and its shell. An in organicmatter of the feces produced (50.52-78.75 % was higher than the organic matter (21.25-49.48 %. The amountof biofoulling trash increased with the size and dominated by organic matter. Sea water quality observed wasunder sea water quality standard of marine organism (aquaculture decided by government, except phosphate.Twenty four species of plankton collected, consist of 4 phylum, that were Bacillarophyta (diatom,Protozoa, Arthropoda, and Mollusca. Plankton Diversity Index showed the level of low to high pollutioncondition indicated ecological suppression and decreasing of waters quality. The amount of total bacteria andVibrio spp. at all stations were normal, that was less than 106 cfu/ml.Integrated physical, chemical and biological parameters assessment found that pollution index was 2-3,mean of low pollution. Result of Cluster assessment indicate that there was real characteristic differentiationbetween first group (1-9 and second group (control. First group was around the pearl oyster culture waters,and second group was out of the pearl oyster culture waters. So the pearl oyster culture activities affected thewaters quality.

  16. Assessment of Toxic Metals Concentration using Pearl Oyster, Pinctada radiate, as Bioindicator on the Coast of Persian Gulf, Iran

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    Asma Mohammad Karami

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Persian Gulf is a semi-closed environment which is affected by pollution from heavy metals. Entrance of heavy metals to the water column and binding to sediment particles can affect the benthic organisms that can accumulate these materials in their body. Noticing this ability, mussels are considered as bio-monitoring agents. Methods: The pearl oyster, Pinctada radiate, and sediment samples were collected from Lengeh Port and Qeshm Island. For measuring heavy metals, 0.5g of soft tissue and 1g of shell and sediment were digested by HNO3 (69% and hot block digester. The prepared samples were evaluated for Cd, Cu, and Zn using a flame AAS Model 67OG while for Pb a graphite furnace AAS was used. Results: Higher metal accumulations were observed in soft tissues. Positive correlations between Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu concentrations in sediments and soft tissues of oyster were observed. The use of soft tissue of P. radiata as an indicator showed the highest accumulations of Cd (9.76±0.59 and Zn (3142.60±477.10 in Lengeh Port, but there were no significant differences in Cu and Pb concentrations between the two stations. Conclusion: The higher concentrations of heavy metals in P. radiata’ soft tissue in comparison to shell suggested this material as a better heavy metals indicator than shell. Also, the correlation between heavy metals concentration in soft tissue and sediment improve this idea that soft tissue of Pinctada radiata can be considered as a biomonitoring agent for toxic metals pollutions. Hence, using this bioindicator showed Lengeh Port as more polluted station than Qeshm Island.

  17. Measures of Allometric Growth of Black-lip Pearl Oyster Pinctada margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758 Red Sea, Egypt

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    Somaya M. Taha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of regression analyses to explain the relationship between various biometric characters of pearl oyster P. margaritifera are found to be most suitable. It can be used to asses this pearl oyster which have been extensively exploited in Red Sea. Pinctada margaritifera is more wide spread among the Pinctada species, occurring across the Indian and Pacific Oceans and in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Coastal survey was done during the period from March 2005 to April 2007 covering area more than 600 km of the proper coast of Red Sea, Egypt. Collection of P. margaritifera was done using snorkeling and SCUBA diving in the studied area. The most abundant sites inhabited with the present studied species were divided into two parts, the Northern part which includes areas from Eash El-Malaha to the NIOF marine station near Hurghada city and the Southern area from Shalatein to Wadi El-Hour area. The Northern population of P. margaritifera consisted of larger shell sizes and weights than the Southern area. This was attributed to type of natural food and water quality. The relationship between the shell length and other shell dimensions is generally positive and linear, which indicates isometric growth pattern in the shell of P. margaritifera population of studied area. The length-weight relationship showed a strong positive correlation in a curvilinear pattern with isometric growth form. The results of the condition index indicated that larger values were achieved during summer months and it was expected to be related to the changes in gonad condition more than to the somatic growth of the animal. Seasonal variations in condition index also reflects the importance of seasonal changes in the metabolic activities of the species under study.

  18. Evidence of a Biological Control over Origin, Growth and End of the Calcite Prisms in the Shells of Pinctada margaritifera (Pelecypod, Pterioidea

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    Jean-Pierre Cuif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Consistently classified among the references for calcite simple prisms, the microstructural units that form the outer layer of the Pinctada margaritifera have been investigated through a series of morphological, crystallographical and biochemical characterizations. It is often said that the polygonal transverse shape of the prisms result from the competition for space between adjacent crystals. In contrast to this classical scheme the Pinctada prisms appear to be composed of four successive developmental stages from the concentrically growing disks on the internal side of the periostracum to the morphological, structural and compositional changes in both envelopes and mineral components at the end of the prisms. These latest structural and compositional changes predate nacre deposition, so that the end of prism growth is not caused by occurrence of nacre, but by metabolic changes in the secretory epithelium. This sequence makes obvious the permanent biological control exerted by the outer cell layer of the mantle in both organic envelopes and mineralizing organic phases.

  19. Comparative cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate hexavalent chromium in human and hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) skin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jamie L; Wise, Sandra S; Xie, Hong; Zhu, Cairong; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Wise, John Pierce

    2015-12-01

    Chromium is both a global marine pollutant and a known human health hazard. In this study, we compare the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of both soluble and particulate chromate in human and hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) skin fibroblasts. Our data show that both soluble and particulate Cr(VI) induce concentration-dependent increases in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular Cr ion concentrations in both human and hawksbill sea turtle fibroblasts. Based on administered concentration, particulate and soluble Cr(VI) were more cytotoxic and clastogenic to human cells than sea turtle cells. When the analysis was based on the intracellular concentration of Cr, the data showed that the response of both species was similar. The one exception was the cytotoxicity of intracellular Cr ions from soluble Cr(VI), which caused more cytotoxicity in sea turtle cells (LC50=271μM) than that of human cells (LC50=471μM), but its clastogenicity was similar between the two species. Thus, adjusting for differences in uptake indicated that the explanation for the difference in potency was mostly due to uptake rather than differently affected mechanisms. Overall these data indicate that sea turtles may be a useful sentinel for human health responses to marine pollution.

  20. Mitogenomics reveals two subspecies in Coelomactra antiquata (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xueping; Shen, Xin; Zhao, Nana; Tian, Mei; Liang, Meng; Hao, Jue; Cheng, Hanliang; Yan, Binlun; Dong, Zhiguo; Zhu, Xiaoling

    2013-04-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of Coelomactra antiquata (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in Zhangzhou (zz-mtDNA) was fully sequenced and compared with that in Rizhao (rz-mtDNA) in this study. A tRNA (tRNA (Met) ) located between tRNA (Ala) and cox1 genes was identified in zz-mtDNA but not in rz-mtDNA. The largest non-coding region (NCR; MNR) contained 11 copies 99nt tandem repeat sequences exclusively in rz-mtDNA, while the second largest NCR with 400 bp between tRNA (Ala) and tRNA (Met) in zz-mtDNA was absent in rz-mtDNA. Secondary structures of ZZ and RZ C. antiquata rRNAs are significantly different. The mitochondrial genomic characteristics clearly indicate that there are at least two subspecies in C. antiquata.

  1. Cloning, Characterization, and Distribution of an mRNA Encoding a H+-ATPase α Subunit in the Mantle of Pearl Oyster, Pinctada fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial ATP synthase is responsible for the production of the majority of the cellular ATP,which is composed of two major units: F0 and F1. Although much is known about the active complex (5 subunits (αβγδε)), the role of the α subunit in the catalytic mechanism remains unclear, particularly in bivalve animals. This study first cloned and identified the full-length sequence of the mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase α subunit cDNA gene in Pinctada fucata using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)technique. The Pinctada fucata mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase α subunit contains 1991 nucleotides, with the translation start site at nt 48 (ATG) and the stop codon at nt 1660 (TAA), encoding a polypeptide 553 amino acids in length, which shares high similarity to that of other animals (81% identity to fruit fly, 82% to carp, and 83% to humans). Alignment analysis of the well-conserved amino acid domains in the ATPase α subunit, the α/β signal transduction domain, showed that two residues (Asp358 and Asn359) differ from any other ATP synthase α subunit. In situ hybridization analysis was used to reveal the wide-spread distribution of mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase in various tissues in Pinctada fucata. This work will help further research on pearl energy metabolism to increase the output and quality of pearls to more efficiently utilize our rich pearl oyster resources.

  2. ESTUDIO POBLACIONAL DE LA TORTUGA CAREY Eretmochelys imbricata (CHELONIIDAE EN EL PACÍFICO SUR DE COLOMBIA

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    ALEXANDER TOBÓN- LÓPEZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue conocer aspectos poblacionales, biológicos y ecológicos de las tortugas carey (Eretmochelys imbricata presentes en el Pacífico sur de Colombia (Departamento del Cauca, para esto se tomó información de morfometría, se revisó el estado de salud de los individuos y se tomaron muestras de sangre para valoración de química sanguínea. Durante siete meses de muestreo se capturaron 25 tortugas carey (16 individuos diferentes en los arrecifes del Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona, con un porcentaje de recaptura del 46 %. Aunque no se notaron problemas evidentes de salud, la mayoría de animales presentaron gran parte del caparazón cubierto de algas filamentosas y algunos epibiontes sobre el plastrón y el caparazón. La Longitud Curva Caparazón (LCC mostró una mayor proporción de individuos con tallas entre 37 y 45 cm de longitud (prom. 42,3 cm; min. 37,5 cm; max. 58 cm. Por medio de la prueba de Mann Whitney U, se comparó la LCC de los 16 individuos diferentes capturados en el PNN Gorgona, con 11 individuos capturados en la zona del litoral del Departamento del Cauca, encontrándose diferencias significativas entre estos dos grupos, donde los animales presentes en el PNN Gorgona fueron de mayor talla que los presentes en el continente (Z = -2,59; p = 0,007. Los valores de ácido úrico se encontraron por encima de los valores de referencia.

  3. Hemipenes in females of the Mexican viviparous lizard Barisia imbricata (Squamata: Anguidae): an example of heterochrony in sexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Torres, Martín; Rubio-Morales, Beatriz; Piña-Amado, José Juan; Luis, Juana

    2015-01-01

    The sexual development of saurians follows a similar pattern to that described for other amniotes. Changes in the timing or sequence of development events are known as heterochrony. We describe the pattern of sexual development in the viviparous Mexican lizard Barisia imbricata and report heterochrony in the regression of hemipenes in this lizard. We collected gestating females; some lizards were subjected to partial hysterectomy and the embryos were processed using routine histological technique to assess gonadal development; the remaining embryos were used to assess the development of hemipenes. Other pregnant females were kept in captivity in individual terraria until the time of delivery. All neonates were sexed by eversion of hemipenes and some of their body characteristics were recorded. Several neonates were sacrificed and processed to establish gonadal histology and the young of the remaining litters were maintained in captivity to observe the fate of the hemipenes in both sexes. Gonadal development began at embryonic stage 33 and the hemipenes were visible at the same stage. In the neonates, the ovary contained oogonias and ovarian follicles, whereas the testicles showed testicular cords. All neonates had hemipenes and sex could only be established through direct observation of the reproductive ducts and gonadal histology. The hemipenes regression in the females begins after approximately 7 months of postnatal development and concludes at about 15 months of age. We think that the delayed regression of the hemipenes reflects evolutionary differences among reptiles and may be an indication of a stage in the evolutionary process of this species.

  4. Supplementation with bio-calcium from shells Pinctada maxima in postmenopausal women with decreased mineral bone density: Pilot study

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    Vujasinović-Stupar Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Treatment of osteoporosis, in addition to a specific antiresorptive or anabolic treatment, requires supplementation with calcium and vitamin D. Widespread cultivation of pearl shells has made pearls available for commercial use for a very reasonable price. The main chemical compound of pearls from shells Pinctada maxima is calcium-carbonate (CaCO3. Recently developed technologies applied in a micronisation process have provided increased gastrointestinal resorption of calcium, estimated at over 90% of calcium intake. Objective The paper is aimed at monitoring of efficacy and tolerance of six-month bio-calcium supplementation in postmenopausal women with reduced bone mineral density. Methods Group I (30 patients received, three times a day, capsules of pearl powder from shells Pinctada maxima (it is equal to 260 mg of elementary calcium; group II (20 patients received a daily dose of 500 mg inorganic CaCO3. Both groups received 666 IU of cholecalciferol per day. In all patients, bone mineral density (BMD of the spine or hip, serum blood and urine levels of Ca, phosphates and alkaline phosphatase, were measured before and after six months of the treatment. Results Group I/Group II: average age 61.7/61.7 years; beginning of menopause: 48.32 /48 years; menopause duration 13.4/13.7 years; average body mass index 27.2/27 kg/m2 . These two groups did not different significantly before supplementation. Six-month supplementation with CaCO3 of the biological origin led to the increase of BMD from 0.901 g/cm2 to 0.948 g/cm2 (p=0.067, while BMD remained the same in the group supplemented with inorganic CaCO3. Gastrointestinal tolerability of bio-calcium was excellent, without any adverse events. Conclusion These data could not strongly support the hypothesis of better efficacy of bio-calcium taking into account a small number of patients and a short follow-up period in this pilot study. Tolerance of CaCO3 of the biological origin was excellent

  5. 污损生物对合浦珠母贝Pinctada martensii生长和繁殖的影响%Effect of Biofouling on Growth and Reproduction of Pearl Oyster Pinctada martensii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖辉; 苏振霞

    2008-01-01

    主要研究定期清除污损生物的合浦珠母贝(Pinctada martensii)与不清除污损生物的合浦珠母贝在生长及繁殖上的差异,用以说明污损生物对合浦珠母贝的生长及繁殖的影响.结果表明,合浦珠母贝在悬挂了2个月之后,清除污损生物的实验组与不清除污损生物的实验组合浦珠母贝之间的各项生长指标差异不显著(P>0.05),而在悬挂3个月和悬挂4个月之后,清除污损的合浦珠母贝与不清除污损的合浦珠母贝之间的生长指标产生了显著差异(P<0.05).结果还显示污损生物对合浦珠母贝的繁殖周期没有影响.

  6. Descriptions of three new species of Mitridae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Baoquan; ZHANG Suping; LI Xinzheng

    2005-01-01

    Three new species of Family Mitridae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the South China Sea are described in the present paper. They are Ziba aglais sp. nov. B. LI & S. ZHANG, Neocancilla daidaleosa sp.nov. B. LI & X. LI, and Mitra holkosa sp. nov. B. LI. Their systematic positions are also discussed.

  7. Holoplanktonic Mollusca: development in the Mediterranean Basin during the last 30 million years and their future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.W.; Peijnenburg, K.T.C.A.; Goffredo, S.; Dubinsky, Z.

    2014-01-01

    A short introduction is given to the systematics and morphology of pelagic Gastropoda (Mollusca: Heteropoda and Pteropoda), also explaining some details of the animals’ particular way of life. The fossil record of these invertebrates is discussed briefly, followed by an overview of existing literatu

  8. A honeycomb composite of mollusca shell matrix and calcium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Hua-jian; Li, Jin; Zhou, Chan; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yao-guang

    2016-03-01

    A honeycomb composite is useful to carry cells for application in bone, cartilage, skin, and soft tissue regenerative therapies. To fabricate a composite, and expand the application of mollusca shells as well as improve preparing methods of calcium alginate in tissue engineering research, Anodonta woodiana shell powder was mixed with sodium alginate at varying mass ratios to obtain a gel mixture. The mixture was frozen and treated with dilute hydrochloric acid to generate a shell matrix/calcium alginate composite. Calcium carbonate served as the control. The composite was transplanted subcutaneously into rats. At 7, 14, 42, and 70 days after transplantation, frozen sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, followed by DAPI, β-actin, and collagen type-I immunofluorescence staining, and observed using laser confocal microscopy. The composite featured a honeycomb structure. The control and composite samples displayed significantly different mechanical properties. The water absorption rate of the composite and control group were respectively 205-496% and 417-586%. The composite (mass ratio of 5:5) showed good biological safety over a 70-day period; the subcutaneous structure of the samples was maintained and the degradation rate was lower than that of the control samples. Freezing the gel mixture afforded control over chemical reaction rates. Given these results, the composite is a promising honeycomb scaffold for tissue engineering.

  9. Comparative genomics of vesicomyid clam (Bivalvia: Mollusca chemosynthetic symbionts

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    Girguis Peter R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Vesicomyidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca are a family of clams that form symbioses with chemosynthetic gamma-proteobacteria. They exist in environments such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps and have a reduced gut and feeding groove, indicating a large dependence on their endosymbionts for nutrition. Recently, two vesicomyid symbiont genomes were sequenced, illuminating the possible nutritional contributions of the symbiont to the host and making genome-wide evolutionary analyses possible. Results To examine the genomic evolution of the vesicomyid symbionts, a comparative genomics framework, including the existing genomic data combined with heterologous microarray hybridization results, was used to analyze conserved gene content in four vesicomyid symbiont genomes. These four symbionts were chosen to include a broad phylogenetic sampling of the vesicomyid symbionts and represent distinct chemosynthetic environments: cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. Conclusion The results of this comparative genomics analysis emphasize the importance of the symbionts' chemoautotrophic metabolism within their hosts. The fact that these symbionts appear to be metabolically capable autotrophs underscores the extent to which the host depends on them for nutrition and reveals the key to invertebrate colonization of these challenging environments.

  10. The mining of pearl formation genes in pearl oyster Pinctada fucata by cDNA suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Nomura, Naoko; Riho, Chihiro; Maeyama, Kaoru; Nagai, Kiyohito; Watabe, Shugo

    2012-04-01

    Recent researches revealed the regional preference of biomineralization gene transcription in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata: it transcribed mainly the genes responsible for nacre secretion in mantle pallial, whereas the ones regulating calcite shells expressed in mantle edge. This study took use of this character and constructed the forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries. A total of 669 cDNA clones were sequenced and 360 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) greater than 100 bp were generated. Functional annotation associated 95 ESTs with specific functions, and 79 among them were identified from P. fucata at the first time. In the forward SSH cDNA library, it recognized mass amount of nacre protein genes, biomineralization genes dominantly expressed in the mantle pallial, calcium-ion-binding genes, and other biomineralization-related genes important for pearl formation. Real-time PCR showed that all the examined genes were distributed in oyster mantle tissues with a consistence to the SSH design. The detection of their RNA transcripts in pearl sac confirmed that the identified genes were certainly involved in pearl formation. Therefore, the data from this work will initiate a new round of pearl formation gene study and shed new insights into molluscan biomineralization.

  11. Natural cleaning of the black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera by butterflyfishes (Chaetodon) in French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Legraverant, Yohann; Berthe, Cécile; Brooker, Rohan M.; Lo, Cédrik; Lecchini, David

    2016-12-01

    Biofouling increases the operational and economic costs associated with pearl production. As current procedures for reducing oyster biofouling can be detrimental to survival and growth and may pollute the surrounding environment developing alternative, biologically-mediated, methods could potentially increase both production and ecological sustainability. With this in mind, the present study investigated natural cleaning of black-lipped pearl oysters, Pinctada margaritifera, by butterflyfishes (Chaetodon). The feeding behaviour of six butterflyfish species was examined at Rangiroa Atoll, French Polynesia: Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon citrinellus, Chaetodon ephippium, Chaetodon lunulatus, Chaetodon trifascialis and Chaetodon ulietensis. All species cleaned the surface of pearl oysters by removing epibionts (from 16% to 40% of total biomass), although dietary variation may explain different cleaning efficiencies. Generalist omnivores (C. auriga, C. citrinellus, C. ephippium and C. ulietensis) were the most efficient cleaners (% cleaning range: 26-40% of total biomass). Within this group, C. ephippium removed the most biomass (average of 41%) targeting algae and anemones. However, C. auriga targeted the most diverse range of epibionts, removing significant amounts of algae, sponges, tunicates, and anemones. These results suggest that foraging by butterflyfishes can substantially reduce biofouling on economically-important tropical bivalves.

  12. Molecular Cloning and Distribution of a Plasma Membrane Calcium ATPase Homolog from the Pearl Oyster Pinctada fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue; FAN Weimin; XIE Liping; ZHANG Rongqing

    2008-01-01

    Plasma membrane calcium ATPaso (PMCA) plays a critical role in transporting Ca2 out of the cy- tosol across the plasma membrane which is essential both in keeping intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and in biomineralization.In this paper we cloned and localized a gene encoding PMCA from the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.This PMCA shares similarity with other published PMCAs within the functional domains.Reverse transcdption-polymerase chain reaction analysis shows that it is expressed ubiquitously.Furthermore,in situ hybridization reveals that it is expressed in the inner epithelial calls of the outer fold and in the outer epithelial calls of the middle fold,as well as the edge near the shell,which suggests that PMCA may be involved in calcified layer formation.The identification and characterization of oyster PMCA can help to further under-stand the structural and functional properties of molluscan PMCA,as well as the mechanism of maintaining Ca2+ homeostasis and the mechanism of mineralization in pead oyster.

  13. Interactive Effects of Seawater Acidification and Elevated Temperature on the Transcriptome and Biomineralization in the Pearl Oyster Pinctada fucata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiguo; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Chuang; Liu, Yangjia; Zheng, Guilan; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2016-02-02

    Interactive effects of ocean acidification and ocean warming on marine calcifiers vary among species, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. The present study investigated the combined effects of seawater acidification and elevated temperature (ambient condition: pH 8.1 × 23 °C, stress conditions: pH 7.8 × 23 °C, pH 8.1 × 28 °C, and pH 7.8 × 28 °C, exposure time: two months) on the transcriptome and biomineralization of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, which is an important marine calcifier. Transcriptome analyses indicated that P. fucata implemented a compensatory acid-base mechanism, metabolic depression and positive physiological responses to mitigate the effects of seawater acidification alone. These responses were energy-expensive processes, leading to decreases in the net calcification rate, shell surface calcium and carbon content, and changes in the shell ultrastructure. Elevated temperature (28 °C) within the thermal window of P. fucata did not induce significant enrichment of the sequenced genes and conversely facilitated calcification, which was detected to alleviate the negative effects of seawater acidification on biomineralization and the shell ultrastructure. Overall, this study will help elucidate the mechanisms by which pearl oysters respond to changing seawater conditions and predict the effects of global climate change on pearl aquaculture.

  14. The Effect of NF-κB Signalling Pathway on Expression and Regulation of Nacrein in Pearl Oyster, Pinctada fucata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sun

    Full Text Available Nacrein is the first identified and widely investigated molluscan matrix protein and is considered to play an important role in the shell formation of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata. Here, we investigate the effect of the NF-κB signalling pathway on Nacrein gene expression in P. fucata to elucidate the mechanisms involved in shell formation. Inhibition of NF-κB signalling decreased Nacrein promoter-dependent luciferase activity. However, co-transfection of the Nacrein promoter vector with Pf-IKK or Pf-Rel expression plasmids could enhance luciferase activity, thus proving NF-κB signalling could regulate the transcriptional activity of the Nacrein promoter. Gene silencing by RNA interference and subsequent observation of the inner surface of the nacreous layer of oyster shells by SEM, showed that suppression of the gene Pf-Rel lead to a partial inhibition of Nacrein expression, not only at the mRNA level but also at the protein level. The inner surface of the shells became abnormal. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs revealed that Pf-Rel could directly bind to the relative sites of the Nacrein promoter. These results confirm that an important component of the NF-κB signalling pathway, Pf-Rel, can directly bind the Nacrein promoter in P. fucata, and regulate its transcription and shell formation.

  15. Ca(2+) Mediates the Self-Assembly of the Foot Proteins of Pinctada fucata from the Nanoscale to the Microscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2016-10-10

    Bivalve animals such as mussels and pearl oysters secrete proteinaceous byssus from the foot to attach themselves to solid surfaces under seawater. Although the biomolecules of mussel byssus have been extensively studied, how they form insoluble threads underwater from soluble protein precursors and how they produce hierarchical microscale threads from biomolecules remains unclear. Here, using the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata as a model, metal ions rather than pH are found to play critical roles in the solidification process of the byssus. Particularly, Ca(2+) can induce self-assembly of the foot proteins and the byssal proteins, resulting in aggregate formation. At a concentration of 10 mM, protein fibers with a diameter of approximately 26 μm and a length ranging from 50 to 400 μm were formed. Moreover, the fibers are composed of 60-90 nm nanospheres, reminiscent of the ultrastructure sizes of threads. It is proposed that Ca(2+) can interact with byssal proteins such as thrombospondin-1 containing protein through phosphorylated serine and/or von Willebrand factor type A domains. This study provides insight into how the byssus forms from the soluble protein molecules into insoluble threads underwater and may inspire further biomaterial design for underwater use.

  16. A preliminary study for identification of candidate AFLP markers under artificial selection for shell color in pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Keshu; Zhang, Dianchang; Guo, Huayang; Zhu, Caiyan; Li, Min; Jiang, Shigui

    2014-05-25

    Pearl oyster Pinctada fucata is widely cultured to produce seawater pearl in South China, and the quality of pearl is significantly affected by its shell color. Thus the Pearl Oyster Selective Breeding Program (POSBP) was carried out for the shell color and growth traits. The black (B), gold (G), red (R) and white (W) shell strains with fast growth trait were achieved after five successive generation selection. In this study, AFLP technique was used to scan genome of four strains with different shell colors to identify the candidate markers under artificial selection. Eight AFLP primer combinations were screened and yielded 688 loci, 676 (98.26%) of which were polymorphic. In black, gold, red and white strains, the percentage of polymorphic loci was 90.41%, 87.79%, 93.60% and 93.31%, respectively, Nei's gene diversity was 0.3225, 0.2829, 0.3221 and 0.3292, Shannon's information index was 0.4801, 0.4271, 0.4825 and 0.4923, and the value of FST was 0.1805. These results suggested that the four different shell color strains had high genetic diversity and great genetic differentiation among strains, which had been subjected to the continuous selective pressures during the artificial selective breeding. Furthermore, six outlier loci were considered as the candidate markers under artificial selection for shell color. This study provides a molecular evidence for the inheritance of shell color of P. fucata.

  17. Differentially expressed immune-related genes in hemocytes of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata against allograft identified by transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jinfen; Liu, Baosuo; Fan, Sigang; Li, Haimei; Chen, Mingqiang; Zhang, Bo; Su, Jiaqi; Meng, Zihao; Yu, Dahui

    2017-03-01

    The pearl oyster Pinctada fucata is commonly cultured for marine pearls in China. To culture pearls, a mantle piece from a donor pearl oyster is grafted with a nucleus into a receptor. This transplanted mantle piece may be rejected by the immune system of the recipient oyster, thus reducing the success of transplantation. However, there have been limited studies about the oyster's immune defense against allograft. In this study, hemocyte transcriptome analysis was performed to detect the immune responses to allograft in P. fucata at 0 h and 48 h after a transplant. The sequencing reaction produced 92.5 million reads that were mapped against the reference genome sequences of P. fucata. The Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) were used to identify all immune-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Compared with patterns at 0 h, a total of 798 DEGs were identified, including 410 up-regulated and 388 down-regulated genes at 48 h. The expression levels of interleukin receptor and toll-like receptor in hemocytes were increased significantly 48 h post-transplant, indicating that the oyster immune response was induced. Finally, altered levels of 18 randomly selected immune-related DEGs were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results provide the basis for further analysis of the immune rejection of allotransplantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 玳瑁遗传多样性的RAPD分析%Genetic Diversity Analysis of Eretmochelys Imbricata by RAPD Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    端金霞; 古河祥; 夏中荣; 叶明彬; 陈华灵; 张飞燕

    2011-01-01

    We used RAPD software to analyze the genetic diversity of seven Hawksbill Turtles(Eretmochelys imbricata) captured in the South China Sea.We used 20 random primers to amplify 1351 fragments.On average,193 bands were amplified for each individual.Sixty - nine of 193 loci were polymorphic(35.8%).The size of DNA fragments ranged from 200 bp to 3 000 bp.The genetic distance among individuals ranged from 0.082 9 to 0.181 3 and averaged 0.132 7±0.029 9.The phylogenetic tree of the seven turtles was constructed by NJTREE analysis using the RAPDistance 1.04 program.We conclude that the genetic diversity of Eretmochelys imbricata in the South China Sea is low.%应用RAPD技术分析了玳瑁的遗传多样性。用20个随机引物对中国南海海域玳瑁7个个体的基因组DNA进行了PCR扩增,共扩增出1 351条DNA片段,平均每个个体扩增出193条条带。在检测到的193条条带中,多态性条带为69条,多态性条带百分比为35.8%,条带大小在200 bp~3 000 bp之间,7个个体间遗传距离为0.082 9~0.1813,平均遗传距离为0.132 7±0.029 9,表明中国南海海域玳瑁的遗传多样性水平较低,应加强该区域玳瑁种质资源的保护。采用类平均聚类法(NJTREE)构建了7个个体相互关系的分子聚类图,表明该7个玳瑁个体没有形成种群的分化。

  19. Studies on rickettsia-like organism(RLO)disease of tropical marine pearl oyster--Epidemiologicai investigation of RLO disease in juvenile populations of maricultured Pinctada maxima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinzhong Wu; Dengfeng Li; Jinpei Pan; Jingbo Jiang

    2003-01-01

    The death which occurred in juvenile population was a severe problem in the course ofPinctada maxima artificial culture. With the methods of field investigation, histological study andstatistic analyses, the epidemiological study was carried out on the disease and death in juvenile popula-tions of Pinctada maxima in the Xinying Pearl Oyster Mariculture Farm of Lingao County (for the A,B and C batches of cultured juveniles hanged in the sea) and the Xincun Pearl Oyster Mariculture Farmof Lingshui County (for the D batch of cultured juvenile hanged in the pond), Hainan Province fromNovember 1993 to April 1995. The results show that the deaths which occurred in juvenile populations of Pinctada maxima pre-sented an outbreak pattern. The peak of mortality rates, in general, occurred in 4-to 6-month old pearloyster juveniles, and the mortality rates gradully declined with the extention of pearl oyster age after cul-turing 8 months. The correlation between the mortality rates of juvenile populations and mean bodylengths of juvenile populations show that the mortality rate become higher under 4 cm of mean bodylengths of juvenile population and become obvious declined over 5 cm of mean body lengths. The peak ofmortality rate occurred in 1 ~3 cm of mean body lengths. The results of histological observation showedthat rickettsia-like organism inclusions were common, histological widespread infective agent among ev-ery batches (A, B, C and D) of cultured juvenile populations. The mean severity indices (SI) of rick-ettsia-like organism (RLO) infection were positively correlated with mortality rates of juvenile popula-tions. After or within every peaks of RLO infection were all accompanied with the peaks of mortalityrates of host populations and the mortality rates declined with decreased RLO infection. So the evidencesof histological observation and epidemiology in this study indicated that rickettsia-like organism (RLO)may be as an important pathogenic organism of disease

  20. Anti-ulcer potentials of phylum mollusca (tropical snail) slime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nwodo NJ; Okonta J M; Ezugwu CO; Attama AA

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The effectiveness of the slimy substance in snail to regenerate and repair damaged areas on its body/shell lead to this investigation.Methods:The anti-ulcer'property of snail slime extracted from phylum mollusca (tropical snail)from the giant African snail Archachatina marginata (Fam.Arionidae)was investi-gated using histamine,stress and indomethacin-induced ulcers.The solubility profile of extract was investiga-ted in different solvents and at different temperatures.Chemical analysis was carried out to determine the types of constituents present in the slim,while acute toxicity test was carried out to evaluate its profile of toxicity. The effect of the snail slim on gastrointestinal motility was investigated in mice,while the guinea pig ileum was used to study the effect of the extract on contraction produced by acetylcholine and histamine.The snail slime contained copious quantity of protein,with varying amounts of simple sugars,carbohydrates and fats.The slime was not soluble in most common solvents and increases in temperature,did not appear to increase its sol-ubility.Results:The result further indicated that although the snail slime exhibited significant (P <0.05)an-ti-ulcer induced by stress and histamine,it was most potent against ulcer induced by indomethacin.The snail slime potently inhibited gastrointestinal movement in mice in a dose-dependent manner;however,it was not a-ble to inhibit contraction induced by acetylcholine and histamine in guinea pig ileum.Conclusion:The snail mucin possesses potent antiulcer properties without any toxic effect.The mechanism responsible for the anti-ul-cer property may not be postulated with certainty but cytoprotective and anti-spasmodic activities are most likely to be involved.

  1. Unravelling the microbiome of eggs of the endangered sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata identifies bacteria with activity against the emerging pathogen Fusarium falciforme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jullie M Sarmiento-Ramírez

    Full Text Available Habitat bioaugmentation and introduction of protective microbiota have been proposed as potential conservation strategies to rescue endangered mammals and amphibians from emerging diseases. For both strategies, insight into the microbiomes of the endangered species and their habitats is essential. Here, we sampled nests of the endangered sea turtle species Eretmochelys imbricata that were infected with the fungal pathogen Fusarium falciforme. Metagenomic analysis of the bacterial communities associated with the shells of the sea turtle eggs revealed approximately 16,664 operational taxonomic units, with Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as the most dominant phyla. Subsequent isolation of Actinobacteria from the eggshells led to the identification of several genera (Streptomyces, Amycolaptosis, Micromomospora Plantactinospora and Solwaraspora that inhibit hyphal growth of the pathogen F. falciforme. These bacterial genera constitute a first set of microbial indicators to evaluate the potential role of microbiota in conservation of endangered sea turtle species.

  2. Inhibition of Alkaline Phosphatase from Pearl Oyster Pinctada fucata by o-Phthalaldehyde: Involvement of Lysine and Histidine Residues at the Active Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hongtao; XIE Liping; YU Zhenyan; ZHANG Rongqing

    2005-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase from Pinctada fucata was inactivated by o-phthalaldehyde (OPA). The inactivation followed pseudo first-order kinetics with a second rate constant of 0.167 (mmol/L)-1·min-1 at pH 7.5 and 25°C. A Tsou's plot analysis showed that inactivation occurred upon formation of one isoindole group. The OPA-modified enzyme lost the ability to bind with the specific affinity column and the presence of substrates or competitive inhibitors protected the enzyme from inactivation. The results revealed that the OPA-reaction site was at the enzyme substrate binding site. Prior modification of the enzyme by lysine or histidine specific reagent abolished formation of the isoindole derivatives, suggesting that lysine and histidine residues were involved in the OPA-induced inactivation. Taken together, OPA inactivated the alkaline phosphatase from Pinctada fucata by cross-linking lysine and histidine residues at the active site and formed an isoindole group at the substrate binding site of the enzyme.

  3. Influence of the Depth on the Shape and Thickness of Nacre Tablets of Pinctada margaritifera Pearl Oyster, and on Oxygen Isotopic Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthe Rousseau

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nacre, or mother of pearl, is composed of aragonite tablets and is produced by some mollusks. Because of the highly organized internal structure, chemical complexity, mechanical properties and optical effects of nacre, its formation is among the best-studied examples of calcium carbonate biomineralization. The pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera is harvested in French Polynesia for pearl farming. The quality of the pearl depends on the quality of the nacre on its surface and its iridescent colors are affected by the thickness of the layers. Here we report on an experimental study conducted to influence the shape and the thickness of nacre tablets by keeping pearl oysters at four different depths (7, 20, 30 and 39 m for one week. Scanning electron microscopy was used to measure the thickness of the nacre tablets and to analyze their final shape. The shape of the tablets changed from hexagonal to rhomboid at a depth of 39 m. The change in shape led to a change in size. The thickness of the tablets was reduced by between 16 and 30% on average. We also measured the oxygen isotopic composition using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. In this study, we demonstrated that depth can modify the size, shape and thickness of nacre tablets, but not the d18O. This environmental modification is important for the biomineralization of the shell of the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera.

  4. The Mendelian inheritance of rare flesh and shell colour variants in the black-lipped pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ky, Chin-Long; Nakasai, Seiji; Pommier, Steve; Sham Koua, Manaarii; Devaux, Dominique

    2016-10-01

    Pinctada margaritifera is French Polynesia's most economically important aquaculture species. This pearl oyster has the specific ability to produce cultured pearls with a very wide range of colours, depending on the colour phenotypes of donor oysters used. Its aquaculture is still based on natural spat collection from wild stocks. We investigated three rare colour variants of P. margaritifera - orange flesh, and red and white shell colour phenotypes - in comparison with the wild-type black flesh and shell commonly found in this species. The study aimed to assess the geographic distribution and genetic basis of these colour variants. Colour frequencies were evaluated during transfer and graft processes of pearl oyster seed captured at collector stations. Among the collection locations studied, Mangareva Island showed the highest rate of the orange flesh phenotype, whereas Takaroa and Takume atolls had relatively high rates of red and white shell phenotypes respectively. Broodstocks were made of these rare colour variants, and crosses were performed to produce first- and second-generation progenies to investigate segregation. The results were consistent with Mendelian ratios and suggest a distinct model with no co-dominance: (i) a two-allele model for flesh trait, whereby the orange allele is recessive to the black fleshed type, and (ii) a three-allele model for shell trait, whereby the black wild-type allele is dominant to the red coloration, which is dominant to the white shell. Furthermore, the proposed model provides the basis for producing selected donor pearl oyster lines through hatchery propagation. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  5. Construction of cDNA subtractive library from pearl oyster ( Pinctada fucata Gould) with red color shell by SSH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yunyan; Huang, Liangmin; He, Maoxian

    2011-05-01

    The molecular basis of color polymorphism in the shells of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata is largely unknown. We developed a red-shelled family line and used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to screen for differentially expressed genes in red- and non-red-shelled pearl oysters. We constructed forward and reverse cDNA subtractive libraries consisting of 2 506 and 797 clones, respectively. Among 343 randomly selected clones in the forward library, 304 sequences were identified in GenBank using BLASTx and BLASTn. Of the 304 sequences, 13 showed no similarity to known sequences and 291 were matched with known genes of the pearl oyster, including shematrin-1, shematrin-2, shematrin-6, shematrin-7, nacrein, nacrein-like protein, aspein for shell matrix protein, glycine-rich protein, mantle gene 5, 28S, EST00031, EST00036, 16S, and COI. In the reverse library, 7 clones were sequenced and analyzed by BLAST. Two sequences shared similarity with EST00036 from the P. fucata subtraction cDNA library, four with the P. fucata mitochondrial gene for 16S rRNA and 1 with P. fucata shematrin-2. We evaluated the expression of 12 genes from the forward library using RT PCR. Two sequences matched with 16S and COI so were considered to be false positives. The remaining 10 sequences were differentially expression in the red-shelled pearl oysters. Our results suggest that differential expression of these genes may be related to color variation in the red-shelled family line of the pearl oyster.

  6. Larval dispersal modeling of pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera following realistic environmental and biological forcing in Ahe atoll lagoon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoann Thomas

    Full Text Available Studying the larval dispersal of bottom-dwelling species is necessary to understand their population dynamics and optimize their management. The black-lip pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera is cultured extensively to produce black pearls, especially in French Polynesia's atoll lagoons. This aquaculture relies on spat collection, a process that can be optimized by understanding which factors influence larval dispersal. Here, we investigate the sensitivity of P. margaritifera larval dispersal kernel to both physical and biological factors in the lagoon of Ahe atoll. Specifically, using a validated 3D larval dispersal model, the variability of lagoon-scale connectivity is investigated against wind forcing, depth and location of larval release, destination location, vertical swimming behavior and pelagic larval duration (PLD factors. The potential connectivity was spatially weighted according to both the natural and cultivated broodstock densities to provide a realistic view of connectivity. We found that the mean pattern of potential connectivity was driven by the southwest and northeast main barotropic circulation structures, with high retention levels in both. Destination locations, spawning sites and PLD were the main drivers of potential connectivity, explaining respectively 26%, 59% and 5% of the variance. Differences between potential and realistic connectivity showed the significant contribution of the pearl oyster broodstock location to its own dynamics. Realistic connectivity showed larger larval supply in the western destination locations, which are preferentially used by farmers for spat collection. In addition, larval supply in the same sectors was enhanced during summer wind conditions. These results provide new cues to understanding the dynamics of bottom-dwelling populations in atoll lagoons, and show how to take advantage of numerical models for pearl oyster management.

  7. Construction of cDNA subtractive library from pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata Gould) with red color shell by SSH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Yunyan; HUANG Liangmin; HE Maoxian

    2011-01-01

    The molecular basis of color polymorphism in the shells of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata is largely unknown. We developed a red-shelled family line and used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to screen for differentially expressed genes in red- and non-red-shelled pearl oysters. We constructed forward and reverse cDNA subtractive libraries consisting of 2 506 and 797 clones, respectively.Among 343 randomly selected clones in the forward library, 304 sequences were identified in GenBank using BLASTx and BLASTn. Of the 304 sequences, 13 showed no similarity to known sequences and 291 were matched with known genes of the pearl oyster, including shematrin-1, shematrin-2, shematrin-6,shematrin-7, nacrein, nacrein-like protein, aspein for shell matrix protein, glycine-rich protein, mantle gene 5, 28S, EST00031, EST00036, 16S, and COI. In the reverse library, 7 clones were sequenced and analyzed by BLAST. Two sequences shared similarity with EST00036 from the P. fucata subtraction cDNA library, four with the P. fucata mitochondrial gene for 16S rRNA and 1 with P. fucata shematrin-2. We evaluated the expression of 12 genes from the forward library using RT PCR. Two sequences matched with 16S and COI so were considered to be false positives. The remaining 10 sequences were differentially expression in the red-shelled pearl oysters. Our results suggest that differential expression of these genes may be related to color variation in the red-shelled family line of the pearl oyster.

  8. Cloning, Characterization, and Expression Patterns of Three Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase Isoforms from Pearl Oyster (Pinctada fucata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A large amount of calcium is required for mollusk biomineralization. Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) is a well-known protein with the function of sustaining the calcium homeostasis. How does it possibly function in the process of pearl oyster biomineralization? Three SERCA isoforms, namely PSERA, PSERB, and PSERC were cloned from the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata. The cDNAs of the three isoforms were isolated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. PSERA consisted of 3568 bp encoding 1007 amino acids, PSERB included 3953 bp encoding 1024 amino acids, and PSERC comprised of 3450 bp encoding 1000 amino acids.The three isoforms showed high homology (65%-87%) with SERCAs from other species. Consistent with the results from other invertebrates, Southern blot analysis revealed that the three isoforms originated from a single gene that was also related to SERCA1, SERCA2, and SERCA3 of vertebrates. The splicing mechanism of the three isoforms was similar to that of isoforms of vertebrate SERCA3. Semiquantitative RT-PCR was carried out to study the expression patterns of the three isoforms. The results showed that PSERB was ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues and was a potential "housekeeping" SERCA isoform; PSERA was expressed in the adductor muscle and foot and was likely to be a muscle-specific isoform, and PSERC was expressed in the other tissues except the adductor muscle or foot with the highest expression levels in the gill and mantle, indicating that it was a non-muscle-specific isoform and might be involved in calcium homeostasis during pearl oyster biomineralization.

  9. Dual Roles of the Lysine-Rich Matrix Protein (KRMP-3 in Shell Formation of Pearl Oyster, Pinctada fucata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liang

    Full Text Available Matrix proteins play important roles in shell formation. Our group firstly isolated three cDNAs encoding lysine-rich matrix protein from Pinctada fucata in 2006. However, the functions of KRMPs are not fully understood. In addition, KRMPs contain two functional domains, the basic domain and the Gly/Tyr domain respectively. Based on the modular organization, the roles of their two domains were poorly characterized. Furthermore, KRMPs were then reported in other two species, P. maxima and P. margaritifera, which indicated that KRMPs might be very important for shell formation. In this study, the characterization and function of KRMP-3 and its two functional domains were studied in vitro through purification of recombinant glutathione S-transferase tagged KRMP-3 and two KRMP-3 deletion mutants. Western blot and immunofluorescence revealed that native KRMP-3 existed in the EDTA-insoluble matrix of the prismatic layer and was located in the organic sheet and the prismatic sheath. Recombinant KRMP-3 (rKRMP-3 bound tightly to chitin and this binding capacity was duo to the Gly/Tyr-rich region. rKRMP-3 inhibited the precipitation of CaCO3, affected the crystal morphology of calcite and inhibited the growth of aragonite in vitro, which was almost entirely attributed to the lysine-rich region. The results present direct evidence of the roles of KRMP-3 in shell biomineralization. The functional rBR region was found to participate in the growth control of crystals and the rGYR region was responsible to bind to chitin.

  10. Genetic mapping and QTL analysis of growth-related traits in Pinctada fucata using restriction-site associated DNA sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoguo Li

    Full Text Available The pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata (P. fucata, is one of the marine bivalves that is predominantly cultured for pearl production. To obtain more genetic information for breeding purposes, we constructed a high-density linkage map of P. fucata and identified quantitative trait loci (QTL for growth-related traits. One F1 family, which included the two parents, 48 largest progeny and 50 smallest progeny, was sampled to construct a linkage map using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq. With low coverage data, 1956.53 million clean reads and 86,342 candidate RAD loci were generated. A total of 1373 segregating SNPs were used to construct a sex-average linkage map. This spanned 1091.81 centimorgans (cM, with 14 linkage groups and an average marker interval of 1.41 cM. The genetic linkage map coverage, Coa, was 97.24%. Thirty-nine QTL-peak loci, for seven growth-related traits, were identified using the single-marker analysis, nonparametric mapping Kruskal-Wallis (KW test. Parameters included three for shell height, six for shell length, five for shell width, four for hinge length, 11 for total weight, eight for soft tissue weight and two for shell weight. The QTL peak loci for shell height, shell length and shell weight were all located in linkage group 6. The genotype frequencies of most QTL peak loci showed significant differences between the large subpopulation and the small subpopulation (P<0.05. These results highlight the effectiveness of RAD-Seq as a tool for generation of QTL-targeted and genome-wide marker data in the non-model animal, P. fucata, and its possible utility in marker-assisted selection (MAS.

  11. Larval Dispersal Modeling of Pearl Oyster Pinctada margaritifera following Realistic Environmental and Biological Forcing in Ahe Atoll Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Yoann; Dumas, Franck; Andréfouët, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Studying the larval dispersal of bottom-dwelling species is necessary to understand their population dynamics and optimize their management. The black-lip pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera) is cultured extensively to produce black pearls, especially in French Polynesia's atoll lagoons. This aquaculture relies on spat collection, a process that can be optimized by understanding which factors influence larval dispersal. Here, we investigate the sensitivity of P. margaritifera larval dispersal kernel to both physical and biological factors in the lagoon of Ahe atoll. Specifically, using a validated 3D larval dispersal model, the variability of lagoon-scale connectivity is investigated against wind forcing, depth and location of larval release, destination location, vertical swimming behavior and pelagic larval duration (PLD) factors. The potential connectivity was spatially weighted according to both the natural and cultivated broodstock densities to provide a realistic view of connectivity. We found that the mean pattern of potential connectivity was driven by the southwest and northeast main barotropic circulation structures, with high retention levels in both. Destination locations, spawning sites and PLD were the main drivers of potential connectivity, explaining respectively 26%, 59% and 5% of the variance. Differences between potential and realistic connectivity showed the significant contribution of the pearl oyster broodstock location to its own dynamics. Realistic connectivity showed larger larval supply in the western destination locations, which are preferentially used by farmers for spat collection. In addition, larval supply in the same sectors was enhanced during summer wind conditions. These results provide new cues to understanding the dynamics of bottom-dwelling populations in atoll lagoons, and show how to take advantage of numerical models for pearl oyster management. PMID:24740288

  12. Correlations between cultured pearl size parameters and PIF-177 biomarker expression in Pinctada margaritifera families reared in two contrasting environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Carole; Parrad, Sophie; Cabral, Philippe; Aiho, Vaite; Ky, Chin-Long

    2016-12-01

    The black-lipped pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera, produces the largest and most valuable coloured pearls in the world. Cultured pearl size remains one of the most important quality traits. Despite the great geographical area covered by pearl farms in the atolls of French Polynesia, little is known about the influence of grow-out site effects on pearl size attained. To explore the genetic and environmental impact on the size of pearls as well as the genetic × environment interaction, a uniform experimental graft was designed on two contrasting macro-geographical lagoons. Five biparental families of donor oysters were grafted and then reared at both sites. After 18 months of culture, phenotypic parameters corresponding to pearl size, i.e. nacre weight and thickness, were recorded among the harvested pearls. The expression of Pif-177 gene, a biomarker encoding protein in the aragonite nacreous layer, was analysed in the corresponding pearl sac. The results show a family effect for nacre weight and thickness on both sites, with family F058 producing the heaviest and thickest nacre, and F805 the lightest and thinnest. By contrast, inter-site comparison revealed no significant site effects for these two parameters. In addition, grow-out location did not modify the relative gene expression of Pif-177 in the pearl sac between donor families in either culture site. Both nacre weight and thickness were positively correlated with the level gene expression of Pif-177. These results suggest that pearl size parameters were not affected by the environment in the present study and this is supported by the relative gene expression of Pif-177 observed. This knowledge constitutes an initial step in the study of pearl size trait inheritance, which will be helpful in the near future for the diffusion of genetically selected donor oyster lines produced by hatchery systems throughout production sites.

  13. Histología gonadal y criterios fenotípicos de maduración en las tortugas marinas Chelonia mydas y Eretmochelys imbricata (Testudines: Chelonidae de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Pérez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La madurez gonadal se suele evaluar a través del análisis macroscópico de las gónadas. En las tortugas marinas, las etapas de maduración están asociadas con el tamaño del cuerpo, dependiendo de la población estudiada. Los pescadores clasifican las tortugas que miden más de 65.0cm como maduras sexualmente. Si tienen los caracteres sexuales secundarios se registran como machos en edad reproductora. Nosotros comparáramos el tamaño del cuerpo con las características gonadales macroscópicas y microscópicas de dos tortugas de Cuba. Se obtuvieron dieciocho individuos de C. mydas y veinte de E. imbricata en la pesquería legal del Archipiélago Jardines del Rey (Cuba, entre octubre de 2005 y 2006. En los machos, el estado reproductivo (máxima espermiogénesis se comprobó mediante el análisis histológico de los testículos. En las hembras, la madurez sexual fue identificada por la presencia de folículos vitelogénicos u ovarios corpora. La mayoría de los machos eran inmaduros (C. mydas: 79.0cm; E. imbricata: 73.1±4.9cm, n=3 y carecían de los caracteres sexuales secundarios. Algunos E. imbricata que no tenían un pene desarrollado se encontraban en fases espermatogénicas entre II y IV (p. ej. pubescentes. La mayoría de las hembras eran inmaduras (C. mydas: 79.6±7.7cm, n=17; E. imbricata: 69.0±7.1cm, n=16; p. ej. prepubescente y pubescente. Las hembras prepubescentes tenían ovarios con folículos previtelogénicos de cerca de 1.0mm en un estroma compacto y amarillento. Las hembras pubescentes tenían ovarios con folículos previtelogénicos entre 2.0 y 3.0mm. El estroma fue más distendido e irrigado que en las tortugas pubescentes. El hallazgo de actividad espermatogénica en machos pubescentes indica la asincronía entre el desarrollo de testículos y pene en E. imbricata. El criterio fenotípico actual utilizado por los pescadores no es suficiente para determinar la madurez sexual de estas tortugas. La talla mínima tentativa

  14. Land snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda of India: status, threats and conservation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Land snails form an important component in the forest ecosystem. In terms of number of species, the phylum Mollusca, to which land snails belong, is the largest phylum after Arthropoda. Mollusca provide unique ecosystem services including recycling of nutrients and they provide a prey base for small mammals, birds, snakes and other reptiles. However, land snails have the largest number of documented extinctions, compared to any other taxa. Till date 1,129 species of land snails are recorded from Indian territory. But only basic information is known about their taxonomy and little is known of their population biology, ecology and their conservation status. In this paper, we briefly review status, threats and conservation strategies of land snails of India.

  15. Spatial analysis of biomineralization associated gene expression from the mantle organ of the pearl oyster Pinctada maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leavesley David

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomineralization is a process encompassing all mineral containing tissues produced within an organism. One of the most dynamic examples of this process is the formation of the mollusk shell, comprising a variety of crystal phases and microstructures. The organic component incorporated within the shell is said to dictate this architecture. However general understanding of how this process is achieved remains ambiguous. The mantle is a conserved organ involved in shell formation throughout molluscs. Specifically the mantle is thought to be responsible for secreting the protein component of the shell. This study employs molecular approaches to determine the spatial expression of genes within the mantle tissue to further the elucidation of the shell biomineralization. Results A microarray platform was custom generated (PmaxArray 1.0 from the pearl oyster Pinctada maxima. PmaxArray 1.0 consists of 4992 expressed sequence tags (ESTs originating from mantle tissue. This microarray was used to analyze the spatial expression of ESTs throughout the mantle organ. The mantle was dissected into five discrete regions and analyzed for differential gene expression with PmaxArray 1.0. Over 2000 ESTs were determined to be differentially expressed among the tissue sections, identifying five major expression regions. In situ hybridization validated and further localized the expression for a subset of these ESTs. Comparative sequence similarity analysis of these ESTs revealed a number of the transcripts were novel while others showed significant sequence similarities to previously characterized shell related genes. Conclusions This investigation has mapped the spatial distribution for over 2000 ESTs present on PmaxArray 1.0 with reference to specific locations of the mantle. Expression profile clusters have indicated at least five unique functioning zones in the mantle. Three of these zones are likely involved in shell related activities

  16. Identification of the immune expressed sequence tags of pearl oyster (Pinctada martensii, Dunker 1850) responding to Vibrio alginolyticus challenge by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhong; Fu, Dingkun; Luo, Peng; He, Xiaocui

    2012-09-01

    One hemolymph subtracted cDNA library of pearl oyster (Pinctada martensii, Dunker 1837) was constructed using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) in response to Vibrio alginolyticus. A total of 1089 clones were sequenced. All the consensuses were recognized based on the BLAST searches in NCBI, and revealed that 376 (58%) of them had no significant matches to reported sequences in the database. 267 ESTs were in significant matches after homologous sequence searches. Hypothesized genes inferred from EST sequences were categorized into six groups according to their putative biological functions: replication, transcription and translation; cellular processes; responded to stimuli; metabolism and biosynthesis; signal transduction genes; "other" category. The five genes, pearlin gene promoter PGPPm, serine/threonine kinase STKPm, limbic system-associated membrane protein LSAMPPm, nacrein gene intron 6 NGIPm6 and ferritin-like protein FLPPm, were analyzed using real-time PCR. All these genes were significantly expressed after V. alginolyticus challenge.

  17. Etude comparative des caractères biométriques chez l'huitre perlière "Pinctada radiata" des iles de Kerkennah (sud tunisien)

    OpenAIRE

    Derbali, A.; O. JARBOUI; Ghorbel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Le présent travail porte sur l’étude des caractères biométriques de l’huître perlière Pinctada radiata des îles de Kerkennah pour la différenciation entre les populations des deux sites El Kraten et El Jorf à partir d’un pouvoir discriminant des caractères métriques et méristiques. Durant l’année 2007, un total de 2360 et 2422 individus ont été collectés respectivement dans les sites d’El Kraten et d’El Jorf. Les résultats des comparaisons des moyennes et des variances des caractères bi...

  18. Genomic structure of the α-amylase gene in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata and its expression in response to salinity and food concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guiju; Guo, Yihui; Li, Lu; Fan, Sigang; Yu, Ziniu; Yu, Dahui

    2016-08-01

    Amylase is one of the most important digestive enzymes for phytophagous animals. In this study, the cDNA, genomic DNA, and promoter region of the α-amylase gene of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata were cloned by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), rapid amplification of cDNA ends, and genome-walking methods. The full-length cDNA sequence was 1704bp long and consisted of a 5'-untranslated region of 17bp, a 3'-untranslated region of 118bp, and a 1569-bp open reading frame encoding a 522-aa polypeptide with a 20-aa signal peptide. Sequence alignment revealed that P. fucata α-amylase (Pfamy) shared the highest identity (91.6%) with Pinctada maxima. The phylogenetic tree showed that it was closely related to P. maxima, based on the amino acid sequences. The genomic DNA was 10850bp and contained nine exons, eight introns, and a promoter region of 3932bp. Several transcriptional factors such as GATA-1, AP-1, and SP1 were predicted in the promoter region. Quantitative RT-PCR assay indicated that the relative expression level of Pfamy was significantly higher in the digestive gland than in other tissues (gonad, gills, muscle, and mantle) (Pfood concentration was 16×10(4)cells/mL, which was significantly lower than the level observed at 8×10(4)cells/mL and 20×10(4) cells/mL (P<0.05). Our findings provide a genetic basis for further research on Pfamy activity and will facilitate studies on the growth mechanisms and genetic improvement of the pearl oyster P. fucata. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biologie, abondance et cartographie de deux espèces de bivalves : l’huitre perlière <Pinctada radiata> et la coque glauque dans le golfe de Gabes

    OpenAIRE

    Derbali, Abdelkarim

    2011-01-01

    The pearl oyster Pinctada radiata and the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum are among the most abundant bivalve molluscs in southern Tunisian waters. These species are not currently subject to any investigation despite their important economic value in the world. For this reason, their biological parameters, their spatial distribution and their stock assessment were undertaken in the Gulf of Gabes. The reproductive cycle was studied in relation to variations of the environment parameters. The sp...

