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Sample records for pin entry risk

  1. Medio-lateral entry pin versus lateral entry pin for displaced pediatric supracondylar fractures: A comparative, prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kandel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Supracondylar fracture is one of the commonest fractures in children. Although the technique of pinning is controversial, percutaneous medio-lateral entry pinning is theoretically considered more stable biomechanical construct. The drawback of this method is injury to ulnar nerve which is not encountered in only lateral entry pinning.Materials & Methods: This was a prospective, comparative and observational study done in 60 patients which was alternately divided into two groups. The first group (A underwent medio-lateral entry pinning and the second group (B underwent lateral entry pinning. They were followed for 24 weeks and the outcome was assessed using Flynn’s criteria.Results: At twenty-four weeks, the mean loss of range of motion of elbow in medio-lateral pinning group was 3.70 degrees (SD±1.93 and that in lateral pinning group was 4.23 degrees (SD ±1.38. The mean loss in carrying angle at twenty-four weeks in medio-lateral group was 2.93 degrees (SD±2.19 and that in lateral group was 4.17 (SD±2.24. There were 2 (6.67% cases of iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury in medio-lateral pinning group. Out of thirty patients, in medio-lateral pinning group, 25 had excellent results, 5 had good results and none had fair or poor results. While out of 30 patients in lateral pinning group, 23 had excellent results, 7 had good results and none had fair or poor results.Conclusion: There is no significant difference in outcome in terms of loss of carrying angle and range of motion between the medio-lateral pinning group and the lateral pinning group at the end of 6 months.Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, Vol.11(4 2015: 28-31

  2. AN ANDROID APPLICATION FOR ATM WITH A SECURED PIN-ENTRY METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    V.Kavitha; Dr.G.UMARANI SRIKANTH

    2015-01-01

    One of the most commonly occurringproblems in the recent years are the ATM (Automatic teller machine) frauds. People lose their money due to lack of awareness. The major reason for such kind of actions is the attacks made on the 4-digit pin (Personal Identification Number)which is being used as a password for authentication in ATM.The attacks such as shoulder surfing and recording attacksare becoming more common in ATM. The PIN number is not given proper security to overcome such attacks.The ...

  3. Risk Factors for Mosquito House Entry in the Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, A.F.; Khammanithong, P.; Kaul, S.; Sananikhom, P.; Luthi, R.; Hill, N.; Brey, P.T.; Lindsay, S.W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Construction of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project and flooding of a 450 km2 area of mountain plateau in south-central Lao PDR resulted in the resettlement of 6,300 people to newly built homes. We examined whether new houses would have altered risk of house entry by mosquitoes compared

  4. Risk Factors for Mosquito House Entry in the Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, A.F.; Khammanithong, P.; Kaul, S.; Sananikhom, P.; Luthi, R.; Hill, N.; Brey, P.T.; Lindsay, S.W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Construction of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project and flooding of a 450 km2 area of mountain plateau in south-central Lao PDR resulted in the resettlement of 6,300 people to newly built homes. We examined whether new houses would have altered risk of house entry by mosquitoes compared

  5. Physics-based Entry, Descent and Landing Risk Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Ken; Huynh, Loc C.; Manning, Ted

    2014-01-01

    A physics-based risk model was developed to assess the risk associated with thermal protection system failures during the entry, descent and landing phase of a manned spacecraft mission. In the model, entry trajectories were computed using a three-degree-of-freedom trajectory tool, the aerothermodynamic heating environment was computed using an engineering-level computational tool and the thermal response of the TPS material was modeled using a one-dimensional thermal response tool. The model was capable of modeling the effect of micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact damage on the TPS thermal response. A Monte Carlo analysis was used to determine the effects of uncertainties in the vehicle state at Entry Interface, aerothermodynamic heating and material properties on the performance of the TPS design. The failure criterion was set as a temperature limit at the bondline between the TPS and the underlying structure. Both direct computation and response surface approaches were used to compute the risk. The model was applied to a generic manned space capsule design. The effect of material property uncertainty and MMOD damage on risk of failure were analyzed. A comparison of the direct computation and response surface approach was undertaken.

  6. Risk factors for mosquito house entry in the Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Hiscox

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Construction of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project and flooding of a 450 km(2 area of mountain plateau in south-central Lao PDR resulted in the resettlement of 6,300 people to newly built homes. We examined whether new houses would have altered risk of house entry by mosquitoes compared with traditional homes built from poorer construction materials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surveys were carried out in the Nam Theun 2 resettlement area and a nearby traditional rice farming area in 2010. Mosquitoes were sampled in bedrooms using CDC light traps in 96 resettlement houses and 96 traditional houses and potential risk factors for mosquito house entry were recorded. Risk of mosquito house entry was more than twice as high in traditional bamboo houses compared with those newly constructed from wood (Putative Japanese Encephalitis (JE vector incidence rate ratio (IRR = 2.26, 95% CI 1.38-3.70, P = 0.001; Anopheline IRR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.30-4.23, P = 0.005. Anophelines were more common in homes with cattle compared against those without (IRR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.29-4.17, P = 0.005.Wood smoke from cooking fires located under the house or indoors was found to be protective against house entry by both groups of mosquito, compared with cooking in a separate room beside the house (Putative JE vector IRR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.26-0.73, P = 0.002; Anopheline IRR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.10-0.51, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Construction of modern wooden homes should help reduce human-mosquito contact in the Lao PDR. Reduced mosquito contact rates could lead to reduced transmission of diseases such as JE and malaria. Cattle ownership was associated with increased anopheline house entry, so zooprophylaxis for malaria control is not recommended in this area. Whilst wood smoke was protective against putative JE vector and anopheline house entry we do not recommend indoor cooking since smoke inhalation can enhance

  7. Spatial and temporal variation in evacuee risk perception throughout the evacuation and return-entry process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebeneck, Laura K; Cova, Thomas J

    2012-09-01

    Developing effective evacuation and return-entry plans requires understanding the spatial and temporal dimensions of risk perception experienced by evacuees throughout a disaster event. Using data gathered from the 2008 Cedar Rapids, Iowa Flood, this article explores how risk perception and location influence evacuee behavior during the evacuation and return-entry process. Three themes are discussed: (1) the spatial and temporal characteristics of risk perception throughout the evacuation and return-entry process, (2) the relationship between risk perception and household compliance with return-entry orders, and (3) the role social influences have on the timing of the return by households. The results indicate that geographic location and spatial variation of risk influenced household risk perception and compliance with return-entry plans. In addition, sociodemographic characteristics influenced the timing and characteristics of the return groups. The findings of this study advance knowledge of evacuee behavior throughout a disaster and can inform strategies used by emergency managers throughout the evacuation and return-entry process. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Recent determinants of new entry of HMOs into a Medicare risk contract: a diversification strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, C W; Clement, D G

    1999-01-01

    This study provides knowledge of more recent entry of health maintenance organizations (HMOs) into the Medicare risk program than earlier analyses. Based on a diversification framework, this study examines new market entry from three dimensions: attractiveness of the market, market area attributes, and organizational attributes. The analysis uses a 1994-1995 cross-sectional, lagged time sample with 440 HMOs that did not have a Medicare risk contract as of January 1994; it defines an HMO's market as its service area. HMO enrollment growth in the market, individual HMO enrollment size, and adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC) rates are found to be significant in predicting new market entry.

  9. Scientific Opinion on the risk of entry of Aethina tumida and Tropilaelaps spp. in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Small hive beetle (SHB and Tropilaelaps are bee diseases considered exotic in the EU. SHBis a flying coleopteran that can be attracted to the odours of bees and bee products. In addition, SHB can survive and reproduce on a variety of ripe fruits. Tropilaelaps is an ectoparasite that does not survive long without honey bee brood and cannot fly by itself. The methodology used to assess the risk of entry of these pests in this scientific opinion was adapted from a pest risk assessment for entry used in the field of plant health. A qualitative risk assessment was performed taking into account current legislation but excluding the implementation of risk reduction options. This approach allowed the assessment of the worst case scenario for each risk factor. The risk pathways with a high risk of pest entry are ‘import of bee products (use in apiculture’ for SHB and ‘accidental import of bees’ (unintended presence of bees in a non-bee consignment for both pests. The other risk pathways are associated with a moderate or low risk of SHB or Tropilaelaps entry into the risk assessment area. Risk reduction options were assessed separately from the risk assessment. Examples of risk reduction options with a high effectiveness and a high technical feasibility are the use of health certificates to guarantee pest freedom of consignments and keeping consignments without honey bee brood. Options with a high effectiveness and technical feasibility were identified in all risk pathways except ‘accidental import of bees’ and ‘dispersal of the pest via natural means and/or flight’. The AHAW Panel identified the need for validated rapid detection methods and for handling and sampling of imported bees in insect-proof environments. Education and training could help to monitor the pest distribution and to prevent pest entry by improving awareness, skills and expertise.

  10. Risk Factors of Entry in Out-of-Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Ejrnæs, Niels Morten; Frederiksen, Signe

    2011-01-01

    . The mother’s characteristics are more important risk factors than the corresponding risk factors of the father. The results, the applied method and the epidemiological inspired analysis make an opportunity to discuss the central concepts and methods of calculation of statistical association, risk, prediction...... and causal inference in applied sociology and social work....

  11. Risk analysis and user satisfaction after implementation of computerized physician order entry in Dutch hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Willem; de Gier, Han J. J.; van der Schaaf, Tjerk; Taxis, Katja; van den Bemt, Patricia M. L. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) in hospitals is widely considered to be important for patient safety, but implementation is lagging behind and user satisfaction is often low. Risk analysis methods may improve the implementation process and thus user satisfaction. Objective The a

  12. Expert Opinion to Identify High-Risk Entry Routes of Canine Rabies into Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, V J; Ward, M P

    2017-03-01

    The proximity of Papua New Guinea (PNG) to canine rabies-endemic countries in South-East Asia presents a risk of incursion of this disease into PNG and the rest of the Oceanic region. The objective of this study was to identify the highest risk routes for entry of dogs - associated with movement of people - into PNG from canine rabies-endemic countries. A structured, in-country expert-elicitation workshop was used, and 20 entry routes were identified. The highest risk routes were three land routes from Papua, Indonesia (hunters, traditional border crossers and unregulated, unchecked 'shopper-crossers') and two sea routes (fishing and logging). These results will be used to direct more detailed risk assessments to develop surveillance strategies and incursion response plans.

  13. Happy Pinning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2012-01-01

    This is about Pinterest, but with a different approach than usual to social networks. Pinterest is an image site par excellence. The images are as Windows that open outwards and also lets us look inwards and displays the soul and heart, the unintentional or pre-conscious desires. Happy Pinning!...

  14. Happy Pinning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2012-01-01

    This is about Pinterest, but with a different approach than usual to social networks. Pinterest is an image site par excellence. The images are as Windows that open outwards and also lets us look inwards and displays the soul and heart, the unintentional or pre-conscious desires. Happy Pinning!...

  15. Thermal performances and melting risk assessment in a LMFBR fuel pin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettraino, F.; Cacciabue, P. C.; Brunelli, F.

    1985-02-01

    A reliable evaluation of fuel temperature is a key safety requirement in the design of the fuel assembly of a nuclear reactor, especially in the case of a LMFBR whose efficient operation requires high thermal performance fuel. The physico-chemical properties such as density, oxygen to metal ratio and thermal conductivity of a typical LMFBR mixed-oxide fuel, which are known to change in a remarkable way under irradiation, strongly affect the temperature profile within the fuel pellet. A statistical analysis of the temperature values in the fuel of the Italian Fast Reactor PEC, has been performed by means of the RSM code (Response Surface Methodology) coupled to a Monte-Carlo Technique (MUP code), in order to demonstrate that the melting risk is substantially negligible.

  16. Entry-level physiotherapists' strategies to lower occupational injury risk in physiotherapy: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Margaret; Jones, Sue

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify entry-level physiotherapists perceptions of workplace injuries in private practice and the strategies they may use to reduce occupational injury risk in physiotherapy. Seventy-nine final year physiotherapy students were presented with a private practice workplace scenario, recent injury statistics, and common job risk factors in physiotherapy and were required to choose between the options of being a salaried employee or contractor and to discuss self-management strategies. This question was part of a substantive written examination that is a compulsory aspect of the final assessment for these students. Students identified nine categories for self-management and reducing injury risk with the majority of students choosing the option of being a contractor in preference to being a salaried employee. Regardless of the preferred employment option, students tended to select self-management strategies that would have a negative impact on income and service delivery and may be reflective of the relative inexperience of these students in private sector workplace settings. Given the high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) in the 5 five years postgraduation, the findings from this study highlight the need for educational institutions and employers to address occupational health and risk factors in physiotherapy, which would include education on prevention as well as appropriate self-management strategies within each workplace.

  17. Remote Imaging of Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) Entry Heating Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, David M.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    A Measure of Performance (MOP) identified with an Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) Multi- Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program Flight Test Objective (FTO) (OFT1.091) specified an observation during reentry though external ground-based or airborne assets with thermal detection capabilities. The objective of this FTO was to be met with onboard Developmental Flight Instrumentation (DFI), but the MOP for external observation was intended to provide complementary quantitative data and serve as a risk reduction in the event of anomalous DFI behavior (or failure). Mr. Gavin Mendeck, the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Phase Engineer for the MPCV Program (Vehicle Integration Office/Systems & Mission Integration) requested a risk-reduction assessment from the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) to determine whether quantitative imagery could be obtained from remote aerial assets to support the external observation MOP. If so, then a viable path forward was to be determined, risks identified, and an observation pursued. If not, then the MOP for external observation was to be eliminated.

  18. Air exchange rates and alternative vapor entry pathways to inform vapor intrusion exposure risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Rivka; Roghani, Mohammadyousef; Willett, Evan J; Shirazi, Elham; Pennell, Kelly G

    2016-11-12

    Vapor intrusion (VI) is a term used to describe indoor air (IA) contamination that occurs due to the migration of chemical vapors in the soil and groundwater. The overall vapor transport process depends on several factors such as contaminant source characteristics, subsurface conditions, building characteristics, and general site conditions. However, the classic VI conceptual model does not adequately account for the physics of airflow around and inside a building and does not account for chemical emissions from alternative "preferential" pathways (e.g. sewers and other utility connections) into IA spaces. This mini-review provides information about recent research related to building air exchange rates (AERs) and alternative pathways to improve the accuracy of VI exposure risk assessment practices. First, results from a recently published AER study for residential homes across the United States (US) are presented and compared to AERs recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The comparison shows considerable differences in AERs when season, location, building age, and other factors are considered. These differences could directly impact VI assessments by influencing IA concentration measurements. Second, a conceptual model for sewer gas entry into buildings is presented and a summary of published field studies is reported. The results of the field studies suggest that alternative pathways for vapors to enter indoor spaces warrant consideration. Ultimately, the information presented in this mini-review can be incorporated into a multiple-lines-of-evidence approach for assessing site-specific VI exposure risks.

  19. Quantitative risk assessment of entry of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia through live cattle imported from northwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woube, Yilkal Asfaw; Dibaba, Asseged Bogale; Tameru, Berhanu; Fite, Richard; Nganwa, David; Robnett, Vinaida; Demisse, Amsalu; Habtemariam, Tsegaye

    2015-11-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a highly contagious bacterial disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony (SC) bovine biotype (MmmSC). It has been eradicated from many countries; however, the disease persists in many parts of Africa and Asia. CBPP is one of the major trade-restricting diseases of cattle in Ethiopia. In this quantitative risk assessment the OIE concept of zoning was adopted to assess the entry of CBPP into an importing country when up to 280,000 live cattle are exported every year from the northwestern proposed disease free zone (DFZ) of Ethiopia. To estimate the level of risk, a six-tiered risk pathway (scenario tree) was developed, evidences collected and equations generated. The probability of occurrence of the hazard at each node was modelled as a probability distribution using Monte Carlo simulation (@RISK software) at 10,000 iterations to account for uncertainty and variability. The uncertainty and variability of data points surrounding the risk estimate were further quantified by sensitivity analysis. In this study a single animal destined for export from the northwestern DFZ of Ethiopia has a CBPP infection probability of 4.76×10(-6) (95% CI=7.25×10(-8) 1.92×10(-5)). The probability that at least one infected animal enters an importing country in one year is 0.53 (90% CI=0.042-0.97). The expected number of CBPP infected animals exported any given year is 1.28 (95% CI=0.021-5.42). According to the risk estimate, an average of 2.73×10(6) animals (90% CI=10,674-5.9×10(6)) must be exported to get the first infected case. By this account it would, on average, take 10.15 years (90% CI=0.24-23.18) for the first infected animal to be included in the consignment. Sensitivity analysis revealed that prevalence and vaccination had the highest impact on the uncertainty and variability of the overall risk.

  20. PIN1 gene variants in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedlecki Janusz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, NIMA-interacting 1 (PIN1 plays a significant role in the brain and is implicated in numerous cellular processes related to Alzheimer's disease (AD and other neurodegenerative conditions. There are confounding results concerning PIN1 activity in AD brains. Also PIN1 genetic variation was inconsistently associated with AD risk. Methods We performed analysis of coding and promoter regions of PIN1 in early- and late-onset AD and frontotemporal dementia (FTD patients in comparison with healthy controls. Results Analysis of eighteen PIN1 common polymorphisms and their haplotypes in EOAD, LOAD and FTD individuals in comparison with the control group did not reveal their contribution to disease risk. In six unrelated familial AD patients four novel PIN1 sequence variants were detected. c.58+64C>T substitution that was identified in three patients, was located in an alternative exon. In silico analysis suggested that this variant highly increases a potential affinity for a splicing factor and introduces two intronic splicing enhancers. In the peripheral leukocytes of one living patient carrying the variant, a 2.82 fold decrease in PIN1 expression was observed. Conclusion Our data does not support the role of PIN1 common polymorphisms as AD risk factor. However, we suggest that the identified rare sequence variants could be directly connected with AD pathology, influencing PIN1 splicing and/or expression.

  1. Predicting risk of entry into foster care from early childhood experiences: A survival analysis using LONGSCAN data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Diana J; Thompson, Richard; White, Catherine Roller

    2015-07-01

    This study examined whether a multi-domain model of maltreatment informed by an ecological framework-including factors related to the child, caregiver, family, neighborhood, and dimensions of maltreatment experience-predicted entry into foster care between the ages of 4 and 18 among children with no prior foster care experience. To determine which factors predict entry into foster care, secondary data analyses were conducted utilizing a sub-sample from LONGSCAN (Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect) of 942 children and their primary caregivers. Results demonstrate that there are important predictors for entry into out-of-home placement across multiple ecological domains. Characteristics related to child, caregiver, and family characteristics, and neighborhood context, as well as dimensions of maltreatment (particularly emotional maltreatment), predicted risk of placement in out-of-home care. Implications for child welfare practice are discussed. This examination of the effects of multiple ecological domains adds to our understanding of children's risk of removal and entry into out-of-home placement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A double-risk monitoring and movement restriction policy for Ebola entry screening at airports in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Sheldon H; Yu, Ge; Jokela, Janet A

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides an alternative policy for Ebola entry screening at airports in the United States. This alternative policy considers a social contact tracing (SCT) risk level, in addition to the current health risk level used by the CDC. The performances of both policies are compared based on the scenarios that occur and the expected cost associated with implementing such policies. Sensitivity analysis is performed to identify conditions under which one policy dominates the other policy. This analysis takes into account that the alternative policy requires additional data collection, which is balanced by a more cost-effective allocation of resources.

  3. Pediatric safety pin ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarihan, H; Kaklikkaya, I; Ozcan, F

    1998-08-01

    Fifteen consecutive children with ingested safety pins were evaluated retrospectively. Eight patients were males and seven were girls. The mean age of the patients was 5.4 years ranging from 7 months to 16 years. Two of 15 patients were mentally retarded Seven safety pins ingestion were noted by parents, three older children applied with safety pin swallowing. Three infants referred with hypersalivation and swallowing difficulty. One of two mentally retarded patients had recurrent aspiration pneumonia, the other had neck abscess. These patients' lesions were detected incidentally by thoracic X-ray. Nine safety pins were at the level of the cricopharyngeus, one at the level of the aortic arch and five at the esophagogastric junction. A right esophagoscopy was used for extraction of safety pins under general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation were used. Before esophagoscopy control plain X-ray was obtained for location of safety pin. Nine safety pins were extracted by esophagoscopy. Three safety pins spontaneously and three during anesthesia induction passed through the esophagus falling down the stomach. Five of these six safety pins were spontaneously extracted without complication. However one open safety pin lodged at the duodenum and laparotomy was required. In this article, etiology and management of safety pin ingestion in children are discussed.

  4. Maternal well-being and its association to risk of developmental problems in children at school entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzies Karen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children at highest risk of developmental problems benefit from early identification and intervention. Investigating factors affecting child development at the time of transition to school may reveal opportunities to tailor early intervention programs for the greatest effectiveness, social benefit and economic gain. The primary objective of this study was to identify child and maternal factors associated with children who screened at risk of developmental problems at school entry. Methods An existing cohort of 791 mothers who had been followed since early pregnancy was mailed a questionnaire when the children were aged four to six years. The questionnaire included a screening tool for developmental problems, an assessment of the child's social competence, health care utilization and referrals, and maternal factors, including physical health, mental health, social support, parenting morale and sense of competence, and parenting support/resources. Results Of the 491 mothers (62% who responded, 15% had children who were screened at high risk of developmental problems. Based on a logistic regression model, independent predictors of screening at high risk for developmental problems at age 5 were male gender (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.1, maternal history of abuse at pregnancy (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.4, and poor parenting morale when the child was 3 years old (OR: 3.9; 95% CI: 2.1, 7.3. A child with all of these risk factors had a 35% predicted probability of screening at high risk of developmental problems, which was reduced to 13% if maternal factors were favourable. Conclusions Risk factors for developmental problems at school entry are related to maternal well being and history of abuse, which can be identified in the prenatal period or when children are preschool age.

  5. A Generic Quantitative Risk Assessment Framework for the Entry of Bat-Borne Zoonotic Viruses into the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horigan, Verity; Gale, Paul; Kosmider, Rowena D.; Breed, Andrew C.; Snary, Emma L.

    2016-01-01

    Bat-borne viruses have been linked to a number of zoonotic diseases; in 2014 there have been human cases of Nipah virus (NiV) in Bangladesh and Ebola virus in West and Central Africa. Here we describe a model designed to provide initial quantitative predictions of the risk of entry of such viruses to European Union (EU) Member States (MSs) through four routes: human travel, legal trade (e.g. fruit and animal products), live animal movements and illegal importation of bushmeat. The model utilises available datasets to assess the movement via these routes between individual countries of the world and EU MSs. These data are combined with virus specific data to assess the relative risk of entry between EU MSs. As a case study, the model was parameterised for NiV. Scenario analyses showed that the selection of exporting countries with NiV and potentially contaminated trade products were essential to the accuracy of all model outputs. Uncertainty analyses of other model parameters identified that the model expected number of years to an introduction event within the EU was highly susceptible to the prevalence of NiV in bats. The relative rankings of the MSs and routes, however, were more robust. The UK, the Netherlands and Germany were consistently the most likely points of entry and the ranking of most MSs varied by no more than three places (maximum variation five places). Legal trade was consistently the most likely route of entry, only falling below human travel when the estimate of the prevalence of NiV in bats was particularly low. Any model-based calculation is dependent on the data available to feed into the model and there are distinct gaps in our knowledge, particularly in regard to various pathogen/virus as well as host/bat characteristics. However, the strengths of this model lie in the provision of relative comparisons of risk among routes and MSs. The potential for expansion of the model to include other routes and viruses and the possibility of rapid

  6. Risk assessment of the entry of canine-rabies into Papua New Guinea via sea and land routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Victoria J; Keponge-Yombo, Andy; Thomson, David; Ward, Michael P

    2017-09-15

    Canine-rabies is endemic in parts of Indonesia and continues to spread eastwards through the Indonesian archipelago. Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a land border with Papua Province, Indonesia, as well as logging and fishing industry connections throughout Asia. PNG has a Human Development Index of 0.505; therefore, an incursion of canine-rabies could have devastating impacts on human (7.5 million) and animal populations. Given the known difficulties of rabies elimination in resource-scarce environments, an incursion of rabies into PNG would also likely compromise the campaign for global elimination of rabies. A previous qualitative study to determine routes for detailed risk assessment identified logging, fishing and three land-routes (unregulated crossers ["shopper-crossers"], traditional border crossers and illegal hunters) as potential high risk routes for entry of rabies-infected dogs into PNG. The objective of the current study was to quantify and compare the probability of entry of a rabies-infected dog via these routes into PNG and to identify the highest risk provinces and border districts to target rabies prevention and control activities. Online questionnaires were used to elicit expert-opinion about quantitative model parameter values. A quantitative, stochastic model was then used to assess risk, and parameters with the greatest influence on the estimated mean number of rabies-infected dogs introduced/year were identified via global sensitivity analysis (Sobol method). Eight questionnaires - including 7 online - were implemented and >220 empirical distributions were parameterised using >2900 expert-opinions. The highest risk provinces for combined sea routes were West Sepik, Madang and Western Province, driven by the number of vessels and the probability of bringing dogs. The highest risk border districts for combined land routes were Vanimo-Green River and South Fly, driven by the number of people crossing the border and the number of dogs (with hunters

  7. An integrated approach for risk object re-entry predictions in terms of KS elements and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. K.; Anil Kumar, A. K.; Xavier James Raj, M.

    The accurate estimation of the orbital lifetime of decaying near-Earth objects is of considerable importance for prediction of risk object re-entry time and proper planning of mitigation strategies and hazard assessment. It has become necessary to use extremely complex force models to match with the present operational requirements and observational techniques. The problem becomes all the more complicated in the near-Earth environment due to the fact that the object is influenced by the non-spherical effects of the Earth's gravitational field as well as the dissipative effects of the Earth's atmosphere. The database available for the re-entry time or orbital lifetime prediction of the debris objects is based on the set of Two Line Elements (TLEs) provided by the agencies like NORAD. These TLEs provide information regarding the orbital parameters together with rate of mean motion decay and an equivalent ballistic coefficient B*. The objects physical parameters like mass, area of cross section, shape and dimensions are not available accurately and the modelling of the atmosphere in which objects decay takes place is also uncertain. Besides, the tumbling effect of the body and gas molecular interaction, further makes the prediction of re-entry time a very complicated exercise. The method of the K-S total-energy element equations (Stiefel & Scheifele 1971) is a powerful method for numerical solution with respect to any type of perturbing forces, as the equations are less sensitive to round-off and truncation errors in the numerical algorithm. The equations are everywhere regular in contrast with the classical Newtonian equations, which are singular at the collision of the two bodies. The equations are smoothed for eccentric orbits because eccentric anomaly is the independent variable. Genetic Algorithms (Deb 1995) has received a great deal of attention regarding their potential as an optimisation technique for complex functions. This paper highlights the implementation

  8. Magnetic flux pinning in superconductors with hyperbolic-tessellation arrays of pinning sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misko, V. R.; Nori, Franco

    2012-05-01

    We study magnetic flux interacting with arrays of pinning sites (APSs) placed on vertices of hyperbolic tessellations (HTs). We show that, due to the gradient in the density of pinning sites, HT APSs are capable of trapping vortices for a broad range of applied magnetic fluxes. Thus, the penetration of magnetic field in HT APSs is essentially different from the usual scenario predicted by the Bean model. We demonstrate that, due to the enhanced asymmetry of the surface barrier for vortex entry and exit, this HT APS could be used as a “capacitor” to store magnetic flux.

  9. PINS Spectrum Identification Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.J. Caffrey

    2012-03-01

    The Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy—PINS, for short—system identifies the chemicals inside munitions and containers without opening them, a decided safety advantage if the fill chemical is a hazardous substance like a chemical warfare agent or an explosive. The PINS Spectrum Identification Guide is intended as a reference for technical professionals responsible for the interpretation of PINS gamma-ray spectra. The guide is divided into two parts. The three chapters that constitute Part I cover the science and technology of PINS. Neutron activation analysis is the focus of Chapter 1. Chapter 2 explores PINS hardware, software, and related operational issues. Gamma-ray spectral analysis basics are introduced in Chapter 3. The six chapters of Part II cover the identification of PINS spectra in detail. Like the PINS decision tree logic, these chapters are organized by chemical element: phosphorus-based chemicals, chlorine-based chemicals, etc. These descriptions of hazardous, toxic, and/or explosive chemicals conclude with a chapter on the identification of the inert chemicals, e.g. sand, used to fill practice munitions.

  10. Knowledge regarding risk factors of hypertension among entry year students of a medical university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Rizwana B; Mathew, Elsheba; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Muttappallymyalil, Jayakumary; Sharbatti, Shatha Al; Basha, Shaikh A

    2011-09-01

    Hypertension in youth is increasing, but there is a dearth of data about the knowledge of risk factors in this age group. To assess the knowledge of risk factors of hypertension among university students and associate it with the blood pressure, physical activity, family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and sociodemographic variables. A cross-sectional survey among students enrolled in the first year, in the four academic programs, with the use of a validated, self-administered questionnaire on physical activity in the past 30 days and knowledge of risk factors of hypertension. A score of 6 on 11 was considered as good knowledge for modifiable risk factors. Blood pressure was also measured. The data was analyzed using PASW-17, Chi square test, and binary logistic regression analysis was done. Of the 110 participants, 69.2% were coffee consumption 35.5%, physical inactivity 47%, and oral contraceptives 13.6%. Half the group did not consider a family history of CVD as a risk factor, 60% did not consider older age as a risk factor, and 88% did not think male gender was a risk factor. Knowledge of modifiable risk factors was better than that of non-modifiable risk factors. Although nationality, course of study, raised blood pressure, and history of diabetes showed significant association with good knowledge, their net effect was not significant by the Adjusted Odd's Ratio. The study identified some gaps in knowledge regarding both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors of hypertension among students. A larger study would enable health promotion activities tailored to the needs of this age group.

  11. Knowledge regarding risk factors of hypertension among entry year students of a medical university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana B Shaikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hypertension in youth is increasing, but there is a dearth of data about the knowledge of risk factors in this age group. Aims: To assess the knowledge of risk factors of hypertension among university students and associate it with the blood pressure, physical activity, family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD, and sociodemographic variables. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey among students enrolled in the first year, in the four academic programs, with the use of a validated, self-administered questionnaire on physical activity in the past 30 days and knowledge of risk factors of hypertension. A score of 6 on 11 was considered as good knowledge for modifiable risk factors. Blood pressure was also measured. The data was analyzed using PASW-17, Chi square test, and binary logistic regression analysis was done. Results: Of the 110 participants, 69.2% were < 20 years of age, 76.4% were females, and 40% were Arabs. Stress, high cholesterol, obesity, and smoking were identified as risk factors by 75.5, 73.6, 77.6, and 71.8%, respectively; 69.1% considered high salt intake and 62.7% considered high calorie diet as risk factors. Energy drink was considered as a risk factor by 64.5%, coffee consumption 35.5%, physical inactivity 47%, and oral contraceptives 13.6%. Half the group did not consider a family history of CVD as a risk factor, 60% did not consider older age as a risk factor, and 88% did not think male gender was a risk factor. Knowledge of modifiable risk factors was better than that of non-modifiable risk factors. Although nationality, course of study, raised blood pressure, and history of diabetes showed significant association with good knowledge, their net effect was not significant by the Adjusted Odd′s Ratio. Conclusions: The study identified some gaps in knowledge regarding both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors of hypertension among students. A larger study would enable health promotion activities

  12. Flux pinning in superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Teruo

    2014-01-01

    The book covers the flux pinning mechanisms and properties and the electromagnetic phenomena caused by the flux pinning common for metallic, high-Tc and MgB2 superconductors. The condensation energy interaction known for normal precipitates or grain boundaries and the kinetic energy interaction proposed for artificial Nb pins in Nb-Ti, etc., are introduced for the pinning mechanism. Summation theories to derive the critical current density are discussed in detail. Irreversible magnetization and AC loss caused by the flux pinning are also discussed. The loss originally stems from the ohmic dissipation of normal electrons in the normal core driven by the electric field induced by the flux motion. The readers will learn why the resultant loss is of hysteresis type in spite of such mechanism. The influence of the flux pinning on the vortex phase diagram in high Tc superconductors is discussed, and the dependencies of the irreversibility field are also described on other quantities such as anisotropy of supercondu...

  13. Flux Pinning in Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Teruo

    2007-01-01

    The book covers the flux pinning mechanisms and properties and the electromagnetic phenomena caused by the flux pinning common for metallic, high-Tc and MgB2 superconductors. The condensation energy interaction known for normal precipitates or grain boundaries and the kinetic energy interaction proposed for artificial Nb pins in Nb-Ti, etc., are introduced for the pinning mechanism. Summation theories to derive the critical current density are discussed in detail. Irreversible magnetization and AC loss caused by the flux pinning are also discussed. The loss originally stems from the ohmic dissipation of normal electrons in the normal core driven by the electric field induced by the flux motion. The readers will learn why the resultant loss is of hysteresis type in spite of such mechanism. The influence of the flux pinning on the vortex phase diagram in high Tc superconductors is discussed, and the dependencies of the irreversibility field are also described on other quantities such as anisotropy of supercondu...

  14. Pin1, a new player in the fate of HIF-1α degradation: an hypothetical mechanism inside vascular damage as Alzheimer’s disease risk factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eLonati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aetiology of neurodegenerative mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD are still under elucidation. The contribution of cerebrovascular deficiencies (such as cerebral ischemia/stroke has been strongly endorsed in recent years. Reduction of blood supply leading to hypoxic condition is known to activate cellular responses mainly controlled by hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 (HIF-1. Thus alterations of oxygen responsive HIF-1α subunit in the central nervous system may contribute to the cognitive decline, especially influencing mechanisms associated to APP (amyloid precursor protein amyloidogenic metabolism. Although HIF-1α protein level is known to be regulated by von Hippel-Lindau (VHL ubiquitin-proteasome system, it has been recently suggested that Gsk-3β (glycogen synthase kinase-3β promotes a VHL-independent HIF-1α degradation. Here we provide evidences that in rat primary hippocampal cell cultures, HIF-1α degradation might be mediated by a synergic action of Gsk-3β and Pin1 (peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase. In post-ischemic conditions, such as those mimicked with oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD, HIF-1α protein level increases remaining unexpectedly high for long time after normal condition restoration jointly with the increase of LDH (lactate dehydrogenase and BACE1 (β-secretase 1 protein expression (70% and 140% respectively. Interestingly the Pin1 activity decreases about 40%-60% and Pin1S16 inhibitory phosphorylation significantly increases, indicating that Pin1 binding to its substrate and enzymatic activity are reduced by treatment. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that HIF-1α/Pin1 in normoxia are associated, and that in presence of specific Pin1 and Gsk-3β inhibitors their interaction is reduced in parallel to an increase of HIF-1α protein level. Thus we suggest that in post-OGD neurons the high level of HIF-1α might be due to Pin1 binding ability and activity reduction which affects HIF-1

  15. PINS-3X Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.H. Seabury

    2013-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS) non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. The PINS-3X variant of the system is used to identify explosives and uses a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) as the neutron source. Use of the system, including possession and use of the neutron generator and shipment of the system components requires compliance with a number of regulations. This report outlines some of these requirements as well as some of the requirements in using the system outside of INL.

  16. Diffusion inspires selection of pinning nodes in pinning control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming-Yang; He, Xingsheng; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Liao, Hao; Cai, Shi-min; Zhuo, Zhao

    2016-03-01

    The outstanding problem of controlling a complex network via pinning is related to network dynamics and has the potential to master large-scale real-world systems as well. This paper addresses the heart issue about how to choose pinning nodes for pinning control, where pinning control aims to control a network to an identical state by injecting feedback control signals to a small fraction of nodes. We explore networks' controllability from not only mathematical analysis, but also the aspects of network topology and information diffusion. Then, the connection between pinning control and information diffusion is given, and pinning node selection is transferred into multi-spreader problem in information diffusion. Based on information diffusion, a heuristic method is proposed to select pinning nodes by optimizing the spreading ability of multiple spreaders. The proposed method greatly improves the controllability of large practical networks, and provides a new perspective to investigate pinning node selection.

  17. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manbeck, Harvey B; Hofstetter, Daniel W; Murphy, Dennis J; Puri, Virendra M

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated.

  18. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey B. Manbeck

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess: (1 how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2 from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3 whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated.

  19. Pinning Down versus Density

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The pinning down number $ {pd}(X)$ of a topological space $X$ is the smallest cardinal $\\kappa$ such that for any neighborhood assignment $U:X\\to \\tau_X$ there is a set $A\\in [X]^\\kappa$ with $A\\cap U(x)\

  20. Risk factors for house-entry by malaria vectors in a rural town and satellite villages in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasseh Momadou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the pre-intervention year of a randomized controlled trial investigating the protective effects of house screening against malaria-transmitting vectors, a multi-factorial risk factor analysis study was used to identify factors that influence mosquito house entry. Methods Mosquitoes were sampled using CDC light traps in 976 houses, each on one night, in Farafenni town and surrounding villages during the malaria-transmission season in The Gambia. Catches from individual houses were both (a left unadjusted and (b adjusted relative to the number of mosquitoes caught in four sentinel houses that were operated nightly throughout the period, to allow for night-to-night variation. Houses were characterized by location, architecture, human occupancy and their mosquito control activities, and the number and type of domestic animals within the compound. Results 106,536 mosquitoes were caught, of which 55% were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, the major malaria vectors in the region. There were seven fold higher numbers of An. gambiae s.l. in the villages (geometric mean per trap night = 43.7, 95% confidence intervals, CIs = 39.5–48.4 than in Farafenni town (6.3, 5.7–7.2 and significant variation between residential blocks (p Conclusion This study demonstrates that the risk of malaria transmission is greatest in rural areas, where large numbers of people sleep in houses made of mud blocks, where the eaves are open, horses are not tethered nearby and where churai is not burnt at night. These factors need to be considered in the design and analysis of intervention studies designed to reduce malaria transmission in The Gambia and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. Risk factors for house-entry by culicine mosquitoes in a rural town and satellite villages in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasseh Momodou

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening doors, windows and eaves of houses should reduce house entry by eusynanthropic insects, including the common African house mosquito Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and other culicines. In the pre-intervention year of a randomized controlled trial investigating the protective effects of house screening against mosquito house entry, a multi-factorial risk factor analysis study was used to identify factors influencing house entry by culicines of nuisance biting and medical importance. These factors were house location, architecture, human occupancy and their mosquito control activities, and the number and type of domestic animals within the compound. Results 40,407 culicines were caught; the dominant species were Culex thalassius, Cx. pipiens s.l., Mansonia africanus, M. uniformis and Aedes aegypti. There were four times more Cx. pipiens s.l. in Farafenni town (geometric mean/trap/night = 8.1, 95% confidence intervals, CIs = 7.2–9.1 than in surrounding villages (2.1, 1.9–2.3, but over five times more other culicines in the villages (25.1, 22.1–28.7 than in town (4.6, 4.2–5.2. The presence of Cx. pipiens s.l. was reduced in both settings if the house had closed eaves (odds ratios, OR town = 0.62, 95% CIs = 0.49–0.77; OR village = 0.49, 0.33–0.73, but increased per additional person in the trapping room (OR town = 1.16, 1.09–1.24; OR village = 1.10, 1.02–1.18. In the town only, Cx. pipiens s.l. numbers were reduced if houses had a thatched roof (OR = 0.70, 0.51–0.96, for each additional cow tethered near the house (OR = 0.73, 0.65–0.82 and with increasing distance from a pit latrine (OR = 0.97, 0.95–0.99. In the villages a reduction in Cx. pipiens s.l. numbers correlated with increased horses in the compound (OR = 0.90, 0.82–0.99. The presence of all other culicines was reduced in houses with closed eaves (both locations, with horses tethered outside (village only and with increasing room height

  2. Auxin transport through PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3) controls shade avoidance and fitness during competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuskamp, Diederik H.; Pollmann, Stephan; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Peeters, Anton J. M.; Pierik, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Plants grow in dense vegetations at the risk of being out-competed by neighbors. To increase their competitive power, plants display adaptive responses, such as rapid shoot elongation (shade avoidance) to consolidate light capture. These responses are induced upon detection of proximate neighbors through perception of the reduced ratio between red (R) and far-red (FR) light that is typical for dense vegetations. The plant hormone auxin is a central regulator of plant development and plasticity, but until now it has been unknown how auxin transport is controlled to regulate shade-avoidance responses. Here, we show that low R:FR detection changes the cellular location of the PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3) protein, a regulator of auxin efflux, in Arabidopsis seedlings. As a result, auxin levels in the elongating hypocotyls are increased under low R:FR. Seedlings of the pin3-3 mutant lack this low R:FR-induced increase of endogenous auxin in the hypocotyl and, accordingly, have no elongation response to low R:FR. We hypothesize that low R:FR-induced stimulation of auxin biosynthesis drives the regulation of PIN3, thus allowing shade avoidance to occur. The adaptive significance of PIN3-mediated control of shade-avoidance is shown in plant competition studies. It was found that pin3 mutants are outcompeted by wild-type neighbors who suppress fitness of pin3-3 by 40%. We conclude that low R:FR modulates the auxin distribution by a change in the cellular location of PIN3, and that this control can be of great importance for plants growing in dense vegetations. PMID:21149713

  3. SIMULATE-4 pin power calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadir, T. [Studsvik Scandpower, Inc., 1087 Beacon St., Newton, MA 02459 (United States); Lindahl, S. Oe [Studsvik Scandpower AB, Hantverkargatan 2A, SE-722 12 Vasteraas (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    A new pin power reconstruction module has been implemented in Studsvik Scandpower's next generation nodal code, SIMULATE-4. Heterogeneous pin powers are calculated by modulating multi-group pin powers from the sub-mesh solver of SIMULATE-4 with pin form factors from single-assembly CASMO-5 lattice calculations. The multi-group pin power model captures instantaneous spectral effects, and actinide tracking on the assembly sub-mesh describes exposure-induced pin power variations. Model details and verification tests against high order multi-assembly transport methods are presented. The accuracy of the new methods is also demonstrated by comparing SIMULATE-4 calculations with measured critical experiment pin powers. (authors)

  4. “Right Here is the Gateway”: Mobility, Sex Work Entry and HIV Risk Along the Mexico-U.S. Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, SM; Silverman, JS; Engstrom, D; Bojorquez-Chapela, I; Strathdee, SA

    2013-01-01

    Women comprise an increasing proportion of migrants. Many voluntarily migrate for sex work or practice survival sex, while others may be trafficked for sexual exploitation. To investigate how the context of mobility shapes sex work entry and HIV risk, we conducted in-depth interviews with formerly trafficked women currently engaged in sex work (n=31) in Tijuana, Mexico and their service providers (n=7) in Tijuana and San Diego, USA from 2010–2011. Women’s experiences of coerced and deceptive migration, deportation as forced migration, voluntary mobility, and migration to a risk environment illustrate that circumstances driving and resulting from migration shape vulnerability to sex trafficking, voluntary sex work entry, and HIV risk. Findings suggest an urgent need for public health and immigration policies that provide integrated support for deported and/or recently arrived female migrants. Policies to prevent sex trafficking and assist trafficked females must also consider the varying levels of personal agency involved in migration and sex work entry. PMID:25346548

  5. Simulation for Prediction of Entry Article Demise (SPEAD): An Analysis Tool for Spacecraft Safety Analysis and Ascent/Reentry Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    For the purpose of performing safety analysis and risk assessment for a potential off-nominal atmospheric reentry resulting in vehicle breakup, a synthesis of trajectory propagation coupled with thermal analysis and the evaluation of node failure is required to predict the sequence of events, the timeline, and the progressive demise of spacecraft components. To provide this capability, the Simulation for Prediction of Entry Article Demise (SPEAD) analysis tool was developed. The software and methodology have been validated against actual flights, telemetry data, and validated software, and safety/risk analyses were performed for various programs using SPEAD. This report discusses the capabilities, modeling, validation, and application of the SPEAD analysis tool.