  20. 虾青素对马氏珠母贝存活和机体生化指标的影响%Effects of Astaxanthin on the Survival and Biochemistry Parameters of Pinctada martensii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马孝甜; 纪丽丽; 宋文东

    2011-01-01

    用扁藻和虾青素投喂马氏珠母贝(Pinctada martensii),研究虾青素对马氏珠母贝死亡率、外套膜组织生化指标的影响,以及贝体是否对虾青素有积累能力.结果表明,投喂虾青素后,实验组死亡率明显降低;外套膜组织中谷草转氨酶(AST)、白蛋白(ALB)、球蛋白(GLB)、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、Ca和Mg含量显著增加(P<0.05),尿素氮(BUN)、肌酐(Cr)、尿酸(UA)和P含量显著降低(P<0.05);马氏珠母贝可以积累虾青素.%By feeding with astaxanthin and Tetraselmis chui, the effects to motality, mantle tissue biochemistry paprameters and its accumulation were investigated in Pinctada martensii. The results showed that the motality was significantly decreased after feeding with astaxanthin. In the mantle tissue, the content of AST, ALB, CLB, ALP, Ca and Mg were significantly increased(P<0.05), and the BUN, Cr, UA and P were significantly decreased(P<0.05). Thus, the astaxanthin could be accumulated in Pinctada martensii.

  1. Relationship between organochlorine pesticides and stress indicators in hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) nesting at Punta Xen (Campeche), Southern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Nelly; Ortíz Arana, Alejandro; González Jáuregui, Mauricio; Rendón-von Osten, Jaime

    2017-03-01

    Data on the impact of environmental pollution on the homeostasis of sea turtles remains scarce, particularly in the Southern Gulf of Mexico. As many municipalities along the coastline of the Yucatan Peninsula do not rely on a waste treatment plant, these organisms could be particularly vulnerable. We searched for relationships between the presence of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and the level of several oxidative and pollutant stress indicators of the hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) during the 2010 nesting season at Punta Xen (Campeche, Mexico). Of the 30 sampled sea turtles, endosulfans, aldrin related (aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, endrin ketone, endrin aldehyde) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDT) families were detected in 17, 21 and 26, respectively. Significant correlation existed between the size of sea turtles with the concentration of methoxychlor, cholinesterase activity in plasma and heptachlors family, and catalase activity and hexachlorohexane family. Cholinesterase activity in washed erythrocytes and lipid peroxidation were positively correlated with glutathione reductase activity. Antioxidant enzyme actions seem adequate as no lipids damages were correlated with any OCPs. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effect of OCPs on males of the area due to the significant detection of methoxychlor, which target endocrine functioning and increases its concentration with sea turtles size.

  2. The characterization of cytosolic glutathione transferase from four species of sea turtles: loggerhead (Caretta caretta), green (Chelonia mydas), olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kristine L; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Schlenk, Daniel

    2009-08-01

    Glutathione s-transferases (GST) play a critical role in the detoxification of exogenous and endogenous electrophiles, as well as the products of oxidative stress. As compared to mammals, GST activity has not been extensively characterized in reptiles. Throughout the globe, most sea turtle populations face the risk of extinction. Of the natural and anthropogenic threats to sea turtles, the effects of environmental chemicals and related biochemical mechanisms, such as GST catalyzed detoxification, are probably the least understood. In the present study, GST activity was characterized in four species of sea turtles with varied life histories and feeding strategies: loggerhead (Caretta caretta), green (Chelonia mydas), olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata). Although similar GST kinetics was observed between species, rates of catalytic activities using class-specific substrates show inter- and intra-species variation. GST from the spongivorous hawksbill sea turtle shows 3-4.5 fold higher activity with the substrate 4-nitrobenzylchloride than the other 3 species. GST from the herbivorous green sea turtle shows 3 fold higher activity with the substrate ethacrynic acid than the carnivorous olive ridley sea turtle. The results of this study may provide insight into differences in biotransformation potential in the four species of sea turtles and the possible health impacts of contaminant biotransformation by sea turtles.

  3. Comparative phylogeny and historical perspectives on population genetics of the Pacific hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas), inferred from feeding populations in the Yaeyama Islands, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Hideaki; Okuyama, Junichi; Kobayashi, Masato; Abe, Osamu; Arai, Nobuaki

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms and patterns of genetic diversity represent the genealogy and relative impacts of historical, geographic, and demographic events on populations. In this study, historical patterns of population dynamics and differentiation in hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the Pacific were estimated from feeding populations in the Yaeyama Islands, Japan. Phylogenetic relationships of the haplotypes indicated that hawksbill and green turtles in the Pacific probably underwent very similar patterns and processes of population dynamics over the last million years, with population subdivision during the early Pleistocene and population expansion after the last glacial maximum. These significant contemporary historical events were suggested to have been caused by climatic and sea-level fluctuations. On the other hand, comparing our results to long-term population dynamics in the Atlantic, population subdivisions during the early Pleistocene were specific to Pacific hawksbill and green turtles. Therefore, regional differences in historical population dynamics are suggested. Despite limited sampling locations, these results are the first step in estimating the historical trends in Pacific sea turtles by using phylogenetics and population genetics.

  4. Inventarisatie van de landslakken van de Zeeuwse kust, met de nadruk op de nauwe korfslak Vertigo angustior (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveld, A.

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of the land snails of the province of Zeeland, with special emphasis on Vertigo angustior (Mollusca: Gastropoda) In 2005 the land snail fauna of the coast of the province of Zeeland was mapped. In total 98 soil and litter samples were taken and on 54 localities records were gathered

  5. Cenozoic Molluscan types from Java (Indonesia) in the Martin Collection (Division of Cenozoic Mollusca), National Museum of Natural History, Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Leloux, J.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Winkler Prins, C.F.

    2002-01-01

    An inventory of type material in the ‘Martin Collection’ at the Division of Cenozoic Mollusca of the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, The Netherlands has been made. In total 1842 lots containing over 5700 type specimens of 912 species were encountered. The status of the types is outlined.

  6. Systematic notes on the Mesodesmatidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia), and descriptions of a new species and a new subspecies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij-Schuiling, de L.A.

    1972-01-01

    In 1959, Mr. A. Hoogerwerf obtained a number of small Mollusca from the gizzard of a godwit (Limosa spec.) shot near Koerik, West Irian, New Guinea, that eventually came into my hands for identification. Though the specimens clearly belonged to a species of the genus Mesodesma (Mactracea, fam. Mesod

  7. Babosas terrestres (Mollusca, Gastropoda de la Región de Murcia (SE España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borredà, V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial slugs (Mollusca, Gastropoda from Murcia (SE Spain This study examines the few citations about terrestrial slugs from Murcia (SE Spain and adds data from our own surveys. We provide a systematic checklist of the species of terrestrial slugs known from Murcia (SE Spain and comment on the most significant species: Deroceras nitidum, Arion gilvus and A. lusitanicus s. l.

  8. The mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii supports its association with Annelida rather than Mollusca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.; Staton, Joseph

    2001-09-01

    We have determined the sequence of about half (7470 nts) of the mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii, the first representative of this phylum to be so studied. All of the 19 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. The arrangement of these genes is remarkably similar to that of the oligochaete annelid Lumbricus terrestris. Comparison of both the inferred amino acid sequences and the gene arrangements of a variety of diverse metazoan taxa reveals that the phylum Sipuncula is more closely related to Annelida than to Mollusca. This requires reinterpretation of the homology of several embryological features and of patterns of animal body plan evolution.

  9. 镉诱导满江红(Azolla imbricata)花色素苷的初步鉴定、抗氧化活性及其作用机理%Preliminary identification, antioxidant activity and mechanism of anthocyanins from Azolla imbricata induced by cadmium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴灵鹏; 董新姣; 马海虎; 盛丽梅

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the molecular structure of the anthocyanins which are induced by Cd in Azolla imbricata, anthocyanins were induced with 0.1mg·L-1 Cd, extracted with 0.1% HCI in methanol, purified by an Amberlite XAD-7 column and separated by Sephedex LH-20 column. The main compound was preliminarily identified as luteolinidin- 5-glucoside by its ultraviolet/visible absorbance spectrum and high performance liquid ( HPLC )chromatography. In vitro antioxidant properties of anthocyanins before and after purification were also evaluated by different analytical methods. The results showed that the total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, scavenging activity of superoxide anion radical (O2 - )and hydroxyl radical ( · OH )increased significantly with increasing concentrations of anthocyanin extracts, and the antioxidant activity of anthocyanins after purification was higher than the values of anthocyanins before purification. When the concentration of anthocyanins reached 0. 5 mg · mL-1, the values of anthocyanins after purification were increased by 3.16,1.36,2.71 and 1.86 times respectively, compared to anthocyanins before purification, indicating that luteolinidin-5-glucoside was the most important substance responsible for the antioxidant properties of A. imbricata. In addition, the antioxidant mechanism of anthocyanins is also discussed in this paper. In conclusion, the results obtained in this work indicated that the increase in the content of anthocyanins may be involved in internal detoxification mechanisms of A. imbricata against Cd toxicity.%为了研究镉诱导的满江红花色素苷的分子结构,分别用0.1 mg·L-1Cd、0.1%盐酸-甲醇溶液、XAD-7大孔树脂和葡聚糖凝胶SephadexLH-20柱对其进行诱导、提取、纯化和分离.经紫外可见光谱特性和HPLC图谱分析.初步确定此物质为木犀草定-5-葡萄糖苷.采用不同的体外实验方法评价了满江红花色素苷纯化前后的抗氧化活性.结果表明,花

  10. Monitoring organic and inorganic pollutants in juvenile live sea turtles: results from a study of Chelonia mydas and Eretmochelys imbricata in Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D; Orós, Jorge; López, Pedro; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2014-05-15

    Despite the current environmental concern regarding the risk posed by contamination in marine ecosystems, the concentrations of pollutants in sea turtles have not been thoroughly elucidated. In the current study, we determined the concentrations of 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 11 inorganic elements (Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, As, Al, Hg and Se) for the first time in two sea turtle species (Chelonia mydas and Eretmochelys imbricata). Only five of the 18 analyzed OCPs were detected in both species. The average total OCP concentration was higher in green turtles than in hawksbills (0.33 ng/ml versus 0.20 ng/ml). Higher concentrations of individual congeners and total PCBs were also detected in green turtles than in hawksbills (∑PCBs=0.73ng/ml versus 0.19 ng/ml), and different PCB contamination profiles were observed in these two species. Concerning PAHs, we also observed a different contamination profile and higher levels of contamination in green turtles (∑PAHs=12.06 ng/ml versus 2.95 ng/ml). Di- and tri-cyclic PAHs were predominant in both populations, suggesting a petrogenic origin, rather than urban sources of PAHs. Additionally, all of the samples exhibited detectable levels of the 11 inorganic elements. In this case, we also observed relevant differences between both species. Thus, Zn was the most abundant inorganic element in hawksbills (an essential inorganic element), whereas Ni, a well-known toxicant, was the most abundant inorganic element in green turtles. The presence of contaminants is greater in green turtles relative to hawksbill turtles, suggesting a greater exposure to hazardous chemical contaminants for green turtles. These results provide baseline data for these species that can serve for future monitoring purposes outlined in the EU's Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  11. Forming nacreous layer of the shells of the bivalves Atrina rigida and Pinctada margaritifera: an environmental- and cryo-scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nudelman, Fabio; Shimoni, Eyal; Klein, Eugenia; Rousseau, Marthe; Bourrat, Xavier; Lopez, Evelyne; Addadi, Lia; Weiner, Steve

    2008-05-01

    A key to understanding control over mineral formation in mollusk shells is the microenvironment inside the pre-formed 3-dimensional organic matrix framework where mineral forms. Much of what is known about nacre formation is from observations of the mature tissue. Although these studies have elucidated several important aspects of this process, the structure of the organic matrix and the microenvironment where the crystal nucleates and grows are very difficult to infer from observations of the mature nacre. Here, we use environmental- and cryo-scanning electron microscopy to investigate the organic matrix structure at the onset of mineralization in the nacre of two mollusk species: the bivalves Atrina rigida and Pinctada margaritifera. These two techniques allow the visualization of hydrated biological materials coupled with the preservation of the organic matrix close to physiological conditions. We identified a hydrated gel-like protein phase filling the space between two interlamellar sheets prior to mineral formation. The results are consistent with this phase being the silk-like proteins, and show that mineral formation does not occur in an aqueous solution, but in a hydrated gel-like medium. As the tablets grow, the silk-fibroin is pushed aside and becomes sandwiched between the mineral and the chitin layer.

  12. The culture of pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata (Gould, 1850 in Phuket with temperature shock method and survival rates on various feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rativat, V.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine pearl farming at Phuket Island has exploited natural pearl oysters. In order to obtain sufficient pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata (Gould, 1850, the oyster cultivation was carried out to determine appropriate kinds of food and types of spat collectors. The male and female oysters were stimulated to spawn with this temperature shock method (treated with 32ºC and then with 26ºC. The fertilized eggs developed into the stages of polar body, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, trochophore and then D-shape larvae. At the ageof 19-26 hrs. the larvae were fed with three kinds of food: Isochrysis galbana, Chaetoceros calcitrans and the mixture of 1:1 I. galbana and C. calcitrans. Upon the first 30 days, shell lengths of the spats fed with I. Galbana, C. calcitrans and the mixture were 422.00±59.32, 221.33±12.46 and 347.33±67.98 μg, respectively. The 26-29th day spat stage settled to the collectors: saran net, plastic plates and wavy tile. Number of spats settling to saran net was the highest. But after being moved into the sea for 30 days, the survival rate was89.06% which was lower than for those settling to plastic plates (93.29% and wavy tile (93.99%.

  13. A cDNA Cloning of a Novel Alpha-Class Tyrosinase of Pinctada fucata: Its Expression Analysis and Characterization of the Expressed Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryousuke Takgi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase plays an important role in the formation of the shell matrix and melanin synthesis in mollusks shells. A cDNA clone encoding a 47 kDa protein was isolated from the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. The cDNA was 1,957 base pairs long and encodes a 417 residue protein that has extensive sequence identity with tyrosinase (polyphenol oxidase: EC 1.14.18.1. This tyrosinase-like protein, termed PfTy, contains an N-terminal signal sequence and the two copper-binding domain signatures (CuA and CuB, suggesting that PfTy belongs to the α-subclass of type-3 copper proteins. Enzyme activity of PfTy was examined by a spectrophotometric method using the translation product derived from an S30 T7 high-yield protein expression system. Tyrosinase activity was seen in this recombinant product. RT-PCR analysis showed that PfTy mRNA was expressed in the mantle pallial, but not in the mantle edge. Therefore, PfTy may participate in insoluble shell matrix formation of the nacreous layer. PfTy expression was also observed in the foot, liver, and adductor muscle, suggesting that PfTy participates in the synthesis of melanins, which are effective scavengers of free radicals formed in multiple intracellular oxidative processes. This is the first report of a novel α-class tyrosinase from the pearl oyster P. fucata.

  14. Revisiting wild stocks of black lip oyster Pinctada margaritifera in the Tuamotu Archipelago: The case of Ahe and Takaroa atolls and implications for the cultured pearl industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréfouët, Serge; Thomas, Yoann; Dumas, Franck; Lo, Cédrik

    2016-12-01

    Spat collecting of the black lip oyster (Pinctada margaritifera) is the foundation of cultured black pearl production, the second source of income for French Polynesia. To understand spat collecting temporal and spatial variations, larval supply and its origin need to be characterized. To achieve this, it is necessary to account for the stock of oysters, its distribution and population characteristics (size distribution, sex-ratio). While the farmed stock in concessions can be easily characterized, the wild stock is elusive. Here, we investigate the distribution and population structure of the wild stock of Ahe and Takaroa atolls using fine-scale bathymetry and in situ census data. Stocks were surprisingly low (∼666,000 and ∼1,030,000 oysters for Ahe and Takaroa respectively) considering these two atolls have both been very successful spat collecting atolls in the past. Furthermore, in Ahe atoll, wild populations are aging with a dominant but small female population. Comparison with the cultured stock population (∼14 millions oysters) and its dominant young male population suggests that to maximize larval supply and spat collecting on the long term, it would be useful to increase the number of females in selected sanctuaries. We discuss the implication of our findings for the long-term management of stocks and for spat collection in pearl farming atolls, and for on-going numerical modelling studies on larval dispersal.

  15. Production and characterization of Iturinic lipopeptides as antifungal agents and biosurfactants produced by a marine pinctada martensii-derived Bacillus mojavensis B0621A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zongwang; Hu, Jiangchun

    2014-06-01

    Bacillus mojavensis B0621A was isolated from a pearl oyster Pinctada martensii collected from South China Sea. While screening for cyclic lipopeptides potentially useful as lead compounds for biological control against soil-bone fungal plant pathogens, three lipopeptides were isolated and purified from the fermentation broth of B. mojavensis B0621A via vacuum flash chromatography coupled with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The structural characterization and identification of these cyclic lipopeptides were performed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis as well as chemical degradation. These lipopeptides were finally characterized as homologues of mojavensins, which contained identical amino acids back bones of asparagine1, tyrosine2, asparagine3, glutamine4, proline5, asparagine6, and asparagine7 and differed from each other by their saturated β-amino fatty acid chain residues, namely, iso-C14 mojavensin, iso-C16 mojavensin, and anteiso-C17 mojavensin, respectively. All lipopeptide isomers, especially iso-C16 mojavensin and anteiso-C17 mojavensin, displayed moderate antagonism and dose-dependent activity against several formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum and presented surface tension activities. These properties demonstrated that the lipopeptides produced by B. mojavensis B0621A may be useful as biological control agent to fungal plant pathogens.

  16. Structure and composition of the septal nacreous layer of Nautilus macromphalus L. (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, Yannicke

    2006-01-01

    The nacreous layer of Mollusca is the best-known aragonitic structure and is the usual model for biomineralization. However, data are based on less than 10 species. In situ observations of the septal nacreous layer of the cephalopod Nautilus shell has revealed that the tablets are composed of acicular laths. These laths are composed of round nanograins surrounded by an organic sheet. No hole has been observed in the decalcified interlamellar membranes. A set of combined analytical data shows that the organic matrices extracted from the nacreous layer are glycoproteins. In both soluble and insoluble matrices, S amino acids are rare and the soluble organic matrices have a higher sulfated sugar content than the insoluble matrices. It is possible that the observed differences in the structure and composition of the nacreous layers of the outer wall and septa of the Nautilus shell have a dual origin: evolution and functional adaptation. However, we have no appropriate data as yet to answer this question.

  17. Pm-miR-133 hosting in one potential lncRNA regulates RhoA expression in pearl oyster Pinctada martensii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhe; Huang, RongLian; Tian, RongRong; Jiao, Yu; Du, Xiaodong

    2016-10-15

    Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) are abundant in the genome of higher forms of eukaryotes and implicated in regulating the diversity of biological processes partly because they host microRNAs (miRNAs), which are repressors of target gene expression. In vertebrates, miR-133 regulates the differentiation and proliferation of cardiac and skeletal muscles. Pinctada martensii miR-133 (pm-miR-133) was identified in our previous research through Solexa deep sequencing. In the present study, the precise sequence of mature pm-miR-133 was validated through miR-RACE. Stem loop qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that mature pm-miR-133 was constitutively expressed in the adductor muscle, gonad, hepatopancreas, mantle, foot, and gill of P. martensii. Among these tissues, the adductor muscle exhibited the highest pm-miR-133 expression. Target analysis indicated that pm-RhoA was the potential regulatory target of pm-miR-133. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that a potential LncRNA (designated as Lnc133) with a mature pm-miR-133 could generate a hairpin structure that was highly homologous to that of Lottia gigantea. Lnc133 was also highly expressed in the adductor muscle, gill, hepatopancreas, and gonad. Phylogenetic analysis further showed that the miR-133s derived from chordate and achordate were separated into two classes. Therefore, Lnc133 hosting pm-miR-133 could be involved in regulating the cell proliferation of adductor muscles by targeting pm-RhoA.

  18. Culture site dependence on pearl size realization in Pinctada margaritifera in relation to recipient oyster growth and mantle graft biomineralization gene expression using the same donor phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pabic, Lore; Parrad, Sophie; Sham Koua, Manaarii; Nakasai, Seiji; Saulnier, Denis; Devaux, Dominique; Ky, Chin-Long

    2016-12-01

    Size is the most important and valuable quality of the cultured black-lip pearl, Pinctada margaritifera. As this pearl aquaculture is carried out at numerous grow-out sites, this study analyzes the environmental influence on pearl size parameters (nacre weight and thickness) in relation to the recipient oyster biometric parameters (shell thickness, height, width, and oyster weight) at harvest time. Toward this end, an experimental graft was designed by using a homogeneous donor oyster phenotype. The recipient oysters were randomly and equally transferred and reared in five commercial and contrasting grow-out locations. Overall inter-site comparisons revealed that the cultured pearl size (N = 2168) and the biometric parameters of the recipient oysters were highest for sites with warmer temperatures with low seasonal variation in comparison to the southern latitude sites. These results were supported by positive correlations between pearl nacre thickness and recipient oyster shell thickness, height, and width. In parallel, the biomineralization potential of the mantle graft was screened through four genes encoding aragonite (Pif 177, MSI60) and calcite (shematrin 9, aspein). As the gene expression levels were the same among all the donor oysters, this finding demonstrates that: 1) the pearl sac that originated from the mantle graft was not isolated from environmental variations during the culture period and 2) the phenotypic expressions of the two biomineralizing tissues in the recipient oyster were consistent (shell and pearl). In the near future, this knowledge will be helpful at the production sites of genetically selected donor oyster lines for growth produced in hatchery systems.

  19. Cloning and characterization of Prisilkin-39, a novel matrix protein serving a dual role in the prismatic layer formation from the oyster Pinctada fucata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yawei; Jing, Gu; Yan, Zhenguang; Li, Changzhong; Gong, Ningping; Zhu, Fangjie; Li, Dongxian; Zhang, Yaorun; Zheng, Guilan; Wang, Hongzhong; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2009-04-17

    Molluscs form their shells out of CaCO(3) and a matrix of biomacromolecules. Understanding the role of matrices may shed some light on the mechanism of biomineralization. Here, a 1401-bp full-length cDNA sequence encoding a novel matrix protein was cloned from the mantle of the bivalve oyster, Pinctada fucata. The deduced protein (Prisilkin-39), which has a molecular mass of 39.3 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.83, was fully characterized, and its role in biomineralization was demonstrated using both in vivo and in vitro crystal growth assays. Prisilkin-39 is a highly repetitive protein with an unusual composition of Gly, Tyr, and Ser residues. Expression of Prisilkin-39 was localized to columnar epithelial cells of the mantle edge, corresponding to the calcitic prismatic layer formation. Immunostaining in situ and immunodetection in vitro revealed the presence of a characteristic pattern of Prisilkin-39 in the organic sheet and in sheaths around the prisms. Prisilkin-39 binds tightly with chitin, an insoluble polysaccharide that forms the highly structured framework of the shell. Antibody injection in vivo resulted in dramatic morphological deformities in the inner shell surface structure, where large amounts of CaCO(3) were deposited in an uncontrolled manner. Moreover, Prisilkin-39 strictly prohibited the precipitation of aragonite in vitro. Taken together, Prisilkin-39 is the first protein shown to have dual function, involved both in the chitinous framework building and in crystal growth regulation during the prismatic layer mineralization. These observations may extend our view on the rare group of basic matrices and their functions during elaboration of the molluscan shell.

  20. Preferencias en la anidación de tortugas carey (Eretmochelys imbricata y baulas (Dermochelys coriacea en el Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca Manzanillo, Limón, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilliana Piedra-Castro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El Caribe costarricense es importante como sitio de alimentación, copulación, anidación y desove de las tortugas marinas, por lo que el presente trabajo pretendió actualizar el patrón de anidación en las tortugas marinas Dermochelys coriacea y Eretmochelys imbricata en el sector Gandoca, del Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca Manzanillo, Limón, Costa Rica, para proponer medidas de manejo. Se realizaron recorridos nocturnos entre las 8:00 p. m. y 4:00 a. m., la playa se dividió en cinco sectores, en estos se realizaron observaciones directas y de rastros, de las tortugas que elaboraron el nido, entre febrero y agosto del 2011 y 2012. Se registraron tres especies de tortugas marinas, Dermochelys coriacea, Eretmochelys imbricata y Chelonia mydas. La anidación de tortugas baula tuvo su punto máximo entre marzo y julio; por su parte, las carey, entre mayo y junio (2011, y junio hasta agosto en el 2012. Se observó preferencia en la posición de la playa utilizada para construir sus nidos; la baula utiliza principalmente la parte media, mientras que la carey utilizó mayormente la parte baja para anidar (t = 17.2525. Se observó que la baula utilizó frecuentemente el sector C; sin embargo, no se encontraron diferencias en el uso de los sectores. Se concluye que ambas especies tienen preferencias en la selección de la zona de playa en que anidan; la carey en la parte baja cerca de la línea de costa y la baula en la parte media. Además, las tortugas baula utilizan indistintamente los diferentes sectores de la playa estudiada.

  1. Molecular phylogeny of pearl oysters and their relatives (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pterioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tëmkin Ilya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily Pterioidea is a morphologically and ecologically diverse lineage of epifaunal marine bivalves distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical continental shelf regions. This group includes commercially important pearl culture species and model organisms used for medical studies of biomineralization. Recent morphological treatment of selected pterioideans and molecular phylogenetic analyses of higher-level relationships in Bivalvia have challenged the traditional view that pterioidean families are monophyletic. This issue is examined here in light of molecular data sets composed of DNA sequences for nuclear and mitochondrial loci, and a published character data set of anatomical and shell morphological characters. Results The present study is the first comprehensive species-level analysis of the Pterioidea to produce a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for nearly all extant taxa. The data were analyzed for potential biases due to taxon and character sampling, and idiosyncracies of different molecular evolutionary processes. The congruence and contribution of different partitions were quantified, and the sensitivity of clade stability to alignment parameters was explored. Conclusions Four primary conclusions were reached: (1 the results strongly supported the monophyly of the Pterioidea; (2 none of the previously defined families (except for the monotypic Pulvinitidae were monophyletic; (3 the arrangement of the genera was novel and unanticipated, however strongly supported and robust to changes in alignment parameters; and (4 optimizing key morphological characters onto topologies derived from the analysis of molecular data revealed many instances of homoplasy and uncovered synapomorphies for major nodes. Additionally, a complete species-level sampling of the genus Pinctada provided further insights into the on-going controversy regarding the taxonomic identity of major pearl culture species.

  2. Catalogue of the type specimens deposited in the Mollusca Collection of the Museu Nacional / UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Alexandre Dias; Monteiro, Júlio César; Barbosa, André Favaretto; Salgado, Norma Campos; Coelho, Arnaldo Campos Dos Santos

    2014-03-20

    A curatorial revision of the type specimens deposited in the Mollusca Collection of the Museu Nacional / UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MNRJ) revealed the existence of 518 lots of type specimens (holotypes, neotypes, syntypes and paratypes) for 285 names of molluscan taxa from 88 families, including 247 gastropods, 30 bivalves, three cephalopods and five scaphopods. A total of 106 holotypes and one neotype are deposited in the MNRJ. Type material for ten nominal taxa described as being deposited in the MNRJ was not located; the probable reasons are discussed. Some previously published erroneous information about types in the MNRJ is rectified. A total of 37 type specimens are illustrated.

  3. The effects of mercury exposure on the surface morphology of gill filaments in Perna perna (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gregory, MA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure on the Surface Morphology of Gill Filaments in Perna perna (Mollusca: Bivalvia) M. A. GREGORY *, R. C. GEORGE , D. J. MARSHALL , A. ANANDRAJ and T. P. MCCLURG? Electron Microscope Unit and Department of Zoology, University of Durban... 259, 51?60. Grace A. L.,Ganey, L. F. Jr. (1987) The eC128ects of copper on the heart rate and ?ltration rate of M. edulis. Marine Pollution Bulletin 18, 87?91. 120 Marine Pollution Bulletin Gregory, M. A., George, R. C. and McClurg. (1996...

  4. Recovery of marine Conus (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda) from imposex at Rottnest Island, Western Australia, over a quarter of a century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Fred E; Keesing, John K; Brearley, Anne

    2017-09-04

    Imposex is a reproductive abnormality in which female snails begin to transform to males, but do not become functional. It was caused by tributyltin (TBT) used as an antifoulant in boat paints. Imposex was first recorded marine snails (Conus) (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda) at Rottnest Island, Western Australia, in January 1991, where 88% of individuals at the west end were affected. Most were at moderate Stages 3 and 4 on a scale of 0 (no affect) to 6 (death). TBT was banned on boats 25m in September 2013. In February 2017 only 4% of Conus had imposex, at Stage 1. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Evolutionary relationships among squids of the family Gonatidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) inferred from three mitochondrial loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, A R; Katugin, O N; Amezquita, E; Nishiguchi, M K

    2005-07-01

    The oceanic squid family Gonatidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) is widely distributed in subpolar and temperate waters, exhibiting behavioral and physiological specializations associated with reproduction. Females of several species undergo muscular degeneration upon maturation; origins of this complex morphogenic change are unknown, hindering our understanding of ecological and morpho-physiological adaptations within the family. To provide further information regarding the evolutionary relationships within Gonatidae, three mitochondrial loci (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) were analyzed for 39 individuals representing fourteen gonatid and six outgroup cephalopod species. In addition to elucidating relationships among gonatids, molecular data provided more information than morphological data for problematic specimens. Although some data sets are incongruent or have low nodal support values, combined molecular analysis confirms the presence of gonatid groups previously established by morphological characteristics (i.e., possessing radular teeth in seven longitudinal rows and muscular mantle tissue). These characteristics are basal to taxa possessing radular teeth in five longitudinal rows and less muscular mantle tissue, indicating that the derived forms are those species exhibiting physiological adaptation such as tissue degeneration upon maturation and egg brooding.

  6. Hard and soft anatomy in two genera of Dondersiidae (Mollusca, Aplacophora, Solenogastres).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheltema, Amélie H; Schander, Christoffer; Kocot, Kevin M

    2012-06-01

    Phylogenetic relationships and identifications in the aplacophoran taxon Solenogastres (Neomeniomorpha) are in flux largely because descriptions of hard parts--sclerites, radulae, copulatory spicules--and body shape have often not been adequately illustrated or utilized. With easily recognizable and accessible hard parts, descriptions of Solenogastres are of greater use, not just to solenogaster taxonomists, but also to ecologists, paleontologists, and evolutionary biologists. Phylogenetic studies of Aplacophora, Mollusca, and the Lophotrochozoa as a whole, whether morphological or molecular, would be enhanced. As an example, morphologic characters, both isolated hard parts and internal anatomy, are provided for two genera in the Dondersiidae. Five species are described or redescribed and earlier descriptions corrected and enhanced. Three belong to Dondersia: D. festiva Hubrecht, D. incali (Scheltema), and D. namibiensis n. sp., the latter differentiated unambiguously from D. incali only by sclerites and copulatory spicules. Two species belong to Lyratoherpia: L. carinata Salvini-Plawen and L. californica (Heath). Notes are given for other species in Dondersiidae: L. bracteata Salvini-Plawen, Ichthyomenia ichthyodes (Pruvot), and Heathia porosa (Heath). D. indica Stork is synonymized with D. annulata. A cladistic morphological analysis was conducted to examine the utility of hard parts for reconstructing solenogaster phylogeny. Results indicate monophyly of Dondersia and Lyratoherpia as described here.

  7. Two new species of Naticidae (Mollusca ,Gastropoda) from the coast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Suping

    2008-01-01

    Two new species of Naticidae (Mollusca,Gastropoda) collected from the coast of China are described:Cryptonaitca huanghaien- sis sp.nov.and Sinum vittatum sp.nov.The morphological characteristics between the new species were described and the relat- ed information was provided.The similarities and differences between the new species and related species were also compared and discussed.The new species Cryptonaitca huanghaiensis differed from Cryptonaitca hirasei and Cryptonaitca andoi in outer shape, operculum and radula.The new species Sinum vittatum is similar to Sinum japonicum (Lischke,1869),but the shell of the for- mer is flat-elliptical in shape,spire very small,slightly convex.While the latter is flat-globular in shape,apex light brown in col- or,without a brown band on the body whorl.The comparison results revealed that Cryptonaitca huanghaiensis and Sinum vittatum were two new species from the coast of China.Specimens studied were obtained from collections in the Marine Biological Museum, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. A review of the non-bulimulid terrestrial Mollusca from the Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Juan Francisco; Catalán, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Terrestrial mollusca are sparsely studied in Chile and, for the first time, a formal record of the diversity of land snails in northern Chile is reported. Coastal and desertic areas in the Region of Atacama, in the border of the Atacama desert and the Pacific Ocean, were surveyed with the aim to describe the presence and distribution of this poorly known fauna. Of the fourteen species recorded, the geographic distribution records for nine species are extended, and some taxa are recorded for the first time since their original descriptions. All, except one, of the fourteen terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile; they are all terrestrial species, most of them have a restricted geographic distribution, and none of them is currently protected by law. The results reveal that the region of Atacama has one of the most diverse terrestrial snail biodiversity in Chile, ranking only after the Juan Fernandez Archipelago. Distribution records of all the studied species and a taxonomic key are also provided. PMID:24715800

  9. Molecular characterization, expression and function analysis of a five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dianchang; Ma, Jianjun; Jiang, Shigui

    2014-03-01

    Serine proteinase inhibitors represent an expanding superfamily of endogenous inhibitors that are regulate proteolytic events and involved in a variety of physiological and immunological processes. A five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (poKSPI) was identified and characterized from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata based on expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis. The full-length cDNA was 737 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) 660 bp encoding a 219 amino acid protein a theoretical molecular weight (Mw) of 23.3 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.40. A putative signal peptide of 19 amino acid residues and five tandem Kazal domains were identified. Four of the Kazal domains had the highly conserved motif sequences with six cysteine residues responsible for the formation of disulfide bridges. The deduced amino acid sequence of the poKSPI shared high homology with KSPIs from Hirudo medicinalis. The poKSPI mRNA could be detected in all examined tissues, the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA was the highest in mantle and gonad, while the lowest in haemocyte and intestine. After LPS challenge, the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA in digestive gland was significantly up-regulated at 4 h post-challenge and reached the peak at 12 h post-challenge, which was 4.23-fold higher than control group; the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA in gill was also significantly up-regulated at 8 and 12 h post-challenge, which were 4.48 and 2.26-fold higher than control group. After Vibrio alginolyticus challenge, the expression levels of the poKSPI mRNA in digestive gland were significantly up-regulated at 8, 12, 48 and 72 h post-challenge, which were 1.70, 1.79, 3.89 and 5.69-fold higher than control group, respectively; the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA in gill was significantly up-regulated at 24 h post-challenge, which was 5.30-fold higher than control group. The recombinant poKSPI protein could inhibit chymotrypsin and trypsin activities in dose

  10. Studies on rickettsia-like organism (RLO)disease of tropical marine pearl oyster--Epidemiological investigation of RLO disease in larvae populations of maricultured Pinctada maxima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xinzhong; Li Dengfeng; Pan Jinpei

    2001-01-01

    The epidemiological investigations on the disease and death in mature eggs, embryonic developmental periods and larvae populations [ including oocytes, fertilized ovum, early embryonic phase larvae (6 h), D- shaped phase larvae (24 h), early umbo phase larvae, umbo phase larvae, post umbo phase larvae and eyespot phase larvae] in the Luhuitou Pearl Oyster Mariculture Farm of Sanya City,Hainan Province in April 1995 showed that there were two peaks of mortality rates which occurred in early umbo phase or umbo phase and post umbo phase (Figs 3 ~ 5 and Table 1 ) respectively from preembryonic developmental periods to larvae phases. It indicated that the onset and death of Pinctada maxima larvae populations followed a pattern of outbreak. Between the prevalence, intensity of RLO infection and the mortality rates of larvae populations were of obvious positively correlations. Generally,every peak of RLO infection is always followed by a peak of mortality rate of larvae hosts, and the mortality rates of larvae hosts declined with the decreased RLO infection (see Figs 3~5). Under the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), no rickettsia-like organisms were discovered in oocytes, fertilized ovum and early embryonic phase larvae (6 h). The RLO inclusions occurred first in the D - shaped phase larvae (24 h) under histological examination. Absences of RLO in transmission electron examination of oocytes of RLO- infected adult females, fertilized ovum and early embryonic phase larvae (6h) indicated that RLO may not be transmitted transovarially. But RLO for host infection may be transmitted by contact transmission since RLO inclusions were first identified regularly in D - shaped phase larvae (24 h), while these D- shaped phase larvae were still unable to take food during hatching 24 hours. In addition, the result of epidemiological investigation showed that no observable death occurred in D- shaped larvae populations, but early obvious death occurred in larvae populations

  11. Mollusca: Bivalvia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-06-05

    Jun 5, 1987 ... membrane of which is thickened, connect the spermatids. (Figure 2) . As the ... vesicle, which is of uniform electron opacity (0,5 f1m diameter) .... macerophyl/a and Spisula solidissima the outer electron- opaque region of the ...

  12. Le contrôle des croisements chez l’huître perlière Pinctada margaritifera : La maturation ovocytaire in vitro et l’induction de la ponte

    OpenAIRE

    Le Moullac, Gilles; Rouxel, Catherine; Vonau, Vincent; Ledu, Christophe; Cochard, Jean-Claude

    2003-01-01

    Afin de mener à bien le programme Maîtrise de la Reproduction chez l’huître perlière Pinctada margaritifera dont la perspective est l’amélioration génétique, il est essentiel de contrôler les croisements au niveau individuel. Ces croisements ne pourront être contrôlés que dans la mesure où les gamètes mâles et femelles sont obtenus séparément. Ceci permettra aussi de valider les travaux en cryoconservation des spermatozoïdes et de faciliter la production de polyploïdes. Ces travaux répondent ...

  13. The complete sequence and gene organization of the mitochondrial genome of the gadilid scaphopod Siphonondentalium lobatum (Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Hermann; Steiner, Gerhard

    2004-05-01

    Comparisons of mitochondrial gene sequences and gene arrangements can be informative for reconstructing high-level phylogenetic relationships. We determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Siphonodentalium lobatum, (Mollusca, Scaphopoda). With only 13,932 bases, it is the shortest molluscan mitochondrial genome reported so far. The genome contains the usual 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The ATPase subunit 8 gene is exceptionally short. Several transfer RNAs show truncated TpsiC arms or DHU arms. The gene arrangement of S. lobatum is markedly different from all other known molluscan mitochondrial genomes and shows low similarity even to an unpublished gene order of a dentaliid scaphopod. Phylogenetic analyses of all available complete molluscan mitochondrial genomes based on amino acid sequences of 11 protein-coding genes yield trees with low support for the basal branches. None of the traditionally accepted molluscan taxa and phylogenies are recovered in all analyses, except for the euthyneuran Gastropoda. S. lobatum appears as the sister taxon to two of the three bivalve species. We conclude that the deep molluscan phylogeny is probably beyond the resolution of mitochondrial protein sequences. Moreover, assessing the phylogenetic signal in gene order data requires a much larger taxon sample than is currently available, given the exceptional diversity of this character set in the Mollusca.

  14. Estandarización de la técnica de PCR para amplificar el genoma mitocondrial de las tortugas cabezona (Caretta caretta y carey (Eretmochelys imbricata anidantes del Caribe colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Hernández Fernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Las tortugas marinas, Eretmochelys imbricata y Caretta caretta se encuentran distribuidas en aguas tropicales del Indo-Pacífico y Atlántico y son consideradas especies importantes dentro del ecosistema. Estas tortugas se han catalogado en peligro crítico ya que han sido explotadas por su caparazón, huevos y carne. Las poblaciones de ambas especies se encuentran en un declive poblacional significativo en el Caribe colombiano. Los estudios genéticos del ADN mitocondrial permiten el apoyo de planes de manejo y conservación. En el presente estudio se estandarizaron las mejores condiciones de la técnica de PCR para la amplificación de 22 fragmentos de 800 pb solapadas en 50 pb del mitogenoma de las tortugas E. imbricata y C. caretta. Se diseñaron oligonucleótidos-primers para la amplificación de estos mitogenomas a partir de secuencias previamente descritas de la tortuga verde Chelonia mydas. Se evaluó la concentración de Mg+2, ADN, oligonucleótidos-primers y la temperatura de anillamiento. La reacción estandarizada de PCR se obtuvo en un volumen final de 25 μl, conteniendo 20-70 ng de DNA, 0,5-1 mM de cada oligonucleótidos-primers, 1,5-3,0 mM de Mg+2, 1 U de Taq polimerasa y 0,2 mM de cada dNTP’s. Los parámetros de amplificación optimizados fueron: desnaturalización inicial de 5 min a 94 °C, seguida por 35 ciclos de 94 °C por 1 min, 37-50 °C por 1 min (de acuerdo a los oligonucleótidos-primers y 72 °C por 1 min. Se obtuvo el 63 % de la secuencia de la tortuga carey y el 68 % de la tortuga cabezona. Estas secuencias presentaron un 99-100 % de identidad con las secuencias previamente reportadas.

  15. Comparative mitogenomic analysis reveals cryptic species: A case study in Mactridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin; Meng, Xue Ping; Chu, Ka Hou; Zhao, Na Na; Tian, Mei; Liang, Meng; Hao, Jue

    2014-12-01

    The Chinese surf clam Mactra chinensis Philippi, 1846 is a commercially important marine bivalve belonging to the family Mactridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia). In this study, the M. chinensis mitochondrial genomic features are analyzed. The genome has 34 genes on the same strand, lacking atp8 and both trnS (trnS1 and trnS2) as compared with the typical gene content of metazoan mitochondrial genomes. The A+T content of M. chinensis mitochondrial genome is 63.72%, which is slightly lower than that of M. veneriformis (67.59%) and Coelomactra antiquata (64.33% and 64.14% for the samples from Ri Zhao, Shandong Province, and Zhang Zhou, Fujian Province, China, respectively) in the same family. There are 22 NCRs in the M. chinensis mitochondrial genome, accounting for 12.91% of the genome length. The longest NCR (1,075bp in length) is located between trnT and trnQ. A TRS (127bp×8.15) accounts for 96.3% (1,035/1,075) of this NCR. The occurrence of TRS in NCR is shared by the two Mactra mitochondrial genomes, but is not found in the two Coelomactra mitochondrial genomes. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on 12 PCGs of 25 bivalve mitochondrial genomes shows that all seven genera (Mactra, Coelomactra, Paphia, Meretrix, Solen, Mytilus, and Crassostrea) constitute monophyletic groups with very high support values. Pairwise genetic distance analyses indicate that the genetic distance of C. antiquata from the two localities is 0.084, which is greater than values between congeneric species, such as those in Mactra, Mytilus, Meretrix, and Crassostrea. The results show that the C. antiquata from the two localities represent cryptic species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Unionid bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masteller, E.C.; Maleski, K.R.; Schloesser, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine species composition and relative abundance of unionid bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) in Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania 1990-1992. This information was compared with data from the only other extensive survey of unionids in the bay conducted in 1909-1911 (Ortmann 1919) to assess changes over the 80 years preceding the present study. A total of 1,540 individuals representing 18 species were collected in 1990-1992. Five relatively common species (between 7 and 42% of total individuals), six uncommon species (2 and 6%), and seven rare species (<1%) were found. The rare species were Anodontoides ferussacianus, Lasmigona costata, Ligumia recta, Ptychobranchus fasciolaris, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa, Strophitus undaulatus, and Truncilla donaciformis. Five of the species found in Presque Isle Bay (Leptodea fragilis, Ligumia nasuta, Potamilus alatus, Quadrula quadrula, and Truncilla donaciformis) are listed as critically imperiled and one species (Truncilla truncata) as extirpated in the State of Pennsylvania by the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy. Comparisons between unionid populations in 1909-1911 and 1990-1992 indicate few substantial changes occurred during the past 80 years. A total of 22 species were found; 21 in 1909-1911 and 18 in 1990-1992. Seventeen species were found in both studies, an additional four in 1909-1911 and one in 1990-1992. The relative abundance of 11 of the 17 species found in both studies remained stable (i.e., common or uncommon) over the past 80 years. Only four species listed as uncommon in 1909-1911 were listed as rare in 1990-1992. However, the invasion of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is considered a threat to the continued existence of the entire Unionidae fauna in Presque Isle Bay, a unique habitat of the Great Lakes.

  17. Purification and characterization of two endo-beta-1,4-glucanases from mollusca, Ampullaria crossean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Hong; Guo, Rui; Yin, Qiu-Yu; Ding, Ming; Zhang, Si-Liang; Xu, Gen-Jun; Zhao, Fu-Kun

    2005-10-01

    Two novel endo-beta-1,4-glucanases, EG45 and EG27, were isolated from the gastric juice of mollusca, Ampullaria crossean, by anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, gel filtration and a second round of anion exchange chromatography. The purified proteins EG45 and EG27 appeared as a single band on sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a molecular mass of 45 kDa and 27 kDa, respectively. The optimum pH for CMC activity was 5.5 for EG45 and 4.4-4.8 for EG27. The optimum temperature range for EG27 was broad, between 50 degrees and 60 degrees; for EG45 it was 50 degrees. The analysis on the stability of these two endo-beta-1,4-glucanases showed that EG27 was acceptably stable at pH 3.0-11.0 even when the incubation time was prolonged to 24 h at 30 degrees, whereas EG45 remained relatively stable at pH 5.0-8.0. About 85% of the activity of EG27 could be retained upon incubation at 60 degrees for 24 h. However, less than 10% residual activity of EG45 was detected at 50 degrees. Among different kinds of substrates, both enzymes showed a high preference for carboxymethyl cellulose. EG45, in particular, showed a carboxymethyl cellulose hydrolytic activity of 146.5 IU/mg protein. Both enzymes showed low activities to xylan (from oat spelt) and Sigmacell 101, and they were inactive to p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-cellobioside, salicin and starch.

  18. pH-Dependent Stability of EGX, A Multi-functional Cellulase from Mollusca, Ampullaria crossean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Ying LI; Ji WANG; Yan-Hong LI; Ming DING; Gen-Jun XU; Lan-Ying LIU; Fu-Kun ZHAO

    2004-01-01

    The cellulase activity and stability of EGX, a multi-functional cellulase previously purified from the mollusca Ampullaria crossean, was systematically studied under different pH. The pH induced conformation and stability change of EGX have been investigated by using the intrinsic fluorescence, ANS fluorescence and CD spectrum. It has been found that the conformation and activity of this cellulase were strongly dependent on the pH. EGX was stable for both the enzyme activity and the conformation from pH 5.6 to pH 7.4. As shown by intrinsic and ANS fluorescence, no red shift of emission maximum occurred and a negligible intensity change was observed at pH 5.6-7.4. The activity of EGX remained about 80% in pH 5.6-7.4 and obviously decreased out of side the pH range. Urea-induced changes in EGX at pH 5.4 and pH 8.0 were measured by intrinsic fluorescence and CD spectrum. At pH 5.4, a significantly red shift of emission maximum occurred when the concentration of urea was 5 M compared to the concentration was 3 M at pH 8.0. The α-helix at pH 5.4 was 40.51% in the absence of urea and 31.04% in the presence of 4 M urea. At pH 8.0 the α-helix was 7.23% in the presence of 4 M urea. The data indicated that EGX was much susceptible to urea-induced unfolding at pH 8.0 and much stable at pH 5.4. The greater pH dependent stability of EGX may allow the enzyme to adequately catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulosic materials under natural or industrial extreme conditions.

  19. Nacre and false nacre (foliated aragonite) in extant monoplacophorans (=Tryblidiida: Mollusca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Antonio G.; Ramírez-Rico, Joaquín; González-Segura, Alicia; Sánchez-Navas, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Extant monoplacophorans (Tryblidiida, Mollusca) have traditionally been reported as having an internal nacreous layer, thus representing the ancestral molluscan condition. The examination of this layer in three species of Neopilinidae ( Rokopella euglypta, Veleropilina zografi, and Micropilina arntzi) reveals that only V. zografi secretes an internal layer of true nacre, which occupies only part of the internal shell surface. The rest of the internal surface of V. zografi and the whole internal surfaces of the other two species examined are covered by a material consisting of lath-like, instead of brick-like, crystals, which are arranged into lamellae. In all cases examined, the crystallographic c-axis in this lamellar material is perpendicular to the surface of laths and the a-axis is parallel to their long dimension. The differences between taxa relate to the frequency of twins, which is much higher in Micropilina. In general, the material is well ordered, particularly towards the margin, where lamellae pile up at a small step size, which is most likely due to processes of crystal competition. Given its morphological resemblance to the foliated calcite of bivalves, we propose the name foliated aragonite for this previously undescribed biomaterial secreted by monoplacophorans. We conclude that the foliated aragonite probably lacks preformed interlamellar membranes and is therefore not a variant of nacre. A review of the existing literature reveals that previous reports of nacre in the group were instead of the aragonitic foliated layer and that our report of nacre in V. zografi is the first undisputed evidence of nacre in monoplacophorans. From the evolutionary viewpoint, the foliated aragonite could easily have been derived from nacre. Assuming that nacre represents the ancestral condition, as in other molluscan classes, it has been replaced by foliated aragonite along the tryblidiidan lineage, although the fossil record does not presently provide evidence as to

  20. The Complete Sequence of the Mitochondrial Genome of the Chamberednautilus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-12-01

    Background: Mitochondria contain small genomes that arephysically separate from those of nuclei. Their comparison serves as amodel system for understanding the processes of genome evolution.Although complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported formore than 600 animals, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased towardvertebrates and arthropods, leaving much of the diversity yetuncharacterized. Results: The mitochondrial genome of a cephalopodmollusk, the Chambered Nautilus, is 16,258 nts in length and 59.5 percentA+T, both values that are typical of animal mitochondrial genomes. Itcontains the 37 genes that are typical for animal mtDNAs, with 15 on oneDNA strand and 22 on the other. The arrangement of these genes can bederived from that of the distantly related Katharina tunicata (Mollusca:Polyplacophora) by a switch in position of two large blocks of genes andtranspositions of four tRNA genes. There is strong skew in thedistribution of nucleotides between the two strands. There are an unusualnumber of non-coding regions and their function, if any, is not known;however, several of these demark abrupt shifts in nucleotide skew,suggesting that they may play roles in transcription and/or replication.One of the non-coding regions contains multiple repeats of a tRNA-likesequence. Some of the tRNA genes appear to overlap on the same strand,but this could be resolved if the polycistron were cleaved at thebeginning of the downstream gene, followed by polyadenylation of theproduct of the upstream gene to form a fully paired structure.Conclusions: Nautilus sp. mtDNA contains an expected gene content thathas experienced few rearrangements since the evolutionary split betweencephalopods and polyplacophorans. It contains an unusual number ofnon-coding regions, especially considering that these otherwise often aregenerated by the same processes that produce gene rearrangements. Thisappears to be yet another case where polyadenylation of mitochondrialtRNAs restores

  1. An SCD gene from the Mollusca and its upregulation in carotenoid-enriched scallops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Ning, Xianhui; Dou, Jinzhuang; Yu, Qian; Wang, Shuyue; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shi; Hu, Xiaoli; Bao, Zhenmin

    2015-06-10

    Carotenoids are a diverse group of red, orange, and yellow pigments that act as vitamin A precursors and antioxidants. Animals can only obtain carotenoids through their diets. Amongst the carotenoids identified in nature, over one third are of marine origin, but current research on carotenoid absorption in marine species is limited. Bivalves possess an adductor muscle, which is normally white in scallops. However, a new variety of Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis), the 'Haida golden scallop', can be distinguished by its adductor muscle's orange colour, which is caused by carotenoid accumulation. Studying the genes related to carotenoid accumulation in this scallop could benefit our understanding of the mechanisms underlying carotenoid absorption in marine organisms, and it could further improve scallop breeding for carotenoid content. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of monounsaturated fatty acids, which enhance carotenoid absorption. Here, the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of the SCD gene from the Yesso scallop (PySCD) were obtained. The PySCD gene consisted of four exons and three introns, and it contained a 990-bp open reading frame encoding 329 amino acids. It was ubiquitously expressed in adult tissues, embryos and larvae of both white Yesso scallops and 'Haida golden' scallops. Although the expression pattern of PySCD in both types of scallops was similar, significantly more PySCD transcripts were detected in the 'Haida golden' scallops than in the white scallops. Elevated PySCD expression was found in tissues including the adductor muscle, digestive gland, and gonad, as well as in veliger larvae. This study represents the first characterisation of an SCD gene from the Mollusca. Our data imply that PySCD functions in multiple biological processes, and it might be involved in carotenoid accumulation.

  2. Homology and homoplasy of swimming behaviors and neural circuits in the Nudipleura (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, James M.; Sakurai, Akira; Lillvis, Joshua L.; Gunaratne, Charuni A.; Katz, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    How neural circuit evolution relates to behavioral evolution is not well understood. Here the relationship between neural circuits and behavior is explored with respect to the swimming behaviors of the Nudipleura (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opithobranchia). Nudipleura is a diverse monophyletic clade of sea slugs among which only a small percentage of species can swim. Swimming falls into a limited number of categories, the most prevalent of which are rhythmic left–right body flexions (LR) and rhythmic dorsal–ventral body flexions (DV). The phylogenetic distribution of these behaviors suggests a high degree of homoplasy. The central pattern generator (CPG) underlying DV swimming has been well characterized in Tritonia diomedea and in Pleurobranchaea californica. The CPG for LR swimming has been elucidated in Melibe leonina and Dendronotus iris, which are more closely related. The CPGs for the categorically distinct DV and LR swimming behaviors consist of nonoverlapping sets of homologous identified neurons, whereas the categorically similar behaviors share some homologous identified neurons, although the exact composition of neurons and synapses in the neural circuits differ. The roles played by homologous identified neurons in categorically distinct behaviors differ. However, homologous identified neurons also play different roles even in the swim CPGs of the two LR swimming species. Individual neurons can be multifunctional within a species. Some of those functions are shared across species, whereas others are not. The pattern of use and reuse of homologous neurons in various forms of swimming and other behaviors further demonstrates that the composition of neural circuits influences the evolution of behaviors. PMID:22723353

  3. Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Lakhra Formation (Earliest Eocene, Sindh, Pakistan): systematics, biostratigraphy and paleobiogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Didier; Pacaud, Jean-Michel; Métais, Grégoire; Bartolini, Annachiara; Lashari, Rafiq A; Brohi, Imdad A; Solangi, Sarfraz H; Marivaux, Laurent; Welcomme, Jean-Loup

    2014-06-27

    The paleobiodiversity of the Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Ranikot Group (Sindh, Pakistan) and particularly of the Lakhra Formation (SBZ 5 biozone, Earliest Eocene), is reconsidered on the basis of new material collected during recent field trips. Ten new species are described (Mitreola brohii sp. nov., Lyrischapa vredenburgi sp. nov., L. brevispira sp. nov., Athleta (Volutopupa) citharopsis sp. nov., A. (Volutocorbis) lasharii sp. nov., Volutilithes welcommei sp. nov., V. sindhiensis sp. nov., Pseudaulicina coxi sp. nov., Sindhiluta lakhraensis sp. nov. and Pakiluta solangii sp. nov.) and one species is in open nomenclature (Lyria sp.). Three new genera are described: Lyriopsis gen. nov. [Volutinae, ?Lyriini, type species: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923)], Sindhiluta gen. nov. [Volutilithinae, type species: Sindhiluta lakhraensis n. sp.] and Pakiluta gen. nov. [?Volutodermatinae, type species: Pakiluta solangii n. sp.]. Two new combinations are proposed: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923) comb. nov. and Athleta (Volutopupa) intercrenatus (Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909) comb. nov. Lectotypes are designated for Lyria cossmanni Vredenburg, 1923, L. feddeni Vredenburg, 1923, Volutospina noetlingi Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909, V. intercrenata Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909 and Athleta (Volutocorbis) victoriae Vredenburg, 1923. With 21 species, this volutid fauna is the most diverse recorded from the Tethys Ocean during Earliest Eocene time. The assemblage is characterized by a strong turnover marked by regional speciation and the appearance of many western Tethyan invaders. Although at the species level, the assemblage documents a strong provincialism, at the genus level, the high number of shared genera between Eastern Tethyan and Old World Tethyan realms begins a phase of long-term homogeneity of volutid assemblages from the Tethyan paleobiogeographic province.

  4. Purification and Characterization of Two Endo-β-1,4-glucanases from Mollusca, Ampullaria crossean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Hong LI; Rui GUO; Qiu-Yu YIN; Ming DING; Si-Liang ZHANG; Gen-Jun XU; Fu-Kun ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    Two novel endo-β-1,4-glucanases, EG45 and EG27, were isolated from the gastric juice of mollusca, Ampullaria crossean, by anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, gel filtration and a second round of anion exchange chromatography. The purified proteins EG45 and EG27 appeared as a single band on sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a molecular mass of 45 kDa and 27 kDa,respectively. The optimum pH for CMC activity was 5.5 for EG45 and 4.4-4.8 for EG27. The optimum temperature range for EG27 was broad, between 50 ℃ and 60 ℃; for EG45 it was 50 ℃. The analysis on the stability of these two endo-β-1,4-glucanases showed that EG27 was acceptably stable at pH 3.0-11.0 even when the incubation time was prolonged to 24 h at 30 ℃, whereas EG45 remained relatively stable at pH 5.0-8.0. About 85% of the activity of EG27 could be retained upon incubation at 60 ℃ for 24 h. However,less than 10% residual activity of EG45 was detected at 50 ℃. Among different kinds of substrates, both enzymes showed a high preference for carboxymethyl cellulose. EG45, in particular, showed a carboxymethyl cellulose hydrolytic activity of 146.5 IU/mg protein. Both enzymes showed low activities to xylan (from oat spelt) and Sigmacell 101, and they were inactive to p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside, salicin and starch.