  6. "Safety pin"--a question to its safety!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa Chettri, S; Bhattarai, M; Karki, S; Regmi, S; Mathur, N N

    2010-03-01

    Foreign body ingestion is not an uncommon problem in children. They can ingest various foreign objects and one of such objects is a safety pin. The ingestion of such foreign body is not widely reported in the literature. This case highlights the risk of accidental ingestion of safety pin used on child's clothing to protect him from cold that can result in lethal complications. In a poor developing country like Nepal, this case serves to address all mothers alerting them of their ignorance while using safety pin in infants. In addition, physicians are reminded to obtain a detailed inquiry of suspected foreign body ingestion in every child with the history of dysphagia.

  7. Pinning, de-pinning and re-pinning of a slowly varying rivulet

    KAUST Repository

    Paterson, C.

    2013-09-01

    The solutions for the unidirectional flow of a thin rivulet with prescribed volume flux down an inclined planar substrate are used to describe the locally unidirectional flow of a rivulet with constant width (i.e. pinned contact lines) but slowly varying contact angle as well as the possible pinning and subsequent de-pinning of a rivulet with constant contact angle and the possible de-pinning and subsequent re-pinning of a rivulet with constant width as they flow in the azimuthal direction from the top to the bottom of a large horizontal cylinder. Despite being the same locally, the global behaviour of a rivulet with constant width can be very different from that of a rivulet with constant contact angle. In particular, while a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle can always run from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, the behaviour of a rivulet with constant width depends on the value of the width. Specifically, while a narrow rivulet can run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, a wide rivulet can run from the top of the cylinder only to a critical azimuthal angle. The scenario in which the hitherto pinned contact lines of the rivulet de-pin at the critical azimuthal angle and the rivulet runs from the critical azimuthal angle to the bottom of the cylinder with zero contact angle but slowly varying width is discussed. The pinning and de-pinning of a rivulet with constant contact angle, and the corresponding situation involving the de-pinning and re-pinning of a rivulet with constant width at a non-zero contact angle which generalises the de-pinning at zero contact angle discussed earlier, are described. In the latter situation, the mass of fluid on the cylinder is found to be a monotonically increasing function of the constant width. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Fuel pin cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, S.; Adamson, M.G.

    1986-01-28

    Disclosed is an improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, consisting of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel and/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients. 2 figs.

  9. Fuel pin cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan; Adamson, Martyn G.

    1986-01-01

    An improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, consisting of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel and/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients.

  10. Study on Measuring Information Risk Based on an Improved PIN Model%基于改进信息交易概率模型的信息风险测度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宝臣; 郭灿; 常建勇

    2014-01-01

    Measuring information asymmetry accurately is the research basis of financial market′s information asymmetry issue. Based on the modeling and assumption of the classical PIN model, this paper examines different order submission behavior of in-formation traders and non-information traders under different information states.Herein, an improved PIN model, which takes the information state probability as the exogenous variable and considers the heterogeneous beliefs and trading activity, is built up. The exogenous information state probability is estimated by Markov-switching vector autoregressive ( MSVAR ) model, which takes various market trading information into consideration, so the accuracy of the model could be improved.The empirical re-sults indicate that the advanced model is more accurate in measuring the information asymmetry of financial market.First, the probability of informed trading ( PIN) is related to the monopolistic advantage and topicality of underlying asset.On one hand, strong monopolistic advantage always results in a lower PIN;on the other hand, high topicality is usually accompanied by high PIN.Furthermore, the PIN vibration is influenced by reports.The PIN is always in a high level before the information being opened to the public, and subsequently decreases significantly after being reported.Therefore, for preventing information risk, it is needed to focus on the stocks that are easy to be influenced by public opinion and to pay more attention on the market fluctua-tions and the trends of information before announcement of related information released.%准确测度信息不对称是研究金融市场信息不对称问题的基础。在详细考察经典的信息交易概率模型的建模过程和假设条件的基础上,针对信息交易者和非信息交易者在不同信息状态下的订单提交状况,提出考虑外生信息状态概率、异质期望和交易活跃度的改进的信息交易概率模型;通过带机制转换

  11. Paddle-pin alinement test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, D. M.; Foster, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Segmented insulated test bar speeds up patch distributor paddle-pin test. Device eliminates need to disconnect cables or remove distributor. Printed circuit cable and connector reduces weight on bar, adding to tester portability.

  12. Pinning Mechanisms in YBCO Tapes

    CERN Document Server

    Spera, Marcello; Ballarino, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis work, a study on flux pinning mechanisms of commercial YBCO tapes is presented. This study has been performed via critical current characterization using transport (via direct I-V curves) and magnetization (via a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer) measurements. The latter ones turned out to be better concerning the comprehension of the pinning landscape of the provided samples, as a wider range of magnetic fields and temperatures is available for those measurements in the setup I used. The comparison of the experimental data with existing theoretical models allowed me to draw a picture of the pinning mechanisms underlying in each sample, and they turned out to be quite different one another. Moreover, for high-performance research tapes, another interesting feature has been found: the counterplay between the self-field critical current and the in-field one. Very well engineered artificial pinning structures limit the self-field critical current density due to the hi...

  13. Enhanced pinning in superconducting thin films with graded pinning landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, M.; Colauto, F.; Ortiz, W. A.; Fritzsche, J.; Cuppens, J.; Gillijns, W.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Johansen, T. H.; Sanchez, A.; Silhanek, A. V.

    2013-05-01

    A graded distribution of antidots in superconducting a-Mo79Ge21 thin films has been investigated by magnetization and magneto-optical imaging measurements. The pinning landscape has maximum density at the sample border, decreasing linearly towards the center. Its overall performance is noticeably superior than that for a sample with uniformly distributed antidots: For high temperatures and low fields, the critical current is enhanced, whereas the region of thermomagnetic instabilities in the field-temperature diagram is significantly suppressed. These findings confirm the relevance of graded landscapes on the enhancement of pinning efficiency, as recently predicted by Misko and Nori [Phys. Rev. B 85, 184506 (2012)].

  14. US Ports of Entry

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — HSIP Non-Crossing Ports-of-Entry A Port of Entry is any designated place at which a CBP officer is authorized to accept entries of merchandise to collect duties, and...

  15. Interface roughening and pinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Stéphane; Hansen, Alex

    1994-04-01

    We study a simple model for thé pinning of an interface by impurities with random strengths, and thé depinning due to thé applied pressure, in a quasi-static propagation lirait. The model is very close to thé so called "Robin Hood" model introduced by Zaitsev. It is designed to describe e.g. thé invasion of a wetting fluid (imbibition) in a heterogeneous porous medium containing a second immiscible fluid. The relation between this model and other previously proposed approaches is discussed. The front of thé invaded domain is shown to develop a self-affine structure with an increase of thé roughness as a power-law of thé injected volume. The value of thé apparent roughness exponent can be favorably compared to some experimental measurements although we argue that thé true roughness exponent is out of reach of commonly used methods. We show that thé distribution f(d, Δ t) of distances d between discrete local invasions at a time interval Δ t can be described by a scaling law f(d, Δ t) = d^{-1}\\varphi(d/sqrt{Δ t}). This form can be obtained from thé identification of a hierarchical structure of "bursts" in thé pressure signal. Those "bursts" are quahtatively similar to those observed in quasistatic drainage, (i.e. invasion percolation), although characterized by différent scaling indices. Nous étudions un modèle simple pour analyser l'accrochage d'une interface sur des impuretés et le décrochage sous l'effet d'une pression appliquée, dans une limite quasi-statique. Ce modèle est très voisin du modèle "Robin Hood" introduit par Zaitsev. Il s'applique en particulier à l'invasion d'un fluide mouillant (imbibition) dans un milieu poreux hétérogène contenant un fluide immiscible. Nous discutons les relations entre ce modèle et d'autres approches proposées pour décrire ce phénomène. Le front d'invasion acquiert une structure auto-affine, avec un développement de la rugosité selon une loi de puissance du volume injecté. La valeur de l

  16. PinBus Interface Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  17. Synchronizability on complex networks via pinning control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yi Liang; Xingyuan Wang

    2013-04-01

    It is proved that the maximum eigenvalue sequence of the principal submatrices of coupling matrix is decreasing. The method of calculating the number of pinning nodes is given based on this theory. The findings reveal the relationship between the decreasing speed of maximum eigenvalue sequence of the principal submatrices for coupling matrix and the synchronizability on complex networks via pinning control. We discuss the synchronizability on some networks, such as scale-free networks and small-world networks. Numerical simulations show that different pinning strategies have different pinning synchronizability on the same complex network, and the synchronizability with pinning control is consistent with one without pinning control in various complex networks.

  18. Improved pinning regime by energetic ions using reduction of pinning potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Roy; Gandini, Alberto; Sawh, Ravi-Persad; Parks, Drew; Mayes, Bill

    2003-05-15

    When ion damage is used to create pinning centers, full columnar pinning centers provide the largest pinning potential, U{sub pin}, but not the greatest J{sub c} or pinned field, B{sub pin}. Some of the characteristics of columnar defects which limit J{sub c} and B{sub pin} are discussed, including reduction of percolation path, and the need for a larger number of columns of damage, for pinning, than are usually estimated. It is concluded that columnar pinning centers are limited to B{sub pin}<4 T, and also severely reduce J{sub c}. Evidence is reviewed that aligned damage, or broken-columnar pinning centers, described herein, can provide orders of magnitude higher J{sub c}, and higher pinned field, despite providing lower U{sub pin}. A pinning center morphology is discussed which utilizes multiple-in-line-damage (MILD). For, e.g., present day large grain HTS J{sub c}, obtainable by MILD pinning, is estimated to be of the order of 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} at 77 K, even when crystal plane alignment and weak links are not improved. Pinned field is increased by over an order of magnitude. An experiment is proposed to confirm these observations, and to directly compare MILD to columnar pinning centers. It will also determine the optimum MILD structure. Other measurements of interest, made possible by the same data set, are described.

  19. Pinning-controllability of complex networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sorrentino, Francesco; Di Bernardo, Mario; Garofalo, Franco; Chen, Guanrong

    2007-01-01

    We study the problem of controlling a general complex network towards an assigned synchronous evolution, by means of a pinning control strategy. We define the pinning-controllability of the network in terms of the spectral properties of an extended network topology. The roles of the control and coupling gains as well as of the number of pinned nodes are also discussed.

  20. Self-shearing retentive pins: a laboratory evaluation of pin channel penetration before shearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkmeier, W W; Cooley, R L

    1979-09-01

    This laboratory study determined the depth reached by self-shearing pins in dentin pin channels. Pin channels were prepared with the self-limiting shoulder twist drill for each of the four systems tested. Mean channel depth reached for the various pin systems was: Stabilok (small), 2.31 mm; Stabilok (medium), 1.78 mm; Reten Pin, 1.40 mm; and TMS (Regular), 2.04 mm. A coparison was also made by calculating the mean percent of penetration in relation to the depth of prepared pin channel: Stabilok (small), 92.50%; Stabilok (medium), 63.62%; Reten Pin, 66.67%; and TMS (Regular) 81.75%.

  1. Pinning control of chimera states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambuzza, Lucia Valentina; Frasca, Mattia

    2016-08-01

    The position of the coherent and incoherent domain of a chimera state in a ring of nonlocally coupled oscillators is strongly influenced by the initial conditions, making nontrivial the problem of confining them in a specific region of the structure. In this paper we propose the use of spatial pinning to induce a chimera state where the nodes belonging to one domain, either the coherent or the incoherent, are fixed by the control action. We design two different techniques according to the dynamics to be forced in the region of pinned nodes, and validate them on FitzHugh-Nagumo and Kuramoto oscillators. Furthermore, we introduce a suitable strategy to deal with the effects of finite size in small structures.

  2. Be on Pins and Needles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    英语对话:A:It seems you’re on pins and needles today.Anything troubling you?B:Yeah.I don’t know why bad things keep happening to me .You see,mycar was stolen and the warehouse had been broken into.I can’t keep myfinger on the causes of this damned thing.A:There must be someone who had planned that.Do you have a partieularperson in mind?

  3. Preventing re-entry to foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnochan, Sarah; Rizik-Baer, Daniel; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Re-entry to foster care generally refers to circumstances in which children who have been discharged from foster care to be reunified with their family of origin, adopted, or provided kinship guardianship are returned to foster care. In the context of the federal performance measurement system, re-entry refers specifically to a return to foster care following an unsuccessful reunification. The federal Children and Family Services Review measures re-entry to foster care with a single indicator, called the permanency of reunification indicator, one of four indicators comprising the reunification composite measure. This review focuses on research related to the re-entry indicator, including the characteristics of children, caregivers and families, as well as case and child welfare services that are associated with a higher or lower risk of re-entry to foster care. Promising post-reunification services designed to prevent re-entry to foster care are described.

  4. Investigation of the bulk pinning force in YBCO superconducting films with nano-engineered pinning centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, A.; Dang, V. S.; Yearwood, G.; Mikheenko, P.; Huhtinen, H.; Paturi, P.

    2014-08-01

    For practical applications of superconducting materials in applied magnetic fields, artificial pinning centres in addition to natural ones are required to oppose the Lorentz force. These pinning centres are actually various types of defects in the superconductor matrix. The pinning centres can be categorised on their dimension (volume, surface, or point) and on their character (normal cores or Δκ cores). We have used the Dew Hughes approach to determine the types of pinning centres present in various samples, with various thicknesses, temperatures and nanostructured additions to the superconducting matrix. Results show that normal surface pinning centres are present throughout almost all the samples, as dominant pinning mechanism. Such 2D extended pinning centres are mainly due to dislocations, grain boundaries, nanorods. Strong normal point pinning centres were found to be common in BZO doped YBCO samples. Other types of pinning centres, in various (minor) concentrations were also found in some of the samples.

  5. Alignment Pins for Assembling and Disassembling Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Oliver C.

    2008-01-01

    Simple, easy-to-use, highly effective tooling has been devised for maintaining alignment of bolt holes in mating structures during assembly and disassembly of the structures. The tooling was originally used during removal of a body flap from the space shuttle Atlantis, in which misalignments during removal of the last few bolts could cause the bolts to bind in their holes. By suitably modifying the dimensions of the tooling components, the basic design of the tooling can readily be adapted to other structures that must be maintained in alignment. The tooling includes tapered, internally threaded alignment pins designed to fit in the bolt holes in one of the mating structures, plus a draw bolt and a cup that are used to install or remove each alignment pin. In preparation for disassembly of two mating structures, external supports are provided to prevent unintended movement of the structures. During disassembly of the structures, as each bolt that joins the structures is removed, an alignment pin is installed in its place. Once all the bolts have been removed and replaced with pins, the pins maintain alignment as the structures are gently pushed or pulled apart on the supports. In assembling the two structures, one reverses the procedure described above: pins are installed in the bolt holes, the structures are pulled or pushed together on the supports, then the pins are removed and replaced with bolts. The figure depicts the tooling and its use. To install an alignment pin in a bolt hole in a structural panel, the tapered end of the pin is inserted from one side of the panel, the cup is placed over the pin on the opposite side of the panel, the draw bolt is inserted through the cup and threaded into the pin, the draw bolt is tightened to pull the pin until the pin is seated firmly in the hole, then the draw bolt and cup are removed, leaving the pin in place. To remove an alignment pin, the cup is placed over the pin on the first-mentioned side of the panel, the draw

  6. Spectroscopic amplifier for pin diode; Amplificador espectroscopico para diodo Pin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso M, M. S.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: bebe.luna_s@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The photodiode remains the basic choice for the photo-detection and is widely used in optical communications, medical diagnostics and field of corpuscular radiation. In detecting radiation it has been used for monitoring radon and its progeny and inexpensive spectrometric systems. The development of a spectroscopic amplifier for Pin diode is presented which has the following characteristics: canceler Pole-Zero (P/Z) with a time constant of 8 μs; constant gain of 57, suitable for the acquisition system; 4th integrator Gaussian order to waveform change of exponential input to semi-Gaussian output and finally a stage of baseline restorer which prevents Dc signal contribution to the next stage. The operational amplifier used is the TLE2074 of BiFET technology of Texas Instruments with 10 MHz bandwidth, 25 V/μs of slew rate and a noise floor of 17 nv/(Hz)1/2. The integrated circuit has 4 operational amplifiers and in is contained the total of spectroscopic amplifier that is the goal of electronic design. The results show like the exponential input signal is converted to semi-Gaussian, modifying only the amplitude according to the specifications in the design. The total system is formed by the detector, which is the Pin diode, a sensitive preamplifier to the load, the spectroscopic amplifier that is what is presented and finally a pulse height analyzer (Mca) which is where the spectrum is shown. (Author)

  7. Market entry strategies into the BRIC countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    Based on a sample of 177 exporting SMEs, this study investigates what market entry strategy is used by Danish family and non-family businesses. From a resource-based view, three critical internal factors (risk, flexibility and control) affecting the entry mode choice into the BRIC markets...... when entering the BRIC markets. In contrast, family firms choose high commitment entry modes which involve high risk and low flexibility when entering the BRIC markets. Further implications discuss the suitability of export strategies to BRIC markets for managers of Danish family and non-family firms....

  8. Uncertainty of pin height measurement for the determination of wear in pin-on-plate test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drago, Nicola; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Poulios, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    machine (CMM), achieving an expanded measurement uncertainty (k = 2) better than 1 mm. A simple dedicated fixture adaptable to workshop environment was developed and its metrological capability investigated, estimating an average uncertainty of measurement in the order of 5 mm (k = 2). Fixture......The paper concerns measurement of pin height for the determination of wear in a pin-on-plate (POP) or pin-on-disc (POD) test, where a pin is mounted on a holder that can be fixed on the test rig and removed for measurements. The amount of wear is assessed as difference of pin height before...... and after the test, using the distance between holder plane and pin friction plane as measurand. A series of measurements were performed in connection with POP testing of different friction material pins mounted on an aluminium holder. Pin height measurements were carried out on a coordinate measuring...

  9. Improved shock-detection pin arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    Shockwave speeds are often measured by comparing arrival times at the tips of electrical shorting pins in a hexagonal array over two elevations (called up and down). In the conventional arrangement, the center pin is solely responsible for measuring the curvature of the wavefront. Without this datum the shock speed cannot be precisely determined. In some experiments this pin fail frequently enough to be a problem. We report a simple rearrangement between up and down designated pins which eliminates the critical reliance on a single.

  10. Supracondylar humerus fractures in children treated with closed reduction and percutaneous pinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, Michelangelo; Giovannelli, Daniele; Fabbri, Luca; Dell'omo, Dario; Goffi, Andrea; Guido, Giulio

    2012-08-01

    Supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children are important for frequency and type of associated serious complications. The management of this kind of fractures is still controversial (Skaggs et al. in J Bone Joint Surg Am 86:702-707, 2004; Kalllio et al. in J Pediatr Orthop 12:11-15, 1992). We are going to present our experience in the treatment of supracondylar humeral fracture in children. In the Orthopedic Department of Pisa, we treated 150 cases from 1989 to 2006. We are used to perform, emergency or within 12 h, reduction and two lateral-entry percutaneous pins fixation. The mean age was 7.5 years. We checked 125 cases, because we excluded all the cases with follow up less then 5 years. The mean follow up was 8.2 years. We used Gartland classification modified by Wilkins. We evaluated 125 cases by using the Flynn classification: 100 % of patients did not have impairment of the elbow joint mobility. We had seven valgus deviation, one of which was more then 10°. We also had 17 varus deviations, 11 of which were not over 8° and only 2 of them were 15°. The average value of the joint Baumann angle was calculated as great as 16°. The obtained results were classified as very good 80 %, good 11 %, sufficiently good 6 %, and bad 3 %. In our experience, all the fractures type II and III by Gartland have to be treated within 12 h, with closed reduction and stabilization with lateral-entry K-wire technique. The conservative treatment by cast is indicated only in type I fracture. The trans olecranic treatment is not realizable, for the stiffness which can occur, for the risk of iatrogenic ulnar nerve lesion, and for long-time hospitalization. The open reduction remains the first choice treatment for exposed or nonreducible fractures, and in cases of vascular injury.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of nanocomposite zirconium nitride/silver coatings to combat external bone fixation pin infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, David J; West, Glen; Kelly, Peter J; Verran, Joanna; Lynch, Stephen; Whitehead, Kathryn A

    2012-10-01

    During external fixation, temporary implants are used to penetrate the skin, muscle and bone to support severely fractured bones. This creates a biologically critical interface at the site of entry, which potentially allows a risk of infection. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate potential antimicrobial nanocomposites to combat infection. Magnetron sputtering was used to produce zirconium nitride/silver nanocomposite coatings, which were prepared at two different silver concentrations of 15.5 at.% and 29.8 at.%. These coatings were characterized for morphology, chemical composition, and antimicrobial activity in comparison to pure zirconium nitride and stainless steel. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were used as in vitro test organisms in a range of antimicrobial assays; retention of the bacteria on the surfaces and their survival using LiveDead™ staining; the use of a metabolic redox dye to indicate a contact kill and zone of inhibition assays to indicate leaching of inhibitory silver ions. Antimicrobial tests demonstrated a significant kill when the bacterial cells came in contact with the coatings containing silver at both 15.5 at.% and 29.8 at.%. No inhibitory leaching from the surfaces occurred. These surfaces demonstrate potential for use as antimicrobial fixation pin coatings.

  12. The maize PIN gene family of auxin transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian eForestan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Auxin is a key regulator of plant development and its differential distribution in plant tissues, established by a polar cell-to-cell transport, can trigger a wide range of developmental processes. A few members of the two families of auxin efflux transport proteins, PIN-formed (PIN and P-glycoprotein (ABCB/PGP, have so far been characterized in maize. Nine new Zea mays auxin efflux carriers PIN family members and two maize PIN-like genes have now been identified. Four members of PIN1 (named ZmPIN1a–d cluster, one gene homologous to AtPIN2 (ZmPIN2, three orthologs of PIN5 (ZmPIN5a–c, one gene paired with AtPIN8 (ZmPIN8, and three monocot-specific PINs (ZmPIN9, ZmPIN10a and b were cloned and the phylogenetic relationships between early land plants, monocots and eudicots PIN proteins investigated, including the new maize PIN proteins. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the twelve maize PIN genes, two PIN-like genes and ZmABCB1, an ABCB auxin efflux carrier, were analyzed using semi-quantitative RT–PCR. ZmPIN gene transcripts have overlapping expression domains in the root apex, during male and female inflorescence differentiation and kernel development. However, some PIN family members have specific tissue localization: ZmPIN1d transcript marks the L1 layer of the SAM and IM during the flowering transition and the monocot-specific ZmPIN9 is expressed in the root endodermis and pericycle. The phylogenetic and gene structure analyses together with the expression pattern of the ZmPIN gene family indicate that subfunctionalization of some maize PINs can be associated to the differentiation and development of monocot-specific organs and tissues and might have occurred after the divergence between dicots and monocots.

  13. Pinning impulsive control algorithms for complex network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen; Lü, Jinhu; Chen, Shihua; Yu, Xinghuo

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we further investigate the synchronization of complex dynamical network via pinning control in which a selection of nodes are controlled at discrete times. Different from most existing work, the pinning control algorithms utilize only the impulsive signals at discrete time instants, which may greatly improve the communication channel efficiency and reduce control cost. Two classes of algorithms are designed, one for strongly connected complex network and another for non-strongly connected complex network. It is suggested that in the strongly connected network with suitable coupling strength, a single controller at any one of the network's nodes can always pin the network to its homogeneous solution. In the non-strongly connected case, the location and minimum number of nodes needed to pin the network are determined by the Frobenius normal form of the coupling matrix. In addition, the coupling matrix is not necessarily symmetric or irreducible. Illustrative examples are then given to validate the proposed pinning impulsive control algorithms.

  14. Cultural distance, political risk, or governance quality? Towards a more accurate conceptualization and measurement of external uncertainty in foreign entry mode research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H.L. Slangen; R.J.M. van Tulder

    2009-01-01

    It is well accepted that multinational enterprises (MNEs) prefer equity joint ventures (JVs) over wholly owned subsidiaries (WOSs) in foreign countries where the formal and informal external environment is highly uncertain. Many entry mode studies have modeled the external uncertainty faced by MNEs

  15. DLMS Voice Data Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    between operator and computer displayed on ADM-3A 20c A-I Possible Hardware Configuration for a Multistation Cartographic VDES ...this program a Voice Recognition System (VRS) which can be used to explore the use of voice data entry ( VDE ) in the DIMS or other cartographic data...Multi-Station Cartographic Voice Data Entry System An engineering development model voice data entry system ( VDES ) could be most efficiently

  16. Nanoscale pinning effect evaluated from deformed nanobubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Takashi; Takahashi, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Classical thermodynamics theory predicts that nanosized bubbles should disappear in a few hundred microseconds. The surprisingly long lifetime and stability of nanobubbles are therefore interesting research subjects. It has been proposed that the stability of nanobubbles arises through pinning of the three-phase contact line, which results from intrinsic nanoscale geometrical and chemical heterogeneities of the substrate. However, a definitive explanation of nanobubble stability is still lacking. In this work, we examined the stability mechanism by introducing a "pinning force." We investigated nanobubbles at a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite/pure water interface by peak force quantitative nano-mechanical mapping and estimated the pinning force and determined its maximum value. We then observed the shape of shrinking nanobubbles. Because the diameter of the shrinking nanobubbles was pinned, the height decreased and the contact angle increased. This phenomenon implies that the stability results from the pinning force, which flattens the bubble through the pinned three-phase contact line and prevents the Laplace pressure from increasing. The pinning force can also explain the metastability of coalesced nanobubbles, which have two semispherical parts that are joined to form a dumbbell-like shape. The pinning force of the semispherical parts was stronger than that of the joint region. This result demonstrates that the contact line of the semispherical parts is pinned strongly to keep the dumbbell-like shape. Furthermore, we proposed a nanobubble generation mechanism for the solvent-exchange method and explained why the pinning force of large nanobubbles was not initially at its maximum value, as it was for small nanobubbles.

  17. Entry at Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Smith, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    This is lecture to be given at the IPPW 2016, as part of the 2 day course on Short Course on Destination Venus: Science, Technology and Mission Architectures. The attached presentation material is intended to be introduction to entry aspects of Venus in-situ robotic missions. The presentation introduces the audience to the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic aspects as well as the loads, both aero and thermal, generated during entry. The course touches upon the system design aspects such as TPS design and both high and low ballistic coefficient entry system concepts that allow the science payload to be protected from the extreme entry environment and yet meet the mission objectives.

  18. Pattern Reconfigurable Patch Antenna menggunakan Edge Shorting Pin dan Symmetrical Control Pin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI ANDI NURMANTRIS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Metode baru dalam mendesain suatu pattern reconfigurable antenna telah diteliti. Penelitian ini fokus pada optimasi antena patch lingkaran single layer pencatuan probe koaksial dengan mengintegrasikan 24 switch/shorting pin pada sisi patch yang disebut edge shorting pin dan 8 shorting pin membentuk lingkaran dengan radius tertentu dan selanjutnya disebut symmetrical control pin yang fungsinya sebagai metode penyepadan impedansi. Algoritma Genetika yang dikombinasikan dengan Finite Element Software digunakan untuk mengoptimasi kombinasi  switch, radius lingkaran symmetrical control pin, dan radius patch untuk mendapatkan kemampuan pattern reconfigurability. Antena ini menghasilkan 8 kemungkinan arah radiasi azzimuth dengan resolusi 45o dan arah elevasi 30o pada frekuensi 2,4 Ghz. Optimasi, simulasi, fabrikasi, dan pengukuran dilakukan untuk memverifikasi hasil penelitian. Kata kunci: Patch Lingkaran, Edge Shorting Pin, Symmetrical Control Pin, Algoritma Genetika, Pattern Reconfigurable   Abstract New method for desaining pattern reconfigurable antenna was studied. This study focuses on the optimization of a single layer circular patch antenna with probe feed by integrating the 24 switch / shorting pin on the side of the patch that called Edge Shorting Pins and 8 shorting pins form circular line in such radius that called Symmetrical Control Pins as a impedance matching method. Genetic algorithm combined with the Finite Element Software is used to optimize the switch combination, the radius of circular line of symmetrical control pins, and the patch radius to obtain a pattern reconfigurability capabilities. This antenna produces 8 possible directions of azimuth radiation with a resolution of 45o and 30o elevation direction at a frequency of 2.4 GHz. Optimization, simulation, fabrication, and measurement was done to verify the results. Keywords: Circular Patch, Edge Shorting Pin, Symmetrical Control Pin, Genetic Algorithm, Pattern

  19. Effects of Auxins on PIN-FORMED2 (PIN2) Dynamics Are Not Mediated by Inhibiting PIN2 Endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jásik, Ján; Bokor, Boris; Stuchlík, Stanislav; Mičieta, Karol; Turňa, Ján; Schmelzer, Elmon

    2016-10-01

    By using the photoconvertible fluorescence protein Dendra2 as a tag we demonstrated that neither the naturally occurring auxins indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid, nor the synthetic auxin analogs 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid nor compounds inhibiting polar auxin transport such as 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid, were able to inhibit endocytosis of the putative auxin transporter PIN-FORMED2 (PIN2) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root epidermis cells. All compounds, except Indole-3-butyric acid, repressed the recovery of the PIN2-Dendra2 plasma membrane pool after photoconversion when they were used in high concentrations. The synthetic auxin analogs 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid showed the strongest inhibition. Auxins and auxin transport inhibitors suppressed also the accumulation of both newly synthesized and endocytotic PIN2 pools in Brefeldin A compartments (BFACs). Furthermore, we demonstrated that all compounds are also interfering with BFAC formation. The synthetic auxin analogs caused the highest reduction in the number and size of BFACs. We concluded that auxins and inhibitors of auxin transport do affect PIN2 turnover in the cells, but it is through the synthetic rather than the endocytotic pathway. The study also confirmed inappropriateness of the BFA-based approach to study PIN2 endocytosis because the majority of PIN2 accumulating in BFACs is newly synthesized and not derived from the plasma membrane. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Safety pin suture for management of atonic postpartum hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostfa, Ali Abdelhamed M; Zaitoun, Mostafa M

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To assess the efficacy of a new suture technique in controlling severe resistant uterine atonic postpartum hemorrhage. Patients and Methods. This is a retrospective observational study that included thirteen women with uterine atony and postpartum bleeding that did not react to usual medical management. All these women underwent compressing vertical suture technique in which the anterior and posterior walls of the uterus were attached so as to compress the uterus. The suture is transfixed at the uterine fundus, thus eliminating the risk of sutures sliding off at the uterine fundus (safety pin suture). Results. safety pin uterine compression suture was a sufficient procedure to stop the bleeding immediately in 92.2% of the women. None of the women developed complications related to the procedure. Conclusion. A new safety pin suture is a simple and effective procedure to control bleeding in patients with treatment-resistant, life-threatening atonic postpartum hemorrhage with the advantage of eliminating the risk of the sutures sliding off at the uterine fundus.

  1. Pinning controllability of complex networks with community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qingying; Tang, Yang; Kurths, Jürgen; Fang, Jian-an; Wong, W K

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we study the controllability of networks with different numbers of communities and various strengths of community structure. By means of simulations, we show that the degree descending pinning scheme performs best among several considered pinning schemes under a small number of pinned nodes, while the degree ascending pinning scheme is becoming more powerful by increasing the number of pinned nodes. It is found that increasing the number of communities or reducing the strength of community structure is beneficial for the enhancement of the controllability. Moreover, it is revealed that the pinning scheme with evenly distributed pinned nodes among communities outperforms other kinds of considered pinning schemes.

  2. Double entry bookkeeping vs single entry bookkeeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Andreica

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A financial management eficiently begin, primarily, with an accounting record kept in the best possible conditions, this being conditioned on the adoption of a uniform forms, rational, clear and simple accounting. Throughout history, there have been known two forms of accounting: the simple and double entry. Romanian society after 1990 underwent a substantial change in social structure, the sector on which put a great emphasis being private, that of small manufacturers, peddler, freelance, who work independently and authorized or as associative form (family enterprises, various associations (owners, tenants, etc., liberal professions, etc.. They are obliged to keep a simple bookkeeping, because they have no juridical personality. Companies with legal personality are required to keep double entry bookkeeping; therefore, knowledge and border demarcation between the two forms of organisation of accounting is an essential. The material used for this work is mainly represented by the financial and accounting documents, by the analysis of the economic, by legislative updated sources, and as the method was used the comparison method, using hypothetical data, in case of an authorized individual and a legal entity. Based on the chosen material, an authorized individual (who perform single entry accounting system and a juridical entity (who perform double entry accounting system were selected comparative case studies, using hypothetical data, were analysed advantages and disadvantages in term of fiscal, if using two accounting systems, then were highlighted some conclusion that result.

  3. A Fast Guide Tube Position Estimation Algorithm for a Control Rod Support Pin Inspection Robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae C.; Jeon, Hyeong S.; Choi, Yu R.; Kim, Jae H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The risk that PWR guide tube support pins will crack has increased the necessity for the development of inspection methods and equipment. A special remote-controlled manipulator has been widely used to inspect the guide tube support pins. We presented a matched filter algorithm for detecting the existence and estimating the position of the guide tube support pins. But, the matched filter algorithm requires numbers of complex floating point calculations for the 2-D FFT and therefore it can not be fitted in to the small-sized embedded processors. We proposed a new simplified method for estimating the position of the guide tube support pins. It uses most of the operations with integers. We ported the proposed method in intel's xscale processor running at 400 mhz. We used gnu C language in embedded linux operating system. We can calculate the algorithm at a rate of 20 frames/sec. in a 160x120 image size.

  4. Selective pinning control of the average disease transmissibility in an HIV contact network

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, E. F.; Craig, I. K.

    2015-07-01

    Medication is applied to the HIV-infected nodes of high-risk contact networks with the aim of controlling the spread of disease to a predetermined maximum level. This intervention, known as pinning control, is performed both selectively and randomly in the network. These strategies are applied to 300 independent realizations per reference level of incidence on connected undirectional networks without isolated components and varying in size from 100 to 10 000 nodes per network. It is shown that a selective on-off pinning control strategy can control the networks studied with limited steady-state error and, comparing the medians of the doses from both strategies, uses 51.3% less medication than random pinning of all infected nodes. Selective pinning could possibly be used by public health specialists to identify the maximum level of HIV incidence in a population that can be achieved in a constrained funding environment.

  5. Late-onset chest wall abscess due to a biodegradable rib pin infection after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Yasufumi; Chen-Yoshikawa, Toyofumi F; Kusunose, Masaaki; Hamaji, Masatsugu; Motoyama, Hideki; Hijiya, Kyoko; Aoyama, Akihiro; Date, Hiroshi

    2017-03-17

    A 55-year-old man with end-stage emphysema underwent a right single-lung transplantation through a posterolateral thoracotomy. The fifth rib was divided and fused back using a biodegradable pin made of polylactide acid and hydroxyapatite. Two weeks postoperatively, he suffered from central vein catheter-related sepsis due to methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. After being successfully treated for sepsis, he was discharged. However, 3 months later, computed tomography revealed multiple loculated abscesses in the chest wall and the right pleural space. Reoperative thoracotomy revealed abscesses mainly located around the fifth rib, where the pin was inserted. Both cultures of the abscess and the fifth rib were positive for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, which suggested that the rib pin was the cause of the secondary infection. This case suggests the rib pins, even if they are biodegradable, could have a risk of infections side effect especially for the immunosuppressed patients.

  6. The association between adolescent entry into the trucking industry and risk of HIV among long-distance truck drivers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ram Manohar; Dube, Madhulika; Saggurti, Niranjan; Pandey, Arvind; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Ramesh, Sowmya

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between entry into the trucking industry during adolescence and both sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among long-distance truck drivers in India. Data were sourced from a cross-sectional survey (sample size: 2066) undertaken in 2007 among long-distance truck drivers. The survey spread across major transshipment locations covering the bulk of India's transport volume along four routes. Participants were interviewed about sexual behaviors and were tested for HIV and STIs. The present authors constructed two synthetic cohorts based on the participants' duration of employment in the trucking industry: (1) low (duration ≤ 6 years) and (2) high experience (duration ≥ 7 years). Based on age at entry into the trucking industry, participants were termed as either adolescent (age at entry 4.0%, respectively; adjusted OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-3.1) and syphilis (5.7% versus 3.5%, respectively; adjusted OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-3.1). These results suggest the need for focused behavioral change programs in HIV prevention interventions for adolescent truckers in India and elsewhere.

  7. The mental illness risk analysis and discussion of entry and exit passenger%出入境旅客精神疾病风险调查分析与讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李磊; 曲德鑫; 丛雪芹; 刘福奎; 王丽丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:以调查表方式评估出入境人群精神类疾病风险,为口岸卫生检疫部门的监管工作提供参考和建议。方法随机抽取出入境旅客各400人,以2012年卫生部发布的精神疾病筛查表格为基础进行风险调查,对结果进行分析。结果20.8%的出入境旅客认为存在精神疾病风险,排在前三位的异常行为是胡言乱语、暴力、冷漠,出境和入境人群间的差异没有统计学意义,船员这一职业感受到的风险最大(阳性率30.8%)。结论建议口岸卫生检疫部门加强精神疾病监管机制建设,加强与地方卫生部门沟通,建立有效的量化筛查体系,切实提高口岸精神疾病检出率。%Objective This article assesses the mental illness risk by the way of analyzing questionnaires from en-try and exit passengers, so as to provide some reference and advice for the supervision of port health and quarantine departments. Methods Randomly choose 400 people of entry and exit passengers respectively, investigate the risk on the basis of mental health screening form issued by the ministry of health in 2012, and analyze the result. Results 20. 8% of entry-exit travelers are supposed to be at risk of mental illness. Balderdash, violence, and indifference are the top 3 aberrant behaviors. The difference between entry and exit people is of no statistical signif-icance. The crew is at the highest risk ( positive rate 30. 8%) among all the professions. Conclusion I suggest that port health and quarantine departments strengthen the construction of mental illness supervision mechanism, strengthen the communication with local health departments to establish an effective quantitative screening system, and thus improve the detection rate of port mental illness.

  8. The problem of the open safety pin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, B R

    1975-01-01

    The open safety pin lodged in the stomach or esophagus presents a challenge to surgical judgment and technical skill. Most foreign bodies causing trouble lodge in the esophagus. Once in the stomach, uneventful passage can be expected in 80 to 90% of cases. Active intervention is reserved for those where intestinal performation is likely or where there is failure to progress. We have used the fiberesophagoscope to remove three open safety pins from the stomachs of two patients whose symptoms and threat of perforation required intervention. The microbiopsy forceps was used successfully to retrieve the open pins, but a newly developed grasping forceps for use with the fiberesophagoscope now provides a more secure hold on such foreign bodies. Rigid instruments retain their value for selected cases, but the flexible equipment now provides an important advance in the management of the open safety pin in the stomach.

  9. Pinning Synchronization of Switched Complex Dynamical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Network topology and node dynamics play a key role in forming synchronization of complex networks. Unfortunately there is no effective synchronization criterion for pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology. In this paper, pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology is studied. Two basic problems are considered: one is pinning synchronization of switched complex networks under arbitrary switching; the other is pinning synchronization of switched complex networks by design of switching when synchronization cannot achieved by using any individual connection topology alone. For the two problems, common Lyapunov function method and single Lyapunov function method are used respectively, some global synchronization criteria are proposed and the designed switching law is given. Finally, simulation results verify the validity of the results.