  5. Thecosomata e Gymnosomata (Mollusca, Gastropoda da cadeia Fernando de Noronha, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larrazábal Maria Eduarda de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mollusca Pteropoda from Fernando de Noronha Chain Northeastern Brazil were studied in order to know their taxonomy and distribution. Collections were carried out during the I Oceanographical Expedition of the REVIZEE Program (Live Resources of the Economical Exclusive Zone from August to September 1995. The studied area is located between 03°04'S-04°23'S and 32°19'W-36°26'W, comprising 35 stations. Sampling was performed through oblique hauls from 50m depth to surface and from 100 m depth to surface, with a Bongo net (300 and 500 µm mesh size, net diameter: 60 cm, that was equipped with a flow meter. Samples in a total of 99 were preserved, immediately, in buffered 4% formaldehyde. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the samples were performed based on total sample. The samples were analysed on a counting plate "Bogorov" type under a stereo microscope. A total of 8,258 organisms were identified belonging to: 8 families, 16 genera and 27 species. Limacina inflata (d´Orbigny, 1836 and Creseis virgula (Rang, 1828 were frequent and very frequent in the area outranking among the studied Pteropoda. The total density varied from 2.5 to 3,012.05 org.m-³. Highest richness was registered at the Continental Shelf and Slope with 1two species. The Pteropoda association showed higher differences between day and night collections. Limacina inflata caused this difference due to its higher density at night collections and it was independent of the depth, mesh size and temperature. Creseis virgula had its occurrence, mainly, during day time.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships of chemoautotrophic bacterial symbionts of Solemya velum say (Mollusca: Bivalvia) determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Eisen, J. A.; Smith, S W; Cavanaugh, Colleen Marie

    1992-01-01

    The protobranch bivalve Solemya velum Say (Mollusca: Bivalvia) houses chemoautotrophic symbionts intracellularly within its gills. These symbionts were characterized through sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA coding regions and hybridization of an Escherichia coli gene probe to S. velum genomic DNA restriction fragments. The symbionts appeared to have only one copy of the 16S rRNA gene. The lack of variability in the 16S sequence and hybridization patterns within and b...

  7. Repertoire and evolution of TNF superfamily in Crassostrea gigas: implications for expansion and diversification of this superfamily in Mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dahai; Qiu, Limei; Gao, Qiang; Hou, Zhanhui; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2015-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) members represent a group of cytokines participating in diverse immunological, pathological and developmental pathways. However, compared with deuterostomia and cnidaia, the composition and evolution of TNF homologous in protostomia are still not well understood. In the present study, a total of 81 TNF superfamily (TNFSF) genes from 15 mollusk species, including 23 TNFSF genes from Crassostrea gigas, were surveyed by genome-wide bioinformatics analysis. The phylogenetic analysis showed that 14 out of 23 C. gigas TNFSF genes in five clades exhibited orthologous relationships with Pinctada fucata TNFSF genes. Moreover, there were 15 C. gigas TNFSF genes located in oyster-specific clusters, which were contributed by small-scaled tandem and/or segmental duplication events in oyster. By comparing the sequences of duplicated TNFSF pairs, exon loss and variant in exon/intron length were revealed as the major modes of divergence in gene structure. Most of the duplicated C. gigas TNFSF pairs were evolved under purifying selection with consistent tissue expression patterns, implying functional constraint shaped diversification. This study demonstrated the expansion and early divergence of TNF superfamily in C. gigas, which provides potential insight into revealing the evolution and function of this superfamily in mollusk.

  8. Neuromuscular development of Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klussmann-Kolb Annette

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the development of the nervous system and the musculature of invertebrates have become more sophisticated and numerous within the last decade and have proven to provide new insights into the evolutionary history of organisms. In order to provide new morphogenetic data on opisthobranch gastropods we investigated the neuromuscular development in the nudibranch Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 using immunocytochemistry as well as F-actin labelling in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy (cLSM. Results The ontogenetic development of Aeolidiella stephanieae can be subdivided into 8 stages, each recognisable by characteristic morphological and behavioural features as well as specific characters of the nervous system and the muscular system, respectively. The larval nervous system of A. stephanieae includes an apical organ, developing central ganglia, and peripheral neurons associated with the velum, foot and posterior, visceral part of the larva. The first serotonergic and FMRFamidergic neural structures appear in the apical organ that exhibits an array of three sensory, flask-shaped and two non-sensory, round neurons, which altogether disappear prior to metamorphosis. The postmetamorphic central nervous system (CNS becomes concentrated, and the rhinophoral ganglia develop together with the anlage of the future rhinophores whereas oral tentacle ganglia are not found. The myogenesis in A. stephanieae begins with the larval retractor muscle followed by the accessory larval retractor muscle, the velar or prototroch muscles and the pedal retractors that all together degenerate during metamorphosis, and the adult muscle complex forms de novo. Conclusions Aeolidiella stephanieae comprises features of the larval and postmetamorphic nervous as well as muscular system that represent the ground plan of the Mollusca or even the Trochozoa (e. g. presence of the prototrochal or velar muscle ring. On the one hand

  9. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Nautilus macromphalus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boore Jeffrey L

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondria contain small genomes that are physically separate from those of nuclei. Their comparison serves as a model system for understanding the processes of genome evolution. Although complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported for more than 600 animals, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased toward vertebrates and arthropods, leaving much of the diversity yet uncharacterized. Results The mitochondrial genome of the bellybutton nautilus, Nautilus macromphalus, a cephalopod mollusk, is 16,258 nts in length and 59.5% A+T, both values that are typical of animal mitochondrial genomes. It contains the 37 genes that are almost universally found in animal mtDNAs, with 15 on one DNA strand and 22 on the other. The arrangement of these genes can be derived from that of the distantly related Katharina tunicata (Mollusca: Polyplacophora by a switch in position of two large blocks of genes and transpositions of four tRNA genes. There is strong skew in the distribution of nucleotides between the two strands, and analysis of this yields insight into modes of transcription and replication. There is an unusual number of non-coding regions and their function, if any, is not known; however, several of these demark abrupt shifts in nucleotide skew, and there are several identical sequence elements at these junctions, suggesting that they may play roles in transcription and/or replication. One of the non-coding regions contains multiple repeats of a tRNA-like sequence. Some of the tRNA genes appear to overlap on the same strand, but this could be resolved if the polycistron were cleaved at the beginning of the downstream gene, followed by polyadenylation of the product of the upstream gene to form a fully paired structure. Conclusion Nautilus macromphalus mtDNA contains an expected gene content that has experienced few rearrangements since the evolutionary split between cephalopods and polyplacophorans. It contains an

  10. 马氏珠母贝饥饿补偿生长的初步研究%Preliminary study on compensatory growth in pearl oyster Pinctada martensi Dunker,following starvation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何毛贤; 袁涛; 黄良民

    2010-01-01

    采取饥饿处理时间不等(3、6、9和12d)、但总持续时间相等的方法研究马氏珠母贝Pinctada martensi (Dunker)稚贝在饥饿处理后的生长和存活.结果表明,S12组(饥饿12d)的存活率最低,恢复期的壳长和体重最小,表明饥饿强度大会对其生长和存活造成较大的影响;饥饿处理后的稚贝都表现出补偿生长现象,S9组(饥饿9d)的特定生长率最高,S3组(饥饿3d)的最低,但饥饿组间的差异不明显,其壳长和体重大小排列为S3>S6>S9>S12,恢复期延长,其生长恢复到正常水平.

  11. 马氏珠母贝肌肉提取蛋白热变性动力学%Kinetics of heat denaturation of proteins extracted from Pinctada martensii meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑惠娜; 章超桦; 秦小明; 吉宏武; 黄锦华

    2013-01-01

    South China Sea pearls are well known worldwide, and the pearl oyster Pinctada martensii is cultured for pearl production in China. Following the development of the pearl industry, Pinctada martensii is now cultured at very large scale specifically for pearl production, with the oyster meat left aside as a typically unused byproduct of the pearl industry. However, Pearl oyster meat is a good source of shellfish protein (74.9%protein/dry basis) at a low cost. Recently, the influence of food protein processing, storage and heat treatment is an area of growing interest. In particular, some thermal processing has a significant impact on animal muscle protein structure, enzymatic properties etc. Proteins are the most important ingredients in the food. They are not only important in nutrition, but also affect the texture and flavor of the food. Muscle proteins are generally classified into sarcoplasmic proteins, myofibrillar proteins (myosin, actin and actomyosin) and connective tissue or stromal proteins (collagen).This paper studied the kinetics of thermal denaturation of proteins (water-soluble and salt-soluble protein ) extracted from Pinctada martensii meat in order to understand the thermal denaturation discipline of aquatic protein and make better use of their functional properties. Due to differences in the structure and composition, the two protein fractions denaturation was best described by assuming an apparent reaction order of 1.1 and 1.3, respectively. D values, the time required to reduce the protein by 90%, were 33 333、12 500、3 333、1 667 and 769 s for the water-soluble protein fraction and 50 000、12 500、5 000、2 000 and 1250s for the salt-soluble protein fraction at 60, 70, 80, 90, 100℃ respectively. There was significant difference of the two proteins for D value except at 70℃. This may be due to an easier to form gel for the salt-soluble protein under the condition of 65-70℃. The results showed that the thermal denaturation rate of two

  12. Species composition and distribution of medical mollusca in Shanghai City%上海市医学贝类物种组成及其分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭云海; 吕山; 顾文彪; 刘和香; 吴缨; 张仪

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the species diversity and distribution of medical mollusca in Shanghai City. Methods From August 2012 to October 2013,all kinds of habitats in 8 districts and counties in Shanghai City,namely Jiading,Qingpu, Baoshan,Minhang,Songjiang,Jinshan,Chongming,Pudong,were selected for the field survey according to the distribution characteristics of the river system,and all the specimens of medical mollusca in the investigation sites were collected and classi⁃fied by morphological identification. Meanwhile,the species composition,habitats as well as the fauna of the medical mollusca collected were analyzed. Results A total of 5 211 specimens were collected,which belonged to 2 classes,14 families,18 gen⁃era and 25 species,including Oncomelania hupensis hupensis,Pomacea canaliculata,Parafossarulus striatulus,Alocinma longicornis,Physa acuta,Galba pervia,Hippeutis cantori,etc. The species numbers of medical mollusca in Chongming,Jin⁃shan,Pudong new area and Qingpu districts(counties)were 22,22,21 and 20,respectively,which were more than those of other areas. The habitat analysis suggested that the species numbers in the river and wetland were the most,both of which were 14 species. The main faunas of the medical mollusca in Shanghai were the cosmopolitan and oriental species. Conclusions The freshwater gastropod species are paucity in Shanghai City,but almost of them can be served as the intermediate hosts of certain parasites to transmit snail⁃related parasitic diseases,so the surveillance of medical mollusca should be strengthened.%目的:调查上海市医学贝类物种多样性及其分布。方法于2012年8月至2013年10月,根据水系分布特点,对上海市嘉定、青浦、宝山、闵行、松江、金山、崇明岛和浦东新区等8个区(县)各类生境进行现场抽样调查,采集医学贝类标本。所获标本经形态学鉴定分类,并对物种组成、生境及区系分布等进行

  13. Identification of several cytoplasmic HSP70 genes from the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and their long-term evolution in Mollusca and Metazoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtidis, Antonis; Drosopoulou, Elena; Nikolaidis, Nikolas; Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Chintiroglou, Chariton C; Scouras, Zacharias G

    2006-04-01

    The HSP70 protein family consists one of the most conserved and important systems for cellular homeostasis under both stress and physiological conditions. The genes of this family are poorly studied in Mollusca, which is the second largest metazoan phylum. To study these genes in Mollusca, we have isolated and identified five HSP70 genes from Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) and investigated their short-term evolution within Mollusca and their long-term evolution within Metazoa. Both sequence and phylogenetic analyses suggested that the isolated genes belong to the cytoplasmic (CYT) group of the HSP70 genes. Two of these genes probably represent cognates, whereas the remaining probably represent heat-inducible genes. Phylogenetic analysis including several molluscan CYT HSP70s reveals that the cognate genes in two species have very similar sequences and form intraspecies phylogenetic clades, differently from most metazoan cognate genes studied thus far, implying either recent gene duplications or concerted evolution. The M. galloprovincialis heat-inducible genes show intraspecies phylogenetic clustering, which in combination with the higher amino acid than nucleotide identity suggests that both gene conversion and purifying selection should be responsible for their sequence homogenization. Phylogenetic analysis including several metazoan HSP70s suggests that at least two types of CYT genes were present in the common ancestor of vertebrates and invertebrates, the first giving birth to the heat-inducible genes of invertebrates, whereas the other to both the heat-inducible genes of vertebrates and the cognate genes of all metazoans. These analyses also suggest that inducible and cognate genes seem to undergo divergent evolution.

  14. Species Composition and Fauna of Mollusca in Seven Star Islands%七星列岛软体动物种类组成与区系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余海; 阙伟伟; 陆京明; 周化斌; 张永普

    2016-01-01

    The resources of mollusca in Seven Star islands are investigated during November 2012 to November 2013 and a total of 102 species of Mollusca are collected. Among them, 61 belong to Gastropods, 25 to Bivalves, 9 to Cephalopda, 6 to Polyplacophora and 1 to Scaphopoda. The mollusca is divided into the following four groups as far as the fauna:34 hiroatsu and widespread species are distributed from the coastal China;56 sub-tropical species in the East China Sea and South China Sea; 9 tropical species in the South China Sea; 2 warm temperate species in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and Northern East China Sea and 1 species is undefined. The faunal character pertains to Chinese-Japanese sub-region, subordinating to Indo-Western-Pacific realm.%2012年11月至2013年11月期间,对七星列岛的软体动物种类进行调查,共发现软体动物102种,其中腹足纲61种,双壳纲25种,头足纲9种,多板纲6种,掘足纲1种。就区系而言,分布于我国沿岸的广温广布种34种,分布于东海和南海的亚热带种56种,南海的热带种9种,渤、黄海延伸到东海北部的暖温带种2种,1种未确定。区系性质属于印度-西太平洋区的中国-日本亚区。

  15. 玳瑁和绿海龟幼体外周血细胞的观察与比较%Blood Cells Morphology and Hematology of Eretmochelys imbricata and Chelonia mydas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张飞燕; 古河祥; 陈华灵; 夏中荣; 李丕鹏

    2009-01-01

    对玳瑁(Eretmochelys imbricata)和绿海龟(Chelonia mydas)外周血细胞形态特征及其数量进行了观察、测定与比较.结果表明,在2种海龟外周血都观察到7种血细胞:红细胞、淋巴细胞、单核细胞、嗜中性粒细胞、嗜酸性粒细胞、嗜碱性粒细胞和血栓细胞,除了绿海龟观察到大、小2种嗜酸性粒细胞外,另外几种血细胞的形态结构与其他爬行动物相似.白细胞分类计数表明,2种海龟白细胞中以嗜中性粒细胞数量最多,其次是淋巴细胞和单核细胞,嗜酸性粒细胞仅有少数,嗜碱性粒细胞极少,并且此类细胞在玳瑁的白细胞分类计数中为零.玳瑁红细胞数量为(346.7±68.4)×10~3个/μl,比绿海龟红细胞含量少,绿海龟为(403.3±170.6)×10~3/μl;玳瑁白细胞及血栓细胞数分别为(7.7±1.9)×10~3个/μl和(9.6±2.2)×10~3个/μl,绿海龟分别为(7.3±2.8)×10~3个/μl和(7.5±3.7) ×10~3个/μl.

  16. Contribució a l’estudi dels mol·luscs terrestres (Mollusca, Gastropoda del Parc de la Serralada Litoral (Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bros, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contribution to the study of terrestrial molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda Serralada LitoralPark (BarcelonaThe population of molluscs in Serralada Litoral Park (Barcelona, NE Iberian peninsula was assessed, contributing to the conservation plan. A wildlife inventory was conducted based on fieldwork and literature. Gastropod communities in various natural environments and conchological species of interest for conservation are also described. Several environmental aspects that determine the distribution and abundance of snails are discussed and management measures to meet their ecological requirements are suggested.

  17. Astronotus ocellatus (Cichlidae: Pisces and Macropodus opercularis (Anabatidae: Pisces as predators of immature Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae and Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Two fish species, Astronotus ocellatus (Cichlidae and Macropodus opercularis (Anabatidae were tested for predacious behavior toward immature mosquitoes (Aedes fluviatili9s, Diptera: Culicidae and schistosomiasis snail hosts (Biomphalaria glabrata, Mollusca: Planorbidae, in the presence or absence of non-living food and laboratory conditions. A. ocellatus, a species indigenous to Brazil, was a very efficient predator of both organisms (alpha=1,05; M. operculatis, an exotic species, preyed well on immature mosquitoes, but small snails and snail egg-masses were ingested only irregulary. Both fish species seemed to prefer live to non-living food.

  18. Molecular inference of phylogenetic relationships among Decapodiformes (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) with special focus on the squid order Oegopsida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Annie R

    2010-07-01

    Squids, cuttlefish and bobtail squids comprise the molluscan superorder Decapodiformes (Mollusca: Cephalopoda). Although these animals exemplify the morphological and ecological diversity seen in Cephalopoda, no previous study has focused resolving decapodiform relationships, particularly within Oegopsida, a large order comprised of pelagic squid. To further clarify the phylogenetic history of Decapodiformes, and Oegopsida in particular, molecular data for five genes (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, Histone H3, 16S rRNA, COI) was collected for 90 taxa representing all major lineages and families and evaluated using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian analysis. Although ordinal relationships were sensitive to analytical method, several conclusions can be inferred: the pelagic order Myopsida is closely related to the benthic sepioids, whose relationships were ambiguous, and Bathyteuthoidea is distinct from Oegopsida. Within Oegopsida several clades are consistently recovered, some with previous morphological support (e.g. chiroteuthid, lepidoteuthid, histioteuthid families) while others suggest novel relationships (e.g. Architeuthidae+Neoteuthidae). This study, with its broad coverage of taxa, provides the first in-depth analysis of Decapodiformes with special focus on the morphologically and biogeographically diverse Oegopsida, confirms several sister-taxon relationships, and provides new hypotheses of cephalopod evolution in the open ocean.

  19. Biochemical profile of Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) after infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Amaral, Ludimila Santos; Mota, Esther Maria; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo; Pinheiro, Jairo; Garcia, Juberlan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of experimental infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematode, Metastrongylidae) on the activities of the aminotransferases and concentration of total proteins, uric acid and urea in the hemolymph of Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda) were investigated. There was a significant decrease in the concentration of total proteins in the exposed snails to 5000 or more larvae. This change was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of urea and uric acid in the hemolymph, suggesting a higher rate of deamination of the amino acids. Besides this, variations in the activities of the aminotransferases were also observed, with the highest values recorded in the groups exposed to greater parasite load. These results suggest an increase in the use of total proteins, since there was increased formation of nitrogenous catabolites, in conformity with an increase in the aminotransferase activities. Infection was verified by the fact that L3 larvae recovered from the snails was proportion to the exposure dose of L1 larvae. Histopathological results also indicated presence of an inflammatory cell infiltrate, favoring an increase of both transaminases.

  20. Molecular phylogenetic analysis supports a Gondwanan origin of the Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) and the paraphyly of Australasian taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Daniel L; Jones, Hugh; Geneva, Anthony J; Pfeiffer, John M; Klunzinger, Michael W

    2015-04-01

    The freshwater mussel family Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) has a disjunct trans-Pacific distribution in Australasia and South America. Previous phylogenetic analyses have estimated the evolutionary relationships of the family and the major infra-familial taxa (Velesunioninae and Hyriinae: Hyridellini in Australia; Hyriinae: Hyriini, Castaliini, and Rhipidodontini in South America), but taxon and character sampling have been too incomplete to support a predictive classification or allow testing of biogeographical hypotheses. We sampled 30 freshwater mussel individuals representing the aforementioned hyriid taxa, as well as outgroup species representing the five other freshwater mussel families and their marine sister group (order Trigoniida). Our ingroup included representatives of all Australian genera. Phylogenetic relationships were estimated from three gene fragments (nuclear 28S, COI and 16S mtDNA) using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference, and we applied a Bayesian relaxed clock model calibrated with fossil dates to estimate node ages. Our analyses found good support for monophyly of the Hyriidae and the subfamilies and tribes, as well as the paraphyly of the Australasian taxa (Velesunioninae, (Hyridellini, (Rhipidodontini, (Castaliini, Hyriini)))). The Hyriidae was recovered as sister to a clade comprised of all other Recent freshwater mussel families. Our molecular date estimation supported Cretaceous origins of the major hyriid clades, pre-dating the Tertiary isolation of South America from Antarctica/Australia. We hypothesize that early diversification of the Hyriidae was driven by terrestrial barriers on Gondwana rather than marine barriers following disintegration of the super-continent.

  1. Assessing metal contamination from construction and demolition (C&D) waste used to infill wetlands: using Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, John A; Mc Donnell, Rory J; Gormally, Michael J; Williams, Chris D; Henry, Tiernan; Morrison, Liam

    2014-11-01

    Large quantities of construction and demolition waste (C&D) are produced globally every year, with little known about potential environmental impacts. In the present study, the slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda) was used as the first biomonitor of metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) on wetlands post infilling with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. The bioaccumulation of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Sb, Se and Tl were found to be significantly elevated in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to unimproved pastures (control sites), while Mo, Se and Sr had significantly higher concentrations in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to known contaminated sites (mining locations), indicating the potential hazardous nature of C&D waste to biota. Identifying exact sources for these metals within the waste can be problematic, due to its heterogenic nature. Biomonitors are a useful tool for future monitoring and impact studies, facilitating policy makers and regulations in other countries regarding C&D waste infill. In addition, improving separation of C&D waste to allow increased reuse and recycling is likely to be effective in reducing the volume of waste being used as infill, subsequently decreasing potential metal contamination.

  2. The influence of fish cage culture on δ13C and δ15N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito, E; Figueroa, L; Takeda, A M; Manetta, G I

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the δ13C and δ15N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples of specimens of the bivalve filterer C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C) for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the δ13C and δ15N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the δ13C and δ15N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem.

  3. Thermal dependency of shell growth, microstructure, and stable isotopes in laboratory-reared Scapharca broughtonii (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Kozue; Suzuki, Atsushi; Isono, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Yuzo; Irie, Takahiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Mori, Chiharu; Sato, Mizuho; Sato, Kei; Sasaki, Takenori

    2015-07-01

    We experimentally examined the growth, microstructure, and chemistry of shells of the bloody clam, Scapharca broughtonii (Mollusca: Bivalvia), reared at five temperatures (13, 17, 21, 25, and 29°C) with a constant pCO2 condition (˜450 μatm). In this species, the exterior side of the shell is characterized by a composite prismatic structure; on the interior side, it has a crossed lamellar structure on the interior surface. We previously found a negative correlation between temperature and the relative thickness of the composite prismatic structure in field-collected specimens. In the reared specimens, the relationship curve between temperature and the growth increment of the composite prismatic structure was humped shaped, with a maximum at 17°C, which was compatible with the results obtained in the field-collected specimens. In contrast, the thickness of the crossed lamellar structure was constant over the temperature range tested. These results suggest that the composite prismatic structure principally accounts for the thermal dependency of shell growth, and this inference was supported by the finding that shell growth rates were significantly correlated with the thickness of the composite prismatic structure. We also found a negative relationship between the rearing temperature and δ18O of the shell margin, in close quantitative agreement with previous reports. The findings presented here will contribute to the improved age determination of fossil and recent clams based on seasonal microstructural records.

  4. Caracterización molecular de diferentes morfos de Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae mediante microsatélites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available M. tuberculataes un molusco asiático invasor de ecosistemas tropicales y subtropicales. En Amé-rica, su uso como control biológico ha sido probado en el desplazamiento de poblaciones deBiomphalaria spp. (Mollusca: Planorbidae, hospedadores intermediarios de Schistosoma mansoni(Trematoda: Digenea. A su vez, M. tuberculataes una especie que presenta gran plasticidad feno-típica, reconociéndose varias entidades morfológicas (morfos a lo largo de su rango de distribu-ción. Este trabajo pretende identificar la combinación de alelos microsatelitales característicos de10 morfos americanos. En este orden de ideas, se realizó una extracción de ADN con bufferValsecchi y baño María 90-95ºC (5-15’; se hizo una PCR utilizando primers específicos para M.tuberculata, y finalmente un análisis de secuencias microsatelitales con un secuenciador automá-tico.

  5. Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Breure

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described of 96 taxa classified within the superfamily Orthalicoidea and present in the Mollusca collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Orthalicus elegans Rolle, 1895; Bulimus maranhonensis Albers, 1854; Orthalicus nobilis Rolle, 1895; Orthalichus tricinctus Martens, 1893. Orthalicus sphinx tresmariae is introduced as new name for Zebra sphinx turrita Strebel, 1909, not Z. quagga turrita Strebel, 1909. The following synonyms are established: Zebra crosseifischeri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus princeps fischeri Martens, 1893; Orthalicus isabellinus Martens, 1873 = O. bensoni (Reeve, 1849; Zebra zoniferus naesiotes Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus undatus (Bruguière, 1789; Porphyrobaphe (Myiorthalicus dennisoni pallida Strebel, 1909 = Hemibulimus dennisoni (Reeve, 1848; Zebra delphinus pumilio Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus delphinus (Strebel, 1909; Orthalicus (Laeorthalicus reginaeformis Strebel, 1909 = Corona perversa (Swainson, 1821; Bulimus (Eurytus corticosus Sowerby III, 1895 = Plekocheilus (Eurytus stuebeli Martens, 1885. The taxon Bulimus (Eudioptus psidii Martens, 1877 is now placed within the family Sagdidae, tentatively in the genus Platysuccinea. Appendices are included with an index to all the types of Orthalicoidea extant (including those listed by Köhler 2007 and a partial list of letters present in the correspondence archives.

  6. ON THE PALEOFAUNA INVERTEBRATES (MOLLUSCA, ARTROPODA; INSECTA OF DIATOMITE DEPOSITS OF SHAMB–1 LOCALITY (SISIAN SUITE, EARLY PLEISTOCENE, ARMENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. A. Маrjanyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study of fossil insects from diatomaceous sediments of Shamb-1 locality of Sisian Suite (Early Pleistocene. The collection of fossils plants and animals of Institute of Botany of NAS RA and authors' findings served as material for study.Methods. The material is processed and prepared for study by conventional methods in paleontology for prints and fossils of insects from diatomaceous sediments. There are 654 samples studied: 2 samples were with mollusks’ imprints and 652 samples with imprints of insects, from which preserved marks on 291samples allowed to identify them up to order, family, genus and species.Results. The studied material refers to the Mollusca and Arthropoda (Insecta types. Insects are represented by species of orders Orthoptera (2 fam., Homoptera (1 fam., Heteroptera (2 fam., Coleoptera (15 fam., Hymenoptera (2 fam., Diptera (1 fam.. Coleopteras dominate among them and are presented with following species of the family – Carabidae, Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae, Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Silphidae, Elateridae, Buprestidae, Lampyridae, Scarabaeidae, Chrysomelidae, Tenebrionidae, Coccinellidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionidae.Main conclusions. An analysis of the taxonomic composition of paleofauna was done, which corresponds to the recent fauna and with considering modern ecological characteristics of systematical groups and species. In the investigated location of Shamb-1 a version is suggested about the palaeolandscapes and palaeoclimate in the Early Pleistocene.

  7. A review of the non-bulimulid terrestrial Mollusca from the Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Araya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial mollusca are sparsely studied in Chile and, for the first time, a formal record of the diversity of land snails in northern Chile is reported. Coastal and desertic areas in the Region of Atacama, in the border of the Atacama desert and the Pacific Ocean, were surveyed with the aim to describe the presence and distribution of this poorly known fauna. Of the fourteen species recorded, the geographic distribution records for nine species are extended, and some taxa are recorded for the first time since their original descriptions. All, except one, of the fourteen terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile; they are all terrestrial species, most of them have a restricted geographic distribution, and none of them is currently protected by law. The results reveal that the region of Atacama has one of the most diverse terrestrial snail biodiversity in Chile, ranking only after the Juan Fernandez Archipelago. Distribution records of all the studied species and a taxonomic key are also provided.

  8. Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breure, Abraham S H

    2013-01-01

    The type status is described of 96 taxa classified within the superfamily Orthalicoidea and present in the Mollusca collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Orthalicus elegans Rolle, 1895; Bulimus maranhonensis Albers, 1854; Orthalicus nobilis Rolle, 1895; Orthalichus tricinctus Martens, 1893. Orthalicus sphinx tresmariae is introduced as new name for Zebra sphinx turrita Strebel, 1909, not Zebra quagga turrita Strebel, 1909. The following synonyms are established: Zebra crosseifischeri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus princeps fischeri Martens, 1893; Orthalicus isabellinus Martens, 1873 = Orthalicus bensoni (Reeve, 1849); Zebra zoniferus naesiotes Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus undatus (Bruguière, 1789); Porphyrobaphe (Myiorthalicus) dennisoni pallida Strebel, 1909 = Hemibulimus dennisoni (Reeve, 1848); Zebra delphinus pumilio Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus delphinus (Strebel, 1909); Orthalicus (Laeorthalicus) reginaeformis Strebel, 1909 = Corona perversa (Swainson, 1821); Bulimus (Eurytus) corticosus Sowerby III, 1895 = Plekocheilus (Eurytus) stuebeli Martens, 1885. The taxon Bulimus (Eudioptus) psidii Martens, 1877 is now placed within the family Sagdidae, tentatively in the genus Platysuccinea. Appendices are included with an index to all the types of Orthalicoidea extant (including those listed by Köhler 2007) and a partial list of letters present in the correspondence archives.

  9. Growth Characteristics of Pearl Oyster Pinctada Maxiam Seeds with Broodstocks Introduced from Indonesia Cultured in the Xuwen Sea of Zhanjiang%广东徐闻海域印尼产大珠母贝的生长特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁飞龙; 谢绍河; 符韶; 邓岳文

    2011-01-01

    为将印尼产的大珠母贝作为我国海水珍珠养殖的新品种,分别于2010年6月4日、7月20日和10月28日,利用从印度尼西亚引进的大珠母贝作为亲本培育了3批苗种,在广东湛江徐闻承梧海区进行了养殖试验,实验期间水温14~32℃,盐度28.4~36.9.结果表明:除了2010年10月28日出池的第3批苗,养殖11个月,成活率为1.3±0.5%外.经过12个月养殖,第一、二批苗的贝体平均壳高、壳长、体质量和成活率分别为59.56±10.2mm,60.39±10.5mm,25.62±6.5g,10.6%±1.8%和54.84±6.1mm,55.96±12.4mm,18.40±6.1g,25.10%±2.6%.%During the period of June 2010 to September 2011, three batches of pearl oyster Pinctada maxima were obtained with breeder introduced from Indonesia and then cultured in the Chengwu sea area of Xuwen, Zhanjiang City of Guangdong Province. Growth of the three groups was evaluated on the basis of shell height, shell length and total weight measurement at ages. During the experimental period, temperature was 14.0-32.0℃ and salinity of seawater was 28.4-36.9, respectively. Except for the third batch spat of pearl oyster Pinctada maxima, which started to be cultured at low temperature in winter, the survival rate was 1.3%±0.5% after culture for llmonths. After culturing in the sea area for 12 months, the mean value of shell height, shell length , body weight and survival rate of the first and second batch spat was 59.56 mm, 60.39 mm, 25.62 g and 10.6%; 54.84 mm, 55.96 mm, 18.40 g and 25.10%, respectively. The results showed that low temperature in winter had significant effect on the growth rate and survival rate of small oysters of P. Maxima.

  10. Impacts of ocean acidification on the development of Pinctada martensii embryo and early larva%海洋酸化对马氏珠母贝胚胎和早期幼虫发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何盛毅; 林传旭; 何毛贤; 严岩

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impacts of ocean acidification projected to occur by the year 2100 on the development of Pinctada martensii embryo and early larva. Artificially fertilized eggs were cultured in the seawater with pH 7. 70 ( acidified by CO2, acidified group) and pH 8. 10 ( control group) . After treated for 8 h, no obvious difference was observed in the quantitative distribution of embryo in its different development stages between acidified group and control group. After 24 h, 16. 6% ±12. 0% of the embryo in acidified group developed into D-shaped veliger larvae, and the percentage of teratogenic larvae was 48. 2% ±9. 1% , as compared 44. 8% ± 7.4% and 18. 6% ±11.5% in control group, respectively. After 48 h. 23. 0% ±9. 6% of the embryo in acidified group developed into D-shaped veliger larvae, and the percentage of teratogenic larvae was 63. 2% ±14. 1% , while the corresponding values in control group were 59. 4% ± 13. 0% and 26. 6% ±14. 5% , respectively. Comparing with those in control group, the shell length and height of D-larvae in acidified group were obviously lesser, and the development of the larvae was much slower. This study indicated that ocean acidification in the future would give negative effects on the larval development of calcifying marine organisms, such as P. martensii.%研究当前预测2100年海洋将达到的酸化程度对马氏珠母贝(Pinctada martensii)胚胎和早期幼虫发育的影响.人工受精卵置于pH=7.70的CO2酸化海水(酸化组)和pH=8.10的对照海水(对照组)中进行胚胎和幼虫发育试验.结果表明:人工受精8 h后,酸化组和对照组胚胎在各发育时期的数量分布没有明显的差异;24 h后,酸化组16.6%±12.0%发育至D型幼虫,且畸形个体百分比为48.2%±9.1%;而对照组44.8%±7.4%发育至D型幼虫,畸形个体百分比仅为18.6%±11.5%.48 h后,酸化组D型幼虫百分比23.0%±9.6%.畸形个体比例高达63.2%±14.1%;

  11. 大珠母贝CCT-eta基因cDNA克隆及其冷应激表达%cDNA cloning ofCCT-etagene fromPinctada maximaand expression analysis under cold stress condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛艾涛; 唐啸尘; 刘志刚

    2015-01-01

    The cDNA sequence ofPinctada maxima CCT-eta (PmCCT-eta) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends method (RACE) and bioinformatics analysis ofPmCCT-eta was conducted. The distribution ofPmCCT-eta in various tissues and the induced expression ofPmCCT-eta under cold stress inPinctada maxima were studied by real-time PCR. The results showed that the full length ofPmCCT-eta cDNA was 1895 bp, which contained a 1632 bp ORF encoding 543 aa. Three CCT-eta signature sequences (37RTTLGPRGMDKLI49,58ISNDGATILKTLDIVHP74,86QDAEVGDGT94) and three functional structure domains (Equatorial domain, Apical domain, Intermediate domain) were found in the deduced protein of PmCCT-eta. Homology analysis indicated that the deduced protein of PmCCT-eta had 83.2%, 80.1% and 79.3% similarity with CCT-eta of Crassostrea gigas, Danio rerio andHomo sapiens,respectively.PmCCT-eta mRNA expression in all tissues was observed, with highest expression in adductor muscle and lower expression in heart and hepatopancreas. ThePmCCT-eta mRNA expression was up-regulated in adductor muscle, heart and hepatopancreas ofPinctada maxima under cold stress condition. However, different tissues had distinct response patterns; heart and hepatopancreas responded faster than adductor muscle, suggesting that CCT-eta plays an important role in resisting cold stress in internal organs such as heart and hepatopancreas.%利用cDNA末端快速扩增技术(rapid amplification of cDNA ends, RACE)克隆了大珠母贝CCT-eta cDNA全长。利用多种生物信息学软件对大珠母贝CCT-eta cDNA和预测的氨基酸序列进行了分析,并采用实时荧光定量PCR对其组织表达谱和冷应激下的表达模式进行了分析。结果显示,大珠母贝CCT-eta cDNA全长为1895bp,其中开放阅读框(ORF)为1632bp,编码543个氨基酸残基,含有CCT家族的3个签名序列:37RTTLGPRGMDKLI49、58ISNDGATILKTLDIVHP74、86QDAEVGDGT94,具有3个保守的功能结构域:赤道结构域、顶端结构域和中

  12. 大珠母贝(Pinctada maxima)α-淀粉酶基因cDNA及内含子克隆分析%Cloning and characterization of alpha amylase cDNA and its introns in the pearl oyster Pinctada maxima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘俐玲; 黄桂菊; 成书营; 王晓宁; 喻达辉

    2013-01-01

    α-淀粉酶广泛分布于动物、植物和微生物中,是贝类软体动物的主要消化酶,对贝类生长有重要影响。文章首次获得大珠母贝α-淀粉酶基因(命名为pmAMY, Pictada maxima alpha amylase),其cDNA全长1732bp,其中5'UTR 25bp,ORF 1554bp,编码518个氨基酸,3'UTR 153bp,分子量为57.7KDa,等电点7.63。氨基酸序列分析表明,pmAMY 的氨基酸序列包括16个氨基酸组成的信号肽序列(MLLIVCSIAFFHSVYG)、8个半胱氨酸位点(Cys46、Cys104、Cys157、Cys176、Cys392、Cys398、Cys464、Cys476)、3个活性催化位点(Asp213、Glu249、Asp314)、4个钙结合位点(Asn118、Arg174、Asp183、His217)、3个氯离子结合位点(Arg211、Asn312、Arg350)和4段保守序列(Ile111-Val116、Val207-Ala215、Phe247-Val251、Val308-Asn315)。pmAMY的氨基酸序列与企鹅珍珠贝(Pteria penguin)同一性最高,为82%;与超嗜热古菌(Thermococcus hydrothermalis)同一性最低仅为27%;与其他物种的同一性在57%-79%之间。克隆获得大珠母贝pmAMY基因的2个内含子,长度分别为846bp、162bp。2个内含子都起始于GT,终止于AG,符合内含子共同剪接位点序列。组织表达分析表明pmAMY只在肝胰脏中表达。本研究为α-淀粉酶基因的功能分析、单核苷酸多态性(SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism)位点分离及其与生长性状的关联分析奠定了基础。%Alpha amylase is widely distributed in animals, plants and bacteria, and is one of the important digestive enzymes and has a significant effect on the growth of mollusk. It is the first time the alpha amylase gene in silver lipped pearl oyster Pinctada maxima is cloned. The full length of the cDNA (named as pmAMY) is consisted of 1732 bp, including a 5′UTR of 25 bp, an open reading frame (ORF) of 1554 bp encoding 518 amino acids and a 3′UTR of 153bp. The estimated isoelectric point and molecular mass of deduced amino acid residues are 7.63 and 57.7 kD, respectively

  13. Screening of antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate extracts of phylum Mollusca from South East Coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pankaj Gupta; Muthuvel Arumugam; Raj Vardhan Azad; Rohit Saxena; Supriyo Ghose; Nihar Ranjan Biswas; Thirumurthy Velpandian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate species of Phylum Mollusca from south east coast of India.Methods:Live specimens of molluscan species were collected and their methanolic extracts were evaluated for preliminary antiangiogenic activity using the in ovo chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay. The extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity using chemical cautery induced corneal neovascularization assay in rats and oxygen induced retinopathy assay in rat pups.Results:In the chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay, four methanolic extracts of marine molluscan species viz. Meretrix meretrix, Meretrix casta, Telescopium telescopium and Bursacrumena methanolic extracts exhibited noticeable antiangiogenic activity at the tested concentration of 200 µg whereby they significantly inhibited the VEGF induced proliferation of new blood vessels. Among these four extracts, the methanolic extract of Meretrix casta exhibited relatively higher degree of antiangiogenic activity with an inhibitiory percentage (64.63%) of the VEGF induced neovascularization followed by the methanolic extracts of Telescopium telescopium (62.02%), Bursa crumena (60.48%) and Meretrix meretrix (47.01%). These four methanolic extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity whereby the methanolic extract of Telescopium telescopium exhibited most noticeable inhibition (42.58%) of the corneal neovascularization in rats in comparison to the sham treated group, and also exhibited most noticeable inhibition (31.31%) of the oxygen induced retinal neovascularization in rat pups in comparison to the hyperoxia group that was observed for considerable retinal neovascularization.Conclusions:The significant antiangiogenic activity evinced by the extract of Telescopium telescopium merits further investigation for ocular neovascular diseases.

  14. 引进印尼种大珠母贝繁育F1母贝植核育珠研究%Pearl Production from the Pearl Oyster Pinctada Maxima Progeny Stocks Produced by the Breeders Introduced from Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢绍河; 谭楚勤; 邓岳文; 符韶; 梁飞龙; 杜晓东; 林伟财; 王钦贵; 邱壮炮; 方昂松

    2013-01-01

    以印度尼西亚引进大珠母贝亲本繁育的子代F1群体进行植核育珠,育珠贝数量8086只,在海区休养20 d后,统计育珠母贝的成活率与留核率,比较3月与4月植核手术育珠贝的育珠性状差异。结果表明:休养期结束后,育珠贝的成活率与留核率分别为97.57%和90.69%;育珠期3个月时(6月17日)育珠贝的成活率为81.22%;4月植核育珠母贝的留核率与成活率明显高于在3月的植核育珠母贝,但两者之间差异不具统计学意义(P>0.05)。%In March and April of 2013, nucleus-inserting operation was conducted with the donor and host oysters sampled from the progeny stocks produced by the introduced breeders from Indonesia. The total number of host oyster was 8086. Retention rate and survival rate were estimated after the host oysters were recuperated for 20 days in the sea. Survival rates were calculated at culturing times. Differences in retention rate and survival rate of the host oysters treated in March and April were also evaluated. The results showed that mean values of retention rate and survival rate were 97.57% and 90.69%, respectively, after host oysters were recuperated for 20 days in the sea. Mean survival rate of the host oysters was 81.22%, when they were cultured for approximately 3months. The host oysters treated in April showed higher retention rate and survival rate than those treated in March. However, the differences were not significant between the two groups (P>0.05). The present results are helpful for pearl production by pearl oyster Pinctada maxima.

  15. 软体动物门起源和进化中的模糊问题研究%Research on Some Fuzzy Problems of the Origin and Evolution of Mollusca

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎锡海

    2012-01-01

    软体动物进化是生物进化重要组成部分之一,是生物进化论、动物学研究重要内容之一。根据古生物学、现代生物进化论研究成就,就软体动物起源、进化及一些类群兴盛、绝灭原因中的模糊问题进行了研究。%Mollusca evolution is an important part of biological evolution and zoology.Based on the achievements of paleontology and modern biological evolution,the paper researches some fuzzy problems of the origin and evolution and prosperity and extinction of of mollusca.

  16. Reproduction de l’huître perlière : évaluation des besoins en acides gras et stérols au cours de l’ovogenèse chez l’huître perlière Pinctada margaritifera

    OpenAIRE

    Le Moullac, Gilles; Vairuha-lechat, Isabelle; Bianchini, Jean Pierre; Le Coz, Jean-rene; Tiapari, Jerome; Laure, Frédéric; Mitermite, Yves

    2004-01-01

    Cette étude financée par le Ministère de l’Outre-Mer est une collaboration de l’Ifremer avec l’Université de Polynésie Française et l’Institut Louis Malardé. Cette étude a permis l’acquisition de connaissances nouvelles sur la nutrition de l’huître perlière Pinctada margaritifera dans le milieu naturel, et ainsi, de mieux envisager les besoins nutritionnels pendant la reproduction. Les besoins en lipides, acides gras et stérols, ont été spécifiquement étudiés. La composition en acides gra...

  17. Phylogenetic relationships of chemoautotrophic bacterial symbionts of Solemya velum say (Mollusca: Bivalvia) determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, J A; Smith, S W; Cavanaugh, C M

    1992-05-01

    The protobranch bivalve Solemya velum Say (Mollusca: Bivalvia) houses chemoautotrophic symbionts intracellularly within its gills. These symbionts were characterized through sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA coding regions and hybridization of an Escherichia coli gene probe to S. velum genomic DNA restriction fragments. The symbionts appeared to have only one copy of the 16S rRNA gene. The lack of variability in the 16S sequence and hybridization patterns within and between individual S. velum organisms suggested that one species of symbiont is dominant within and specific for this host species. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S sequences of the symbionts indicates that they lie within the chemoautotrophic cluster of the gamma subdivision of the eubacterial group Proteobacteria.

  18. Spatial patterns of Pisidium chilense (Mollusca Bivalvia and Hyalella patagonica (Crustacea, Amphipoda in an unpolluted stream in Navarino island (54° S, Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio De Los Ríos Escalante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The southern South American inland waters have many endemic species and some of them are considered as endangered for IUCN, that inhabits in unpolluted ecosystems, one of these ecosystems are the sub-Antarctic perennial forests located in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve at 54° S. The aim of the present study is to analyze the spatial patterns of Pisidium chilense Ituarte, 1999 (Mollusca Bivalvia and Hyalella patagonica (Cunningham, 1871 (Crustacea, Amphipoda in an unpolluted stream. Both species had aggregated spatial distribution, both have a negative binomial distribution pattern, and both are associated. The present results would agree with similar patterns in Patagonian rivers where both species coexist.

  19. A preliminary study of iron isotope fractionation in marine invertebrates (chitons, Mollusca) in near-shore environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, S.; Schuessler, J. A.; Vinther, J.; Matthews, A.; von Blanckenburg, F.

    2014-10-01

    Chitons (Mollusca) are marine invertebrates that produce radulae (teeth or rasping tongues) containing high concentrations of biomineralized magnetite and other iron-bearing minerals. As Fe isotope signatures are influenced by redox processes and biological fractionation, Fe isotopes in chiton radulae might be expected to provide an effective tracer of ambient oceanic conditions and biogeochemical cycling. Here, in a pilot study to measure Fe isotopes in marine invertebrates, we examine Fe isotopes in modern marine chiton radulae collected from different locations in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans to assess the range of isotopic values, and to test whether or not the isotopic signatures reflect seawater values. Values of δ56Fe (relative to IRMM-014) in chiton teeth range from -1.90 to 0.00 ‰ (±0.05‰ (2σ) uncertainty in δ56Fe), probably reflecting a combination of geographical control and biological fractionation processes. Comparison with published local surface seawater Fe isotope data shows a consistent negative offset of chiton teeth Fe isotope compositions relative to seawater. Strikingly, two different species from the same locality in the North Pacific (Puget Sound, Washington, USA) have distinct isotopic signatures. Tonicella lineata, which feeds on red algae in the sublittoral zone, has a mean δ56Fe of -0.65 ± 0.26‰ (2σ, 3 specimens), while Mopalia muscosa, which feeds on both green and red algae in the eulittoral zone, shows lighter isotopic values with a mean δ56Fe of -1.47 ± 0.98‰ (2σ, 5 specimens). Three possible pathways are proposed to account for the different isotopic signatures: (i) physiologically controlled processes within the chitons that lead to species-dependent fractionation; (ii) diet-controlled variability due to different Fe isotope fractionation in the red and green algal food sources; and (iii) environmentally controlled fractionation that causes variation in the isotopic signatures of bioavailable Fe in the different

  20. 海洋酸化对马氏珠母贝受精及早期发育的影响%Effect of ocean acidification on fertilization and early development of the pearl oyster Pinctada martensii Dunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文广; 林坚士

    2012-01-01

    自2010年7月1日至3日,在pH值为8.1、7.7和7.4条件下研究了海洋酸化对马氏珠母贝(PinctadamartensiiDunker)受精及早期发育的影响。结果显示,海洋酸化对不同pH值下马氏珠母贝的受精率无显著影响。pH8.1、pH7.7和pH7.4试验纽幼虫的壳长、壳高的值逐渐增大,pH8.1组幼虫的壳长、壳高的值大于同期其他两组的值,且在实验的第24、36、48小时与其他两组同期幼虫的壳长、壳高的值差异显著,这表明海洋酸化显著影响马氏珠母91幼虫的生长。实验期间,pH8.1试验组幼虫的存活率和畸形率没有显著变化,而pH7.7和pH7.4组幼虫的存活率显著低于pH8.1组。pH7.4组幼虫的畸形率显著高于同期pH8.1和pH7.7组幼虫的畸形率,表明在海洋酸化的环境中幼虫的发育受到影响。本文将为海洋酸化的相关研究提供基础数据。%Effects of ocean acidification on fertilization and early development ofPinctada martensii were investi- gated at pH 8.1, 7.7 and 7.4 from July 1 to July 3 in 2010. The results indicated that COz-driven ocean acidification had no significant effect on fertilization. The shell lengths and heights in the groups ofpH 8.1, 7.7 and 7.4 increased gradually, and showed significant differences between the group of PH 8.1 and the other two groups. This indicated that ocean acidification influenced the growth of t3. martensii. During the experiment, the survival rate and the rate of abnormal larvae showed no significant difference in the pH 8.1 group. The survival rates in the pH 7.7 and 7.4 group were significantly lower than that in the pH 8.1 group. The rate of abnormal larvae in the pH 7.4 group was significantly higher than those in the other two groups. The development of the larvae was influenced by ocean acidification. The study provided basic information for exploring the effect of ocean acidification on growth and development of pearl oyster.

  1. Investigation of the Diversity of Mollusca and Evaluation of Water Quality in Hengyang Reach of Xiangjiang River%湘江衡阳段软体动物多样性调查和水质生物学评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊; 吴彦琼; 李静; 胡劲松; 李鹏; 刘运莲

    2011-01-01

    The species and diversity and faunal and distribution of molluscas in Hengyang reach of Xiangjiang River were studied after many years of dayuandu hydropower station built; and in virtue of diversity indexes of molluscas, water quality were evaluated. The result of the research showed that there were 45 species of mollusca in Hengyang reaches of Xiang River, which belong to 2 classes and 9 families and 18 genera. 30 species belonging to 11 genera in 6 families of Gastropoda were found, 15 specieses belonging to 7 genera in 3 families of Bivalvia were found. The mollusca was in Oriental realm. 26 species were endemic species in China, and Mekonia hunanensis was in endangered status (It has been listed in China Species Red List as an extinct species). Shannon index was used to evaluate water quality of Hengyang reaches of Xiang River. The result showed that the water quality in Dongzhou ialand and Hengshan county town belonged to clean water, the other 8 sampling sites water had been polluted slightly.%对衡山大源渡电站蓄水多年后的湘江衡阳段软体动物的种类组成、区系分布以及多样性进行了调查,并用生物多样性指数对湘江衡阳段水质进行了评价.调查结果表明,湘江衡阳段计有软体动物45种,分别隶属于2纲9科18属,其中腹足纲6科11属30种,双壳纲3科7属15种,其区系成分主要为东洋界类型;其中26种为中国特有种,且湖南湄公螺为濒危物种(被定为灭绝的物种).用软体动物的Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H')对湘江衡阳段进行水质生物学评价,研究结果表明,湘江衡阳段的水质除东洲岛和衡山县城为清洁水外,其余8个采样点的水质均受到了轻度污染.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of Coelomactra antiquata (Mollusca: Bivalvia): The first representative from the family Mactridae with novel gene order and unusual tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xueping; Zhao, Nana; Shen, Xin; Hao, Jue; Liang, Meng; Zhu, Xiaolin; Cheng, Hanliang; Yan, Binlun; Liu, Zhaopu

    2012-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome plays an important role in the accurate inference of phylogenetic relationships among metazoans. Mactridae, also known as trough shells or duck clams, is an important family of marine bivalve clams in the order Veneroida. Here we present the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Xishishe Coelomactra antiquata (Mollusca: Bivalvia), which is the first representative from the family Mactridae. The mitochondrial genome of C. antiquata is of 17,384bp in length, and encodes 35 genes, including 12 protein-coding, 21 transfer RNA, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. Compared with the typical gene content of animal mitochondrial genomes, atp8 and tRNAS(2) are missing. Gene order of the mitochondrial genome of C. antiquata is unique compared with others from Veneroida. In the mitochondrial genome of the C. antiquata, a total of 2189bp of non-coding nucleotides are scattered among 26 non-coding regions. The largest non-coding region contains one section of tandem repeats (99 bp×11), which is the second largest tandem repeats found in the mitochondrial genomes from Veneroida. The phylogenetic trees based on mitochondrial genomes support the monophyly of Veneridae and Lucinidae, and the relationship at the family level: ((Veneridae+Mactridae)+(Cardiidae+Solecurtidae))+Lucinidae. The phylogenetic result is consistent with the morphological classification. Meanwhile, bootstrap values are very high (BP=94-100), suggesting that the evolutionary relationship based on mitochondrial genomes is very reliable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of fish cage culture on δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedito, E.; Takeda, A.M., E-mail: eva@nupelia.uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aquicultura; Figueroa, L. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquaticos Continentais; Manetta, GI. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Comparada

    2013-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples of specimens of the bivalve filter C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C) for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem. (author)

  4. (Born, 1778) (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-05-27

    May 27, 1988 ... Most populations had a unimodal size distribution in which small individuals ... exploited areas, suggesting that size distribution was unrelated to human explOitation. ... abundant on the east coast of southern Africa, where it.

  5. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca - Bivalvia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, R.; de Jong, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The

  6. The linked units of 5S rDNA and U1 snDNA of razor shells (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pharidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierna, J; Jensen, K T; Martínez-Lage, A; González-Tizón, A M

    2011-08-01

    The linkage between 5S ribosomal DNA and other multigene families has been detected in many eukaryote lineages, but whether it provides any selective advantage remains unclear. In this work, we report the occurrence of linked units of 5S ribosomal DNA (5S rDNA) and U1 small nuclear DNA (U1 snDNA) in 10 razor shell species (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pharidae) from four different genera. We obtained several clones containing partial or complete repeats of both multigene families in which both types of genes displayed the same orientation. We provide a comprehensive collection of razor shell 5S rDNA clones, both with linked and nonlinked organisation, and the first bivalve U1 snDNA sequences. We predicted the secondary structures and characterised the upstream and downstream conserved elements, including a region at -25 nucleotides from both 5S rDNA and U1 snDNA transcription start sites. The analysis of 5S rDNA showed that some nontranscribed spacers (NTSs) are more closely related to NTSs from other species (and genera) than to NTSs from the species they were retrieved from, suggesting birth-and-death evolution and ancestral polymorphism. Nucleotide conservation within the functional regions suggests the involvement of purifying selection, unequal crossing-overs and gene conversions. Taking into account this and other studies, we discuss the possible mechanisms by which both multigene families could have become linked in the Pharidae lineage. The reason why 5S rDNA is often found linked to other multigene families seems to be the result of stochastic processes within genomes in which its high copy number is determinant.

  7. Community benthic paleoecology from high-resolution climate records: Mollusca and foraminifera in post-glacial environments of the California margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Sarah E.; Kroeker, Kristy J.; Hill, Tessa M.; Roopnarine, Peter; Kennett, James P.

    2017-01-01

    Paleoecological reconstructions of past climate are often based on a single taxonomic group with a consistent presence. Less is known about the relationship between multi-taxon community-wide change and climate variability. Here we reconstruct paleoecological change in a Late Quaternary (16.1-3.4 ka) sediment core from the California margin (418 m below sea level) of Santa Barbara Basin (SBB), USA, using Mollusca (Animalia) and Foraminifera (Rhizaria) microfossils. Building upon previous investigations, we use multivariate ordination and cluster analyses to interpret community-scale changes in these distinctly different taxonomic groups across discrete climate episodes. The strongest differences between seafloor biological communities occurred between glacial (prior to Termination IA, 14.7 ka) and interglacial climate episodes. Holocene communities were well partitioned, indicating that sub-millennial oceanographic variability was recorded by these microfossils. We document strong evidence of chemosynthetic trophic webs and sulfidic environments (from gastropod Alia permodesta and bivalve Lucinoma aequizonata), which characterized restricted intervals previously interpreted as well oxygenated (such as the Pre-Bølling Warming). Mollusc records indicate first-order trophic energetic shifts between detrital and chemosynthetically-fixed carbon. Molluscs associated with widely different physiological preferences occur here within single, decadal intervals of sediment, and as such mollusc assemblages may reflect significant inter-decadal oceanographic variability. Foraminifera assemblages provide exceptional records of the sequential, chronological progression of the deglacial climatic and oceanographic events, whereas mollusc assemblages reflect non-chronological similarities in reoccurring communities. Foraminifera taxa that drive community similarity here are also independently recognized as marker species for seafloor hypoxia regimes, which provides support for the

  8. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONAL PATTERNS OF MOLLUSCA IN A TYPICAL AQUACULTURAL LAKE -- DATONG LAKE%典型养殖湖泊大通湖软体动物的时空分布格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德亮; 张婷; 余建波; 毛小伟; 王红权; 陈开健; 刘安民; 李祖军; 肖调义

    2011-01-01

    研究于 2008 年 12 月至 2009 年 10 月按季度对大通湖水质及软体动物资源监测,并通过纵向比较,探讨了集约化养殖对大通湖水域环境及软体动物群落的影响,以期为其渔业可持续发展提供理论依据.结果显示,大通湖水质全年呈碱性 (8.62 ± 0.07),具有较高的还原性 [(-88.40 ± 9.10) mv],属富营养水体.软体动物共计 5 科 15 种,梨形环棱螺(Bellamya purificata)、河蚬(Corbicula fluminea)和圆顶珠蚌(Uniodoug lasiae)是主要优势种.软体动物平均密度和生物量具有明显的时空差异,时间上呈现由春夏季到秋冬季逐渐升高的趋势,空间上整体呈现由东北向西南逐渐递减的趋势.典范对应分析表明氧化还原电位、pH、溶氧、水深、电导率和水温与大通湖软体动物时空变化的关系最显著.与 1960 年相比,大通湖水体碱性显著增强 (7.0-7.5 vs 8.4-8.8),电导率增加了 9 倍 (0.25-0.27 vs 2.17-2.56 mS/cm),环境类型由氧化型转变为还原型.湖区喜好水草 (白旋螺、光亮隔扁螺、萝卜螺) 与流水生境 (德氏狭口螺、湖沼股蛤、橄榄蛏蚌) 的物种消失,软体动物优势种群呈现由双壳类向腹足类演替的特征.生境破坏和过度捕捞是大通湖软体动物资源面临的最大威胁,也是湖区渔业可持续发展所面临的核心问题.%The environmental characteristics and Mollusca community in Datong Lake were investigated seasonally from December 2008 to October 2009. Potential effects of intensive aquaculture on water quality and Mollusca in Datong Lake were studied by comparing the current sampling with the historical data in 1960, to provide theoretical support for sustainable fishery of the freshwater lakes. The results showed that Datong Lake was eutrophic and the water was alkaline (8.62 ± 0.07), with higher reducibility (-88.40 ± 9.10 mv). Fifteen Mollusca species were recorded, belonging to 5 families. Bellamya purificata, Corbicula

  9. The Diversity of Molluscas Was Applied to Monitor the Heavy Metals in the Huayuan River%软体动物多样性在花垣河水体重金属监测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊; 郑济芳; 胡南; 胡劲松; 朱允华; 刘运莲; 殷杰

    2009-01-01

    对湘西花垣河软体动物多样性与重金属污染状况进行了调查.在花垣河8个监测断面中,除S1、S3、S8的软体动物丰富度指数(DMA)与Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H′)分别介于0.264 3-2.493 7和0.676 5-2.412 3外,S2、S4、S5、S7、S8五个断面的软体动物丰富度和多样性指数均为零.Mn、Cd、Pb、Cu、Zn在花垣河8个监测断面的河水中都能检测到,其中Mn、Cd含量严重超出GB的Ⅴ类水标准.软体动物多样性监测与理化监测的结果均表明,花垣河水体已经受到严重重金属污染.%The diversities of molluscas and the pollution of heavy metals in the Xiangxi Huayuan River were investigated.The species richness indexes (DMA) and Shannon-Wiener diversity indexes (H′) of mollusca at S1,S3,S8 were 0.264 3-2.493 7 and 0.676 5-2.412 3,respectively.The DMA and H′ at the other 5 sections were zero.Mn、Cd、Pb、Cu、Zn were identified in the water,the concentrantions of Mn and Cd were severe exceed the standard of limits of Ⅴ class water of GB.The results of the diversities of molluscas and the physico-chemical monitoring suggested that the water of the Huayuan River had been polluted by heavy metals severity.

  10. 山东潍坊地区医学贝类种类及分布调查研究%The Species and Ecological Distribution of Medical Mollusca in Weifang, Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭云海; 李娜; 胡玲; 张仪; 周晓农

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查山东潍坊地区医学贝类种类及分布. 方法 选择山东潍坊地区的潍坊市区、寿光、安丘和昌邑等地,现场采集医学贝类标本,进行形态学鉴定和分类定种. 结果 共获得标本1 791个,经形态学鉴定,隶属于2纲9科14种,包括重要医学贝类的纹沼螺(Parafsaruluss triatulus)383个、长角涵螺(Alocinma longicornis)34个、小土蜗(Galba pervia) 63个、椭圆萝卜螺(Radix swinhoei)137个、耳萝卜螺(R.auricularia)95个、尖膀胱螺(Physa acuta) 677个和尖口圆扁螺(Hippeutis cantori)22个.其中纹沼螺和尖膀胱螺为优势物种. 结论 山东潍坊地区可传播寄生虫的医学贝类种类较多.%Objective To investigate the species and distribution of mollusca with medical importance in Weifang,Shandong Province.Methods Species identification and quantitative statistics analysis was studied based on field-collected snails from the districts of Weifang,Shouguang,Anqiu and Changyi,Shandong Province.Results A total of 1 791 medical mollusca specimens were collected,belonging to two Classes,9 families and 14 species.Some important species were discovered including Parafossarulus striatuluis(383),A locinma longicornis(34),Galba pervia (63),Radix swinhoei (137),R.auricularia (95),Physa acuta(677) and Hippeutis cantori(22).The dominant species were P.acuta and P.striatulus.Conclusion There remains a higher diversity of medical mollusca in Weifang,Shandong Province.

  11. Introducción al estudio de los gasterópodos (Mollusca de la laguna de Montcortès (Pallars Sobirà, Cataluña, NE de la península ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bros

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the study of gastropods (Mollusca on the Montcortés lake (Pallars Sobirà, Catlonia, NE of the Iberian peninsulaThe check-list of 50 species of terrestrial gastro­pod and freshwater molluscs in the Montcortès lake (Catalonia, Spain and its environs, pertaining to 24 different families, is shown. Thirty-three species are cited for the first time in the area of study. The unpublished data on their distribution and ecological requirements are contributed. The preliminary results indicate us that the communities of molluscs that accompany to the helofitic vegetation and the higrofits well are formed with elements of high faunistic and ecological interest. Simultaneously, some recommendations for the protection of the malacological fauna of the lake are commented.

  12. Megafauna recovered from a cold hydrocarbon seep in the deep Alaskan Beaufort Sea, including a new species of Axinus (Thracidae: Bivalvia: Mollusca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C. L.; Valentich-Scott, P.; Lorenson, T. D.; Edwards, B. D.

    2011-12-01

    Several specimens of a new species of Axinus and a single well-worn gastropod columella provisionally assigned to the genus Neptunea (Buccinidae: Gastropoda: Mollusca) were recently recovered from at least two cores, the longest of which is 5.72 m long, from a large seafloor mound, informally named the Canning Seafloor Mound (CSM). The CSM is located at 2,530 m water depth on the Alaskan Beaufort Sea slope north of Camden Bay and is a fluid explosion feature containing methane hydrate and methane-saturated sediments overlying a folded and faulted deep basin. Only two modern species of Axinus are currently known. Axinus grandis (Verrill & Smith, 1885) is a northern Atlantic species and the recently described species, A. cascadiensis Oliver and Holmes (2007), is only known from Baby Bare Seamount, Cascadia Basin, northeastern Pacific Ocean. Common fragments, single valves, and a single articulated specimen represent this new Axinus species. These shells were distributed over nearly the entire length of the primary core. All specimens show wear and (or) dissolution. The age of these specimens is unknown and no living representatives were encountered. The genus Axinus has a fossil record back to the early Eocene in England and the Paleocene and Eocene in Egypt. Biogeographically the genus appears to have originated in the Tethys Sea and became established in the Atlantic Ocean during the Eocene, spreading across the Arctic Ocean in the late Tertiary. With the opening of the Bering Strait in the latest Miocene or early Pliocene the genus Axinus migrated southwest into the northeast Pacific. Interestingly, hydrocarbon seep deposits are also present on the adjacent North Slope of Alaska in the Marsh Anticline at Carter Creek, Camden Bay. These rocks, the Nuwok beds, contain abundant Thracidae bivalve of the genus Thracia, but not Axinus, however the rocks also represent cold seep deposits. These rocks have been variously dated from Oligocene to Pliocene and the exact age

  13. Reproducción, dieta y pesquería del pulpo Octopus (Octopus hubbsorum (Mollusca: Cephalopoda en la costa de Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Carmen Alejo-Plata

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan algunos aspectos de la biología y pesquería de Octopus hubbsorum capturado por pesca artesanal en Puerto Ángel, Oaxaca, México. Las muestras se obtuvieron de enero 2002 a noviembre 2003 con una periodicidad quincenal. A cada uno de los organismos se les registró la longitud dorsal del manto (LDM, peso total, sexo y estado de madurez gonádica. Asímismo se obtuvo el Índice Gonadosomático (IGS. Para el análisis del contenido estomacal se utilizaron los índices de frecuencia de presencia y vaciado. Se analizaron 352 organismos, con un intervalo de tallas de 4 a 19 cm LDM; la proporción de sexos fue diferente de 1 (.2= 24.2, pReproduction, diet and fishery of Octopus (Octopus hubbsorum (Mollusca: Cephalopoda in the coast of Oaxaca, Mexico. The octopus Octopus hubbsorum (Berry 1953 ranges widely and is important for the artisanal fishery in Puerto Angel, Oaxaca, Mexico. Samples were taken approximately at every two weeks from January 2002 to November 2003. All organisms were measured for dorsal mantle length (DLM and total weight; sex and maturity gonadic stage were registered. For the stomach content analysis, frequency of occurrence and emptying indexes were used. The 352 organisms caught ranged from 4 to 18 cm in DLM; the sex ratio was different from 1 (X² = 24.2, p<0.05 throughout the year. The maximum values of the GSI appeared in May (4.1917 for females; 1.2675 in males. LDM for first sexual maturity (LDM50% was 16 cm (females and 14 cm (males. Octopus hubbsorum moves from deep waters to the coast, probably in search of better conditions, and lays masses of eggs on rocky substrata. They are fished from March to October, with higher intensity in April and May. Fishing effort was related to the oceanographic characteristics and the atmospheric conditions of the area. From April to September the CPUE monthly mean was 20-10 kg/divers/day. Using the CPUE and environmental condition relationship, the estimated adequate

  14. Tolerance to air exposure of the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca as a prerequisite to survival in overland translocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Alonso

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Spreading throughout a new ecosystem is the last step of an exotic species to become invasive. In the case of invasive aquatic molluscs, tolerance to air exposure is one of the main mechanisms allowing overland translocation and spreading. The mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca is native to New Zealand but it has spread worldwide, invading ecosystems in Europe, Australia, America and Asia. The aim of our study is to assess mudsnail tolerance to air exposure, which may contribute to the successful overland translocation of this species. We conducted a laboratory experiment with four levels of air exposure (9, 18, 24 and 36 hours in a controlled climatic chamber. Snails were placed for 60 seconds in a laboratory paper filter to remove surface snail water. Then they were placed back in empty vessels during the four periods of air exposure, except the control group, which was immediately returned to water. At the end of each period of air exposure all vessels were filled with water and the cumulative mortality was monitored after 24, 96, 168 and 264 hours of rehydration. The calculated Lethal Times (i.e. the time of air exposure (in hours necessary to cause the death of 50% (LT50 or 99% (LT99 of the population and their 95% confidence limits at 24, 96, 168 and 264 hours were 28.1 (25.2–31.9, 26.9 (24.2–30.1, 25.9 (23.4–28.9 and 25.9 (23.4–28.9 hours, respectively for LT50, and 49.6 (42.7–63.3, 45.6 (39.9–56.5, 43.2 (38.0–53.0 and 43.2 (38.0–53.0 hours, respectively for LT99. Therefore an air exposure time over 43 hours caused the death of all studied individuals during all monitoring periods. Extending the monitoring period beyond 24 hours did not significantly change lethal times. Therefore, we recommend exposing fishing tools or boats at open air during at least 53 hours as a low cost measure to control mudsnail spread in early stages of invasion.

  15. Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of PmCHST9 Gene from Sulfotransferase of Pinctada martensii%马氏珠母贝磺基转移酶PmCHST9基因的分子特征与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝瑞娟; 郑哲; 王庆恒; 邓岳文; 焦钰; 杜晓东

    2015-01-01

    糖胺聚糖在抗病毒、消炎和抗氧化等免疫反应发挥重要作用.磺基转移酶(sulfotransferase)是糖胺聚糖生物合成的关键酶,Carbohydrate sulfotransferase 9 (CHST9)可以将磺酸基从3’-磷酸腺苷酰-5’磷酸硫酸盐(PAPS)转移到半乳糖残基非还原末端的4位碳上.为研究CHST9在马氏珠母贝免疫调节中的作用,本研究克隆得到马氏珠母贝CHST9 (Pinctada martensii CHST9,PmCHST9) cDNA全长序列并检测其在不同组织中的表达模式.利用RACE技术,得出PmCHST9序列全长l 388 bp,其中5'UTR为122 bp,3'UTR为192 bp,开放阅读框(ORE)为1 074 bp,编码357个氨基酸;PmCHST9氨基酸序列分子量为42 889.2 Da,等电点为9.28,脂溶性系数为81.32,总平均亲水性为-0.493;氨基酸序列分析得出PmCHST9具有典型的磺基转移酶-2结构域和一个跨膜结构域;多序列比对结果显示PmCHST9与其它物种的CHST9同源性较低;荧光定量PCR检测结果表明PmCHST9在鳃中表达量最高,其次是足和肝胰腺.综上所述,PmCHST9可能参与马氏珠母贝的免疫调节作用,为进一步阐述PmCHST9在马氏珠母贝中的免疫机制提供基础资料.

  16. Biodiversidad de gasterópodos terrestres (Mollusca en el Parque Biológico Sierra de San Javier, Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Miranda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un inventario y se analizaron parámetros de diversidad de la malacofauna terrestre del Parque Biológico Sierra de San Javier. Se llevaron a cabo muestreos cualitativos y cuantitativos en parcelas de 10x10m tomadas en transectas altitudinales, para un total de 22 169 especímenes recolectados. Las identificaciones taxonómicas se llevaron a cabo a nivel de especie. Se construyó una matriz de especies por parcela para analizar patrones de diversidad y se utilizaron estimadores no paramétricos (ICE, ACE, Chao 1 y Chao 2 para calcular la diversidad del Parque, el grado de completitud del muestreo y la agregación espacial de los datos. Se calcularon los índices de Shannon, Simpson, Whittaker y Jaccard. La riqueza del Parque fue estimada en 32 especies distribuidas en 21 géneros y 13 familias. Solo una especie pertenece a Caenogastropoda, el resto son Pulmonados Stylommatophora y Systellommatophora. La familia más representada fue Charopidae mientras que la especie con mayor abundancia relativa fue Adelopoma tucma. La riqueza y diversidad fue levemente mayor en chaco seco que en bosque húmedo de Yungas. Los valores de diversidad obtenidos fueron elevados en comparación con estudios previos realizados en el noroeste Argentino.Biodiversity of land gastropods (Mollusca in Sierra de San Javier Park, Tucumán, Argentina. Studies related to land mollusk diversity in tropical and subtropical forests are scarce. To assess this, a study on land snail diversity of subtropical cloudforest (Yungas and dry forest (Chaco areas of Sierra de San Javier Park, Tucumán, Argentina, was carried out. Taxonomic identifications were performed to species level and built a species per stations data matrix to analyze diversity patterns on qualitative and quantitative samples processed from 10x10m quadrates in altitudinal transects. Non parametric analysis (ICE, ACE, Chao 1 and Chao 2 were used to estimate the true diversity of the area, as well as the

  17. Diet Composition of Hawksbill Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    before analysis, blotted dry and inspected under ... (NaOCl) for 15 minutes for spicule analysis. Settled material was extracted and ..... data can also be collected and individual subjects can .... SWoT State of the World's Sea Turtles. Report, 1: 8.

  18. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca – Bivalvia

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    Rafael Araujo

    2015-07-01

    European freshwater bivalves belong to the Orders Unionoida and Cardiida. All the European unionoids are included in the superfamily Unionoidea, the freshwater mussels or naiads. The European cardiids belong to the following three superfamilies: Cardioidea, Cyrenoidea and Dreissenoidea. Among the Unionoidea there are the most imperilled animal groups on the planet while the Cardioidea includes the cosmopolitan genus Pisidium, the Cyrenoidea the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea and the Dreissenoidea the famous invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha. Basic information is summarized on their taxonomy and biology. Tabulations include a complete list of the current estimated families, genera and species.

  19. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms

  20. Intragenomic sequence variation at the ITS1 - ITS2 region and at the 18S and 28S nuclear ribosomal DNA genes of the New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae: mollusca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Marshal S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis was conducted on two populations of the invasive non-native New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), one from a freshwater ecosystem in Devil's Lake (Oregon, USA) and the other from an ecosystem of higher salinity in the Columbia River estuary (Hammond Harbor, Oregon, USA). To elucidate potential genetic differences between the two populations, three segments of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), the ITS1-ITS2 regions and the 18S and 28S rDNA genes were cloned and sequenced. Variant sequences within each individual were found in all three rDNA segments. Folding models were utilized for secondary structure analysis and results indicated that there were many sequences which contained structure-altering polymorphisms, which suggests they could be nonfunctional pseudogenes. In addition, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) was used for hierarchical analysis of genetic variance to estimate variation within and among populations and within individuals. AMOVA revealed significant variation in the ITS region between the populations and among clones within individuals, while in the 5.8S rDNA significant variation was revealed among individuals within the two populations. High levels of intragenomic variation were found in the ITS regions, which are known to be highly variable in many organisms. More interestingly, intragenomic variation was also found in the 18S and 28S rDNA, which has rarely been observed in animals and is so far unreported in Mollusca. We postulate that in these P. antipodarum populations the effects of concerted evolution are diminished due to the fact that not all of the rDNA genes in their polyploid genome should be essential for sustaining cellular function. This could lead to a lessening of selection pressures, allowing mutations to accumulate in some copies, changing them into variant sequences.                   

  1. Comunidad de moluscos asociados al mejillón verde Perna viridis (Mollusca: Bivalvia y sus relaciones tróficas en la costa norte de la Península de Araya, Estado Sucre, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sioliz Villafranca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Perna viridis es un bivalvo procedente del Indo-Pacífico que habita en la zona intermareal y ha invadido varios ecosistemas de la costa norte del estado Sucre, Venezuela. Con la finalidad de realizar un estudio sobre las comunidades de moluscos asociadas a esta especie y sus relaciones tróficas, se llevaron a cabo muestreos bimensuales entre octubre/97 y agosto/98, en un banco natural de mejillones a dos metros de profundidad en la costa norte de la península de Araya (10°40’N -48°63’W. Los organismos fueron recolectados delimitando el área con una cuadrícula de 0.25 m². Se identificaron los organismos hasta la categoría de especies utilizando claves específicas para moluscos y bibliográficamente se les determinó categoría trófica.Se capturó un total de 1 235 individuos de P. viridis y asociados a la especie 3 163 especímenes pertenecientes al phylum Mollusca, contenidos en tres clases: Bivalvia,Gastropoda y Polyplacophora. Éstas estuvieron representadas por 50 especies correspondientes a 10 órdenes, 24 familias; para los gasterópodos se contabilizaron 25 especies, para los bivalvos 22 y tres para los poliplacóforos. Del total de las especies, 40% fueron filtradoras, 26% carnívoras, 24% herbívoras y el 10% restante presentó dos categorías.De las filtradoras las más representativas fueron: Perna perna, Musculus lateralis, Crassostrea rhizophorae y Ostrea equestris; en el grupo de los carnívoros dominaron tres especies de la familia Columbellidae:Mitrella lunata, Anachis obesa y Nitidella ocellata y para el grupo de los herbívoros destacaron dos especies de la familia Fisurellidae: Diodora cayenensis y D. minuta. Se registraron dos especies filtradoras-detritívoras, y tres especies herbívoras-filtradoras representantes del género C repidula. El alto porcentaje de filtradores sería un indicativo de que dentro de este sistema probablemente hay una mayor disponibilidad de fracciones alimenticias para este grupo

  2. COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF BENTHIC MOLLUSCA AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN THE MAINSTREAM OF HUAIHE RIVER%淮河干流软体动物群落结构及其与环境因子的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁建华; 周立志; 邓道贵; 金显文

    2013-01-01

    2011年3月、6月、9月和12月对淮河干流11个采集点的底栖软体类动物群落结构进行了调查研究,共记录了软体类动物9科26种,其中位于最上游的桐柏金庄种类最少,仅有3种分布,而位于中下游的新城口种类达到15种.总体上看,自上游至下游,软体动物种类的数量呈现一定的增多趋势.Pearson相关性检验结果表明软体动物种类数量和生物密度与河道深度间分别存在显著的正相关(r = 0.617,P = 0.043,n = 11)和负相关关系(r = -0.654,P = 0.029,n = 11).方差分析(One-way ANOVA)结果表明,Shannon-Wiener多样性指数[F(3,40) = 0.225,P = 0.879]、Margalef丰富度指数[F(3,40) = 0.902,P = 0.449]、Pielou均匀性指数[F(3,40) = 0.841,P = 0.479]这3种指数以及生物量[F(3,40) = 1.931,P = 0.14]不存在显著的季节性变化,但生物密度[F(3,40) = 5.45,P = 0.003]却存在极显著的季节性变化.其中,生物密度在6月份出现峰值[(90.13 ± 36.31) ind./m2],最低值出现在12月份[(14.42 ± 2.78) ind./m2];生物量的变化不与生物密度变化同步,其峰值出现在9月份[(155.08 ± 50.43) g/m2],最低值则出现在3月份[(39.15 ± 14.08) g/m2].相似性分析(One-way ANOSIM)结果表明,软体类动物群落在生物密度和生物量方面的优势物种组成上均无显著的季节性差异,其P值分别为0.082和0.514.生物密度在不同月份间的不相似百分比变化幅度从53.87%至59.12%,而生物量的不相似百分比变化幅度则从58.76%至68.58%.冗余分析(Redundancy Analysis RDA)结果表明,河宽、水深和砂质型底质为影响淮河干流底栖软体类动物分布的主要环境因子.%The benthic mollusca community structure at eleven sampling sites in Huaihe River was investigated in March, June, September and December 2011. A total of 26 species from 9 families were recorded. Thereinto, only 3 species occurred in the first upriver site: Tongbaijinzhuang, and 15 species occurred in the downriver

  3. Environ: E00520 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00520 Eretmochelys imbricata carapace Eretmochelyos carapax Crude drug Eretmochely...s imbricata [TAX:27787] Cheloniidae Eretmochelys imbricata carapace (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Reptiles E00520 Eretmochelys imbricata carapace ...

  4. Cloning and Functional Expression of a Multi-Functional Cellulase Gene egx from Mollusca, Ampullaria crossean in vitro%福寿螺多功能纤维素酶基因egx的克隆及其体外功能性表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄妙容; 刘德武; 吴珍芳

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of the study is to clone the multi-functional cellulase gene from Mollusca, Ampullaria crossean, and analyze its expression in vitro. [Method] The cDNA fragment was amplified by RT-PCR from the stomach of Mollusca, Ampullaria crossean, and then cloned into pMD18-T vector. Following sequencing, the gene was subcloned into the expression vector pET-32a (+) and pcDNA3.1 (+) using EcoR I and Not I restriction sites, and the enzymatic activity was determined by DNS. [Result] Sequence analysis showed that the 1 326 bp amplicon consists of 1 185 bp coding sequence and part of flanking sequence. The DNA sequence and the putative amino acid sequence shared 99% and 100% identity with the reported sequence, respectively. The purified product from E.coli BL-21 (DE3) showed hydrolytic activities to various substrates including carboxylmethyl cellulose sodium salt (CMC-Na), 2-hydroxyethyl-cellulose, hydroxyethyl-cellulose, sigmacell and xylan with specific activities of 24.78, 15.67, 18.42, 600.91 and 175.43 U·mg-1, respectiviely, while the recombination protein expressed in PK15 showed hydrolytic activities of 0.84, 0.78, 1.01, 14.62 and 4.23 U·mL-1, respectively. [Conclusion] The multi-functional cellulase from Mollusca, Ampullaria crossean, was cloned, functional expressed in pro- and eukaryotic cells, and this could provide a foundation for further research and application of the multi-functional cellulase gene from Mollusca, Ampullaria crossean.%[目的]克隆福寿螺多功能纤维素酶基因egx,并在大肠杆菌和哺乳动物细胞中进行表达分析.[方法]通过RT-PCR的方法,从福寿螺胃组织总RNA中克隆福寿螺多功能纤维素酶基因egx序列,连接克隆载体pMD18-T,再通过EcoR Ⅰ和NotⅠ两个酶切位点分别与表达载体pET-32a(+)及pcDNA3.1(+)连接,构建原核、真核表达载体,并在E.coli BL-21 (DE3)和猪肾细胞PK15中进行表达,最后采用DNS法测定表达产物酶

  5. Perfil de lípidos y ácidos grasos de Perna viridis, mejillón verde (Mollusca: Bivalvia en el oriente venezolano y la costa oeste de Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Koftayan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los lípidos totales fueron extraídos, identificados y cuantificados por gravimetría, mediante TLC/FID (sistema Iatroscan. Los ácidos grasos de los lípidos totales, fosfolípidos y triacilgliceroles fueron identificados y cuantificados por cromatografía de gases. Las mayores concentraciones de lípidos totales se presentaron en las muestras de Los Cedros, La Brea y Chaguaramas con valores de 7.92, 7.74 y 7.53%; respectivamente y los valores mínimos en las de La Restinga (6.08%. En la composición lípidica, las muestras de Chacopata presentaron la menor concentración de fosfolípidos (48.86% y los máximos valores de colesterol (38.87% y triacilgliceroles (12.26%, y las muestras de La Esmeralda y Río Caribe exhibieron concentraciones máximas de fosfolípidos (88.71-84.93%, respectivamente y mínimas de colesterol (6.50-4.42%. En los lípidos totales, los ácidos grasos saturados se encontraron entre 15.04 y 65.55%, con máximos en muestras de La Esmeralda y mínimos en Chacopata y los poliinsaturados estuvieron entre 7.80 y 37.18%, con máximos valores en la Brea y mínimos en la Esmeralda. En los fosfolípidos, la concentración de ácidos grasos saturados estuvo entre 38.81 y 48.68% para las muestras de Chaguaramas y Chacopata, respectivamente; los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados se encontraron entre no detectado y 34.51%, con altas concentraciones en muestras de Los Cedros (27.97% y Chaguaramas (34.51%. En los triacilgliceroles, la composición de ácidos grasos saturados variaron entre 14.27 y 53.80%, con baja concentración en Chacopata y alta concentración en La Restinga; los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados estuvieron entre 4.66 y 35.55%, con valores menores en las muestras de Chacopata (4.66% y mayores en Chaguaramas. El consumo frecuente de Perna viridis es recomendable, debido a su alto contenido de fosfolípidos y ácidos grasos insaturados.Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, Green Mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia in

  6. 湛江红树林保护区软体动物群落结构与生态位分析%The Structure of the Mollusca Community and Niche Analysis in Zhangjiang Mangrove Nature Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐以杰; 陈康; 刘金苓

    2015-01-01

    对广东湛江红树林保护区高桥核心区软体动物进行采样调查,共采集软体动物20种,隶属1门2纲13科.其中桐花树+红海榄(Acgiceras corniculatum + Rhizophora stylosa )群落10种,桐花树+秋茄(Acgiceras corniculatum + Kandelia candel )群落6种,桐花树+白骨壤(Acgiceras corniculatum + Avicennia marina )群落13种,白骨壤+桐花树群落(Avicennia marina + Acgiceras corniculatum )16种.对软体动物密度数据进行季节和红树植物群落类型进行无重复双因素方差分析,结果显示软体动物栖息密度主要受红树植物群落类型而不是季节的影响.对定量取样中获得的20个物种以 Shannon-Wiener 指数为基础进行了生态位宽度测定,以 Pianka重叠指数为基础进行了生态位重叠值分析,结果表明琵琶拟沼螺(Assiminea lutea )、黑口滨螺(Littoraria melanostoma )和粗糙滨螺(Littorina scaber )的生态位较宽,均为2.0以上,它们之间的生态重叠值也较高,均为0.70以上.以密度数据4次开方为基础,利用欧氏距离进行群落物种的系统聚类分析,结果表明物种的聚类可以反映群落中物种生态位重叠值,但是生态位宽度的研究,要针对不同物种来分析.非度量多维标度排序分析也支持以上结果.研究表明,物种生态宽度、物种之间的生态位重叠值与物种的分布与数量密切相关,反映了软体动物群落中各物种对生境资源利用能力的强弱.%This study was conducted to explore the structure of the mollusca community and niche in Zhangjiang Mangrove Nature Reserves.The mollusks community in the four kinds of mangrove communities in the core region of Gaoqiao town were studies.A total of 20 species in the investigation, belonging to 13 families,2 classes and 1 phyla were collected.The numbers of species found in the Acgiceras corniculatum + Rhizophora stylosa ,Acgiceras corniculatum + Kandelia

  7. [Microbiologic depuration of Anadara tuberculosa (Mollusca: Arcidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, E; Antillón, F; Glenn, E; González, M I

    1997-12-01

    In Costa Rica the mollusk Anadara tuberculosa represents a risk for human health due to the contamination of the growing waters and the fact that its is consumed raw. The families depending on the income obtained through commercialization of these animals have a low education and economic status. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop and evaluate simple methods of depuration that could be easily used by these families to make these mollusks safe for consumption. Bottles containing 11 of saline solution (25g/l) were prepared in duplicates to test the bactericidal effect of acetic acid. The solution in each bottle was adjusted to ph 4.5, 5.0 or 5.5 or held at ph of 7.0 or 8.0 for the controls. The solution in each bottle was then inoculated with approximately 1 X 104 cfu/ml of coliforms. Counts of coliforms were determined for each bottle 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 hours after inoculation. For the depuration studies, specimens with diameters ranging from 4.0 to 4.5 cm were collected from a harvester at the estuary of Puntarenas, Gulf of Nicoya. Fifty specimens each were depurated in separate tanks containing 25 1 of oxygenated saline solution adjusted with acetic acid to an initial ph of 4.5 (treatment) or non adjusted ph of 8.0 (control). Counts of Enterobacteriaceae were determined, in duplicates, every 12 hr for 48 hr. An additional fifty animals were depurated using the defined method and tested to determine if they met international standards of microbiological quality for aerobic plate count, Enterobacteriaceae count, Escherichia coli count and presence of Salmonella. A sensory evaluation using a triangle test was performed to compare a typical dish prepared with depurated or non-depurated animals. A significant coliform reduction was determined in a saline solution (25 g/l) at a pH range of 4.5 to 5.5. This reduction, during 8 hr, was higher in the acid treatments compared to the controls. During depuration, the elimination of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria was faster when acetic was used (initial ph = 4.5) than when it was not. This elimination was more important the first 24 hr, time defined as adequate for the application of the method. The method has the advantage of transforming the bivalve in a product that is safe for human consumption, since it guarantees that the international standards of microbiological quality, for raw and depurated mollusks, are reached. On the other hand, the sensory qualities of a typical dish prepared with depurated animals are not affected by the method, which can be easily implemented and applied by the people that work in the extraction of this mollusk.

  8. Four new African turriform gastropods (Mollusca: Conoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morassi, Mauro; Bonfitto, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Four new species, belonging to four distinct conoidean families, are described from east Africa and Mozambique Channel. Iredalea adenensis sp. nov. (Drilliidae Olsson, 1964), from Gulf of Aden, and Buchema shearmani sp. nov. (Horaiclavidae Bouchet et al., 2011), from off Mogadishu (Somalia), both trawled by local fishermen, represent the first record of their respective genera in eastern Africa. Crassispira somalica sp. nov. (Pseudomelatomidae Morrison, 1965), also collected offshore from Modagishu (Somalia), represents the first eastern Africa species bearing "typical" Crassispira features. Tropidoturris vizcondei sp. nov. (Borsoniidae Bellardi, 1875), from the Mozambique Channel, increases the knowledge of a genus considered endemic to southeastern Africa.

  9. Lorentz Spengler's descriptions of chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaas, P.; Knudsen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper deals with an important Danish paper on the Polyplacophora, published in 1797 by Lorentz Spengler: Udförlig Beskrivelse over det mangeskallede Konkylie-Slaegt, af Linnaeus kaldet Chiton; med endeel nye Arter og Varieteter. -Skrivter af Naturhistorie-Selskabet, 4e Bind, Ie Hefte, VI

  10. Miocene freshwater Mollusca from western Brazilian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Ranzi, A.; Räsänen, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen species of fossil molluscs are reported from the Solimões Formation of western Brazilian Amazonia. Based on mammalian chronology of the Solimões Formation and radiometric ages reported from coeval deposits in adjacent Peru, the age of the fauna is established as Late Miocene. The fauna incl

  11. Ecology of juvenile hawksbills (Eretmochelys imbricata) at Buck Island Reef National Monument, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen M.; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Hillis-Starr, Zandy; Phillips, Brendalee; Mayor, Philippe A.; Roberson, Kimberly; Pemberton, Roy A.; Allen, Jason B.; Lundgren, Ian; Musick, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of juvenile hawksbills around Buck Island Reef National Monument, US Virgin Islands from 1994 to 1999 revealed distributional patterns and resulted in a total of 75 individual hawksbill captures from all years; turtles ranged from 23.2 to 77.7 cm curved carapace length (CCL; mean 42.1 ± 12.3 cm SD). Juveniles concentrated where Zoanthid cover was highest. Length of time between recaptures, or presumed minimum site residency, ranged from 59 to 1,396 days (mean 620.8 ± 402.4 days SD). Growth rates for 23 juveniles ranged from 0.0 to 9.5 cm year−1 (mean 4.1 ± 2.4 cm year−1SD). Annual mean growth rates were non-monotonic, with the largest mean growth rate occurring in the 30–39 cm CCL size class. Gastric lavages indicated that Zoanthids were the primary food source for hawksbills. These results contribute to our understanding of juvenile hawksbill ecology and serve as a baseline for future studies or inventories of hawksbills in the Caribbean.

  12. Genetic structure and natal origins of immature hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata in Brazilian waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira C Proietti

    Full Text Available Understanding the connections between sea turtle populations is fundamental for their effective conservation. Brazil hosts important hawksbill feeding areas, but few studies have focused on how they connect with nesting populations in the Atlantic. Here, we (1 characterized mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes of immature hawksbills feeding along the coast of Brazil (five areas ranging from equatorial to temperate latitudes, 157 skin samples, (2 analyzed genetic structure among Atlantic hawksbill feeding populations, and (3 inferred natal origins of hawksbills in Brazilian waters using genetic, oceanographic, and population size information. We report ten haplotypes for the sampled Brazilian sites, most of which were previously observed at other Atlantic feeding grounds and rookeries. Genetic profiles of Brazilian feeding areas were significantly different from those in other regions (Caribbean and Africa, and a significant structure was observed between Brazilian feeding grounds grouped into areas influenced by the South Equatorial/North Brazil Current and those influenced by the Brazil Current. Our genetic analysis estimates that the studied Brazilian feeding aggregations are mostly composed of animals originating from the domestic rookeries Bahia and Pipa, but some contributions from African and Caribbean rookeries were also observed. Oceanographic data corroborated the local origins, but showed higher connection with West Africa and none with the Caribbean. High correlation was observed between origins estimated through genetics/rookery size and oceanographic/rookery size data, demonstrating that ocean currents and population sizes influence haplotype distribution of Brazil's hawksbill populations. The information presented here highlights the importance of national conservation strategies and international cooperation for the recovery of endangered hawksbill turtle populations.

  13. [Energy metabolism and body mass ratio in bivalves mollusca (Mollusca: Bivalvia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova, I G; Kleĭmenov, S Iu; Radzinskaia, L I

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of experimental and published data, the interspecific and intraspecific (ontogenetic) dependence of energy metabolism on body weight in bivalves was calculated. Changes in the parameters of intraspecific allometric dependence under the effect of environmental factors were analyzed. The rate of comparable standard metabolism (coefficient a at k = 0.76) was shown to vary in different taxonomic and zoogeographic groups of bivalves.

  14. Soluble silk-like organic matrix in the nacreous layer of the bivalve Pinctada maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Mouriès, Lucilia; Almeida, Maria-José; Ribeiro, Cristina; Peduzzi, Jean; Barthélemy, Michel; Milet, Christian; Lopez, Evelyne

    2002-10-01

    Nacre organic matrix has been conventionally classified as both 'water-soluble' and 'water-insoluble', based on its solubility in aqueous solutions after decalcification with acid or EDTA. Some characteristics (aspartic acid-rich, silk-fibroin-like content) were specifically attributed to either one or the other. The comparative study on the technique of extraction (extraction with water alone vs. demineralization with EDTA) presented here, seems to reveal that this generally accepted classification may need to be reconsidered. Actually, the nondecalcified soluble organic matrix, extracted in ultra-pure water, displays many of the characteristics of what until now has been called 'insoluble matrix'. We present the results obtained on this extract and on a conventional EDTA-soluble matrix, with various characterization methods: fractionation by size-exclusion and anion-exchange HPLC, amino acid analysis, glycosaminoglycan and calcium quantification, SDS/PAGE and FTIR spectroscopy. We propose that the model for the interlamellar matrix sheets of nacre given by Nakahara [In: Biomineralization and Biological Metal Accumulation, Westbroek, P. & deJong, E.W., eds, (1983) pp. 225-230. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland] and Weiner and Traub [Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B (1984) 304, 425-434] may no longer be valid. The most recent model, proposed by Levi-Kalisman et al. [J. Struct. Biol. (2001) 135, 8-17], seemed to be more in accordance with our findings.

  15. Characterization of organic matrix components of pearl oyster ,Pinctada fucata and their implications in shell formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mollusks make their shells by biomineralization using Ca2+ and CO32- from natural environment.In molluscan shells,two types of CaCO3 crystal which are aragonite and calcite form the species-dependent microstructures.It is believed that shell organic matrices act for control of the crystal types and microstructures.Shell of Pinetada fucata is divided into aragonitic nacreous layer and calcitic prismtic layer.In the recent years,several novel matrix components have been identified in pearl oyster shells by subsequent solubilization of the insoluble matrix,even in the nacreous layer which abounds in the data.In them,we focused our attention on a component,of which the N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined,and attempted cloning genes encoding it.As a result,several clones with typical sequence for the ORF (open reading frame) region were identified and the amino acid sequences were deduced.Further analysis of northern hybridization clarified the tissue specific expressions of the transcripts of the identified genes.

  16. Cloning and characterization of 37 kDa laminin receptor precursor in pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaopeng Fu; Liping Xie; Rongqing Zhang

    2008-01-01

    A 1063 bp cDNA clone encoding a putative 37 kDa laminin receptor precursor (37 kDa LRP) is isolated from the mantle tissue of pearl oyster, Pinctadafucata. The amino acid sequence predicted from the cDNA sequence is 301 residues long, with a calculated molecular mass of 33.5 kDa. RT-PCR analysis shows that 37 kDa LRP mRNA is especially highly expressed in the mantle while widely expressed in several tissues. In situ hybridization analysis reveals that 37 kDa LRP is expressed in the outer epithelial cells of the mantle edge, suggesting its involvement in cell proliferation and secretion in P. Fucata. The identification and characterization of 37 kDa LRP in the pearl oyster will help us to further understand the signal transduction in the processes of mantle epithelial cell proliferation and tissue formation.

  17. Stable isotopes in bivalves as indicators of nutrient source in coastal waters in the Bocas del Toro Archipelago, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graniero, Lauren E; Grossman, Ethan L; O'Dea, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    To examine N-isotope ratios ((15)N/(14)N) in tissues and shell organic matrix of bivalves as a proxy for natural and anthropogenic nutrient fluxes in coastal environments, Pinctada imbricata, Isognomon alatus, and Brachidontes exustusbivalves were live-collected and analyzed from eight sites in Bocas del Toro, Panama. Sites represent a variety of coastal environments, including more urbanized, uninhabited, riverine, and oceanic sites. Growth under differing environmental conditions is confirmed by δ (18)O values, with open ocean Escudo de Veraguas shells yielding the highest average δ (18)O (-1.0‰) value and freshwater endmember Rio Guarumo the lowest (-1.7‰). At all sites there is no single dominant source of organic matter contributing to bivalve δ (15)N and δ (13)C values. Bivalve δ (15)N and δ (13)C values likely represent a mixture of mangrove and seagrass N and C, although terrestrial sources cannot be ruled out. Despite hydrographic differences between end-members, we see minimal δ (15)N and δ (13)C difference between bivalves from the river-influenced Rio Guarumo site and those from the oceanic Escudo de Veraguas site, with no evidence for N from open-ocean phytoplankton in the latter. Populated sites yield relative (15)N enrichments suggestive of anthropogenic nutrient input, but low δ (15)N values overall make this interpretation equivocal. Lastly, δ (15)N values of tissue and shell organic matrix correlate significantly for pterioideans P. imbricata and I. alatus. Thus for these species, N isotope studies of historical and fossil shells should provide records of ecology of past environments.

  18. Ultrastructural study of the male gamete of Pleurogonius truncatus Prudhoe, 1944 (Platyhelminthes, Digenea, Pronocephalidae) parasite of Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Papa Ibnou; Quilichini, Yann; Sène, Aminata; Tkach, Vasyl V; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Marchand, Bernard

    2012-04-01

    In Pronocephaloidea, the spermatozoa of only two species have been studied today. Because of this, we present in this work data concerning to a third specie, Pleurogonius truncatus Prudhoe, 1944. The mature spermatozoon of P. truncatus possesses two axonemes with the 9+"1" pattern typical of Trepaxonemata, mitochondrion, nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules, spinelike bodies, cytoplasmic expansion and an external ornamentation of the plasma membrane. A particularity of the spermatozoon of P. truncatus is in the ultrastructure of the anterior spermatozoon extremity with only cortical microtubules and ornamentation of the plasma membrane. This type of anterior extremity has never been described until today in Pronocephaloidea. On the other hand, the ultrastructure of the posterior extremity of the spermatozoon confirms that already described in Pronocephalidae.

  19. Specific accumulation of arsenic compounds in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from Ishigaki Island, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Takagi, Kozue [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kubota, Reiji [Division of Environmental Chemistry, National Institute of Health Sciences, Kamiyoga 1-18-1, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Anan, Yasumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Inohana 1-8-1, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2008-05-15

    Concentrations of total arsenic (As) and individual compounds were determined in green and hawksbill turtles from Ishigaki Island, Japan. In both species, total As concentrations were highest in muscle among the tissues. Arsenobetaine was a major compound in most tissues of both turtles. High concentrations of trimethylarsine oxide were detected in hawksbill turtles. A significant negative correlation between standard carapace length (SCL), an indicator of age, and total As levels in green turtles was found. In contrast, the levels increased with SCL of hawksbill turtles. Shifts in feeding habitats with growth may account for such a growth-dependent accumulation of As. Although concentrations of As in marine sponges, the major food of hawksbill turtles are not high compared to those in algae eaten by green turtles, As concentrations in hawksbill turtles were higher than those in green turtles, indicating that hawksbill turtles may have a specific accumulation mechanism for As. - Green turtles and hawksbill turtles have specific accumulation features of arsenic.

  20. Planorbidae, Lymnaeidae and Physidae of Peru (Mollusca: Basommatophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraense W Lobato

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of several trips to Peru I had the opportunity of collecting topotypic specimens of Biomphalaria andecola (Orbigny, 1835, B. helophila (Orbigny, 1835, B. pucaraensis (Preston, 1909, Drepanotrema limayanum (Lesson, 1830, D. kermatoides (Orbigny, 1835, and Lymnaea viatrix Orbigny, 1835, besides B. tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835, Helisoma trivolvis (Say, 1817, H. duryi (Wetherby, 1879, Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1801, and seemingly P. peruviana Gray, 1828. B. pucaraensis is considered a junior synonym of B. peregrina (Orbigny, 1835.

  1. Chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) from Alacranes Reef, Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Gómez, Adriana; Ortigosa, Deneb; Simões, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    This study represents the first comprehensive chiton study from Alacranes Reef, the largest reef system in the Gulf of Mexico. Nine chiton species were found in seven localities within the area, in the intertidal and subtidal to 12 m depth. SEM examination of C. janeirensis, A. hemphilli, T. schrammi and C. floridanus, showed variations in the sculpture and radular teeth morphology when compared to specimens of the same species from Florida Keys, Bahamas and Puerto Rico. The distribution ranges of T. schrammi, L. liozonis and S. floridana are extended into the south-western area of the Gulf of Mexico. Altogether, combining previous literature and the present survey, reports eleven chiton species which have now been recorded within the Alacranes reef area.

  2. Phylogenetics, development, and Cenozoic paleontology of Buccinidae (Mollusca:Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The buccinid gastropods (family Buccinidae) are a species-rich clade of mostly North Pacific taxa with an abundant fossil record that dates to the Cretaceous. Here, the evolution, systematics, and biology of fossil and extant members of this family are treated using a variety of analytical and methodological approaches. In chapter one, a new fossil species of Bruclarkia, an endemic eastern Pacific buccinid from the Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene, is described from the Astoria Formation of the...

  3. Notes on a few Opisthobranch Mollusca from Surinam (Guianas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen-Meyer, J.

    1965-01-01

    The Opisthobranchs dealt with in this paper were entrusted to me by Dr. C. O. van Regteren Altena, Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, and belong to that museum. They are part of a large collection of marine molluscs from Surinam of which Dr. van Regteren Altena intends to publish an annot

  4. New data on southern African Achatinidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1972-01-01

    Increasing knowledge of the genital anatomy of the species of the African land snail family Achatinidae has greatly improved our understanding of the delimitation of the species and the intricate interrelationships of the various taxa (Mead, 1950). The genitalia of many achatinids are still unknown

  5. p63 gene structure in the phylum mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baričević, Ana; Štifanić, Mauro; Hamer, Bojan; Batel, Renato

    2015-08-01

    Roles of p53 family ancestor (p63) in the organisms' response to stressful environmental conditions (mainly pollution) have been studied among molluscs, especially in the genus Mytilus, within the last 15 years. Nevertheless, information about gene structure of this regulatory gene in molluscs is scarce. Here we report the first complete genomic structure of the p53 family orthologue in the mollusc Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and confirm its similarity to vertebrate p63 gene. Our searches within the available molluscan genomes (Aplysia californica, Lottia gigantea, Crassostrea gigas and Biomphalaria glabrata), found only one p53 family member present in a single copy per haploid genome. Comparative analysis of those orthologues, additionally confirmed the conserved p63 gene structure. Conserved p63 gene structure can be a helpful tool to complement or/and revise gene annotations of any future p63 genomic sequence records in molluscs, but also in other animal phyla. Knowledge of the correct gene structure will enable better prediction of possible protein isoforms and their functions. Our analyses also pointed out possible mis-annotations of the p63 gene in sequenced molluscan genomes and stressed the value of manual inspection (based on alignments of cDNA and protein onto the genome sequence) for a reliable and complete gene annotation.

  6. Upper Cambrian chitons (Mollusca, polyplacophora) from Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojeta, J.; Vendrasco, M.J.; Darrough, G.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous new specimens reveal a greater presence of chitons in Upper Cambrian rocks than previously suspected. Evidence is presented showing that the chiton esthete sensory system is present in all chiton species in this study at the very beginning of the known polyplacophoran fossil record. The stratigraphic occurrences and paleobiogeography of Late Cambrian chitons are documented. The 14 previously-named families of Cambrian and Ordovician chitons are reviewed and analyzed. Aulochitonidae n. fam. is defined, based on Aulochiton n. gen.; A. sannerae n. sp. is also defined. The long misunderstood family Preacanthochitonidae and its type genus Preacanthochiton Bergenhayn, 1960, are placed in synonymy with Mattheviidae and Chelodes Davidson & King, 1874, respectively; Eochelodes Marek, 1962, also is placed in synonymy with Chelodes, and Elongata Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, is placed in synonymy with Hemithecella Ulrich & Bridge, 1941. At the species level, H. elongata Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, and Elongata perplexa Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, are placed in synonymy with H. eminensis Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995. The Ordovician species H. abrupta Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, is transferred to the genus Chelodes as C. abrupta (Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995). The Ordovician species Preacanthochiton baueri Hoare & Pojeta, 2006, is transferred to the genus Helminthochiton as H. ? baueri (Hoare & Pojeta, 2006). The Ordovician species H. marginatus Hoare & Pojeta, 2006, is transferred to the genus Litochiton as L. marginatus (Hoare & Pojeta, 2006). Matthevia walcotti Runnegar, Pojeta, Taylor, & Collins, 1979, is treated as a synonym of Hemithecella expansa Ulrich & Bridge, 1941. In addition, other multivalved Cambrian mollusks are discussed; within this group, Dycheiidae n. fam. is defined, as well as Paradycheia dorisae n. gen. and n. sp. Cladistic analysis indicates a close relationship among the genera here assigned to the Mattheviidae, and between Echinochiton Pojeta, Eernisse, Hoare, & Henderson, 2003, and mattheviids. The results suggest treating these taxa as stem-lineage chitons, and do not support the hypothesis that they are aplacophorans.

  7. Two new species of Enidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pupillacea) from Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.

    1986-01-01

    Two new species of Enidae, viz. Zebrina (Ramusculus) mienisi spec. nov. and Turanena tuccari spec. nov., are described from the Turkish provinces of Erzurum and Antalya, respectively. The former species is unknown anatomically and, therefore, its (sub)generic assignment is uncertain. The latter new

  8. Biodiversity and biogeography of Antarctic and sub-Antarctic mollusca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Katrin; Griffiths, Huw J.; Barnes, David K. A.; Clarke, Andrew

    2006-04-01

    For many decades molluscan data have been critical to the establishment of the concept of a global-scale increase in species richness from the poles to the equator. Low polar diversity is key to this latitudinal cline in diversity. Here we investigate richness patterns in the two largest classes of molluscs at both local and regional scales throughout the Southern Ocean. We show that biodiversity is very patchy in the Southern Ocean (at the 1000-km scale) and test the validity of historical biogeographic sub-regions and provinces. We used multivariate analysis of biodiversity patterns at species, genus and family levels to define richness hotspots within the Southern Ocean and transition areas. This process identified the following distinct sub-regions in the Southern Ocean: Antarctic Peninsula, Weddell Sea, East Antarctic—Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctic—Enderby Land, East Antarctic—Wilkes Land, Ross Sea, and the independent Scotia arc and sub Antarctic islands. Patterns of endemism were very different between the bivalves and gastropods. On the basis of distributional ranges and radiation centres of evolutionarily successful families and genera we define three biogeographic provinces in the Southern Ocean: (1) the continental high Antarctic province excluding the Antarctic Peninsula, (2) the Scotia Sea province including the Antarctic Peninsula, and (3) the sub Antarctic province comprising the islands in the vicinity of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

  9. Notes on Cancellaria minima Reeve (Mollusca: Neogastropoda: Cancellariacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhecken, A.

    1984-01-01

    Cancellaria minima Reeve, 1856, is redescribed after three syntypes and 59 shells recently collected near Madeira and off Morocco. The few literature data concerning this poorly known species are summarized. Its range appears to be situated between 27° and 37°N and 5° and 17°W, as far as known mainl

  10. A new dicyemid from octopus hubbsorum (Mollusca: Cephalopoda: Octopoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Castellanos-Martínez, Sheila; Gómez, M. Carmen; Hochberg, F. G.; Gestal, C.; Furuya, Hidetaka

    2011-01-01

    A new species of dicyemid mesozoan is described from Octopus hubbsorum Berry, 1953, collected in the south of Bahia de La Paz, Baja California Sur, Me´xico. Dicyema guaycurense n. sp. is a medium-size species that reaches about 1,600 mm in length. It occurs in folds of the renal appendages. The vermiform stages are characterized as having 22 peripheral cells, a conical calotte, and an axial cell that extends to the base of the propolar cells. Infusoriform embryos consist of 39 cells;...

  11. Host specificity and phylogenetic relationships among Atlantic Ovulidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, B.T.; Hoeksema, B.W.; Gittenberger, E.

    2010-01-01

    Ovulid gastropods and their octocoral hosts were collected along the leeward coast of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. New molecular data of Caribbean and a single Atlantic species were combined with comparable data of Indo-Pacific Ovulidae and a single East-Pacific species from GenBank. Based on two

  12. Host specificity and phylogenetic relationships among Atlantic Ovulidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Ovulid gastropods and their octocoral hosts were collected along the leeward coast of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. New molecular data of Caribbean and a single Atlantic species were combined with comparable data of Indo-Pacific Ovulidae and a single East-Pacific species from GenBank. Based on two DNA markers, viz. CO-I and 16S, the phylogenetic relationships among all ovulid species of which these data are available are reconstructed. The provisional results suggest a dichotomy between the ...

  13. On Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca; Pilidae: Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana C. Thiengo

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morphology of Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822 collected at Corrientes, Argentina. Comparison is made with Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. The shell is globose, heavy, with greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spiral bands; apex subelevated, 5-6 whorls increasing rather rapidly and separated by very deep suture. Aperture large, rounded to subelongated; lip sometimes reddish; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.78-0.96 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.68-0.77 (mean 0.72. Radula similar to other congeneric species. Testis and spermiduct as in P. lineata and P. sordida; prostate cylindric and short, cream in color as the testis. Penial sheath straight bearing a central outer gland deeply embedded in the tissue of its basal portion and a large wrinkled gland occupying 2/3 of the distal tip of its inner surface; the rigth margin of the sheath overlaps the left one until 2/3 of its proximal end. Female reproductive apparatus similar to that P. lineata; vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.

  14. Miscellaneous notes on Southern African Gastropoda Euthyneura (Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1967-01-01

    SUMMARY The following new distribution records of southern African terrestrial molluscs seem to be of particular interest: Pupilla fontana (Krss.), Rachis jejuna (M. & P.), Guppya rumrutiensis (Prest.), Xerocerastus burchelli (Gray) (all four new for Rhodesia), Euonyma damarica Jaeck. (new for Cape

  15. Variation in foraging activity of Acanthochitona garnoti (Mollusca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At all sites, chitons spent a significantly greater (p < 0,00 I; multi factor analysis of ... groups mean groups. Aeolean pi

  16. Imposex in endemic volutid from Northeast Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Braga de Castro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Imposex is characterized by the development of masculine sexual organs in neogastropod females. Almost 120 mollusk species are known to present imposex when exposed to organic tin compounds as tributyltin (TBT and triphenyltin (TPT. These compounds are used as biocide agents in antifouling paints to prevent the incrustations on boats. Five gastropod species are known to present imposex in Brazil: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum and Olivancillaria vesica. This paper reports the first record of imposex observed in the endemic gastropod Voluta ebraea from Pacheco Beach, Northeast Brazil. Animals presenting imposex had regular female reproductive organs (capsule gland, oviduct and sperm-ingesting gland and an abnormal penis. As imposex occurs in mollusks exposed to organotin compounds typically found at harbors, marinas, shipyards and areas with high shipping activities, probably contamination of Pacheco Beach is a consequence of a shipyard activity located in the nearest areas.O imposex caracteriza-se pelo surgimento de estruturas sexuais masculinas, em fêmeas de gastrópodes. Cerca de 120 espécies de moluscos que exibem o fenômeno quando expostas a contaminação por compostos orgânicos de estanho tais como o Tributilestanho (TBT e o Trifenilestanho (TPT. Esses compostos são utilizados, sobretudo em embarcações, no intuito de evitar a bioincrustração que danifica as embarcações e eleva os custos das viagens marítimas. No Brasil se conhecem 5 espécies de moluscos gastrópodes que manifestam imposex, são elas: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum e Olivancillaria vesica. No Nordeste, monitoramentos da contaminação por organoestânicos foram realizados utilizando o imposex em gastrópodes como biomarcador. O presente estudo tem por objetivo notificar a primeira ocorrência de imposex na espécie endêmica do Nordeste brasileiro, Voluta ebraea. De um total de 11 animais observados, duas fêmeas apresentaram imposex, provenientes da Praia do Pacheco no litoral do Ceará. Observou-se nesses indivíduos a presença de glândula de cápsulas, ovidutos e receptáculo seminal concomitantemente ao pênis o que caracteriza o imposex. Como o imposex só se manifesta em moluscos expostos a compostos organoestânicos tipicamente encontrados em portos, marinas, estaleiros e locais com grande fluxo de embarcações atribui-se a origem dessa contaminação provavelmente a um estaleiro localizado nas proximidades da área de coleta.

  17. Planorbidae, Lymnaeidae and Physidae of Ecuador (Mollusca: Basommatophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Lobato Paraense

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In the course of a trip to Ecuador I had the opportunity of collecting topotypic specimens of the following nominal species of pulmonate molluscs: Biomphalaria cousini Paraense, 1966; Planorbis equatorius Cousin, 1887; P. canonicus Cousin, 1887; Lymnaea cousini Jousseaume, 1887 and P. boetzkesi Miller, 1879. Additional findings were: Helisoma trivolvis (Say, 1817, Biomphalaria peregrina (Orbigny 1835, Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835, D. kermatoides (Orbigny, 1835, D. lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839, D. surinamense (Clessin, 1884, Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 and Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1805. P. boetzkesi and P. canonicus are considered junior synonyms of Gyraulus hindsianus (Dunker, 1848 and Biomphalaria peregrina (Orbigny, 1835, respectively.

  18. First molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Polycerinae (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Polyceridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar, Gemma; Pola, Marta; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2014-03-01

    The subfamily Polycerinae includes four genera with around 46 species described to date. This subfamily is characterized by a limaciform body, which may have simple tentacular processes on the margin of the oral veil. Phylogenetic relationships between the genera of the subfamily Polycerinae (Polyceridae) have not yet been studied, and therefore, the only available information is based on morphological descriptions. The present study reports the first phylogenetic analysis of Polycerinae based on the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase subunit I and the large ribosomal subunit (16S rRNA) using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Our results showed that Polycerinae is monophyletic, but the relationships within the subfamily as well as within Polycera remain unresolved. A key finding of this study is that there are clearly two sympatric species of Polycera present in South Africa: Polycera capensis Quoy and Gaimard, 1824 also found in Australia and an undescribed Polycera sp. On the other hand, the studied specimens of the genus Gymnodoris were clustered within Polycerinae, reopening the problem of the systematic position of this genus. Additional genes and species of Polycerinae and Gymnodoris would provide more information and probably fully resolve this situation.

  19. Chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) from Alacranes Reef, Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Gómez, Adriana; Ortigosa, Deneb; Simões, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study represents the first comprehensive chiton study from Alacranes Reef, the largest reef system in the Gulf of Mexico. Nine chiton species were found in seven localities within the area, in the intertidal and subtidal to 12 m depth. SEM examination of C. janeirensis, A. hemphilli, T. schrammi and C. floridanus, showed variations in the sculpture and radular teeth morphology when compared to specimens of the same species from Florida Keys, Bahamas and Puerto Rico. The distribution ranges of T. schrammi, L. liozonis and S. floridana are extended into the south-western area of the Gulf of Mexico. Altogether, combining previous literature and the present survey, reports eleven chiton species which have now been recorded within the Alacranes reef area. PMID:28769624

  20. New records of Protobranchia (Mollusca: Bivalvia in the Peruvian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The following species of Bivalvia have been recorded for the first time for Peruvian waters: Nucula (Nucula iphigenia (Dall, 1908; Ennucula cardara (Dall, 1916; Nuculana (Nuculana extenuata (Dall, 1897; Orthoyoldia panamensis (Dall, 1908. These bivalves were collected in the platform and continental slope down to depths of 864 meters.