  10. Flux pinning in superconductors. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, Teruo [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Iizuka, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Computer Science and Electronics

    2014-04-01

    Ideal for graduate students studying superconductivity and experts alike. Written by a researcher with more than 30 years experience in the field. All chapters are completely revised. The book covers the flux pinning mechanisms and properties and the electromagnetic phenomena caused by the flux pinning common for metallic, high-Tc and MgB2 superconductors. The condensation energy interaction known for normal precipitates or grain boundaries and the kinetic energy interaction proposed for artificial Nb pins in Nb-Ti, etc., are introduced for the pinning mechanism. Summation theories to derive the critical current density are discussed in detail. Irreversible magnetization and AC loss caused by the flux pinning are also discussed. The loss originally stems from the ohmic dissipation of normal electrons in the normal core driven by the electric field induced by the flux motion. The readers will learn why the resultant loss is of hysteresis type in spite of such mechanism. The influence of the flux pinning on the vortex phase diagram in high Tc superconductors is discussed, and the dependencies of the irreversibility field are also described on other quantities such as anisotropy of superconductor, specimen size and electric field strength. Recent developments of critical current properties in various high-Tc superconductors and MgB2 are introduced. Other topics are: singularity in the case of transport current in a parallel magnetic field such as deviation from the Josephson relation, reversible flux motion inside pinning potentials which causes deviation from the critical state model prediction, the concept of the minimization of energy dissipation in the flux pinning phenomena which gives the basis for the critical state model, etc. Significant reduction in the AC loss in AC wires with very fine filaments originates from the reversible flux motion which is dominant in the two-dimensional pinning. The concept of minimum energy dissipation explains also the behavior

  11. Anisotropic flux pinning in high Tc superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleśnik, S.; Igalson, J.; Skośkiewicz, T.; Szymczak, R.; Baran, M.; Pytel, K.; Pytel, B.

    1995-02-01

    In this paper we present a comparison of the results of FC magnetization measurements on several PbSr(Y,Ca)CuO crystals representing various levels of flux pinning. The pinning centers in our crystals have been set up during the crystal growth process or introduced by neutron irradiation. Some possible explanations of the observed effects, including surface barrier, flux-center distribution and sample-shape effects, are discussed.

  12. Open safety pin in the nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, I; Sikder, B; Sinha, R; Paul, R

    2004-04-01

    Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity are common-day occurrences in Otolaryngologic practice. But an open safety pin in nose with it' s sharp end directed towards roof is a rare incidence, and available literature is silent about this presentation; it is probably, the first of it' s kind being reported. Two cases of safety pins inside the nasal cavity, one open and the other closed, have been presented here with a brief review of literature.

  13. Open safety pin in the nasal cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, I; Sikder, B.; R. Sinha; Paul, R

    2004-01-01

    Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity are common-day occurrences in Otolaryngologic practice. But an open safety pin in nose with it’ s sharp end directed towards roof is a rare incidence, and available literature is silent about this presentation; it is probably, the first of it’ s kind being reported. Two cases of safety pins inside the nasal cavity, one open and the other closed, have been presented here with a brief review of literature.

  14. IMp: The customizable LEGO® Pinned Insect Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Dupont

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a pinned insect manipulator (IMp constructed of LEGO® building bricks with two axes of movement and two axes of rotation. In addition we present three variants of the IMp to emphasise the modular design, which facilitates resizing to meet the full range of pinned insect specimens, is fully customizable, collapsible, affordable and does not require specialist tools or knowledge to assemble.

  15. Memory-only selection of dictionary PINs

    OpenAIRE

    Stanek, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the security of dictionary-based PINs (Personal Identification Numbers) that a user selects from his/her memory without any additional aids. The estimates take into account the distribution of words in source language. We use established security metrics, such as entropy, guesswork, marginal guesswork and marginal success rate. The metrics are evaluated for various scenarios -- aimed at improving the security of the produced PINs. In general, plain and straightforward construction...

  16. The pinning effect in quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monisha, P. J., E-mail: pjmonisha@gmail.com [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Soma [Department of Physics, D V R College of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad-502285 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The pinning effect is studied in a Gaussian quantum dot using the improved Wigner-Brillouin perturbation theory (IWBPT) in the presence of electron-phonon interaction. The electron ground state plus one phonon state is degenerate with the electron in the first excited state. The electron-phonon interaction lifts the degeneracy and the first excited states get pinned to the ground state plus one phonon state as we increase the confinement frequency.

  17. Study on contact pressure at pin connection detail; Pin setsugobu no sesshokuatsu ni taisuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, C.; Anami, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, M. [Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan); Ohashi, H. [Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-07-21

    Contact pressure between pin and pin plate is discussed by FEM and UT from the point of view of the connection detail of hanger lope of long span suspension bridge. Application of the UT to the 25S surface specimen (and smoother surface) is effective. The results of UT and FEM distribution of contact pressure near the center of plate almost agree with the Hertz law. However near the surface of pin plate the contact pressure and plate width of large contact pressure region increase larger than those near contact pressure and plate width of large contact pressure region increase larger than those near center of pin plate. 12 refs., 17 figs.

  18. Improved pinning by multiple in-line damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Roy [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Sawh, Ravi-Persad [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Gandini, Alberto [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Parks, Drew [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Columnar pinning centres provide the largest pinning potential, U{sub pin}, but not the greatest J{sub c} or pinnable field, B{sub pin}. Characteristics of ion-generated columnar defects which limit J{sub c} and B{sub pin} are discussed, including reduction of the percolation path, and the need for a larger number of columns of damage, for pinning, than are usually estimated. It is concluded that columnar pinning centres limit B{sub pin} to less than 4 T, and also severely reduce J{sub c}. The goal of maximizing U{sub pin}, via columnar centres, appears to have obscured a more rewarding approach and resulted in neglect of a large regime of ion interactions. Evidence is reviewed that multiple in-line damage (MILD), described herein, can provide orders of magnitude higher J{sub c} and B{sub pin}, despite providing lower U{sub pin}. The MILD pinning centre morphology is discussed, and it is estimated that for present-day large grain high T{sub c} superconductors, a J{sub c} value of {approx}10{sup 6}Acm{sup -2} is obtainable at 77 K, even when crystal plane alignment and weak links are not improved. In addition, the pinned field is increased by over an order of magnitude. An experiment is proposed to confirm these calculations, directly compare MILD pinning to continuous columnar pinning, and determine the optimum MILD structure. Applications of MILD pinning are discussed.

  19. The association between adolescent entry into the trucking industry and risk of HIV among long-distance truck drivers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra RM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ram Manohar Mishra,1 Madhulika Dube,2 Niranjan Saggurti,1 Arvind Pandey,3 Bidhubhusan Mahapatra,1 Sowmya Ramesh11Population Council, New Delhi, 2Department of Statistics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, 3National Institute of Medical Statistics, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: This study examines the relationship between entry into the trucking industry during adolescence and both sexually transmitted infections (STIs and infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among long-distance truck drivers in India. Data were sourced from a cross-sectional survey (sample size: 2066 undertaken in 2007 among long-distance truck drivers. The survey spread across major transshipment locations covering the bulk of India's transport volume along four routes. Participants were interviewed about sexual behaviors and were tested for HIV and STIs. The present authors constructed two synthetic cohorts based on the participants' duration of employment in the trucking industry: (1 low (duration ≤ 6 years and (2 high experience (duration ≥ 7 years. Based on age at entry into the trucking industry, participants were termed as either adolescent (age at entry < 18 complete years or adult entrants (age at entry ≥ 18 complete years. In the low-experience cohort, the adolescent entrants were more likely than the adult entrants to have sex with paid female partners (42.6% versus 27.2%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3–2.9 and to practice inconsistent condom use with such partners (69.1% versus 26.8%, respectively; adjusted OR: 5.3; 95% CI: 2.4–11.6. However, no significant differences were found in STI and HIV prevalence between the adolescent and the adult entrants in this cohort. In the high-experience cohort, the adolescent entrants were about two times more likely than the adult entrants to practice inconsistent condom use with paid female partners (38.5% versus

  20. Infant Sleep Positioners Pose Suffocation Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Infant Sleep Positioners Pose Suffocation Risk Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Infant Sleep Positioner Example See more images of Infant Sleep ...

  1. Performance comparison of pin fin in-duct flow arrays with various pin cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahiti, N. [LSTM-Erlangen, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr. 4, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)]. E-mail: sahiti@lstm.uni-erlangen.de; Lemouedda, A. [Department of Process Engineering, Georg-Simon-Ohm University of Applied Sciences, Wassertorstr. 10, D-90489 Nuremberg (Germany); Stojkovic, D. [LSTM-Erlangen, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr. 4, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Durst, F. [LSTM-Erlangen, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr. 4, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Franz, E. [Department of Process Engineering, Georg-Simon-Ohm University of Applied Sciences, Wassertorstr. 10, D-90489 Nuremberg (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    Pin fin arrays are frequently used for cooling of high thermal loaded electronic components. Whereas the pin fin accomplishment regarding heat transfer is always higher than that of other fin configurations, the high pressure drop accompanying pins seriously reduces their overall performance. In order to check how the form of pin cross-section influences the pressure drop and heat transfer capabilities, six forms of pin cross-section were numerically investigated. By employing the conjugate heat transfer boundary conditions, numerical simulations close to realistic working conditions were performed. Two geometric comparison criteria were applied so that the conclusions derived from numerical computations were valid for various possible geometric parameters and working conditions. Both staggered and inline pin arrangements were investigated as these are common in practical applications. The heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics are presented in terms of appropriate dimensionless variables. The final judgment of the performance of the pin fin cross-section was performed based on the heat exchanger performance plot. Such a plot allows the assessment of the pin performance including their heat transfer and the pressure drop.

  2. Design of a terahertz CW photomixer based on PIN and superlattice PIN devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krozer, Viktor; Eichhorn, Finn

    2006-01-01

    We present the design of a photomixer LO based on standard and superlattice PIN diodes, operating at 1 THz. The design is based on a direct integration of a double slot antenna with the PIN device and a suitable matching circuit. The antenna has been designed together with a dielectric lens using...

  3. Strong pinning of vortices by antiferromagnetic domain boundaries in CeCo(In1-x Cd x )5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, D.-J.; Pedrero, L.; Pham, L. D.; Fisk, Z.; Brando, M.

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the isothermal magnetization M(H) of CeCo({{In}}1-x Cd x )5 with x = 0.0075 and 0.01 down to 50 mK. Pronounced field-history dependent phenomena occur in the coexistence regime of the superconducting and antiferromagnetic phases. At low-fields, a phenomenological model of magnetic-flux entry well explains M(H) implying the dominance of bulk pinning effect. However, unless crystallographic quenched disorder is hysteretic, the asymmetric peak effect (ASPE) which appears at higher fields cannot be explained by the pinning of vortices due to material defects. Also, the temperature dependence of the ASPE deviates from the conventional scenario for the peak effect. Comparison of our thermodynamic phase diagrams with those from previous neutron scattering and magnetoresistance experiments indicates that the pinning of vortices takes place at the field-history dependent antiferromagnetic domain boundaries.

  4. Dynamics and Stability of Pinned-Clamped and Clamped-Pinned Cylindrical Shells Conveying Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, A. K.; Wong, S. S. T.; Païdoussis, M. P.

    2001-11-01

    The paper examines the dynamics and stability of fluid-conveying cylindrical shells having pinned-clamped or clamped-pinned boundary conditions, where ``pinned'' is an abbreviation for ``simply supported''. Flügge's equations are used to describe the shell motion, while the fluid-dynamic perturbation pressure is obtained utilizing the linearized potential flow theory. The solution is obtained using two methods - the travelling wave method and the Fourier-transform approach. The results obtained by both methods suggest that the negative damping of the clamped-pinned systems and positive damping of the pinned-clamped systems, observed by previous investigators for any arbitrarily small flow velocity, are simply numerical artefacts; this is reinforced by energy considerations, in which the work done by the fluid on the shell is shown to be zero. Hence, it is concluded that both systems are conservative.

  5. Potential of pin-by-pin SPN calculations as an industrial reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliscounakis, M.; Girardi, E.; Courau, T.; Couyras, D. [EDF R and D/Sinetics, 1 av du General de Gaulle, F92141 Clamart Cedex (France)

    2012-07-01

    This paper aims at analysing the potential of pin-by-pin SP{sub n} calculations to compute the neutronic flux in PWR cores as an alternative to the diffusion approximation. As far as pin-by-pin calculations are concerned, a SPH equivalence is used to preserve the reactions rates. The use of SPH equivalence is a common practice in core diffusion calculations. In this paper, a methodology to generalize the equivalence procedure in the SP{sub n} equations context is presented. In order to verify and validate the equivalence procedure, SP{sub n} calculations are compared to 2D transport reference results obtained with the APOLL02 code. The validation cases consist in 3x3 analytical assembly color sets involving burn-up heterogeneities, UOX/MOX interfaces, and control rods. Considering various energy discretizations (up to 26 groups) and flux development orders (up to 7) for the SP{sub n} equations, results show that 26-group SP{sub 3} calculations are very close to the transport reference (with pin production rates discrepancies < 1%). This proves the high interest of pin-by-pin SP{sub n} calculations as an industrial reference when relying on 26 energy groups combined with SP{sub 3} flux development order. Additionally, the SP{sub n} results are compared to diffusion pin-by-pin calculations, in order to evaluate the potential benefit of using a SP{sub n} solver as an alternative to diffusion. Discrepancies on pin-production rates are less than 1.6% for 6-group SP{sub 3} calculations against 3.2% for 2-group diffusion calculations. This shows that SP{sub n} solvers may be considered as an alternative to multigroup diffusion. (authors)

  6. A double tuned rail damper—increased damping at the two first pinned-pinned frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, J.; Sol, H.

    2003-10-01

    Railway-induced vibrations are a growing matter of environmental concern. The rapid development of transportation, the increase of vehicle speeds and vehicle weights have resulted in higher vibration levels. In the meantime vibrations that were tolerated in the past are now considered to be a nuisance. Numerous solutions have been proposed to remedy these problems. The majority only acts on a specific part of the dynamic behaviour of the track. This paper presents a possible solution to reduce the noise generated by the 'pinned-pinned' frequencies. Pinned-pinned frequencies correspond with standing waves whose nodes are positioned exactly at the sleeper supports. The two first pinned-pinned frequencies are situated approximately at 950 and 2200 Hz (UIC60-rail and sleeper spacing of 0.60 m). To attenuate these vibrations, the Department of MEMC at the VUB has developed a dynamic vibration absorber called the Double Tuned Rail Damper (DTRD). The DTRD is mounted between two sleepers on the rail and is powered by the motion of the rail. The DTRD consists of two major parts: a steel plate which is connected to the rail with an interface of an elastic layer, and a rubber mass. The two first resonance frequencies of the steel plate coincide with the targeted pinned-pinned frequencies of the rail. The rubber mass acts as a motion controller and energy absorber. Measurements at a test track of the French railway company (SNCF) have shown considerable attenuation of the envisaged pinned-pinned frequencies. The attenuation rate surpasses 5 dB/m at certain frequency bands.

  7. Statistics of dislocation pinning at localized obstacles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A. [S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Bhattacharya, M., E-mail: mishreyee@vecc.gov.in; Barat, P. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2014-10-14

    Pinning of dislocations at nanosized obstacles like precipitates, voids, and bubbles is a crucial mechanism in the context of phenomena like hardening and creep. The interaction between such an obstacle and a dislocation is often studied at fundamental level by means of analytical tools, atomistic simulations, and finite element methods. Nevertheless, the information extracted from such studies cannot be utilized to its maximum extent on account of insufficient information about the underlying statistics of this process comprising a large number of dislocations and obstacles in a system. Here, we propose a new statistical approach, where the statistics of pinning of dislocations by idealized spherical obstacles is explored by taking into account the generalized size-distribution of the obstacles along with the dislocation density within a three-dimensional framework. Starting with a minimal set of material parameters, the framework employs the method of geometrical statistics with a few simple assumptions compatible with the real physical scenario. The application of this approach, in combination with the knowledge of fundamental dislocation-obstacle interactions, has successfully been demonstrated for dislocation pinning at nanovoids in neutron irradiated type 316-stainless steel in regard to the non-conservative motion of dislocations. An interesting phenomenon of transition from rare pinning to multiple pinning regimes with increasing irradiation temperature is revealed.

  8. Radon measurements with a PIN photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Martin, A. [Laboratorio de Investigacion en Baja Radiactividad (LIBRA), Edificio I-D, Campus Miguel Delibes, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain) and Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain)]. E-mail: alonsomm@libra.uva.es; Gutierrez-Villanueva, J.L. [Laboratorio de Investigacion en Baja Radiactividad (LIBRA), Edificio I-D, Campus Miguel Delibes, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Munoz, J.M. [Departamento de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Garcia-Talavera, M. [Laboratorio de Investigacion en Baja Radiactividad (LIBRA), Edificio I-D, Campus Miguel Delibes, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Adamiec, G. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Iniguez, M.P. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    Silicon photodiodes are well suited to detect alphas coming from different sources as neutron reactions or radon daughters. In this work a radon in air detecting device, using an 18x18 mm silicon PIN photodiode is studied. The ionized airborne decay products formed during radon diffusion were focused by an accelerating high voltage to the PIN surface. Several conducting rings were disposed inside a cylindrical PVC vessel in such a way that they reproduced the electric field created by a punctual charge located behind PIN position. Alpha spectra coming from the neutral and ionized species deposited on the PIN surface, dominated by {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Po progeny peaks, were recorded for varying conditions. Those include radon concentration from a Pylon source, high voltage (thousands of volts) and PIN inverse bias voltage. Different parameters such as temperature and humidity were also registered during data acquisition. The increase in the particle collection efficiency with respect to zero electric field was compared with the corresponding to a parallel plates configuration. A discussion is made in terms of the most appropriate voltages for different radon concentrations.

  9. The effect of temperature on pinning mechanisms in HTS composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikova, A. P.; Rudnev, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Pinning mechanism in samples of second generation tapes (2G) of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) was studied The critical current and the pinning force were calculated from the magnetization curves measured in the temperature range of 4.2 - 77 K in magnetic fields up to 14 Tesla using vibration sample magnetometer. To determine the pinning mechanism the dependences of pinning force on magnetic field were constructed according to the Dew-Hughes model and Kramer's rule. The obtained dependences revealed a significant influence of the temperature on effectiveness of different types of pinning. At low temperatures the 2G HTS tapes of different manufacturers demonstrated an equal efficiency of the pinning centers but with temperature increase the differences in pinning mechanisms as well as in properties and effectiveness of the pinning centers become obvious. The influence of the pinning mechanism on the energy losses in HTS tapes was shown.

  10. Termination of pinned spirals by local stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang-Xing; Guo, Ming-Ming; Ma, Jun

    2016-02-01

    The termination of pinned spirals on a defect by means of local stimuli is studied. On a completely unexcitable defect, the elimination process is discussed and its corresponding mechanism is presented. Especially, the mechanism of unpinning spirals on a partially unexcitable defect, which has not been investigated so far, is explored. With fixed pacing frequency ω L , there exists a maximal radius R max above which the pinned spiral cannot be removed. It is found that the value of R max does not increase as ω L in a dynamical regime, forming a platform in the R\\textit{max}\\text-ωL curves. Based on analyzing the dispersion relation on the spiral tip around the obstacle, the underlying mechanism is clarified. Also, it is found that when multiple spirals are pinned, the value of R max decreases on a partially unexcitable defect while the change is very slight on a completely unexcitable one.

  11. Pin solar cells made of amorphous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaettner, R. D.; Kruehler, W. W.

    Investigations leading to solar cells with a structure SnO2-pin and an efficiency up to 9.8% are reviewed. The production of large-surface metal/pin/transparent conductive oxide (TCO)-solar cells is discussed. A two-chamber reactor, grid structure and tinning of cells, and an a-Si-module are described. The production of glass/TCO/pin/metal-solar cells and a-SiGe:H-compounds is outlined. Measurements on solar cells and diodes including the efficiency of a-Si:H-solar cells, spectral sensitivity, diffusion lengths, field effect measurements, and modifications of solar cells (space-charge limited currents, reduction of solar cells aging) are treated.

  12. Shuttle entry guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpold, J. C.; Graves, C. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the entry guidance for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. This guidance provides the steering commands for trajectory control from initial penetration of the earth's atmosphere until the terminal area guidance is activated at an earth-relative speed of 2500 fps. At this point, the Orbiter is at a distance of about 50 nmi from the runway threshold, and at an altitude of about 80,000 ft. The entry guidance design is based on an analytic solution of the equations of motion defining the drag acceleration profile that meets the terminal criteria of the entry flight while maintaining the flight within systems and operational constraints. Guidance commands, which are based on a control law that ensures damping of oscillatory type trajectory motion, are computed to steer the Orbiter to this drag acceleration profile.

  13. Effective pinning energy landscape perturbations for propagating magnetic domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, D. M.; Atkinson, D.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between a magnetic domain wall and a pinning site is explored in a planar nanowire using micromagnetics to reveal perturbations of the pinning energetics for propagating domain walls. Numerical simulations in the high damping ’quasi-static’ and low damping ’dynamic’ regimes are compared and show clear differences in de-pinning fields, indicating that dynamical micromagnetic models, which incorporate precessionally limited magnetization processes, are needed to understand domain wall pinning. Differences in the micromagnetic domain wall structure strongly influence the pinning and show periodic behaviour with increasing applied field associated with Walker breakdown. In the propagating regime pinning is complicated. PMID:27694953

  14. Broken safety pin in bronchus - Anaesthetic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roona Shad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety pins are not commonly aspirated objects in infants and form only a small fraction of all the metallic foreign body (FB which accounts for 4.4% of all foreign bodies found in tracheobronchial tree. Bronchoscopy procedure has various complications, in addition to failure to remove FB due to its impaction, especially with metallic pointed objects ending up in open surgical removal. Infant with inhaled foreign body are always a challenge to anaesthetist. We had one such case of broken safety pin impacted in the wall of right bronchus of an infant with failure to remove on repeated attempts at rigid bronchoscopy.

  15. Broken safety pin in bronchus - Anaesthetic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shad, Roona; Agarwal, Aditya

    2012-11-01

    Safety pins are not commonly aspirated objects in infants and form only a small fraction of all the metallic foreign body (FB) which accounts for 4.4% of all foreign bodies found in tracheobronchial tree. Bronchoscopy procedure has various complications, in addition to failure to remove FB due to its impaction, especially with metallic pointed objects ending up in open surgical removal. Infant with inhaled foreign body are always a challenge to anaesthetist. We had one such case of broken safety pin impacted in the wall of right bronchus of an infant with failure to remove on repeated attempts at rigid bronchoscopy.

  16. Self-Pinning on a Liquid Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, C; Irvoas, J; Schwarzenberger, K; Eckert, K; Wodlei, F; Pimienta, V

    2016-02-04

    We report on the first experimental evidence of a self-pinning liquid drop on a liquid surface. This particular regime is observed for a miscible heavier oil drop (dichloromethane) deposited on an aqueous solution laden by an ionic surfactant (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide). Experimental characterization of the drop shape evolution coupled to particle image velocimetry points to the correlation between the drop profile and the accompanying flow field. A simple model shows that the observed pinned stage is the result of a subtle competition between oil dissolution and surfactant adsorption.

  17. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis by Kindergarten Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by…

  18. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis by Kindergarten Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by…

  19. New types of high field pinning centers and pinning centers for the peak effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Daniel; Zaleski, Andrzej; Morawski, Andrzej; Hossain, Md Shahriar A.

    2017-08-01

    In this article, we report the results of a study that shows the existence of pinning centers inside grains and between grains in NbTi wires. We accurately show the ranges of magnetic fields in which the individual pinning centers operate. The pinning centers inside grains are activated in high magnetic fields above 6 T. We show the range of magnetic fields in which individual defects, dislocations, precipitates inside grains and substitutions in the crystal lattice can operate. We show the existence of a new kind of high field pinning center, which operates in high magnetic fields from 8 to ˜9.5 T. We indicate that dislocations create pinning centers in the range of magnetic fields from 6 to 8 T. In addition, our measurements suggest that the peak effect (increased critical current density (J c) near the upper critical field (B c2)) could be attributed to martensitic (needle-shaped) α‧-Ti inclusions inside grains. These centers are very important because they work very effectively in magnetic fields above 9.5-10 T. We also show that the α-Ti precipitates (between grains) with a thickness similar to the coherence length create pinning centers which work very effectively in magnetic fields from 3 to 6 T. In magnetic fields below 3 T, they act very efficiently in grain boundaries. The measurements indicate that the pinning centers created by dislocations only can be tested by transport measurements. This indicates that dislocations do not increase the magnetic critical current density (J cm). Cold drawing improves pinning centers at grain boundaries and increases the dislocation density, and cold-drawing pinning centers are responsible for the peak effect.

  20. Effect of the number of pins and inter-pin distance on somatosensory evoked magnetic fields following mechanical tactile stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hideaki; Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Yamashiro, Koya; Sato, Daisuke; Suzuki, Makoto; Kirimoto, Hikari; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Hiroatsu; Kameyama, Shigeki

    2013-10-16

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings were collected to investigate the effect of the number of mechanical pins and inter-pin distance on somatosensory evoked magnetic fields (SEFs) following mechanical stimulation (MS). We used a 306-ch whole-head MEG system. SEFs were elicited through tactile stimuli with 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 8-pins using healthy participants. Tactile stimuli were applied to the tip of the right index finger. SEF following electrical stimulation of the index finger was recorded in order to compare the activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) following MS. Prominent SEFs were recorded from the contralateral hemisphere approximately 54 ms (P50m) and 125 ms (P100m) after MS regardless of the number of pins. Equivalent current dipoles were located in the S1. The source activities for P50m and P100m significantly increased in tandem with the number of pins for MS. However, the increased ratios for the source activities according to the increase in the number of pins were significantly smaller than that induced by electrical stimulation, and when the number of the pins doubled from 1-pin to 2-pins, from 2-pins to 4-pins, and from 4-pins to 8-pins, S1 activities increased by only 130%. Additionally, source activities significantly increased when the inter-pin distance increased from 2.4 to 7.2 mm. The number of stimulated receptors was considered to have increased with an increase in the inter-pin distance as well as an increase in the number of pins. These findings clarified the effect of the number of pins and inter-pin distance for MS on SEFs.

  1. 新疆边境跨界动物疫病传入风险因素调查%Investigation on Risk Factors of the Entry of Transboundary Animal Diseases from Xinjiang Border

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洪涛; 彭程; 孙淑芳; 房志远; 魏荣; 王树双

    2016-01-01

    Due to the vast geographic area and a complex epidemic situation in surrounding countries,Xinjiang is in danger of being introduced exotic animal diseases at any time. An investigation on risk factors of the entry of such animal diseases was conducted. The results showed that the boundary of Xinjiang was long with many countries bordering with it,and the results also indicated that the region had very complex geographic environments,frequent trade of animals and animal products,as well as a wide variety of wildlife. Although the separation facilities along the boundary are relatively perfect,the risk factors of the entry of transboundary animal diseases still exist,and the targeted prevention and control measures in the border shall be strengthened.%新疆地域辽阔,周边国家动物疫情形势复杂,随时有传入外来动物疫病的危险。调查结果表明新疆接壤国家多且边境线长,地理环境复杂,动物及动物产品贸易频繁,野生动物种类繁多,虽然边界线隔离设施较好,但仍然存在跨界动物疫病传入的风险因素,需要有针对性地强化边境防控措施。

  2. Mid-L/D Lifting Body Entry Demise Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The mid-lift-to-drag ratio (mid-L/D) lifting body is a fully autonomous spacecraft under design at NASA for enabling a rapid return of scientific payloads from the International Space Station (ISS). For contingency planning and risk assessment for the Earth-return trajectory, an entry demise analysis was performed to examine three potential failure scenarios: (1) nominal entry interface conditions with loss of control, (2) controlled entry at maximum flight path angle, and (3) controlled entry at minimum flight path angle. The objectives of the analysis were to predict the spacecraft breakup sequence and timeline, determine debris survival, and calculate the debris dispersion footprint. Sensitivity analysis was also performed to determine the effect of the initial pitch rate on the spacecraft stability and breakup during the entry. This report describes the mid-L/D lifting body and presents the results of the entry demise and sensitivity analyses.

  3. A pinned polymer model of posture control

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, C C; Chow, Carson C; Collins, J J

    1995-01-01

    A phenomenological model of human posture control is posited. The dynamics are modelled as an elastically pinned polymer under the influence of noise. The model accurately reproduces the two-point correlation functions of experimental posture data and makes predictions for the response function of the postural control system. The physiological and clinical significance of the model is discussed.

  4. Duodenocolic fistula due to safety pin ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cay, Ali; Imamoğlu, Mustafa; Sarihan, Haluk; Sayil, Ozgür

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe the case of a 16-month-old boy with benign duodenocolic fistula due to safety pin ingestion who presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Etiology, symptomatology, diagnosis and management are discussed and the literature is reviewed. Early diagnosis and surgical management are necessary to avoid serious morbidity.

  5. Turban pin aspiration: new fashion, new syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilan, Ophir; Eliashar, Ron; Hirshoren, Nir; Hamdan, Kasem; Gross, Menachem

    2012-04-01

    Turban pin aspiration syndrome is a new clinical entity afflicting young Islamic girls wearing a turban.The goal of this study was to present our experience in diagnosis and treatment of this new entity, define its clinical and epidemiologic features, and shed a new light on the role of fashion in the increased incidence. A retrospective study in a tertiary university hospital. Review of clinical parameters and epidemiologic features of 26 patients diagnosed with turban pin aspiration syndrome admitted to the Hadassah-Hebrew University Hospitals in Jerusalem from 1990 to 2010. All patients were Muslim females with an average age of 16 years. In all cases, the history was positive for accidental aspiration. Most of the pins were located in the trachea (42%). In 20 cases, the pins were extracted by rigid bronchoscopy without major complications. Fluoroscopy-assisted rigid bronchoscopy was used successfully in three cases. In one case, the object was self-ejected by coughing before the bronchoscopy, and two patients were referred to the chest unit for thoracotomy. Clinicians should be aware of this distinct form of foreign body aspiration, its method of diagnosis, and extraction techniques. A cultural investigation showed a difference in the turban-fastening technique of young girls as compared with their mothers. Removal by rigid bronchoscopy is a safe method with a high success rate and should be considered as the preferred extraction method of choice. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Pinning control of clustered complex networks with different size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chenbo; Wang, Jinbao; Xiang, Yun; Wu, Zhefu; Yu, Li; Xuan, Qi

    2017-08-01

    In pinning control of complex networks, it is found that, with the same pinning effort, the network can be better controlled by pinning the large-degree nodes. But in the clustered complex networks, this preferential pinning (PP) strategy is losing its effectiveness. In this paper, we demonstrate that in the clustered complex networks, especially when the clusters have different size, the random pinning (RP) strategy performs much better than the PP strategy. Then, we propose a new pinning strategy based on cluster degree. It is revealed that the new cluster pinning strategy behaves better than RP strategy when there are only a smaller number of pinning nodes. The mechanism is studied by using eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis, and the simulations of coupled chaotic oscillators are given to verify the theoretical results. These findings could be beneficial for the design of control schemes in some practical systems.

  7. Analytical method for reconstruction pin to pin of the nuclear power density distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Paulo O.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S., E-mail: ppessoa@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: aquilino@imp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An accurate and efficient method for reconstructing pin to pin of the nuclear power density distribution, involving the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for two-dimensional neutron energy groups in homogeneous nodes, is presented. The boundary conditions used for analytic as solution are the four currents or fluxes on the surface of the node, which are obtained by Nodal Expansion Method (known as NEM) and four fluxes at the vertices of a node calculated using the finite difference method. The analytical solution found is the homogeneous distribution of neutron flux. Detailed distributions pin to pin inside a fuel assembly are estimated by the product of homogeneous flux distribution by local heterogeneous form function. Furthermore, the form functions of flux and power are used. The results obtained with this method have a good accuracy when compared with reference values. (author)

  8. Pinning control of complex networked systems synchronization, consensus and flocking of networked systems via pinning

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Housheng

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization, consensus and flocking are ubiquitous requirements in networked systems. Pinning Control of Complex Networked Systems investigates these requirements by using the pinning control strategy, which aims to control the whole dynamical network with huge numbers of nodes by imposing controllers for only a fraction of the nodes. As the direct control of every node in a dynamical network with huge numbers of nodes might be impossible or unnecessary, it’s then very important to use the pinning control strategy for the synchronization of complex dynamical networks. The research on pinning control strategy in consensus and flocking of multi-agent systems can not only help us to better understand the mechanisms of natural collective phenomena, but also benefit applications in mobile sensor/robot networks. This book offers a valuable resource for researchers and engineers working in the fields of control theory and control engineering.   Housheng Su is an Associate Professor at the Department of Contro...

  9. Early asymptomatic intrathoracic migration of a threaded pin after proximal humeral osteosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerruti, Paola; Mangano, Tony; Giovale, Marcello; Repetto, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Pinning with metallic wires is a suitable therapeutic option for proximal humeral fractures. Loosening and migration of such devices from this site is uncommon. Despite infrequently occurring, however, the literature reports dramatic and potentially lethal complications related to wires dislocation. A 69-year-old woman underwent closed reduction and fixation of a proximal 3-part humeral fracture by mean of two retrograde Kirschner wires and one anterograde threaded pin. One month after surgery, during a routine follow-up control, it was diagnosed the migration of the threaded pin in the left lung parenchyma. In the meantime, the only symptom the patient complained was an episodic intercostal pain of mild intensity, with referred onset 1 week after surgery. The migrated pin was removed through thoracoscopic approach in the emergency setting, without intra- or post-operative complications. Only a few authors reported similar complications after fixation of proximal humeral fractures. Immediate surgical removal of the device is always mandatory. When considering pinning fixation for shoulder girdle's fractures, orthopedic surgeons should take into account the risk for wire dislocation, and take up adequate precautions during surgery and follow-up control visits.

  10. Optimization study on pin tip diameter of an impact-pin nozzle at high pressure ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, C. Palani; Lee, Kwon Hee [FMTRC, Daejoo Machinery Co. Ltd., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Tae Choon; Cha, Bong Jun [Engine Components Research Team, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Heuy Dong [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Wet compression system is typically installed in a gas turbine engine to increase the net power output and efficiency. A crucial component of the wet compression system is the nozzle which generates fine water droplets for injection into the compressor. The main objective of present work is to optimize a kind of nozzle called impact-pin spray nozzle and thereby produce better quality droplets. To achieve this, the dynamics occurring in the water jet impinging on the pin tip, the subsequent formation of water sheet, which finally breaks into water droplets, must be studied. In this manuscript, the progress on the numerical studies on impact-pin nozzle are reported. A small computational domain covering the orifice, pin tip and the region where primary atomization occurs is selected for numerical analysis. The governing equations are selected in three dimensional cartesian form and simulations are performed to predict the dynamics of water jet impinging on the pin. Systematic studies were carried out and the results leading to the choice of turbulence model and the effect of pin tip diameter are reported here. Further studies are proposed to show the future directions of the present research work.

  11. Nanowall pinning for enhanced pinning force in YBCO films with nanofabricated structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palau, A.; Rouco, V.; Luccas, R.F.; Obradors, X.; Puig, T., E-mail: teresa.puig@icmab.es

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • High resolution lithography techniques to fabricate artificial pinning centres in high temperature superconductors. • Enhanced critical currents of YBCO films with engineered nanofabricated structures. • Controlled nano-walls with weakened superconductivity acting as strong pinning centres. - Abstract: High resolution nanofabrication tools (Focused Ion Beam and Electron Beam Lithography) have been used to fabricate nano-metric milled structures in high critical current YBCO thin films able to further increase their vortex pinning capabilities. We have demonstrated that pinning forces at 77 K and 3 T are increased by a 70–80% by proper nanostructure designs. Model systems with linear trenches and triangular blind antidots of different sizes, distribution and density have been generated and studied. We demonstrate that specific milled nanostructures can increase the total current through the system at expenses of a limited decrease of cross section. We have identified the length of fabricated nano-walls as the main parameter controlling the pinning potential of nanostructures and thus defined the optimised milling conditions and nanostructure morphology to maximise pinning efficiency.

  12. 内蒙古地区出入境人员高发传染病风险初探%A preliminary risk analysis of infectious disease with high incidence among entry -exit personnel in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文秀; 白潇; 云华; 云托娅; 李震坤; 赵宇; 靳木子; 于欣欣; 李娟

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过分析内蒙古地区出入境人员传染病监测结果,掌握出入境人员中传染病的流行情况、疫情特点,正确评估传染病风险,为传染病预防控制提供科学依据。方法对2010-2013年内蒙古地区出入境人员的传染病检测结果进行统计,用经典卡方检验分析其差异及线性趋势,并进行传染病风险初步分析。结果2010-2013年内蒙古出入境人员进行传染病监测体检共计113209人次,共检出传染病4660例,总检出率为4.12%,各传染病都具有较高风险,其中艾滋病风险极高,应重点关注。结论内蒙古地区出入境人员传染病检出率呈逐年上升趋势,其中乙肝和梅毒是内蒙古出入境人员感染的主要传染性疾病,劳务人员和交通员工则是传染病监测应重点关注的目标人群。HIV 检出率同样逐年升高,传染风险极大,应进行重点防控。因此对传染病进行风险评估,提出干预措施,预防传染病的跨国境传播,意义重大而迫切。%Objective This article aims to understand the disease distribution characteristics and epidemic charac-teristics of entry and exit personnel at Inner Mongolia,so as to evaluate the infectious diseases risks rightly and pro-vide a scientific basis for disease surveillance.Methods The results of infectious disease monitoring medical ex-amination of 113209 subjects are comprehensive statistical analyzed from 2010 to 2013.Classical chi -square test is used to analyze the differences and linear trend,and risks of infectious diseases are preliminarily analyzed.Re-sults A total of 113,209 entry -exit personnel are analyzed.4660 cases of infectious diseases are found,with a detection rate of 4.12%.A higher risk of various diseases,especially AIDS,exists.And we should pay more at-tention.Conclusion HBsAg positive case and syphilis are major infectious diseases of entry and exit personnel at Inner Mongolia.We should pay

  13. Deployable Entry-system Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deployable Entry-system ProjecT (ADEPT) will develop requirements for the ADEPT flight test.  Prior entry systems used high mass thermal protection...

  14. Differential Roles of PIN1 and PIN2 in Root Meristem Maintenance Under Low-B Conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Kamiya, Takehiro; Fujiwara, Toru

    2015-06-01

    Boron (B) is an essential element for plants; its deficiency causes rapid cessation of root elongation. In addition, B influences auxin accumulation in plants. To assess the importance of auxin transport in B-dependent root elongation, Arabidopsis thaliana pin1-pin4 mutants were grown under low-B conditions. Among them, only the pin2/eir1-1 mutant showed a significantly shorter root under low-B conditions than under control conditions. Moreover, the root meristem size of pin2/eir1-1 was reduced under low-B conditions. Among the PIN-FORMED (PIN) family, PIN1 and PIN2 are important for root meristem growth/maintenance under normal conditions. To investigate the differential response of pin1 and pin2 mutants under low-B conditions, the effect of low-B on PIN1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PIN2-GFP accumulation and localization was examined. Low-B did not affect PIN2-GFP, while it reduced the accumulation of PIN1-GFP. Moreover, no signal from DII-VENUS, an auxin sensor, was detected under the low-B condition in the stele of wild-type root meristems. Taken together, these results indicate that under low-B conditions PIN1 is down-regulated and PIN2 plays an important role in root meristem maintenance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Re-entry and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, H.; Guangming, X.

    1983-11-01

    The physics of re-entry are discussed with emphasis on the re-entry trajectory of a ballistic missile. Factors discussed include re-entry speed, ablation, aerodynamic heating, and the plasma sheath shield. Experimental techniques used to simulate the aerodynamics and performance of missile systems include the computer, the wind tunnel, and free flight. Each of these is briefly discussed.

  16. Double calcaneal osteotomy with percutaneous Steinmann pin fixation as part of treatment for flexible flatfoot deformity: a review of consecutive cases highlighting our experience with pin fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffeli, Troy J; Abben, Kyle W

    2015-01-01

    Surgical correction of flexible flatfoot deformity and posterior tibial tendon dysfunction has been extensively reported in published studies. When appropriate, calcaneal osteotomies for flatfoot correction have been a favorite of foot and ankle surgeons because of the corrective power achieved without the need to fuse any rearfoot joints. The medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy and Evans calcaneal osteotomy, together termed the double calcaneal osteotomy, have been reported several times by various investigators with a wide variety of fixation options. We undertook an institutional review board-approved retrospective review of 9 consecutive patients (11 feet), who had undergone double calcaneal osteotomy with 2 percutaneous Steinmann pin fixation for the correction of flexible flatfoot deformity, with or without posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. All patients had radiographic evidence of bone healing of the posterior calcaneal osteotomy and incorporation of the Evans osteotomy bone graft at 6 weeks and demonstrated clinical healing at 6 weeks. All patients had 2 percutaneous Steinmann pins placed through both osteotomies, and these were removed an average of 6 weeks postoperatively. No patient developed pin site complications. The only complication noted was sural neuritis, which was likely incision related. No patients had delayed union or nonunion, and we did not identify any graft shifting postoperatively. The present retrospective series highlights our experience with 2 percutaneous Steinmann pin fixation, demonstrating equal or better results than many previous published fixation methods for double calcaneal osteotomy. It is cost-effective and minimizes the potential risk of iatrogenic Achilles pathologic features associated with screw fixation.