  1. Mollusca (terrestrial and marine Gastropods et Bivalvia from Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanas Irikov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen samples with molluscs are collected from various habitats and regions of Morocco, located in the seashore zone, as well as the central and the eastern parts of the country. We recorded 21 terrestrial and 15 marine species of molluscs. New localities and new species for the fauna of Morocco and the African continent are reported for the first time.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835 (Mollusca: Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana K Jannotti-Passos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA of Biomphalaria tenagophila, a mollusc intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil, was sequenced and characterised. The genome size found for B. tenagophila was 13,722 bp and contained 13 messenger RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA and two ribosomal RNAs (rRNA. In addition to sequencing, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genome organization of B. tenagophila was analysed based on its content and localization of both coding and non-coding regions, regions of gene overlap and tRNA nucleotide sequences. Sequences of protein, rRNA 12S and rRNA 16S nucleotides as well as gene organization were compared between B. tenagophila and Biomphalaria glabrata, as the latter is the most important S. mansoni intermediate host in Brazil. Differences between such species were observed regarding rRNA composition. The complete sequence of the B. tenagophila mitochondrial genome was deposited in GenBank (accession EF433576. Furthermore, phylogenetic relationships were estimated among 28 mollusc species, which had their complete mitochondrial genome deposited in GenBank, using the neighbour-joining method, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood bootstrap. B. tenagophila was positioned at a branch close to B. glabrata and Pulmonata molluscs, collectively comprising a paraphyletic group, contrary to Opistobranchia, which was positioned at a single branch and constituted a monophyletic group.

  3. Description of the ootheca of Turbinella laevigata (Mollusca, Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Matthews-Cascon

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Turbinella laevigata is found since the intertidal zone up to 40 m depth, being endemic of Brazil where it occurs from the state of Amapá to the state of Espirito Santo. The objective of this study was to describe the ootheca of this species. Fifteen samples collected in the Olho d'Água Beach, City of Icapuí and Fleixeiras Beach, City of Trairí, both in Ceará State, Northeast Brazil, were studied. The spawns were composed by 15 +/- 1.4 SD capsules and had 63 +/- 6.4 SD mm of length with 41 +/- 2.5 SD mm of width. They had a convex and a concave surface, and plaited edges that drew out until the basal membrane, to which they joined forming a medial ridge. This species apparently produced a high amount of nurse eggs. The early juveniles measured 6.4 +/- 0.7 SD mm of length and they presented a protoconch with three whorls.Turbinella laevigata é encontrada desde a zona entre marés até 40 m de profundidade, sendo endêmica do Brasil onde ocorre desde o Estado do Amapá até o Espírito Santo. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a ooteca de Turbinella laevigata. Quinze amostras foram coletadas na Praia de Olho d'Água, Município de Icapuí e na Praia de Flexeiras, Município do Trairí, ambos no Estado do Ceará, Nordeste do Brasil, foram estudadas. As desovas de T. laevigata foram compostas por 15 +/- 1.4 SD cápsulas e mediram 63 +/- 6.4 SD mm de comprimento e 41 +/- 2.5 SD mm de largura. Todas as cápsulas estavam fixadas pela membrana basal, a qual tinha a extremidade modificada para se prender ao substrato. Elas possuem uma superfície concava e outra convexa, apresentando margens pregueadas, que se prolongavam até a membrana basal, à qual se uniam formando uma prega. Esta espécie aparentemente produz uma grande quantidade de ovos nutritivos. A concha dos juvenis mediu 6.4 +/- 0.7 SD mm de comprimento e apresentou uma protoconcha com 3 voltas.

  4. Protandric hermaphroditism in the bivalve Arca noae (Mollusca: Arcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. BELLO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Following the histological analysis of Arca noae samples from the south-western Adriatic Sea, five hermaphroditic specimens were found out of 168 sexed individuals (3.0%. The hermaphrodite gonads showed the co-occurrence of male and female germ cells within the same acini, i.e. both spermatozoa in the lumen and oogonia lining its wall. Oogonia increased in size through winter, thus suggesting that the direction of sex change is from male to female. Both the biometrical analyses and theoretical considerations strongly suggest that A. noae is an obligate protandric species.

  5. Loss of trematode parthenitae in Planorbella trivolvis (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, B F; Rohr, J R

    2013-08-01

    Infection by trematode parthenitae (larval, asexual trematodes) has severe consequences for molluscan hosts, resulting in cessation of reproduction and early mortality. Here we present evidence that the freshwater snail Planorbella trivolvis can lose infections by trematode parthenitae. Of 8 P. trivolvis infected by reniferin parthenitae, 6 died within 2 wk, whereas the remaining 2 snails lost their infections within 82 days after initial examination. This phenomenon might suggest that molluscs can resist established trematode infections (i.e., "self-cure") or at least out-survive some trematode parthenitae.

  6. Morphological and molecular diversity of Unionidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia from Portugal

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    Reis, J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater mussels from the family Unionidae are known to exhibit a high level of ecological phenotypic plasticity that is reflected in their shell shape. This variation has caused uncertainty on systematics and taxonomy of the group. Several naiad populations from nine river basins from Portugal were analyzed genetically, using two mitochondrial gene fragments (16SrRNA and Cytochrome Oxidase I and morphologically, using ANOVA analyses of shell dimmensions. Molecular phylogenetic analyses were used to revise the systematics and to infer an evolutionary hypothesis for the family at the western-most Atlantic Iberian Peninsula. Genetic and morphological data were in agreement and supported the occurrence of 5 species in the region: Anodonta anatina, Anodonta cygnea, Potomida littoralis, Unio tumidiformis and Unio delphinus. The differentiation of all these species, except A. cygnea, is thought to have taken place during the isolation of the Iberian Peninsula and formation of the current river basins in the Tertiary. The possibility of A. cygnea being a relatively recent introduction is discussed. Basic morphometric measures of the shell proved to be useful to separate Unio species, but also seem to be strongly affected by environmental conditions. The high intra-specific morphologic variation was partially related to the species’ high level of phenotypic plasticity, but seems to have an important role in evolutionary processes.Las náyades de la familia Unionidae tienen gran plasticidad fenotípica, lo que se refleja en la forma de su concha. Esta variabilidad morfológica ha sido causa de gran confusión en la taxonomía y sistemática del grupo. Se han estudiado, genética y morfológicamente, numerosas poblaciones de náyades provenientes de nueve cuencas hidrográficas portuguesas. Para ello se han analizando dos fragmentos de genes mitocondriales (ARNr 16S y Citocromo Oxidasa I así como diferentes variables morfológicas de la concha. Se han realizado además análisis filogenéticos para conocer la sistemática de la familia e inferir una hipótesis evolutiva de su distribución en el oeste de la península Ibérica. Los datos genéticos y morfológicos sugieren la existencia de cinco especies: Anodonta anatina, Anodonta cygnea, Potomida littoralis, Unio tumidiformis y Unio delphinus. La diferenciación de estas especies, con la excepción de A. cygnea, ha ocurrido durante el aislamiento de la península Ibérica y posterior formación de las actuales cuencas hidrográficas en el Terciario. Se discute la posibilidad de que la presencia de A. cygnea se deba a una introducción reciente. Los datos morfométricos analizados pueden ser útiles para separar las especies del género Unio, pero son también dependientes de las condiciones ambientales. La elevada variabilidad morfológica dentro de cada especie está relacionada con su plasticidad fenotípica, pero tiene a su vez un importante papel en el proceso evolutivo.

  7. New records of opisthobranchs from Lakshadweep, India (Mollusca: Heterobranchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Apte

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available All India Coordinated Project on Taxonomy (AICOPTAX, an initiative of Ministry of Environment and Forests allowed the authors to study opisthobranch fauna of the west coast of India. During the present study, nine species of opisthobranchs are reported for the first time from Lakshadweep of which six are new records to India.

  8. Diversity of Indo-West Pacific Siphonaria (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Euthyneura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayrat, Benoît; Goulding, Tricia C; White, Tracy R

    2014-03-14

    Species of the limpet genus Siphonaria (Gastropoda: Euthyneura) are commonly found in the rocky intertidal, worldwide, except in the Arctic. In total, 205 species-group names are available and not permanently invalid. However, estimating the actual species diversity of Siphonaria has remained challenging, mainly because past authors have interpreted differently the variation of shell characters, resulting in different taxonomic accounts. Species diversity of Siphonaria is evaluated for the first time here based on DNA sequence data (three mitochondrial gene fragments: COI, 12S, and 16S) and a large sampling focusing on the tropical and subtropical Indo-West Pacific (from eastern Africa to Hawaii): new sequences are provided for 153 individuals, 123 of which were collected from 93 locations throughout the Indo-West Pacific. In total, 41 species (molecular units) are recognized worldwide (31 from the Indo-West Pacific), all of which are strongly supported. Potential names are discussed for those 41 species, based on traditional taxonomy. The shells of 66 of the individuals from which DNA was extracted are illustrated: intra- and inter-specific variation is documented in detail and discussed in the light of new molecular results. It is shown that many species could hardly be identified based on the shell only, because the variation of shell characters is too high and overlaps between species. Geographically, no species is found across the entire Indo-West Pacific, where quite a few species seem to be endemic to restricted areas. The biogeography of Siphonaria in the Indo-West Pacific is compared to other groups.

  9. Recharacterization of Synapterpes (S. hanleyi (Pfeiffer (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Stylommatophora, Subulinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Campos Salgado

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Synapterpes (S. hanleyi (Pfeiffer, 1846 is characterized by anatomy, synonymy and geographical distribution. Shell and soft parts were studied and important taxonomic characters evaluated and illustrated. These studies give conditions to characterize the species and include it in the genus Synapterpes Pilsbry, 1896 and distinguish S. hanleyi from the other species of Synapterpes s.s. known only by their shells, respectively from Brazil and Colombia: S.(S. coronatus (Pfeiffer, 1846 and S.(S. wallisi (Mousson, 1869.

  10. A new species of Anna (Mollusca: Neogastropoda: Buccinidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Coltro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Anna capixaba, a new species found in depths of 45-60 m off the coast of the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil, is herein described. The new species is mainly characterized by a teleoconch of 4.5 whorls, weakly demarcated from the protoconch; sculptured by rounded, prominent, narrowly-separated, spiral threads; outer lip with 5-6 teeth, posterior tooth stronger; columella with two plicae, smooth.

  11. The Genus Theba (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Helicidae), Systematics and Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.; Ripken, Th. E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Our knowledge concerning taxonomy and zoogeography of the fossil and recent species of the helicid genus Theba is summarized and enlarged. The fossil T. arinagae spec. nov. is described from Gran Canaria. The recent T. andalusica spec. nov. and T. sacchii spec. nov. are described from the southernmo

  12. Recharacterization of Strophocheilus miersi Da Costa (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Strophocheilidae

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    Meire Silva Pena

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Stropocheilus miersi Da Costa, 1904 is recharacterized by the conchology and morphology of the soft parts, the latter for the first time. Palial complex, reproductive and digestive systems provide important characteristics to enrich the knowledge of the genus Strophocheilus Spix, 1827. The presence of four arched folds in the posterior region of the pediose mass and the morphology of the suprapediose gland offered more data to identify and diagnose the species.Strophocheilus miersi Da Costa, 1904 é recaracterizado pela conquiologia e pela primeira vez a morfologia das partes moles. Complexo palial, sistemas reprodutor e digestivo forneceram importantes caracteres para enriquecer o conhecimento sobre Strophocheilus Spix, 1827. A presençca de quatro pregas arqueadas na região posterior da massa cefalopediosa e a morfologia da glândula suprapediosa acrescentaram dados para a diagnose da espécie.

  13. Protandric hermaphroditism in the bivalve Arca noae (Mollusca: Arcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. BELLO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following the histological analysis of Arca noae samples from the south-western Adriatic Sea, five hermaphroditic specimens were found out of 168 sexed individuals (3.0%. The hermaphrodite gonads showed the co-occurrence of male and female germ cells within the same acini, i.e. both spermatozoa in the lumen and oogonia lining its wall. Oogonia increased in size through winter, thus suggesting that the direction of sex change is from male to female. Both the biometrical analyses and theoretical considerations strongly suggest that A. noae is an obligate protandric species.

  14. New Mediterranean Marine biodiversity records (December, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BILECENOGLU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on recent biodiversity studies carried out in different parts of the Mediterranean, the following 19 species are included as new records on the floral or faunal lists of the relevant ecosystems: the green algae Penicillus capitatus (Maltese waters; the nemertean Amphiporus allucens (Iberian Peninsula, Spain; the salp Salpa maxima (Syria; the opistobranchs Felimida britoi and Berghia coerulescens (Aegean Sea, Greece; the dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus (central-west Mediterranean and Ionian Sea, Italy; Randall’s threadfin bream Nemipterus randalli, the broadbanded cardinalfish Apogon fasciatus and the goby Gobius kolombatovici (Aegean Sea, Turkey; the reticulated leatherjack Stephanolepis diaspros and the halacarid Agaue chevreuxi (Sea of Marmara, Turkey; the slimy liagora Ganonema farinosum, the yellowstripe barracuda Sphyraena chrysotaenia, the rayed pearl oyster Pinctada imbricata radiata and the Persian conch Conomurex persicus (south-eastern Crete, Greece; the blenny Microlipophrys dalmatinus and the bastard grunt Pomadasys incisus (Ionian Sea, Italy; the brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey; the blue-crab Callinectes sapidus (Corfu, Ionian Sea, Greece. In addition, the findings of the following rare species improve currently available biogeographical knowledge: the oceanic pufferfish Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Malta; the yellow sea chub Kyphosus incisor (Almuñécar coast of Spain; the basking shark Cetorhinus maximus and the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey.

  15. New Mediterranean Marine biodiversity records (December, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BILECENOGLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on recent biodiversity studies carried out in different parts of the Mediterranean, the following 19 species are included as new records on the floral or faunal lists of the relevant ecosystems: the green algae Penicillus capitatus (Maltese waters; the nemertean Amphiporus allucens (Iberian Peninsula, Spain; the salp Salpa maxima (Syria; the opistobranchs Felimida britoi and Berghia coerulescens (Aegean Sea, Greece; the dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus (central-west Mediterranean and Ionian Sea, Italy; Randall’s threadfin bream Nemipterus randalli, the broadbanded cardinalfish Apogon fasciatus and the goby Gobius kolombatovici (Aegean Sea, Turkey; the reticulated leatherjack Stephanolepis diaspros and the halacarid Agaue chevreuxi (Sea of Marmara, Turkey; the slimy liagora Ganonema farinosum, the yellowstripe barracuda Sphyraena chrysotaenia, the rayed pearl oyster Pinctada imbricata radiata and the Persian conch Conomurex persicus (south-eastern Crete, Greece; the blenny Microlipophrys dalmatinus and the bastard grunt Pomadasys incisus (Ionian Sea, Italy; the brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey; the blue-crab Callinectes sapidus (Corfu, Ionian Sea, Greece. In addition, the findings of the following rare species improve currently available biogeographical knowledge: the oceanic pufferfish Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Malta; the yellow sea chub Kyphosus incisor (Almuñécar coast of Spain; the basking shark Cetorhinus maximus and the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey.

  16. Cambios en el uso de la ostra perlera Pinctada mazatlanica (Bivalvia: Pteriidae) en el Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan Changes in the use of the pearl oyster Pinctada mazatlanica (Bivalvia: Pteriidae) in the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adrián Velázquez; Belem Zúñiga-Arellano; John Joseph Temple Sánchez-Gavito

    2007-01-01

    ...; en las ofrendas enterradas en el Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan se han encontrado alrededor de 600 objetos elaborados con ella, la mayor parte de los cuales proceden de la etapa constructiva IV (1440-1481...

  17. Pf-Rel, a Rel/Nuclear Factor-κB Homolog Identified from the Pearl Oyster, Pinctada fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi WU; Xunhao XIONG; Liping XIE; Rongqing ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Transcription factor Rel/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) has been the focus of many studies since its discovery in 1986. Different homologs of Rel/NF-κB have been found in both vertebrate and invertebrate.A cDNA clone encoding a putative Rel/NF-κB homolog (designated Pf-Rel) was isolated from the pearl oyster, Pinctadafucata. The sequence of Pf-Rel consists of the Rel homology domain, IPT NF-κB domain and C-terminal transactivation domain. Sequence analysis of Pf-Rel shows that it shares high similarity with other Rel/NF-κB family proteins, especially within the conserved domains. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that Pf-Rel mRNA was expressed ubiquitously. Further in situ hybridization analysis showed that Pf-Rel mRNA was expressed mainly at the outer epithelial cells of the middle fold and the inner epithelial cells of the outer fold. The identification and characterization of pearl oyster Pf-Rel help to further investigate the involvement of Rel/NF-κB in oyster immunity and other biological processes.

  18. Identification and Characterization of the Lysine-Rich Matrix Protein Family in Pinctada fucata: Indicative of Roles in Shell Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jian; Xie, Jun; Gao, Jing; Xu, Chao-Qun; Yan, Yi; Jia, Gan-Chu; Xiang, Liang; Xie, Li-Ping; Zhang, Rong-Qing

    2016-12-01

    Mantle can secret matrix proteins playing key roles in regulating the process of shell formation. The genes encoding lysine-rich matrix proteins (KRMPs) are one of the most highly expressed matrix genes in pearl oysters. However, the expression pattern of KRMPs is limited and the functions of them still remain unknown. In this study, we isolated and identified six new members of lysine-rich matrix proteins, rich in lysine, glycine and tyrosine, and all of them are basic matrix proteins. Combined with four members of the KRMPs previously reported, all these proteins can be divided into three subclasses according to the results of phylogenetic analyses: KRMP1-3 belong to subclass KPI, KRMP4-5 belong to KPII, and KRMP6-10 belong to KPIII. Three subcategories of lysine-rich matrix proteins are highly expressed in the D-phase, the larvae and adult mantle. Lysine-rich matrix proteins are involved in the shell repairing process and associated with the formation of the shell and pearl. What's more, they can cause abnormal shell growth after RNA interference. In detail, KPI subgroup was critical for the beginning formation of the prismatic layer; both KPII and KPIII subgroups participated in the formation of prismatic layer and nacreous layer. Compared with different temperatures and salinity stimulation treatments, the influence of changes in pH on KRMPs gene expression was the greatest. Recombinant KRMP7 significantly inhibited CaCO3 precipitation, changed the morphology of calcite, and inhibited the growth of aragonite in vitro. Our results are beneficial to understand the functions of the KRMP genes during shell formation.

  19. Gene : CBRC-TTRU-01-0026 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rix protein [Pinctada fucata] 4e-97 52% MRQCLQRAQCQARRRCSMNASCHGDGECDGECDDGDEEEDTDDDDGEGDDEEDSDDGDDGGDGDDEEDSDDGDDGGDGDDEEDSDD...DDDGEGDDGDDKDSDDDDDDSDGDDEEDSDDDDDDGGDGDDEDSDDDDDDSDGDDEEDSDDDDGDGDDEEEIDDDDDGECDDGDGDDEDSDDDDGDDDGEGDDEDSDD...GDDDGQCDDGDGEGEEEEDSDDGDDGECDDGDSDEEDSDDDEEEDSDDGDDGECDDGDGDEEDSDDDDDGECDDGDGDEEDSDD...DDGDDDGEGDDEEDSDDDDGDDDGEGDEEEDSDDGDDGECDDSDGDEEDSDDDDDGGV ...

  20. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (April 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Α. ΖΕΝΕΤΟΣ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of native and alien species respectively. The new records of native fish species include: the slender sunfish Ranzania laevis and the scalloped ribbonfish Zu cristatus in Calabria; the Azores rockling Gaidropsarus granti in Calabria and Sicily; the agujon needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis in the Northern Aegean; and the amphibious behaviour of Gouania willdenowi in Southern Turkey. As regards molluscs, the interesting findings include Ischnochiton usticensis in Calabria and Thordisa filix in the bay of Piran (Slovenia. The stomatopod Parasquilla ferussaci was collected from Lesvos island (Greece; the isopod Anilocra frontalis was observed parasitizing the alien Pteragogus trispilus in the Rhodes area. The asteroid Tethyaster subinermis and the butterfly ray Gymnura altavela were reported from several localities in the Greek Ionian and Aegean Seas. The new records of alien species include: the antenna codlet Bregmaceros atlanticus in Saronikos Gulf; three  new fish records and two decapods from Egypt; the establishment of the two spot cardinal fish Cheilodipterus novemstriatus and the first record of the Indo-Pacific marble shrimp Saron marmoratus in semi-dark caves along the Lebanese coastline; the finding of Lagocephalus sceleratus, Sargocentron rubrum, Fistularia commersonii and Stephanolepis diaspros around Lipsi island (Aegean Sea, Greece; the decapod Penaeus hathor in Aegean waters; the decapod Penaeus aztecus and the nudibranch Melibe viridis in the Dodecanese islands; the finding of Pinctada imbricata radiata in the Mar Grande of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy and the Maliakos Gulf (Greece.  

  1. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (April 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Α. ΖΕΝΕΤΟΣ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of native and alien species respectively. The new records of native fish species include: the slender sunfish Ranzania laevis and the scalloped ribbonfish Zu cristatus in Calabria; the Azores rockling Gaidropsarus granti in Calabria and Sicily; the agujon needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis in the Northern Aegean; and the amphibious behaviour of Gouania willdenowi in Southern Turkey. As regards molluscs, the interesting findings include Ischnochiton usticensis in Calabria and Thordisa filix in the bay of Piran (Slovenia. The stomatopod Parasquilla ferussaci was collected from Lesvos island (Greece; the isopod Anilocra frontalis was observed parasitizing the alien Pteragogus trispilus in the Rhodes area. The asteroid Tethyaster subinermis and the butterfly ray Gymnura altavela were reported from several localities in the Greek Ionian and Aegean Seas. The new records of alien species include: the antenna codlet Bregmaceros atlanticus in Saronikos Gulf; three  new fish records and two decapods from Egypt; the establishment of the two spot cardinal fish Cheilodipterus novemstriatus and the first record of the Indo-Pacific marble shrimp Saron marmoratus in semi-dark caves along the Lebanese coastline; the finding of Lagocephalus sceleratus, Sargocentron rubrum, Fistularia commersonii and Stephanolepis diaspros around Lipsi island (Aegean Sea, Greece; the decapod Penaeus hathor in Aegean waters; the decapod Penaeus aztecus and the nudibranch Melibe viridis in the Dodecanese islands; the finding of Pinctada imbricata radiata in the Mar Grande of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy and the Maliakos Gulf (Greece.

  2. Characterization of a subtropical hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmocheyles imbricata assemblage utilizing shallow water natural and artificial habitats in the Florida Keys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C Gorham

    Full Text Available In order to provide information to better inform management decisions and direct further research, vessel-based visual transects, snorkel transects, and in-water capture techniques were used to characterize hawksbill sea turtles in the shallow marine habitats of a Marine Protected Area (MPA, the Key West National Wildlife Refuge in the Florida Keys. Hawksbills were found in hardbottom and seagrass dominated habitats throughout the Refuge, and on man-made rubble structures in the Northwest Channel near Cottrell Key. Hawksbills captured (N = 82 were exclusively juveniles and subadults with a straight standard carapace length (SSCL ranging from 21.4 to 69.0cm with a mean of 44.1 cm (SD = 10.8. Somatic growth rates were calculated from 15 recaptured turtles with periods at large ranging from 51 to 1188 days. Mean SSCL growth rate was 7.7 cm/year (SD = 4.6. Juvenile hawksbills (<50 cm SSCL showed a significantly higher growth rate (9.2 cm/year, SD = 4.5, N = 11 than subadult hawksbills (50-70 cm SSCL, 3.6 cm/year, SD = 0.9, N = 4. Analysis of 740 base pair mitochondrial control region sequences from 50 sampled turtles yielded 12 haplotypes. Haplotype frequencies were significantly different compared to four other Caribbean juvenile foraging aggregations, including one off the Atlantic coast of Florida. Many-to-one mixed stock analysis indicated Mexico as the primary source of juveniles in the region and also suggested that the Refuge may serve as important developmental habitat for the Cuban nesting aggregation. Serum testosterone radioimmunoassay results from 33 individuals indicated a female biased sex ratio of 3.3 females: 1 male for hawksbills in the Refuge. This assemblage of hawksbills is near the northern limit of the species range, and is one of only two such assemblages described in the waters of the continental United States. Since this assemblage resides in an MPA with intensive human use, basic information on the assemblage is vital to resource managers charged with conservation and species protection in the MPA.

  3. Characterization of a subtropical hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmocheyles imbricata) assemblage utilizing shallow water natural and artificial habitats in the Florida Keys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham, Jonathan C; Clark, David R; Bresette, Michael J; Bagley, Dean A; Keske, Carrie L; Traxler, Steve L; Witherington, Blair E; Shamblin, Brian M; Nairn, Campbell J

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide information to better inform management decisions and direct further research, vessel-based visual transects, snorkel transects, and in-water capture techniques were used to characterize hawksbill sea turtles in the shallow marine habitats of a Marine Protected Area (MPA), the Key West National Wildlife Refuge in the Florida Keys. Hawksbills were found in hardbottom and seagrass dominated habitats throughout the Refuge, and on man-made rubble structures in the Northwest Channel near Cottrell Key. Hawksbills captured (N = 82) were exclusively juveniles and subadults with a straight standard carapace length (SSCL) ranging from 21.4 to 69.0cm with a mean of 44.1 cm (SD = 10.8). Somatic growth rates were calculated from 15 recaptured turtles with periods at large ranging from 51 to 1188 days. Mean SSCL growth rate was 7.7 cm/year (SD = 4.6). Juvenile hawksbills (turtles yielded 12 haplotypes. Haplotype frequencies were significantly different compared to four other Caribbean juvenile foraging aggregations, including one off the Atlantic coast of Florida. Many-to-one mixed stock analysis indicated Mexico as the primary source of juveniles in the region and also suggested that the Refuge may serve as important developmental habitat for the Cuban nesting aggregation. Serum testosterone radioimmunoassay results from 33 individuals indicated a female biased sex ratio of 3.3 females: 1 male for hawksbills in the Refuge. This assemblage of hawksbills is near the northern limit of the species range, and is one of only two such assemblages described in the waters of the continental United States. Since this assemblage resides in an MPA with intensive human use, basic information on the assemblage is vital to resource managers charged with conservation and species protection in the MPA.

  4. Unravelling the microbiome of eggs of the endangered sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata identifies bacteria with activity against the emerging pathogen Fusarium falciforme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarmiento-Ramírez, J.M.; Voort, van der M.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Diéguez-Uribeondo, J.

    2014-01-01

    Habitat bioaugmentation and introduction of protective microbiota have been proposed as potential conservation strategies to rescue endangered mammals and amphibians from emerging diseases. For both strategies, insight into the microbiomes of the endangered species and their habitats is essential.

  5. Particle-induced X-ray emission analysis of elements in plasma from wild and captive sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata, Chelonia mydas, and Caretta caretta) in Okinawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Noda, Jun; Yanagisawa, Makio; Kawazu, Isao; Sera, Kouichiro; Fukui, Daisuke; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of direct determination of trace and major element concentrations in plasma samples from wild (six hawksbill, nine green, and nine loggerhead) and captive sea turtles (25 howksbill, five green, and three loggerhead) in Okinawa, Japan. The particle induced X-ray emission method allowed detection of 23 trace and major elements (Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, S, Se, Si, Sr, Ti, Y, and Zn). The wild sea turtles were found to have high concentrations of As and Pb in plasma compared with captive, but there were no significant changes in the Al and Hg concentrations. Loggerhead sea turtles were found to have significantly higher accumulation of As and Pb in plasma in comparison to other species. These findings may be useful when adjusting environmental and species-related factors in severely polluted marine ecosystems. Our results indicate that measuring the plasma As and Pb concentrations in wild sea turtles might be of help to assess the level of pollution in marine ecosystems, keeping in mind that loggerhead sea turtles had been shown to have higher levels of As and Pb in plasma.

  6. Comparison of organochlorine pesticides and PCB residues among hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green (Chelonia mydas) turtles in the Yucatan Peninsula and their maternal transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Besné, Gabriela; Valdespino, Carolina; Rendón-von Osten, Jaime

    2015-02-15

    Organochlorine pesticides and PCB (POPs) concentrations were determined in the blood and eggs of green and hawksbill turtles. We compared concentrations between species, analyzed the relationship between turtle size and the POPs concentrations and the relationship between the concentrations in the blood of the nesting turtles and their eggs. We expected higher concentrations in the hawksbill turtle because of its higher trophic level, but concentrations were not higher in all the cases. Significant differences were found in δ-HCH blood concentrations. Lindane, heptachlor epoxide and PCB 101 concentrations were significantly higher in the hawksbill eggs. The relationship between the size of the turtles and the POP concentrations in the eggs of the hawksbills showed a negative correlation. No correlation was found between the size of the female and concentrations in the blood. In eggs, only the hawksbill turtles exhibited negative correlation in the concentration of mirex and PCB 44 and size.

  7. Unravelling the Microbiome of Eggs of the Endangered Sea Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Identifies Bacteria with Activity against the Emerging Pathogen Fusarium falciforme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarmiento-Ramirez, J.M.; van der Voort, M.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Dieguez-Uribeondo, J.

    2014-01-01

    Habitat bioaugmentation and introduction of protective microbiota have been proposed as potential conservation strategies to rescue endangered mammals and amphibians from emerging diseases. For both strategies, insight into the microbiomes of the endangered species and their habitats is essential.

  8. Unravelling the Microbiome of Eggs of the Endangered Sea Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Identifies Bacteria with Activity against the Emerging Pathogen Fusarium falciforme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarmiento-Ramirez, J.M.; van der Voort, M.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Dieguez-Uribeondo, J.

    2014-01-01

    Habitat bioaugmentation and introduction of protective microbiota have been proposed as potential conservation strategies to rescue endangered mammals and amphibians from emerging diseases. For both strategies, insight into the microbiomes of the endangered species and their habitats is essential. H

  9. Unravelling the microbiome of eggs of the endangered sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata identifies bacteria with activity against the emerging pathogen Fusarium falciforme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarmiento-Ramírez, J.M.; Voort, van der M.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Diéguez-Uribeondo, J.

    2014-01-01

    Habitat bioaugmentation and introduction of protective microbiota have been proposed as potential conservation strategies to rescue endangered mammals and amphibians from emerging diseases. For both strategies, insight into the microbiomes of the endangered species and their habitats is essential. H

  10. Two new species of dicyemid (Dicyemida: Dicyemidae) from two Australian cephalopod species: Sepioteuthis australis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) and Sepioloidea lineolata (Mollusca: Cephalopoda: Sepiadariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Sarah R; Furuya, Hidetaka

    2013-04-01

    Two new species of dicyemid parasites from Dicyema are described from 2 species of Australian cephalopods, i.e., Dicyema calamaroceum n. sp. from Sepioteuthis australis Quoy and Gaimard, 1832 (southern calamary) collected from Spencer Gulf (SG) and Gulf St Vincent (GSV), South Australia (SA), Australia, and Dicyema pyjamaceum n. sp. from Sepioloidea lineolata Quoy and Gaimard, 1832 (striped pyjama squid), collected from SG, SA, Australia. Dicyema calamaroceum is a medium sized species that reaches approximately 2,400 μm in length. The vermiform stages are characterized by having 31-34 peripheral cells, a conical calotte, and an axial cell that extends to the propolar cells. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos, and verruciform cells were not observed in nematogens and rhombogens. Infusoriform embryos consist of 39 cells; 2 nuclei are present in each urn cell, and the refringent bodies are solid. Dicyema pyjamaceum is smaller than D. calamaroceum, with a body length that reaches approximately 1,950 μm. The vermiform stages are characterized by having 20-23 peripheral cells, a cap-shaped calotte that forms a cephalic swelling together with the parapolar cells, and an axial cell that extends to the propolar cells. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos. Verruciform cells and granules in propolar cells were observed in nematogens and rhombogens. Infusoriform embryos consist of 37 cells; 2 nuclei are present in each urn cell, and the refringent bodies are solid. This represents the first description of dicyemid parasites from Australia.

  11. Hermaphroditism among dioecious Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786) (Mollusca, Psammobiidae) and Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck, 1818) (Mollusca, Donacidae) on the Cachoeira River estuary, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuta, L O; Boehs, G; Santos, J J B

    2010-02-01

    The samples of Tagelus plebeius and Iphigenia brasiliana were manually collected on the Cachoeira River estuary region (Ilhéus, BA, Brazil) between August 2005 and August 2006, with a periodicity of 15 days, with 20 animals collected/sampled, performing 500 samples from each species. The animals were measured, eviscerated and kept in solution of Davidson and after 24-30 hours, they were transferred to ethanol 70%. The material was processed for routine histology, with paraffin embedding, obtaining 7 microm thick slices, stained with Harris hematoxilin and Eosin (HE). By light microscopy analysis, 2 cases of hermaphroditism (0.4%) in T. plebeius samples and one case (0.2%) in I. brasiliana were registered with predominance of female over male follicles.

  12. Especies nuevas del género Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae de Cuba y Venezuela New species of the genus Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae from Cuba and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Espinosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 3 especies nuevas de moluscos marinos: Gibberula palmasola sp. n., recolectada en la vegetación asociada a rocas rodeadas de sedimentos blandos en una laguna costera cercada por mangle en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba, y caracterizada por presentar, el animal vivo, la cabeza negra y una distribución típica de bandas negras y pardas con lunares anaranjados en el manto bajo la concha; Gibberula dosmosquises sp. n., recolectada en fondos rocosos del Caribe insular de Venezuela, se caracteriza por una discreta coloración del manto y un patrón de manchas en el pie, y Gibberula thetisae sp. n, proveniente de los pastos marinos del golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, con 3 pliegues en la columela, el último muy débil, y un labio externo casi cortante, caracteres que permiten separarla de todas las demás especies conocidas en el área antillana, aunque se desconozca la anatomía del animal. Se discute la lista de especies válidas del género para Cuba y Venezuela, y se hacen adiciones y consideraciones al complejo de especies en torno a Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000.Three new species of marine molluscs are described. Gibberula palmasola new species, collected in vegetation associated with rocks surrounded by soft sediments in a coastal lagoon surrounded by mangroves in Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba, and characterized by a black head and typical distribution of black and brown bands and orange spots in the mantle. Gibberula dosmosquises new species, collected in rocky bottoms of a Caribbean island from Venezuela, characterized by a simple staining in the mantle and a pattern of spots on the foot, and Gibberula thetisae new species, from sea grass in the gulf of Batabano, Cuba, with shell having 3 columellar folds, the last very weak, and a sharp outer lip; although, its anatomy is not known, these conchological characters separate it from all other known species in the Antilles. Aditionally, the list of valid species for Cuba and Venezuela is discussed and some considerations about Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000 species complex are given.

  13. Distribucion arborea de los gastropodos cerithidea montagnei (mollusca potamidae y littorina Spp. (Mollusca, Littorinidae en el manglar de Mata de Limón, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édgar Suarez B

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available En el manglar de Mata de Limón, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, se estudió la distribución y preferencia por el susbtrato arbóreo de gastrópodos C. montagnei y Littorina spp. en cuatro especies de mangle, según la cantidad de moluscos observados en cada árbol y la cantidad de árboles con presencia o ausencia de ellos, en el período de setiembre de 1982 a junio de 1983. El orden de preferencia mostrado por ambos grupos de moluscos fue: 1 Rhizophora mangle, 2 Avicennia germinans, 3Pelliciera rhizophorae y 4 Laguncularia racemosa. Se discuten las posibles razones de esta preferencia. Cerithidea montagnei presentó una mayor distribución horizontal, así como una mayor abundancia respecto de Littorina spp.

  14. Ocorrência do bivalve exótico Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad (Mollusca, Bivalvia, no Brasil Occurrence of exotic bivalve Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad (Mollusca, Bivalvia, in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. B. de Souza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O molusco Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad, 1831, natural da América do Norte, foi localizado no litoral de Pernambuco, Brasil, em 2004, trazido provavelmente por água de lastro de navios. Na região, sua distribuição atualmente abrange zonas estuarinas adjacentes ao Porto do Recife. Os organismos foram encontrados restritos à região entre-marés, formando agregados densos com até 176.800 ind./m².The mussel Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad, 1831 is native to North America. It was found at Pernambuco Coast, northeastern Brazil, in 2004, probably brought by ships' ballast water. The distribution of this species has been now spread to estuarial area near Recife Harbour. They showed a clumped distribution with a maximum of 176,800 ind./m² only in the intertidal zone.

  15. Study on optimum artificial breeding technology of Pinctada margaritifera%珠母贝人工繁育优化技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    劳赞; 黄海立; 符韶; 邓陈茂; 刘志刚

    2009-01-01

    The metamorphosis of settled larvae and survival of young shellfish were investigated after different operations: changing ponds, different kinds of settlement media, light intensive, water current and washing. The results showed that changing ponds increased the metamorphosis of settled larvae and survival of young shellfish with survival density 0.41 shells/cm~2±0.08 shells/cm~2 of 20 d young shellfish when the larvae settlement density was 2.18 shells/cm~2±0.50 shells/cm~2. Metamorphic larvae density on settlement board, chord, net and small stone were 0.70 shells/cm~2±0.08 shells/cm~2, 1.38 shells/cm~2±0.15 shells/cm~2 0.97 shells/cm~2±0.12 shells/cm~2 and 1.04 shells/cm~2±0.28 shells/cm~2, respectively. And the young shellfish survival densities were 0.36 shells/cm~2±0.06 shells/cm~2, 0.62 shells/cm~2±0.07 shells/cm~2, 0.45 shells/cm~2±0.07 shells/cm~2 and 0.60 shells/cm~2±0.08 shells/cm~2. Settlement chord increased signifi-cantly the larval metamorphosis and young shellfish survival. The metamorphic larvae density was 0.87 shells/cm~2 ±0.07 shells/cm~2 and the young shellfish survival density was 0.45 shells/cm~2±0.08 shells/cm~2 when light intensity is 300 Ix to 600 Ix. High light intensity was harmful to larval metamorphosis and young shellfish survival. The larval metamorphic density was 1.08 shells/cm~2±0.07 shells/cm~2 and 20 d young shellfish survival density was 0.87 shells/cm~2±0.07 shells/cm~2. After washing, the larval metamorphic density was 1.64 shells/cm~2±0.19 shells/cm~2 and 20 d young shellfish survival density was 1.00 shells/cm~2±0.12 shells/cm~2. Water current and washing increased significantly the larval metamorphosis and young shellfish survival.%在室内水泥池分别进行了移池培育、不同种类附着器、光照强度、水流和冲洗对珠母贝附着幼虫变态和稚贝存活的研究,结果表明:附着密度为2.18个/cm~2±0.50个/cm~2时,移池培育,其变态幼虫密度为0.95个/cm~2±0.13个/cm~2,20 d稚贝存活密度0.41个/~2±0.08个/cm~2,移池培育显著提高附着幼虫变态和稚贝存活;附着板、附着绳、网片、小石块变态幼虫密度分别为0.70个/cm~2±0.08个/cm~2、1.38个/cm~2±0.15个/cm~2、0.97个/cm~2±0.12个/cm~2、1.04个/cm~2±0.28个/cm~2,稚贝存活密度分别为0.36个/cm~2±0.06个/cm~2、0.62个/cm~2±0.07个/cm~2、0.45个/cm~2±0.07个/cm~2、0.60个/cm~2±0.08个/cm~2,附着绳显著提高附着幼虫变态和稚贝存活;光照强度为300~600 lx时变态幼虫密度为0.87个/cm~2±0.07个/cm~2,20 d稚贝存活密度0.45个/cm~2±0.08个/cm~2,强光不利于幼虫的变态和稚贝存活;水流速为2.3 cm/s时变态幼虫密度为1.08个/cm~2±0.07个/cm~2,20 d稚贝存活密度0.87个/cm~2±0.07个/cm~2,冲洗的变态幼虫密度为1.64个/cm~2±0.19个/cm~2,20 d稚贝存活密度1.00个/cm~2±0.12个/cm~2,水流或冲洗显著提高附着幼虫变态和稚贝存活.

  16. Impact of pCO2 on the energy, reproduction and growth of the shell of the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moullac, G.; Soyez, C.; Vidal-Dupiol, J.; Belliard, C.; Fievet, J.; Sham-Koua, M.; Lo-Yat, A.; Saulnier, D.; Gaertner-Mazouni, N.; Gueguen, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The possible consequences of acidification on pearl farming are disruption of oyster metabolism and change in growth. In the laboratory, we studied the impact of pCO2 (3540, 1338 and 541 μatm) on the physiology of pearl oysters exposed for 100 days. This experiment was repeated after an interval of one year. Several physiological compartments were examined in pearl oysters: the scope for growth by measuring ingestion, assimilation and oxygen consumption, gametogenesis by means of histological observations, shell growth by measurement and observation by optical and electronic microscopy, and at molecular level by measuring the expression of nine genes of mantle cells implied in the biomineralisation process. Results from both experiments showed that high pCO2 had no effect on scope for growth and gametogenesis. High pCO2 (3540 μatm) significantly slowed down the shell deposit rate at the ventral side and SEM observations of the inside of the shell found signs of chemical dissolution. Of the nine examined genes high pCO2significantly decreased the expression level of one gene (Pmarg-PUSP 6). This study showed that shell growth of the pearl oyster would be slowed down without threatening the species since the management of energy and reproduction functions appeared to be preserved. Further investigations should be conducted on the response of offspring to acidification.

  17. Nutrient regeneration in the water column and at the sediment-water interface in pearl oyster culture (Pinctada margaritifera) in a deep atoll lagoon (Ahe, French Polynesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoste, Élise; Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to provide a first estimation of the overall contribution of pearl oyster culture to nutrient regeneration in a deep atoll lagoon. Nutrient release by pearl oyster culture in the water column and nutrient fluxes at the sediment-water interface were compared in two contrasted conditions (i.e. under the influence or not of pearl oyster farming) in the Ahe atoll (French Polynesia). Nitrogen flux intensity was higher in the water column than at the benthic interface. Nitrogen was released at a rate of 31.36 μmol h-1 m-2 in the water column and 12.05 μmol h-1 m-2 at the sediment-water interface. Average phosphorus flux was 2.85 μmol h-1 m-2 at the sediment-water interface and 2.16 μmol h-1 m-2 in the water column. In this deep lagoon, pearl oyster culture exerted more influence in the pelagic compartment than at the benthic interface where flux rate seemed not to be influenced by the presence of pearl oyster culture. These results demonstrate that it is essential to study these two interfaces in concert when assessing the impact of suspended shellfish farming on nutrient dynamics. Overall, the impact of pearl oyster culture may stimulate phytoplankton growth near cultivation areas through the rapid recycling of inorganic nutrients.

  18. Cloning and Expression of TOR Gene from Pinctada martensii%马氏珠母贝TOR基因cDNA的克隆与组织表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田群莉; 邓岳文; 杜晓东; 焦钰; 黄荣莲; 王庆恒

    2014-01-01

    TOR (target of rapamycin)是一类进化上非常保守的蛋白激酶,参与调节多种生化代谢,协调蛋白质的生物合成和降解.本研究采用cDNA末端快速扩增技术(RACE),克隆获得了马氏珠母贝TOR基因cDNA全长序列(pm-TOR);同时利用荧光定量技术检测了pm-TOR基因mRNA在马氏珠母贝各个组织中的表达含量.结果表明:pm-TOR基因cDNA序列全长9 220 bp,开放阅读框(ORF)长7 488 bp,编码2 495个氨基酸,5'非翻译区(5' UTR)长157 bp,3'UTR长1 575 bp.氨基酸序列同源比对分析显示pm-TOR氨基酸序列与其他物种具有较高的保守性,与牡蛎(Crassostrea gigas)的TOR的序列相似度为79%.荧光定量PCR数据分析显示,TOR基因的mRNA在马氏珠母贝血液、性腺、肝胰脏、外套膜、闭壳肌和鳃组织中均有表达,其中肝胰脏和性腺中表达量较高,血液中表达量较低.本研究为进一步阐述TOR在马氏珠母贝中生长和发育调控中的作用提供理论基础.

  19. Molecular Data for the Sea Turtle Population in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibelle Torres Vilaça

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here a dataset comprising nine nuclear markers for the Brazilian population of Cheloniidae turtles: hawksbills (Eretmochelys imbricata, loggerheads (Caretta caretta, olive ridleys (Lepidochelys olivacea, and green turtles (Chelonia mydas. Because hybridization is a common phenomenon between the four Cheloniidae species nesting on the Brazilian coast, we also report molecular markers for the hybrids E. imbricata × C. caretta, C. caretta × L. olivacea, and E. imbricata × L. olivacea and for one hybrid E. imbricata × C. mydas and one between three species C. mydas × E. imbricata × C. caretta. The data was used in previous studies concerning (1 the description of frequent hybrids C. caretta × E. imbricata in Brazil, (2 the report of introgression in some of these hybrids, and (3 population genetics. As a next step for the study of these hybrids and their evolution, genome-wide studies will be performed in the Brazilian population of E. imbricata, C. caretta, and their hybrids.

  20. Relationship between bioenergetics responses and organic pollutants in the giant mussel, Choromytilus chorus (Mollusca: Mytilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Beatriz; Navarro, Jorge M; Palma-Fleming, Hernán

    2003-05-08

    Samples of Choromytilus chorus (giant mussel) were collected at three sampling stations exposed to different degrees of pollution along the south-central portion of the Chilean coast in spring 1998 and summer 1999. Measurements were carried out on clearance rate, absorption efficiency, and oxygen consumption of the mussels under controlled laboratory conditions, and related to analytical data on organic pollutants in their tissues. Scope for growth (SFG) was employed as a physiological index to evaluate stress produced by pollutants existing at each sampling site. Individuals from San Vicente bay (highly polluted) showed negative SFG values in spring (-4.6 J/h per g) and summer (-3.5 J/h per g). These results indicated severe stress related to the accumulation of toxic compounds in their tissues. Specimens from Corral bay (medium level of pollution) gave a SFG of 15.5 J/h per g in spring and 6.5 J/h per g in summer, while those from Yaldad bay (low pollution) presented an inverse situation was observed with SFG values of 6.2 J/h per g in spring which was lower than the summer value of 25.7 J/h per g. There was a significant negative correlation between the SFG of the different populations of C. chorus and the concentrations of organochlorines (OChs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in their tissues.

  1. Neuromuscular development of Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristof, Alen; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Studies on the development of the nervous system and the musculature of invertebrates have become more sophisticated and numerous within the last decade and have proven to provide new insights into the evolutionary history of organisms. In order to provide new morphogenetic ...

  2. Invertebrate shells (mollusca, foraminifera) as pollution indicators, Red Sea Coast, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed; Madkour, Hashem; Mansour, Abbas; Alharbi, Wedad; El-Taher, Atef

    2017-09-01

    To assess the degree of pollution and its impact on the environment along the Red Sea Coast, the most abundant nine species of recent benthic foraminifera and three species of molluscan shells have been selected for the analysis of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Co, and Cd concentrations. The selected foraminiferal species are: Textularia agglutinans, Amphispsorus hemprichii, Sorites marginalis, Peneroplis planatus, Borelis schlumbergeri, Amphistegina lessonii, Ammonia beccarii, Operculina gaimairdi, and Operculinella cumingii. The selected molluscan shells are: Lambis truncata and Strombus tricornis (gastropods) and Tridacana gigas (bivalves). The inorganic material analysis of foraminifera and molluscs from the Quseir and Safaga harbors indicates that foraminifera tests include higher concentrations of heavy metals such as Fe and Mn than molluscan shells. These results are supported by the black tests of porcelaneous foraminifera and reflect iron selectivity. The Cd and Pb concentrations in molluscan shells are high in the El Esh Area because of oil pollution at this site. The Cu, Zn, and Ni concentrations in the studied invertebrates are high at Quseir Harbor and in the El Esh Area because of the strong influence of terrigenous materials that are rich in these metals. The heavy metal contamination is mostly attributed to anthropogenic sources.

  3. Alien Planorbid (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata) from South West Africa erroneously recorded as Biomphalaria Pfeifferi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1974-01-01

    In 1970 I published a record of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848) (fam. Planorbidae) for South West Africa: "Sandamap Farm, Spitzkoppe" (Van Bruggen, 1970: 45, figs. 1-13). Dr. D. S. Brown of the Medical Research Council (London) kindly drew my attention to the fact that jud

  4. Nanostructure and crystallography of aberrant columnar vaterite in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Max; Harrison, Richard J; Harper, Elizabeth M

    2012-04-01

    Both the crystallographic and nanostructural organisation of aberrant columnar vaterite occurring in Corbicula fluminea were characterised in detail for the first time using electron microscopic and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. At the millimetre scale, only a confinement of the otherwise randomly oriented c-axis to the growth surface is observed. Domains of 100 or more individual vaterite columns with common c-axis orientation exist within this disordered material. Each column behaves as a single crystal on the scale of EBSD measurements, but is internally composed of smaller irregularly shaped and slightly misaligned crystalline units (0.3-1.3μm in dimension). These are in turn partitioned by porous boundaries into rounded nanodomains, up to 600nm in size. The geometry of the nanodomains and their respective boundaries might suggest formation by the accretion of vesicles. In addition to crystallographic textures, this observation indicates formation under significant biological control with wider implications for possible causes of the condition.

  5. The genus Alvania on the Canary Islands and Madeira (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Hoenselaar, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Micromolluscs of the family Rissoidae and belonging to the genus Alvania s.l. from the Canary Islands and the Madeira archipelago are revised. For several species the type locality is restricted and lectotypes are designated for Rissoa canadensis d’Orbigny, 1839, R. euchila Watson, 1886, R.

  6. The genus Alvania on the Canary islands and Madeira (Mollusca: Gastropoda), part 2 [final part

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Hoenselaar, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Five Alvania species from the Canary Islands and the Madeira Archipelago are revised. A new species to science, A. johannae is described and for three species lectotypes are designated. Altogether 13 littoral alvaniids are presently known from this area. Doubtful records are enumerated and a list of

  7. Sea Hare Aplysia punctata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Can Maintain Shell Calcification under Extreme Ocean Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Nicholas; Dupont, Sam; Sigwart, Julia D

    2016-10-01

    Ocean acidification is expected to cause energetic constraints upon marine calcifying organisms such as molluscs and echinoderms, because of the increased costs of building or maintaining shell material in lower pH. We examined metabolic rate, shell morphometry, and calcification in the sea hare Aplysia punctata under short-term exposure (19 days) to an extreme ocean acidification scenario (pH 7.3, ∼2800 μatm pCO2), along with a group held in control conditions (pH 8.1, ∼344 μatm pCO2). This gastropod and its congeners are broadly distributed and locally abundant grazers, and have an internal shell that protects the internal organs. Specimens were examined for metabolic rate via closed-chamber respirometry, followed by removal and examination of the shell under confocal microscopy. Staining using calcein determined the amount of new calcification that occurred over 6 days at the end of the acclimation period. The width of new, pre-calcified shell on the distal shell margin was also quantified as a proxy for overall shell growth. Aplysia punctata showed a 30% reduction in metabolic rate under low pH, but calcification was not affected. This species is apparently able to maintain calcification rate even under extreme low pH, and even when under the energetic constraints of lower metabolism. This finding adds to the evidence that calcification is a largely autonomous process of crystallization that occurs as long as suitable haeomocoel conditions are preserved. There was, however, evidence that the accretion of new, noncalcified shell material may have been reduced, which would lead to overall reduced shell growth under longer-term exposures to low pH independent of calcification. Our findings highlight that the chief impact of ocean acidification upon the ability of marine invertebrates to maintain their shell under low pH may be energetic constraints that hinder growth of supporting structure, rather than maintenance of calcification.

  8. Systematic reviews on the Mesodesmatidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) I. The Genus Monterosatus Beu, 1971

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij-Schuiling, de L.A.

    1977-01-01

    In trying to identify a small Mesodesma from West Irian, New Guinea, much material in the collections of several museums was studied. As a guide for the identification I at first used the revision of the Mesodesmatidae by Lamy (1914), which is based exclusively on the collections of the Parisian

  9. The shallow-water chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of Caldera, Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Araya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Molluscan species of the northern littoral of Chile have been sparsely studied. This work reviews for the first time the diversity of polyplacophoran molluscs around the port of Caldera, in the Region of Atacama (26°45’49”S; 70°45’17”W to 27°20’23”S; 70°56’46”W, northern Chile. Eleven species were found in this study: Acanthopleura echinata (Barnes, 1824; Callistochiton pulchellus (Gray, 1828; Calloplax vivipara (Plate, 1899, Chaetopleura peruviana (Lamarck, 1819; Chiton cumingsii Frembly, 1827; Chiton granosus Frembly, 1827; Chiton magnificus Deshayes, 1827; Enoplochiton niger (Barnes, 1824, Radsia barnesii (Gray, 1828, Tonicia atrata (G. B. Sowerby II, 1840 and Tonicia chilensis (Frembly, 1827. All of the species occurring in the area have distributions in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, from Ecuador to central Chile, and three of them are species endemic to the Chilean coasts (Calloplax vivipara, Radsia barnesii, and Tonicia atrata. This diversity of species is comparable to that of better surveyed faunas of central and southern Chile or Patagonia. Of the eleven species recorded, the geographic distribution records for Callistochiton pulchellus, Radsia barnesii and Tonicia atrata are extended, and Calloplax vivipara is found alive again after 40 years, filling a gap in its known distribution. Illustrations of living specimens in their habitat, distribution records and a taxonomic key for all the studied taxa are also provided.

  10. Results of the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon . Part 10. Mollusca, Gastropoda, Naticidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabat, A.R.

    2000-01-01

    The 1990 Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon (Indonesia) made 44 collecting stations. Twenty-seven species representing 11 genera of the Naticidae (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda) were collected at 29 stations. This paper provides keys to the genera and species, along with diagnoses and short sy

  11. A new species of hydrobiid snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Hydrobiidae from central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canella Radea

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new minute valvatiform species belonging to the genus Daphniola Radoman 1973, Daphniola eptalophos sp. n., from mountain Parnassos, Greece is described. The new species has a transparent valvatiform-planispiral shell, wide and open umbilicus, grey-black pigmented soft body and head and a black penis with a small colorless outgrowth on the left side near its base. A comparative table of shell dimensions and a key to the species known for this endemic genus for Greece are provided.

  12. Vitrinellidae (Marine Mollusca Gastropoda) from Holocene deposits in Surinam (Dutch Guiana)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1966-01-01

    Five species of Vitrinellidae have been found in the Holocene shell ridges of Surinam. Of these, Vitrinella (Striovitrinella) cupidinensis,Cochliolepis surinamensis, and Solariorbis guianensis are new species, while Cyclostremiscus caraboboensis Weisbord is known from Pliocene beds in Venezuela and

  13. The Marine Mollusca of St. Martin, Lesser Antilles, collected by H.J. Krebs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, H.E.

    1963-01-01

    In 1864 an anonymous list of species of the West Indian marine mollusks was published in Denmark. There were only twenty copies printed, seven of which were lost during transportation to the West Indies (CLENCH et al., 1947—1948, p. 23). The author was HENDRIK JOHANNES KREBS (1821—1907), Fig. 117, a

  14. Nonhemocyte sources of selected lysosomal enzymes in Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea (Mollusca: Pulmonata

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    Gary E. Rodrick

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, β-glucuronidase, lysozymes, glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminate were determined in the head-foot and digestive gland of Brazilian Biomphalaria glabrata (Touros, B. tenagophila (Caçapava and B. straminea (Monsenhor Gil. All six enzymes were detected inthe 3000g supernatant. Both cytoplasmic enzymes, glutamate-oxalacetate and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase exhibited the highest specific activities. In the case of the four hydrolytic enzymes assayed, β-glucuronidase exhibited the highest specific activity while lysozyme showed the lowest activity. All six enzymes are thought to be produced by cells within the head-foot and digestive gland of B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea.Foram determinadas, na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva de Biomphalaria glabrata de Touros (Rio Grande do Norte B. tenagophila de Cacapava (Sao Paulo e B. straminea de Monsenhor Gil (Piauí, as atividades específicas das seguintes enzimas: fosfatase acida, fosfatase alcalina, beta-glucuronidase, lisozima, transaminase glutâmico-oxalacetica e transaminase glutâmico-piruvica. As seis enzimas referidas foram detectadas no sobrenadante a 3000g. Ambas as enzimas citoplasmaticas - transaminases glutamico-oxalacetica e glutamico-piruvica - mostraram as atividades específicas mais altas. No caso das quatro enzimas hidrolíticas, a beta-glucuronidase revelou a mais alta atividade específica, enquanto a lisozima revelou a mais baixa. E admitido que todas as seis enzimas sao produzidas por celulas presentes na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva das tres especies de moluscos examinadas.

  15. Effects of salinity on biomarker responses in Crassostrea rhizophorae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) exposed to diesel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Angela Zaccaron; Zanette, Juliano; Fernando Ferreira, Jaime; Guzenski, João; Marques, Maria Risoleta Freire; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias

    2005-11-01

    Crassostrea rhizophorae is a euryhaline oyster that inhabits mangrove areas, which are widely distributed along the Brazilian coast. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of salinity (9, 15, 25, and 35ppt) on the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), catalase (CAT), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the digestive gland of this species after exposure to diesel oil for 7 days at nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, and 1mlL(-1) and after depuration for 24h and 7 days. GST activity increased in a diesel oil concentration-dependent manner at salinities 25 and 15ppt and remained slightly elevated even after depuration periods of 24h and 7 days. No changes were observed in the activities of G6PDH, CAT, and AChE in the oysters exposed to diesel and depurated. Based on these results, GST activity in the digestive gland of C. rhizophorae might be used as a biomarker of exposure to diesel oil in sites where the salinity is between 15 and 25ppt, values usually observed in mangrove ecosystems.

  16. A molecular method to detect and identify the native species of southwestern Atlantic Crassostrea (Mollusca: Ostreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ludwig

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Among oysters, species of Crassostrea (Sacco, 1897 are the most attractive to aquaculture. In Brazil, the genus is represented by C. rhizophorae (Guilding, 1828 and C. brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819. Because the maturation and breeding technology is not well developed for these species, aquaculturists need a reliable method to decide the correct time to place spat collectors in the field, and to identify both species, which are morphologically similar. In this study a specific Multiplex PCR protocol was developed, using one pair of universal primers from 18S rDNA as a positive control and a pair of specific primers for each target species. The sensitivity and specificity of the protocol was evaluated. It detected C. rhizophorae DNA in low concentrations, and C. brasiliana DNA in even lower concentrations. Further, the Multiplex PCR proved efficient in detecting DNA in concentrations equivalent to that of a single larva of each species, either separated or combined, when mixed with total DNA extract of a plankton sample representing 1000 L of filtered water. Field tests confirmed the applicability of the protocol, which holds the promise to become an important tool for aquaculture or conservation programs, allowing for the continuous monitoring of the life cycle of C. brasiliana and C. rhizophorae, by detecting the right periods of larval release and settlement.

  17. The sensorial structures of Spondylus americanus Hermann,1781 (Mollusca: Bivalvia, Spondylidae

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    Marina Gomes Viana

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Adult animals of Spondylus americanus were analyzed and specialized sensorial structures, the sensorial papillae and the eyes, were characterized. The sensorial papillae were projections on the edge of the mantle in form of light brown fingers which had function of percepting stimulus coming from the medium. They were constituted by loose conjunctive tissues with longitudinal muscular fibers and externally covered by ciliated cubic epithelium, which presented high amount of melanocytes that gave the coloration of the papillae. The eyes were more complex, being on small stalks histologically similar to the papillae. They exhibited a circular formate and had a metallic blue color. Theses structures were constituted by a corneo epithelium, cornea, lens, retina, basal stalk, periocular band and optical nerve. The eyes were distributed asymmetrically to both valves related with the sedentarism of the species. Right valve presented a smaller number of eyes when compared to left one.Foram examinados exemplares adultos de Spondylus. americanus Hermann, 1781 e estruturas especializadas na percepção de estímulos foram caracterizadas: as papilas sensoriais e os ocelos. As papilas sensoriais são projeções do bordo manto em forma de dedos de cor castanha e com a função de perceber estímulos vindo do meio, são constituídas por tecido conjuntivo frouxo contendo fibras musculares longitudinais e revestidas externamente por epitélio cúbico ciliado, o qual apresenta grande quantidade de melanócitos, que dão a coloração das papilas. Os ocelos são mais complexos, estando sobre pequenos pedúnculos histologicamente semelhante às papilas, têm formato circular e possui cor azul metálica. Constituí-se por um epitélio córneo, córnea, lente, retina, pedúnculo basal, banda periocular e nervo óptico. Os ocelos distribuem-se assimetricamente por ambas as valvas, o que está relacionado com o sedentarismo da espécie. A valva direita apresenta menor número de ocelos quando comparada a esquerda.

  18. Biological aspects of Omalonyx convexus (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae from the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Janine Oliveira Arruda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Omalonyx convexus (Heynemann, 1868 is widely spread throughout the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The studied specimens presented in vivo, tegument and mantle coloring in variations between milky-white, orange and beige. The shell presented itself covered by the mantle in different extents; however, it was not completely covered on any of the specimens. The feeding diet is basically constituted by vegetal tissues, although non-vegetal food items were also found. The specimens were found in preserved and in polluted fresh water environments, as well as on natural and artificial substrates. The temperature throughout the day influences their placement on habitat substrates.

  19. Caracoles terrestres (Mollusca: Gastropoda) de Iturbide, Nuevo León, México

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Sandoval, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Catorce especies de caracoles terrestres son informadas del municipio de Iturbide, Nuevo León, México. El tipo de vegetación más rico en moluscos (11 especies) es el bosque de galería de Populus-Quercus-Juglans, con cobertura vegetal total y escasa pendiente. La distribución panamericana es el principal componente zoogeográfico Fourteen species of land snails are reported from the municipality of Iturbide, Nuevo León, México. The vegetation type with more species ( 1 1) is the Populus-Quer...

  20. The cytoskeleton of chondrocytes of Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda: an immunocytochemical study

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    F Leone

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Our previous electron microscope study showed that chondrocytes from cephalopod cartilage possess a highly developed cytoskeleton and numerous cytoplasmic processes that ramify extensively through the tissue. We have now carried out a light microscope immunocytochemical study of chondrocytes from the orbital cartilage of Sepia officinalis to obtain indications as to the nature of the cytoskeletal components. We found clear positivity to antibodies against mammalian tubulin, vimentin, GFAP, and actin, but not keratin. The simultaneous presence of several cytoskeletal components is consistent with the hypothesis that cephalopod chondrocytes have the characteristics of both chondrocytes and osteocytes of vertebrates, which endow the tissue as a whole with some of the properties of vertebrate bone. We confirm, therefore, the presence in molluscs of the ubiquitous cytoskeletal proteins of metazoan cells that have remained highly conserved throughout phylogenetic evolution.

  1. orthodenticle/otx ortholog expression in the anterior brain and eyes of Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buresi, Auxane; Baratte, Sébastien; Da Silva, Corinne; Bonnaud, Laure

    2012-01-01

    The origin of cerebral structures is a major issue in both developmental and evolutionary biology. Among Lophotrochozoans, cephalopods present both a derived nervous system and an original body plan, therefore they constitute a key model to study the evolution of nervous system and molecular processes that control the neural organization. We characterized a partial sequence of an ortholog of otx2 in Sepia officinalis embryos, a gene specific to the anterior nervous system and eye development. By in situ hybridization, we assessed the expression pattern of otx2 during S. officinalis organogenesis and we showed that otx is expressed (1) in the eyes, from early to late developmental stages as observed in other species (2) in the nervous system during late developmental stages. The otx ortholog does not appear to be required for the precocious emergence of the nervous ganglia in cephalopods and is later expressed only in the most anterior ganglia of the future brain. Finally, otx expression becomes restricted to localized part of the brain, where it could be involved in the functional specification of the central nervous system of S. officinalis. These results suggest a conserved involvement of otx in eye maturation and development of the anterior neural structures in S. officinalis.

  2. ESTs library from embryonic stages reveals tubulin and reflectin diversity in Sepia officinalis (Mollusca — Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassaglia, Yann; Bekel, Thomas; Da Silva, Corinne; Poulain, Julie; Andouche, Aude; Navet, Sandra; Bonnaud, Laure

    2012-05-01

    New molecular resources regarding the so-called “non-standard models” in biology extend the present knowledge and are essential for molecular evolution and diversity studies (especially during the development) and evolutionary inferences about these zoological groups, or more practically for their fruitful management. Sepia officinalis, an economically important cephalopod species, is emerging as a new lophotrochozoan developmental model. We developed a large set of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from embryonic stages of S. officinalis, yielding 19,780 non-redundant sequences (NRS). Around 75% of these sequences have no homologs in existing available databases. This set is the first developmental ESTs library in cephalopods. By exploring these NRS for tubulin, a generic protein family, and reflectin, a cephalopod specific protein family,we point out for both families a striking molecular diversity in S. officinalis.

  3. Caracterização da microbiota bacteriana de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)(Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Tatiana Maria da

    2012-01-01

    Devido a grande importância da microbiota no desenvolvimento de parasitas nos invertebrados, muitos estudos vêm sendo desenvolvidos para o melhor entendimento desta interação. Desta forma, a associação entre microrganismos e seus hospedeiros invertebrados, vetores de doenças, está se tornando cada vez mais evidente. Com base nisto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar a microbiota bacteriana de caramujos da espécie Biomphalaria glabrata, principal hospedeiro interm...

  4. Severnsia strombeulima n. gen. & sp. from Hawaii (Mollusca, Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda: Eulimidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Daniel L

    2016-02-29

    The malacofauna of Hawaii is rather well-known, owing to Kay (1979) and Severns (2011). Both works stand out because they include a large number of the generally under-represented micromollusks (<5 mm). Here a striking new genus and species of a microsnail is reported from that region.

  5. A contribution to the knowledge of non-marine Mollusca of South West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1970-01-01

    The moment to collate scattered notes on South West African non-marine molluscs arrived last year when Mr. B. H. Lamoral of the Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg (South Africa), entrusted the present author with the study of material obtained during a Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (C.S.

  6. Comparative morphology among representatives of main taxa of Scaphopoda and basal protobranch Bivalvia (Mollusca

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    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with detailed morphology and anatomy of 4 species of Scaphopoda and 5 species of protobranch Bivalvia. Both classes are traditionally grouped in the taxon Diasoma, which has been questioned by different methodologies, such as molecular and developmental. This study is developed under a phylogenetic methodology with the main concern in performing it in an intelligible and testable methodology. The analyzed Scaphopoda species came from the Brazilian coast and belong to the family Dentaliidae [(1 Coccodentalium carduus; (2 Paradentalium disparile] and Gadiliidae; [(3 Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago; (4 Gadila braziliensis]. These species represent the main branches of the class Scaphopoda. From protobranch bivalves, representatives of the families Solemyidae [(5 Solemya occidentalis, from Florida; S. notialis, n. sp. from S.E. Brazil], Nuculanidae [(6 Propeleda carpentieri from Florida], and Nuculidae [(7 Ennucula puelcha, from south Brazil] are included. These species represent the main branches of the basal Bivalvia. The descriptions on the anatomy of S. occidentalis and of P. carpentieri are published elsewhere. The remaining are included here, for which a complete taxonomical treatment is performed. Beyond these species, representatives of other taxa are operationally included as part of the ingroup (indices are then shared with them, as a procedure to test the morphological monophyly of Diasoma. These taxa are: two lamellibranch bivalves [(8 Barbatia - Arcidae; (9 Serratina - Tellinidae; both published elsewhere;, and Propilidium (10 Patellogastropoda, and (11 Nautilus, basal Cephalopoda, based on basal taxa. The effective outgroups are (12 Neopilina (Monoplacophora and (13 Hanleya (Polyplacophora. The phylogenetic analysis based on morphology revealed that the taxon Diasoma is supported by 14 synapomorphies, and is separated from Cyrtosoma (Gastropoda + Cephalopoda. Although they are not the main goal of this paper, the taxa Scaphopoda and Bivalvia are supported by 8 and by 7 synapomorphies respectively. The taxon Protobranchia resulted paraphyletic. Both scaphopod orders resulted monophyletic. The obtained cladogram is: ((((Coccodentalium carduus - Paradentalium disparile (Polyschides noronhensis - Gadila brasiliensis ((Solemya occidentalis - S. notialis (Propeleda carpenteri (Ennucula puelcha (Barbatia cancellaria - Serratina capsoides (Propilidium curumim - Nautilus pompilius - Lolliguncula brevis.Este estudo analisa a morfologia e anatomia detalhadas de 4 espécies de Scaphopoda e 5 espécies de bivalves protobrânquios. Ambas as classes são tradicionalmente agrupadas no táxon Diasoma, o qual vem sendo questionado por diferentes metodologias, tais como molecular e de desenvolvimento. Este estudo é desenvolvido sob uma metodologia filogenética, a qual a maior preocupação é fornecer um procedimento inteligível e testável. As espécies de Scaphopoda analisadas provieram da costa brasileira e pertencem à família Dentaliidae [(1 Coccodentalium carduus; (2 Paradentalium disparile] e Gadilidae [(3 Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha; (4 Gadila braziliensis]. Estas espécies representam os ramos principais da classe Scaphopoda. Dos bivalves protobrânquios, representantes das famílias Solemyidae [(5 Solemya occidentalis, da Flórida; S. notialis, n. sp. do S.E. Brasil], Nuculanidae [(6 Propeleda carpentieri, da Flórida] e Nuculidae [(7 Ennucula puelcha, do sul do Brasil] são incluídos. Estas espécies representam os principais ramos dos bivalves basais. As descrições anatômicas de S. occidentalis e de P. carpentieri estão sendo publicadas em outro artigo, as das demais espécies estão incluídas neste, o qual também inclui um completo tratamento taxonômico. Além dessas espécies, representantes de outros táxons são operacionalmente incluídos como parte do ingroup (então os índices são compartilhados com eles, um procedimento visando testar a monofilia morfológica de Diasoma. Esses táxons são 2 bivalves lamelibrânquios [(8 Barbatia - Arcidae; (9 Serratina - Tellinidae; ambos publicados em artigos a parte]; Propilidium (10 Patellogastropoda e (11 Nautilus, Cephalopoda basal, baseados em táxons basais. Os outgroups efetivos são (12 Neopilina (Monoplacophora e (13 Hanleya (Polyplacophora. A análise filogenética baseada na morfologia revelou que o táxon Diasoma é suportado por 14 sinapomorfias, sendo separada de Cyrtosoma (Gastropoda + Cephalopoda. Embora não sendo o principal enfoque do presente artigo, os táxons Scaphopoda e Bivalvia são suportados por 8 e por 7 sinapomorfias respectivamente. O táxon Protobranchia resultou parafilético. O cladograma obtido é: ((((Coccodentalium carduus - Paradentalium disparile (Polyschides noronhensis - Gadila brasiliensis ((Solemya occidentalis - S. notialis (Propeleda carpenteri (Ennucula puelcha (Barbatia cancellaria - Serratina capsoides (Propilidium curumim - Nautilus pompilius - Lolliguncula brevis.

  7. Three new species of Pruvotinidae (Mollusca: Solenogastres) from Antarctica and NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarro, Maria; García-Álvarez, Oscar; Urgorri, Victoriano

    2013-09-01

    The family Pruvotinidae (Solenogastres, Cavibelonia) includes thirty species of fifteen genera grouped in five subfamilies. These subfamilies are defined by the combination of the presence or absence of hollow hook-shaped sclerites, the presence or absence of a dorsopharyngeal gland and the type of ventrolateral foregut glandular organs: type A, type C or circumpharyngeal. In this paper, three new species of the family Pruvotinidae are described: Pruvotina artabra n. sp. and Gephyroherpia impar n. sp. from NW Spain, and Pruvotina manifesta n. sp. from Antarctic Peninsula. These new descriptions increase the global knowledge of Solenogastres biodiversity.

  8. The opisthobranch gastropods (Mollusca: Heterobranchia) from Venezuela: an annotated and illustrated inventory of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel Caballer; Ortea, Jesús; Rivero, Nelsy; Tucker, Gabriela Carias; Malaquias, Manuel António E; Narciso, Samuel

    2015-10-29

    The Caribbean waters of Venezuela are composed by a large variety of habitats, with over 2800 km of coastline, islands, and islets. This area is a transitional zone between two main biogeographic provinces, the Caribbean and the Brazilian, separated by the fresh water outflows of the Orinoco and Amazon rivers, and is therefore expected to be an area of high species diversity. However, concerning the study of molluscs, Venezuela is probably the poorest known region in the Caribbean. The best compilation of opisthobranch species known in Venezuela was produced almost a decade ago, mentioning the occurrence of 57 species, plus seven determined only to genus level. In this work, 134 species are reported for Venezuela (71 are illustrated), representing about 40 % of the entire diversity of opisthobranchs known in the Caribbean. Among the species occurring in Venezuela, 49 have here the southern limit of their distribution range and only one the northern limit. Forty-six species are recorded for the first time to the country and one is a new record for the Caribbean Sea, namely Placida cremoniana. In addition, the distribution and ecology of the species are given based in literature and new data.

  9. Molecular Phylogeny of Mobilid and Sessilid Ciliates Symbiotic in Eastern Pacific Limpets (Mollusca: Patellogastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Nicholas A T; Lynn, Denis H

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the ciliate subclass Peritrichia, composed of the orders Mobilida and Sessilida, have recently come under debate as morphological and molecular analyses have struck contrasting conclusions as to the monophyly of the group. We provide additional molecular data to assess the monophyly of the Peritrichia by sequencing the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes of two symbiotic peritrichs, Urceolaria korschelti and Scyphidia ubiquita, found inhabiting the mantle cavity of limpets. Although phylogenetic analyses indicated a nonmonophyletic Peritrichia, approximately unbiased tests revealed that the monophyletic hypothesis could not be rejected. With regard to the Mobilida, our analysis showed divergence within the family Trichodinidae related to host taxa-a molluscan clade and a fish clade. For the Sessilida, the family Scyphidiidae was sister to the Astylozoidae. In our sampling of U. korschelti and S. ubiquita, both species showed significant genetic divergence among geographically isolated, yet morphologically indistinguishable populations. We hypothesize that cryptic speciation has produced these morphologically identical species and argue that more extensive genomic analyses are required to fully assess the monophyly, biogeography, and ultimately biodiversity of the peritrichs.

  10. Patterns of diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Sérgio P; Goud, Jeroen; de Frias Martins, António M

    2012-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species--those living between the intertidal and 50 m depth, and deep species--those usually living below 50 m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, belonging to 33 genera. The Mediterranean Sea is the most diverse site, followed by Canary Islands, Caribbean, Portugal, and Cape Verde. The Mediterranean and Cape Verde Islands are the sites with higher numbers of endemic species, with predominance of Alvania spp. in the first site, and of Alvania and Schwartziella at Cape Verde. In spite of the large number of rissoids at Madeira archipelago, a large number of species are shared with Canaries, Selvagens, and the Azores, thus only about 8% are endemic to the Madeira archipelago. Most of the 542-rissoid species that live in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean are shallow species (323), 110 are considered as deep species, and 23 species are reported in both shallow and deep waters. There is a predominance of nonplanktotrophs in islands, seamounts, and at high and medium latitudes. This pattern is particularly evident in the genera Crisilla, Manzonia, Onoba, Porosalvania, Schwartziella, and Setia. Planktotrophic species are more abundant in the eastern Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the analysis of the probable directions of faunal flows support the patterns found by both the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and the geographical distribution. Four main source areas for rissoids emerge: Mediterranean, Caribbean, Canaries/Madeira archipelagos, and the Cape Verde archipelago. We must stress the high percentage of endemics that occurs in the isolated islands of Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Cape Verde archipelago and also the Azores, thus reinforcing the legislative protective actions that the local governments have implemented in these islands during the recent years.

  11. Mitochondrial genome of the endangered marine gastropod Strombus gigas Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Edna J; Castro, Erick R; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    The queen conch Strombus gigas is an endangered marine gastropod of significant economic importance across the Greater Caribbean region. This work reports for the first time the complete mitochondrial genome of S. gigas, obtained by FLX 454 pyrosequencing. The mtDNA genome encodes for 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. In addition, the coding sequences and gene synteny were similar to other previously reported mitogenomes of gastropods.

  12. The genus Alvania on the Canary islands and Madeira (Mollusca: Gastropoda), part 2 [final part

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Hoenselaar, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Five Alvania species from the Canary Islands and the Madeira Archipelago are revised. A new species to science, A. johannae is described and for three species lectotypes are designated. Altogether 13 littoral alvaniids are presently known from this area. Doubtful records are enumerated and a list of

  13. Submarine canyons as the preferred habitat for wood-boring species of Xylophaga (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, C.; Voight, J. R.; Company, J. B.; Plyuscheva, M.; Martin, D.

    2013-11-01

    Submarine canyons are often viewed as natural “debris concentrators” on the seafloor. Organic substrates may be more abundant inside than outside canyon walls. To determine the effects of the presence these substrates in the Blanes submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean) and its adjacent western open slope, we deployed wood to study colonizing organisms. Three replicate pine and oak cubes (i.e. most common trees inland) were moored at 900, 1200, 1500 and 1800 m depth and collected after 3, 9 and 12 months. Wood from inside the canyon was significantly more heavily colonized by the five morphotypes of wood-boring bivalves than was wood on the adjacent open slope. Xylophaga sp. A dominated all wood types and locations, with peak abundance at 900 and 1200 m depth. Its growth rate was highest (0.070 mm d-1) during the first three months and was faster (or it recruits earlier) in pine than in oak. Size distribution showed that several recruitment events may have occurred from summer to winter. Xylophaga sp. B, appeared first after 9 months and clearly preferred pine over oak. As the immersion time was the same, this strongly supported a specific association between recruiters and type of substrate. Three morphotypes, pooled as Xylophaga spp. C, were rare and seemed to colonize preferentially oak inside the canyon and pine in the adjacent open slope. Individuals of Xylophaga were more abundant inside the canyon than in nearby off-canyon locations. Blanes Canyon may serve as a long-term concentrator of land-derived vegetal fragments and as a consequence sustain more animals. Are the species richness and abundance of wood-boring bivalves higher inside the canyon than on the adjacent open slope? Do the composition and density of the wood-boring bivalves change with deployment time and depth, as well as on the type of the sunken wood? What is the growth rate of the dominant wood-boring species?

  14. Unusual micrometric calcite-aragonite interface in the abalone shell Haliotis (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, Yannicke; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Chevallard, Corinne; Farre, Bastien; Meibom, Anders

    2014-02-01

    Species of Haliotis (abalone) show high variety in structure and mineralogy of the shell. One of the European species (Haliotis tuberculata) in particular has an unusual shell structure in which calcite and aragonite coexist at a microscale with small patches of aragonite embedded in larger calcitic zones. A detailed examination of the boundary between calcite and aragonite using analytical microscopies shows that the organic contents of calcite and aragonite differ. Moreover, changes in the chemical composition of the two minerals seem to be gradual and define a micrometric zone of transition between the two main layers. A similar transition zone has been observed between the layers in more classical and regularly structured mollusk shells. The imbrication of microscopic patches of aragonite within a calcitic zone suggests the occurrence of very fast physiological changes in these taxa.

  15. Family matters: The first molecular phylogeny of the Onchidorididae Gray, 1827 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Joshua M; Gosliner, Terrence M

    2015-07-01

    Recent investigations into the evolution of the Onchidorididae using morphological based methods have resulted in low support for relationships among genera. This study aims to determine if molecular data corroborates recent morphological interpretations of the evolution of Onchidorididae. Five genetic markers: 16S, 18S, 28S, cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and histone 3 (H3), were sequenced from 32 species comprising Onchidorididae and five other families, three from Phanerobranchia and two from Cryptobranchia. Phylogenies were estimated using maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses; with both yielding similar topologies. Molecular analyses resulted in high support for the monophyly of the suctorian clade and the placement of the genera within Onchidorididae. However, the Onchidorididae forms a paraphyletic grouping due to the recovery of the Goniodorididae and the Akiodorididae nested within family. In addition, the placement of Corambe as the most derived member of Onchidorididae is contradicted by the present study. Rather it is sister to a large clade that includes Acanthodoris and the species traditionally placed in Onchidoris and Adalaria, now defined as Onchidorididae. We have chosen to maintain Corambidae as a distinct taxon (including Corambe and Loy), sister to Onchidorididae. We also maintain Goniodorididae, Akiodorididae and Calycidoridae (including Calycidoris and Diaphorodoris), which along with the Onchidorididae and Corambidae comprise the suctorian superfamily Onchidoridoidea. Ancestral character reconstruction also suggests that the formation of a gill pocket, a character that currently defines the Cryptobranchia, may have evolved multiple times from an ancestor that lacked the ability to retract its gills into a fully formed gill pocket. The diversity of gill morphology displayed by the Onchidoridoidea will help give new insight into the evolution of this complex character within the Nudibranchia.

  16. External morphology of spermatozoa and spermatozeugmata of the freshwater mussel Truncilla truncata (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D.L.; Lasee, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Truncilla truncata males release spherical aggregates of spermatozoa, called spermatozeugmata, at spawning. Sperm aggregates from other bivalve species have been described, but few detailed studies exist of the morphology of unionid spermatozeugmata and spermatozoa. We provide the first description of the external morphology of spermatozeugmata and spermatozoa of T. Truncata. The spermatozeugmata had an inside diameter of 76 mu m and contained 8000-9000 spermatozoa. Heads of spermatozoa were directed toward the center of the sphere into a translucent shell; tails were arranged radially and caused the spermatozeugmata to rotate. Spermatozoa of T. Truncata measured 3.3 mu m in length (excluding tail) and each had a head, a midpiece and a flagellum. We also documented the release of spermatozeugmata in two additional unionid species, Lampsilis cardium and Amblema plicata plicata.

  17. The continuing debate on deep molluscan phylogeny: evidence for Serialia (Mollusca, Monoplacophora + Polyplacophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöger, I; Sigwart, J D; Kano, Y; Knebelsberger, T; Marshall, B A; Schwabe, E; Schrödl, M

    2013-01-01

    Molluscs are a diverse animal phylum with a formidable fossil record. Although there is little doubt about the monophyly of the eight extant classes, relationships between these groups are controversial. We analysed a comprehensive multilocus molecular data set for molluscs, the first to include multiple species from all classes, including five monoplacophorans in both extant families. Our analyses of five markers resolve two major clades: the first includes gastropods and bivalves sister to Serialia (monoplacophorans and chitons), and the second comprises scaphopods sister to aplacophorans and cephalopods. Traditional groupings such as Testaria, Aculifera, and Conchifera are rejected by our data with significant Approximately Unbiased (AU) test values. A new molecular clock indicates that molluscs had a terminal Precambrian origin with rapid divergence of all eight extant classes in the Cambrian. The recovery of Serialia as a derived, Late Cambrian clade is potentially in line with the stratigraphic chronology of morphologically heterogeneous early mollusc fossils. Serialia is in conflict with traditional molluscan classifications and recent phylogenomic data. Yet our hypothesis, as others from molecular data, implies frequent molluscan shell and body transformations by heterochronic shifts in development and multiple convergent adaptations, leading to the variable shells and body plans in extant lineages.

  18. A study of the type series of Nautilus pompilius Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca, Cephalopoda, Nautilida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, Svetlana V

    2015-05-25

    Few animals are treasured by zoologists more than Nautilus, and Nautilus pompilius Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of the genus, in particular. However, the type series of this species has not been studied in great detail. According to the rules of zoological nomenclature the type series consists of all the specimens included by the author in the new nominal taxon at the time of description (whether directly or by bibliographic reference), and any evidence, published or unpublished, may be taken into account to determine what specimens are included. The type series of Nautilus pompilius includes specimens in the Linnean Society of London, the University Museum in Uppsala, and specimens figured by pre-Linnaean authors indicated by reference by Linnaeus (1758). One specimen in London and four specimens in Uppsala, which are still extant, are likely to have been known to Linnaeus at the time when he prepared the 10th Edition of Systema Naturae (Linnaeus 1758), although none of these specimens was specifically mentioned by him. Even though it is widely believed that Linnaeus (1767) designated as lectotype a specimen figured by Rumphius (1705) in his D'Amboinsche Rariteitkamer, referred to in the Systema Naturae, this presumed lectotypification is not valid because Linnaeus did not explicitly indicate that any particular specimen was considered to be the type of the species. Later lectotype designations of Rumphius' illustrations are invalid because they show three different specimens. It seems that the best approach, given the quality of the material and the lack of clarity as to its type status, would be to apply to the ICZN asking to set aside all previous type fixations and designate a neotype, preferably a DNA sequenced specimen of known provenance.

  19. Taxonomic implications of molecular studies on Northern Brazilian Teredinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Lima Santos

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The current taxonomy of the Teredinidae (shipworms is wholly based on morphology and up to now no molecular studies of the phylogeny of this group have been published. In the present study the relationships between four genera of the subfamilies Teredininae and Bankiinae were established and the efficiency of the 16S rRNA gene in characterizing four Teredinidae species was tested. Phylogenetic trees support the grouping of Bankia fimbriatula with Nausitora fusticula and of Neoteredo reynei with Psiloteredo healdi, but the genetic distances do not justify the classification of these species into two distinct subfamilies. The results show that B. fimbriatula, N. reynei and P. healdi specimens from the coast of the Brazilian state of Pará have five distinct 16S rRNA haplotypes, with one N. reynei haplotype differing from the other haplotypes in respect to at least seven sequences sites, indicating the existence of two very distinct sympatric lineages.

  20. Recovery of the biogenic nest habitat of Limaria hians (Mollusca: Limacea) following anthropogenic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigg, Colin; Moore, Colin G.

    2009-04-01

    The rate of regrowth of Limaria hians nest material, following a simulated dredging impact, was examined on an extensive L. hians bed off the west coast of Scotland. Within an area of complete coverage of the sea bed by a turf of L. hians nest material, the turf was cleared by diver from 10 × 0.25 m 2 plots and the sediment subsequently raked to simulate the passage of a scallop dredge. The areal extent and pattern of nest regrowth were recorded after 6 and 12 months. Control plots showed no significant change in 100% nest cover over the year. In the treated plots regrowth generally occurred from extension of peripheral nest material. Over the initial 6 autumn and winter months treatment plots displayed a mean regrowth of 9.2% of the cleared area, increasing to 15% in the second 6-month spring and summer period. However, no significant difference in growth was found between these periods. After 12 months half the treatment plots exhibited <25% nest cover and none of them contained nest of a thickness comparable to the surrounding bed. Conversion of regrowth rates within the treated plots to the rate of nest advance along a linear front, gave a value of 3.2 cm per year, highlighting the susceptibility of this species-rich biotope to scallop dredging.

  1. Ultrastructure developments during spermiogenesis in Polydora ciliata (Annelida: Spionidae), a parasite of mollusca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Libin; Qiu, Tianlong; Xue, Dongxiu; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-12-01

    Spionid worms of Polydora ciliata inhabit the shells of many commercially important bivalves and cause disease in molluscan aquaculture. Their sperm structure is closely related to their fertilization method. To give an insight into the sperm structure and spermatogenesis, ultrastructure details of the subcellular components of germ cells during spermiogenesis of Polydora ciliata are detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In P. ciliata, during spermiogenesis, chromatin is regularly arranged as dense fibrils and becomes more condensed when the nucleus elongates. Microtubules do not surround the nucleus during its elongation. The Golgi phase is characterized by the formation of proacrosomal granules within the Golgi apparatus. The proacrosomal granules fuse to form a single, spherical acrosomal vesicle that migrates to the anterior pole of the cell. At the time of nuclear condensation, mitochondria become reduced in number but increased in size, causing deep indentation at the base of the nucleus. The mid-piece has a few mitochondria. The cap phase includes the spreading of the acrosomal granule over the surface of the nucleus of the differentiating spermatid. The acrosomal phase of spermiogenesis is typically associated with changes in the shape of the nucleus, acrosome and tail. The relationship of sperm ultrastructure to spermiogenesis in spionidae species was discussed.

  2. Clarifying phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history of the bivalve order Arcida (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pteriomorphia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combosch, David J; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    The systematics of the bivalve order Arcida constitutes an unresolved conundrum in bivalve systematics. The current definition of Arcida encompasses two superfamilies: Limopsoidea, which includes the recent families Philobryidae and Limopsidae, and Arcoidea, which encompasses the families Arcidae, Cucullaeidae, Noetiidae, Glycymerididae and Parallelodontidae. This classification, however, is controversial particularly with respect to the position and taxonomic status of Glycymerididae. Previous molecular phylogenies were limited either by the use of only a single molecular marker or by including only a few limopsoid and glycymeridid taxa. The challenging nature of Arcida taxonomy and the controversial results of some of the previous studies, prompted us to use a broad range of taxa (55 species), three nuclear markers (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and histone H3) and a wide range of algorithmic approaches. This broad but stringent approach led to a number of results that differ significantly from previous studies. We provide the first molecular evidence that supports the separation of Arcoidea from Limopsoidea, although the exact position of Glycymerididae remains unresolved, and the monophyly of Limopsoidea is algorithm-dependent. In addition, we present the first time-calibrated evolutionary tree of Arcida relationships, indicating a significant increase in the diversification of arcidan lineages at the beginning of the Cretaceous, around 140Ma. The monophyly of Arcida, which has been supported previously, was confirmed in all our analyses. Although relationships among families remain somehow unresolved we found support for the monophyly of most arcidan families, at least under some analytical conditions (i.e., Glycymerididae, Noetiidae, Philobryidae, and Limopsidae). However, Arcidae, and particularly Arcinae, remain a major source of inconsistency in the current system of Arcida classification and are in dire need of taxonomic revision.

  3. Estudo morfométrico da concha de Lymnaea columella say, 1817 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene T. Ueta

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações morfométricas de conchas de L. columella, provenientes de dez criadouros localizados nos seguintes municípios do Estado de São Paulo: - Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. Foram analisados os diferentes tipos de ambientes onde as limneas são encontradas com maior freqüência, estabelecendo-se a época do ano com maior abundância em espécimes, que correspondeu aos meses de julho a outubro. As medidas nas conhas dos diferentes criadouros referiram-se ao comprimento e largura da concha, comprimento e largura da abertura, comprimento da espira e número de voltas. Foram estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação e de regressão e realizadas análises de variância entre as medidas tomadas e os índices obtidos da relação entre largura/comprimento da concha. Estas conchas foram comparadas com as de L. columella, L. viator, L. cubensis da coleção do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Para a maioria das medidas as conchas mostraram proporções constantes, embora apresentassem diferenças em relação ao desenvolvimento. A maior variação foi observada em relação ao comprimento da espira. As variações morfométricas das conchas foram relacionadas com alguns fatores externos como pH, alcalinidade, dureza e teor da água. Aparentemente apenas a dureza total da água influiu na consistência das conchas.

  4. Novas ocorrências de gastrópodes e bivalves marinhos no Brasil (Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Absalão Ricardo Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastropods Costaclis egregia (Dall, 1889, Thaleia nisonis (Dall, 1889, Tjaernoeia michaeli Engl, 2001 and the bivalves Bathyarca sp., Myonera aff. ruginosa (Jeffreys, 1882 are recorded for the first time in Brazilian waters. This paper presents a brief description of these species and also include ilustrations.

  5. Structure and formation of the unusual sperm of Patelloida latistrigata (Mollusca : Patellogastropoda): implications for fertilization biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Alan N; Hodgson, Valerie; Eckelbarger, Kevin J

    2012-04-01

    The structure of the spermatozoa and spermatogenesis of the lottiid limpet Patelloida latistrigata is described by transmission electron microscopy. Although the lengths of the spermatozoa (about 60 μm) and their head region (about 12 μm) are similar to those of other patellogastropods, the structure of the sperm head and midpiece are very different. The head consists of an unusually large acrosome (about 11-μm long) with a broad posterior invagination that houses the relatively small nucleus. The midpiece mitochondria, which are rather elongate with large folded tubular cristae, are housed in a cytoplasmic sheath posterior to the nucleus. The proximal centriole is unusually elongate (about 2-μm long). The axoneme that emerges from the distal centriole is surrounded anteriorly by the cytoplasmic sheath in which the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane has electron-dense material. The flagellum is enlarged at its terminal end. Spermatogenesis is similar to that described for other patellogastropods. Patelloida latistrigata, therefore, has spermatozoa that seem to meet the morphological criteria of ent-aquasperm, which raises the question of whether fertilization is truly external in this limpet. However, it is also possible that the modifications to the sperm are linked to unknown specializations of the egg or egg envelope.

  6. New records for the shallow-water chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of the Azores (NE Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Ávila

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Published records, original data from recent field work on all of the islands of the Azores (NE Atlantic, and a revision of the entire mollusc collection deposited in the Department of Biology of the University of the Azores (DBUA were used to compile a checklist of the shallow-water Polyplacophora of the Azores. Lepidochitona cf. canariensis and Tonicella rubra are reported for the first time for this archipelago, increasing the recorded Azorean fauna to seven species.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of Nembrothinae (Mollusca: Doridacea: Polyceridae) inferred from morphology and mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pola, Marta; Cervera, J Lucas; Gosliner, Terrence M

    2007-06-01

    Within the Polyceridae, Nembrothinae includes some of the most striking and conspicuous sea slugs known, although several features of their biology and phylogenetic relationships remain unknown. This paper reports a phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S rRNA) and morphology for most species included in Nembrothinae. Our phylogenetic reconstructions using both molecular and combined morphological and molecular data support the taxonomic splitting of Nembrothinae into several taxa. Excluding one species (Tambja tentaculata), the monophyly of Roboastra was supported by all the phylogenetic analyses of the combined molecular data. Nembrotha was monophyletic both in the morphological and molecular analyses, always with high support. However, Tambja was recovered as para- or polyphyletic, depending on the analysis performed. Our study also rejects the monophyly of "phanerobranch" dorids based on molecular data.

  8. Integrative taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Onchidiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayrat, Benoît; Goulding, Tricia C.; Apte, Deepak; Bhave, Vishal; Joseph Comendador; Qua,ng, Ngô Xuân; Tan, Siong Kiat; Tan, Shau Hwai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In an effort to clarify the species diversity of onchidiid slugs, the taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 is revised using an integrative approach. New, fresh specimens were collected in a large number of places, including type localities. The genus Onchidium is redefined here as a clade including only three species which are strongly supported by both morphological and molecular data. All three species were already named: the type species Onchidium typhae Buchannan, 1800, Onchidium stuxbergi (Westerlund, 1883), and Onchidium reevesii (J.E. Gray, 1850). With the exception of a re-description of Onchidium typhae published in 1869, all three species are re-described here for the first time. First-hand observations on the color variation of live animals in their natural habitat are provided. The anatomy of each species is described. Important nomenclatural issues are addressed. In particular, Labella Starobogatov, 1976 is regarded as a junior synonym of Onchidium and Labella ajuthiae (Labbé, 1935) and Onchidium nigrum (Plate, 1893) are regarded as junior synonyms of Onchidium stuxbergi. The nomenclatural status of several other species names is discussed as well. Many new records are provided across South-East Asia and precise ranges of geographic distributions are provided for the genus Onchidium and its three species. Distinctive features that help distinguish the genus Onchidium from other onchidiids are provided, as well as an identification key for the three species. PMID:27917062

  9. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF FIVE FRESHWATER MUSSELS IN GENUS ANODONTA (MOLLUSCA: BIVALVIA) REVEALED BY RAPD ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Unionidae(Bivalvia)are distributed infreshwaters,and represent a significanttaxonof benthic community[1].In China,freshwater mussels are abundant resources[2].Since1949,substantial investigations onthe unionidfau-na had been undertakenin China[3—8].Withreference tooverseas research[9,10],a preliminary reorganization onthe Unionidae was performed accordingtosome classifica-tion characteristics such as shell shape,larvae character-istics,and breeding habit[11].Due tothe serious conver-gence of freshwater muss...

  10. Gastropoda(Mollusca) of Huaibei Region%淮北市的螺类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓道贵; 金宏; 陈海峰

    2002-01-01

    报道了淮北市螺类共17种,其中淡水螺类15种,陆生螺类2种,分别隶属于腹足纲的6科、10属,有3种为安徽省首次记录.作者还阐述了17种螺类的生态分布、区域分布及优势种等情况.并根据淮北市的特点,对它们的开发与利用进行了初步探讨.

  11. Unraveling the evolutionary history of the Chilostoma Fitzinger, 1833 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata) lineages in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psonis, Nikolaos; Vardinoyannis, Katerina; Mylonas, Moisis; Poulakakis, Nikos

    2015-10-01

    The land snails of the genus Chilostoma Fitzinger, 1833 that includes, in Greece, the (sub)genera Cattania, Josephinella and Thiessea, are highly diversified and present high levels of endemism. However, their evolutionary history is unknown and their taxonomy is complex and continuously revised. The aim of this study is to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of the lineages of the genus Chilostoma distributed in Greece based on partial DNA sequences of two mitochondrial DNA (16S rRNA and COI) genes. Complete sequences of one nuclear gene (ITS1) representing the major mitochondrial lineages were also analyzed. The phylogenetic trees revealed three distinct major clades that correspond to the three (sub)genera. Several taxonomical incongruencies were made obvious, thus, raising questions about the "true" number of species in each clade, while rendering a taxonomic re-evaluation necessary. From a phylogeographic point of view, it seems that the three major phylogenetic clades were separated in the late Miocene. They started differentiating into distinct species during the Pliocene and Pleistocene through several vicariance and dispersal events.

  12. Random walk, zonation and the food searching strategy of Terebralia palustris (Mollusca, Potamididae) in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Marco; Cannicci, Stefano; Mrabu, Elisha; Rorandelli, Rocco; Fratini, Sara

    2008-12-01

    Terebralia palustris is a common mud-whelk present at a particularly high density in all Indo-West Pacific mangroves. Young snails feed on nothing but mud while larger specimens are able to feed on fallen leaves too. In Kenya (Mida Creek) under the canopy, competition for mangrove leaves can be very high due to the high density of Sesarmidae crabs. On open exposed muddy platforms, no Sesarmidae occur but the leaf density is very low because the leaves are only randomly present as they are deposited and removed twice a day by the tide. However, the snail density is always very high, raising the question as to whether the snails use a special searching strategy to optimize their resource finding rather than a purely random movement. By analyzing the snails' movements on a uniform area at different levels and comparing them with simulated random paths, we could show that the snails' movements are not purely random. The distribution of different size classes of T. palustris in Mida Creek was known to be quite odd: the same simulation approach suggests that the zonation asymmetry could reasonably be due to the stochastic recruitment of juveniles in space and time and maintained by a substantial long-lasting spatial inertia.

  13. How well-known is the Cephalaspidean fauna (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) in the Indo-Pacific region?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1998-01-01

    The gastropod group Cephalaspidea contains about 700 recent species worldwide. The status of the research on the group, indicated as the number of described species, in the tropical Indo-Pacific region is compared with other areas. The number ofspecies are 118 in the Indo-Pacific, 168 in Japan, a...

  14. A new Taheitia species (Mollusca: Gastropoda Prosobranchia: Truncatellidae) from Irian Jaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.

    1989-01-01

    Shells and an operculum of Taheitia heinrichi spec. nov. are described from the Vogelkop area in western Irian Jaya. This new species, dedicated to the late Heinrich C. Kavelaars, is somewhat similar to T. orrae, known from the island of Biak.

  15. Proteomic analysis from the mineralized radular teeth of the giant Pacific chiton, Cryptochiton stelleri (Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Michiko; Wang, Qianqian; Li, Dongsheng; Pan, Songqin; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Kisailus, David

    2012-09-01

    The biomineralized radular teeth of chitons are known to consist of iron-based magnetic crystals, associated with the maximum hardness and stiffness of any biomineral. Based on our transmission electron microscopy analysis of partially mineralized teeth, we suggest that the organic matrix within the teeth controls the iron oxide nucleation. Thus, we used Nano-LC-MS to perform a proteomic analysis of the organic matrix in radular teeth of the chiton Cryptochiton stelleri in order to identify the proteins involved in the biomineralization process. Since the genome sequence of C. stelleri is not available, cross-species similarity searching and de novo peptide sequencing were used to screen the proteins. Our results indicate that several proteins were dominant in the mineralized part of the radular teeth, amongst which, myoglobin and a highly acidic peptide were identified as possibly involved in the biomineralization process.

  16. Epibiotic relationships on Zygochlamys patagonica (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pectinidae) increase biodiversity in a submarine canyon in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schejter, Laura; López Gappa, Juan; Bremec, Claudia Silvia

    2014-06-01

    The continental slope of the southern SW Atlantic Ocean has many distinguishable deep submarine canyons, varying in depth and extension. The benthic fauna within one of them, detected in April 2005 by means of a multibeam SIMRAD EM1002 sonar, and located at 43°35‧S to 59°33‧W, 325 m depth, was studied to discuss faunal affinities with the neighbouring Patagonian scallop fishing grounds located at upper slope depths. In order to add faunal information to the previous general study, we studied the epibiotic species settled on Patagonian scallops (the dominant species in the area) collected in the reference sampling site using a 2.5-m mouth-opening dredge, 10 mm mesh size. We sampled 103 scallops with shell heights between 22 and 69 mm; epibionts were recorded on both valves. We found 53 epibiotic taxa, which were most conspicuous on the upper valve. Bryozoa was the most diverse group (34 species) while Polychaeta was the most abundant group, recorded on 94% of the scallops. Stylasteridae (2 species) and Clavulariidae (Cnidaria) conform newly recorded epibionts on Z. patagonica and the sponge Tedania (Tedaniopsis) infundibuliformis also represents a new record for the SW Atlantic Ocean.

  17. Results of the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon : Part 6. Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pectinidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    During the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition (1990) to Ambon 17 Pectinidae species were collected, nine of which were described by Rumphius (1705) and five illustrated by Rumphius. One species, viz. Decatopecten plica (Linnaeus, 1758), illustrated in Rumphius (1705: pl. 44, fig. O), has not been ref

  18. [Biodiversity of land gastropods (Mollusca) in Sierra de San Javier Park, Tucumán, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, María José; Cuezzo, María Gabriela

    2010-09-01

    Studies related to land mollusk diversity in tropical and subtropical forests are scarce. To assess this, a study on land snail diversity of subtropical cloudforest (Yungas) and dry forest (Chaco) areas of Sierra de San Javier Park, Tucumán, Argentina, was carried out. Taxonomic identifications were performed to species level and built a species per stations data matrix to analyze diversity patterns on qualitative and quantitative samples processed from 10x10m quadrates in altitudinal transects. Non parametric analysis (ICE, ACE, Chao 1 and Chao 2) were used to estimate the true diversity of the area, as well as the degree of undersampling and spatial aggregation of the data. Diversity was also calculated using Shannon, Simpson, Whittaker and Jaccard indices. The richness of the San Javier Park was estimated to be 32 species distributed into 13 families and 21 genera. From the total number of species collected, a single one belongs to Caenogastropoda, while the rest of the species are classified into Pulmonata Stylommatophora and Systellommatophora. The most representative family was the micromollusc Charopidae, while the most relatively abundant species was another micromollusc snail, Adelopoma tucma. Richness and diversity were slightly more elevated in dry forest areas of the Chacoan Ecoregion than in cloud forest areas of Yungas. Non parametric estimators showed that the inventory was complete. Diversity values obtained were high in comparison to previously studied areas of Northwestern Argentina. The total number of specimen collected (22 169 specimens), was higher than other published studies.

  19. Deroceras saronicum spec. nov., eine neue Nacktschneckenart aus Griechenland (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Agriolimacidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rähle, W.

    1986-01-01

    Deroceras saronicum spec. nov., probably belonging to the subgenus Deroceras s.str., is described. The species is known from the islands of Aegina and Moni (Saronic Gulf) and from the adjacent NE. Peloponnesus, Greece. It is compared with Deroceras maltzani (SIMROTH), a similar species from southern

  20. Dating and biogeographical patterns in the sea slug genus Acanthodoris Gray, 1850 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Joshua M; Simison, W Brian; Gosliner, Terrence M

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies investigating vicariance and dispersal have been focused on correlating major geological events with instances of taxonomic expansion by incorporating the fossil record with molecular clock analyses. However, this approach becomes problematic for soft-bodied organisms that are poorly represented in the fossil record. Here, we estimate the phylogenetic relationships of the nudibranch genus Acanthodoris Gray, 1850 using three molecular markers (16S, COI, H3), and then test two alternative geologically calibrated molecular clock scenarios in BEAST and their effect on ancestral area reconstruction (AAR) estimates employed in LAGRANGE. The global temperate distribution of Acanthodoris spans multiple geological barriers, including the Bering Strait (∼5.32 Mya) and the Baja Peninsula (∼5.5 Mya), both of which are used in our dating estimates. The expansion of the Atlantic Ocean (∼95-105 Mya) is also used to calibrate the relationship between A. falklandica Eliot, 1905 and A. planca Fahey and Valdés, 2005, which are distributed in southern Chile and South Africa respectively. Phylogenetic analyses recovered strong biogeographical signal and recovered two major clades representing northern and southern hemispheric distributions of Acanthodoris. When all three geological events are applied to the calibration analyses, the age for Acanthodoris is estimated to be mid-Cretaceous. When the expansion of the Atlantic Ocean is excluded from our analyses, however, Acanthodoris is estimated to be much younger, with a divergence time estimate during the Miocene. Regardless of divergence estimates, our AAR suggests that Acanthodoris may have origins in the Atlantic Ocean with the Atlantic acting as a dispersal point to the northeastern Pacific. These results suggest that Acanthodoris exhibits a rare instance of western trans-arctic expansion. This study also shows that northeast Pacific specimens of A. pilosa should be regarded as A. atrogriseata and that A. serpentinotus should be regarded as a synonym of A. pina.

  1. A new Middle Miocene Niveria Jousseaume, 1884 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Trivioidea) from Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehse, Dirk

    2011-02-01

    A new species of Niveria from the Middle Miocene (Badenian) of the Paratethys of Borsodbóta, Hungary is described. This species is characterized by its callused dorsum and dorsal depression. Niveria jozefgregoi sp. nov. is discussed with comparative species from the Badenian of Hungary, the Pliocene of the Mediterranean region, Florida and Recent species from Madeira and the Islas Galápagos.

  2. Size-differential feeding in Pinna nobilis L. (Mollusca: Bivalvia): Exploitation of detritus, phytoplankton and zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, John; Ezgeta-Balić, Daria; Peharda, Melita; Skejić, Sanda; Ninčević-Gladan, Živana; Matijević, Slavica

    2011-04-01

    The endangered fan shell Pinna nobilis is a large bivalve mollusc (<120 cm shell length) endemic to the Mediterranean that lives one-third buried in soft substrata, generally in shallow coastal waters. We hypothesised that P. nobilis of different sizes would ingest different food sources, because small fan shells will inhale material from closer to the substratum than do large fan shells. We studied stomach contents and faeces of 18 fan shells, 6 small (mean 23.0 cm length), 6 medium-sized (mean 41.5 cm length) and 6 large (mean 62.7 cm length) living in a small area of a low-energy coastal detritic bottom characterised by mud, sand and macroalgae at Mali Ston Bay, Croatia. We found that all P. nobilis ingested copious quantities of undetermined detritus (probably at least 95% of ingested material), phytoplankton, micro and mesozooplankton and pollen grains. Large P. nobilis stomach contents showed a preponderance of water column calanoid copepods, while small fan shells had higher numbers of bivalve larvae. All fan shells took in high numbers of harpacticoid copepods that are benthonic, feeding on microbial communities of detritus and benthic vegetation. There was also a significant selection of phytoplankton species, some apparently occurring between inhalation and ingestion. The stomach contents of small P. nobilis had a higher organic matter content than either medium-sized or large fan shells; this indicated that small fan shells ingested detritus of higher organic content than did larger P. nobilis. As the faeces of all P. nobilis had similar organic matter content, this also indicates higher assimilation efficiencies in small fan shells. The demonstration of differential dietary selectivity by different sized animals has implications for future trophic studies of this endangered species. This study also provides the first demonstration of predation on zooplankton by P. nobilis.

  3. Isolation and characterization of a novel perivitellin from the eggs of Pomacea scalaris (Mollusca, Ampullariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ituarte, S; Dreon, M S; Ceolín, M; Heras, H

    2008-09-01

    Perivitellins are important components of the perivitelline fluid (PVF) that surrounds gastropod embryos. The glyco-lipo-carotenoprotein ovorubin (OR) from eggs of the snail Pomacea canaliculata has been the most studied to date. Here we report the characterization of scalarin (SC), a glyco-lipo-carotenoprotein from the PVF of P. scalaris. SC was purified by ultracentrifugation and exclusion chromatography. It is the major egg protein, representing 64% of the total soluble protein. The particle has a hydration density of 1.26 g/ml, an apparent molecular mass of 380 kDa and it is an elongated compact protein as estimated by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). It is composed of three subunits of ca. 35, 28, and 24 kDa noncovalently bonded. SC is highly glycosylated (carbohydrate content 20.1%, by wt.), with a low lipid content (0.7%), being esterified sterols, pigments and polar lipids the most abundant lipid classes. HPTLC and spectrophotometric analysis of the carotenoid fraction revealed the presence of free astaxanthin (ASX; 62.0%), and an unidentified carotenoid (38.0%). The carotenoid-apoprotein interaction was studied by spectrophotometry. Carotenoids do not seem to affect the structural characteristics of the oligomer. However, the carotenoid-protein association protected ASX against oxidation. The cross-reactivity between SC and perivitellins of P. canaliculata was tested using polyclonal antibodies (PAb) against SC, OR, and perivitellin PV2. The PAbs failed to cross-react with any egg proteins of either the same or other species. SC, among other functional similarities with OR, would be an antioxidant carrier, protecting at the same time carotenoids from oxidation in the perivitellin fluid of the egg.

  4. Phylogeny and evolution of ontogeny of the family Oxytomidae Ichikawa, 1958 (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutikov, O. A.; Temkin, I. E.; Shurygin, B. N.

    2010-08-01

    We described ontogenies and reconstructed morphogeneses of hinges in some supraspecific taxa of the bivalve family Oxytomidae Ichikawa, 1958 from the Mesozoic of Russia. The phylogeny of the family is reconstructed using evolutionary and cladistic methods. The appearance of the endemic genus Arctotis Bodylevsky, 1960 in the epicontinental seas of Siberia can be explained in terms of gradual transformations of the ligament and byssal apparatus in the Northern Siberian members of Praemeleagrinella Lutikov et Shurygin, 2009 and Praearctotis Lutikov et Shurygin, 2009.

  5. A Pyrenean Monacha species Monacha (Metatheba) Atacis spec. nov. (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.; Winter, de A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Monacha (Metatheba) atacis spec. nov. is described from the French NE Pyrenees. The status of Metatheba, hitherto known from Caucasia and Asia Minor only, as well as that of other Monacha "subgenera" is discussed.

  6. Histochemical and ultrastructural characterization of the posterior esophagus of Bulla striata (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Oliveira, Elsa; Ferreira, Iris; Coelho, Rita; Calado, Gonçalo

    2010-12-01

    The posterior esophagus of Bulla striata, running from the gizzard to the stomach, was investigated with light and electron microscopy to obtain new data for a comparative analysis of the digestive system in cephalaspidean opisthobranchs. In this species, the posterior esophagus can be divided into two regions. In the first, the epithelium is formed by columnar cells with apical microvilli embedded in a cuticle. Many epithelial and subepithelial secretory cells are present in this region. In both, electron-lucent secretory vesicles containing filaments and a peripheral round mass of secretory material fill the cytoplasm. These acid mucus-secreting cells may also contain a few dense secretory vesicles. In the second part of the posterior esophagus, the cuticle is absent and the epithelium is ciliated. In this region, epithelial cells may contain larger lipid droplets and glycogen reserves. Subepithelial secretory cells are not present, and in epithelial secretory cells the number of dense vesicles increases, but most secretory cells still contain some electron-lucent vesicles. These cells secrete a mixture of proteins and acid polysaccharides and should be considered seromucous. The secretory cells of the posterior esophagus are significantly different from those previously reported in the anterior esophagus of this herbivorous species.

  7. Rich and rare—First insights into species diversity and abundance of Antarctic abyssal Gastropoda (Mollusca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Enrico; Michael Bohn, Jens; Engl, Winfried; Linse, Katrin; Schrödl, Michael

    2007-08-01

    The abyssal depths of the polar oceans are thought to be low in diversity compared with the shallower polar shelves and temperate and tropical deep-sea basins. Our recent study on the gastropod fauna of the deep Southern Ocean gives evidence of the existence of a rich gastropod assemblage at abyssal depths. During the ANDEEP I and II expeditions to the southern Drake Passage, Northwestern Weddell Sea, and South Sandwich Trench, gastropods were collected by bottom and Agassiz trawls, epibenthic sledge, and multicorer, at 40 stations in depths between 127 and 5194 m. On the whole, 473 specimens, corresponding to 93 species of 36 families, were obtained. Of those, 414 specimens were caught below 750 m depth and refer to 84 (90%) benthic species of 32 (89%) families. Most families were represented by a single species only. The numerically dominant families were Skeneidae and Buccinidae (with 10 and 11 species, respectively), Eulimidae and Trochidae (with 9 species each), and Turridae (6 species). Thirty-Seven benthic deep-sea species (44%) were represented by a single specimen, and another 20 species (24%) were found at a single station, suggesting that more than two thirds of Antarctic deep-sea gastropod species are very rare or have a very scattered distribution. Of the 27 species occurring at two or more deep-sea stations, 14 were collected with different gear. Approximately half of the deep-water species are new to science or have been recently described. The present investigation increases the total number of recorded benthic Antarctic deep-sea gastropods (below 750 m) from 115 to 177. The previously known depth ranges have been extended, often considerably, for 31 species. The collected deep-sea gastropods comprise both eurybathic shelf species (29%) and apparently true deep-sea species (58%); some of the latter may belong to a so far unknown Antarctic abyssal fauna. Geographical ranges of the collected Antarctic benthic deep-sea gastropod species appear limited, and all these 84 species seem endemic to Antarctica south of the Polar Front. Comparing diversity and abundances based on epibenthic sledge samples, there is no clear relationship between Antarctic deep-sea gastropod abundance and species richness with depth. However, both Antarctic and adjacent deep-sea areas are still far from being adequately sampled to allow more comprehensive conclusions.