  17. Genome-wide identification and evolution of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) gene family in Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Wei, Haichao

    2017-07-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crop plants. Wild and cultivated soybean varieties have significant differences worth further investigation, such as plant morphology, seed size, and seed coat development; these characters may be related to auxin biology. The PIN gene family encodes essential transport proteins in cell-to-cell auxin transport, but little research on soybean PIN genes (GmPIN genes) has been done, especially with respect to the evolution and differences between wild and cultivated soybean. In this study, we retrieved 23 GmPIN genes from the latest updated G. max genome database; six GmPIN protein sequences were changed compared with the previous database. Based on the Plant Genome Duplication Database, 18 GmPIN genes have been involved in segment duplication. Three pairs of GmPIN genes arose after the second soybean genome duplication, and six occurred after the first genome duplication. The duplicated GmPIN genes retained similar expression patterns. All the duplicated GmPIN genes experienced purifying selection (Ka/Ks < 1) to prevent accumulation of non-synonymous mutations and thus remained more similar. In addition, we also focused on the artificial selection of the soybean PIN genes. Five artificially selected GmPIN genes were identified by comparing the genome sequence of 17 wild and 14 cultivated soybean varieties. Our research provides useful and comprehensive basic information for understanding GmPIN genes.

  18. Implementation of Pin Point Landing Vision Components in an FPGA System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfopolous, Arin; Metz, Brandon; Villalpando, Carlos; Matthies, Larry; Serrano, Navid

    2011-01-01

    Pin-point landing is required to enable missions to land close, typically within 10 meters, to scientifically important targets in generally hazardous terrain. In Pin Point Landing both high accuracy and high speed estimation of position and orientation is needed to provide input to the control system to safely choose and navigate to a safe landing site. A proposed algorithm called VISion aided Inertial NAVigation (VISINAV) has shown that the accuracy requirements can be met. [2][3] VISINAV was shown in software only, and was expected to use FPGA enhancements in the future to improve the computational speed needed for pin point landing during Entry Descent and Landing (EDL). Homography, feature detection and spatial correlation are computationally intensive parts of VISINAV. Homography aligns the map image with the descent image so that small correlation windows can be used, and feature detection provides regions that spatial correlation can track from frame to frame in order to estimate vehicle motion. On MER the image Homography, Feature Detection and Correlation would take approximately 650ms tracking 75 features between frames. We implemented Homography, Feature detection and Correlation on a Virtex 4 LX160 FPGA to run in under 25ms while tracking 500 features to improve algorithm reliability and throughput.

  19. Pinning Synchronization of One-Sided Lipschitz Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the pinning synchronization in complex networks with node dynamics satisfying the one-sided Lipschitz condition which is less conservative than the well-known Lipschitz condition. Based on M-matrix theory and Lyapunov functional method, some simple pinning conditions are derived for one-sided Lipschitz complex networks with full-state and partial-state coupling, respectively. A selective pinning scheme is further provided to address the selection of pinned nodes and the design of pinning feedback gains for one-sided Lipschitz complex networks with general topologies. Numerical results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.

  20. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in venturing with local firms; that preference signals a low level commitment and a high perception of risk and state interference. In line with Vietnam transition to state - rather than private market - capitalism, a foreign company opting for a joint-venture will do so with a state-owned rather than privately-owned company. The choice of a subsidiary can be explained by the lack of trust in partners and institutions, not by improvement in the socio-political environment. Limitations: In determining the entry mode strategy, the paper focuses on the Uppsala school’s “psychic distance” (e.g. cultural distance, lack of trust rather than on firm-specific advantages (Rugman, 1980; 2006. Key-words: international entry mode; emerging markets; subsidiary; joint-venture; India; Vietnam

  1. The pin pixel detector--neutron imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Marsh, A S; Rhodes, N J; Schooneveld, E M; Simmons, J E; Stephenson, R

    2002-01-01

    The development and testing of a neutron gas pixel detector intended for application in neutron diffraction studies is reported. Using standard electrical connector pins as point anodes, the detector is based on a commercial 100 pin connector block. A prototype detector of aperture 25.4 mmx25.4 mm has been fabricated, giving a pixel size of 2.54 mm which matches well to the spatial resolution typically required in a neutron diffractometer. A 2-Dimensional resistive divide readout system has been adapted to permit the imaging properties of the detector to be explored in advance of true pixel readout electronics. The timing properties of the device match well to the requirements of the ISIS-pulsed neutron source.

  2. Cheap and Easy PIN Entering Using Eye Gaze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprowski Pawel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available PINs are one of the most popular methods to perform simple and fast user authentication. PIN stands for Personal Identification Number, which may have any number of digits or even letters. Nevertheless, 4-digit PIN is the most common and is used for instance in ATMs or cellular phones. The main advantage of the PIN is that it is easy to remember and fast to enter. There are, however, some drawbacks. One of them - addressed in this paper - is a possibility to steal PIN by a technique called `shoulder surfing'. To avoid such problems a novel method of the PIN entering was proposed. Instead of using a numerical keyboard, the PIN may be entered by eye gazes, which is a hands-free, easy and robust technique. References:

  3. Timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.R.; Wade, N.L.; Katsma, K.R.; Siefken, L.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Straka, M. (Halliburton NUS, Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Research has been conducted to develop and demonstrate a methodology for calculation of the time interval between receipt of the containment isolation signals and the first fuel pin failure for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). Demonstration calculations were performed for a Babcock and Wilcox (B W) design (Oconee) and a Westinghouse (W) four-loop design (Seabrook). Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impacts of fuel pin bumup, axial peaking factor, break size, emergency core cooling system availability, and main coolant pump trip on these times. The analysis was performed using the following codes: FRAPCON-2, for the calculation of steady-state fuel behavior; SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACPF1/MOD1, for the calculation of the transient thermal-hydraulic conditions in the reactor system; and FRAP-T6, for the calculation of transient fuel behavior. In addition to the calculation of fuel pin failure timing, this analysis provides a comparison of the predicted results of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRAC-PFL/MOD1 for large-break LOCA analysis. Using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic data, the shortest time intervals calculated between initiation of containment isolation and fuel pin failure are 10.4 seconds and 19.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. Using data generated by TRAC-PF1/MOD1, the shortest intervals are 10.3 seconds and 29.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. These intervals are for a double-ended, offset-shear, cold leg break, using the technical specification maximum peaking factor and applied to fuel with maximum design bumup. Using peaking factors commensurate widi actual bumups would result in longer intervals for both reactor designs. This document also contains appendices A through J of this report.

  4. Mesoscopic pinning forces in neutron star crusts

    CERN Document Server

    Seveso, Stefano; Grill, Fabrizio; Haskell, Brynmor

    2014-01-01

    The crust of a neutron star is thought to be comprised of a lattice of nuclei immersed in a sea of free electrons and neutrons. As the neutrons are superfluid their angular momentum is carried by an array of quantized vortices. These vortices can pin to the nuclear lattice and prevent the neutron superfluid from spinning down, allowing it to store angular momentum which can then be released catastrophically, giving rise to a pulsar glitch. A crucial ingredient for this model is the maximum pinning force that the lattice can exert on the vortices, as this allows us to estimate the angular momentum that can be exchanged during a glitch. In this paper we perform, for the first time, a detailed and quantitative calculation of the pinning force \\emph{per unit length} acting on a vortex immersed in the crust and resulting from the mesoscopic vortex-lattice interaction. We consider realistic vortex tensions, allow for displacement of the nuclei and average over all possible orientation of the crystal with respect to...

  5. Improved Pinning Center Morphology in HTS with Order-of-Magnitude Increase in Jc and Bpin Compared to Columnar Pinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The motivation for continuouscolumnar pinning centers has been to provide maximum Upin. It has been assumed that this provides the best Jc and Bpin. Limitations on Jc and Bpin observed for columnar pinning have been attributed to degradation of the order parameter and Tc. We examine columnar pinning by ionic damage and conclude instead that geometrical effects of columnar pinningon percolation path and on the number of pinning centers are the dominant limitations of columnar pinning, leading to a limit of Bpin~4 T. Evidence suggests that multiple-in-line-defects (MILD) are far better suited to increase Jc and Bpin. The morphology of MILD pinning is reviewed. Ion energy loss per unit distance, Se, is found to be most promising in a regime almost diametrically opposite to that sought to maximize Upin. We expect Jc~106 A/cm2 and Bpin>40 T from MILD pinning,despite sharply decreased Upin.Experimental confirmation is proposed.

  6. Entry Properties and Entry Inhibitors of a Human H7N9 Influenza Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Youhui Si; Jianguo Li; Yuqiang Niu; Xiuying Liu; Lili Ren; Li Guo; Min Cheng; Hongli Zhou; Jianwei Wang; Qi Jin; Wei Yang

    2014-01-01

    The recently identified human infections with a novel avian influenza H7N9 virus in China raise important questions regarding possible risk to humans. However, the entry properties and tropism of this H7N9 virus were poorly understood. Moreover, neuraminidase inhibitor resistant H7N9 isolates were recently observed in two patients and correlated with poor clinical outcomes. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the entry properties of H7N9 virus, design and evaluate inhibitors for H7N9 virus e...

  7. Dynamics of Water Entry

    CERN Document Server

    Truscott, Tadd T; Techet, Alexandra H

    2008-01-01

    The hydrodynamics associated with water-entry of spheres can be highly variable with respect to the material and kinematic properties of the sphere. This series of five fluid dynamics videos illustrates several subtle but interesting variations that can be seen. The first series of videos contrasts the nature of impact ($Fr = U_o/\\sqrt{gd} = 5.15$) between a hydrophilic (wetting angle of $\\alpha$ = 60$^\\circ$) and hydrophobic sphere ($\\alpha$ = 120$^\\circ$), and illustrates how surface coating can affect whether or not an air cavity is formed; the views from the side and from above are synchronized in time. The second video series illustrates how spin and surface treatments can alter the splash and cavity formation following water entry. The spinning sphere ($S = \\omega r / U_o = 1.7$; $Fr = 5.15$) causes a wedge of fluid to be drawn into the cavity due to the no-slip condition and follows a curved trajectory. The non-spinning sphere ($Fr = 5.15$) has two distinct surface treatments on the left and right hemi...

  8. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF OUTCOMES OF PERCUTANEOUS CROSSED VS LATERAL DIVERGENT PINNING IN THE TREATMENT OF DISPLACED (GRADE - 3 SUPRACONDYLAR FRACTURES OF HUMERUS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav Patel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Displaced supracondylar fractures of humerus are one of the most common fractures in paediatric age group with preferred treatment being close reduction with percutaneous k - wire fixation. This study compares whether lateral pin construct alone can provide same stability like medial and lateral pin fixation, and prevent iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury. MATERIAL & METHODS: This is a prospective comparative randomized controlled trial. A total of 60 patients of displaced supracondylar fracture aged between 3 - 12 years with fresh fracture, without any compound injury or communition were enrolled for the study and randomly divided into two groups, A and B. For each group of 30 patients, they were assigned treatment of crossed pinning and lateral pinning respectively and outcome was evaluated on basis of pain, motion, stability and function according to Mayo’s elbow score and follow - up was maintained for a period of 45 days and test for statistical significance were applied. RESULTS: After assessing 30 patients in each group we found out that mean mayo score was 98 in cross pinning group and 96.83 in lateral pinning group. This difference is statistically not significant. (p value - 0.502. CONCLUSION: In our study we conclude that, Lateral pinning is an equally good treatment choice in these fractures and especially for grossly swollen elbows in which medial epicondyle is barely palpable with increased risk of ulnar nerve injury during placement of medial pin. Both the methods offer consistently satisfactory functional and cosmetic results

  9. 19 CFR 142.17 - One entry summary for multiple entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Entry Summary Documentation § 142.17 One entry summary... for which entries or immediate transportation entries have been filed. However, this provision is not.... (ii) Immediate transportation entries. Immediate transportation entries may be consolidated if the...

  10. Membrane fusion during poxvirus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Bernard

    2016-12-01

    Poxviruses comprise a large family of enveloped DNA viruses that infect vertebrates and invertebrates. Poxviruses, unlike most DNA viruses, replicate in the cytoplasm and encode enzymes and other proteins that enable entry, gene expression, genome replication, virion assembly and resistance to host defenses. Entry of vaccinia virus, the prototype member of the family, can occur at the plasma membrane or following endocytosis. Whereas many viruses encode one or two proteins for attachment and membrane fusion, vaccinia virus encodes four proteins for attachment and eleven more for membrane fusion and core entry. The entry-fusion proteins are conserved in all poxviruses and form a complex, known as the Entry Fusion Complex (EFC), which is embedded in the membrane of the mature virion. An additional membrane that encloses the mature virion and is discarded prior to entry is present on an extracellular form of the virus. The EFC is held together by multiple interactions that depend on nine of the eleven proteins. The entry process can be divided into attachment, hemifusion and core entry. All eleven EFC proteins are required for core entry and at least eight for hemifusion. To mediate fusion the virus particle is activated by low pH, which removes one or more fusion repressors that interact with EFC components. Additional EFC-interacting fusion repressors insert into cell membranes and prevent secondary infection. The absence of detailed structural information, except for two attachment proteins and one EFC protein, is delaying efforts to determine the fusion mechanism.

  11. Qualitative Risk Assessment on the Entry of African Swine Fever into Jiangxi Province%非洲猪瘟传入江西省的定性风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张付华; 黄烨祯

    2016-01-01

    Objective]In order to acquaint the introduction risk of African swine fever(ASF)into Jiangxi province, so as to find out the key risk control points. [Methods]A qualitative risk assessment was made. The hazard identification was conducted firstly,then the risk assessment was divided into four sections in accordance with the prescribed risk analysis system derived from the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code,including release assessment,exposure assessment,consequence assessment and risk calculation. During the process,each step was defined and assessed. [Results]The results of release,exposure and consequence assessment showed that the risk of ASF introducing into Jiangxi province was high,and the credibility was medium. The key risk points of release assessment were the animal products and by-products entered via seaports and airports,biologic vectors carried by the foreign ships and containers. [Conclusion]The risk assessment results indicated that inspection and quarantine of ASF should be strengthened, monitoring and early warning,effective propaganda and training should be carried out in Jiangxi province,so as to stop the entry of ASF and detect and control it timely once entered.%[目的]了解非洲猪瘟(ASF)传入江西省的风险,找出关键风险点。[方法]首先进行危害确认,然后参照有关国际组织的风险分析系统,将风险评估划分为四个步骤:释放评估、暴露评估、后果评估和风险计算,并对其进行定义,逐步评估。[结果]综合释放评估、暴露评估和后果评估结果,认为ASF传入江西省的风险较高,可信度为中等。释放评估的关键风险点主要为经海港和空港进入的动物产品及副产品、外来船舶和集装箱可能携带的生物传播媒介。[结论]风险分析结果提示,江西省应严格出入境检验检疫,及时开展监测预警和有效的宣传培训,防止ASF传入,做到一旦传入,能够及时发现和控制。

  12. Robustness of pinning a general complex dynamical network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lei, E-mail: lwang@buaa.edu.c [Laboratory of Mathematics, Information and Behavior of the Ministry of Education, Department of Systems and Control, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Sun Youxian [State Key Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Institute of Industrial Process Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2010-04-05

    This Letter studies the robustness problem of pinning a general complex dynamical network toward an assigned synchronous evolution. Several synchronization criteria are presented to guarantee the convergence of the pinning process locally and globally by construction of Lyapunov functions. In particular, if a pinning strategy has been designed for synchronization of a given complex dynamical network, then no matter what uncertainties occur among the pinned nodes, synchronization can still be guaranteed through the pinning. The analytical results show that pinning control has a certain robustness against perturbations on network architecture: adding, deleting and changing the weights of edges. Numerical simulations illustrated by scale-free complex networks verify the theoretical results above-acquired.

  13. A mechanism to pin skyrmions in chiral magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye-Hua; Li, You-Quan

    2013-02-20

    We propose a mechanism to pin skyrmions in chiral magnetic thin films by introducing local maxima of magnetic exchange strength as pinning centers. The local maxima can be realized by engineering the local density of itinerant electrons. The stationary properties and the dynamical pinning and depinning processes of an isolated skyrmion around a pinning center are studied. We carry out numerical simulations of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation and find a way to control the position of an isolated skyrmion in a pinning center lattice using electric current pulses. The results are verified by a Thiele equation analysis. We also find that the critical current to depin a skyrmion, which is estimated to have order of magnitude 10(7)-10(8) A m(-2), has linear dependence on the pinning strength.

  14. Principles of intramedullary pin and wire fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, P E

    1991-02-01

    Knowledge and experience in the proper use of IM pins, K-wires, and orthopedic wire is a valuable asset to the veterinarian's ability to successfully repair a variety of long bone fractures. Most long bone fractures are amenable to repair with this form of fixation. When the principles of application are violated or the implants are used when contraindicated, complications often occur. Proper use of these implants results in the successful management of complex fractures to the satisfaction of both the animal owner and the veterinarian (Fig 10).

  15. Controlling Flow Turbulence Using Local Pinning Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Guo-Ning; HU Gang

    2006-01-01

    Flow turbulence control in two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation is considered.By applying local pinning control only to a sjngle component of flow velocity field,the flow turbulence can be controlled to desirable targets.It is found that with certain number of controllers there exist an optimal control strength at which control error takes minimum value,and larger and smaller control strengths give worse control efficiency.The phvsical mechanism underlying these strange control results is analysed based on the interactions between different types of modes.

  16. Optimum Prestress of Tanks with Pinned Base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum-Nielsen, Troels

    1998-01-01

    Amin Ghali and Eleanor Elliott presented in their paper an interesting suggestion for prestressing of circular tanks without sliding joints. For many prestressed tanks the following construction procedure is adopted:In order to ensure compressive hoop forces in the wall near the base, the wall...... is allowed to slide freely in the radial direction during tensioning (free base).After tensioning such displacements are prevented (pinned base). The present paper addresses the problem of prestress of such tanks.Keywords: circular prestressing; creep properties; prestressed concrete; redistribution...... of stress; stress relaxation; tanks....

  17. A pancreaticoduodenectomy risk model derived from 8575 cases from a national single-race population (Japanese) using a web-based data entry system: the 30-day and in-hospital mortality rates for pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Wataru; Miyata, Hiroaki; Gotoh, Mitsukazu; Hirai, Ichiro; Kenjo, Akira; Kitagawa, Yuko; Shimada, Mitsuo; Baba, Hideo; Tomita, Naohiro; Nakagoe, Tohru; Sugihara, Kenichi; Mori, Masaki

    2014-04-01

    To create a mortality risk model after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) using a Web-based national database system. PD is a major gastroenterological surgery with relatively high mortality. Many studies have reported factors to analyze short-term outcomes. After initiation of National Clinical Database, approximately 1.2 million surgical cases from more than 3500 Japanese hospitals were collected through a Web-based data entry system. After data cleanup, 8575 PD patients (mean age, 68.2 years) recorded in 2011 from 1167 hospitals were analyzed using variables and definitions almost identical to those of American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. The 30-day postoperative and in-hospital mortality rates were 1.2% and 2.8% (103 and 239 patients), respectively. Thirteen significant risk factors for in-hospital mortality were identified: age, respiratory distress, activities of daily living within 30 days before surgery, angina, weight loss of more than 10%, American Society of Anesthesiologists class of greater than 3, Brinkman index of more than 400, body mass index of more than 25 kg/m, white blood cell count of more than 11,000 cells per microliter, platelet count of less than 120,000 per microliter, prothrombin time/international normalized ratio of more than 1.1, activated partial thromboplastin time of more than 40 seconds, and serum creatinine levels of more than 3.0 mg/dL. Five variables, including male sex, emergency surgery, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bleeding disorders, and serum urea nitrogen levels of less than 8.0 mg/dL, were independent variables in the 30-day mortality group. The overall PD complication rate was 40.0%. Grade B and C pancreatic fistulas in the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula occurred in 13.2% cases. The 30-day and in-hospital mortality rates for pancreatic cancer were significantly lower than those for nonpancreatic cancer. We conducted the reported risk stratification study for PD

  18. Shuttle entry guidance revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1992-08-01

    The Shuttle entry guidance concept is reviewed which is aimed at tracking a reference drag trajectory that leads to the specified range and velocity for the initiation of the terminal energy management phase. An approximate method of constructing the domain of attraction is proposed, and its validity is ascertained by simulation. An alternative guidance law yielding global exponential tracking in the absence of control saturation is derived using a feedback linearization method. It is noted that the alternative guidance law does not improve on the stability and performance of the current guidance law, for the operating domain and control capability of the Shuttle. It is suggested that the new guidance law with a larger operating domain and increased lift-to-drag capability would be superior.

  19. Shuttle entry guidance revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle entry guidance concept is reviewed which is aimed at tracking a reference drag trajectory that leads to the specified range and velocity for the initiation of the terminal energy management phase. An approximate method of constructing the domain of attraction is proposed, and its validity is ascertained by simulation. An alternative guidance law yielding global exponential tracking in the absence of control saturation is derived using a feedback linearization method. It is noted that the alternative guidance law does not improve on the stability and performance of the current guidance law, for the operating domain and control capability of the Shuttle. It is suggested that the new guidance law with a larger operating domain and increased lift-to-drag capability would be superior.

  20. Water Entry of Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, Tadd T.; Epps, Brenden P.; Belden, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The free-surface impact of solid objects has been investigated for well over a century. This canonical problem is influenced by many physical parameters, including projectile geometry, material properties, fluid properties, and impact parameters. Through advances in high-speed imaging and visualization techniques, discoveries about the underlying physics have improved our understanding of these phenomena. Improvements to analytical and numerical models have led to critical insights into cavity formation, the depth and time of pinch-off, forces, and trajectories for myriad different impact parameters. This topic spans a wide range of regimes, from low-speed entry phenomena dominated by surface tension to high-speed ballistics, for which cavitation is important. This review surveys experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies over this broad range, utilizing canonical images where possible to enhance intuition and insight into the rich phenomena.

  1. Development of 3D pseudo pin-by-pin calculation methodology in ANC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B.; Mayhue, L.; Huria, H.; Ivanov, B. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry, PA 16066 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Advanced cores and fuel assembly designs have been developed to improve operational flexibility, economic performance and further enhance safety features of nuclear power plants. The simulation of these new designs, along with strong heterogeneous fuel loading, have brought new challenges to the reactor physics methodologies currently employed in the industrial codes for core analyses. Control rod insertion during normal operation is one operational feature in the AP1000{sup R} plant of Westinghouse next generation Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) design. This design improves its operational flexibility and efficiency but significantly challenges the conventional reactor physics methods, especially in pin power calculations. The mixture loading of fuel assemblies with significant neutron spectrums causes a strong interaction between different fuel assembly types that is not fully captured with the current core design codes. To overcome the weaknesses of the conventional methods, Westinghouse has developed a state-of-the-art 3D Pin-by-Pin Calculation Methodology (P3C) and successfully implemented in the Westinghouse core design code ANC. The new methodology has been qualified and licensed for pin power prediction. The 3D P3C methodology along with its application and validation will be discussed in the paper. (authors)

  2. Structure of human Sp140 PHD finger: an atypical fold interacting with Pin1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchelli, Chiara; Tamburri, Simone; Quilici, Giacomo; Palagano, Eleonora; Berardi, Andrea; Saare, Mario; Peterson, Pärt; Bachi, Angela; Musco, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Sp140 is a nuclear leukocyte-specific protein involved in primary biliary cirrhosis and a risk factor in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The presence of several chromatin related modules such as plant homeodomain (PHD), bromodomain and SAND domain suggests a role in chromatin-mediated regulation of gene expression; however, its real function is still elusive. Herein we present the solution structure of Sp140-PHD finger and investigate its role as epigenetic reader in vitro. Sp140-PHD presents an atypical PHD finger fold which does not bind to histone H3 tails but is recognized by peptidylprolyl isomerase Pin1. Pin1 specifically binds to a phosphopeptide corresponding to the L3 loop of Sp140-PHD and catalyzes cis-trans isomerization of a pThr-Pro bond. Moreover co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate FLAG-Sp140 interaction with endogenous Pin1 in vivo. Overall these data include Sp140 in the list of the increasing number of Pin1 binders and expand the regulatory potential of PHD fingers as versatile structural platforms for diversified interactions. © 2013 FEBS.

  3. Bactericidal micron-thin sol-gel films prevent pin tract and periprosthetic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Haibo; Knabe, Christine; Burke, Megan; Radin, Shula; Garino, Jonathan; Schaer, Thomas; Ducheyne, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Orthopedic injuries constitute the majority of wounds sustained by U.S. soldiers in recent conflicts. The risk of infection is considerable with fracture fixation devices. In this pilot study, we examined the use of unique bactericidal micron-thin sol-gel films on fracture fixation devices and their ability to prevent and eradicate infections. External fixation was studied with micron-thin sol-gel coated percutaneous pins releasing triclosan and inserted medially into rabbit tibiae. A total of 11 rabbits received percutaneous pins that were either uncoated or sol-gel/triclosan coated. Internal fracture fixation was also studied using sol-gel coated intramedullary (IM) nails releasing vancomycin in the intramedullary tibiae. Six sheep received IM nails that were coated with a sol-gel film that either contained vancomycin or did not contain vancomycin. All animals were challenged with Staphylococcus aureus around the implant. Animals were euthanized at 1 month postoperative. Rabbits receiving triclosan/sol-gel coated percutaneous pins did not show signs of infection. Uncoated percutaneous pins had a significantly higher infection rate. In the sheep study, there were no radiographic signs of osteomyelitis with vancomycin/sol-gel coated IM nails, in contrast to the observations in the control cohort. Hence, the nanostructured sol-gel controlled release technology offers the promise of a reliable and continuous delivery system of bactericidals from orthopedic devices to prevent and treat infection.

  4. The pin pixel detector--X-ray imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Marsh, A S; Simmons, J E; Stephenson, R

    2002-01-01

    The development and testing of a soft X-ray gas pixel detector, which uses connector pins for the anodes is reported. Based on a commercial 100 pin connector block, a prototype detector of aperture 25.4 mm centre dot 25.4 mm can be economically fabricated. The individual pin anodes all show the expected characteristics of small gas detectors capable of counting rates reaching 1 MHz per pin. A 2-dimensional resistive divide readout system has been developed to permit the imaging properties of the detector to be explored in advance of true pixel readout electronics.

  5. 327 to 324 Pin tube shipment quality management process plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAM, J.E.

    1998-11-05

    The B and W Hanford Company's (BWHC) 327 Facility, in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, is preparing to ship five Pin Tubes to the 324 Facility for storage and eventual disposition. The Pin Tubes consist of legacy fuel pin pieces and drillings. They will be over-packed in new Pin Tubes and transported to 324 in three shipments. Once received at 324, two of the shipments will be combined for storage as a fissionable material batch, and the other shipment will be added to an existing batch.

  6. [Ingestion of an open safety pin--challenging treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRowe, Ari; Fishman, Gadi; Avni, Hadas; Reider, Ivgeny; Ogorek, Daniel

    2003-11-01

    A 9 month old girl at the emergency room appeared with an acute onset of restlessness, drooling and suspected foreign body ingestion. An X-Ray revealed an open safety pin in the child's upper aero-digestive tract. The source of the safety pin was a "Hamsah" good luck charm that was attached to her bed. Open safety pins in the aero-digestive tract are difficult to manage and great care must be taken during removal to prevent further injury. Parents should be counseled regarding the presence of safety pins in the child's surroundings in order to prevent such hazards.

  7. Changing the flux flow state in weak pinning superconducting films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leo, A., E-mail: antoleo@sa.infn.it [Physics Department E.R. Caianiello, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, Stecca 9, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); CNR-SPIN Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, Stecca 9, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Grimaldi, G. [CNR-SPIN Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, Stecca 9, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Nigro, A. [Physics Department E.R. Caianiello, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, Stecca 9, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); CNR-SPIN Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, Stecca 9, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Bruno, E.; Priolo, F. [Matis IMM-CNR and Physics-Astronomy Department, Catania University, CT 95123 (Italy); Pace, S. [Physics Department E.R. Caianiello, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, Stecca 9, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); CNR-SPIN Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, Stecca 9, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We analyzed the effect of light ion irradiation on weak pinning superconductors. • We found the light ion irradiation has a strong impact on current currying stability. • We compared the results to the ones of the case of moderate strong pinning materials. - Abstract: The current carrying dissipative state well above the critical current it is known to be related to the pinning properties of the material and to the microscopic mechanisms of vortex dynamics. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that in low temperature superconducting films exhibiting moderately strong pinning the light ion irradiation has the effect of changing the distribution of the pinning centers without changing their pinning strength and this results into an increase of current stability in the flux flow state. Here we present the results of light ion irradiation on weak pinning superconducting films focusing on the influence of pinning properties of the material in the flux flow state. We realize that the possibility to switch to low dissipations by changing weak pinning is not straightforward.

  8. Pin-ups: pictures that fascinate and seduce Pin-ups: fotografias que encantam e seduzem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irene Pellegrino de Oliveira Souza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Starting from photography studies, social anthropology and body visual, this article approaches the social construction of the feminine image through times. It narrates the history of erotic pinups photography and its fetishist elements. Pin-ups have aroused in the end of 19tcentury and it represents the free spirit of women. Slowly, it provokes the breakup of sensuality and sexuality feminine traditionalism. The article also discusses women’s sensuality as a desire object. The pin-ups sensual demure – with a mystery atmosphere – stimulated the eroticism at the beginning of the 20 century and, until nowadays, it provokes admiration, sigh and desire. Com base em estudos sobre fotografia, antropologia social e visual do corpo, este artigo aborda a imagem feminina socialmente construída através dos tempos. Narra o histórico da fotografia erótica de pin-ups e seus elementos fetichistas. As pin-ups surgiram no final do século XIX e representaram o espírito “livre” das mulheres. Sutilmente, incitavam o rompimento do tradicionalismo da época quanto à sensualidade e sexualidade feminina. O artigo aborda também a sensualidade feminina como objeto de desejo. O recato sensual das pin-ups – com ar de mistério – alavancou o erotismo no início do século XX e, até os dias atuais, provoca admiração, suspiros e desejos.

  9. Lightning Pin Injection Testing on MOSFETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Mielnik, John J.; Vaughan, Roger K.; Wysocki, Philip F.; Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Sankalita

    2009-01-01

    Lightning transients were pin-injected into metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to induce fault modes. This report documents the test process and results, and provides a basis for subsequent lightning tests. MOSFETs may be present in DC-DC power supplies and electromechanical actuator circuits that may be used on board aircraft. Results show that unprotected MOSFET Gates are susceptible to failure, even when installed in systems in well-shielded and partial-shielded locations. MOSFET Drains and Sources are significantly less susceptible. Device impedance decreased (current increased) after every failure. Such a failure mode may lead to cascading failures, as the damaged MOSFET may allow excessive current to flow through other circuitry. Preliminary assessments on a MOSFET subjected to 20-stroke pin-injection testing demonstrate that Breakdown Voltage, Leakage Current and Threshold Voltage characteristics show damage, while the device continues to meet manufacturer performance specifications. The purpose of this research is to develop validated tools, technologies, and techniques for automated detection, diagnosis and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight, such as from lightning transients; and to understand the interplay between lightning-induced surges and aging (i.e. humidity, vibration thermal stress, etc.) on component degradation.

  10. Optimizing Dynamical Network Structure for Pinning Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orouskhani, Yasin; Jalili, Mahdi; Yu, Xinghuo

    2016-04-01

    Controlling dynamics of a network from any initial state to a final desired state has many applications in different disciplines from engineering to biology and social sciences. In this work, we optimize the network structure for pinning control. The problem is formulated as four optimization tasks: i) optimizing the locations of driver nodes, ii) optimizing the feedback gains, iii) optimizing simultaneously the locations of driver nodes and feedback gains, and iv) optimizing the connection weights. A newly developed population-based optimization technique (cat swarm optimization) is used as the optimization method. In order to verify the methods, we use both real-world networks, and model scale-free and small-world networks. Extensive simulation results show that the optimal placement of driver nodes significantly outperforms heuristic methods including placing drivers based on various centrality measures (degree, betweenness, closeness and clustering coefficient). The pinning controllability is further improved by optimizing the feedback gains. We also show that one can significantly improve the controllability by optimizing the connection weights.

  11. Nanoengineering of Flux Pinning Sites in High-Tc Superconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Volume pinning forces were determined for a variety of bulk high-Tcsuperconductors of the 123-type from magnetization measurements. By means of scaling of the pinning forces, the acting pinning mechanisms in various temperature ranges were identified. The Nd-based superconductors and some YBCO crystalsexhibited a dominating pinning of the δTc-type (i.e., small, superconducting pinning sites). In contrast to this, the addition of insulating 211 particles provided pinning of the δl-type; providing effective pinning in the entire temperature range acting as a "background" pinning mechanism for the peak effect. Due to the small coherence lengths of the high-Tc compounds, effective pinning sites are defects or particles of nanometer size relative to ξ3. Integral magnetic measurements of the magnetization as a function of temperature in large applied magnetic fields (up to 7 T) revealed that practically all high-Tc compounds were spatially inhomogeneous, which could be caused byoxygen deficiency (YBCO), solid solutions of Nd/Ba (NdBCO and other light rare earth compounds), intergrowths (Bi-based superconductors), and doping by pair-breaking dopants like Zn, Pr. This implies that the superconducting sample consists of stronger and weaker superconducting areas, coupled together. In large appliedfields, this coupling gets broken and the magnetization versus temperature curves revealed more than one superconducting transition. In contrast, irradiation experiments by neutrons, protons, and heavy-ions enabled the artificial introduction of very effective pinning sites into the high-Tc superconductors, thus creating a large variety of different observations using magnetic data. From all these observations, we construct a pinning diagram for bulk high-Tc superconductors explaining many features observed in high-Tc samples.

  12. MANAGEMENT OF DISPLACED SUPRACONDYLAR FRACTURES OF THE HUMERUS IN CHILDREN BY CLOSED REDUCTION AND PERCUTANEOUS PINNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas

    2015-06-01

    reduction and internal fixation al ways have the chance of infection and risk of myositis ossificans and associated loss of motion. CONCLUSION: Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning under image intensifier control offers several advantages such as accurate anatomic reduction , good stabi lization , and early mobilization , less chances of joint stiffness and with low rate of malunion. And the hospital stay is shorter ( 5 .

  13. Entry properties and entry inhibitors of a human H7N9 influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhui Si

    Full Text Available The recently identified human infections with a novel avian influenza H7N9 virus in China raise important questions regarding possible risk to humans. However, the entry properties and tropism of this H7N9 virus were poorly understood. Moreover, neuraminidase inhibitor resistant H7N9 isolates were recently observed in two patients and correlated with poor clinical outcomes. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the entry properties of H7N9 virus, design and evaluate inhibitors for H7N9 virus entry. We optimized and developed an H7N9-pseudotyped particle system (H7N9pp that could be neutralized by anti-H7 antibodies and closely mimicked the entry process of the H7N9 virus. Avian, human and mouse-derived cultured cells showed high, moderate and low permissiveness to H7N9pp, respectively. Based on influenza virus membrane fusion mechanisms, a potent anti-H7N9 peptide (P155-185-chol corresponding to the C-terminal ectodomain of the H7N9 hemagglutinin protein was successfully identified. P155-185-chol demonstrated H7N9pp-specific inhibition of infection with IC50 of 0.19 µM. Importantly, P155-185-chol showed significant suppression of A/Anhui/1/2013 H7N9 live virus propagation in MDCK cells and additive effects with NA inhibitors Oseltamivir and Zanamivir. These findings expand our knowledge of the entry properties of the novel H7N9 viruses, and they highlight the potential for developing a new class of inhibitors targeting viral entry for use in the next pandemic.

  14. Fundamental Characteristics of a Pinned Photodiode CMOS Pixels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis gives an insightful analysis of the pinned photodiode 4T CMOS pixel from three different aspects. Firstly, from the charge accumulated aspect, the PPD full well capacity and related parameters of influence are investigated such as the pinning voltage, and transfer gate potential barrier.

  15. IMp: The customizable LEGO(®) Pinned Insect Manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Steen; Price, Benjamin; Blagoderov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    We present a pinned insect manipulator (IMp) constructed of LEGO® building bricks with two axes of movement and two axes of rotation. In addition we present three variants of the IMp to emphasise the modular design, which facilitates resizing to meet the full range of pinned insect specimens, is fully customizable, collapsible, affordable and does not require specialist tools or knowledge to assemble.

  16. Heat transfer enhancement by pin elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahiti, N.; Durst, F.; Dewan, A. [LSTM-Erlangen, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Cauerstrasse 4, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    Heat transfer enhancement is an active and important field of engineering research since increases in the effectiveness of heat exchangers through suitable heat transfer augmentation techniques can result in considerable technical advantages and savings of costs. Considerable enhancements were demonstrated in the present work by using small cylindrical pins on surfaces of heat exchangers. A partly quantitative theoretical treatment of the proposed method is presented. It uses simple relationships for the conductive and convective heat transfer to derive an equation that shows which parameters permit the achievement of heat transfer enhancements. Experiments are reported that demonstrate the effectiveness of the results of the proposed approach. It is shown that the suggested method of heat transfer enhancements is much more effective than existing methods, since it results in an increase in heat transfer area (like fins) and also an increase in the heat transfer coefficient. (author)

  17. Cracking Bank PINs by Playing Mastermind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focardi, Riccardo; Luccio, Flaminia L.

    The bank director was pretty upset noticing Joe, the system administrator, spending his spare time playing Mastermind, an old useless game of the 70ies. He had fought the instinct of telling him how to better spend his life, just limiting to look at him in disgust long enough to be certain to be noticed. No wonder when the next day the director fell on his chair astonished while reading, on the newspaper, about a huge digital fraud on the ATMs of his bank, with millions of Euros stolen by a team of hackers all around the world. The article mentioned how the hackers had 'played with the bank computers just like playing Mastermind', being able to disclose thousands of user PINs during the one-hour lunch break. That precise moment, a second before falling senseless, he understood the subtle smile on Joe's face the day before, while training at his preferred game, Mastermind.

  18. Flux pinning characteristics and irreversibility line in high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, T.; Ihara, N.; Kiuchi, M.

    1995-01-01

    The flux pinning properties in high temperature superconductors are strongly influenced by thermally activated flux motion. The scaling relation of the pinning force density and the irreversibility line in various high temperature superconductors are numerically analyzed in terms of the flux creep model. The effect of two factors, i.e., the flux pinning strength and the dimensionality of the material, on these properties are investigated. It is speculated that the irreversibility line in Bi-2212 superconductors is one order of magnitude smaller than that in Y-123, even if the flux pinning strength in Bi-2212 is improved up to the level of Y-123. It is concluded that these two factors are equally important in determination of the flux pinning characteristics at high temperatures.

  19. Nano-engineered pinning centres in YBCO superconducting films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, A.; Dang, V. S.; Mikheenko, P.

    2017-02-01

    For practical applications of superconducting materials in applied magnetic fields, artificial pinning centres in addition to natural ones are required to oppose the Lorentz force. These pinning centres are actually various types of defects in the superconductor matrix. The pinning centres can be categorised on their dimension (volume, surface or point) and on their character (normal cores or Δκ cores). Different samples have been produced by Pulsed Laser Deposition, with various thicknesses, temperatures and nanostructured additions to the superconducting matrix. They have been characterized by SQUID Magnetic Properties Measurement System and Physical Properties Measurement System, as well as by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Correlations between pinning architecture, TEM images, and critical currents at various fields and field orientations will be shown for a large number of YBa2Cu3Ox films with various types and architectures of artificial pinning centres.

  20. New Pin Puller Based on SMA Technology for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Nestor; Collado, Marcelo; Cabás, Ramiro

    2014-07-01

    Two different versions of the Pin Puller were designed during this activity, such as one with 100 N and other with 500 N of pull force. The design of both versions is based on spheres which support the pin at the initial position and a compression spring driving once the release takes place by means of the SMA. The mechanical design of the Pin Pullers has been conceived in order to optimize the device's weight, reduce the parts complexity, and achieve a suitable stiffness. A qualification test campaign for the Pin Puller with 500 N of pull force has been developed in order to check the success of the proposed mechanism for space applications. The main performed tests have been thermal-vacuum actuation, thermal-vacuum cycling, sine vibration, and random vibration. The Pin Puller has presented successful results of actuation during the test campaign

  1. In vitro analysis of self-shearing retentive pins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, E W; Caputo, A A; Standlee, J P; Duncanson, M G

    1981-02-01

    Combining stress, analysis, microscopic examination, mechanical testing of the shear mechanism, and retention of the Reten Pin leads to the following conclusions: 1. The suggested 0.006 inch pin-channel mismatch induces high lateral and apical stresses. Microscopically, this was seen to correlate with injury to the dentin. 2. The degree of retention was increased by using a smaller pin-channel mismatch. This correlates with smaller stresses and reduced dentinal damage. 3. The shear mechanism acts in a uniform manner, with a relatively small variation from the mean. It is suggested that for the best results the manufacturer should supply larger twist drills and pins with a somewhat deeper self-shearing groove to minimize apical involvement during shearing of the handle from the pin.

  2. Pinning Lur’e Complex Networks via Output Feedback Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Without requiring the full-state information of network nodes, this paper studies the pinning synchronization in a network of Lur’e dynamical systems based on the output feedback control strategy. Some simple pinning conditions are established for both undirected and directed Lur’e networks by using M-matrix theory and S-procedure technique. With the derived stability criteria, the pinning synchronization problem of large-scale Lur’e networks can be transformed to the test of a low-dimensional linear matrix inequality. Some remarks are further given to address the selection of pinned nodes and the design of pinning feedback gains. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.

  3. Physics-Based Modeling of Meteor Entry and Breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Agrawal, Parul; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Brandis, Aaron M.; Chen, Yih-Kang; Jaffe, Richard L.; Palmer, Grant E.; Saunders, David A.; Stern, Eric C.; Tauber, Michael E.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2015-01-01

    A new research effort at NASA Ames Research Center has been initiated in Planetary Defense, which integrates the disciplines of planetary science, atmospheric entry physics, and physics-based risk assessment. This paper describes work within the new program and is focused on meteor entry and breakup.Over the last six decades significant effort was expended in the US and in Europe to understand meteor entry including ablation, fragmentation and airburst (if any) for various types of meteors ranging from stony to iron spectral types. These efforts have produced primarily empirical mathematical models based on observations. Weaknesses of these models, apart from their empiricism, are reliance on idealized shapes (spheres, cylinders, etc.) and simplified models for thermal response of meteoritic materials to aerodynamic and radiative heating. Furthermore, the fragmentation and energy release of meteors (airburst) is poorly understood.On the other hand, flight of human-made atmospheric entry capsules is well understood. The capsules and their requisite heatshields are designed and margined to survive entry. However, the highest speed Earth entry for capsules is 13 kms (Stardust). Furthermore, Earth entry capsules have never exceeded diameters of 5 m, nor have their peak aerothermal environments exceeded 0.3 atm and 1 kW/sq cm. The aims of the current work are: (i) to define the aerothermal environments for objects with entry velocities from 13 to 20 kms; (ii) to explore various hypotheses of fragmentation and airburst of stony meteors in the near term; (iii) to explore the possibility of performing relevant ground-based tests to verify candidate hypotheses; and (iv) to quantify the energy released in airbursts. The results of the new simulations will be used to anchor said risk assessment analyses. With these aims in mind, state-of-the-art entry capsule design tools are being extended for meteor entries. We describe: (i) applications of current simulation tools to

  4. Enabling Venus In-Situ Science - Deployable Entry System Technology, Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT): A Technology Development Project funded by Game Changing Development Program of the Space Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wercinski, Paul F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Gage, Peter J.; Yount, Bryan C.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Smith, Brandon; Arnold, James O.; Makino, alberto; Peterson, Keith Hoppe; Chinnapongse, Ronald I.

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the important planetary destinations for scientific exploration, but: The combination of extreme entry environment coupled with extreme surface conditions have made mission planning and proposal efforts very challenging. We present an alternate, game-changing approach (ADEPT) where a novel entry system architecture enables more benign entry conditions and this allows for greater flexibility and lower risk in mission design

  5. Retractable Pin Tools for the Friction Stir Welding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Two companies have successfully commercialized a specialized welding tool developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Friction stir welding uses the high rotational speed of a tool and the resulting frictional heat created from contact to crush, 'stir' together, and forge a bond between two metal alloys. It has had a major drawback, reliance on a single-piece pin tool. The pin is slowly plunged into the joint between two materials to be welded and rotated as high speed. At the end of the weld, the single-piece pin tool is retracted and leaves a 'keyhole,' something which is unacceptable when welding cylindrical objects such as drums, pipes and storage tanks. Another drawback is the requirement for different-length pin tools when welding materials of varying thickness. An engineer at the MSFC helped design an automatic retractable pin tool that uses a computer-controlled motor to automatically retract the pin into the shoulder of the tool at the end of the weld, preventing keyholes. This design allows the pin angle and length to be adjusted for changes in material thickness and results in a smooth hole closure at the end of the weld. Benefits of friction stir welding, using the MSFC retractable pin tool technology, include the following: The ability to weld a wide range of alloys, including previously unweldable and composite materials; provision of twice the fatigue resistance of fusion welds and no keyholes; minimization of material distortion; no creation of hazards such as welding fumes, radiation, high voltage, liquid metals, or arcing; automatic retraction of the pin at the end of the weld; and maintaining full penetration of the pin.

  6. Are entry criteria for cataract surgery justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Böhringer

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The German Ophthalmological Society (GOS recently proposed surgical entry criteria, i.e. 300 cataract surgeries. We herein correlate the surgical hands-on experience with the risk of posterior capsule ruptures in order to assess whether this number is appropriate. METHODS: We identified all cataract operations that had been performed at the University Eye Hospital Freiburg since 1995. For each surgeon, we assigned a running number to his/her procedures in the order they had been performed. Thereafter, we excluded all combined procedures and the second eyes. We then selected the 5475 surgical reports between November 2008 and November 2012 for detailed review. We additionally classified each surgery into low- vs. high- à priori risk for posterior capsule ruptures. We fitted a multifactorial logistic regression model to assess the GOS recommendation of 300 surgeries under supervision. In the low-risk group, we additionally visualized the 'typical' learning curve by plotting the posterior capsule ruptures against the respective rank numbers. RESULTS: The odds ratio for posterior capsule ruptures of 'learning-mode' (one of the respective surgeon's 300 first procedures vs. the non-learning-mode was 3.8 (p<0.0001. By contrast, classification into the low-risk group lowered the risk of posterior capsule ruptures three fold (p<0.0001. According to the low-risk plot, the surgeons started with a complication rate of 4% and continuously improved towards 0.5% after 1500 operations. Thereafter, the rate increased again and stabilized around one percent. CONCLUSION: The learning curve with respect to posterior capsule ruptures is surprisingly flat. The GOS entry criterion of 300 cataract procedures is therefore most likely justified. Careful selection of low-risk patients for the training surgeons may help in reducing the rate of posterior capsule ruptures during training.

  7. A pinning puzzle: two similar, non-superconducting chemical deposits in YBCO-one pins, the other does not

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawh, Ravi-Persad; Weinstein, Roy; Gandini, Alberto; Skorpenske, Harley; Parks, Drew, E-mail: Weinstein@uh.ed [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Texas Center for Superconductivity at UH, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5002 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    The pinning effects of two kinds of U-rich deposits in YBCO (YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}) are compared. One is a five-element compound, (U{sub 0.6}Pt{sub 0.4})YBa{sub 2}O{sub 6}, which is a paramagnetic double perovskite which forms as profuse stable nanosize deposits, and pins very well. The other is a four-element compound, (U{sub 0.4}Y{sub 0.6})BaO{sub 3}, which is a ferromagnetic single perovskite which forms as profuse stable nanosize deposits and pins very weakly or not at all. The pinning comparison is done with nearly equal deposit sizes and number of deposits per unit volume for the two compounds. Evidence for the pinning capability, chemical makeup, x-ray diffraction signature, and magnetic properties of the two compounds is reported.

  8. Principles of safe abdominal entry in laparoscopic gynecologic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongrak Thepsuwan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic gynecologic surgery has been widely used with a range of benefits. However, there are complications that are related to the abdominal entry process. Serious complications are gastrointestinal tract and major blood vessel injuries. This review introduces the recent available literature to prevent and eliminate the laparoscopic entry complications. The open entry technique is associated with a significant reduction of failed entry, compared to the closed entry technique; however there is no difference in the incidence of visceral or vascular injury. Laparoscopic entry by the left upper abdomen (i.e., Palmer's point or the middle upper abdomen (i.e., the Lee-Huang point could be considered in patients with suspected periumbilical adhesions or a history of umbilical hernia, or after three failed attempts of insufflation at the umbilicus. The Lee-Huang point has its own benefit for the operative laparoscopy in large pelvic pathologies and gynecology malignancy cases. The angle of Veress needle insertion varies from 45° in nonobese women to 90° in extraordinarily obese women. The high intra-peritoneal pressure entries, which range from 20 mmHg to 25 mmHg, minimize the risk of vascular injury. Therefore, this will not adversely affect the cardiopulmonary function in healthy women. The Veress intraperitoneal pressure (<10 mmHg is a reliable indicator of correct intraperitoneal placement of the Veress needle. The elevation of anterior abdominal wall for placement of a Veress needle increases the risks of failed entry and shows no advantage in regard to vascular or visceral complications. Surgeons should continue to increase their knowledge of anatomy, their training, and their experience to decrease laparoscopic complications.

  9. Crown sealing and buckling instability during water entry of spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2016-04-05

    We present new observations from an experimental investigation of the classical problem of the crown splash and sealing phenomena observed during the impact of spheres onto quiescent liquid pools. In the experiments, a 6 m tall vacuum chamber was used to provide the required ambient conditions from atmospheric pressure down to of an atmosphere, whilst high-speed videography was exploited to focus primarily on the above-surface crown formation and ensuing dynamics, paying particular attention to the moments just prior to the surface seal. In doing so, we have observed a buckling-type azimuthal instability of the crown. This instability is characterised by vertical striations along the crown, between which thin films form that are more susceptible to the air flow and thus are drawn into the closing cavity, where they atomize to form a fine spray within the cavity. To elucidate to the primary mechanisms and forces at play, we varied the sphere diameter, liquid properties and ambient pressure. Furthermore, a comparison between the entry of room-temperature spheres, where the contact line pins around the equator, and Leidenfrost spheres (i.e. an immersed superheated sphere encompassed by a vapour layer), where there is no contact line, indicates that the buckling instability appears in all crown sealing events, but is intensified by the presence of a pinned contact line. © 2016 Cambridge University Press.

  10. Tactile Data Entry System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Building on our successful Phase I Tactile Data Entry program, Barron Associates proposes development of a Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system to permit...

  11. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  12. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  13. Orion Entry Handling Qualities Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, B.; Tiggers, M.; Strahan, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Sullivan, K.; Stephens, J. P.; Hart, J.; Law, H., III; Bilimoria, K.; Bailey, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Orion Command Module (CM) is a capsule designed to bring crew back from the International Space Station (ISS), the moon and beyond. The atmospheric entry portion of the flight is deigned to be flown in autopilot mode for nominal situations. However, there exists the possibility for the crew to take over manual control in off-nominal situations. In these instances, the spacecraft must meet specific handling qualities criteria. To address these criteria two separate assessments of the Orion CM s entry Handling Qualities (HQ) were conducted at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) using the Cooper-Harper scale (Cooper & Harper, 1969). These assessments were conducted in the summers of 2008 and 2010 using the Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) six degree of freedom, high fidelity Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) simulation. This paper will address the specifics of the handling qualities criteria, the vehicle configuration, the scenarios flown, the simulation background and setup, crew interfaces and displays, piloting techniques, ratings and crew comments, pre- and post-fight briefings, lessons learned and changes made to improve the overall system performance. The data collection tools, methods, data reduction and output reports will also be discussed. The objective of the 2008 entry HQ assessment was to evaluate the handling qualities of the CM during a lunar skip return. A lunar skip entry case was selected because it was considered the most demanding of all bank control scenarios. Even though skip entry is not planned to be flown manually, it was hypothesized that if a pilot could fly the harder skip entry case, then they could also fly a simpler loads managed or ballistic (constant bank rate command) entry scenario. In addition, with the evaluation set-up of multiple tasks within the entry case, handling qualities ratings collected in the evaluation could be used to assess other scenarios such as the constant bank angle

  14. Currency union entries and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsch, Volker

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that adopting a common currency increases bilateral trade. In this paper, I explore experiences of currency union entry in the post-war period and find no effect on trade. Previous results derived from a large panel data set (covering more than 200 countries from 1948 through 1997) appear to depend crucially on the assumption of symmetry between currency union exits and entries: While countries leaving a currency union experience significant declines in trade, currenc...

  15. Dissecting Pin1 and phospho-pRb regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolio, Flavio; Caligiuri, Isabella; Lucchetti, Chiara; Fratamico, Robert; Tomei, Valentina; Gallo, Gaia; Agelan, Alexis; Ferrari, Giovanni; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Klein-Szanto, Andres J; Giordano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The activity of the Retinoblastoma protein, the master regulator of the cell cycle, is finely regulated by phosphorylation. CDKs and cyclins are major players in phosphorylation and it has been recently discovered that the prolyl isomerase Pin1 is an essential protein that orchestrates this process. In this article, we report new findings regarding the role of Pin1 in the pRb pathway. Our data suggest that PI3K, CDKs, and the Pin1 axis have a critical role in sustaining the complete phosphorylation of pRb. Furthermore, we analyze the correlation between Pin1 and pRb phosphorylation in vivo. We show that, in human malignant glioma tissue microarrays (TMA) and in Pin1 knockout (KO) mice, there is a positive correlation between Pin1 and pRb phosphorylation. Prospectively, our findings suggest that the synergism between CDKs, Pin1, and PI3K inhibitors hold great promise for targeted pharmacological treatment of cancer patients, with the possibility of reaching high effectiveness at tolerated doses.

  16. Simulation of the ATV Re-Entry Obsrvations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida Virgili, B.; Krag, H.; Lips, T.; De Pasquale, E.

    2010-09-01

    The first ATV was launched on 9th March 2008 and, after a successful mission, the last phase was a controlled destructive re-entry on 29th September 2008, shortly after 13:30 UTC, in which the remains of the ATV and its load fell into the South Pacific Ocean. In order to better understand the re-entry processes, an insitu optical observation campaign was launched to record and analyze the ATV controlled re-entry with several instruments on board of two airplanes and also from the ISS. This observation campaign was successful and triggered several different still-ongoing studies on the extraction and analysis of data to draw conclusions on the adequacy of the re-entry break-up and explosion models used for the safety analysis of the ATV re-entry. This paper addresses the validation process for ESA’s model for re-entry survivability and on-ground risk assessment for explosive re-entry events using the observation data. The underlying rationale is to improve the models for the benefit of planning and execution of future controlled re-entries and in risk calculation in case of uncontrolled ones. The re-entry trajectory of the ATV, the explosive event and the trajectories of the fragments are simulated with the existing ESA tools and the EVOLVE explosion model. Additional software has been developed to simulate airborne sensor field of view(FOV) crossings based on the aircraft trajectories, attitude profile, sensor mounts and FOVs. Sensor performance and object radiation are modeled in order to generate synthetic images for the different sensors in the ISS and the two airplanes. These synthetic images and synthetic videos are compared with the available reentry observations of the ATV. This paper will present the software and techniques to generate synthetic imagery. It will give results of the comparison between the simulated and the real trajectories and fragmentation and explain the subsequent validation process of the ESA re-entry tools and the potential

  17. Alar Pinning in Rigid External Distraction for Midfacial Hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jenny L; Woo, Albert S

    2017-09-01

    Distraction osteogenesis with a rigid external distractor is a widely accepted treatment for midfacial hypoplasia. In this study, the authors introduce the utilization of alar pinning with the external halo distractor for maxillary advancement, in place of an oral splint. A retrospective chart review was conducted of 7 patients who successfully underwent distraction osteogenesis using the alar pinning technique. Midfacial hypoplasia was secondary to Crouzon syndrome (n = 4), Apert syndrome (n = 1), Pfeiffer syndrome (n = 1), or bacterial meningitis (n = 1). Three patients were managed with monobloc osteotomies, 2 with Le Fort III osteotomies, 1 with Le Fort III osteotomy and frontoorbital advancement, and 1 with Le Fort I osteotomy alone. Patient charts were analyzed for postoperative course and complications relating to the alar pins. Two patients had minor complications specifically related to the alar pins. One patient had concern for a mild skin infection at a pin site that resolved with oral antibiotics. The other patient had loosening of an alar pin, which did not require operative management. Retrospective chart review indicated that all patients were pleased with their results from the distraction, and no patients opted for further advancement. Utilization of alar pin sites for external distraction is a feasible and reasonable option for treatment of midfacial hypoplasia involving a Le Fort osteotomy or monobloc procedure. Fixation sites within the alar crease minimize the visibility of pin site scars and eliminate the need for a custom-made oral splint, which prevents usage of the upper dentition and frequently requires consulting a dentist or orthodontist for fabrication. Alar pinning with an external halo distraction system for management of midfacial hypoplasia has minimal complications and is an alternative to using a custom-made oral splint.

  18. Noises of p-i-n UV photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Ferdinand V.; Korman, Can E.; Melkonyan, Slavik V.

    2007-06-01

    Investigations of the static characteristics, responsivity, internal noises, and detectivity of the forward biased p-i-n photodetectors made on wide bandgap compensated semiconductors operating in double injection regime are presented. Noise related calculations are performed by utilizing "Impedance Field Method". Numerical simulations are made assessing 4H-SiC and GaN biased p-i-n photodiodes noise related characteristics. It is shown that forward biased p-i-n photodiodes have low level of thermal and generation-recombination noises and high values of sensitivity and detectivity at the room temperature.

  19. 19 CFR 191.143 - Drawback entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Foreign-Built Jet Aircraft Engines Processed in the United States § 191.143 Drawback entry. (a) Filing of entry. Drawback entries covering these foreign-built jet aircraft engines shall be filed on Customs Form 7551, modified to show that the entry covers jet aircraft engines processed...

  20. Pesticides re-entry dermal exposure of workers in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarelli, V; Conte, E; Correnti, A; Gatti, R; Musmeci, F; Morali, G; Spagnoli, G; Tranfo, G; Triolo, L; Vita, M; Zappa, G

    2004-01-01

    This research has the aim to evaluate the risk of pesticide dermal exposure for workers in greenhouses. We considered the following crops: tomato, cucumber and strawberry, largely spread in Bracciano lake district. The pesticides monitored were: tetradifon on strawberry: metalaxyl, azoxystrobin and fenarimol on cucumber; acrinathrin, azoxystrobin and chlorpyrifos ethyl on tomato. The dermal exposure was evaluated by Dislodgeable Foliar Residue (DFR) measurements employing transfer coefficients got from literature. For risk evaluation, we have compared the dermal exposures with Acceptable Operator Exposure Levels (AOEL). The re-entry time were obtained intercepting the dose decay curves with AOEL values. The re-entry times result higher than two days in the cases of chlorpyrifos on tomato (re-entry time: 3 days), azoxystrobin on tomato (4 days), and tetradifon on strawberry (8 days). The need of measuring specific transfer coefficients is pointed out.

  1. A Division in PIN-Mediated Auxin Patterning during Organ Initiation in Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Devin L.; Runions, Adam; Sluis, Aaron; Bragg, Jennifer; Vogel, John P.

    2014-01-01

    The hormone auxin plays a crucial role in plant morphogenesis. In the shoot apical meristem, the PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) efflux carrier concentrates auxin into local maxima in the epidermis, which position incipient leaf or floral primordia. From these maxima, PIN1 transports auxin into internal tissues along emergent paths that pattern leaf and stem vasculature. In Arabidopsis thaliana, these functions are attributed to a single PIN1 protein. Using phylogenetic and gene synteny analysis we identified an angiosperm PIN clade sister to PIN1, here termed Sister-of-PIN1 (SoPIN1), which is present in all sampled angiosperms except for Brassicaceae, including Arabidopsis. Additionally, we identified a conserved duplication of PIN1 in the grasses: PIN1a and PIN1b. In Brachypodium distachyon, SoPIN1 is highly expressed in the epidermis and is consistently polarized toward regions of high expression of the DR5 auxin-signaling reporter, which suggests that SoPIN1 functions in the localization of new primordia. In contrast, PIN1a and PIN1b are highly expressed in internal tissues, suggesting a role in vascular patterning. PIN1b is expressed in broad regions spanning the space between new primordia and previously formed vasculature, suggesting a role in connecting new organs to auxin sinks in the older tissues. Within these regions, PIN1a forms narrow canals that likely pattern future veins. Using a computer model, we reproduced the observed spatio-temporal expression and localization patterns of these proteins by assuming that SoPIN1 is polarized up the auxin gradient, and PIN1a and PIN1b are polarized to different degrees with the auxin flux. Our results suggest that examination and modeling of PIN dynamics in plants outside of Brassicaceae will offer insights into auxin-driven patterning obscured by the loss of the SoPIN1 clade in Brassicaceae. PMID:24499933

  2. A PWR Thorium Pin Cell Burnup Benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Kevan Dean; Zhao, X.; Pilat, E. E; Hejzlar, P.

    2000-05-01

    As part of work to evaluate the potential benefits of using thorium in LWR fuel, a thorium fueled benchmark comparison was made in this study between state-of-the-art codes, MOCUP (MCNP4B + ORIGEN2), and CASMO-4 for burnup calculations. The MOCUP runs were done individually at MIT and INEEL, using the same model but with some differences in techniques and cross section libraries. Eigenvalue and isotope concentrations were compared on a PWR pin cell model up to high burnup. The eigenvalue comparison as a function of burnup is good: the maximum difference is within 2% and the average absolute difference less than 1%. The isotope concentration comparisons are better than a set of MOX fuel benchmarks and comparable to a set of uranium fuel benchmarks reported in the literature. The actinide and fission product data sources used in the MOCUP burnup calculations for a typical thorium fuel are documented. Reasons for code vs code differences are analyzed and discussed.

  3. Multi-pin chemiresistors for microchemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-02-20

    A multi-pin chemiresistor for use in microchemical sensors. A pair of free-standing, bare wires is supported by an electrically insulating support, and are oriented parallel to each other and spaced closely together. A free-standing film of a chemically sensitive polymer that swells when exposed to vapors of a volatile chemical is formed in-between the pair of closely-spaced wires by capillary action. Similar in construction to a thermocouple, this "chemicouple" is relatively inexpensive and easy to fabricate by dipping the pair of bare wires into a bath of well-mixed chemiresistor ink. Also, a chemiresistor "stick" is formed by dipping an electrically insulating rod with two or more linear or spiral-wrapped electrical traces into the bath of well-mixed chemiresistor ink, which deposits a uniform coating of the chemically sensitive polymer on the rod and the electrical traces. These "sticks" can be easily removed and replaced from a multi-chemiresistor plug.

  4. Thermal experiment of silicon PIN detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong-Fei; ZOU Ji-Qing; SHI Wei-Hong; ZOU Hong; HU Ran-Sheng; TIAN Da-Yu

    2008-01-01

    The experiment of this paper is the thermal test of the leakage current of silicon PIN detector.Raising temperature may cause the detector to increase leakage current,decrease depletion and increase noise.Three samples are used in the experiment.One (called △E) is the sample of 100 tan in thickness.The other two (called E1 and E2) are stacks of five detectors of 1000 μm in thickness.All of them are 12 mm in diameter.The experiment has been done for 21 hours and with power on continuously.The samples have undergone more than 60 ℃ for about one hour.They are not degenerated when back to the room temperature.The depletion rate is temperature and bias voltage related.With the circuit of the experiment and temperature at 35 ℃,△E is still depleted while E1 and E2 are 94.9% and 99.7% depleted respectively.The noises of the samples can be derived from the values at room temperature and the thermal dependence of the leakage currents.With the addition of the noise of the pre-amplifier,the noises of E1,E2 and AE at 24 ℃ are 16.4,16.3,and 10.5 keV (FWHM) respectively while at 35 ℃ are about 33.6,33.1,and 20.6 keV (FWHM) respectively.

  5. Superconducting vortex pinning with artificial magnetic nanostructures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez, M.; Martin, J. I.; Villegas, J. E.; Hoffmann, A.; Gonzalez, E. M.; Vicent, J. L.; Schuller, I. K.; Univ. de Oviedo-CINN; Unite Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales; Univ. Paris-Sud; Univ.Complutense de Madrid; Univ. California at San Diego

    2008-11-01

    This review is dedicated to summarizing the recent research on vortex dynamics and pinning effects in superconducting films with artificial magnetic structures. The fabrication of hybrid superconducting/magnetic systems is presented together with the wide variety of properties that arise from the interaction between the superconducting vortex lattice and the artificial magnetic nanostructures. Specifically, we review the role that the most important parameters in the vortex dynamics of films with regular array of dots play. In particular, we discuss the phenomena that appear when the symmetry of a regular dot array is distorted from regularity towards complete disorder including rectangular, asymmetric, and aperiodic arrays. The interesting phenomena that appear include vortex-lattice reconfigurations, anisotropic dynamics, channeling, and guided motion as well as ratchet effects. The different regimes are summarized in a phase diagram indicating the transitions that take place as the characteristic distances of the array are modified respect to the superconducting coherence length. Future directions are sketched out indicating the vast open area of research in this field.

  6. Ideal glass transitions by random pinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Chiara; Biroli, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of freezing the positions of a fraction c of particles from an equilibrium configuration of a supercooled liquid at a temperature T. We show that within the random first-order transition theory pinning particles leads to an ideal glass transition for a critical fraction c = cK(T) even for moderate supercooling; e.g., close to the Mode-Coupling transition temperature. First we derive the phase diagram in the T - c plane by mean field approximations. Then, by applying a real-space renormalization group method, we obtain the critical properties for |c - cK(T)| → 0, in particular the divergence of length and time scales, which are dominated by two zero-temperature fixed points. We also show that for c = cK(T) the typical distance between frozen particles is related to the static point-to-set length scale of the unconstrained liquid. We discuss what are the main differences when particles are frozen in other geometries and not from an equilibrium configuration. Finally, we explain why the glass transition induced by freezing particles provides a new and very promising avenue of research to probe the glassy state and ascertain, or disprove, the validity of the theories of the glass transition. PMID:22623524

  7. 19 CFR 142.16 - Entry summary documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry summary documentation. 142.16 Section 142.16... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Entry Summary Documentation § 142.16 Entry summary documentation. (a) Entry summary not filed at time of entry. When the entry documentation is filed before the entry...

  8. Numerical Evaluation of Flow and Heat Transfer in Plate-Pin Fin Heat Sinks with Various Pin Cross-Sections

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Feng; Catton, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    A numerical investigation of the thermal and hydraulic performance of twenty different plate-pin fin heat sinks with various shapes of pin cross-section (square, circular, elliptic, NACA profile and dropform) and different ratios of pin widths to plate fin spacing (0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6) was performed. Finite Volume Method based CFD software, Ansys CFX, was used as the 3-D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes Solver. A k-ω based Shear-Stress-Transport model was used to predict the turbulent flow a...

  9. Autonomous gliding entry guidance with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Jie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel three-dimensional autonomous entry guidance for relatively high lift-to-drag ratio vehicles satisfying geographic constraints and other path constraints. The guidance is composed of onboard trajectory planning and robust trajectory tracking. For trajectory planning, a longitudinal sub-planner is introduced to generate a feasible drag-versus-energy profile by using the interpolation between upper boundary and lower boundary of entry corridor to get the desired trajectory length. The associated magnitude of the bank angle can be specified by drag profile, while the sign of bank angle is determined by lateral sub-planner. Two-reverse mode is utilized to satisfy waypoint constraints and dynamic heading error corridor is utilized to satisfy no-fly zone constraints. The longitudinal and lateral sub-planners are iteratively employed until all of the path constraints are satisfied. For trajectory tracking, a novel tracking law based on the active disturbance rejection control is introduced. Finally, adaptability tests and Monte Carlo simulations of the entry guidance approach are performed. Results show that the proposed entry guidance approach can adapt to different entry missions and is able to make the vehicle reach the prescribed target point precisely in spite of geographic constraints.

  10. Reconstruction of the Genesis Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Qualls, Garry D.; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the reconstruction analyses performed for the Genesis capsule entry is described. The results indicate that the actual entry prior to the drogue deployment failure was very close to the pre-entry predictions. The capsule landed 8.3 km south of the desired target at Utah Test and Training Range. Analysis on infrared video footage (obtained from the tracking stations) during the descent estimated the onset of the capsule tumble at Mach 0.9. Frequency analysis on the infrared video data indicates that the aerodynamics generated for the Genesis capsule reasonably predicted the drag and static stability. Observations of the heatshield support the pre-entry simulation estimates of a small hypersonic angles-of-attack, since there is very little, if any, charring of the shoulder region or the aftbody. Through this investigation, an overall assertion can be made that all the data gathered from the Genesis entry is consistent with flight performance that was close to the nominal preentry prediction. Consequently, the design principles and methodologies utilized for the flight dynamics, aerodynamics, and aerothermodynamics analyses have been corroborated.

  11. Procedure of recovery of pin-by-pin fields of energy release in the core of VVER-type reactor for the BIPR-8 code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordienko, P. V.; Kotsarev, A. V.; Lizorkin, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    The procedure of recovery of pin-by-pin energy-release fields for the BIPR-8 code and the algorithm of the BIPR-8 code which is used in nodal computation of the reactor core and on which the recovery of pin-by-pin fields of energy release is based are briefly described. The description and results of the verification using the module of recovery of pin-by-pin energy-release fields and the TVS-M program are given.

  12. Pins, dowels, and other retentive devices in posterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, R; Shillingburg, H T

    1993-07-01

    Devices used to increase retention of restorations to severely damaged posterior teeth are described, with an emphasis on pins and dowels. Advantages and disadvantages of different techniques and measures to help prevent and correct problems are presented.

  13. Characterization of vortex pinning through the Campbell length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willa, Roland; Geshkenbein, Vadim B.; Blatter, Gianni

    Vortex pinning is decisive in establishing dissipation-free current flow in a type-II superconductor; knowledge and optimization of the pinning landscape (pinscape) is of major importance for applications. The ac magnetic response, characterized by the Campbell penetration depth λC, provides valuable information on the pinscape, besides the critical current density jc. While microscopic derivations of jc are available both in the weak and strong pinning limits, this is not the case for the Campbell length, whose understanding has remained on a phenomenological level so far. Based on the microscopic theory of strong pinning, we have established a proper link between the Campbell length and the pinscape parameters. This new quantitative formalism captures all experimentally observed signatures, among which are the dependence of λC on the vortex state preparation and the hysteresis in λC upon thermal cycling the field-cooled state.

  14. PIN1 in breast development and cancer: a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustighi, Alessandra; Zannini, Alessandro; Campaner, Elena; Ciani, Yari; Piazza, Silvano; Del Sal, Giannino

    2017-02-01

    Mammary gland development, various stages of mammary tumorigenesis and breast cancer progression have the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase PIN1 at their centerpiece, in virtue of the ability of this unique enzyme to fine-tune the dynamic crosstalk between multiple molecular pathways. PIN1 exerts its action by inducing conformational and functional changes on key cellular proteins, following proline-directed phosphorylation. Through this post-phosphorylation signal transduction mechanism, PIN1 controls the extent and direction of the cellular response to a variety of inputs, in physiology and disease. This review discusses PIN1's roles in normal mammary development and cancerous progression, as well as the clinical impact of targeting this enzyme in breast cancer patients.

  15. 8 Pin RIC Socket for Hearing Aid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Davids, Søren;

    2012-01-01

    process and the other one is fully automated process. This paper presents the entire process chain for both the concepts and makes a comparative analysis based on the experimental investigation and validation. The work presented here can be a source of valuable information for industrial users......The current paper presents the development of an 8 Pin RIC (Receiver in the canal) Socket for hearing instruments within the framework of the COTECH project. There are 8 industrial demonstrators developed in COTECH based on the converged product and process design. Sonion’s 8 Pin RIC Socket is one...... of them. 8 Pin RIC Socket is a functionally versatile product which can combine many different functions and presents many advantages compared with the previous 3 Pin RIC Socket. For the demonstrator production of the new Socket, two different production concepts were chosen- one based on semi-automated...

  16. Pinning impulsive directed coupled delayed dynamical network and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunnan; Wu, Quanjun; Xiang, Lan; Zhou, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to further investigate pinning synchronisation of a complex delayed dynamical network with directionally coupling by a single impulsive controller. By developing the analysis procedure of pinning impulsive stability for undirected coupled dynamical network previously, some simple yet general criteria of pinning impulsive synchronisation for such directed coupled network are derived analytically. It is shown that a single impulsive controller can always pin a given directed coupled network to a desired homogenous solution, including an equilibrium point, a periodic orbit, or a chaotic orbit. Subsequently, the theoretical results are illustrated by a directed small-world complex network which is a cellular neural network (CNN) and a directed scale-free complex network with the well-known Hodgkin-Huxley neuron oscillators. Numerical simulations are finally given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control methodology.

  17. [Py-Desmanet pinning in distal radius fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, O; Popia, I

    2009-01-01

    Internal fixation by pinning is one of the most used methods of surgical treatment in fractures of the distal extremity of the radius. As in stable fractures a styloid pinning is satisfactory, in unstable fractures however we must resort to different patterns of pin insertion, in order to effectively prevent the secondary displacement of the fractured fragments. The elastic pinning described by Py and Desmanet is one of the possibilities of inserting the pins. The principle of this method is to use the bending-induced tension in the pins to counteract the postero-lateral displacing forces. The authors have treated by this technique five patients with distal radius fractures (3 women and 2 men) about 56 years of average age, all with good-quality bone, all with Colles' fracture pattern (2-4 cm above the radio-carpal articulation, no articular involvement, posterior displacement of the distal fragment). The reduction of the fractures was achieved by closed manipulation and controlled intraoperatively with the C-arm. We preferred to reduce the fractures before inserting the pins, although this is not compulsory, according to the authors of the technique. The approach was minimally-invasive, through two 1-cm long incisions. The pins, previously blunted and curved along the last centimeters, were introduced using a "T"-shaped handle. The potential complications, consisting of injuries of the many elements which cross the region, were avoided by sufficiently long incisions and identification and retraction of these elements (tendons, nervous branches) in order not to penetrate them with the pins. The aftertreatment consisted of immediate mobilization of the wrist in one patient, 21-day splinting in other two and 30-day splinting in the last two, depending on the intraoperative assessment of the stability of the fixation. The pins were removed at 45 days postoperatively in all cases. There were no complications such as loss of reduction or pin migration. In all cases

  18. An experimental study of a pin-fin heat exchanger

    OpenAIRE

    Ramthun, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A detailed experimental study has been carried out on the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of a compact heat exchanger with pin fins. A modular wind-tunnel with a rectangular cross-section duct-flow area was constructed that would accommodate the heat exchanger test section with varying pin designs. The flow in the tunnel was achieved through a suction-type blower, and a leading entrance length section was added to achie...

  19. Anisotropic flux pinning in high T{sub c} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesnik, S. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02668, Warszawa (Poland); Igalson, J. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02668, Warszawa (Poland); Skoskiewicz, T. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02668, Warszawa (Poland); Szymczak, R. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02668, Warszawa (Poland); Baran, M. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02668, Warszawa (Poland); Pytel, K. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk (Poland); Pytel, B. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk (Poland)

    1995-02-09

    In this paper we present a comparison of the results of FC magnetization measurements on several Pb-Sr-(Y,Ca)-Cu-O crystals representing various levels of flux pinning. The pinning centers in our crystals have been set up during the crystal growth process or introduced by neutron irradiation. Some possible explanations of the observed effects, including surface barrier, flux-center distribution and sample-shape effects, are discussed. ((orig.)).

  20. Investigating the interactions of yeast prions: [SWI+], [PSI+], and [PIN+].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhiqiang; Li, Liming

    2014-06-01

    Multiple prion elements, which are transmitted as heritable protein conformations and often linked to distinct phenotypes, have been identified in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It has been shown that overproduction of a prion protein Swi1 can promote the de novo conversion of another yeast prion [PSI(+)] when Sup35 is co-overproduced. However, the mechanism underlying this Pin(+) ([PSI(+)] inducible) activity is not clear. Moreover, how the Swi1 prion ([SWI(+)]) interacts with other yeast prions is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the Pin(+) activity associated with Swi1 overproduction is independent of Rnq1 expression or [PIN(+)] conversion. We also show that [SWI(+)] enhances the appearance of [PSI(+)] and [PIN(+)]. However, [SWI(+)] significantly compromises the Pin(+) activity of [PIN(+)] when they coexist. We further demonstrate that a single yeast cell can harbor three prions, [PSI(+)], [PIN(+)], and [SWI(+)], simultaneously. However, under this condition, [SWI(+)] is significantly destabilized. While the propensity to aggregate underlies prionogenesis, Swi1 and Rnq1 aggregates resulting from overproduction are usually nonheritable. Conversely, prion protein aggregates formed in nonoverexpressing conditions or induced by preexisting prion(s) are more prionogenic. For [PSI(+)] and [PIN(+)] de novo formation, heterologous "facilitators," such as preexisting [SWI(+)] aggregates, colocalize only with the newly formed ring-/rod-shaped Sup35 or Rnq1 aggregates, but not with the dot-shaped mature prion aggregates. Their colocalization frequency is coordinated with their prion inducibility, indicating that prion-prion interactions mainly occur at the early initiation stage. Our results provide supportive evidence for the cross-seeding model of prionogenesis and highlight a complex interaction network among prions in yeast.

  1. Open safety pin ingestion presenting as incarcerated umbilical hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Bilal; Sheikh, Afzal

    2011-09-01

    Foreign body ingestion is common in children. Sharp foreign bodies are potentially harmful and can result various complications. An 8-month-old infant presented with incarcerated umbilical hernia. With a suspicion of strangulation, operation was performed that revealed a loop of ileum being stuck in the umbilical defect. The loop of ileum was freed from the umbilicus which demonstrated open ends of safety pin piercing out of bowel lumen. The enterotomy followed by removal of safety pin was performed.

  2. Open Safety Pin Ingestion Presenting as Incarcerated Umbilical Hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Mirza; Afzal Sheikh

    2011-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion is common in children. Sharp foreign bodies are potentially harmful and can result various complications. An 8-month-old infant presented with incarcerated umbilical hernia. With a suspicion of strangulation, operation was performed that revealed a loop of ileum being stuck in the umbilical defect. The loop of ileum was freed from the umbilicus which demonstrated open ends of safety pin piercing out of bowel lumen. The enterotomy followed by removal of safety pin was p...

  3. Open Safety Pin Ingestion Presenting as Incarcerated Umbilical Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Mirza

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body ingestion is common in children. Sharp foreign bodies are potentially harmful and can result various complications. An 8-month-old infant presented with incarcerated umbilical hernia. With a suspicion of strangulation, operation was performed that revealed a loop of ileum being stuck in the umbilical defect. The loop of ileum was freed from the umbilicus which demonstrated open ends of safety pin piercing out of bowel lumen. The enterotomy followed by removal of safety pin was performed.

  4. AtPIN: Arabidopsis thaliana Protein Interaction Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Filho Marcio C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interactions (PPIs constitute one of the most crucial conditions to sustain life in living organisms. To study PPI in Arabidopsis thaliana we have developed AtPIN, a database and web interface for searching and building interaction networks based on publicly available protein-protein interaction datasets. Description All interactions were divided into experimentally demonstrated or predicted. The PPIs in the AtPIN database present a cellular compartment classification (C3 which divides the PPI into 4 classes according to its interaction evidence and subcellular localization. It has been shown in the literature that a pair of genuine interacting proteins are generally expected to have a common cellular role and proteins that have common interaction partners have a high chance of sharing a common function. In AtPIN, due to its integrative profile, the reliability index for a reported PPI can be postulated in terms of the proportion of interaction partners that two proteins have in common. For this, we implement the Functional Similarity Weight (FSW calculation for all first level interactions present in AtPIN database. In order to identify target proteins of cytosolic glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (Cyt-gluRS (AT5G26710 we combined two approaches, AtPIN search and yeast two-hybrid screening. Interestingly, the proteins glutamine synthetase (AT5G35630, a disease resistance protein (AT3G50950 and a zinc finger protein (AT5G24930, which has been predicted as target proteins for Cyt-gluRS by AtPIN, were also detected in the experimental screening. Conclusions AtPIN is a friendly and easy-to-use tool that aggregates information on Arabidopsis thaliana PPIs, ontology, and sub-cellular localization, and might be a useful and reliable strategy to map protein-protein interactions in Arabidopsis. AtPIN can be accessed at http://bioinfo.esalq.usp.br/atpin.

  5. A Versatile Mixed-Signal Pin Approach for Cost-Effective Test of Automotive ICs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Credence Systems Corporation

    2004-01-01

    @@ (上接第9期51页) Figure 3:3 different pins types which cover a wide range of requirements: - DPIN: The digital mixed signal pin for high speed digital requirements - VPIN digital mixed-signal pin with high voltage digital test capability. With the 30 V swing and 50 MHz data rate the pin fits excellent for automotive requirements.

  6. Dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide is a novel inhibitor of Pin1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatara, Yota; Lin, Yi-Chin; Bamba, Yoshimasa; Mori, Tadashi [Molecular Enzymology, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1-1 Amamiya, Tsutsumidori, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 981-8555 (Japan); Uchida, Takafumi, E-mail: uchidat@biochem.tohoku.ac.jp [Molecular Enzymology, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1-1 Amamiya, Tsutsumidori, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 981-8555 (Japan)

    2009-07-03

    Pin1 is involved in eukaryotic cell proliferation by changing the structure and function of phosphorylated proteins. PiB, the Pin1 specific inhibitor, blocks cancer cell proliferation. However, low solubility of PiB in DMSO has limited studies of its effectiveness. We screened for additional Pin1 inhibitors and identified the DMSO-soluble compound dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide (DTM) that inhibits Pin1 activity with an EC50 value of 4.1 {mu}M. Molecular modeling and enzyme kinetic analysis indicated that DTM competitively inhibits Pin1 activity, with a K{sub i} value of 0.05 {mu}M. The K{sub D} value of DTM with Pin1 was determined to be 0.06 {mu}M by SPR technology. Moreover, DTM specifically inhibited peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity in HeLa cells. FACS analysis showed that DTM induced G0 arrest of the HCT116 cells. Our results suggest that DTM has the potential to guide the development of novel antifungal and/or anticancer drugs.

  7. Self-pinning of a nanosuspension droplet: Molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Baiou; Webb, Edmund B.

    2016-07-01

    Results are presented from molecular dynamics simulations of Pb(l) nanodroplets containing dispersed Cu nanoparticles (NPs) and spreading on solid surfaces. Three-dimensional simulations are employed throughout, but droplet spreading and pinning are reduced to two-dimensional processes by modeling cylindrical NPs in cylindrical droplets; NPs have radius RNP≅3 nm while droplets have initial R0≅42 nm . At low particle loading explored here, NPs in sufficient proximity to the initial solid-droplet interface are drawn into advancing contact lines; entrained NPs eventually bind with the underlying substrate. For relatively low advancing contact angle θadv, self-pinning on entrained NPs occurs; for higher θadv, depinning is observed. Self-pinning and depinning cases are compared and forces on NPs at the contact line are computed during a depinning event. Though significant flow in the droplet occurs in close proximity to the particle during depinning, resultant forces are relatively low. Instead, forces due to liquid atoms confined between the particles and substrate dominate the forces on NPs; that is, for the NP size studied here, forces are interface dominated. For pinning cases, a precursor wetting film advances ahead of the pinned contact line but at a significantly slower rate than for a pure droplet. This is because the precursor film is a bilayer of liquid atoms on the substrate surface but it is instead a monolayer film as it crosses over pinning particles; thus, mass delivery to the bilayer structure is impeded.