  8. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in mollusca species and assessment of potential risks to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Maha Ahmed Mohamed

    2013-05-01

    Along the Alexandria coast of the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea, five edible species of bivalve molluscs and one gastropoda species (Mactra coralline, Ruditapes decussates, Paphia undulate, Venerupis rhomboids, Crista pectinata and Coralliophila meyendorffi) were analyzed for content of metals (Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Cobalt and Nickel) in the muscle and in the sediments where they live. The potential health risks of metals to humans via consumption of seafood were assessed by estimated daily intake and target hazard quotient. Significant positive correlations (p < 0.05) were obtained between tissue concentrations for all pairs of metals, with the exception of Cadmium. Significant positive correlations were also obtained for the concentrations of Cd and Ni in tissues of all studied species relative to their concentrations in surface sediments. However, correlations between tissue and sediment concentrations for Chromium, Lead and Cobalt were negative. Ruditapes decussates and C. meyendorffi had the highest values for the summed target hazard quotient and may pose a potential risk to local inhabitants through their consumption in the diet. The potential risk would arise from exposure to high tissue concentrations of Cd and Pb, which exceeded published guidelines for safety of seafood products in some cases. Chromium contributed a considerable fraction of the total target hazard quotient for all metals combined, but did not exceed the published guidelines. Cobalt and Ni did not contribute greatly overall to the target hazard quotient, except in the case of Ni in V. rhomboids.

  9. Cytogenetics of Anodonta cygnea (Mollusca: Bivalvia) as possible indicator of environmental adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, J.; Leitão, A.; Vicente, C.; Malheiro, I.

    2008-11-01

    Anodonta cygnea is a freshwater clam, belonging to the Unionidae family, which can be found in rivers and lagoons all over Europe and Northern America. As they appear as important case studies for ecological damage assessments, the various species of the Unionidae family have been submitted to a sort of recent studies on their chromosomal or cytogenetic status. In this study we confirmed the diploid chromosome number of 2 n = 38 for this species, and established for the first time the karyotype, which comprised six metacentric, 12 submetacentric and one subtelocentric chromosome pairs. We also found a high percentage of cells with an abnormal number of chromosomes. Considering that karyotype disturbances in Unionids have been previously related with exposure to chemicals, either natural or produced by human activity, we determined the aneuploidy index for our population. The aneuploidy index is an excellent marker for pollutant presence/effect. The animals acclimatized in tap water and in natural water from the lake where the individuals were collected showed different levels of aneuploidy. The higher values were found in tap water. Chromosome analysis techniques seem a suitable tool to study the impact of contaminants referred above, and making A. cygnea a suitable organism for assessment of an eugenic damage in aquatic systems. On the other hand, our results also point out to the importance of doing the acclimatizing process of the collected animals in their own natural water.

  10. Comparative analysis of chromosome counts infers three paleopolyploidies in the mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Nathaniel M; Lindberg, David R

    2011-01-01

    The study of paleopolyploidies requires the comparison of multiple whole genome sequences. If the branches of a phylogeny on which a whole-genome duplication (WGD) occurred could be identified before genome sequencing, taxa could be selected that provided a better assessment of that genome duplication. Here, we describe a likelihood model in which the number of chromosomes in a genome evolves according to a Markov process with one rate of chromosome duplication and loss that is proportional to the number of chromosomes in the genome and another stochastic rate at which every chromosome in the genome could duplicate in a single event. We compare the maximum likelihoods of a model in which the genome duplication rate varies to one in which it is fixed at zero using the Akaike information criterion, to determine if a model with WGDs is a good fit for the data. Once it has been determined that the data does fit the WGD model, we infer the phylogenetic position of paleopolyploidies by calculating the posterior probability that a WGD occurred on each branch of the taxon tree. Here, we apply this model to a molluscan tree represented by 124 taxa and infer three putative WGD events. In the Gastropoda, we identify a single branch within the Hypsogastropoda and one of two branches at the base of the Stylommatophora. We also identify one or two branches near the base of the Cephalopoda.

  11. Multi-species generalist predation on the stochastic harvested clam Tivela mactroides (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turra, Alexander; Fernandez, Wellington S.; Bessa, Eduardo; Santos, Flavia B.; Denadai, Márcia R.

    2015-12-01

    Top-down control is an important force modulating the abundance of prey and structuring marine communities. The harvested trigonal clam Tivela mactroides is hypothesized to be part of the diet of a variety of marine organisms, with its stock influencing predator abundance and being influenced by them. Here we analyzed the diet of potential predators of T. mactroides in Caraguatatuba Bay, northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil, to identify the main consumers of this marine resource, and also to address the importance of this clam in the diet of each predator. Samples were taken year-round by trawls; all specimens collected were identified and measured and the food items identified and quantified. Twenty-one species consumed T. mactroides, whose importance in the diet varied greatly in both the volume ingested and the frequency of occurrence (pompano Trachinotus carolinus > blue crab Callinectes danae > starfish Astropecten marginatus). Top-down influence on T. mactroides was also dependent on the abundance of consumers (yellow catfish Cathorops spixii > rake stardrum Stellifer rastrifer > barred grunt Conodon nobilis > A. marginatus). Considering the mean volume ingested, the frequency of occurrence of T. mactroides in the diet, and the relative abundance of consumers, the predators that most influenced T. mactroides were T. carolinus, A. marginatus, and C. danae, in decreasing order. Large numbers of small-sized individuals of T. mactroides (<10 mm) were generally preyed upon by A. marginatus, which may have a stronger effect on clam abundance in comparison to C. danae and T. carolinus, which preyed upon larger clams. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that predators' consumption of T. mactroides in Caraguatatuba Bay can influence its stocks, mainly due to the type and/or abundance of predator species, the volume and number of individuals of T. mactroides preyed upon, and the temporal variations in the abundance of predators.

  12. Prestonellinae-validation of the name as a new subfamily of Bothriembryontidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggen, A C Van; Herbert, David G; Breure, Abraham S H

    2016-02-29

    The affinities of the enigmatic South African land snail genus Prestonella Connolly, 1929 were discussed by Herbert (2007) and Herbert & Mitchell (2009), who showed, on the basis of morphological and molecular data, that the genus is referable to the superfamily Orthalicoidea. Currently, the three described species of Prestonella are the only known African representatives of this diverse superfamily. Earlier, van Bruggen (1978) had recognized that these species formed a distinct group and had placed them in the (new) family Prestonellidae. However, as noted by Bouchet & Rocroi (2005: 140), no diagnosis was provided by van Bruggen; the name Prestonellidae thus does not meet the requirements of ICZN Art. 13.1, and is not an available name. In this paper we will redress this issue, also taking into account more recent research which has shed light on the systematic position of this genus within the Orthalicoidea.

  13. Brazilian species of Gadila (Mollusca: Scaphopoda: Gadilidae): rediscovery of Gadila elongata comb. nov. and shell morphometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Caetano,Carlos H. S.; Victor Scarabino; Ricardo S. Absalão

    2010-01-01

    Gadila elongata comb. nov. was described in 1920 from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Until recently, it was only known from the type locality. Herein we present the first record of G. elongata from Brazil (Northeast coast, Ceará state, collected at 177 m) and a morphometrics analysis of the Brazilian species of Gadila. A multivariate Discriminant Function Analysis, based on nine shell morphometric variables (length, maximum diameter, length to maximum diameter ratio, distance of point of maximu...

  14. Holoplanktonic mollusks (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Gulf of California, México

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo Campillo, Orso; Aceves Medina, Gerardo; Avendaño Ibarra, Raymundo

    2011-01-01

    We compiled a checklist of holoplanktonic mollusks obtained from seven oceanographic surveys performed between 2005 and 2007 in the Gulf of California, Mexico. The checklist comprises five orders,15 families, 28 genera and 62 species, including 39 new records and two range extensions within the Gulf.

  15. Brazilian species of Gadila (Mollusca: Scaphopoda: Gadilidae: rediscovery of Gadila elongata comb. nov. and shell morphometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H. S. Caetano

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Gadila elongata comb. nov. was described in 1920 from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Until recently, it was only known from the type locality. Herein we present the first record of G. elongata from Brazil (Northeast coast, Ceará state, collected at 177 m and a morphometrics analysis of the Brazilian species of Gadila. A multivariate Discriminant Function Analysis, based on nine shell morphometric variables (length, maximum diameter, length to maximum diameter ratio, distance of point of maximum diameter from anterior aperture, maximum curvature, anterior aperture height to anterior aperture width ratio, apical aperture height, apical aperture width and apical aperture height to apical aperture width ratio enabled the distinction between all species studied. Comparisons of shell morphometrics show that length and length to maximum diameter ratio are the most important variables in the differentiation of Gadila species.

  16. Size clines and subspecies in the Streptaxid Genus Gulella PFR. (Mollusca, Gastropoda pulmonata) in Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1980-01-01

    CONTENTS 1. Introduction.................. 3 2. Systematic part................. 6 Gulella adamsiana................. 7 Gulella darglensis................. 14 Gulella elliptica................. 19 Gulella farquhari................. 27 Gulella infrendens................ 33 Gulella planti.............

  17. An annotated list of the species of the genus Corbicula from Indonesia (Mollusca: Corbiculidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djajasasmita, Machfudz

    1977-01-01

    The species of the genus Corbicula known from Indonesia are alphabetically listed and noted. Sixteen out of the 35 described species are considered valid, i.e. C. gustaviana, C. moltkiana, C. sumatrana, C. tobae and C. tumida from Sumatra; C. javanica, C. pulchella and C. rivalis from Java; C.

  18. Histofisiología del epitelio renal de helix aspersa (mollusca, gastropoda, pulmonata, stylommatophora)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Aguayo, Inmaculada

    1983-01-01

    La excreción es, por definición, la separación de los productos de desecho de los fluidos tisulares y corporales, y su eliminación del organismo. Además, se considera como el resultado de la filtración del líquido de la sangre, de la reabsorción de ciertos compuestos y de la secreción de sustancias en el interior de túbulos excretores. Los productos de desecho son el resultado del metabolismo celular. Aunque en general son productos finales de procesos catabólicos, también pueden incluir ...

  19. p63 in Mytilus galloprovincialis and p53 family members in the phylum Mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stifanić, Mauro; Micić, Milena; Ramsak, Andreja; Blasković, Sanja; Ruso, Ana; Zahn, Rudolf K; Batel, Renato

    2009-11-01

    Genes of the p53 family are known to be critical regulators of the cell cycle. They have already been established as possible biomarkers. Elaborate regulation mechanisms result in numerous cDNA and protein isoforms being expressed from each gene of the p53 family. Their similarity caused an often misleading nomenclature in non-vertebrate species. The aim of the present work is a clarification of the nomenclature of molluscan p53 family sequences, an essential prerequisite for reliable interpretation of gene expression and protein function studies. Here, we report five partial cDNA and one partial genomic p63 sequences, all originating from two Mytilus galloprovincialis individuals. DNA, deduced protein sequences, and the exon/intron architecture were analyzed and compared to p53, p63 and p73 sequences from other organisms. Along with our sequences, we analyzed all similar molluscan sequences found in the GenBank database. The analysis showed our cDNA sequences code for the TAp63gamma isoform of the p63 protein, and identified all other molluscan p53 family sequences as p63 genes or their expression isoforms. Our results also indicate p63 as the ancestral gene of the p53 family as well as the only gene of the family present in non-chordate metazoan species.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships and evolution of pulmonate gastropods (Mollusca): new insights from increased taxon sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayrat, Benoît; Conrad, Michele; Balayan, Shaina; White, Tracy R; Albrecht, Christian; Golding, Rosemary; Gomes, Suzete R; Harasewych, M G; Martins, António Manuel de Frias

    2011-05-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among higher clades of pulmonate gastropods are reconstructed based on a data set including one nuclear marker (complete ribosomal 18S) and two mitochondrial markers (partial ribosomal 16S and Cytochrome oxidase I) for a total of 96 species. Sequences for 66 of these species are new to science, with a special emphasis on sampling the Ellobiidae, Onchidiidae, and Veronicellidae. Important results include the monophyly of Systellommatophora (Onchidiidae and Veronicellidae) as well as the monophyly of Ellobiidae (including Trimusculus, Otina, and Smeagol). Relationships within Ellobiidae, Onchidiidae, and Veronicellidae are evaluated here for the first time using molecular data. Present results are compared with those from the recent literature, and the current knowledge of phylogenetic relationships among pulmonate gastropods is reviewed: despite many efforts, deep nodes are still uncertain. Identification uncertainties about early fossils of pulmonates are reviewed. Impacts of those phylogenetic and fossil record uncertainties on our understanding of the macro-evolutionary history of pulmonates, especially transitions between aquatic and terrestrial habitats, are discussed.

  1. Contribution to the knowledge of the terrestrial gastropods (Mollusca:Gastropoda from Vrachanska Planina Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVAILO K. DEDOV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastropods fauna from the Vrachanska Planina Mountains (= Vrachanska Planina, Northwest Bulgaria, as well it presents the up to now unpublished results of several research trips of the authors and further collectors in the region. In total 90 terrestrial gastropods species are now known from this mountain area. 78 species were published from the beginning of research in this area up to recently. 56 species were confirmed with new findings and 22 species were not found again while the courses of our investigations. 12 gastropod species are newly recorded for the range.

  2. The phylogenetic position of Neritimorpha based on the mitochondrial genome of Nerita melanotragus (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Lyda R; Colgan, D J

    2010-11-01

    This is the first report of the mitochondrial gene order and almost-complete DNA sequence of a representative of the Neritimorpha, the highest-ranking gastropod clade lacking such data. Mitochondrial gene order in Nerita is largely plesiomorphic. Its only difference from the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris is a tRNA transposition shared by Vetigastropoda and Caenogastropoda. Genome arrangements were not informative enough to resolve the evolutionary relationships of Neritimorpha, Vetigastropoda and Caenogastropoda. The sister-group taxon of Neritimorpha varied in sequence-based analyses. Some suggested that Neritimorpha is the sister group of Caenogastropoda plus Heterobranchia and some that Neritimorpha and Caenogastropoda are sister groups. No analysis significantly supported the hypothesis that Vetigastroda is more closely related to Caenogastropoda than is Neritimorpha.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA hyperdiversity and its potential causes in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We report the presence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hyperdiversity in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Linnaeus, 1758), the first such case among marine gastropods. Our dataset consisted of concatenated 16S-COI-Cytb gene fragments. We used Bayesian analyses to investigate three putative causes underlying genetic variation, and estimated the mtDNA mutation rate, possible signatures of selection and the effective population size of the species in the Azores archipelago. The mtDNA hy...

  4. 18S ribosomal DNA sequences provide insight into the phylogeny of patellogastropod limpets (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sook Hee; Kim, Won

    2007-02-28

    To investigate the phylogeny of Patellogastropoda, the complete 18S rDNA sequences of nine patellogastropod limpets Cymbula canescens (Gmelin, 1791), Helcion dunkeri (Krauss, 1848), Patella rustica Linnaeus, 1758, Cellana toreuma (Reeve, 1855), Cellana nigrolineata (Reeve, 1854), Nacella magellanica Gmelin, 1791, Nipponacmea concinna (Lischke, 1870), Niveotectura pallida (Gould, 1859), and Lottia dorsuosa Gould, 1859 were determined. These sequences were then analyzed along with the published 18S rDNA sequences of 35 gastropods, one bivalve, and one chiton species. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. The results of our 18S rDNA sequence analysis strongly support the monophyly of Patellogastropoda and the existence of three subgroups. Of these, two subgroups, the Patelloidea and Acmaeoidea, are closely related, with branching patterns that can be summarized as [(Cymbula + Helcion) + Patella] and [(Nipponacmea + Lottia) + Niveotectura]. The remaining subgroup, Nacelloidea, emerges as basal and paraphyletic, while its genus Cellana is monophyletic. Our analysis also indicates that the Patellogastropoda have a sister relationship with the order Cocculiniformia within the Gastropoda.

  5. Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849: a study of topotypic specimens (Mollusca: pulmonata: planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A description of Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849, based on specimens collected at its type locality - isla del carmen, state of Campeche, Mexico - is presented. The Shell is small, 13 mm in diameter, 3.5 mm in width and with 5.75 whorls in the largest specimen, thin, moderately lustrous and translucent, horn-colored. Whorls increasing regularly (neither slowly nor rapidly in diameter, rounded on the periphery side, bluntly angular on the left. Suture well-marked, deeper on the left. Right side widely concave, with first whorl deeply situated and partly hidden by the next. Left side shallower than right one, largely flattened, with first whorl plaintly visible. Aperture roundly heart-shaped, usually in the same plane as the body whorl but somewhat deflected to the left (less frequently to the right in some specimens. Peristome sharp, seldom blunt; a distinct callus on the parietal wall. A number of young shells develop one set (seldom more of apertural lamellae which tend to be resorbed as the shell grows. Absence of renal ridge. Ovotestis with about 70 mostly unbrached diverticula. Seminal vesicle beset with well-developed knoblike to fingerlike diverticula. Vaginal pouch more or less developed. Spermatheca club-shaped when empty, egg-shaped when full, and with intermediate forms between those extremes. Spermathecal body usually somewhat longer than the duct. Prostate with 7 to 20 (mean 12.06 ± 2.51 usually short diverticula which give off plumpish branches spreading out in a fan shape and overlapping to some extent their immediate neighbors. Foremost prostatic diverticulum nearly always partially or completely inserted between the spermathecal body and the uterine wall. Penial sheath consistently narrower and shorter than the prepuce. Muscular coat of the penis consisting of an inner longitudinal and an outer circular layers. Ratios between organ lengths: caudal to cephalic parts of female duct = 0.55 to 1.37 (mean 0.85 +- 0.17; cephalic parte of female duct to penial complex = 1.36 to 2.81 ((mean 1.90 +- 0.33; penial sheath to prepuce = 042 to 0.96 (mean 0.67 +- 0.13. Comparison with Morelet’s type specimens of Planorbis orbiculus and P. retusus points to the identity of those nominal species with B. obstructa.

  6. On a collection of non-marine Mollusca from Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benthem Jutting, van Tera

    1925-01-01

    About ten years ago Dr. J. H. VERNHOUT, at that time curator at the National Museum of Natural History at Leiden, gave a commentary on the present state of our knowledge about the “Land- & Freshwater-Molluscs of the Dutch West-Indian Islands” (Notes Leyden Museum, Vol. XXXVI, pag. 177—189, 1914). Af

  7. Deep-water Drilliinae, Cochlespirinae and Oenopotinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Turridae from the Campos Basin, southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Medeiros Andrade Figueira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Samples of a soft-bottom community from the continental slope of Campos Basin, off southeast Brazil, were obtained between 2001 and 2003 by the Research Vessel “Astro-Garoupa” with a 0.25 m2 box corer or by dredging with a Charcot dredge. A total of 177 samples were taken at depths ranging from 700 to 1950 m. Mollusks were present at all of the stations and among Gastropoda the Turridae showed the highest diversity. Within the family Cochlespirinae we found: Leucosyrinx tenoceras (Dall, 1889, L. verrillii (Dall, 1881, expanding the known distribution of the latter species farther south, and L.? subgrundifera (Dall, 1888, which is the first record of this species for the South Atlantic and the shallowest depth at which it has ever been found. Within the family Drilliinae we found Splendrillia centimata (Dall, 1889, also the first record of this species for the South Atlantic and its shallowest depth. Within the subfamily Oenopotinae we describe here three new species in the genus Oenopota Mörch, 1852: O. seraphina n. sp., O. diabula n. sp. and O. carioca n. sp.

  8. Variaciones bioquimicas e histologicas asociadas al evento reproductivo de la hembra de Octopus mimus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zamora C., Mauricio; Olivares P., Alberto

    2004-01-01

    ... en especial de las fibras colagenas. Las proteinas, glucidos y lipidos de la glandula digestiva y el musculo decrecen en el periodo comprendido entre la puesta y la eclosion de los huevos. Las drasticas alteraciones bioquimicas y el deterioro estructural irreversible del musculo y glandula digestiva, disminuyen las expectativas de vida, relacio...

  9. Mitochondrial DNA hyperdiversity and its potential causes in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardulyn, Patrick; Hardy, Olivier J.; Jordaens, Kurt; de Frias Martins, António Manuel; Backeljau, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    We report the presence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hyperdiversity in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Linnaeus, 1758), the first such case among marine gastropods. Our dataset consisted of concatenated 16S-COI-Cytb gene fragments. We used Bayesian analyses to investigate three putative causes underlying genetic variation, and estimated the mtDNA mutation rate, possible signatures of selection and the effective population size of the species in the Azores archipelago. The mtDNA hyperdiversity in M. neritoides is characterized by extremely high haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.999 ± 0.001), high nucleotide diversity (π = 0.013 ± 0.001), and neutral nucleotide diversity above the threshold of 5% (πsyn = 0.0677). Haplotype richness is very high even at spatial scales as small as 100m2. Yet, mtDNA hyperdiversity does not affect the ability of DNA barcoding to identify M. neritoides. The mtDNA hyperdiversity in M. neritoides is best explained by the remarkably high mutation rate at the COI locus (μ = 5.82 × 10−5 per site per year or μ = 1.99 × 10−4 mutations per nucleotide site per generation), whereas the effective population size of this planktonic-dispersing species is surprisingly small (Ne = 5, 256; CI = 1,312–3,7495) probably due to the putative influence of selection. Comparison with COI nucleotide diversity values in other organisms suggests that mtDNA hyperdiversity may be more frequently linked to high μ values and that mtDNA hyperdiversity may be more common across other phyla than currently appreciated. PMID:27761337

  10. A new record of marine wood-borer (Mollusca: Teredinidae) from waters off Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; Wagh, A.B.

    The occurrence of Teredona princesae (Sivickis) has been reported for the first time from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off Bombay. A brief description of the pallet and distribution of this species is presented...

  11. Caribbean Bulimulus revisited: physical moves and molecular traces (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bulimulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham S.H. Breure

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of Bulimulus species are studied, partly from localities within their known distribution range, partly based on interceptions where the material originates from localities where the species seem to be recently introduced and non-native. Molecular study of cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1 reveals the origin of some of these introductions, but is less conclusive for others. Four different methods for species delimitation were applied, which did not result in unambiguous species hypotheses. For a rapid identification of morphologically indistinct species, a more comprehensive database of sequences is needed.

  12. What explains the invading success of the aquatic mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, A.; Castro-Diez, P.

    2008-01-01

    The spread of non-native species is one of the most harmful and least reversible disturbances in ecosystems. Species have to overcome several filters to become a pest (transport, establishment, spread and impact). Few studies have checked the traits that confer ability to overcome these steps in the

  13. Diversity and biogeography of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the limestone hills of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foon, Junn Kitt; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Liew, Thor-Seng

    2017-01-01

    Limestone hills are now gaining global conservation attention as hotspots for short-range endemic species. Levels of land snail endemism can be high at limestone hills, especially at hill clusters that are geographically isolated. In the State of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia, limestone hills have been opportunistically surveyed for land snails in the past, but the majority have yet to be surveyed. To address this knowledge gap, we systematically surveyed the terrestrial malacofauna of 12 limestone hills that, based on our opinion, are a representation of the limestone land snail assemblages within the State. Our inventory yielded high sampling completeness (>85%). We found 122 species of land snails, of which 34 species were unique to one of the surveyed hills. We identified 30 species that are potentially new to science. The number of land snail species recorded at each hill ranged between 39 and 63 species. Four of the sampled limestone hills namely, Prk 01 G. Tempurung, Prk 55 G. Pondok, Prk 47 Kanthan, and Prk 64 Bt Kepala Gajah, have high levels of species richness and unique species, representing 91% of the total species recorded in this study. We identified two clusters of limestone hills in central Perak with distinct differences in land snail species composition - a northern hill cluster on elevated granite bedrock and southern hill cluster in a low-lying valley surrounded by alluvial soils. As limestone hills continue to be quarried to meet the cement demand, the four identified limestone hills, along with other hills from the two clusters, warrant urgent conservation attention in order to maintain high species diversity within Perak's terrestrial malacofauna.

  14. Fisheries and reproductive biology of Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca: Cephalopoda in the Gulf of Alicante (Northwestern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. GONZALEZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The common octopus Octopus vulgarisCuvier, 1797 is the most fished cephalopod species along the Spanish coasts. Its catches are highly fluctuating due to the short life cycle of the species and to the annual variability of the recruitment pattern, strongly dependent on the environmental conditions affecting the eggs and paralarvae. This study examines the common octopus fishery, the catch composition, and the main features of the reproductive biology of this species in the Gulf of Alicante (Spanish Eastern coast, Western Mediterranean FAO division 37.1.1. The common octopus fishery was studied analysing the monthly landing and effort data by fishing gear from 1994 to 2005. Monthly samplings of the commercial O. vulgarislandings from trawlers and clay pots from January 2004 to December 2005 resulted in the measuring of 1833 specimens to enable analysis of the catch composition, and allowed the biological sampling of 1176 individuals to provide the reproductive parameters of the species in the study area. The length-weight relationship calculated for the species was BW = 0.51 * DML 2.87. The yearly sex ratios (males:females were 1:1 (trawl, 2004, 1:0.74 (trawl, 2005, and 1:0.88 (clay pots, 2005. The size (dorsal mantle length, DML at maturity of the species in the study area was 9.67 cm for males and 14.38 cm for females. The gonadosomatic index reached a peak between April and July for males and in July for females. The Fulton condition index was lower in both sexes between June and September, and for males in November-December, whereas for both sexes the values of the digestive gland index were at their maximum between June and December. The energy allocation between somatic and reproductive growth was investigated and the results suggested that the energy spent on reproduction mainly came from feeding, and not from energy stored in the mantle tissues or in the digestive gland

  15. Distribution of Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata), intermediate snail hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointier, J P; Noya, O; Alarcón de Noya, B; Théron, A

    2009-08-01

    An extensive malacological survey was carried out between 2005-2009 in order to clarify the exact number of lymnaeid species which may be intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela. Four species were discovered during this survey, including two local species: Lymnaea cubensis and Lymnaea cousini and two exotic species: Lymnaea truncatula and Lymnaea columella. The most common local species was L. cubensis which was found at 16 out of the 298 sampling sites. This species has a large distribution area throughout the Northern part of Venezuela and was encountered from sea level to an altitude of 1,802 m in state of Trujillo. The second local species L. cousini was collected at only two sites of the Andean Region at altitudes of 3,550 m and 4,040 m, respectively. The European L. truncatula was found at 24 sites all located in the states of Mérida and Táchira at an altitude varying between 1,540-4,000 m. The respective distribution areas of L. cubensis and L. truncatula do not appear to overlap, but more detailed malacological surveys are needed. The fourth lymnaeid species, L. columella was collected in a canal from Mérida at an altitude of 1,929 m and in an irrigation canal from the state of Guárico, at an altitude of 63 m. The role of these four lymnaeid species in the transmission of fascioliasis in Venezuela is discussed.

  16. Distribution of Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata, intermediate snail hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JP Pointier

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available An extensive malacological survey was carried out between 2005-2009 in order to clarify the exact number of lymnaeid species which may be intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela. Four species were discovered during this survey, including two local species: Lymnaea cubensis and Lymnaea cousini and two exotic species: Lymnaea truncatula and Lymnaea columella. The most common local species was L. cubensis which was found at 16 out of the 298 sampling sites. This species has a large distribution area throughout the Northern part of Venezuela and was encountered from sea level to an altitude of 1,802 m in state of Trujillo. The second local species L. cousini was collected at only two sites of the Andean Region at altitudes of 3,550 m and 4,040 m, respectively. The European L. truncatula was found at 24 sites all located in the states of Mérida and Táchira at an altitude varying between 1,540-4,000 m. The respective distribution areas of L. cubensis and L. truncatula do not appear to overlap, but more detailed malacological surveys are needed. The fourth lymnaeid species, L. columella was collected in a canal from Mérida at an altitude of 1,929 m and in an irrigation canal from the state of Guárico, at an altitude of 63 m. The role of these four lymnaeid species in the transmission of fascioliasis in Venezuela is discussed.

  17. Kadmium in Valsbaai: moniteringspotensiaal van die mariene slak, Oxystele tigrina (Mollusca

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    Koot Reinecke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available n Opname is onderneem van die kadmiumvlakke in die tussengetygebied van Valsbaai, Suid-Afrika. Kadmiumkonsentrasies is seisoenaal bepaal in die water en sediment in verskillende lokaliteite. Die metings is oor ’n periode van een jaar gedoen deur seisoenaal monsters te versamel by ses verskillende versamelpunte in en een buite die baai. Dit is met behulp van atoom-absorpsiespektrofotometrie ontleed vir kadmium en die hoogste kontaminasievlakke is by die noordelike kusstreek gevind tussen Strand en Muizenberg waar die digsbevolkte gebiede en die eeste industriële aktiwiteit voorkom. Betekenisvolle variasie in konsentrasies van kadmium het seisoenaal en ruimtelik voorgekom. Die gemiddelde konsentrasies in die water en sediment was in sommige gevalle effens hoër as die vlakke wat deur die Suid-Afrikaanse waterkwalitetis-riglyne aanbeveel is. Kadmiumkonsentrasies is ook in versamelde eksemplare van die mariene slak Oxystele tigrina vir verskillende seisoene vir drie lokaliteite bepaal. Laboratoriumeksperimente is uitgevoer om die opname, akkumulasie en verlies van kadmium in verskillende organe van die tussen-getyslak, Oxystele tigrina te ondersoek. Weefselspesifi eke kadmiumkonsentrasies in kontrole- sowel as blootgestelde lewende eksemplare is vergelyk oor ’n blootstellingsperiode van veertien dae. Die eksperimentele slakke is aan twee subletale konsentrasies van onderskeidelik 0.20 en 0.40 µg/ml watergedraagde kadmium in die vorm van CdCl 2 blootgestel. Die proefdiere is gereeld gemonitor en kadmiumkonsentrasies is in verskillende organe, na suurvertering, atoomabsorpsie-spektrofotometries bepaal. Die resultate het ’n algemene toename van kadmium in die liggame van die slakke uitgewys. Kadmium is in variërende konsentrasies in alle weefsel gevind. ’n Ongeveer liniêre patroon van akkumulasie het aangetoon dat die metaal waarskynlik nie deur O. tigrina gereguleer is nie. Die metaal se teenwoordigheid het verskil tussen die sagteweefsel en skulp op so ’n wyse dat die sagteweefsel normaalweg ’n hoër opnamekoers van die kadmium weerspieël het. Nadat die blootgestelde organismes in kadmiumvrye seewater oorgeplaas is, het gedeeltelike kadmiumverlies wel plaasgevind. Die variasie in kadmiumverlies van die verskillende organe dui moontlik daarop dat slegs ’n gedeelte van die geakkumuleerde kadmium sterk gebind was in sekere weefsels of organe. Die behoud van kadmium in beide sediment en diereliggame was sodanig dat afgelei kan word dat kadmium teen huidige omgewingskonsentrasies in sekere dele van Valsbaai, wat algemeen as laag beskou word, steeds met verloop van tyd in hierdie tussengetydiere kan akkumuleer tot vlakke wat nadelig is vir die spesies self, maar ook vir hulle redatore. Dit sal veral kan gebeur indien fi siese toestande verander om die biobeskikbaarheid te verhoog.

  18. The Bulimulidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The bulimulid genus Bostryx Troschel, 1847 is the most species-rich genus of land snails found in Chile, with the majority of its species found only in the northern part of the country, usually in arid coastal zones. This genus has been sparsely studied in Chile and there is little information on their distribution, diversity or ecology. Here, for the first time, a formal analysis of the diversity of bulimulids in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile, is reported. Of the seventeen species recorded for the area, most of them were efectively found in the field collections and one record was based on literature. Five taxa are described as new: Bostryx ancavilorum sp. nov., Bostryx breurei sp. nov., Bostryx calderaensis sp. nov., Bostryx ireneae sp. nov. and Bostryx valdovinosi sp. nov., and the known geographic distribution of seven species is extended. Results reveal that the Región de Atacama is the richest region in terrestrial snails in Chile, after the Juan Fernández Archipelago. All of the terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile, most of them with restricted geographic distributions along the coastal zones, and none of them are currently protected by law. Further sampling in northern Chile will probably reveal more snail species to be discovered and described. PMID:26587346

  19. Anesthesia of Biomphalaria spp. (Mollusca, Gastropoda: sodium pentobarbital is the drug of choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RL Martins-Sousa

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The anesthetic effect of some water-soluble anesthesic or narcotic drugs currently used in mice was tested in molluscs of the Biomphalaria genus. Sodium thiopental was very toxic to the snails resulting in high rates of mortality in all the treatment schedules tested. Cetamine base, at concentration of 0.25 mg/ml of water, resulted in partial snail anesthesia (40% of snails were anesthetized only after 20 h of exposition. The association of Cetamine base with Tiazine chloridrate did not improve the anesthesic effect, and higher concentrations of these drugs were toxic to the snails. Sodium pentobarbital at 0.4 mg/ml in water for 8 h was the best treatment schedule to anesthetize Biomphalaria snails. In this schedule, the snails were anesthetized without any toxic effect. The procedure provides a powerful tool for in vivo studies that demande a complete state of snail anesthesia.

  20. Anesthesia of Biomphalaria spp. (Mollusca, Gastropoda): sodium pentobarbital is the drug of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Sousa, R; Negrão-Corrêa, D; Bezerra, F; Coelho, P

    2001-04-01

    The anesthetic effect of some water-soluble anesthesic or narcotic drugs currently used in mice was tested in molluscs of the Biomphalaria genus. Sodium thiopental was very toxic to the snails resulting in high rates of mortality in all the treatment schedules tested. Cetamine base, at concentration of 0.25 mg/ml of water, resulted in partial snail anesthesia (40% of snails were anesthetized) only after 20 h of exposition. The association of Cetamine base with Tiazine chloridrate did not improve the anesthesic effect, and higher concentrations of these drugs were toxic to the snails. Sodium pentobarbital at 0.4 mg/ml in water for 8 h was the best treatment schedule to anesthetize Biomphalaria snails. In this schedule, the snails were anesthetized without any toxic effect. The procedure provides a powerful tool for in vivo studies that demande a complete state of snail anesthesia.

  1. Vestigial phragmocone in the gladius points to a deepwater origin of squid (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, Alexander I.; Bizikov, Vyacheslav A.; Fuchs, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    The microstructure of the gladius cone was investigated in six species of nektonic squid: shallow-water Loligo gahi (Loliginidae), pelagic eurybathic Illex argentinus, Todarodes pacificus, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), and deepwater Onykia ingens (Onychoteuthidae) and Gonatus antarcticus (Gonatidae) using state-of-the-art microscopy. Apart from L. gahi, all other species had septa-like layers in the gladius cone, which for the first time were investigated in detail and compared with those in extinct Cretaceous belemnites Hibolithes sp. and Pachyteuthis sp., and spirulid Cyrtobelus sp. It was found that the organic layers of the gladius cone in recent squid can be homologized with the organic components of the shell in fossil phragmocone-bearing coleoids. The septa-like layers in modern gladius cones therefore represent a vestigial phragmocone composed of organic septal rudiments of the ancestral phragmocone that has lost the siphuncle and gas-filled chambers. The well-developed rostrum in onychoteuthids and small rostrum of the gladius in ommastrephids and gonatids can be seen as homologous with the belemnoid rostrum, which may indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between belemnites and at least some squid. Possible evolutionary pathways of the reduction of the functional phragmocone in squid ancestors are discussed. Several features such as the loss of shell calcification, deep water speciation, and the structure of the equilibrium organ point to a deep-water origin of squids.

  2. Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) procured by the CANCAP I-VII expeditions, 1976-86

    OpenAIRE

    Kaas, P.

    1991-01-01

    The 327 specimens of chitons captured during six out of seven CANCAP Expeditions have been examined. They belong to 26 species, including two recently described ones: Ischnochiton (Stenosemus) substriatus Kaas & Van Belle, 1990 and Ischnochiton (Ischnochiton nicklesi Kaas & Van Belle, 1990. Callistochiton pachylasmae (Di Monterosato, 1878) has been found off the coast of Morocco.

  3. Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) procured by the CANCAP I-VII expeditions, 1976-86

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaas, P.

    1991-01-01

    The 327 specimens of chitons captured during six out of seven CANCAP Expeditions have been examined. They belong to 26 species, including two recently described ones: Ischnochiton (Stenosemus) substriatus Kaas & Van Belle, 1990 and Ischnochiton (Ischnochiton nicklesi Kaas & Van Belle, 1990. Callisto

  4. ACUTE TOXICITY OF MERCURY TO EMBRYOS OF Helisoma trivolvis (SAY, 1817 (MOLLUSCA: PLANORBIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passuni, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a metal very employed at industry and mining in Peru. The aim of current research was to determine embryotoxic lethal acute toxicity of Hg2+, in form of chloride of mercury (HgCl on 2 Helisoma trivolvis (Say, 1817 at 24 h exposure. Concentrations assayed were 514, 51.4, 5.14 and 0.51 ug Hg2+ L-1, since salt on base of HgCl using dechlorined water as diluents. Snail embryos 2 were considered dead when none rotation movement during since 30 seconds. Percentage of mortality of embryonic stages of H. trivolvis increased with each of concentrations crescents of Hg2+ at 24 h exposure. At a concentration of 514.4 ug Hg2+ L-1 was observed significantly differences in relation to control. Moreover, concentration of 514.4 ug Hg2+ L-1 showed differences with relation to other three treatments. LC was 2.49 ug Hg2+ L-1. Embryos of H. trivolvis were 50 higher sensible to Hg2+ in comparison to other freshwater snail species was concluded.

  5. Anatomia e histologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the male reproductive system of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the testis is better evidentiated than the ovary. In the structure of the testis a great number of very small channels converges to a single one. The male copulatory organs result of transformations that take place in the inner surface on the palial membrane. Histologically, the testis of immature males shows seminiferous ducts with round egg-shaped forms. In their lumens we could notice masses of cells that will originate spermatozoids. The penis has a conjunctive muscular sheath that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  6. A tropical Atlantic species of Melibe Rang, 1829 (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Tethyiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Espinoza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Melibe is described based on two specimens collected in Florida. This new species is well differentiated morphologically and genetically from other species of Melibe studied to date. The four residue deletions in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 protein found in all previously sequenced tropical species of Melibe sequenced (and Melibe rosea are also present in this new species. These deletions do not appear to affect important structural components of this protein but might have fitness implications. This paper provides the first confirmed record of Melibe in the tropical western Atlantic Ocean.

  7. Systematic reviews on the Mesodesmatidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) I. The Genus Monterosatus Beu, 1971

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij-Schuiling, de L.A.

    1977-01-01

    In trying to identify a small Mesodesma from West Irian, New Guinea, much material in the collections of several museums was studied. As a guide for the identification I at first used the revision of the Mesodesmatidae by Lamy (1914), which is based exclusively on the collections of the Parisian mus

  8. Is Galba schirazensis (Mollusca, Gastropoda an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea in Ecuador?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron Yannick

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482 in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482 and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482 of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador.

  9. On Cyprian Helicellinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda Pulmonata: Helicidae), making a new start

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.

    1991-01-01

    Our fragmentary knowledge concerning the Cyprian Helicellinae is revised and summarized, while new data are added. "Helicella (Xerotricha) conspurcata distinguenda" Haas, 1936, is a Helicopsis species that has to be called H. cypriola (Westerlund, 1889) as a consequence of the selection of a neotype

  10. A revision of Cerithidea (Cerithideopsilla) cingulata (Gmelin) and some related species (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1940-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Engaged in the study of fossil shells belonging to Thiele's sectio Cerithideopsilla of the genus Cerithidea Swainson and deriving from plio-pleistocene beds in East Java, I failed to find a satisfying account on the recent species of this group. Therefore I resolved to examine as large

  11. What explains the invading success of the aquatic mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, A.; Castro-Diez, P.

    2008-01-01

    The spread of non-native species is one of the most harmful and least reversible disturbances in ecosystems. Species have to overcome several filters to become a pest (transport, establishment, spread and impact). Few studies have checked the traits that confer ability to overcome these steps in the

  12. On the morphology of Laevapex vazi n. sp. from Brazil (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Basommatophora: Ancylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Barbosa dos Santos

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of Laevapex vazi n. sp. based on 8 specimens collectec in Ourinhos, state of São Paulo, is presented. Shell thin, diaphanous, with a light brown periostracum and moderately elliptical opening. Apex not pointed, smooth, situated on the right posterior region of the shell, inclined to the right often reaching the edge of the shell or extending beyond it. Concentric lines clearly visible; radial striation not visible or when perceptible very thin, here and there. Ratios: shell width/shell lenght = 0,60 - 0,67 (mean = 0,63; shell height/shell length = 0,50 - 0,61 (mean = 0,55; shell height/shell width = 0,33 - 0,40 (mean = 0,35. Body of normal ancylid type; mantle pigmentation concentrated on the left side; three muscles are seen: a round posterior one on the left side, an elliptical muscle on the right anterior side and an almost almond-shaped one on the left anterior side. Tentacles with a medium core of black pigment. Pseudobranch two-lobed and folded, the dorsal lobe smaller than the vetral one. Ovotestis with 20 unbranched diverticula, around a short collecting canal. Ovispermiduct with an enlargement with several round outpocketings constituting the seminal vesicle. Carrefour as a round sac. Albumen gland almost cylindrical with several acinous diverticula. Elongated nidamental gland continous with the galndular wall of the uterus; uterus flattened and thin-walled. Spermathecal body almost rounded. Pear-shaped prostate without diverticula. Penial complex without flagellum but with well-developed ultra-penis and penis. Jaw horseshoe shaped. Radular forma 20.1.20; raquidian tooth quadricuspid, asymmetrical. The genus Laevapex Walker, 1903 is recorded for the first time in Brazil. It is easily distinguished from South American Gundlachia Pfeiffer, 1849 by its penial complex. Laevapex vazi is dedicated to Dr. Jorge Faria Vaz, from SUCEN-SP, who have been sent to me the specimens.

  13. The land Mollusca of Dominica (Lesser Antilles), with notes on some enigmatic or rare species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, D.G.; Hovestadt, A.; Fields, A.; Breure, A.S.H.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the land-snail fauna of the Lesser Antillean island of Dominica is given, based on data from literature and four recent surveys. There are 42 taxa listed, of which the following species are recorded for the first time from the island: Allopeas gracile (Hutt on, 1834), A. micra (d’Orbi

  14. Spermatozoa and spermatogenesis in the northern quahaug Mercenaria mercenaria (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xue-Ping; Yang, Wan-Xi; Dahms, Hans-U.; Lin, Zhihua; Chai, Xueliang

    2008-12-01

    We studied the ultrastructure of spermatogenesis and spermatozoa in the northern quahaug, the clam Mercenaria mercenaria. Spermatogenetic cells gradually elongate. Mitochondria gradually fuse and increase in size and electron density. During spermatid differentiation, proacrosomal vesicles migrate towards the presumptive anterior pole of the nucleus and eventually form the acrosome. The spermatozoon of M. mercenaria is of a primitive type. It is composed of head, mid-piece, and tail. The acrosome shows a subacrosomal space with a short conical contour. The slightly curved nucleus of the spermatozoon contains fine-grained dense chromatin. The middle piece consists of a centriolar complex which is surrounded by four mitochondria. The flagellum has a standard “9 + 2” microtubular structure. The ultrastructure of spermatozoa and spermatogenesis of M. mercenaria shares a number of features with other species of the family Veneridae. M. mercenaria may be a suitable model species for further investigations into the mechanisms of spermatogenesis in the Bivalvia.

  15. On the identity of broad-shelled mussels (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mytilus) from the Dutch delta region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenenberg, D.S.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Rajagopal, S.; Jansen, J.M.; Bos, M.M.; Velde, van der G.; Gittenberger, E.; Hoeksema, B.W.; Raad, H.; Hummel, H.

    2011-01-01

    Late Quaternary (Eemian) deposits of the Netherlands contain shells that resemble those of living Mytilus galloprovincialis. Similar broad-shelled mytilids also occur in estuaries of the southwestern Netherlands together with slender individuals typical of M. edulis. We sampled living mussels along

  16. Embryonic development of nudibranch species (Mollusca:Opisthobranchia) in the Gulf of Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pattira Kasamesiri; Shettapong Meksumpun; Charumas Meksumpun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find the possible way to predict the mode of embryonic development of nudibranchs, focusing on egg mass characteristics, embryonic development, and shell patterns of the veligers.Methods:The specimens were allowed to copulate and lay their egg masses under laboratory conditions. Embryonic development was monitored under a light microscope with a digital camera every day until hatching.Results:Eight species of nudibranch were collected in the eastern part of the Gulf of Thailand. that developed, except for Jorunna funebris, which had 1-4 larvae in each egg capsule. All the specimens had the same pattern of cell division and hatching into the water column during the veliger form. However, the species developed at different rates in each stage. Most of the species of nudibranch collected had a single larva in each egg capsule Conclusions: All species in the current study had planktotrophic development except Doriprismatica atromarginata, which showed lecithotrophic development. Based on embryonic development among the nudibranchs that showed planktotrophic development, Jorunna funebris appeared to be the most advantageous species for culture development with regard to utilization and conservation in the future.

  17. Verspreiding en habitats van Ceratophallus natalensis (Mollusca: Planorbidae in Suid-Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. de Kock

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel handel oor die geografiese verspreiding en habitats van Ceratophallus natalensis soos weerspieël deur die 1 797 monsters wat tans in die databasis van die Nasionale Varswater- slakversameling (NVWSV opgeneem is. Hierdie spesie is in al 14 verskillende waterliggaamtipes wat in die databasis verteenwoordig word, aangetref. Die grootste getal monsters was afkomstig van damme, spruite en riviere. Habitats met standhoudende, stilstaande en varswater waarvan die substratum oorwegend uit modder bestaan het, was die beste verteenwoordig. Die resultate van ’n geïntegreerde besluitnemingsboom- en effekgrootte-analise het getoon dat temperatuur, hoogte bo seevlak en waterliggame as sodanig, ’n deurslaggewende rol in die gedokumenteerde geografiese verspreiding van hierdie spesie in Suid-Afrika gespeel het. ’n Temperatuurindeks wat bereken is, het getoon dat C. natalensis ook goed toegerus is om habitats in die koeler streke van Suid-Afrika te bevolk. Gesien in die lig van die wye geografiese verspreiding van hierdie spesie in hierdie land en dat dit elders in Afrika bevind is dat dit serkarieë van verskeie helmintspesies onder natuurlike toestande kan vrystel, word dit aanbeveel dat sy rol as tussengasheer in Suid-Afrika deeglik ondersoek behoort te word.

  18. Is Galba schirazensis (Mollusca, Gastropoda) an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea) in Ecuador?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Yannick; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Hurtrez-Boussès, Sylvie; Lounnas, Mannon; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington

    2017-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482) in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences) and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482) and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482) of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador. © Y. Caron et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  19. Biological aspects of Omalonyx convexus (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae from the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Oliveira Arruda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n4p95 Omalonyx convexus (Heynemann, 1868 is widely spread throughout the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The studied specimens presented in vivo, tegument and mantle coloring in variations between milky-white, orange and beige. The shell presented itself covered by the mantle in different extents; however, it was not completely covered on any of the specimens. The feeding diet is basically constituted by vegetal tissues, although non-vegetal food items were also found. The specimens were found in preserved and in polluted fresh water environments, as well as on natural and artificial substrates. The temperature throughout the day influences their placement on habitat substrates.

  20. Thyasira ockelmanni (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Veneroidea, A new species of Thyasiridae from the Norwegian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozemarijn Keuning

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false NO-BOK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A new species of Thyasiridae, Thyasira ockelmanni n.sp. is described from the abyssal depths of the Norwegian Sea. The generic assignment is tentative and possible alternatives are discussed. The new species has some resemblance to Thyasira subovata (Jeffreys, 1881 and Adontorhina similis Barry & McCormack, 2007, but the posterior outline is rounded and not angulate or truncate as in these species.

  1. Sinanodonta woodiana (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae: Isolation and Characterization of the First Microsatellite Markers

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    Elena Iulia Iorgu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834 is a large Unionid species with a real invasion success. It colonized Europe, Central America, the Indonesian Islands and recently North America. The species life cycle involves a larval parasitic stage on freshwater fish species which contributes to the spread of the mussel. In this paper we describe, for the first time, eight polymorphic microsatellite loci for the species Sinanodonta woodiana. The genetic screening of individuals confirmed that all loci were highly polymorphic. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 7 to 14 and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.650 to 0.950. These loci should prove useful to study the species population genetics which could help to infer important aspects of the invasion process.

  2. Toxicological aspects associated with the ecology of Donax trunculus (Bivalvia, Mollusca) in a polluted environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishelson, L.; Manelis, R. [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bresler, V.; Zuk-Rimon, Z.; Dotan, A.; Yawetz, A. [Institute for Nature Conservation Research, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Hornung, H. [Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, National Institute of Oceanography, Haifa (Israel)

    1999-02-09

    This study provides data on the ecology and toxicology observed in the population of Donax trunculus, a sand dwelling mussel, in the shallow subtidal of Haifa Bay (Mediterranean Sea, Israel). The studied population of the mussel forms a dominant fraction in a community of sand-dwelling molluscs in a zone located 5-25 m from the shoreline, and at depths of 20-120 cm, numbering up to 2000 per m{sup 2}. Samples of the mussel were collected from three sites, located within 9 km of shore in Haifa Bay. These included a clean site (Akko), a site polluted by a chemical PVC-polymer industry (Frutarom), and a site polluted with oil and waste from the petrochemical industry (Qiryat Yam). Metal analysis indicated site-dependent variations in levels of cadmium, lead, copper and mercury in the mussel soft tissues. Copper levels were similar in the bivalves collected from all the sites. Levels of mercury were significantly higher in specimens from the PVC-polluted site (Frutarom) while levels of cadmium were higher in Akko and Qiryat Yam compared to Frutarom. Lead residues were found only in Donax from Akko. The residual contents of mercury, copper and cadmium were relatively high in the young and noticeably low in Donax of medium body size. The main site of deposition of metals was in the soft tissues of the bivalve, but bioaccumulation of metals was also found in the shells. A marked increase in permeability of gills and mantle to the fluorescent anionic dye-fluorescein (FLU) was detected in Donax from Qiryat Yam and especially Frutarom, compared to the bivalves sampled from Akko. Multiple foci of enhanced permeability (multiple fluorescent spots) were detected in all the individuals sampled from Frutarom but none in the bivalve samples from Akko. Lysosomal accumulation of the metachromatic fluorescent cationic probe, acridine orange - (AO), was significantly decreased in the tissues of D. trunculus from polluted sites, especially polluted by the PVC factory. This decrease correlated with lysosomal enlargement and the formation of secondary lysosomes. D. trunculus appears to possess the most effective biochemical and physiological defense mechanisms enabling it to survive in habitats of polluted shallow waters, where other sand dwelling mollusc species were absent or found only in waters deeper then 2.5 m. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. The aquatic molluscs (Mollusca: Gastropoda and Bivalvia of Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DILIAN GEORGIEV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Till now 13 species of aquatic molluscs are known to inhabit the park area: 11 species of snails and 2 species of clams. Even included in the list the species of Grossuana and Radix balthica has to be studied anatomically for sure identification. Nine species are of conservation statute classified as "Least Concern" or "Vulnerable", and four does not have any statute. Three stygobiotic snail species are local endemics.

  4. Fisheries and reproductive biology of Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca: Cephalopoda in the Gulf of Alicante (Northwestern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. GONZALEZ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The common octopus Octopus vulgarisCuvier, 1797 is the most fished cephalopod species along the Spanish coasts. Its catches are highly fluctuating due to the short life cycle of the species and to the annual variability of the recruitment pattern, strongly dependent on the environmental conditions affecting the eggs and paralarvae. This study examines the common octopus fishery, the catch composition, and the main features of the reproductive biology of this species in the Gulf of Alicante (Spanish Eastern coast, Western Mediterranean FAO division 37.1.1. The common octopus fishery was studied analysing the monthly landing and effort data by fishing gear from 1994 to 2005. Monthly samplings of the commercial O. vulgarislandings from trawlers and clay pots from January 2004 to December 2005 resulted in the measuring of 1833 specimens to enable analysis of the catch composition, and allowed the biological sampling of 1176 individuals to provide the reproductive parameters of the species in the study area. The length-weight relationship calculated for the species was BW = 0.51 * DML 2.87. The yearly sex ratios (males:females were 1:1 (trawl, 2004, 1:0.74 (trawl, 2005, and 1:0.88 (clay pots, 2005. The size (dorsal mantle length, DML at maturity of the species in the study area was 9.67 cm for males and 14.38 cm for females. The gonadosomatic index reached a peak between April and July for males and in July for females. The Fulton condition index was lower in both sexes between June and September, and for males in November-December, whereas for both sexes the values of the digestive gland index were at their maximum between June and December. The energy allocation between somatic and reproductive growth was investigated and the results suggested that the energy spent on reproduction mainly came from feeding, and not from energy stored in the mantle tissues or in the digestive gland

  5. A comparative ultrastructural investigation of the cephalic sensory organs in Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbbeler, K; Klussmann-Kolb, A

    2007-12-01

    Cephalic sensory organs (CSOs) are specialised structures in the head region of adult Opisthobranchia involved in perception of different stimuli. The gross morphology of these organs differs considerably among taxa. The current study aims at describing the cellular morphology of the CSOs in order to reveal cellular patterns, especially of sensory epithelia, common for opisthobranchs. Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterise the fine structure of the organs and to compare the CSOs of four different opisthobranch species. The cellular composition of the sensory system is conserved among taxa. The epidermal cells in sensory regions are always columnar and ciliated cells are frequently apparent. The sensory cells are primary receptors arranged in subepidermal cell clusters. They extend dendrites which penetrate the epithelium and reach the surface. Some of the dendrites bear cilia, whereas others only build a small protuberance. Processing of sensory information takes place in the peripheral glomeruli of all species. Moreover, few taxa possess additional peripheral ganglia at the base of their CSOs. The results of the present study might support other investigations indicating that the posterior CSOs are primarily involved in distance chemoreception, whereas the anterior CSOs might be used for contact chemoreception and mechanoreception.

  6. The Continuing Debate on Deep Molluscan Phylogeny: Evidence for Serialia (Mollusca, Monoplacophora + Polyplacophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Stöger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molluscs are a diverse animal phylum with a formidable fossil record. Although there is little doubt about the monophyly of the eight extant classes, relationships between these groups are controversial. We analysed a comprehensive multilocus molecular data set for molluscs, the first to include multiple species from all classes, including five monoplacophorans in both extant families. Our analyses of five markers resolve two major clades: the first includes gastropods and bivalves sister to Serialia (monoplacophorans and chitons, and the second comprises scaphopods sister to aplacophorans and cephalopods. Traditional groupings such as Testaria, Aculifera, and Conchifera are rejected by our data with significant Approximately Unbiased (AU test values. A new molecular clock indicates that molluscs had a terminal Precambrian origin with rapid divergence of all eight extant classes in the Cambrian. The recovery of Serialia as a derived, Late Cambrian clade is potentially in line with the stratigraphic chronology of morphologically heterogeneous early mollusc fossils. Serialia is in conflict with traditional molluscan classifications and recent phylogenomic data. Yet our hypothesis, as others from molecular data, implies frequent molluscan shell and body transformations by heterochronic shifts in development and multiple convergent adaptations, leading to the variable shells and body plans in extant lineages.

  7. Fine structure and immunocytochemistry of a new chemosensory system in the Chiton larva (Mollusca: Polyplacophora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haszprunar, Gerhard; Friedrich, Stefan; Wanninger, Andreas;

    2002-01-01

    Combined electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry of the larvae of several polyplacophoran species (Chiton olivaceus, Lepidochitona aff. corrugata, Mopalia muscosa) revealed a sensory system new to science, a so-called "ampullary system." The cells of the "ampullary system" are arranged in four...... symmetrically situated pairs lying dorsolaterally and ventrolaterally in the pretrochal part of the trochophore-like larva and they send axons into the cerebral commissure. They are lost at metamorphosis. The fine structure of these cells strongly resembles that of so-called "ampullary cells" known from various...... sensory organs of other molluscs, such as the apical complex of gastropod and bivalve larvae, osphradia of vetigastropods, and olfactory organs of cephalopods, and nuchal organs of certain polychaetes. The ampullary cells and their nerves are densely stained by anti-FMRF-amide fluorescence dyes, whereas...

  8. [Morphobiochemical adaptations of Mediterranean Littorina punctata (Gmelin, 1790) (Mollusca, Gastropoda) to survival under supralittoral conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakrinskaia, I O

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and morphobiochemical adaptations of Littorina punctata to dwelling under supralittoral condi- tions are analyzed. A quantitative estimation of the hemoglobin content in the radular tissues of the mollusk is given.

  9. Polyplacophora (Mollusca from reef ecosystems and associations with macroalgae on the Coast of Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dorigo Correia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazilian marine molluscs, especially Gastropoda and Bivalvia, are relatively well studied. However, information on the class Polyplacophora is more scarce, particularly on reef-dwelling forms. This study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze aspects of polyplacophorans from reef ecosystems and their associations with macroalgae on the coast of Maceió (state of Alagoas, Brazilian Northeast. The study area included five coral reefs at Ipioca, Ponta do Prego, Ponta do Meirim, Riacho Doce and Ponta Verde, as well as two sandstone reefs, located in Guaxuma and Sereia. The samples were obtained by snorkelling along the intertidal and subtidal reef zones to a depth of up to five meters during low tides, between 2009 and 2011. In addition, the chitons associated with three macroalgae of the Ponta Verde coral reef were studied based on collections made over 12 years (from the summer of 1998 to the winter of 2009. Three replicates with an area of 25 cm2 were collected from each of the following species of macroalgal phytals: Amphiroa fragilissima (Rhodophyta, Caulerpa racemosa (Chlorophyta and Dictyota cervicornis (Phaeophyta. A total of 715 individuals (110 juveniles and 605 adults were identified, including Acanthochitona terezae Guerra, 1983, Ischnochiton striolatus (Gray, 1828 and Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby II, 1840. Acanthochitona terezae was found for the first time in the area. Ischnochiton striolatus was the most abundant species in the reef ecosystem and in association with macroalgae. The greatest number of individuals of all three polyplacophorans identified (adults and juveniles was found on the phytal A. fragilissima.