  8. Pinned vortex hopping in a neutron star crust

    CERN Document Server

    Haskell, Brynmor

    2015-01-01

    The motion of superfluid vortices in a neutron star crust is at the heart of most theories of pulsar glitches. Pinning of vortices to ions can decouple the superfluid from the crust and create a reservoir of angular momentum. Sudden large scale unpinning can lead to an observable glitch. In this paper we investigate the scattering of a free vortex off a pinning potential and calculate its mean free path, in order to assess whether unpinned vortices can skip multiple pinning sites and come close enough to their neighbours to trigger avalanches, or whether they simply hop from one pinning site to another giving rise to a more gradual creep. We find that there is a significant range of parameter space in which avalanches can be triggered, thus supporting the hypothesis that they may lie at the origin of pulsar glitches. For realistic values of the pinning force and superfluid drag parameters we find that avalanches are more likely in the higher density regions of the crust where pinning is stronger. Physical dif...

  9. Dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide is a novel inhibitor of Pin1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Yota; Lin, Yi-Chin; Bamba, Yoshimasa; Mori, Tadashi; Uchida, Takafumi

    2009-07-03

    Pin1 is involved in eukaryotic cell proliferation by changing the structure and function of phosphorylated proteins. PiB, the Pin1 specific inhibitor, blocks cancer cell proliferation. However, low solubility of PiB in DMSO has limited studies of its effectiveness. We screened for additional Pin1 inhibitors and identified the DMSO-soluble compound dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide (DTM) that inhibits Pin1 activity with an EC50 value of 4.1 microM. Molecular modeling and enzyme kinetic analysis indicated that DTM competitively inhibits Pin1 activity, with a K(i) value of 0.05 microM. The K(D) value of DTM with Pin1 was determined to be 0.06 microM by SPR technology. Moreover, DTM specifically inhibited peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity in HeLa cells. FACS analysis showed that DTM induced G0 arrest of the HCT116 cells. Our results suggest that DTM has the potential to guide the development of novel antifungal and/or anticancer drugs.

  10. Pin fixation in treatment of dislocated lateral condyle of the humerus in pediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdobranski Đorđe R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fractures of lateral condyle represent 17% of all pediatric fractures of the distal humerus, and in current pediatric orthopedics there is still no agreement regarding optimal treatment modalities. We presented a treatment protocol for pediatric dislocated fractures of the lateral condyle of the humerus used at the Pediatric Surgery Clinic in Novi Sad. Material and methods Over the study period (1991-2000 a total of 48 patients with dislocated fractures of the lateral condyle of the humerus were hospitalized at the Pediatric Surgery Clinic. Orthopedic reduction and percutaneous pin fixation under radiological supervision was done in 15 patients, while 33 patients needed surgical reduction and pin fixation. Results Satisfactory results were obtained in 42 patients (91.3%, out of which 29 patients (63.1% presented with excellent resuls. Good results were obtained in 8 patients (17.4%, and fair results in 5 patients (10.8%. Unsatisfactory results were present in 4 patients (8.7%. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Discussion Dislocation fractures of the lateral condyle represent high risk for development of complications. Adequate diagnosis and treatment represent basic conditions for successful post-interventional result. Orthopedic reduction with percutaneous pin fixation is recommended for fractures that may be anatomically reduced. In cases of unsatisfactory results of reduction, as well as in cases with completely dislocated and rotated fragments, surgical reduction and pin fixation is necessary. Conclusions Satisfactory results in 91.3% of cases, and long-term experience suggest that the recommended therapeutic option is adequate in treatment of dislocated fractures of the lateral condyle of the humerus in pediatric population.

  11. Membongkar Akuntansi Double Entry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whedy Prasetyo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Double entry isa process of recording transactions that always involve at least two accounts ofwhich changes (increases or decreases have consequences to maintain a balance equation. This is a simple basic accounting, that the use of the funds must alwaysbe equal to the acquisition of funds. The equation is not able to include some business events that are responses to the development of business environment. A proposed view is based on the interaction of researcher (New Bond with accountant (Mrs M to dismantle the double entry accounting through Maurice Merleau Ponty's approach (1906-1961. The results prove that physical aspects of knowledge willcontinue to evolve according to environmental interactions.

  12. Repeat biopsy in patients with initial diagnosis of PIN; La biopsia ripetuta nei pazienti con diagnosi iniziale di PIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Matteis, Massimo [Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). UO Radiologia Albertoni; Poggi, Cristina; De Martino, Antonietta; Pavlica, Pietro [Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). UO Radiologia Palagi, Dipartimento area radiologica; Corti, Barbara [Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). UO Anatomia ed istologia patologica, Dipartimento oncologico ed ematologico; Barozzi, Libero [Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). UO Radiologia d' urgenza, Dipartimento emergenze ed accettazione

    2005-09-15

    Purpose. Prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN) is considered a pre-malignant lesion and the main precursor of invasive prostatic adenocarcinoma. A PIN diagnosis established by prostate needle biopsy poses a difficult clinical management. problem. We retrospectively reviewed our three-year experience in order to identify criteria for referring patients to repeat biopsy. Materials and methods. We reviewed the repeat biopsy records of 72 patients in whom PIN had been detected on initial US-guided needle biopsy of the prostate. All the patients had a minimum of 6 biopsy cores taken, and they all had PSA > 4 ng/ml. Results. Adenocarcinoma was detected in 15 patients out of 50 (30%) with an initial diagnosis of low-grade PIN and in 10 patients out of 22 (45.4%) with high grade PIN, in 7 out of 18 (39%) in whom PSA levels had decreased during the observation interval, in 16 patients out of 46 (35%) in whom the PSA had increased and in 2 patients out of 8 (25%) with stable PSA. Conclusions. Our results seem to confirm that PIN can be considered a precursor of prostatic adenocarcinoma or a histological alteration often associated with it. Patients with low-grade PIN and particularly those with high-grade PIN should be regularly subjected to repeat biopsy at short intervals due to the high frequency of the final diagnosis of carcinoma. No agreement has been reached on the time interval between the first and the second biopsy. The PSA changes during the observation period are not a statistically significant parameter to suggest the repetition of prostatic biopsy. [Italian] Scopo. La neoplasia prostatica intraepiteliale (PIN) e considerata una lesione premaligna ed il precursore principale dell'adenocarcinoma prostatico infiltrante. La diagnosi di PIN ottenuta con l'agobiopsia della prostata rappresenta un difficile problema gestionale clinico. In una valutazione retrospettiva della nostra esperienza di 3 anni si e cercato di individuare i criteri che possano

  13. Pin-Hole Luminosity Monitor with Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norem, James H.; Spencer, James E.

    Previously, the generalized luminosity { L} was defined and calculated for all incident channels based on an NLC e+e- design. Alternatives were then considered to improve the differing beam-beam effects in the e-e-, eγ and γγ channels. Regardless of the channel, there was a large flux of outgoing, high energy photons that were produced from the beam-beam interaction e.g. beamstrahlung that needs to be disposed of and whose flux depended on { L}. One approach to this problem is to consider it a resource and attempt to take advantage of it by disposing of these straight-ahead photons in more useful ways than simply dumping them. While there are many options for monitoring the luminosity, any method that allows feedback and optimization in real time and in a non-intercepting and non-interfering way during normal data taking is extremely important - especially if it provides other capabilities such as high resolution tuning of spot sizes and can be used for all incident channels without essential modifications to their setup. Our "pin-hole" camera appears to be such a device if it can be made to work with high energy photons in ways that are compatible with the many other constraints and demands on space around the interaction region. The basis for using this method is that it has, in principle, the inherent resolution and bandwidth to monitor the very small spot sizes and their stabilities that are required for very high, integrated luminosity. While there are many possible, simultaneous uses of these outgoing photon beams, we limit our discussion to a single, blind, proof-of-principle experiment that was done on the FFTB line at SLAC to certify the concept of a camera obscura for high energy photons.

  14. Interplay between collective pinning and artificial defects on domain wall propagation in Co/Pt multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, G; Hierro-Rodriguez, A; Perez-Junquera, A; Montenegro, N; Alameda, J M; Velez, M [Dept. Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Menendez, J L [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN). Principado de Asturias-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC)-Univ. Oviedo -UO, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera (Spain); Ravelosona, D, E-mail: mvelez@uniovi.e [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, UMR CNRS 8622, Univ. Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2010-08-04

    The interplay between collective pinning on intrinsic structural defects and artificial pinning at a patterned hole is studied in magnetic multilayers with perpendicular anisotropy. The pinning strength of a patterned hole is measured through its efficiency to stop domain wall (DW) propagation into a consecutive unpatterned nanowire section (using antisymmetric magnetoresistance to detect the direction of DW propagation) whereas collective pinning is characterized by the field dependence of DW velocity. Close to room temperature, collective pinning becomes weaker than artificial pinning so that pinning at the hole compensates nucleation-pad geometry, blocking DW propagation across the nanowire.

  15. Prestige-Oriented Market Entry Strategy: The Case of Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayar, Mark; Jack, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Through an exploratory case study of four Australian universities this article finds that foreign market entry strategies are shaped by prestige-seeking motivations and a culture of risk aversion. From the market selection, entry mode and higher education literature, a conceptual model, embedded with four propositions, is presented. The model sees…

  16. Nordisk Wavin A/S: a story of successful entry in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Succesful entry in the Polish market by Nordisk Wavin A/S. An analysis of the entry process, its main steps and the managerial handling of the problems in each step.The firm,the market evaluation and potential,risk,information and the political imperative,handling the Polish market and the experi...... and the experience from Poland is the main elements....

  17. Role of the Arabidopsis PIN6 Auxin Transporter in Auxin Homeostasis and Auxin-Mediated Development

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Plant-specific PIN-formed (PIN) efflux transporters for the plant hormone auxin are required for tissue-specific directional auxin transport and cellular auxin homeostasis. The Arabidopsis PIN protein family has been shown to play important roles in developmental processes such as embryogenesis, organogenesis, vascular tissue differentiation, root meristem patterning and tropic growth. Here we analyzed roles of the less characterised Arabidopsis PIN6 auxin transporter. PIN6 is auxin-inducible...

  18. THE PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF NB-47TI SUPERCONDUCTOR WITH MAGNETIC PINNING CENTERS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MOTOWIDLO,L.R.RUDZIAK,M.D.WONG,T.COOLEY,L.D.LEE,P.J.

    2004-02-04

    We have investigated Nb-47Ti multifilament wire with artificial pinning centers (APC). The superconducting properties and proximity effect in wires with ferromagnetic and non-magnetic pins will be discussed. Magnetization and transport measurements will be presented and the pinning characteristics will be discussed as a function of magnetic field, temperature and volume percent pins. In addition, field emission scanning electron microscopy of the pin nanostructure will be presented.

  19. Risk model of thoracic aortic surgery in 4707 cases from a nationwide single-race population through a web-based data entry system: the first report of 30-day and 30-day operative outcome risk models for thoracic aortic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Noboru; Miyata, Hiroaki; Tsukihara, Hiroyuki; Takamoto, Shinichi

    2008-09-30

    The objective of this study was to collect integrated data from nationwide hospitals using a web-based national database system to build up our own risk model for the outcome from thoracic aortic surgery. The Japan Adult Cardiovascular Surgery Database was used; this involved approximately 180 hospitals throughout Japan through a web-based data entry system. Variables and definitions are almost identical to the STS National Database. After data cleanup, 4707 records were analyzed from 97 hospitals (between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2005). Mean age was 66.5 years. Preoperatively, the incidence of chronic lung disease was 11%, renal failure was 9%, and rupture or malperfusion was 10%. The incidence of the location along the aorta requiring replacement surgery (including overlapping areas) was: aortic root, 10%; ascending aorta, 47%; aortic arch, 44%; distal arch, 21%; descending aorta, 27%; and thoracoabdominal aorta, 8%. Raw 30-day and 30-day operative mortality rates were 6.7% and 8.6%, respectively. Postoperative incidence of permanent stroke was 6.1%, and renal failure requiring dialysis was 6.7%. OR for 30-day operative mortality was as follows: emergency or salvage, 3.7; creatinine >3.0 mg/dL, 3.0; and unexpected coronary artery bypass graft, 2.6. As a performance metric of the risk model, C-index of 30-day and 30-day operative mortality was 0.79 and 0.78, respectively. This is the first report of risk stratification on thoracic aortic surgery using a nationwide surgical database. Although condition of these patients undergoing thoracic aortic surgery was much more serious than other procedures, the result of this series was excellent.

  20. Re-entry flight clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juliana, S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the research was to identify and evaluate promising mathematical techniques for re-entry flight clearance. To fulfil this objective, two mathematical methods were investigated and developed: μ analysis for linear models and interval analysis for both linear and non-linear model

  1. Components of Visual Prior Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Keith A.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2003-01-01

    The prior entry hypothesis contends that attention accelerates sensory processing, shortening the time to perception. Typical observations supporting the hypothesis may be explained equally well by response biases, changes in decision criteria, or sensory facilitation. In a series of experiments conducted to discriminate among the potential…

  2. Entry Facilitation by Environmental Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, Allard; Schoonbeek, Lambert

    We consider a model of vertical product differentiation where consumers care about the environmental damage their consumption causes. An environmental group is capable of increasing consumers' environmental concern via a costly campaign. We show that the prospect of such a campaign can induce entry

  3. Entry Facilitation by Environmental Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, Allard; Schoonbeek, Lambert

    2009-01-01

    We consider a model of vertical product differentiation where consumers care about the environmental damage their consumption causes. An environmental group is capable of increasing consumers' environmental concern via a costly campaign. We show that the prospect of such a campaign can induce entry

  4. Flux Pinning in Superconducting Niobium-Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnell, James Charles

    1990-01-01

    By studying Nb-Ti alloys from Nb44wt%Ti to Nb62wt%Ti the low field (2T) current density has been raised from 6500A/mm^2 (4.2^ circK) with standard Nb46.5wt%Ti to 7400A/mm ^2 with Nb58wt%Ti. When standard processing sequences were used, the alloys containing more than 46.5wt%Ti exhibited non-uniform microstructures following a precipitation heat treatment and the hardness rose from 200 DPN to over 300 DPN. By increasing the cold work prior to heat treatment the non-uniform precipitation was avoided. The amount of cold work needed prior to heat treatment to suppress non-uniform precipitation increased as the Ti content of the alloy increased. The volume fraction of precipitate produced during a given heat treatment also increased as the Ti content of the alloy increased. As the Ti content increased, the peak in the reduced pinning force curve shifted from b = 0.5 to b = 0.25. In order to determine whether the change in the flux pinning properties was due to the change in microstructure or due to enhanced Delta H_{c} pinning as the Ti content was increased, a set of wires with similar microstructures was developed. Their flux pinning behavior showed that the higher Ti alloys have pinning force curves which peak at progressively lower reduced fields. Thus Delta H_{c} pinning becomes the dominant pinning mechanism as the Ti content is increased.

  5. Late entry to antenatal care in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin George

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims This study aimed to assess the prevalence of women who entered antenatal care (ANC late and to identify factors related to the late entry to ANC in New South Wales (NSW in 2004. Methods The NSW Midwives Data Collection contained data of 85,034 women who gave birth in 2004. Data were downloaded using SAS and transferred to STATA 8.0. Entering ANC after 12 weeks of gestation was classified as late. The Andersen Health Seeking Behaviour Model was used for selection and analyses of related factors. Regression and hierarchical analyses were used to identify significant factors and their relative contributions to the variation of pregnancy duration at entry to ANC. Results 41% of women commenced ANC after 12 weeks of gestation. Inequality existed between groups of women with predisposing characteristics and enabling resources contributed more to the variation in pregnancy duration at entry to ANC than needs. The groups of women with highest risk were teenagers, migrants from developing countries, women living in Western Sydney, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, women with three or more previous pregnancies and heavy smokers. The high risk groups with largest number of women were migrants from developing countries and women living in Western Sydney. Conclusion A large number of women in NSW entered ANC late in their pregnancies. Efforts to increase early entry to ANC should be targeted on identified high risk groups of women.

  6. 19 CFR 142.3a - Entry numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry numbers. 142.3a Section 142.3a Customs... (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Entry Documentation § 142.3a Entry numbers. (a) Placement on CBP forms. The importer or broker shall place an 11 character entry number on the entry and corresponding entry...

  7. Alpha particles spectrometer with photodiode PIN; Espectrometro de particulas alfa con fotodiodo PIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon R, A.; Hernandez V, R.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares e Ingenieria Electrica, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 09869 Zacatecas (Mexico); Ramirez G, J. [Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica, Direccion General de Innovacion y Tecnologia de Informacion, Av. Heroes de Nacozari Sur 2301, Fracc. Jardines del Parque, 20276 Aguascalientes (Mexico)], e-mail: achruiz@hotmail.com

    2009-10-15

    The radiation propagates in form of electromagnetic waves or corpuscular radiation; if the radiation energy causes ionization in environment that crosses it is considered ionizing radiation. To detect radiation several detectors types are used, if the radiation are alpha particles are used detectors proportional type or trace elements. In this work the design results, construction and tests of an alpha particles spectrometer are presented, which was designed starting from a photodiode PIN type. The system design was simulated with a code for electronic circuits. With results of simulation phase was constructed the electronic phase that is coupled to a multichannel analyzer. The resulting electronic is evaluated analyzing the electronic circuit performance before an alphas triple source and alpha radiation that produce two smoke detectors of domestic use. On the tests phase we find that the system allows obtain, in a multichannel, the pulses height spectrum, with which we calibrate the system. (Author)

  8. Pin1 and neurodegeneration: a new player for prion disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Isopi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pin1 is a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that catalyzes the cis/trans conversion of phosphorylated proteins at serine or threonine residues which precede a proline. The peptidyl-prolyl isomerization induces a conformational change of the proteins involved in cell signaling process. Pin1 dysregulation has been associated with some neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. Proline-directed phosphorylation is a common regulator of these pathologies and a recent work showed that it is also involved in prion disorders. In fact, prion protein phosphorylation at the Ser-43-Pro motif induces prion protein conversion into a disease-associated form. Furthermore, phosphorylation at Ser-43-Pro has been observed to increase in the cerebral spinal fluid of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease patients. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of prion disorders, suggesting Pin1 as a potential new player in the disease. In this paper, we review the mechanisms underlying Pin1 involvement in the aforementioned neurodegenerative pathologies focusing on the potential role of Pin1 in prion disorders.

  9. Exchange anisotropy pinning of a standing spin-wave mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaraggia, R.; Kennewell, K.; Kostylev, M.; Stamps, R. L.; Ali, M.; Greig, D.; Hickey, B. J.; Marrows, C. H.

    2011-02-01

    Standing spin waves in a thin film are used as sensitive probes of interface pinning induced by an antiferromagnet through exchange anisotropy. Using coplanar waveguide ferromagnetic resonance, pinning of the lowest energy spin-wave thickness mode in Ni80Fe20/Ir25Mn75 exchange-biased bilayers was studied for a range of Ir25Mn75 thicknesses. We show that pinning of the standing mode can be used to amplify, relative to the fundamental resonance, frequency shifts associated with exchange bias. The shifts provide a unique “fingerprint” of the exchange bias and can be interpreted in terms of an effective ferromagnetic film thickness and ferromagnet-antiferromagnet interface anisotropy. Thermal effects are studied for ultrathin antiferromagnetic Ir25Mn75 thicknesses, and the onset of bias is correlated with changes in the pinning fields. The pinning strength magnitude is found to grow with cooling of the sample, while the effective ferromagnetic film thickness simultaneously decreases. These results suggest that exchange bias involves some deformation of magnetic order in the interface region.

  10. Research on the Pin Fin Efficiency and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Bailin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of pin fin heat sink can be to measure through the temperature field. The temperature field and efficiency of the Pin Fin were analyzed, Pin fin efficiency curve was drowned also the distribution of the temperature field along the length of the pin fin curve was drawn. Thermal resistance was composed by thermal resistance of Aluminum substrate、 thermal resistance of convective heat transfer and the thermal resistance of the cooling liquid. The change rule was studied through the calculation on Aluminum plate thermal resistance、 thermal resistance of convective heat transfer and the thermal resistance of the cooling liquid. Its change regularity was simulated by toolbox In the MATLAB, and it was found that thermal resistance of convective heat transfer effect on the efficiency was most obvious in a certain amount of the heat and flow for thermal resistance of the Pin-fin radiator under the premise. The structural parameters of radiator were related to the size of thermal resistance.

  11. A Flux-Pinning Mechanism for Segment Assembly and Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh-Range, Jessica A.; Arnold, William R.; Peck, Mason A.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the most compelling astrophysics questions include how planets and the first stars formed and whether there are protostellar disks that contain large organic molecules. Although answering these questions requires space telescopes with apertures of at least 10 meters, such large primaries are challenging to construct by scaling up previous designs; the limited capacity of a launch vehicle bounds the maximum diameter of a monolithic primary, and beyond a certain size, deployable telescopes cannot fit in current launch vehicle fairings. One potential solution is connecting the primary mirror segments edgewise using flux-pinning mechanisms, which are analogous to non-contacting damped springs. In the baseline design, a flux-pinning mechanism consists of a magnet and a superconductor separated by a predetermined gap, with the damping adjusted by placing aluminum near the interface. Since flux pinning is possible only when the superconductor is cooled below a critical temperature, flux-pinning mechanisms are uniquely suited for cryogenic space telescopes. By placing these mechanisms along the edges of the mirror segments, a primary can be built up over time. Since flux pinning requires no mechanical deployments, the assembly process could be robotic or use some other non-contacting scheme. Advantages of this approach include scalability and passive stability.

  12. Pin1 inhibitor Juglone prevents diabetic vascular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Sarah; Paneni, Francesco; Lüscher, Thomas F; Cosentino, Francesco

    2016-01-15

    Atherosclerosis is a major cause of mortality in patients with diabetes. However, novel breakthrough therapies have yet to be approved in this setting. Prolyl-isomerase-1 (Pin1) is emerging as a key molecule implicated in vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. In the present study, we investigate whether pharmacological inhibition of Pin1 may protect against diabetes-induced oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation. Experiments were performed in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) exposed to normal (5 mmol/L) or high glucose (25 mmol/L) concentrations, in the presence of Pin1 inhibitor Juglone (10 μM) or vehicle (kB-dependent inflammatory signatures were determined both in HAECs and aortas from diabetic mice. In HAECs, ambient hyperglycemia increased mitochondrial superoxide anion generation while treatment with Juglone prevented this phenomenon. Pharmacological inhibition of Pin1 also preserved mitochondrial integrity, nitric oxide availability and endothelial expression of adhesion molecules. Interestingly enough, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and NF-kB-driven inflammation were significantly attenuated in diabetic mice chronically treated with Juglone as compared to vehicle-treated animals. Pharmacological inhibition of Pin1 by Juglone prevents hyperglycemia-induced vascular dysfunction. Taken together, our findings may set the stage for novel therapeutic approaches to prevent vascular complications in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Posttranslational modification and trafficking of PIN auxin efflux carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfke, Christian; Luschnig, Christian; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication is absolutely essential for multicellular organisms. Both animals and plants use chemicals called hormones for intercellular signaling. However, multicellularity of plants and animals has evolved independently, which led to establishment of distinct strategies in order to cope with variations in an ever-changing environment. The phytohormone auxin is crucial to plant development and patterning. PIN auxin efflux carrier-driven polar auxin transport regulates plant development as it controls asymmetric auxin distribution (auxin gradients), which in turn modulates a wide range of developmental processes. Internal and external cues trigger a number of posttranslational PIN auxin carrier modifications that were demonstrated to decisively influence variations in adaptive growth responses. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the analysis of posttranslational modification of PIN auxin efflux carriers, such as phosphorylation and ubiquitylation, and discuss their eminent role in directional vesicle trafficking, PIN protein de-/stabilization and auxin transport activity. We conclude with updated models, in which we attempt to integrate the mechanistic relevance of posttranslational modifications of PIN auxin carriers for the dynamic nature of plant development.

  14. Silicide Schottky Contacts to Silicon: Screened Pinning at Defect Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, T.J.

    1999-03-11

    Silicide Schottky contacts can be as large as 0.955 eV (E{sub v} + 0.165 eV) on n-type silicon and as large as 1.05 eV (E{sub c} {minus} 0.07 eV) on p-type silicon. Current models of Schottky barrier formation do not provide a satisfactory explanation of occurrence of this wide variation. A model for understanding Schottky contacts via screened pinning at defect levels is presented. In the present paper it is shown that most transition metal silicides are pinned approximately 0.48 eV above the valence band by interstitial Si clusters. Rare earth disilicides pin close to the divacancy acceptor level 0.41 eV below the conduction band edge while high work function silicides of Ir and Pt pin close to the divacancy donor level 0.21 eV above the valence band edge. Selection of a particular defect pinning level depends strongly on the relative positions of the silicide work function and the defect energy level on an absolute energy scale.

  15. A Novel Keyless Entry System Using Visible Light Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniyoshi Okuda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A major conventional car key is the mechanical key. When users inserted the key into a cylinder mechanical key and turn, users can unlock. The mechanical key may be able to be worn away for physical contact. And it may be impossible to use. Further the mechanical key may be damaged or destroyed by mischief. So a keyless entry system has been developed. The keyless entry system locks and unlocks using the infrared ray and radio waves communication. The keyless entry system does not require physical contacts. Therefore, the possibilities of damage due to mischief and be worn away are fell. However, the transmission ranges of infrared ray and radio waves communication are not clear. Submitting data might be tapped to the malicious people. If the information is tapped, then you have theft of the car and the risk of car break. We propose a keyless entry system using visible light communication in order to solve this problem. Visible light communication transmits signal using blinking light. Thus the transmission range is clear. The user can transmit the information only to the aimed place. Therefore, the usability is improved. We measure the durations of "take out the remote control", "put the aim" and "takes to unlock key" in order to evaluate the usability in the experiment. We also compared with the infrared ray communication and examined the superiority. Usability is improved in the experimental results, and usability is better than conventional keyless entry system.

  16. Bi-weekly waterfowl survey data entry

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data sheet for the entry of bi-weekly waterfowl survey data from the state of Kansas. This Excel file contains the data entry sheet and a chart displaying waterfowl...

  17. 78 FR 68020 - Evaluation of Established Plant Pests for Action at Ports of Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... is actionable based on its novelty and known prevalence or distribution within and throughout the... plant pest risk or economic importance to merit action at the port of entry. These circumstances...

  18. Flavivirus Entry Receptors: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perera-Lecoin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses enter host cells by endocytosis initiated when the virus particles interact with cell surface receptors. The current model suggests that flaviviruses use at least two different sets of molecules for infectious entry: attachment factors that concentrate and/or recruit viruses on the cell surface and primary receptor(s that bind to virions and direct them to the endocytic pathway. Here, we present the currently available knowledge regarding the flavivirus receptors described so far with specific attention to C-type lectin receptors and the phosphatidylserine receptors, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM and TYRO3, AXL and MER (TAM. Their role in flavivirus attachment and entry as well as their implication in the virus biology will be discussed in depth.

  19. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  20. Sunk costs, entry deterrence, and financial constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arping, S.; Diaw, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies how sunk costs affect a financially constrained incumbent's ability to deter entry into its market. Sunk costs make it less attractive to the incumbent to accommodate entry by liquidating assets in place and exiting the market. This may render entry by a prospective rival

  1. Sport entries and qualification manual: Nanjing 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Sport entries constitute an important part of the delegation registration process of the Nanjing 2014 Summer Youth Olympic Games. This manual aims to introduce to NOCs the process, relevant policies and requirements regarding sport entries so as to ensure that NOCs can successfully complete the entries for their athletes to the Nanjing 2014 Youth Olympic Games.

  2. Creating Usable Pin Array Tactons for Non-Visual Information

    CERN Document Server

    Pietrzak, Thomas; Stephen, Brewster A; Martin, Benoît; Pecci, Isabelle; 10.1109/TOH.2009.6

    2012-01-01

    Spatial information can be difficult to present to a visually impaired computer user. In this paper we examine a new kind of tactile cueing for non-visual interaction as a potential solution, building on earlier work on vibrotactile Tactons. However, unlike vibrotactile Tactons, we use a pin array to stimulate the finger tip. Here, we describe how to design static and dynamic Tactons by defining their basic components. We then present user tests examining how easy it is to distinguish between different forms of pin array Tactons demonstrating accurate Tacton sets to represent directions. These experiments demonstrate usable patterns for static, wave and blinking pin array Tacton sets for guiding a user in one of eight directions. A study is then described that shows the benefits of structuring Tactons to convey information through multiple parameters of the signal. By using multiple independent parameters for a Tacton, this study demonstrates participants perceive more information through a single Tacton. Two...

  3. Pin Tool Geometry Effects in Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querin, J. A.; Rubisoff, H. A.; Schneider, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW) there is significant evidence that material can take one of two different flow paths when being displaced from its original position in front of the pin tool to its final position in the wake of the weld. The geometry of the pin tool, along with the process parameters, plays an important role in dictating the path that the material takes. Each flow path will impart a different thermomechanical history on the material, consequently altering the material microstructure and subsequent weld properties. The intention of this research is to isolate the effect that different pin tool attributes have on the flow paths imparted on the FSWed material. Based on published weld tool geometries, a variety of weld tools were fabricated and used to join AA2219. Results from the tensile properties and microstructural characterization will be presented.

  4. Transverse commensurability effect for vortices on periodic pinning arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Using computer simulations, we demonstrate a type of commensurability that occurs for vortices moving longitudinally through periodic pinning arrays in the presence of an additional transverse driving force. As a function of vortex density, there is a series of broad maxima in the transverse critical depinning force that do not fall at the matching fields where the number of vortices equals an integer multiple of the number of pinning sites. The commensurability effects are associated with dynamical states in which evenly spaced structures consisting of one or more moving rows of vortices form between rows of pinning sites. Remarkably, the critical transverse depinning force can be more than an order of magnitude larger than the longitudinal depinning force.

  5. Pinning force scaling of electrospun Bi-2212 nanowire networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblischka, Michael R.; Gokhfeld, Denis; Chang, Crosby; Hauet, Thomas; Hartmann, Uwe

    2017-09-01

    Flux pinning forces were determined on different network samples of superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 (Bi-2212) nanowires prepared by the electrospinning technique. We employed magnetization data determined by SQUID magnetometry in a wide temperature range 10 K signal prevails. The scaling analysis of the pinning forces was applied to interprete the data obtained. Both pure and Li-doped Bi2212 nanowire networks exhibit a peak position of h0 ∼ 0.11, which is smaller than the expected value of h0 = 0.2 indicating flux pinning at grain boundaries or extended defects. For the flowing currents through such a network, the crystallographic anisotropy and the percolation play an important role, resulting in reduced peak positions as compared to bulk samples.

  6. Control of flux pinning in MOD YBCO coated conductor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.; Huang, Y.; Li, X.; Kodenkandath, T.; Rupich, M. W.; Schoop, U.; Verebelyi, D. T.; Thieme, C. L. H.; Siegal, E.; Holesinger, T. G.; Maiorov, B.; Civale, L.; Miller, D. J.; Maroni, V. A.; Li, J.; Martin, P. M.; Specht, E. D.; Goyal, A.; Paranthaman, M. P.; American Superconductor Corp.; LANL; ORNL

    2007-06-01

    NTwo different types of defect structures have been identified to be responsible for the enhanced pinning in metal organic deposited YBCO films. Rare earth additions result in the formation of nanodots in the YBCO matrix, which form uncorrelated pinning centers, increasing pinning in all magnetic field orientations. 124-type intergrowths, which form as laminar structures parallel to the ab-plane, are responsible for the large current enhancement when the magnetic field is oriented in the ab-plane. TEM studies showed that the intergrowths emanate from cuprous containing secondary phase particles, whose density is partially controlled by the rare earth doping level. Critical process parameters have been identified to control this phase formation, and therefore, control the f 24 intergrowth formation. This work has shown that through process control and proper conductor design, either by adjusting the composition or by multiple coatings of different functional layers, the desired angular dependence can be achieved.

  7. Coexistence of Pinning and Moving on a Contact Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhengmao; Preston, Daniel J; Antao, Dion S; Zhu, Yangying; Wang, Evelyn N

    2017-09-12

    Textured surfaces are instrumental in water repellency or fluid wicking applications, where the pinning and depinning of the liquid-gas interface plays an important role. Previous work showed that a contact line can exhibit nonuniform behavior due to heterogeneities in surface chemistry or roughness. We demonstrate that such nonuniformities can be achieved even without varying the local energy barrier. Around a cylindrical pillar, an interface can reside in an intermediate state where segments of the contact line are pinned to the pillar top while the rest of the contact line moves along the sidewall. This partially pinned mode is due to the global nonaxisymmetric pattern of the surface features and exists for all textured surfaces, especially when superhydrophobic surfaces are about to be flooded or when capillary wicks are close to dryout.

  8. Impact of Edge-Barrier Pinning in Superconducting Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, W. A.; Barnes, P.N.; Mullins, M. J.; Baca, F. J.; Emergo, R. L. S.; Wu, J.; Haugan, T. J.; Clem, J. R.

    2010-12-30

    It has been suggested that edge-barrier pinning might cause the critical current density (J{sub c}) in bridged superconducting films to increase. Subsequent work indicated that this edge-barrier effect does not impact bridges larger than 1 {micro}m. However, we provide a theoretical assessment with supporting experimental data suggesting edge-barrier pinning can significantly enhance J{sub c} for bridges of a few microns or even tens of microns thus skewing any comparisons among institutions. As such, when reporting flux pinning and superconductor processing improvements for J{sub c} comparisons, the width of the sample has to be taken into consideration as is currently done with film thickness.

  9. Self-pinning by colloids confined at a contact line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weon, Byung; Je, Jung

    2013-03-01

    Colloidal particles suspended in a fluid usually inhibit complete wetting of the fluid on a solid surface and cause pinning of the contact line, known as self-pinning. We show differences in spreading and drying behaviors of pure and colloidal droplets using optical and confocal imaging methods. These differences come from spreading inhibition by colloids confined at a contact line. We propose a self-pinning mechanism based on spreading inhibition by colloids. We find a good agreement between the mechanism and the experimental result taken by directly tracking individual colloids near the contact lines of evaporating colloidal droplets. This research was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (Functional X-ray Imaging) of MEST/NRF.

  10. The enhancement of vortex pinning in ferromagnet/superconductor bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieplak, Marta Z.; Adamus, Z.; Abal' oshev, A.; Abal' osheva, I.; Berkowski, M. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikw 32/46, 02668 Warsaw (Poland); Cheng, X.M.; Sang, Hai; Chien, C.L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md 21218 (United States)

    2005-03-01

    The magnetic-domain induced vortex pinning is studied in the ferromagnet/superconductor bilayers (FSB's), in which the F layers are Co/Pt multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and the S layers are either niobium or high temperature superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO). The magnetization measurements reveal the enhancement of the flux pinning in both types of FSB's during the reversal of the magnetization of the F layer, but the details of the behavior depend on the type of the S layer. In the case of niobium FSB the maximum of pinning appears when the F layer is in the final stage of the magnetic reversal process, while the FSB with YBCO shows the maximum when the F layer is saturated. The possible origins of these differences are discussed. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Motion of current filaments in avalanching PIN diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingrong, Ren; Changchun, Chai; Zhenyang, Ma; Yintang, Yang; Liping, Qiao; Chunlei, Shi; Lihua, Ren

    2013-04-01

    The motion of current filaments in avalanching PIN diodes has been investigated in this paper by 2D transient numerical simulations. The simulation results show that the filament can move along the length of the PIN diode back and forth when the self-heating effect is considered. The voltage waveform varies periodically due to the motion of the filament. The filament motion is driven by the temperature gradient in the filament due to the negative temperature dependence of the impact ionization rates. Contrary to the traditional understanding that current filamentation is a potential cause of thermal destruction, it is shown in this paper that the thermally-driven motion of current filaments leads to the homogenization of temperature in the diode and is expected to have a positive influence on the failure threshold of the PIN diode.

  12. Ordered Pinning Arrays with Tunable Geometry via Thermal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trastoy, Juan; Bernard, Rozenn; Briatico, Javier; Villegas, Javier E.; Malnou, Maxime; Bergeal, Nicolas; Lesueur, Jerome; Ulysse, Christian; Faini, Giancarlo

    2015-03-01

    We have used geometrically frustrated pinning arrays to create artificial vortex-ice. The pinning arrays are fabricated via ion irradiation of high-Tc superconducting films. These arrays present a very unique characteristic: the frustration can be reversibly switched on/off using temperature as a control knob, which allows stabilizing either a vortex-ice or a square vortex lattice. We have further investigated the thermal switching mechanism by studying the matching of the flux lattice to arrays that are incrementally deformed upon fabrication by introducing minute variations of the distance between pins. The array deformation exacerbates the thermal effects, leading to dramatic variations of the vortex distribution as a function of temperature. These results illustrate the strength of the temperature-induced reconfiguration effects, which may constitute a novel knob in fluxtronic devices based on vortex manipulation. Work supported by the French ANR MASTHER, the COST Action NanoSC, the Ville de Paris and the Galician Fundacion Barrie.

  13. Sessile droplet de-pinning: new life for gravimetric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwaichow B; Pierce, Scott M

    2007-02-01

    Using three different types of surfaces as exemplars, we report a gravimetric method as a viable tool for studying the de-pinning process. Namely, the de-pin time, tau(d) (the time required for a horizontal sessile droplet to de-pin at the triple phase line on a given substrate), is estimated without using a time consuming and expensive video imaging system. This is made possible by deciphering the non-linear portion of mass vs time data of an evaporating sessile droplet. Typical gravimetric glass-substrate evaporative mass loss vs time data has two regimes: a long, linear regime followed by a short, non-linear regime. Traditionally, researchers extract only the evaporation rate of a droplet from the linear regime but discard (by truncating the data) or ignore (thus deriving no information from) the non-linear regime. The origin of the linear to non-linear transition, found almost universally in gravimetric data, persists unremarked upon. By constructing three very different types of surfaces and comparing gravimetric data with video imaging data taken simultaneously, we report the transition is correlated to the onset of the de-pinning event in each case. This realization enables us to measure the de-pin time, tau(d), with gravimetric data only; i.e., without the video system, gathering more information from gravimetric data than previously considered. The method has application in estimating the de-pin time of a droplet deposited on a substrate that yields poor top-view contrast for videography, such as a water droplets on silicon wafers or glass substrates. Finally, gravimetric data is more accurate for evaporation modeling when substrate/droplet interaction areas are not circular.

  14. 19 CFR 143.36 - Form of immediate delivery, entry and entry summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Form of immediate delivery, entry and entry summary. (a) Electronic form of data. If Customs determines... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form of immediate delivery, entry and entry summary. 143.36 Section 143.36 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. Method and apparatus for enhancing vortex pinning by conformal crystal arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janko, Boldizsar; Reichhardt, Cynthia; Reichhardt, Charles; Ray, Dipanjan

    2015-07-14

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for strongly enhancing vortex pinning by conformal crystal arrays. The conformal crystal array is constructed by a conformal transformation of a hexagonal lattice, producing a non-uniform structure with a gradient where the local six-fold coordination of the pinning sites is preserved, and with an arching effect. The conformal pinning arrays produce significantly enhanced vortex pinning over a much wider range of field than that found for other vortex pinning geometries with an equivalent number of vortex pinning sites, such as random, square, and triangular.

  16. Evaluation of stresses caused by dentin pin with finite elements stress analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersöz, E

    2000-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to show the dimensions and the amount of stresses caused by pins on dentin. Mathematically modelled stainless steel and titanium pins were applied to mandibular first molar teeth with extensive crown destruction. The stress caused by the pins was examined with the finite elements method (FEM). In both types of pin, the maximum diffuse and the dense stress areas were located at the bottom of the pin channel. It is believed that these stresses should be taken into consideration when evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of pin application to teeth with destroyed crowns.

  17. Medical Gas Cylinder with Mismatched Colour and Pin Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The medical gas cylinders have various safety features to prevent the administration of wrong gas to the patient. Most of the features have visual impact (colour, label, markings on the cylinder body except pin index system on the cylinder valve, so error in this feature is difficult to analyze and is highly unpredictable. We had received one such cylinder in our institution where all other features (label, colour, marking pointed to nitrous oxide except the pin index which resembled with that of oxygen

  18. Inner shell radial pin geometry and mounting arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, David; Bergendahl, Peter Allen

    2002-01-01

    Circumferentially spaced arrays of support pins are disposed through access openings in an outer turbine shell and have projections received in recesses in forward and aft sections of an inner turbine shell supported from the outer shell. The projections have arcuate sides in a circumferential direction affording line contacts with the side walls of the recesses and are spaced from end faces of the recesses, enabling radial and axial expansion and contraction of the inner shell relative to the outer shell. All loads are taken up in a tangential direction by the outer shell with the support pins taking no radial loadings.

  19. An open safety pin in the larynx: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, S S; Raine, C H; Caldicott, L D; Wade, M J

    1994-03-01

    Inhalation of a foreign body is a serious event. The number of foreign bodies that become impacted in the larynx is small and requires urgent recognition. We describe the case of a six-month-old baby with an impacted open safety pin in the larynx. The sharp end of the safety pin was upwards and had penetrated the anterior end of the left vocal fold. We discuss the management and describe our method of removal of the foreign body. Tracheostomy was not required in this case and the child had an uneventful recovery. A brief review of the literature is included.

  20. Swallowing a safety pin: Report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benizri, Emmanuel Isaac; Cohen, Charlotte; Bereder, Jean Marc; Rahili, Amine; Benchimol, Daniel

    2012-01-27

    Ingestion of a foreign body is a frequent and well-known medical problem with several diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Usually, ingested foreign bodies pass through the alimentary tract without incident. In some cases, they can be lodged in the appendix and may cause appendicitis. We report a case of a 29-year old woman, suffering from mental illness, with a safety pin lodged in the appendix. Initially, the patient consulted for abdominal pain. After a period of waiting, during which time the foreign body did not move, a colonoscopy was performed but failed to see the safety pin. Then, the patient underwent a laparoscopic appendectomy. Pathological examination showed an ulcerative appendicitis.