  10. The Recent Pectinoidea of the New Zealand region (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Propeamussiidae, Pectinidae and Spondylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.H. Dijkstra; B.A. Marshall

    2008-01-01

    The Recent Pectinoidea of the New Zealand region are reviewed. Eight new species are described from the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone: Parvamussium cancellorum, Cyclochlamys austrina, Cc. delli, Cc. irregularis, Cc. munida, Cc. pileolus, Cyclopecten fluctuosus, and Catillopecten tasmani. Nine

  11. The anatomy and functional morphology of Diplodon rhombeus fontainianus (Orbigny, 1835 (Mollusca Bivalvia, Hyriidae

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    WEP. Avelar

    Full Text Available Diplodon rhombeus fontainianus (Orbigny, 1835, belongs to the family Hyriidae Swainson 1840, the distribution of which is restricted to South America and Australasia. This species, endemic to Brazil, occurs in the central-southern geographical region, Upper Paraná Basin and Atlantic Microbasins Espirito Santo to Paraná states. The mollusk lives buried in muddy substrata, has similar sized adductor muscles, and is dioecious, lacking sexual dimorphism. The apertures are simple (type AII of Yonge, 1948, 1957 as in Diplodon rotundus gratus, Castalia undosa martensi, Castalia undosa undosa and mantle fusion is present only in the base of the exalant aperture. The inhalant aperture exhibits tentacles originating from the inner fold while the exhalant aperture has no tentacles. The ctenidia are type D (of Atkins, 1937. A well-developed marsupium is present in the inner demibranch. The association between the ctenidia and the labial palps belongs to category I (of Stasek, 1963. The stomach constitutes a type IV structure (of Purchon, 1958. The posterior sorting area (psa presents two pouches in Diplodon rhombeus fontainianus. Among the Hyriidae, the presence of these pouches has also been described in several species of Hyriidae from South America. The organization of the gut in the visceral mass follows the same pattern seen in the Hyriidae already studied: Castalia undosa martensi, Castalia undosa undosa, Diplodon.rotundus gratus,Diplodon charruanus and Diplodon pilsbryi.

  12. Food intake and growth in Macoma balthica (mollusca) in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H.

    Groups of Macoma balthica were kept during 4-week periods in an experimental set up at a constant temperature and food concentration. Food concentrations (expressed in particulate organic carbon) for the different groups ranged from 0 to 16 mg C·I -1. The experiment was repeated 6 times, viz. in different months, and the temperatures were changed accordingly to correspond with levels found in the field. The rates of food intake, water clearance and growth were followed throughout the experiment. The flagellate Isochrysis galbana served as food. With increasing food concentration all 3 rates (food intake, water clearance and growth) increased up to maximum to decrease again at high food concentrations. Such bell-shaped relationships were observed in all seasons. The dependence of growth on food concentration was similar in all seasons. Zero growth or weight losses were observed at food concentrations below 1.3 mg C·I -1, and maximum growth rates were reached at food concentrations between 5 and 7 mg C·I -1. The daily maintenance ration amounted to about 1.2% of the body weight. Seasonal differences were observed in the relationships of the rates of both water clearance and food intake with food concentration. During the winter and spring the optimum curves for these relationships reached their maximum at food concentrations of 8 to 10 mg C·I -1. During summer and early autumn the optimum curves were shifted to lower food concentrations, around 2 to 4 mg C·I -1, probably as an adaptation to low food concentrations observed in the field during these periods.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA hyperdiversity and its potential causes in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Mollusca: Gastropoda

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    Séverine Fourdrilis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the presence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA hyperdiversity in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Linnaeus, 1758, the first such case among marine gastropods. Our dataset consisted of concatenated 16S-COI-Cytb gene fragments. We used Bayesian analyses to investigate three putative causes underlying genetic variation, and estimated the mtDNA mutation rate, possible signatures of selection and the effective population size of the species in the Azores archipelago. The mtDNA hyperdiversity in M. neritoides is characterized by extremely high haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.999 ± 0.001, high nucleotide diversity (π = 0.013 ± 0.001, and neutral nucleotide diversity above the threshold of 5% (πsyn = 0.0677. Haplotype richness is very high even at spatial scales as small as 100m2. Yet, mtDNA hyperdiversity does not affect the ability of DNA barcoding to identify M. neritoides. The mtDNA hyperdiversity in M. neritoides is best explained by the remarkably high mutation rate at the COI locus (μ = 5.82 × 10−5 per site per year or μ = 1.99 × 10−4 mutations per nucleotide site per generation, whereas the effective population size of this planktonic-dispersing species is surprisingly small (Ne = 5, 256; CI = 1,312–3,7495 probably due to the putative influence of selection. Comparison with COI nucleotide diversity values in other organisms suggests that mtDNA hyperdiversity may be more frequently linked to high μ values and that mtDNA hyperdiversity may be more common across other phyla than currently appreciated.

  14. Ueber den begriff "Kinoplasma" in der spermiogenese von Australorbis Glabratus Olivaceus (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1960-11-01

    Full Text Available Zur Klaerung der Frage, ob der Begriff "Kinoplasma" fuer gewisse, von MERTON (1924,1926, 1930 beobachtete Bildungen an den reifenden Spermiden von pulmonaten Mollusken oder fuer Bestandteile des Cytoplasmas im Sinne von STRASBURGER und SCARTH zu verwenden ist, werden in der vorliegenden Mitteilung die Vorgaenge bei der Spermiohistogenese von Australorbis glabratus olivaceus untersucht. Es ergibt sich: 1. Das von MERTON bezeichnete "Kinoplasma" existiert nicht als solches, es handelt sich bei den von ihm dargestellten Protoplasmabildungen um kugelige, von den Spermiden abgeschnuerte Restkoerper nicht verwendeten Baumaterials, bestehend aus Protoplasma und einigen Mitochondrien. Sie werden von den Naehr- oder Bazalzellen phagozytiert. Der Ausdruck "Kinoplasma" kann nur fuer die submikroskopischen, geformten, faedigen Elemente des Cytoplasmas reserviert bleiben, die den geradlinigen Fall der uebrigen nicht geformten Komponenten bremst oder ablenkt; damit muss das Kinoplasma aber aus dem Begriff des Cytoplasmas herausgenommen werden, da es, wenn auch vermutlich reversibel, eine Differenzierung darstellt. 2. Der Spermienfaden wird von den Centriolen (Axialfilament und den Mitochondrien (zwei peripher gelegene Spiralfilamente, sowie einem Plasmamantel gebildet. 3. Nach Beendigung des Auswachsens der Spermiengeissel, die zu diesem Zeitpunkt nur aus dem Achsenfaden und dem Protoplasmazylinder besteht, setzt sich eine Protoplasmamasse vom Kopf in Richtung zum Geisselende in Bewegung. Sie fuehrt den Golgi-Koerper und sehr viele Mitochondrien mit sich. Aus diesen entwickeln sich Fibrillen, die sich zu den beiden Spiralfilamenten zusammenfuegen. Diese Masse entspricht der von MERTON in seiner Theorie als Kinoplasma bezeichneten Komponente. 4. Die Bewegung dieses Protoplasmateils wird auf den Schub zurueckgefuehrt, den die sich bildenden Fibrillen auf die Mitochondrien ausueben. 5. Die Rueckwaertsbewegung dieses Protoplasmakoerpers beruht wahrscheinlich auf Elastizitaet und Kontraktilitaet des Plasmalemmas. 6. Das zum Kopf zurueckgekehrte Protoplasma wird mit restlichen Mitochondrien als Kugel ausgeschieden und von den Naehrzellen phagocytiert. 7. Der Golgi-Koerper wird vor Beendigung der Protoplasmawanderung bereits in der letzten Haelfte der Geissel eliminiert.

  15. A new alien gastropod Pseudorhaphitoma iodolabiata (Hornung & Mermod, 1928 (Mangeliidae, Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea

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    B. OZTURK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study documents the occurrence of a new alien gastropod Pseudorhaphitoma iodolabiata in the Mediterranean Sea, collected inIskenderun Bay, Turkey, on September 2011. This record increases to 213 the number of alien molluscs in the Mediterranean.

  16. Pectinoidea (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Propeamussiidae, Cyclochlamydidae n. fam., Entoliidae and Pectinidae) from the Vanuatu Archipelago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.; Maestrati, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper documents the species of Pectinoidea Rafinesque, 1815 collected in Vanuatu during the SANTO 2006 expedition. A total of 49 species (13 Propeamussiidae Abbott, 1954, 4 Cyclochlamydidae n. fam., 1 Entoliidae Teppner, 1922, and 31 Pectinidae Rafinesque, 1815) are represented, of which 70% ar

  17. Bibliography of Cuban terrestrial Mollusca, including related and biohistorical papers on Cuban malacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breure, A.S.H.; González Guillén, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive overview of literature on Cuban terrestrial molluscs since the 18th century. It currently cites approximately 1000 references, dealing with a) primary and secondary sources directly treating Cuban taxa or relevant for the study of the Cuban malacofauna; b) abstrac

  18. Systematic reviews on the Mesodesmatidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) I. The Genus Monterosatus Beu, 1971

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij-Schuiling, de L.A.

    1977-01-01

    In trying to identify a small Mesodesma from West Irian, New Guinea, much material in the collections of several museums was studied. As a guide for the identification I at first used the revision of the Mesodesmatidae by Lamy (1914), which is based exclusively on the collections of the Parisian mus

  19. Annotated type catalogue of the Amphibulimidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breure, Abraham S H; Ablett, Jonathan D

    2011-01-01

    The type status is described of 39 taxa classified within the family Amphibulimidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the London museum. One taxon, Bulimus elaeodes Pfeiffer, 1853, is removed to the Strophocheilidae. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus adoptus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus (Eurytus) eros Angas, 1878; Helix onca d'Orbigny, 1835; Amphibulima pardalina Guppy, 1868. The type status of the following taxon is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Strophocheilus (Dryptus) jubeus Fulton, 1908.As general introduction to this and following papers on Orthalicoid types in the Natural History Museum, a brief history of the London collection is given and several examples of handwriting from different authors are presented.

  20. Morfología del aparato digestivo de Enteroctopus megalocyathus y Loligo sanpaulensis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Garri Rosana; Ré María Edith

    2002-01-01

    A detailed description of the morphology of the digestive organs of Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Gould, 1852) and Loligo sanpaulensis Brakoniecki, 1984 is given. The mandibles, the crop diverticulum, a doubly coiled caecum, the loop of the medium intestine and the appendages of the digestive gland are first described for E. megalocyathus. The most outstanding finding in L. sanpaulensis is the location of the single posterior salivary gland, wholly embedded in the digestive gland.

  1. Morfología del aparato digestivo de Enteroctopus megalocyathus y Loligo sanpaulensis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garri Rosana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed description of the morphology of the digestive organs of Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Gould, 1852 and Loligo sanpaulensis Brakoniecki, 1984 is given. The mandibles, the crop diverticulum, a doubly coiled caecum, the loop of the medium intestine and the appendages of the digestive gland are first described for E. megalocyathus. The most outstanding finding in L. sanpaulensis is the location of the single posterior salivary gland, wholly embedded in the digestive gland.

  2. An annotated list of the species of the genus Corbicula from Indonesia (Mollusca: Corbiculidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djajasasmita, Machfudz

    1977-01-01

    The species of the genus Corbicula known from Indonesia are alphabetically listed and noted. Sixteen out of the 35 described species are considered valid, i.e. C. gustaviana, C. moltkiana, C. sumatrana, C. tobae and C. tumida from Sumatra; C. javanica, C. pulchella and C. rivalis from Java; C. bitru

  3. Evolutionary position of Peruvian land snails (Orthalicidae among Stylommatophora (Mollusca: Gastropoda

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    Jorge Ramirez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The genera Bostryx and Scutalus (Orthalicidae: Bulimulinae are endemics from South America. They are mainly distributed on the western slopes of the Peruvian Andes. The goal of the present work was to assess their evolutionary position among the stylommatophoran gastropods based on the 16S rRNA mitochondrial marker. Four sequences were obtained, and along with 28 sequences of other Stylommatophora retrieved from the GenBank, were aligned with ClustalX. The phylogenetic reconstruction was carried out using the methods of Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. The multiple sequence alignment had 371 sites, with indels. The two genera of the family Orthalicidae for the first time included in a molecular phylogeny (Bostryx and Scutalus, formed a monophyletic group along with another member of the superfamily Orthalicoidea (Placostylus, result that is comparable with that obtained with nuclear markers. Their evolutionary relationship with other land snails is also discussed.

  4. Quantification of midkine gene expression in Patella caerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) exposed to cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillitano, Francesca; Mugelli, Alessandro; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Vanucci, Silvana

    2007-10-01

    The release of cadmium into many coastal areas represents a threat to ecosystems and human health; cadmium is carcinogenic in mammals and in both marine invertebrates and vertebrates. The use of molluscs to assess the ecologic risk associated with contaminants is strongly recommended on account of their ecological role and on their highly conserved control and regulatory pathways that are often homologous to vertebrate systems. We previously identified a midkine family protein in the limpet Patella caerulea; the midkine is a recently discovered cytokines family with unequivocal informative value on repairing injury and neoplastic processes in mammals. Here we report on midkine ( mdk) and α-tubulin ( α-tub) gene expression patterns in P. caerulea exposed to cadmium. Limpets, collected on two occasions from a breakwater at a marina (Tyrrhenian Sea) were exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg l -1 Cd) over a 10-day exposure period. RNA was extracted from the viscera of unexposed and exposed specimens. Real time TaqMan RT-PCR was performed to measure the relative mdk and α-tub gene expression levels. A remarkable mdk over-expression was observed in all exposed animals with respect to unexposed ones; mdk over-expression was significantly higher in both treatments when compared with un-treatment (mean expression levels: 23- and 38-fold, for 0.5 and 1 mg l -1 Cd treatment, respectively; ANOVA, for both P < 0.01). The study also indicates that the mdk up-regulation was significantly Cd-concentration dependent ( P < 0.05). A significant up-regulation of the constitutive α-tub gene was also observed in 1 mg l -1 Cd-treated animals (mean expression level: 4-fold; ANOVA, P < 0.05). In conclusion, these data provide the first evidence paving the way for the use of the midkine as a promising new biomarker of effect in the environment risk assessment policy.

  5. Changes in energetic metabolism of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca, Planorbidae in response to exogenous calcium

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    L. D. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is considered an essential element for the metabolism of aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 in Brazil, and represents a limiting factor to its distribution and adaptation to the environment. This study investigated the effect of different concentrations of exogenous CaCO3 on the energetic metabolism of B. glabrata for better understanding the physiological interference of chemical elements dissolved in the environment with the physiology of this species. Sixty-day-old snails were distributed into six groups, five exposed to different concentrations of CaCO3 (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/L and a control group. The exposure to CaCO3 was assessed over time, with analysis of 15 snails of each group in the following intervals: 1, 14, 21 or 30 days for hemolymph extraction. Concentrations of calcium and glucose in the hemolymph were determined by commercial kits, and organic acids were extracted using an ion exchange column and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Concentration of calcium in the hemolymph showed no significant difference (p>0.05 from the control group and between the concentrations tested. Concentration of glucose decreased (p<0.05 in the treatments of exposure to 20 and 40 mg/L and increased when exposed to 80 and 100 mg/L CaCO3 compared to control and to other concentrations tested over 30 days. The organic acids pyruvate, oxaloacetate, citrate, succinate, fumarate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and lactate presented increased concentrations, while propionate and acetoacetate, decreased concentrations, when exposed to CaCO3 compared to control. Considering the influence of different periods of exposure to CaCO3, on the 14th day, there were stronger alterations in the metabolism of B. glabrata. In conclusion, exposure to CaCO3 reduced the concentration of glucose, which is metabolized into pyruvate, the final product of glycolysis, and also influenced the energetic metabolism pathways, indicating an aerobic or partially anaerobic functioning.

  6. Estudo morfométrico da concha de Lymnaea columella say, 1817 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata

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    Marlene T. Ueta

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações morfométricas de conchas de L. columella, provenientes de dez criadouros localizados nos seguintes municípios do Estado de São Paulo: - Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. Foram analisados os diferentes tipos de ambientes onde as limneas são encontradas com maior freqüência, estabelecendo-se a época do ano com maior abundância em espécimes, que correspondeu aos meses de julho a outubro. As medidas nas conhas dos diferentes criadouros referiram-se ao comprimento e largura da concha, comprimento e largura da abertura, comprimento da espira e número de voltas. Foram estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação e de regressão e realizadas análises de variância entre as medidas tomadas e os índices obtidos da relação entre largura/comprimento da concha. Estas conchas foram comparadas com as de L. columella, L. viator, L. cubensis da coleção do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Para a maioria das medidas as conchas mostraram proporções constantes, embora apresentassem diferenças em relação ao desenvolvimento. A maior variação foi observada em relação ao comprimento da espira. As variações morfométricas das conchas foram relacionadas com alguns fatores externos como pH, alcalinidade, dureza e teor da água. Aparentemente apenas a dureza total da água influiu na consistência das conchas.Shells of Lymnaea columella from ten populations from the State of São Paulo were studied to determine morphometric variation. Samples were collected in the following municipalities: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava and Taubaté. Five measurements were taken from each shell: length and width of the shell, length and width of the aperture and lenght of the spire. Two ratios were also established: width/lenght of the shell and length of the aperture /length of the shell. The numbers of whorls and the length of the shell were also determined. Statistical tests (correlation coeficients, regression, and analysis of variance were used to compare the different samples. Also, com parisons of L. columella shells collected by us were made with those of L. columella, L. viator and L. cubensis from collections deposited in the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. The results of these studies revealed that in most of the cases the snail populations of different areas were similar, showing constant proportions, but they diverged in their absolute dimensions. Data on aquatic environmental conditions (pH, alkalinity, hardness, and calcium concentration were also obtained. These Chemical factors were examined with respect to shell morphology. Our results revealed that only hardness of water was associated with the robustness of the shells.

  7. Cellular biomarker responses of limpets (Mollusca as measure of sensitivity to cadmiumcontamination

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    Koot Reinecke

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the availability and chemical nature of some heavy metals, sub-lethal toxicant levels may persist in the ocean waters and may cause physiological problems and toxicity in invertebrates and other marine organisms. Although studies of metal concentrations in False Bay showed relatively low mean concentrations of Cd, invertebrates such as molluscs, crustaceans and many other groups are able to accumulate high levels of heavy metals in their tissues and still survive in the heaviest polluted areas. They can accumulate numerous pollutants from natural waters in quantities that are many orders of magnitude higher than background levels. Bioaccumulation ofcadmium in intertidal species could cause stress which may be measurable at the cellular level. A variety of limpet species that may serve as suitable ecotoxicological monitoring species occur in abundance on rocky shores along the South African coastline. The aim of this study was to obtain sensitivity data which could contribute to the selection of a suitable monitoring species and the eventual establishment of a species sensitivity distribution model (SSD with a biomarker responseas endpoint. The limpets Cymbula oculus, Scutellastra longicosta, Cymbula granatina and Scutellastragranularis as well as water samples were collected at two localities in False Bay, South Africa. Analysis of water and biological samples were done by atomic absorption spectrometry. Exposures were done to three different sublethal concentrations of cadmium in the laboratory in static flow tanks over three days. There was a moderate increase in cadmium body concentrations over time. Results obtained at three exposure concentrations showed no significant differences in metal concentrations between the different C. oculus samples. Significant differences were obtained between the control and the exposure groups for each exposure time except between the control and the 1mg/L CdCl2 exposure group after 24 and 72 hours of exposure. Cd body concentrations(soft tissue varied between 4.56 and 21.41µg/g (wet mass.Mean Cd concentrations in soft tissue of S. longicosta was considerably lower (varying between 1.18 and 19.58 µg/g Cd than in the tissues of C. oculus. The control group differed significantly from the 0.8 and 1 mg/L CdCl2 exposures after 48 and 72 hours. Mean Cd body concentrations in S. granular is were the highest of all exposed species, reaching a level of 148 µg/g Cd at the highest exposure concentration and differed significantly from the means of the other samples of the 0.8 mg/L CdCl2 exposure group after 72 hours and from the 1 mg/L CdCl2 group after 24 hours. Significant differences were also obtained between theCd body concentrations of C. granatina for the three exposure concentrations and three exposure times. Lysosomal membrane integrity was determined for both exposed and control animals, using the neutral red retention assay. Three of the four species showed a significant decrease in retention times with an increase in Cd concentration. Inter-species differences in sensitivity to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations were reflected in the biomarker responses. Based on reduction of NRR times, the order of relative sensitivity to cadmium was S. granularis >C. oculus> S. longicosta.> C.granatina. 

  8. Ultrastructure of euspermatozoa and paraspermatozoa in the volutid snail Adelomelon ancilla (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, S.; Hermida, G. N.; Giménez, J.

    2009-09-01

    The ultrastructure of the euspermatozoa and the paraspermatozoa is investigated in Adelomelon ancilla, through histological section observed by transmission electron microscopy. Euspermatozoa of A. ancilla consists of: (1) a conical acrosomal vesicle (with a short basal invagination, constricted anteriorly) which is flattened at the apex and associated with an axial rod, a centrally perforated basal plate and a short accessory membrane, (2) a rod-shaped, solid and highly electron-dense nucleus (with a short basal fossa containing a centriolar complex and a initial portion of a 9 + 2 axoneme), (3) an elongate midpiece consisting of the axoneme sheathed by 5-6 helical mitochondrial elements each exhibiting a dense U-shaped outer layer, (4) an elongate glycogen piece (where the axoneme is sheathed by nine tracts of glycogen granules), (5) a dense annulus at the junction of the midpiece and glycogen piece, and (6) a short free tail region (where the axoneme is surrounded only by plasma membrane). We observed a parasperm in A. ancilla. This is vermiform in shape and is composed of multiple axonemes and extensive cytoplasm with numerous vesicles, and mitochondria are scattered inside the axonemes. Sperm of A. ancilla is characterized by the euspermatozoa type 2 and the paraspermatozoa morphology belongs to type 5. The U shaped electrodense mitochondrial element in the midpiece of the eusperm and the constriction in the acrosomal vesicle present in A. ancilla are exclusive. We suggest that these characteristics could have taxonomic importance, because these was observed in other volutids and have not been observed in the rest of caenogastropods studies. We consider that the morphology of paraspermatozoa in A. ancilla corresponds to the “lancet” type.

  9. Present distribution of Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843 (Mollusca: Gastropoda in the Slovak Republic

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    Tomáš Čejka

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available All published and known unpublished data on Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843 from the Slovak Republic are summarised. The Slovak distribution is restricted to the southern parts of the country close to the Danube, Morava, and Hron Rivers. Geographic and vertical distribution is described. The most of the localities are placed between 100 and 140 m a.s.l., the highest situated known record was in 277 m a.s.l. P. antipodarum inhabits slowly flowing rivers and different types of standing waters in Slovakia.

  10. Immunological and biochemical responses in Mya arenaria (Mollusca Bivalvia) exposed in vivo to estradiol-17beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier-Clerc, S; Pellerin, J; Fournier, M; Amiard, J-C

    2006-11-01

    Soft-shell clams Mya arenaria were injected with 10, 20 or 40 nmol of estradiol 17beta (E2). We observed a significant inhibiting effect of E2 on phagocytic activity of hemocytes from clams exposed to 10 and 20 nmol. A dose-response increase of the glycogen phosphorylase in the gonad tended to show a remobilisation of glycogen reserves involved in vitellogenesis although the exposure time must have been too short to observe a decrease in glycogen reserves or an increase in RNA concentration. Both results corroborate those of other studies about estrogen involvement in controlling immune capacity and energy metabolism related to vitellogenesis in bivalves. We can assume that immune parameters should now be taken into consideration in assessing endocrine disruption in bivalves. Nevertheless further studies are needed to understand the controlling pathways of E2 with a special regard on its interactions with other effectors involved in bivalve immunity and reproduction as well.

  11. [Reproductive cycle and index of condition used for Melongena corona (Mollusca: Gastropoda)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetina Zárate, A I; Aldana Aranda, D; Brule, T; Baqueiro Cárdenas, E

    2000-12-01

    Melongena corona bispinosa was studied in Yucatán, México (21 degrees 16' N, 89 degrees 49' W) for a year. Males have reproductive peaks in February and December, and a post-copulation peak in June. Female peaks are in March and May, plus oviposition peaks in April and January. Males and females differ in the mean gonadosom ic index (F=13.79, p<0.05) but not in the dry tissue/shell weight (F=0.0902, p<0.05), dry tissue and total weight (F=0.2466, p<0.05) and dry tissue weight/internal shell volume (F=1.0565, p<0.05).

  12. [Reproduction, diet and fishery of Octopus (Octopus) hubbsorum (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) in the coast of Oaxaca, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo-Plata, Maria del Carmen; Gómez-Márquez, José Luis; Carrillo, Samuel Ramos; Herrera-Galindo, Jorge Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The octopus Octopus hubbsorum (Berry 1953) ranges widely and is important for the artisanal fishery in Puerto Angel, Oaxaca, Mexico. Samples were taken approximately at every two weeks from January 2002 to November 2003. All organisms were measured for dorsal mantle length (DLM) and total weight; sex and maturity gonadic stage were registered. For the stomach content analysis, frequency of occurrence and emptying indexes were used. The 352 organisms caught ranged from 4 to 18 cm in DLM; the sex ratio was different from 1 (chi2 = 24.2, p<0.05) throughout the year. The maximum values of the GSI appeared in May (4.1917 for females; 1.2675 in males). LDM for first sexual maturity (LDM50%) was 16 cm (females) and 14 cm (males). Octopus hubbsorum moves from deep waters to the coast, probably in search of better conditions, and lays masses of eggs on rocky substrata. They are fished from March to October, with higher intensity in April and May. Fishing effort was related to the oceanographic characteristics and the atmospheric conditions of the area. From April to September the CPUE monthly mean was 20-10 kg/divers/day. Using the CPUE and environmental condition relationship, the estimated adequate superficial temperature for fishing is 29.5 degrees C.

  13. An energy budget for the subtidal bivalve Modiolus barbatus (Mollusca) at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezgeta-Balić, D; Rinaldi, A; Peharda, M; Prusina, I; Montalto, V; Niceta, N; Sarà, G

    2011-02-01

    Clearance rates, respiration rates and food absorption efficiencies of the commercially interesting subtidal bivalve Modiolus barbatus were measured at different temperatures under laboratory conditions and scope for growth calculated. Clearance rates were highest at temperatures from 20 °C to 28 °C, whereas respiration rate was maximal at 9 °C and minimal at 26 °C. Highest mean values of absorbed energy occurred at 20 °C and 26 °C. Scope for growth trend had negative values at 9 °C, 15 °C and 28 °C and positive values at temperatures 20 °C and 26 °C. The profitable thermal window for M. barbatus to have energy sufficient for growth and reproduction corresponded to <5 months per year. Seawater temperature increases will potentially impact the eco-physiological responses of subtidal M. barbatus causing life history traits to change with important repercussions for subtidal biodiversity in the Mediterranean. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The end of a long controversy: systematics of the genus Limenandra (Mollusca: Nudibranchia: Aeolidiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Leila; Pola, Marta; Gosliner, Terrence M.; Cervera, Juan Lucas

    2014-03-01

    Limenandra Haefelfinger and Stamm 1958 is a small genus within the Aeolidiidae with, until this paper, only two species: Limenandra nodosa Haefelfinger and Stamm 1958 and Limenandra fusiformis Baba 1949. Although most recent authors have regarded Limenandra as a junior synonym of Baeolidia Bergh 1888, recent molecular studies have demonstrated its monophyletic status and have rejected the circumtropical distribution attributed to the type species, L. nodosa. The present paper reviews the previously known species of Limenandra with additional morphological data and describes three new species: Limenandra barnosii sp. nov. and Limenandra rosanae sp. nov. from the Indo-Pacific are easily distinguished from all other Limenandra species by their vivid and bright colour patterns, while Limenandra confusa sp. nov., also from the Indo-Pacific, is very similar to the Atlantic and Mediterranean L. nodosa. The five species differ in colouration, the size and ornamentation of the cerata, the rhinophorial papillae, details of the reproductive system and the number of salivary glands. Additionally, Limenandra can be easily distinguished from other Aeolidiidae based on differences in the radular and receptaculum seminis morphology.

  15. Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya (Mollusca: Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Colin-Flores, Rafael Francisco; Rosas, Carlos

    2009-02-01

    Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya is described in terms of histological, morphometric, oocytes growth, and somatic-oocyte relationship data obtained from octopus cultured at the UMDI-UNAM, in Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico. This study is the first publication on gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya. A total of 83 O. maya specimens were used; their sizes ranged from 6.5 to 76 mm of total length (TL), 4 to 28 mm of dorsal mantle length (DML), 2.5 to 20 mm of ventral mantle length (VML), and 0.0180 to 7.2940 g of fixed body weight (fBW). Animals were weighed and measured only after preservation. A loss of 10% of living weight was estimated for juvenile octopuses after formalin preservation. The relation of length to weight (VML, DML, TL/fBW) pooled for both sexes had a strong positive correlation (r), as shown by a potential power function that was quite close to 1. Compound images were produced from numerous microscopic fields. The histological examination revealed that, 4 months after hatching, male octopus (24.5 mm DML and 7.2940 g fBW) were in gonad stages 2 (maturing) to 3 (mature), with spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the tubule wall and abundant spermatids and spermatozoa in the central lumen of the seminiferous tubules, suggesting the occurrence of different phases of gonad development at different maturity stages. In contrast, females (22.5 mm DML and 4.8210 g fBW) at the same time since hatching were immature (stage 1), with many oogonia, few oocytes, and germinal epithelium. This suggests that males reach maturity earlier than females, indicating a probable onset of maturity for males at around 4 months of culture or 8 g of wet body weight. Our results indicate the possibility that the size-at-weight can be recognized early with a degree of certainty that allows the sexes to be separated for culture purposes; but more detailed studies on reproduction in relation to endocrinology and nutrition are needed.

  16. Life history of the bathyal octopus Pteroctopus tetracirrhus (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quetglas, Antoni; Ordines, Francesc; González, María; Franco, Ignacio

    2009-08-01

    The life cycle of the deep-sea octopus Pteroctopus tetracirrhus was studied from monthly samples obtained throughout the year in different areas of the western Mediterranean (mainly around the Balearic Islands and along the coast of the Iberian Peninsula). A total of 373 individuals (205 females, 168 males) were analyzed; females ranged from 4.5 to 14.0 cm mantle length (ML) and males from 4.5 to 11.5 cm ML. There were few small-sized octopuses (reproduction took place. Females grew from 8 to 10 cm ML from winter to spring, but this modal size did not increase further in summer; males grew from 7 to 9 cm ML from winter to spring. The total disappearance of large individuals after summer suggests a life cycle lasting a single year. The evolution of the monthly mean sizes showed that the growth was best described by log-linear functions in both sexes. The length at first maturity was clearly higher in females (12 cm ML) than in males (8 cm ML). A total of 30 different prey items, belonging to four major taxonomic groups (crustaceans, osteichthyes, cephalopods and gastropods), were identified in the stomach contents. The diet of the octopus was based on crustaceans and teleosts, which accounted for 75% and 23% of the prey items, respectively. Cephalopods and gastropods were accessory prey as they only represented 1.6% and 0.7%, respectively, of the total. The octopus showed a marked preference for the benthic fish Symphurus nigrescens and the endobenthic crustacean Alpheus glaber. The bathymetric distribution of P. tetracirrhus coincides with those of these two main prey, which suggests that the distribution of the octopus might be strongly linked to its trophic resources.

  17. The influence of thymol+DMSO on survival, growth and reproduction of Bradybaena similaris (Mollusca: Bradybaenidae

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    Paula Ferreira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821, commonly known as the Asian trampsnail, is a terrestrial snail native to Asia, introduced in other regions of the world. In Brazil, populations of this land snail are distributed from the state of Amapá in the North to Rio Grande do Sul in the South. This species acts as an intermediate host for parasites and is a difficult-to-control agricultural pest as well, causing great losses to crops and ornamental plant cultivation. This land snail is easily reared in the laboratory and has been successfully used as a biological model in studies that aim at verifying molluscicidal effects of plant extracts. Several studies have demonstrated that B. similaris, like many other species of land and freshwater snails, is physiologically adapted to survival over transitory unfavorable environmental conditions. Moreover, this species seems to have a life history strategy characterized by a short life span and a maximal opportunistic reproductive effort during transient favorable periods. Such biological features may potentially lead to the inefficacy of control attempts and, simultaneously, make this species able to repopulate sites previously treated with biocides. For this reason, studies that aim at verifying the effect of molluscicides on the reproduction, growth and survival of molluscs are greatly required. Molluscicides of plant origin may represent a safe and effective way of controlling these animals. Thymol is a substance of plant origin which has bactericidal, fungicidal and anti-inflammatory properties and has been presented as a promissory biocide of mollusc species. The aim of this work was to assess the molluscicidal property of thymol in combination with DMSO against eggs and adults of B. similaris. During 120 days, we evaluated the effect of thymol+DMSO at different concentrations (2.5 g/L and 5 g/L on the hatching success, hatchling survival, growth and reproduction of B. similaris under laboratory conditions. We tested thymol+DMSO on 160 eggs, 160 10-day-old and 160 30-day-old juveniles. The results showed that thymol+DMSO (5 g/L and 2.5 g/L affected hatching success, acting as an ovicide. The tests with 10-day-old juveniles showed that thymol+DMSO at 2.5 g/L and 5 g/L caused 90 and 100% of mortality, respectively. For the 30-day-old juveniles, thymol+DMSO caused 87.5% of mortality at 5 g/L, and 75% at 2.5 g/L. With regard to growth, the results were not significant. The 10-day-old individuals treated with thymol+DMSO showed only one reproductive event during the 120 days of the experiment. Thymol+DMSO showed molluscicidal and residual activity, which makes evident its potential for controlling snails, and consequently, snail-borne diseases.

  18. Reproduction in Heteroteuthis dispar (Ruppell, 1844) (Mollusca : Cephalopoda): a sepiolid reproductive adaptation to an oceanic lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, H. J. T.; Laptikhovsky, V.; Piatkowski, U.; Onsoy, B.; Oensoy, B.

    Small cephalopods of the genus Heteroteuthis are the most pelagic members in the family Sepiolidae. This study examines the reproductive biology of Heteroteuthis dispar (Ruppell, 1844), the first such study on any member of the genus, based on 46 specimens (27 females and 19 males) collected during

  19. Reproductive Features of Indigenous and the Invasive Chinese Freshwater Mussels (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Anodontinae in Ukraine

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    Yanovych L. M.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Процессы размножения аборигенных видов беззубок из водоемов и водотоков Украины протекают неполноценно. Среди Anodonta anatinа (Linnaeus, 1758 примерно только в 60 % пунктов сбора размножаются 100 % самок, в остальных пунктах «беременными» оказываются лишь 17-90 % самок, у A. cygnea (Linnaeus, 1758 - 50 % самок. Примерно в 70 % пунктов сбора самки A. cygnea и Pseudanodonta complanata Rossmassler, 1835 имеют не полностью (от . до . заполненные половыми продуктами марсупии. Зато вид-вселенец китайская беззубка, Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834, имеет многократные кладки в течение всего года. Полужабры половыми продуктами заполнены полностью.

  20. Temporal dynamics of amino and fatty acid composition in the razor clam Ensis siliqua (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Miguel; Repolho, Tiago; Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Lopes, Vanessa M.; Narciso, Luis; Marques, António; Bandarra, Narcisa; Rosa, Rui

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have been conducted on the temporal dynamics of both amino acid (AA) and fatty acid (FA) profiles in marine bivalves. We investigated the seasonal variation of these compounds in the pod razor clam Ensis siliqua in relation to food availability, salinity, water temperature and reproductive cycle. AA content varied between 46.94 and 54.67 % dry weight (DW), and the AAs found in greater quantity were glutamic acid, glycine and aspartic acid. FA content varied between 34.02 and 87.94 mg g-1 DW and the FAs found in greater quantity were 16:0 and 22:6 n-3. Seasonal trends were observed for AAs and FAs. FAs increased with gametogenesis and decreased with spawning while AA content increased throughout spawning. The effect of increasing temperature and high food availability during the spawning season masked the loss of AAs resulting from gamete release. Still, a comparatively greater increase in the contents of glutamic acid and leucine with spawning indicate their possible involvement in a post-spawning gonad recovery mechanism. A post-spawning decrease in 14:0, 16:0, 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-7 and 18:1 n-9 is indicative of the importance of these FAs in bivalve eggs. An increase in 18:3 n-3, 18:4 n-3, 20:1 n-9 and 20:2 n-6 during gametogenesis suggests their involvement in oocyte maturation. The FA 22:4 n-6, while increasing with spawning, appears to play a role in post-spawning gonad recovery. Salinity did not have an effect on the AA composition. None of the environmental parameters measured had an effect on FA composition.

  1. Reproductive cycle of Glycymeris nummaria (Mollusca: Bivalvia from Mali Ston Bay, Adriatic Sea, Croatia

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    Marija Crnčević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive cycle of the dog cockle, Glycymeris nummaria (Glycymerididae, was studied using specimens collected monthly from Mali Ston Bay, southeastern Adriatic Sea over the period from January to December 2010. We analysed sex ratios, gonad developmental stages, and oocyte diameters using standard histological techniques. There were no differences in the overall sex ratio and no difference in shell length with respect to sex. Results of a size-frequency analysis of oocyte diameters agreed with a qualitative analysis of gonadal developmental stages, confirming the occurrence of one annual spawning peak from May to July. A significant correlation was identified between mean gonad indices of males and females and condition index. This study provides the first data on the reproductive characteristics of G. nummaria, providing necessary information for the future sustainable management of its potential fishery.

  2. Body condition and gametogenic cycle of Galatea paradoxa (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Volta River estuary, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei-Boateng, D.; Wilson, J. G.

    2013-11-01

    The reproductive cycle of Galatea paradoxa which is the basis for an artisanal fishery in the Volta River estuary, Ghana, was studied using condition indices and histological methods from March 2008 to July 2009. The cycle is annual with a single spawning event between June and October. Gametogenesis starts in November progressing steadily to a peak in June-July when spawning begins until October when the animal is spent. The condition indices (shell-free wet weight/total wet weight, ash-free dry weight/shell weight and gonad wet weight/shell weight) showed a clear relationship with the gametogenic stage rising from a minimum at stage (I) start of gametogenesis, to their highest values at stages (IIIA) ripe and (IIIB) start of spawning before declining significantly to stage (IV) spent.It is suggested that condition index may prove a valuable technique in fishery management to recognise the reproductive stages of G. paradoxa as it is less expensive and time consuming than histological techniques in addition to being easier to teach to non-specialists. The data presented in this study provide information on the timing of spawning events for G. paradoxa, which is necessary for developing sustainable management strategies and selection of broodstock for aquaculture.

  3. The antimicrobial agents triclocarban and triclosan as potent modulators of reproduction in Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca: Hydrobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiß, Cornelia; Ruppert, Katharina; Heidelbach, Tanja; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2016-11-09

    In this study, we assessed the chronic effects of the two antimicrobial substances triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) on reproduction of a mollusk species by using the reproduction test with the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Snails coming from a laboratory culture were exposed for 28 days to nominal concentrations ranging from 0.1 up to 10 µg/L for both chemicals (measured 0.082-8.85 µg TCC/L; 0.068-6.26 µg TCS/L). At the end of the experiment, snails were dissected and embryos in the brood pouch were counted to assess the individualized reproductive success of adult snails. Exposure to TCC resulted in an inverted u-shaped concentration-response relationship, with a stimulation of reproduction at low concentrations followed by an inhibition at higher concentrations. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) and the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) were 0.082 and 0.287 µg/L, respectively. TCS caused significantly increased embryo numbers at all tested concentrations, except in the group of 0.170 µg/L. Therefore, the NOEC for TCS was 0.170 µg/L and the LOEC was 0.660 µg/L. These results indicate that TCC and TCS may cause reproductive effects at environmentally relevant concentrations indicating a potential risk for aquatic organisms in the environment.

  4. Phylogenetic Diversity of Cephalopoda (Animalia:Mollusca) Along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea Coastline

    KAUST Repository

    Byron, Gordon

    2016-12-01

    Although the Red Sea presents a unique environment with high temperature and salinity, it remains an area that is understudied. This lack of information is reflected in many areas, one which is biodiversity. Despite increasing work on biodiversity throughout the Red Sea and an increase in Cephalopoda studies, Cephalopoda in the Red Sea remain underrepresented, which is especially pronounced in molecular analyses. Members of the class Cephalopoda are considered to be major contributors to coral reef ecosystems, serving as part of the food chain and exhibiting population increases due to targeted teleost fisheries and global climate change. In order to assess the biodiversity of Cephalopoda in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, 87 specimens were collected from 25 reef locations between 17°N and 28°N latitude, as well as from the largest fish market in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Taxonomic identification of specimens was determined using morphological comparisons with previously reported species in the Red Sea and the molecular barcoding region Cytochrome Oxidase I. 84 Red Sea sequences were compared with sequences from GenBank and analyzed using a complement of Neighbor-Joining, Maximum-Likelihood, and Bayesian inference trees. Species complexes were also investigated for Sepia pharaonis and Sepioteuthis lessoniana, which had been previously reported. From 17 cuttlefish, our study yielded three species, two of which matched previously reported species in GenBank. In addition, two distinct clades of Sepia pharaonis were identified. Of 35 squid collected, four species were identified, one of which did not match any other accepted species in literature, while Sepioteuthis lessoniana in the Red Sea formed a distinct clade. From 30 different specimens a total of five genera of Octopoda were present, forming six distinct species. Five Octopoda species collected did not match previously reported species, although many specimens were paralarvae or juveniles, so morphologically we could not compare to previously described species in the Red Sea. Cephalopoda fisheries in the Red Sea is low, and as their populations increase worldwide, this could be a viable fishery for Saudi Arabia. As such, further investigation into the role which cephalopods play in supporting biodiversity in the Red Sea is essential.

  5. The Genus Lepidochitona Gray, 1821 (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean (Oregonian and Californian Provinces)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eernisse, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The systematics of the northeastern Pacific Lepidochitona from the Californian and Oregonian Provinces (western continental United States) is presented and discussed. Three new species are described: L. caverna spec. nov. and L. berryana spec. nov. from California, and L. fernaldi spec. nov. from Wa

  6. A new genus and species of cavernicolous Pomatiopsidae (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiripockia punctatais a new genus and species of Pomatiopsidae found in a cave from Serra Ramalho, SW Bahia, Brazil. The taxon is troglobiont (restricted to subterranean realm, and is characterized by the shell weakly elongated, fragile, translucent, normally sculptured by pustules with periostracum hair on tip of pustules; peristome highly expanded; umbilicus opened; radular rachidian with 6 apical and 3 pairs of lateral cusps; osphradium short, arched; gill filaments with rounded tip; prostate flattened, with vas deferens inserting subterminally; penis duct narrow and weakly sinuous; pallial oviduct simple anteriorly, possessing convoluted bypass connecting base of bulged portion of transition between visceral and pallial oviducts with base of seminal receptacle; spermathecal duct complete, originated from albumen gland. The description of this endemic species may raise protective environmental actions to that cave and to the Serra Ramalho Karst area.

  7. New insights into diversity and evolution of deep-sea Mytilidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorion, Julien; Buge, Barbara; Cruaud, Corinne; Samadi, Sarah

    2010-10-01

    Bathymodiolinae mussels have been used as a biological model to better understand the evolutionary origin of faunas associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. Most studies to date, however, have sampled with a strong bias towards vent and seep species, mainly because of a lack of knowledge of closely related species from organic falls. Here we reassess the species diversity of deep-sea mussels using two genes and a large taxon sample from the South-Western Pacific. This new taxonomic framework serves as a basis for a phylogenetic investigation of their evolutionary history. We first highlight an unexpected allopatric pattern and suggest that mussels usually reported from organic falls are in fact poorly specialized with regard to their environment. This challenges the adaptive scenarios proposed to explain the diversification of the group. Second, we confirm that deep-sea mussels arose from organic falls and then colonized hydrothermal vents and cold seeps in multiple events. Overall, this study constitutes a new basis for further phylogenetic investigations and a global systematic revision of deep-sea mussels. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Morfologia y biologia de Bostryx conspersus (Sowerby (Mollusca, Bulimulidae en las lomas costeras del Peru Central

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    Rina Ramírez

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and biological observations on populations of the land snail Bostryx conspersus, in three "Lomas"of the Central Coast of Peru, were carried out between 1979 and 1982. Three shell color varieties of B. conspersus are reponed herein, as well as its aestivation, activity and reproduction strategies. The possible interactions of B. conspersus with a dipteron (Scaptomyza sp.; Drosophilidae and a nematode species are also discussed.

  9. Anatomia e histologia do conduto genital feminino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

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    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the genital duct in mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the vagina has an equal dimension in its extension, varying in form and volume, according to the maturation period. In the immaturity, it has a smaller diameter and volume. In the maturity, the vagina increases in volume, having the aspect of a tumescent organ, and in certain specimens shows an albuminous pink thread in its lumen. Histologically, the calcigenic activity of the gland is evidentiated by the presence of an amorphous and basophilic mass, without nuclear material. This material has a fragmented aspect in the vagina lumen that reacts positively in van Kossa's coloured preparations for calcareous salts.

  10. Fine structure of the mineralized teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wealthall, Rosamund J; Brooker, Lesley R; Macey, David J; Griffin, Brendan J

    2005-08-01

    The major lateral teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata are composite structures composed of three distinct mineral zones: a posterior layer of magnetite; a thin band of lepidocrocite just anterior to this; and apatite throughout the core and anterior regions of the cusp. Biomineralization in these teeth is a matrix-mediated process, in which the minerals are deposited around fibers, with the different biominerals described as occupying architecturally discrete compartments. In this study, a range of scanning electron microscopes was utilized to undertake a detailed in situ investigation of the fine structure of the major lateral teeth. The arrangement of the organic and biomineral components of the tooth is similar throughout the three zones, having no discrete borders between them, and with crystallites of each mineral phase extending into the adjacent mineral zone. Along the posterior surface of the tooth, the organic fibers are arranged in a series of fine parallel lines, but just within the periphery their appearance takes on a "fish scale"-like pattern, reflective of the cross section of a series of units that are overlaid, and offset from each other, in adjacent rows. The units are approximately 2 microm wide and 0.6 microm thick and comprise biomineral plates separated by organic fibers. Two types of subunits make up each "fish scale": one is elongate and curved and forms a trough, in which the other, rod-like unit, is nestled. Adjacent rod and trough units are aligned into large sheets that define the fracture plane of the tooth. The alignment of the plates of rod-trough units is complex and exhibits extreme spatial variation within the tooth cusp. Close to the posterior surface the plates are essentially horizontal and lie in a lateromedial plane, while anteriorly they are almost vertical and lie in the posteroanterior plane. An understanding of the fine structure of the mineralized teeth of chitons, and of the relationship between the organic and mineral components, provides a new insight into biomineralization mechanisms and controls.

  11. Results of the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon. Part 9. The Nassariidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, H.H.; Strack, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper lists all species of the family Nassariidae collected during the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon (1990). Altogether 47 species are reported, of which two, Nassarius maccauslandi and N. rotundus, are new for Indonesia. Four additional species from Ambon are known from collection

  12. Genetics and shell morphometrics of assimineids (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea) in the St Lucia Estuary, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Nelson A F; van Rooyen, Ryan; MacDonald, Angus; Ponder, Winston; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    The Assimineidae are a family of amphibious microgastropods that can be mostly found in estuaries and mangroves in South Africa. These snails often occur in great numbers and are ecologically important to the St Lucia Estuary, which forms a crucial part of the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Genetic and shell morphometric analyses were conducted on individuals collected from nine localities distributed from the northern lake regions to the southern lake and the mouth of the St Lucia estuarine lake. Mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (28S) DNA was used to construct Bayesian Inference, Neighbour-joining, Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood trees. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were performed on standard shell parameter data. Results indicate that two different taxa are present in St Lucia. The taxon comprising individuals from the South Lake and St Lucia Estuary Mouth is identified as Assiminea cf. capensis Bartsch, in accordance with the latest taxonomic consensus. The taxon comprising assimineid individuals from False Bay, North Lake and South Lake, is here tentatively named "Assiminea" aff. capensis (Sowerby). These two taxa exhibit patterns of spatial overlap that appear to vary depending on environmental parameters, particularly salinity. The need to resolve the complex taxonomy of assimineids is highlighted.

  13. The phylogeny and taxonomy of austral monodontine topshells (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Trochidae), inferred from DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Kirsten M; Kennedy, Martyn; Spencer, Hamish G

    2005-11-01

    The systematics of topshells (family Trochidae) is currently unresolved: at present even the generic boundaries within this group are poorly defined. In this study, we used sequence data of two mitochondrial genes (16S and cytochrome oxidase 1, COI) and one nuclear gene (actin) to resolve the phylogeny of a closely related subgroup of the Trochidae, 30 species of largely Southern Hemisphere monodontine topshells. The phylogenies constructed revealed five well-supported generic clades: a South African clade (genus Oxystele Philippi, 1847), which lay basally to four internal Pacific clades (genera Chlorodiloma Pilsbry, 1889; Monodonta Lamarck, 1799; Austrocochlea Fischer, 1885; and Diloma Philippi, 1845). The molecular phylogenies constructed in this study shed light on previously unresolved relationships between different groups of topshells, allowing for the first time assignation (based on DNA sequence) of clearly defined, well-supported taxonomic and nomenclatural classification of monodontine topshells species. Austrocochlea crinita (Philippi, 1849), A. odontis (Wood, 1828), A. adelaidae (Philippi, 1849), and A. millelineata (Bonnet, 1864) are placed in the genus Chlorodiloma, which we resurrect from synonymy with Austrocochlea. The Japanese M. confusa Tapparone-Canefri, 1874 is treated as a separate species from M. labio (Linné, 1758). Melagraphia Gray, 1847 is synonymised with Diloma and its sole member, M. aethiops (Gmelin, 1791), along with A. concamerata (Wood, 1828), is transferred to that genus. The Juan Fernandez endemic D. crusoeana (Pilsbry, 1889) is synonymised with D. nigerrima (Gmelin, 1791). We find that morphologically cryptic species are not necessarily close genetically.

  14. Taxonomy of some Galeommatoidea (Mollusca, Bivalvia associated with deep-sea echinoids

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    Graham Oliver

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The type species of Axinodon ellipticus Verrill & Bush, 1898 and Kellia symmetros Jeffreys, 1876 are re-described. It is concluded that the two species are not conspecific and that K. symmetros cannot be placed in the genus Axinodon. The family affinity of Axinodon is not resolved, although it is probable that this genus belongs to the Thyasiridae. Kellia symmetros is the type species of Kelliola and is placed in the Montacutidae. Kelliola symmetros is most probably associated with the echinoid Aeropsis rostrata and is not the species previously recorded from North Atlantic Pourtalesia echinoids under the name of Axinodon symmetros. This commensal associated with the North Atlantic Pourtalesia is here described as new and placed in the new genus as Syssitomya pourtalesium gen. nov. sp. nov., Syssitomya gen. nov. differs from all other genera in the Montacutidae by having laminar gill filaments modified for harbouring symbiotic bacteria and it is thus assumed to be chemosymbiotic. A montacutid associated with the hadal Pourtalesia heptneri is described as Ptilomyax hadalis gen. nov. sp. nov.

  15. Redescription of Hiatella meridionalis d'Orbigny, 1846 (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hiatellidae from Argentina

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    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The redescription of Hiatella meridionalis (d’Orbigny, 1846 is provided as first attempt to improve the systematics of the genus in the regions of Atlantic and western Pacific. This reanalysis is based on specimens collected in the vicinity of the type localities and is based on detailed morphology of samples that some researches consider a single, wide ranging species. From the morphological characters, the more interesting are: a high quantity of papillae at incurrent siphon; the retractor muscles of siphon divided in two bundles; the small size of the palps; the muscular ring in the stomach; and the zigzag fashion of the short intestinal loops. These characters distinguish the species from the other hiatellids so far examined. Type material of the species was examined, by first time illustrated, and the lectotype is designated.A redescrição de Hiatella meridionalis (d’Orbigny, 1846 é realizada como primeiro passo na melhoria da sistemática do gênero das regiões atlântica e pacífica oeste. Esta re-análise é baseada em espécimes coletados nas vizinhanças da localidade tipo e em morfologia detalhada de amostras que alguns pesquisadores consideram pertencer a uma única espécie de ampla distribuição. Dos caracteres anatômicos, os mais interessantes são: uma grande quantidade de papilas no sifão inalante; o músculo retrator dos sifões dividido em duas porções; o tamanho pequeno dos palpos; um anel muscular transversal no estomago; e um padrão em zigzag no curto intestino. Estes caracteres distinguem a espécie dos demais hiatelídeos até então examinados. Os sintipos da espécie foram também examinados e pela primeira vez ilustrados; o lectótipo é designado.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships among the family Ommastrephidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) inferred from two mitochondrial DNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, T; Suzuki, N; Sakai, M; Ichii, T; Chow, S

    2012-09-01

    Squids of the family Ommastrephidae are distributed worldwide, and the family includes many species of commercial importance. To investigate phylogenetic relationships among squid species of the family Ommastrephidae, partial nucleotide sequences of two mitochondrial gene loci (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [1277bp] and 16S rRNA [443bp]) of 15 ommastrephid species and two outgroup species from the families Loliginidae and Enoploteuthidae were determined and used to construct parsimony and distance based phylogenetic trees. The molecular data provided several new phylogenetic inferences. The monophyletic status of three subfamilies (Illicinae, Todarodinae and Ommastrephinae) was well supported, although phylogenetic relationships between the subfamilies were not resolved. Inclusion of a problematic species, Ornithoteuthis volatilis, to Todarodinae was indicated. Within Todarodinae, the Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus was observed to have much closer relationship to the species of the genus Nototodarus than to its congener (Todarodes filippovae). These results indicate that re-evaluation of several morphological key characters for ommastrephid taxonomy may be necessary.

  17. Late Paleozoic subulitacea (mollusca:gastropoda), mass extinctions and the replacement of evolutionary faunas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erwin, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Mesogastropod subulitaceans possess characteristics typical of active carnivores and occupied a trophic regime typical of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic evolutionary fauna. Despite occupying a vacant niche, subulitaceans are low in both diversity and abundance in late Paleozoic gastropod faunas. In addition, Paleozoic Archaeogastropoda and Mesogastropoda are taxonomically and functionally distinct from Mesozoic groups and display diversity dynamics typical of the Paleozoic evolutionary fauna, not the Mesozoic-Cenozoic fauna with which they were grouped by Sepkoski. Late Paleozoic gastropods are different from pre-Carboniferous taxa, but there is no preferential expansion of the major Mesozoic taxa, nor is there any pattern of exploitation of a major niche utilized by later groups but under-used by Paleozoic taxa. The high taxonomic level used Sepkoski's factor analysis neglects the finer scale of replacement and diversification. This distinct evolutionary behavior of Paleozoic gastropods may be typical of other taxa as well. It weakens the assertions of Kitchell and Carr and Sepkoksi and Miller that the replacement of evolutionary Fauna II by Fauna III began in the late Paleozoic and would have occurred even without the Guadelupian-Dzulfian mass extinction. Thus for gastropods at last, the Late Permian mass extinction did not merely speed up on ongoing process, but probably determined the evolutionary outcome.

  18. Integrative taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Onchidiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Dayrat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to clarify the species diversity of onchidiid slugs, the taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 is revised using an integrative approach. New, fresh specimens were collected in a large number of places, including type localities. The genus Onchidium is redefined here as a clade including only three species which are strongly supported by both morphological and molecular data. All three species were already named: the type species O. typhae Buchannan, 1800, O. stuxbergi (Westerlund, 1883, and O. reevesii (J.E. Gray, 1850. With the exception of a re-description of O. typhae published in 1869, all three species are re-described here for the first time. First-hand observations on the color variation of live animals in their natural habitat are provided. The anatomy of each species is described. Important nomenclatural issues are addressed. In particular, Labella Starobogatov, 1976 is regarded as a junior synonym of Onchidium and Labella ajuthiae (Labbé, 1935 and O. nigrum (Plate, 1893 are regarded as junior synonyms of O. stuxbergi. The nomenclatural status of several other species names is discussed as well. Many new records are provided across South-East Asia and precise ranges of geographic distributions are provided for the genus Onchidium and its three species. Distinctive features that help distinguish the genus Onchidium from other onchidiids are provided, as well as an identification key for the three species.

  19. Freshwater bivalve mollusca (unionidae, sphaeriidae, corbiculidae) of the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, J.C.; Fuller, S.L.H.

    1980-11-01

    A guide to freshwater bivalve molluscs found at the Savannah River Plant is presented. A dichotomous taxonomic key is provided to common forms and to unreported species whose geographic distributions include nearby localities. Discussions of ecology, life history, larval hosts, and other pertinent information is provided. (ACR)

  20. Streptaxidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata) of the Seychelles Islands, Western Indian Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlach, J.; Bruggen, van A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The taxonomy of the species of the terrestrial carnivorous snail family Streptaxidae of the Seychelles archipelago is reviewed with the exception of the three species of the genus Priodiscus (vide Gerlach, 1995). All 18 species are restricted to the northern, granitic islands. This paper describes 1