  1. Cost and effect of pinning control for network synchronization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Rong; Duan Zhi-Sheng; Chen Guan-Rong

    2009-01-01

    The problem of pinning control for the synchronization of complex dynamical networks is discussed in this paper. A cost function of the controlled network is defined by the feedback gain and the coupling strength of the network. An interesting result is that a lower cost is achieved by using the control scheme of pinning nodes with smaller degrees. Some strict mathematical analyses are presented for achieving a lower cost in the synchronization of different star-shaped various star-shaped networks are performed for verification and illustration.

  2. Establishment of the PIN within the Colombian party system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ortiz López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the legislative elections held in Colombia in 2010 and one of their main results, the establishment of the National Integration Party (PIN. The authors offer an analysis of articles that appeared in printed media, taking into consideration such variables as financing, legal constitution, popular acceptance and settling time. In this way, the authors attempt to demonstrate how the PIN managed to get a place in the political system and what are the consequences of this development, in particular, as the Department of Valle del Cauca is concerned.

  3. Force-State Characterization of Struts Using Pinned Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook D. Ferney

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of a research effort to study the microgravity dynamics of a truss with pinned joints, a single strut with a single clevis-tang pinned joint was characterized. Experimental data was collected using a force-state mapping technique. The strut was subjected to axial dynamic loads and the response of the strut was measured. The force-state map aids visualization of the strut dynamics. Finite element modeling of the response was explored. An example is presented that uses a method of manual determination of the finite element model parameters. The finite element model results correspond well with the measured strut response.

  4. Development and analysis of superconductors with projected nanostructured pinning centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carlos A.; Rodrigues, D.

    2004-08-01

    The present work has the main objective to study the influence of the proximity effect on the superconducting properties of materials with pinning center dimensions comparable to the coherence length. Artificial Pinning Centers (APC) of Cu(Sn) were introduced into the Nb 3Sn superconducting phase using successive bundlings followed by swaging and wire drawing. Three superconductor wires were produced using the internal tin method. After fabrication, the samples were heat treated to optimize the superconducting phase formation. Microstructural and superconducting characterization of the samples were realized. The results showed the influence of the proximity effect on Tc, Jc and Bc2.

  5. Correlation between exchange bias and pinned interfacial spins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohldag, H; Scholl, A; Nolting, F; Arenholz, E; Maat, S; Young, A T; Carey, M; Stöhr, J

    2003-07-04

    Using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, we have detected the very interfacial spins that are responsible for the horizontal loop shift in three different exchange bias sandwiches, chosen because of their potential for device applications. The "pinned" uncompensated interfacial spins constitute only a fraction of a monolayer and do not rotate in an external magnetic field since they are tightly locked to the antiferromagnetic lattice. A simple extension of the Meiklejohn and Bean model is proposed to account quantitatively for the exchange bias fields in the three studied systems from the experimentally determined number of pinned moments and their sizes.

  6. Overexpression of PvPin1, a Bamboo Homolog of PIN1-Type Parvulin 1, Delays Flowering Time in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the long and unpredictable flowering period in bamboo, the molecular mechanism of bamboo flowering is unclear. Recent study showed that Arabidopsis PIN1-type parvulin 1 (Pin1At is an important floral activator and regulates floral transition by facilitating the cis/trans isomerization of the phosphorylated Ser/Thr residues preceding proline motifs in suppressor of overexpression of CO 1 (SOC1 and agamous-like 24 (AGL24. Whether bamboo has a Pin1 homolog and whether it works in bamboo flowering are still unknown. In this study, we cloned PvPin1, a homolog of Pin1At, from Phyllostachys violascens (Bambusoideae. Bioinformatics analysis showed that PvPin1 is closely related to Pin1-like proteins in monocots. PvPin1 was widely expressed in all tested bamboo tissues, with the highest expression in young leaf and lowest in floral bud. Moreover, PvPin1 expression was high in leaves before bamboo flowering then declined during flower development. Overexpression of PvPin1 significantly delayed flowering time by downregulating SOC1 and AGL24 expression in Arabidopsis under greenhouse conditions and conferred a significantly late flowering phenotype by upregulating OsMADS56 in rice under field conditions. PvPin1 showed subcellular localization in both the nucleus and cytolemma. The 1500-bp sequence of the PvPin1 promoter was cloned, and cis-acting element prediction showed that ABRE and TGACG-motif elements, which responded to abscisic acid (ABA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA, respectively, were characteristic of P. violascens in comparison with Arabidopsis. On promoter activity analysis, exogenous ABA and MeJA could significantly inhibit PvPin1 expression. These findings suggested that PvPin1 may be a repressor in flowering, and its delay of flowering time could be regulated by ABA and MeJA in bamboo.

  7. Assessment of pin-by-pin fission rate distribution within MOX/UO{sub 2} fuel assembly using MCNPX code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, Heba Kareem; Amin, Esmat [Nuclear and Radiological Regulation Authority (NRRA), Cairo (Egypt). Safety Engineering Dept.

    2016-03-15

    The aim of the present paper is to assess the calculations of pin-by-pin group integrated fission rates within MOX/UO{sub 2} Fuel assemblies using the Monte Carlo code MCNP2.7c with two sets of the available latest nuclear data libraries used for calculating MOX-fueled systems. The data that are used in this paper are based on the benchmark by the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC). The k{sub ∞} and absorption/fission reaction rates per isotope, k{sub eff} and pin-by-pin group integrated fission rates on 1/8 fraction of the geometry are determined. To assess the overall pin-by-pin fission rate distribution, the collective per cent error measures were investigated. The results of AVG, MRE and RMS error measures were less than 1 % error. The present results are compared with other participants using other Monte Carlo codes and with CEA results that were taken in the benchmark as reference. The results with ENDF/B-VI.6 are close to the results received by MVP (JENDL3.2) and SCALE 4.2 (JEF2.2). The results with ENDF/BVII.1 give higher values of k{sub ∞} reflecting the changes in the newer evaluations. In almost all results presented here, the MCNP calculated results with ENDF/B VII.1 should be considered more than those obtained by using other Monte Carlo codes and nuclear data libraries. The present calculations may be consider a reference for evaluating the numerical schemes in production code systems, as well as the global performance including cross-section data reduction methods as the calculations used continuous energy and no geometrical approximations.

  8. Atmospheric Entry Experiments at IRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Endlich, P.; Herdrich, G.; Kurtz, H.; Laux, T.; Löhle, S.; Nazina, N.; Pidan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Entering the atmosphere of celestial bodies, spacecrafts encounter gases at velocities of several km/s, thereby being subjected to great heat loads. The thermal protection systems and the environment (plasma) have to be investigated by means of computational and ground facility based simulations. For more than a decade, plasma wind tunnels at IRS have been used for the investigation of TPS materials. Nevertheless, ground tests and computer simulations cannot re- place space flights completely. Particularly, entry mission phases encounter challenging problems, such as hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Concerning the TPS, radiation-cooled materials used for reuseable spacecrafts and ablator tech- nologies are of importance. Besides the mentioned technologies, there is the goal to manage guidance navigation, con- trol, landing technology and inflatable technologies such as ballutes that aim to keep vehicles in the atmosphere without landing. The requirement to save mass and energy for planned interplanetary missions such as Mars Society Balloon Mission, Mars Sample Return Mission, Mars Express or Venus Sample Return mission led to the need for manoeuvres like aerocapture, aero-breaking and hyperbolic entries. All three are characterized by very high kinetic vehicle energies to be dissipated by the manoeuvre. In this field flight data are rare. The importance of these manoeuvres and the need to increase the knowledge of required TPS designs and behavior during such mission phases point out the need of flight experiments. As result of the experience within the plasma diagnostic tool development and the plasma wind tunnel data base, flight experiments like the PYrometric RE-entry EXperiment PYREX were developed, fully qualified and successfully flown. Flight experiments such as the entry spectrometer RESPECT and PYREX on HOPE-X are in the conceptual phase. To increase knowledge in the scope of atmospheric manoeuvres and entries, data bases have to be created combining both

  9. Facilitating Peer-Group Entry in Kindergartners with Impairments in Social Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilinson, Jill Selber; Olswang, Lesley B.

    2003-01-01

    Case studies of three kindergarten students with social difficulties illustrate an intervention program emphasizing a sequential peer-entry hierarchy in which children move from low-risk strategies to high-risk strategies and use props to facilitate the production of high-risk verbal statements. Increases were found in use of props and verbal…

  10. BeppoSAX equatorial uncontrolled re-entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelli, C.

    The X-ray astronomy satellite BeppoSAX (Satellite per Astronomia X, "Beppo" in honor of Giuseppe Occhialini), is a project of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) with participation of the Netherlands Agency for Aerospace Programs (NIVR). BeppoSAX was launched by an Atlas G Centaur directly into a circular 600 km- orbit at 3.9 degrees inclination on April 30th, 1996. The satellite is a three axis stabilized spacecraft with a total mass of about 1400 kg. The current (May 1, 2002) flight altitude is about 470 km and its uncontrolled re-entry is predicted late in 2002, or in 2003, with a 26 kg of hydrazine on board that could not be vented or used for controlled re-entry due to gyro's package total failure. Due to the relatively high mass of BeppoSAX, it has to be expected that parts of the satellite will survive the re-entry into the earth atmosphere. The Italian Space Agency has committed a study to HTG for the analysis of the destructive phase of the uncontrolled atmospheric re-entry by means of a dedicated European software tool (SCARAB). The expected outputs will be used in order to determine how much of the spacecraft and how many fragments parts of it will reach the ground on the equatorial earth zone. This paper will address the peculiarities of the spacecraft initial status, its risks at end of life and the SCARAB modelling as well as its 6D flight dynamics re-entry analysis results also in terms of the destruction history tree. Consideration will be made on the ground dispersion and casualt y area due to the very restricted equatorial zone impacted. References B. Fritsche, H. Klinkrad, A. Kashkovsky, E.Grinberg; Spacecraft Disintegration during uncontrolled atmospheric entry ; IAA-99-IAA.6.7.02; 50t h IAC 4-8 Oct. 1999

  11. The influence of the repetition rate on the nanosecond pulsed pin-to-pin microdischarges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bang-Dou; Takashima, Keisuke; Zhu, Xi-Ming; Pu, Yi-Kang

    2014-10-01

    The effect of repetition rate on a nanosecond atmospheric pressure discharge is investigated. The discharge is generated between two pins in a mixture of Ne and Ar. The voltage, current, power waveforms and the temporally and spatially resolved electron density and an ‘effective’ electron temperature are measured, with a pulse interval between 1.5 and 200 µs. It is found that not only does the repetition rate have a strong influence on the breakdown voltage and the peak discharge power, but it can also affect the rise rate of the volume averaged electron density and its peak value. Temporally and spatially resolved measurement of the electron density and the effective electron temperature show that the spatial distributions of both quantities are also influenced by the repetition rate. In the initial discharge period of all cases, the sharp rise of the electron density correlates with the drastic drop of the effective electron temperature. It is suggested that the residual charges have a strong impact on the axial distribution of the electric field and energetic electrons between the electrodes during the breakdown period, as illustrated by a simple sheath model.

  12. Evaluation of PWR and BWR pin cell benchmark results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pijlgroms, B.J.; Gruppelaar, H.; Janssen, A.J. (Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)); Hoogenboom, J.E.; Leege, P.F.A. de (Interuniversitair Reactor Inst., Delft (Netherlands)); Voet, J. van der (Gemeenschappelijke Kernenergiecentrale Nederland NV, Dodewaard (Netherlands)); Verhagen, F.C.M. (Keuring van Electrotechnische Materialen NV, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1991-12-01

    Benchmark results of the Dutch PINK working group on PWR and BWR pin cell calculational benchmark as defined by EPRI are presented and evaluated. The observed discrepancies are problem dependent: a part of the results is satisfactory, some other results require further analysis. A brief overview is given of the different code packages used in this analysis. (author). 14 refs., 9 figs., 30 tabs.

  13. BetterThanPin: Empowering Users to Fight Phishing (Poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Teik Guan

    The BetterThanPin concept is an online security service that allows users to enable almost any Cloud or Web-based account (e.g. Gmail, MSN, Yahoo, etc) to be protected with "almost" 2-factor authentication (2FA). The result is that users can now protect their online accounts with better authentication, without waiting for the service or cloud provider.

  14. Ultrasonic decontamination of prototype fast breeder reactor fuel pins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aniruddha; Bhatt, R B; Behere, P G; Afzal, Mohd

    2014-04-01

    Fuel pin decontamination is the process of removing particulates of radioactive material from its exterior surface. It is an important process step in nuclear fuel fabrication. It assumes more significance with plutonium bearing fuel known to be highly radio-toxic owing to its relatively longer biological half life and shorter radiological half life. Release of even minute quantity of plutonium oxide powder in the atmosphere during its handling can cause alarming air borne activity and may pose a severe health hazard to personnel working in the vicinity. Decontamination of fuel pins post pellet loading operation is thus mandatory before they are removed from the glove box for further processing and assembly. This paper describes the setting up of ultrasonic decontamination process, installed inside a custom built fume-hood in the production line, comprising of a cleaning tank with transducers, heaters, pin handling device and water filtration system and its application in cleaning of fuel pins for prototype fast breeder reactor. The cleaning process yielded a typical decontamination efficiency of more than 99%.

  15. Safety pin - The UNSAFE foreign body of air passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, K S; Lanjewar, K Y; Joshi, S V

    2006-10-01

    Foreign bodies in the air passage are familiar otolaryngological emergencies. The diagnosis and management in most cases is based on clinico-radiological findings. Here, we are reporting three cases of open safety pin at various locations in the respiratory tract i.e. in the nose, nasopharynx and larynx. Their clinical presentation and management are described in detail.

  16. Pinning an Ion with an Intracavity Optical Lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Rasmus Bogh; Leroux, Ian Daniel; Marciante, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    We report one-dimensional pinning of a single ion by an optical lattice. A standing-wave cavity produces the lattice potential along the rf-field-free axis of a linear Paul trap. The ion’s localization is detected by measuring its fluorescence when excited by standing-wave fields with the same...

  17. Spectrometry and dosimetry of fast neutrons using pin diode detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaki Dizaji, H., E-mail: hz.dizaji@znu.ac.ir [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Zanjan University, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kakavand, T. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, International Imam Khomeini University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abbasi Davani, F. [Radiation Application Department, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-21

    Elastic scattering of light nuclei, especially hydrogen, is widely used for detection of fast neutrons. Semiconductor devices based on silicon detectors are frequently used for different radiation detections. In this work, a neutron spectrometer consisting of a pin diode coupled with a polyethylene converter and aluminum degrader layers has been developed. Aluminum layers are used as discriminators of different neutron energies for detectors. The response of the converter–degrader–pin diode configuration, the optimum thickness of the converter and the degrader layers have been extracted using MCNP and SRIM simulation codes. The possibility of using this type of detector for fast neutron spectrometry and dosimetry has been investigated. A fairly good agreement was seen between neutron energy spectrum and dose obtained from our configurations and these specifications from an {sup 241}Am–Be neutron source. - Highlights: • Silicon pin diodes are applied to the fast neutron detection. • The technique of converter degrader pin diode is used for spectrometry of fast neutrons. • The method is used for dosimetry of fast neutron.

  18. Pinning synchronization of networked multi-agent systems:spectral analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linying XIANG; Fei CHEN; Guanrong CHEN

    2015-01-01

    Pinning synchronization of a networked multi-agent system with a directed communication topology is investigated from a spectral analysis approach. Some new types of synchronized regions for networked systems with different nonlinear agent dynamics and inner coupling structures are discovered. The eigenvalue distributions of the coupling and control matrices for different types of directed networks are obtained. The effects of the network topology, pinning density and pinning strength on the network synchronizability are examined through extensive numerical simulations. It is shown that the synchronizability of the pinned network can be effectively improved by increasing pinning density and pinning strength for some types of synchronized regions, whereas too large the pinning density and pinning strength will lead to desynchronization for other types. It is found that directed random networks are not always easier to synchronize than directed small-world networks, and a denser eigenvalue distribution may not always imply better synchronizability.

  19. Experimental study on thermal performance of micro pin fin heat sinks with various shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Junye; Li, Gui; Zhao, Xiaobao; Li, Qihe

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a visualization experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics of various shapes of micro pin fins, including the circular, ellipse, diamond, square and triangle shape micro pin fin arrays with various equivalent diameters and pin fin density. The influences study of different sizes and shapes of pin fin on Nusselt number and heat transfer coefficient have been conducted. The results show that with the increase of the flow rate, the temperature of the bottom of the experimental section decreases. And the Nusselt number of different shapes of micro pin fins increases with the increase of Re. In which, the heat transfer performance of the ellipse shape pin fin appears better among the other shapes of pin fins. However, the higher pin fin of the ellipse shape density leads to a weaker flow performance. Besides, the micro-scale heat transfer correlation between the Nusselt number and the Reynolds number is fitted based on the experimental data.

  20. Increased expression of PIN1 gene in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewiński Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (Pin1, encoded by PIN1 gene with locus in chromosome 19p13, is an enzyme that catalytically induces conformational changes in proteins after phosphorylation on serine or threonine residues preceding proline (pSer/Thr-Pro motifs; in this way, it has an influence on protein interactions and intracellular localizations of proteins. The aim of the study were: 1 an assessment of PIN1 gene expression level in benign and malignant thyroid lesions; 2 the evaluation of possible correlations between gene expression and histopathological variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC or tumour size, classified according to TNM classification of primary tumours (in case of PTC only; 3 the estimation of possible relationships between expression of the gene in question and patients' sex or age. Methods Seventy (70 tissue samples were analyzed: 32 cases of PTC, 7 cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC, 7 cases of follicular adenoma (FA, and 24 cases of nodular goitre (NG. In real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR, two-step RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in an ABI PRISM 7500 Sequence Detection System was employed. The PIN1 gene expression level was assessed, calculating the mean relative quantification rate (RQ rate increase for each sample. Results The level of PIN1 gene expression (compared to that in macroscopically unchanged thyroid tissue was higher in PTC group than those in FA, MTC and/or NG groups, but the statistical significance was noted for difference between PTC and NG groups only. On the other hand, the differences of RQ rate value between different PTC variants were statistically insignificant. No correlations were found between RQ values and tumour size, as well as between RQ values and patients' sex or age in PTC group. Conclusions The PIN1 gene expression may have - in future - an important meaning in the diagnostics of PTC and in understanding its

  1. Routine radiographs at time of pin removal after closed reduction and percutaneous pinning for type 2 supracondylar humerus fractures do not change management: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sumeet; Bloch, Nikki; Cyr, Micaela; Carry, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Radiographs are usually taken on day of pin removal for children treated with closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) of type 2 supracondylar humerus fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine whether radiographs taken at time of pin removal for patients recovering uneventfully alter management. After IRB approval, billing records identified 1213 patients aged 1-10 years who underwent elbow surgery between 2007 and 2013 at our institution for a supracondylar humerus fracture. Of these patients, 389 met inclusion criteria. Clinical charts were reviewed for demographics, operative details, and clinical follow-up, focusing on clinical symptoms present at pin removal. Radiographs taken at time of pin removal and subsequent visits were assessed for healing and fracture alignment. In no case was pin removal delayed based on radiographs. One hundred and nineteen (31 %) patients had radiographs taken following pin removal; in no case was loss of reduction found among these patients. No cases of neurologic or vascular injury, re-fracture, or loss of reduction occurred. Infection occurred in 12 patients (3 %). Pins were kept in place for 23.8 ± 4.4 days. Eighty-six patients (22 %) had additional intervention after pin removal (cast application in all cases). Of 389 patients, 75 (19 %) had no documented reason for extended casting, four (1 %) were extended based on physician evaluation of radiographs, and seven (2 %) were extended for other reasons. Elimination of radiographs at time of pin removal should be considered. If continuing to obtain radiographs at pin removal, we recommend removing pins before taking radiographs to reduce patient fear and anxiety from visualizing percutaneous pins.

  2. Matrix Completion from Noisy Entries

    CERN Document Server

    Keshavan, Raghunandan H; Oh, Sewoong

    2009-01-01

    Given a matrix M of low-rank, we consider the problem of reconstructing it from noisy observations of a small, random subset of its entries. The problem arises in a variety of applications, from collaborative filtering (the `Netflix problem') to structure-from-motion and positioning. We study a low complexity algorithm introduced by Keshavan et al.(2009), based on a combination of spectral techniques and manifold optimization, that we call here OptSpace. We prove performance guarantees that are order-optimal in a number of circumstances.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FLEXURAL STRENGTH ON GLASS FIBER SANDWICH COMPOSITE BY VARYING Z-PINS PITCHES

    OpenAIRE

    Pravin*, Jeyapratha

    2016-01-01

    This paper ambit to evaluate the flexural strength of glass fiber sandwich panels with varying z-pins pitches. Failure of sandwich panel are delamination and core shear, to minimize the crack propagation, pins are inserted in z-direction, by varying pitches through its thickness. During the insertion of pin, may cause the material some damage. Despite the damage, flexural property does not affected due interpolation of pins. Although the experiment were pull out with a phenomenal results of z...

  4. New Universal Tribometer as Pin or Ball-on-Disc and Reciprocating Pin-on-Plate Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kaleli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper contains a description of a new Universal Tribometer design which enables simulation of different contact and test types such as pin-on-disc, ball-on-disc and linear reciprocating tests. There are many models of wear Tribometer in the world market. These devices are manufactured by various companies abroad and are imported to our country. Cost of this devices start from 50.000 euros and goes to hundreds of thousands of euros. One of the most commonly used of this device is Reciprocating Pin-on-Plate Tribo Test Machine. This wear tester is produced at a low limited cost within the KAP (Scientifical Research Project Coordinator of Yıldız Technical University. The test machine can work including three types of Tribotest rigs (Reciprocating Pin-on-Plate, Pin-on-Disc and Ball-on-Disc. It is designed to operate also at high temperatures up to 500 ˚C. The new piece of equipment allows instrumented tribological testing of piston ring and cylinder liner samples at low and high temperatures and boundary lubrication conditions of any typical gasoline or Diesel engines. Some friction results were shown in boundary lubricating conditions between piston ring and cylinder liner sliding pairs describing Tribotest machine is driven by AC servo motor which is more accurate than DC motor.

  5. Radiocarbon dating of the bronze age bone pins from Eurasian steppe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shishlina, Natalia I.; Van der Plicht, Johan; Zazovskaya, Elya P.

    2011-01-01

    Bone catapult and hammer-headed pins played one of very specific roles in funerary offerings in the Bronze Age graves uncovered in the Eurasian Steppes and the North Caucasus. Scholars used different types of pins as key grave offerings for numerous chronological models. For the first time eight pin

  6. Strain tunable light emitting diodes with germanium P-I-N heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagally, Max G; Sanchez Perez, Jose Roberto

    2016-10-18

    Tunable p-i-n diodes comprising Ge heterojunction structures are provided. Also provided are methods for making and using the tunable p-i-n diodes. Tunability is provided by adjusting the tensile strain in the p-i-n heterojunction structure, which enables the diodes to emit radiation over a range of wavelengths.

  7. The PIN family of proteins in potato and their putative role in tuberisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roumeliotis, E.; Kloosterman, B.A.; Oortwijn, M.E.P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Bachem, C.W.B.

    2013-01-01

    The PIN family of trans-membrane proteins mediates auxin efflux throughout the plant and during various phases of plant development. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the PIN family comprised of 8 members, divided into ‘short’ and ‘long’ PINs according to the length of the hydrophilic domain of the protein.

  8. PIN protein phosphorylation by plant AGC3 kinases and its role in polar auxin transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Polar cell-to-cell transport of plant hormone auxin mediated by plasma membrane (PM)-localized PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers generates auxin gradients that provide positional information for various plant developmental processes. The apical-basal polar localization of the PIN proteins that

  9. The PIN family of proteins in potato and their putative role in tuberisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathios eRoumeliotis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The PIN family of trans-membrane proteins mediates auxin efflux throughout the plant and during various phases of plant development. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the PIN family comprised of 8 members, divided into ‘short’ and ‘long’ PINs according to the length of the hydrophilic domain of the protein. Based on sequence homology using the recently published potato genome sequence (Solanum tuberosum group Phureja we identified ten annotated potato StPIN genes. Mining the publicly available gene expression data, we constructed a catalogue tissue specificity of StPIN gene expression, focusing on the process of tuberization. A total of four StPIN genes exhibited increased expression four days after tuber induction, prior to the onset of stolon swelling. For two PIN genes, StPIN4 and StPIN2, promoter sequences were cloned and fused to the GUS reporter protein to study tissue specificity in more detail. StPIN4 promoter driven GUS staining was detected in the flower stigma, in the flower style, below the ovary and petals, in the root tips, in the vascular tissue of the stolons and in the tuber parenchyma cells. StPIN2 promoter driven GUS staining was detected in flower buds, in the vascular tissue of the swelling stolons and in the storage parenchyma of the growing tubers. Based on our results, we postulate a role for the StPINs in redistributing auxin in the swelling stolon during early events in tuber development.

  10. Impregnation of a glass fibre roving with a polypropylene melt in a pin assisted process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaymans, R.J.; Wevers, E.

    1998-01-01

    The impregnation of a glass fibre bundle with a polypropylene (PP) melt is studied with a pin assisted process. A fibre is pulled over a pin, which is positioned in a chamber filled with a melt. The melt is at atmospheric pressure. The impregnation rate is studied as a function of size of the pin,

  11. Automated entry technologies for confined space work activities: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Lucia; Ferrari, Emilio; Mora, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    Work in confined spaces poses a significant risk to workers and rescuers involved in the emergency response when an accident occurs. Despite several standards and regulations define the safety requirements for such activities, injuries, and fatalities still occur. Furthermore, the on-site inspections after accidents often reveal that both employers and employees fail to implement safe entry procedures. Removing the risk is possible by avoiding the worker entry, but many activities require the presence of the operator inside the confined space to perform manual tasks. The following study investigates the available technologies for hazardous confined space work activities, e.g., cleaning, inspecting, and maintenance tasks. The aim is to provide a systematic review of the automated solutions for high-risk activities in confined spaces, considering the non-man entry as the most effective confined space safety strategy. Second, this survey aims to provide suggestions for future research addressing the design of new technologies. The survey consists of about 60 papers concerning innovative technologies for confined space work activities. The document review shows that several solutions have been developed and automation can replace the workers for a limited number of hazardous tasks. Several activities still require the manual intervention due to the complex characteristics of confined spaces, e.g., to remove the remains of the automatic cleaning process from the bottom of a tank. The results show that available technologies require more flexibility to adapt to such occupational environments and further research is needed.

  12. Degradation studies on organic pin solar cells containing ZnPc and C{sub 60}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermenau, Martin; Riede, Moritz; Leo, Karl [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In addition to the power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells, the lifetime of these devices plays an important role for the market entry as commercial products. Therefore a detailed understanding of degradation of organic solar cells is necessary. In this work, we present ageing studies of small-molecule solar cells with a pin structure and a mixed heterojunction of Zinc-Phthalocyanine and fullerene C{sub 60}. These devices have an initial efficiency of 2.8% under solar irradiation. The ageing dynamics of these solar cells are observed under different conditions, e.g. illumination and temperature, and compared to reference devices which are stored in the dark. The external quantum efficiency of these cells is measured before and after ageing studies to observe changes in different spectral ranges. The relative change of external quantum efficiency does not depend on the colour of the incident light during time of ageing, indicating the stability of the absorbing layers during the observed time span.

  13. Adaptive Text Entry for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proschowsky, Morten Smidt

    for mobile devices and a framework for adaptive context-aware language models. Based on analysis of current text entry methods, the requirements to the new text entry methods are established. Transparent User guided Prediction (TUP) is a text entry method for devices with one dimensional touch input. It can......The reduced size of many mobile devices makes it difficult to enter text with them. The text entry methods are often slow or complicated to use. This affects the performance and user experience of all applications and services on the device. This work introduces new easy-to-use text entry methods...... to improve the models of human motor behaviour. TUP-Key is a variant of TUP, designed for 12 key phone keyboards. It is introduced in the thesis but has not been implemented or evaluated. Both text entry methods support adaptive context-aware language models. YourText is a framework for adaptive context...

  14. Benefits and Risks of Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Cochlear Implants Benefits and Risks of Cochlear Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Cochlear Implants What are the Benefits of Cochlear Implants? For people with implants: Hearing ranges from near ...

  15. On Re-Entry Prediction of Near Earth Objects with Genetic Algorithm Using KS Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. K.; Anilkumar, A. K.; Xavier James Raj, M.; Sabarinath, A.

    2009-03-01

    The accurate orbit prediction of the near-Earth objects is an important requirement for the re-entry and the life time estimation. The method of Kustaanheimo and Stiefel (KS) total energy element equations is one of the powerful methods for orbit prediction. Recently, due to the reentries of large number of risk objects, which posses threat to the human life and property, a great concern is developed in the space scientific community. Consequently, the prediction of risk objects re-entry time and location has got much importance for the proper planning of mitigation strategies and hazard assessment. This paper discusses an integrated procedure for orbit life time prediction combining the KS elements and genetic algorithm (GA). The orbit prediction is carried out by numerically integrating the KS element equations. In this methodology, the ballistic coefficient is estimated from a set of observed orbital parameters in terms of the Two Line Elements (TLE) by minimizing the variance of the predicted re-entry time from different TLE using GA. A software, KSGEN, systematically developed in-house using KS elements and genetic algorithm is utilized for predicting the re-entry time of the risk objects. This software has been effectively used for the prediction of the re-entry time in the past seven re-entry exercise campaigns conducted by the Inter Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). The predicted re-entry time matched quite well with the actual re-entry time for all the seven IADC re-entry campaigns. A detailed analysis is carried out with two case studies.

  16. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 increases β-cell proliferation and enhances insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsu, Yusuke; Mori, Keiichi; Matsunaga, Yasuka; Yamamotoya, Takeshi; Ueda, Koji; Inoue, Yuki; Mitsuzaki-Miyoshi, Keiko; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Fujishiro, Midori; Yamaguchi, Suguru; Kushiyama, Akifumi; Ono, Hiraku; Ishihara, Hisamitsu; Asano, Tomoichiro

    2017-07-14

    The prolyl isomerase Pin1 binds to the phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motif of target proteins and enhances their cis-trans conversion. This report is the first to show that Pin1 expression in pancreatic β cells is markedly elevated by high-fat diet feeding and in ob/ob mice. To elucidate the role of Pin1 in pancreatic β cells, we generated β-cell-specific Pin1 KO (βPin1 KO) mice. These mutant mice showed exacerbation of glucose intolerance but had normal insulin sensitivity. We identified two independent factors underlying impaired insulin secretion in the βPin1 KO mice. Pin1 enhanced pancreatic β-cell proliferation, as indicated by a reduced β-cell mass in βPin1 KO mice compared with control mice. Moreover, a diet high in fat and sucrose failed to increase pancreatic β-cell growth in the βPin1 KO mice, an observation to which up-regulation of the cell cycle protein cyclin D appeared to contribute. The other role of Pin1 was to activate the insulin-secretory step: Pin1 KO β cells showed impairments in glucose- and KCl-induced elevation of the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and insulin secretion. We also identified salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2) as a Pin1-binding protein that affected the regulation of Ca(2+) influx and found Pin1 to enhance SIK2 kinase activity, resulting in a decrease in p35 protein, a negative regulator of Ca(2+) influx. Taken together, our observations demonstrate critical roles of Pin1 in pancreatic β cells and that Pin1 both promotes β-cell proliferation and activates insulin secretion. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Morphometric measurements of dragonfly wings: the accuracy of pinned, scanned and detached measurement methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Johnson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale digitization of museum specimens, particularly of insect collections, is becoming commonplace. Imaging increases the accessibility of collections and decreases the need to handle individual, often fragile, specimens. Another potential advantage of digitization is to make it easier to conduct morphometric analyses, but the accuracy of such methods needs to be tested. Here we compare morphometric measurements of scanned images of dragonfly wings to those obtained using other, more traditional, methods. We assume that the destructive method of removing and slide-mounting wings provides the most accurate method of measurement because it eliminates error due to wing curvature. We show that, for dragonfly wings, hand measurements of pinned specimens and digital measurements of scanned images are equally accurate relative to slide-mounted hand measurements. Since destructive slide-mounting is unsuitable for museum collections, and there is a risk of damage when hand measuring fragile pinned specimens, we suggest that the use of scanned images may also be an appropriate method to collect morphometric data from other collected insect species.

  18. Radiation Characteristics of Rectangular Patch Antennas with an Array of Pins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myung-ki CHO; Tae-young KIM; Boo-gyoun KIM

    2010-01-01

    The patch antennas with an array of pins (pin array patch antennas) with excellent radiation characteristics are investigated for various substrate thicknesses.The radiation in the horizontal plane of a pin array patch antenna is very small campared to that of a conventional patch antenna.And the increase of forward radiation and the decrease of backward radiation of a pin array patch antenna are tained than these conventional one's.Also the half-power beamwidth of E-plane radiation pattern of a pin array patch antenna is narrower compared to that of the conventional so that the directivity is improved.

  19. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Border Crossing/Entry Data Time Series tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The dataset is known as “Border Crossing/Entry Data.” The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics to the...

  20. Entry Into a Care Trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normand Carpentier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A broad range of services are developing in response to the needs of an aging population. Although most interventions are carried out in the patient’s living environment—at the heart of society—few studies on service utilization refer to social theory. This paper suggests that studies on older people with chronic health conditions would benefit from a stronger theoretical foundation. Drawing on 15 in-depth interviews, it highlights the relevance of individualization processes and the network society, 2 central theoretical concerns in sociology. The research provides a unique perspective on the entry into the care trajectory and expands our comprehension of the emergence of a social organization that can respond to the needs of elderly patients. Data of this nature may be useful in service planning and the development of a care-centered approach.

  1. The Effect of Female Education on Fertility and Infant Health: Evidence from School Entry Policies Using Exact Date of Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrary, Justin

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses age-at-school-entry policies to identify the effect of female education on fertility and infant health. We focus on sharp contrasts in schooling, fertility, and infant health between women born just before and after the school entry date. School entry policies affect female education and the quality of a woman’s mate and have generally small, but possibly heterogeneous, effects on fertility and infant health. We argue that school entry policies manipulate primarily the education of young women at risk of dropping out of school. PMID:21490880

  2. A Pin gene families encoding components of auxin efflux carriers in Brassica juncea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the sequence information of Arabidopsis PIN1, two cDNAs encoding PIN homologues fromBrassica juncea, Bjpin2 and Bjpin3, were isolated through cDNA library screening. Bjpin2 and Bjpin3encoded proteins containing 640 and 635 amino acid residues, respectively, which shared 97.5% identities witheach other and were highly homologous to Arabidopsis PIN1, PIN2 and other putative PIN proteins. BjPIN2and BjPIN3 had similar structures as AtPIN proteins. Northern blot analysis indicated that Bjpin2 wasexpressed in stem, leaf and floral tissues, while Bjpin3 was expressed predominantly in stem and hypocotyls.Two promoter fragments of pin genes, Bjpin-X and Bjpin-Z, were isolated by 'genome walking' techniqueusing primers at 5'-end of pin cDNA. Promoter-gus fusion studies revealed the GUS activities driven byBjpin-X were at internal side of xylem and petal; while those driven by Bjpin-Z were detected at leaf vein,epidermal cell and cortex of stem, vascular tissues and anther. Results of the pin genes with differentexpression patterns in B. juncea suggested the presence of a gene family.

  3. Investigation into Z-Pin Reinforced Composite Skin/Stiffener Debond under Monotonic and Cyclic Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyang; Li, Yong; Van Hoa, Suong; Xiao, Jun; Chu, Qiyi

    2017-08-01

    Skin/stiffener debonding has been a longstanding concern for the users of stiffened composite panels in long-term service. Z-pinning technology is an emerging solution to reinforce the composite assembly joints. This work experimentally characterizes the progressive debonding of Z-pinned skin/stiffener interface with the skin under static bend loading. The three-stage failure process is identified as: flange edge debonding, pin/laminate debonding, and ultimate structural failure. Three different distribution patterns were compared in terms of the static debonding properties revealed the affirmative fact that locating pins in high normal stress regions, that is close to the flange edges in skin/stiffener structures, is more beneficial to utilize the full potential of Z-pinning reinforcement. The unit strip FE model was developed and demonstrated effective to analysis the effect of Z-pin distribution on the ultimate debond load. On the other hand, the evolution of fatigue cracks at Z-pinned skin/flange interface was investigated with a series of displacement-controlled fatigue bending tests and microscopic observations. Results show that Z-pinning postpones crack initiations at low displacement levels, and the remarkable crack-arresting function of pins enables the structure a prolonged fatigue life. However, pins become less effective when the maximum displacement exceeds the crack initiation level due to gradually pullout of pins.

  4. Maternal control of PIN1 is required for female gametophyte development in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ceccato

    Full Text Available Land plants are characterised by haplo-diploid life cycles, and developing ovules are the organs in which the haploid and diploid generations coexist. Recently it has been shown that hormones such as auxin and cytokinins play important roles in ovule development and patterning. The establishment and regulation of auxin levels in cells is predominantly determined by the activity of the auxin efflux carrier proteins PIN-FORMED (PIN. To study the roles of PIN1 and PIN3 during ovule development we have used mutant alleles of both genes and also perturbed PIN1 and PIN3 expression using micro-RNAs controlled by the ovule specific DEFH9 (DEFIFICENS Homologue 9 promoter. PIN1 down-regulation and pin1-5 mutation severely affect female gametophyte development since embryo sacs arrest at the mono- and/or bi-nuclear stages (FG1 and FG3 stage. PIN3 function is not required for ovule development in wild-type or PIN1-silenced plants. We show that sporophytically expressed PIN1 is required for megagametogenesis, suggesting that sporophytic auxin flux might control the early stages of female gametophyte development, although auxin response is not visible in developing embryo sacs.

  5. Active cloaking for clusters of pins in thin plates

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, Jane; Haslinger, Stewart; Movchan, Natasha; Craster, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers active cloaking of a square array of evenly spaced pins in a Kirchhoff plate in the presence of flexural waves. Active sources are distributed exterior to the cluster and are represented by the non-singular Green's function for the biharmonic operator. The complex amplitudes of the active sources, which cancel out selected multipole orders of the scattered field, are found by solving an algebraic system of equations. For frequencies in the zero-frequency stop band, we find that a small number of active sources located on a grid is sufficient for cloaking. For higher frequencies, we achieve efficient cloaking with the active sources positioned on a circle surrounding the cluster. We demonstrate the cloaking efficiency with several numerical illustrations, considering key frequencies from band diagrams and dispersion surfaces for a Kirchhoff plate pinned in a doubly periodic fashion.

  6. Study of the Radiation-Hardness of VCSEL and PIN

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, K K; Fernando, W; Kagan, H P; Kass, R D; Lebbai, M R M; Merritt, H; Moore, J R; Nagarkar, A; Rizatdinova, F; Skubic, P L; Smith, D S; Strang, M

    2009-01-01

    The silicon trackers of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva) use optical links for data transmission. An upgrade of the trackers is planned for the Super LHC (SLHC), an upgraded LHC with ten times higher luminosity. We study the radiation-hardness of VCSELs (Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser) and GaAs and silicon PINs using 24 GeV/c protons at CERN for possible application in the data transmission upgrade. The optical power of VCSEL arrays decreases significantly after the irradiation but can be partially annealed with high drive currents. The responsivities of the PIN diodes also decrease significantly after irradiation, but can be recovered by operating at higher bias voltage. This provides a simple mechanism to recover from the radiation damage.

  7. Decrease of bulk pinning strength in deoxygenated YBCO single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, A.J.; Bekeris, V. [Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Lab. de Bajas Temperaturas

    2000-07-01

    We measured the first and third harmonics of the complex AC susceptibility in YBCO single crystals with different oxygen contents (6.5 {<=} x {<=} 7). The amplitude of the AC field was varied in presence of an external dc field both applied parallel to the c-axis of the crystals. We give evidence that deoxygenation leads to a reduction of the bulk pinning strength and consequently to a stronger contribution of geometrical barriers. These results support the recently reported investigations showing that deoxygenation makes the YBCO crystals more anisotropic reducing the effective bulk pinning for quasi two-dimensional vortices. We also show measurements for the same crystals with the AC field applied perpendicular to the c-axis. (orig.)

  8. Turbine blade and non-integral platform with pin attachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Christian Xavier; Eng, Darryl; Marra, John J.

    2016-08-02

    Platforms (36, 38) span between turbine blades (23, 24, 25) on a disk (32). Each platform may be individually mounted to the disk by a pin attachment (42). Each platform (36) may have a rotationally rearward edge portion (50) that underlies a forward portion (45) of the adjacent platform (38). This limits centrifugal bending of the rearward portion of the platform, and provides coolant sealing. The rotationally forward edge (44A, 44B) of the platform overlies a seal element (51) on the pressure side (28) of the forwardly adjacent blade, and does not underlie a shelf on that blade. The pin attachment allows radial mounting of each platform onto the disk via tilting (60) of the platform during mounting to provide mounting clearance for the rotationally rearward edge portion (50). This facilitates quick platform replacement without blade removal.

  9. Pinning control of a generalized complex dynamical network model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huizhong YANG; Li SHENG

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the local and global synchronization of a generalized complex dynamical network model with constant and delayed coupling.Without assuming symmetry of the couplings,we proved that a single controller can pin the generalized complex network to a homogenous solution.Some previous synchronization results are generalized.In this paper,we first discuss how to pin an array of delayed neural networks to the synchronous solution by adding only one controller.Next,by using the Lyapunov functional method,some sufficient conditions are derived for the local and global synchronization of the coupled systems.The obtained results are expressed in terms of LMIs,which can be efficiently checked by the Matlab LMI toolbox.Finally,an example is given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  10. Matching of the Flux Lattice to Geometrically Frustrated Pinning Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trastoy, J.; Bernard, R.; Briatico, J.; Villegas, J. E.; Lesueur, J.; Ulysse, C.; Faini, G.

    2013-03-01

    We use vortex dynamics on artificial nanoscale energy landscapes as a model to experimentally investigate a problem inspired by ``spin ice'' systems. In particular, we study the matching of the flux lattice to pinning arrays in which the geometrical frustration is expected to impede a unique stable vortex configuration and to promote metastability. This is done with YBCO films in which the nanoscale vortex energy landscape is fabricated via masked ion irradiation. Surprisingly, we found that minimal changes in the distance between pinning sites lead to the suppression of some of the magneto-resistance matching effects, that is, for certain well-defined vortex densities. This effect strongly depends on the temperature. We argue that this behavior can be explained considering the arrays' geometrical frustration and the thermally activated reconfiguration of the vortex lattice between isoenergetic states. Work supported by the French ANR via SUPERHYRBIDS-II and ``MASTHER,'' and the Galician Fundacion Barrie

  11. Boiling of HFE-7100 on a Straight Pin Fin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. W. Liu; W.W. Lin; D.J. Lee; J.P. Hsu

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with an experimental investigation of pin fin boiling of saturated and subcooled HFE-7100 under atmospheric pressure. Fin base temperature and heat flux data are measured along with the fin tip temperature. The basic features of boiling stability of HFE-7100 boiling on pin fin had been reported for the first time. For a given liquid/heating surface combination there exist upper steady-state (USS) branch and lower steady-state (LSS)branch, and a large, unstable regime located in between. Zones with different stability characteristics are mapped according to boiling on fins with different aspect ratios. Liquid subcooling can largely enhance heat transfer performance. A longer fin can provide a safer operation.

  12. Silicon pin solar cells investigated by multi-frequency EDMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Christoph; Teutloff, Christian; Behrends, Jan; Bittl, Robert [Fachbereich Physik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Fehr, Matthias; Schnegg, Alexander; Lips, Klaus [Institut fuer Silizium-Photovoltaik, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Kekulestr. 5, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) can be used to investigate paramagnetic centres influencing charge transport in semiconductors even at concentrations well below the sensitivity threshold of conventional electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). This technique measures conductivity changes in the sample that occur when spin transitions cause an enhancement or a quenching of currents. EDMR was e.g. successfully employed to microcrystalline Si pin solar cells in X-band (9.7 GHz). We present the application of EDMR to Si pin solar cells at Q-band frequency (34 GHz). We could demonstrate a gain of spectral resolution. With multi-frequency EDMR we distinguished between field-dependent and field-independent interactions. Further, we realized EDMR in a non-resonant setup at 94 GHz (W-band) and show first results.

  13. Turbine blade and non-integral platform with pin attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christian X; Eng, Darryl; Marra, John J

    2015-01-27

    Platforms (36, 38) span between turbine blades (23, 24, 25) on a disk (32). Each platform may be individually mounted to the disk by a pin attachment (42). Each platform (36) may have a rotationally rearward edge portion (50) that underlies a forward portion (45) of the adjacent platform (38). This limits centrifugal bending of the rearward portion of the platform, and provides coolant sealing. The rotationally forward edge (44A, 44B) of the platform overlies a seal element (51) on the pressure side (28) of the forwardly adjacent blade, and does not underlie a shelf on that blade. The pin attachment allows radial mounting of each platform onto the disk via tilting (60) of the platform during mounting to provide mounting clearance for the rotationally rearward edge portion (50). This facilitates quick platform replacement without blade removal.

  14. Debonding analyses of closely spaced Z-pins bridging an unbonded interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang

    2009-01-01

    In this study the plasticity, the spatial stress distribution and the debonding behavior of a metallic Z-pin bridging the unbonded interface between two substrates of an elasto-plastic material subjected to shear loading (mode II) are analyzed numerically by the finite element method taking full...... along the interface between the Z-pin and the substrates. The plastic zone in the Z-pin initiates in the center and spreads out along the two edges leaving elastic regions in the middle of the ends of the Z-pin. Similar behavior is seen for a Z-pin inclined to have loading against the inclination, while...... the plastic zone in a Z-pin inclined to have loading with the inclination only grows along one of the two edges of the Z-pin....

  15. Enhancing speed of pinning synchronizability: low-degree nodes with high feedback gains

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Ming-Yang; Liao, Hao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Cai, Shi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Controlling complex networks is of paramount importance in science and engineering. Despite recent efforts to improve controllability and synchronous strength, little attention has been paid to the speed of pinning synchronizability (rate of convergence in pinning control) and the corresponding pinning node selection. To address this issue, we propose a hypothesis to restrict the control cost, then build a linear matrix inequality related to the speed of pinning controllability. By solving the inequality, we obtain both the speed of pinning controllability and optimal control strength (feedback gains in pinning control) for all nodes. Interestingly, some low-degree nodes are able to achieve large feedback gains, which suggests that they have high influence on controlling system. In addition, when choosing nodes with high feedback gains as pinning nodes, the controlling speed of real systems is remarkably enhanced compared to that of traditional large-degree and large-betweenness selections. Thus, the proposed...

  16. MOTIVATING FACTORS AND THE MODES OF ENTRY IN OTHER MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf ZEKIRI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations that operate in international markets need to make the most important decisions in order to select a best mode of entry into foreign markets. This paper attempts to clarify some of the issues arising in international market selection. A firm must assess before entering a particular market the motives and  potential factors that play a significant role during the process of decision making for market selection. An overview of the current methodologies for market selection based on the literature on international marketing is provided. Therefore, the main objective of the paper is to outline and discuss the relevant issues and challenges from a theoretical viewpoint related with the possible entry modes into international and global markets. This paper concentrates on secondary sources of research regarding the internationalisation of businesses.  According to the previous literature, scholars have already found out some of determinants influencing the efficiency of foreign entry, such as: economic factors, political risk, legal factors, cultural factor, international experience, etc. A model can be outlined from the theoretical viewpoints about the advantages and disadvantage of each foreign market entry strategy discussed. One of the fundamental steps that need to be taken prior to beginning international marketing is the environmental analysis. There are uncontrollable forces which are external forces upon which the management has no direct control, although it can exert an influence. Internal forces are controllable forces upon which the management administers to adapt to changes in the uncontrollable forces. The conclusion will provide a short summary of identified key elements that need to be considered by management in choosing international markets and their foreign market entry modes.

  17. Evaluation of PWR and BWR pin cell benchmark results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilgroms, B.J.; Gruppelaar, H.; Janssen, A.J. (Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)); Hoogenboom, J.E.; Leege, P.F.A. de (Interuniversitair Reactor Inst., Delft (Netherlands)); Voet, J. van der (Gemeenschappelijke Kernenergiecentrale Nederland NV, Dodewaard (Netherlands)); Verhagen, F.C.M. (Keuring van Electrotechnische Materialen NV, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1991-12-01

    Benchmark results of the Dutch PINK working group on the PWR and BWR pin cell calculational benchmark as defined by EPRI are presented and evaluated. The observed discrepancies are problem dependent: a part of the results is satisfactory, some other results require further analysis. A brief overview is given of the different code packages used in this analysis. (author). 14 refs.; 9 figs.; 30 tabs.

  18. ANTICIPATING WPS PIN VULNERABILITY TO SECURE WIRELESS NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Dwi Rianto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available WiFi Protected Setup (WPS is a standardized function supported by numerous vendors of wireless routers and access point to help set up connection to a wireless local area network. It is designed to simplify the set up and generally enabled by default. Due to design flaw, the WPS or QSS PIN is susceptible to a brute force attack. In this paper, we test the security vulnerability occurred, evaluate the performance and give recommendations to anticipate the attack.

  19. Evaluation of rodded BWR assembly pin powers with simulate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadir, T. [Studsvik Scandpower, Inc., 309 Waverly Oaks Road (United States); Lindahl, S. Oe. [Studsvik Scandpower AB, Stensborgsgatan 4, SE-721 32 Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    In the development of Studsvik's nodal code SIMULATE5, special attention has been given to the accurate description of pin powers. The code solves the multi-group diffusion or simplified P3 equations with high spatial resolution. A short description is given of the handling of material heterogeneities in the axial and radial directions - the axial re-homogenization and the radial sub-mesh model, respectively. Furthermore, two models which are of special importance in the presence of control rods, and hence on the pellet clad interaction (PCI) phenomenon, are described; the quarter-assembly thermal-hydraulic treatment and the depletion of absorber material. A numerical example for a real core shows that while the impact of the fine grained description is negligible on global parameters such as k{sub eff}, the effect on pin powers may be substantial. For a deeply inserted and highly depleted control rod, the difference in pin powers caused by neglecting the advanced models of SIMULATE5, may be as high as 15 %. (authors)

  20. Passive Micro Vibration Isolator Utilizing Flux Pinning Effect for Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Takuma; Sakai, Shin-ichiro

    2016-09-01

    Information related to the origin of space and evolution of galaxy can be obtained using the observation satellites. In recent years, high pointing accuracy is demanded for getting more detailed data about distant stars and galaxies. As a result, vibration isolators that consist of a main structure and a TTM (Tip Tilt Mirror) have been adopted for observation satellites. However, cutting the low frequency vibrations off passively with the conventional methods is difficult. A vibration isolator that uses pinning effect is proposed for solving this problem. The pinning effect is acquired by cooling the type-II superconductor below the critical temperature and it generates a pinning force to maintain the relative distance and attitude between a type- II superconductor and a material that generates magnetic flux. The mission part and the bus part of the satellite are equipped with superconductors and permanent magnets and these parts perform short distance formation flight by applying the effect. This method can cut vibrations from low to high frequency bands off passively. In addition, Meissner effect can prevent collision of the mission and bus parts. In order to investigate the performance of this system, experiments and simulations are carried out and the results are discussed.

  1. Contact and Non-contact Measurements of Grinding Pins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdziak Marek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of contact and non-contact measurements of external profiles of selected grinding pins. The measurements were conducted in order to choose the appropriate measuring technique in the case of the considered measurement task. In the case of contact measurements the coordinate measuring machine ACCURA II was applied. The used coordinate measuring machine was equipped with the contact scanning probe VAST XT and the Calypso inspection software. Contact coordinate measurements were performed by using of different measurement strategies. The applied strategies included different scanning velocities and distances between measured points. Non-contact measurements were conducted by means of the tool presetter produced by the Mahr company. On the basis of gained results the guidelines concerning measurements of grinding pins were formulated. The measurements of analyzed grinding pins performed by means of the non-contact measuring system are characterized by higher reproducibility than the contact measurements. The low reproducibility of contact measurements may be connected with the inaccuracy of the selected coordinate measuring machine and the measuring probe, the measurement parameters and environmental conditions in the laboratory where the coordinate measuring machine is located. Moreover, the paper presents the possible application of results of conducted investigations. The results of non-contact measurements can be used in the simulation studies of grinding processes. The simulations may reduce the costs of machining processes.

  2. OntoPIN: an ontology-annotated PPI database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzi, Pietro Hiram; Veltri, Pierangelo; Cannataro, Mario

    2013-09-01

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) data stored in publicly available databases are queried by the use of simple query interfaces allowing only key-based queries. A typical query on such databases is based on the use of protein identifiers and enables the retrieval of one or more proteins. Nevertheless, a lot of biological information is available and is spread on different sources and encoded in different ontologies such as Gene Ontology. The integration of existing PPI databases and biological information may result in richer querying interfaces and successively could enable the development of novel algorithms that may use biological information. The OntoPIN project showed the effectiveness of the introduction of a framework for the ontology-based management and querying of Protein-Protein Interaction Data. The OntoPIN framework first merges PPI data with annotations extracted from existing ontologies (e.g. Gene Ontology) and stores annotated data into a database. Then, a semantic-based query interface enables users to query these data by using biological concepts. OntoPIN allows: (a) to extend existing PPI databases by using ontologies, (b) to enable a key-based querying of annotated data, and (c) to offer a novel query interface based on semantic similarity among annotations.

  3. The dynamics of plant plasma membrane proteins: PINs and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luschnig, Christian; Vert, Grégory

    2014-08-01

    Plants are permanently situated in a fixed location and thus are well adapted to sense and respond to environmental stimuli and developmental cues. At the cellular level, several of these responses require delicate adjustments that affect the activity and steady-state levels of plasma membrane proteins. These adjustments involve both vesicular transport to the plasma membrane and protein internalization via endocytic sorting. A substantial part of our current knowledge of plant plasma membrane protein sorting is based on studies of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transport proteins, which are found at distinct plasma membrane domains and have been implicated in directional efflux of the plant hormone auxin. Here, we discuss the mechanisms involved in establishing such polar protein distributions, focusing on PINs and other key plant plasma membrane proteins, and we highlight the pathways that allow for dynamic adjustments in protein distribution and turnover, which together constitute a versatile framework that underlies the remarkable capabilities of plants to adjust growth and development in their ever-changing environment.

  4. Procedural and Early Outcomes of Two Re-entry Devices for Subintimal Recanalization of Aortoiliac and Femoropopliteal Chronic Total Occlusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuruskan, Ertan; Saracoglu, Erhan

    2017-01-01

    Subintimal angioplasty is a common treatment choice for chronic total occlusions (CTO) in the iliac and femoropopliteal arteries. This article describes the technical aspects and early outcomes of two different re-entry devices and comparison with manual re-entry technique. A retrospective review of 61 patients (re-entry group) treated with Outback or Pioneer Plus catheters was carried out. A matched cohort of patients (n=62) who underwent lower extremity interventions without the use of re-entry devices (manual re-entry group) were also analyzed (overall 123 patients were analyzed). Procedural success, procedural durations, patency estimates, ankle-brachial indices, and complications were analyzed. Sixty-one patients underwent Outback or Pioneer Plus guided subintimal recanalization. After the procedure, ankle-brachial indices significantly increased in all patients during follow-up. Primary patency for the entire cohort was 83% in the first month. When the re-entry device group was compared with manual re-entry group, no difference was found with respect to success, complication, and patencies between the two groups during follow-up. However, procedure duration and the amount of contrast agent used was significantly decreased in re-entry groups (pCTO using re-entry devices for aortoiliac or femoropopliteal arteries is safe and effective. These devices shorten the procedure time, the re-entry time, reduce radiation risk, and reduce the amount of contrast agent employed.

  5. PIN1 in hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with TP53 gene status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jun Sang; Noh, Sang Jae; Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Kyu Yun; Park, Ho Sung; Chung, Myoung Ja; Park, Byung-Hyun; Moon, Woo Sung

    2016-10-01

    Phosphorylation of proteins on serine/threonine residues that precede proline (pSer/Thr-Pro) is specifically catalyzed by the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase PIN1. PIN1-mediated prolyl-isomerization induces cell cycle arrest and growth inhibition through the regulation of target proteins, including TP53. We examined whether PIN1 acts in a different manner according to TP53 gene status in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the expression of PIN1 and TP53 proteins in 119 HCC tissue samples. We also analyzed PIN1 expression in combination with TP53 gene mutation and its correlation with the clinical outcome. In addition, we used synthetic small interfering RNA to silence PIN1 gene expression in TP53 wild-type and TP53 mutant HCC cell lines, and then evaluated cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Expression of PIN1 was strongly associated with expression of TP53 protein or TP53 mutation of HCC samples. PIN1 and TP53 expression in TP53 mutant HCC cell lines was higher than that in TP53 wild-type HCC cell lines. Silencing of PIN1 in HLE cells containing mutant TP53 significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In contrast to PIN1 silencing in HLE cells, PIN1 silencing in HepG2 cells containing functional wild-type TP53 resulted in enhanced tumor cell proliferation. HCC patients bearing PIN1 expression with wild-type TP53 were predicted to demonstrate favorable relapse-free survival. Our results suggest that PIN1 plays a role in cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion in a different manner according to the TP53 gene mutation status in HCC. In particular, interaction of PIN1 with mutant TP53 can act as a tumor promoter and increase its oncogenic activities in HCC.

  6. Pin-wise Reactor Analysis Based on the Generalized Equivalence Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hwan Yeal; Heo, Woong; Kim, Yong Hee [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, a pin-wise reactor analysis is performed based on the generalized equivalence theory. From the conventional fuel assembly lattice calculations, pin-wise 2-group cross sections and pin DFs are generated. Based on the numerical results on a small PWR benchmark, it is observed that the pin-wise core analysis provide quite accurate prediction on the effective multiplication factor and the peak pin power error is bounded by about 3% in peripheral fuel assemblies facing the baffle-reflector. Also, it was found that relatively large pin power errors occur along the interface between clearly different fuel assemblies. It is expected that the GET-based pin-by-pin core calculation can be further developed as an advanced method for reactor analysis via improving the group constants and discontinuity factors. Recently, high-fidelity multi-dimensional analysis tools are gaining more attention because of their accurate prediction of local parameters for core design and safety assessment. In terms of accuracy, direct whole-core transport is quite promising. However, it is clear that it is still very costly in terms of the computing time and memory requirements. Another possible solution is the pin-by-pin core analysis in which only small fuel pins are homogenized and the 3-D core analysis is still performed using a low-order operator such as the diffusion theory. In this paper, a pin-by-pin core analysis is performed using the hybrid CMFD (HCMFD) method. Hybrid CMFD is a new global-local iteration method that has been developed for efficient parallel calculation of pinby-pin heterogeneous core analysis. For the HCMFD method, the one-node CMFD scheme is combined with a local two-node CMFD method in a non-linear way. Since the SPH method is iterative and SPH factors are not direction dependent, it is clear that SPH method takes more computing cost and cannot take into account the different heterogeneity and transport effects at each pin interface. Unlike the SPH

  7. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technological...

  8. Predicting the Diversity of Foreign Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashai, Niron; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Benito, Gabriel;

    2007-01-01

    diversity across value chain activities and host markets. Analyzing a sample of Israeli based firms we show that larger firms exhibit a higher degree of entry mode diversity both across value chain activities and across host markets. Higher levels of knowledge intensity are also associated with more...... diversity in firms' entry modes across both dimensions....

  9. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technologic...

  10. Risk factors for bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle: use of a causal diagram-informed approach to estimate effects of animal mixing and movements before feedlot entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Barnes, T S; Morton, J M; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J

    2014-11-01

    A nationwide longitudinal study was conducted to investigate risk factors for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in cattle in Australian feedlots. After induction (processing), cattle were placed in feedlot pens (cohorts) and monitored for occurrence of BRD over the first 50 days on feed. Data from a national cattle movement database were used to derive variables describing mixing of animals with cattle from other farms, numbers of animals in groups before arrival at the feedlot, exposure of animals to saleyards before arrival at the feedlot, and the timing and duration of the animal's move to the vicinity of the feedlot. Total and direct effects for each risk factor were estimated using a causal diagram-informed process to determine covariates to include in four-level Bayesian logistic regression models. Mixing, group size and timing of the animal's move to the feedlot were important predictors of BRD. Animals not mixed with cattle from other farms prior to 12 days before induction and then exposed to a high level of mixing (≥4 groups of animals mixed) had the highest risk of developing BRD (OR 3.7) compared to animals mixed at least 4 weeks before induction with less than 4 groups forming the cohort. Animals in groups formed at least 13 days before induction comprising 100 or more (OR 0.5) or 50-99 (OR 0.8) were at reduced risk compared to those in groups of less than 50 cattle. Animals moved to the vicinity of the feedlot at least 27 days before induction were at reduced risk (OR 0.4) compared to cattle undergoing short-haul transportation (factors could potentially be used to inform management decisions to reduce the risk of BRD in feedlot cattle.

  11. Thermal Soak Analysis of Earth Entry Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Parul; Sepka, Steven A.; Aliaga, Jose F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2012-01-01

    The Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle project is developing an integrated tool called Multi Mission System Analysis for Planetary Entry Descent and Landing that will provide key technology solutions including mass sizing, aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and thermal and structural analysis for any given sample return mission. Thermal soak analysis and temperature predictions of various components including the payload container of the entry vehicle are part of the solution that this tool will offer to mission designers. The present paper focuses on the thermal soak analysis of an entry vehicle design based on the Mars Sample Return entry vehicle geometry and discusses a technical approach to develop parametric models for thermal soak analysis that will be integrated into the tool.

  12. HLM fuel pin bundle experiments in the CIRCE pool facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martelli, Daniele, E-mail: daniele.martelli@ing.unipi.it [University of Pisa, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Pisa (Italy); Forgione, Nicola [University of Pisa, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Pisa (Italy); Di Piazza, Ivan; Tarantino, Mariano [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, C.R. ENEA Brasimone (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The experimental results represent the first set of values for LBE pool facility. • Heat transfer is investigated for a 37-pin electrical bundle cooled by LBE. • Experimental data are presented together with a detailed error analysis. • Nu is computed as a function of the Pe and compared with correlations. • Experimental Nu is about 25% lower than Nu derived from correlations. - Abstract: Since Lead-cooled Fast Reactors (LFR) have been conceptualized in the frame of GEN IV International Forum (GIF), great interest has focused on the development and testing of new technologies related to HLM nuclear reactors. In this frame the Integral Circulation Experiment (ICE) test section has been installed into the CIRCE pool facility and suitable experiments have been carried out aiming to fully investigate the heat transfer phenomena in grid spaced fuel pin bundles providing experimental data in support of European fast reactor development. In particular, the fuel pin bundle simulator (FPS) cooled by lead bismuth eutectic (LBE), has been conceived with a thermal power of about 1 MW and a uniform linear power up to 25 kW/m, relevant values for a LFR. It consists of 37 fuel pins (electrically simulated) placed on a hexagonal lattice with a pitch to diameter ratio of 1.8. The FPS was deeply instrumented by several thermocouples. In particular, two sections of the FPS were instrumented in order to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient along the bundle as well as the cladding temperature in different ranks of sub-channels. Nusselt number in the central sub-channel was therefore calculated as a function of the Peclet number and the obtained results were compared to Nusselt numbers obtained from convective heat transfer correlations available in literature on Heavy Liquid Metals (HLM). Results reported in the present work, represent the first set of experimental data concerning fuel pin bundle behaviour in a heavy liquid metal pool, both in forced and

  13. 19 CFR 142.3 - Entry documentation required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry documentation required. 142.3 Section 142.3... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Entry Documentation § 142.3 Entry documentation required. (a) Contents. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the entry documentation required to secure...

  14. X-ray measurement with Pin type semiconductor detectors; Medicion de rayos X con detectores de semiconductor tipo PIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez J, F.J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Electronica, C.P. 52045 Salazar, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Here are presented the experimental results of the applications of Pin type radiation detectors developed in a National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) project, in the measurement of low energy gamma and X-rays. The applications were oriented mainly toward the Medical Physics area. It is planned other applications which are in process of implementation inside the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico. (Author)

  15. Cell plate-restricted association of Arabidopsis dynamin related proteins and PIN auxin efflux carriers is required for PIN endocytic trafficking during cytokinesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mravec, J.; Petrasek, J.; Li, N.; Boeren, J.A.; Karlova, R.B.; Kitakura, S.; Naramoto, S.; Nodzynski, T.; Dhonukshe, P.B.; Vries, de S.C.; Zazimalova, E.; Friml, J.

    2011-01-01

    The polarized transport of the phytohormone auxin [1], which is crucial for the regulation of different stages of plant development [ [2] and [3] ], depends on the asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers [4 A. Vieten, M. Sauer, P.B. Brewer and J. Friml,

  16. Peristaltic closure of a safety pin--an unusual fate of a safety pin seen as a foreign body in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréasson, L; Ingelstedt, S; Tjernström, O

    1986-04-01

    This report presents a case where an open safety pin passed through the Esophagus and where Nature herself finally solved the problem by closing the pin, which was afterwards carried in the faecal stream and discharged from the body without any harm to the patient.

  17. Cell plate-restricted association of Arabidopsis dynamin related proteins and PIN auxin efflux carriers is required for PIN endocytic trafficking during cytokinesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mravec, J.; Petrasek, J.; Li, N.; Boeren, J.A.; Karlova, R.B.; Kitakura, S.; Naramoto, S.; Nodzynski, T.; Dhonukshe, P.B.; Vries, de S.C.; Zazimalova, E.; Friml, J.

    2011-01-01

    The polarized transport of the phytohormone auxin [1], which is crucial for the regulation of different stages of plant development [ [2] and [3] ], depends on the asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers [4 A. Vieten, M. Sauer, P.B. Brewer and J. Friml,

  18. Establishing the need for an engineering standard for agricultural hitch pins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboy, G R; Knapp, W M; Field, W E; Krutz, G W; Corum, C L

    2012-04-01

    Documented incidents have occurred in which failure or unintentional disengagement of agricultural hitch pins has contributed to property damage and personal injury. An examination of current hitch pin use on a convenience sample of farm operations in Indiana revealed a variety of non-standard, worn and damaged, and inappropriately sized hitch pins in use. Informal interviews with the farm operators confirmed that hitch pin misuse, failure, or disengagement is a relatively widespread problem that remains largely unaddressed. On-site observations also suggested a low use of hitch pin retaining devices or safety chains. A review of prior research revealed that little attention has been given to this problem, and currently no documentation allows for an estimate of the frequency or severity of losses associated with hitch pin misuse, failure, or disengagement. No specific engineering standards were found that directly applied to the design, appropriate selection, or loading capacity of agricultural hitch pins. Major suppliers of replacement hitch pins currently provide little or no information on matching hitch pin size to intended applications, and most replacement hitch pins examined were of foreign origin, with the overwhelming majority imported from China or India. These replacement hitch pins provided no specifications other than diameter, length, and, in some cases, labeling that indicated that the pins had been "heat treated. " Testing of a sample of 11 commercially available replacement hitch pins found variation along the length of the pin shaft and between individual pins in surface hardness, a potential predictor of pin failure. Examination of 17 commercially available replacement pins also revealed a variety of identifiers used to describe pin composition and fabrication methods, e.g., "heat treated." None of the pins examined provided any specifications on loading capacity. It was therefore concluded that there is a need to develop an agricultural hitch

  19. LABORATORY VOICE DATA ENTRY SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PRAISSMAN,J.L.SUTHERLAND,J.C.

    2003-04-01

    We have assembled a system using a personal computer workstation equipped with standard office software, an audio system, speech recognition software and an inexpensive radio-based wireless microphone that permits laboratory workers to enter or modify data while performing other work. Speech recognition permits users to enter data while their hands are holding equipment or they are otherwise unable to operate a keyboard. The wireless microphone allows unencumbered movement around the laboratory without a ''tether'' that might interfere with equipment or experimental procedures. To evaluate the potential of voice data entry in a laboratory environment, we developed a prototype relational database that records the disposal of radionuclides and/or hazardous chemicals Current regulations in our laboratory require that each such item being discarded must be inventoried and documents must be prepared that summarize the contents of each container used for disposal. Using voice commands, the user enters items into the database as each is discarded. Subsequently, the program prepares the required documentation.

  20. Numerical modeling of friction stir welding using the tools with polygonal pins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mehta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding using the tools with polygonal pins is often found to improve the mechanical strength of weld joint in comparison to the tools with circular pins. However, the impacts of pin profile on the peak temperature, tool torque and traverse force, and the resultant mechanical stresses experienced by the tool have been rarely reported in a systematic manner. An estimation of the rate of heat generation for the tools with polygonal pins is challenging due to their non-axisymmetric cross-section about the tool axis. A novel methodology is presented to analytically estimate the rate of heat generation for the tools with polygonal pins. A three-dimensional heat transfer analysis of friction stir welding is carried out using finite element method. The computed temperature field from the heat transfer model is used to estimate the torque, traverse force and the mechanical stresses experienced by regular triangular, square, pentagon and hexagon pins following the principles of solid mechanics. The computed results show that the peak temperature experienced by the tool pin increases with the number of pin sides. However, the resultant maximum shear stress experienced by the pin reduces from the triangular to hexagonal pins.

  1. Connection stiffness and dynamical docking process of flux pinned spacecraft modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong; Zhang, Mingliang; Gao, Dong

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a novel kind of potential flux pinned docking system that consists of guidance navigation and control system, the traditional extrusion type propulsion system, and a flux pinned docking interface. Because of characteristics of passive stability of flux pinning, the docking control strategy of flux pinned docking system only needs a series of sequential control rather than necessary active feedback control, as well as avoidance of hazardous collision accident. The flux pinned force between YBaCuO (YBCO) high temperature superconductor bulk and permanent magnet is able to be given vent based on the identical current loop model and improved image dipole model, which can be validated experimentally. Thus, the connection stiffness between two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be calculated based on Hooke's law. This connection stiffness matrix at the equilibrium position has the positive definite performance, which can validate the passively stable connection of two flux pinned spacecraft modules theoretically. Furthermore, the relative orbital dynamical equation of two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be established based on Clohessy-Wiltshire's equations and improved image dipole model. The dynamical docking process between two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be obtained by way of numerical simulation, which suggests the feasibility of flux pinned docking system.

  2. Connection stiffness and dynamical docking process of flux pinned spacecraft modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yong; Zhang, Mingliang, E-mail: niudun12@126.com; Gao, Dong [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China)

    2014-02-14

    This paper describes a novel kind of potential flux pinned docking system that consists of guidance navigation and control system, the traditional extrusion type propulsion system, and a flux pinned docking interface. Because of characteristics of passive stability of flux pinning, the docking control strategy of flux pinned docking system only needs a series of sequential control rather than necessary active feedback control, as well as avoidance of hazardous collision accident. The flux pinned force between YBaCuO (YBCO) high temperature superconductor bulk and permanent magnet is able to be given vent based on the identical current loop model and improved image dipole model, which can be validated experimentally. Thus, the connection stiffness between two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be calculated based on Hooke's law. This connection stiffness matrix at the equilibrium position has the positive definite performance, which can validate the passively stable connection of two flux pinned spacecraft modules theoretically. Furthermore, the relative orbital dynamical equation of two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be established based on Clohessy-Wiltshire's equations and improved image dipole model. The dynamical docking process between two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be obtained by way of numerical simulation, which suggests the feasibility of flux pinned docking system.

  3. Expression of Pin1 and Ki67 in Cervical Cancer and Their Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the expression levels of Pin1 mRNA and protein in cervical cancer and its association with Ki67 and their clinical significance, amplification of Pin1 gene was examined by RT-PCR, and the expression of both Pin1 and Ki67 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in cervical cancer tissues. It was shown that the expression levels of Pin1 were higher in cervical cancer than in normal cervical tissues (P<0.05). The expression of Pin1 protein was increased progressively along with the disease process from normal cervix to CIN and to cervical cancer (P<0. 05). No significant difference in the Pin1 expression was found between disease stages (FIGO),pathological grades or pelvic lymph node metastasis status (P>0.05). The expression of Pin1 was significantly higher in adenocarcinoma than insquamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix (P<0.05).In cervical cancer, the overexpression of Pin1 was positively correlated with that of Ki67 (P<0.05). These results suggested that the overexpression of Pin1 was closely related with cancer cell proliferation or progression of cervical cancer and contributed to oncogenesis. Pin1 may serve as a potential marker for cervical cancer diagnosis.

  4. Pin1 promotes GR transactivation by enhancing recruitment to target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolman, Toryn M; Farrow, Stuart N; Matthews, Laura; Loudon, Andrew S; Ray, David W

    2013-10-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a ligand activated transcription factor, serving to regulate both energy metabolism and immune functions. Factors that influence cellular sensitivity to glucocorticoids (GC) are therefore of great interest. The N-terminal of the GR contains numerous potential proline-directed phosphorylation sites, some of which can regulate GR transactivation. Unrestricted proline isomerisation can be inhibited by adjacent serine phosphorylation and requires a prolyl isomerise, Pin1. Pin1 therefore determines the functional outcome of proline-directed kinases acting on the GR, as cis/trans isomers are distinct pools with different interacting proteins. We show that Pin1 mediates GR transactivation, but not GR trans-repression. Two N-terminal GR serines, S203 and S211, are targets for Pin1 potentiation of GR transactivation, establishing a direct link between Pin1 and the GR. We also demonstrate GC-activated co-recruitment of GR and Pin1 to the GILZ gene promoter. The Pin1 effect required both its WW and catalytic domains, and GR recruitment to its GRE was Pin1-dependent. Therefore, Pin1 is a selective regulator of GR transactivation, acting through N-terminal phospho-serine residues to regulate GR recruitment to its target sites in the genome. As Pin1 is dysregulated in disease states, this interaction may contribute to altered GC action in inflammatory conditions.

  5. Novel Approaches to Inhibit HIV Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuka A. Didigu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV entry into target cells is a multi-step process involving binding of the viral glycoprotein, Env, to its receptor CD4 and a coreceptor—either CCR5 or CXCR4. Understanding the means by which HIV enters cells has led to the identification of genetic polymorphisms, such as the 32 base-pair deletion in the ccr5 gene (ccr5∆32 that confers resistance to infection in homozygous individuals, and has also resulted in the development of entry inhibitors—small molecule antagonists that block infection at the entry step. The recent demonstration of long-term control of HIV infection in a leukemic patient following a hematopoietic stem cell transplant using cells from a ccr5∆32 homozygous donor highlights the important role of the HIV entry in maintaining an established infection and has led to a number of attempts to treat HIV infection by genetically modifying the ccr5 gene. In this review, we describe the HIV entry process and provide an overview of the different classes of approved HIV entry inhibitors while highlighting novel genetic strategies aimed at blocking HIV infection at the level of entry.

  6. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel

    2016-01-01

    Speaking up, i.e. expressing ones concerns, is a critical piece of effective communication. Yet, we see many situations in which crew members have concerns and still remain silent. Why would that be the case? And how can we assess the risks of speaking up vs. the risks of keeping silent? And once we do make up our minds to speak up, how should we go about it? Our workshop aims to answer these questions, and to provide us all with practical tools for effective risk assessment and effective speaking-up strategies..

  7. Advances in spacecraft atmospheric entry guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito Manrique, Joel

    In order to advance entry guidance technology two different research areas have been explored with the objective of increasing the reachable landing area and the landing accuracy for future Mars missions. Currently only the northern hemisphere of Mars is available for landing due to its low elevation. Only low elevation landing sites have the necessary atmospheric density to allow landing using current Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology. In order to reach most of the Ancient Highlands, the majority of the southern hemisphere, advanced EDL technology is needed in multiple fields, including entry guidance. The first research area is the definition and applications of reachable and controllable sets for entry. The definition of the reachable and controllable sets provides a framework for the study of the capabilities of an entry vehicle in a given planet. Reachable and controllable sets can be used to comprehensively characterize the envelope of trajectories that a vehicle can fly, the sites it can reach and the entry states that can be accommodated. The sets can also be used for the evaluation of trajectory planning algorithms and to assist in the selection of the entry or landing sites. In essence, the reachable and controllable sets offer a powerful vehicle and trajectory analysis and design framework that allows for better mission design choices. In order to illustrate the use of the sets, they are computed for a representative Mars mission using two different vehicle configurations. The sets characterize the impact of the vehicle configuration on the entry capability. Furthermore, the sets are used to find the best skip-entry trajectory for a return from the Moon mission, highlighting the utility of the sets in atmospheric maneuvers other than entry. The second research area is the development of the components of an entry guidance algorithm that allow high elevation landing and provide as well high landing accuracy. The approach taken follows the

  8. Entry Regulation under Asymmetric Information about Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sarmento

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate how an incumbent firm can use the regulatory policy about entry and the informational advantage to protect his market position. This question is studied through the construction of a signalling game where we assume that the regulator has less information about demand than the firms. We conclude that there is a pooling equilibrium and partially separating equilibria in which entry is deterred and, if demand is high, there will be insufficient entry. The final effect on welfare depends on the tradeoff between short-run benefits (lower price and long-run losses (weaker competition.

  9. Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration.

  10. Axisymmetric whole pin life modelling of advanced gas-cooled reactor nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mella, R.; Wenman, M. R.

    2013-06-01

    Thermo-mechanical contributions to pellet-clad interaction (PCI) in advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGRs) are modelled in the ABAQUS finite element (FE) code. User supplied sub-routines permit the modelling of the non-linear behaviour of AGR fuel through life. Through utilisation of ABAQUS's well-developed pre- and post-processing ability, the behaviour of the axially constrained steel clad fuel was modelled. The 2D axisymmetric model includes thermo-mechanical behaviour of the fuel with time and condition dependent material properties. Pellet cladding gap dynamics and thermal behaviour are also modelled. The model treats heat up as a fully coupled temperature-displacement study. Dwell time and direct power cycling was applied to model the impact of online refuelling, a key feature of the AGR. The model includes the visco-plastic behaviour of the fuel under the stress and irradiation conditions within an AGR core and a non-linear heat transfer model. A multiscale fission gas release model is applied to compute pin pressure; this model is coupled to the PCI gap model through an explicit fission gas inventory code. Whole pin, whole life, models are able to show the impact of the fuel on all segments of cladding including weld end caps and cladding pellet locking mechanisms (unique to AGR fuel). The development of this model in a commercial FE package shows that the development of a potentially verified and future-proof fuel performance code can be created and used. The usability of a FE based fuel performance code would be an enhancement over past codes. Pre- and post-processors have lowered the entry barrier for the development of a fuel performance model to permit the ability to model complicated systems. Typical runtimes for a 5 year axisymmetric model takes less than one hour on a single core workstation. The current model has implemented: Non-linear fuel thermal behaviour, including a complex description of heat flow in the fuel. Coupled with a variety of

  11. An Investigation on the Pin Bearings’ Optimization of a Hermetic Reciprocating Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, A. R.; Hacioglu, B.; Kasapoglu, E.

    2015-08-01

    A hermetic reciprocating compressor is the most energy consuming component of the refrigerators. Therefore performance improvement studies of the compressor play an important role to reduce overall energy consumption of the refrigerators. Design of bearings is one of the major study areas influencing reciprocating compressor performance. In this study crank pin and piston pin bearings in hermetic compressor applications are investigated and optimized. The effect of operating conditions, bearing offset between crank pin and piston pin, bearing clearance and bearing location along the shaft on the friction loss were investigated and optimal bearing designs were developed. Efficiency measurements of the compressor showed that the improved crank pin and piston pin bearing designs provide up to 3.8% increase in the COP as a result of reduction in mechanical loss that is significantly influenced by the length of the bearings, bearing location along the shaft and operating conditions.

  12. Evaluation of PWR and BWR pin cell benchmark results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pijlgroms, B.J.; Gruppelaar, H.; Janssen, A.J. (Unit Nuclear Energy, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, Petten (Netherlands)); Hoogenboorm, J.E.; De Leege, P.F.A. (International Reactor Institute IRI, University of Leiden, Leiden (Netherlands)); Van de Voet, J.; Verhagen, F.C.M. (KEMA NV, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1992-01-01

    In order to carry out reliable reactor core calculations for a boiled water reactor (BWR) or a pressurized water reactor (PWR) first reactivity calculations have to be carried out for which several calculation programs are available. The purpose of the title project is to exchange experiences to improve the knowledge of this reactivity calculations. In a large number of institutes reactivity calculations of PWR and BWR pin cells were executed by means of available computer codes. Results are compared. It is concluded that the variations in the calculated results are problem dependent. Part of the results is satisfactory. However, further research is necessary.

  13. Pinning control of spatio temporal chaos in nonlinear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, C; Martinez-Mardones, J [Institute of Physics, Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaiso, 234-0025 Valparaiso (Chile); Ramazza, P L; Boccaletti, S [CNR- Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)], E-mail: caromendoza@gmail.com

    2008-11-01

    We have studied numerically the influence of the number of controllers in the control of a spatial pattern in an optical device. In this article, we focus on the liquid crystal light valve (LCLV) which is known to exhibit spatio-temporal chaotic states in some range of parameters. By applying a correcting term in the intensity proportional to the difference between the light intensity of the target pattern and the chaos state, the system is driven to the target pattern in finite time. In addition, we study the number of pinning points and their positions to reach the control of the pattern.

  14. Analyzing the use of pins in safety bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Fonseca, Cesar A. L. L.; Weber, Hans I.; Fleischer, Philip F.

    2015-01-01

    A new concept for safety bearings is analyzed: useful in emergency situations, it shall protect the bearing from destruction by the use of pins which impact with a disc, both capable of good energy dissipation. Results of work in progress are presented by validating partial stages......, the variation of energy content of the disc after each contact is considered. Actually, the validation of the clamped-free rotor is done. The main goal is to design an automatic system with the capability of changing the gap when necessary in order to avoid the rotor colliding with the inner part of the bearing....

  15. Current Kink and Capacitance Frequency Dispersion in Silicon PIN Photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xia; Feng, Yajie; Liu, Qiaoli; Wang, Huaqiang; Li, Chong; Hu, Zonghai; He, Xiaoying

    2017-09-01

    Silicon PIN photodiodes in the visible wavelength range have been widely applied in aerospace, defense, security, medical, and scientific instruments because of their high sensitivity and low cost. In this paper, the phenomena of the current kink and the capacitance frequency dispersion are observed. Contamination at the p-type Ohmic contact interface is proposed to explain the current kink effect and capacitance frequency dispersion, according to the temperature-dependent I-V measurement results in which trap-assisted tunneling process demonstrated.

  16. Biomechanical and Cost Comparisons of Near-Far and Pin-Bar Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney Kluk, Augusta; Zhang, Tina; Russell, Joseph P; Kim, Hyunchul; Hsieh, Adam H; O'Toole, Robert V

    2017-03-01

    Orthopedic dogma states that external fixator stiffness is improved by placing 1 pin close to the fracture and 1 as distant as possible ("near-far"). This fixator construct is thought to be less expensive than placing pins a shorter distance apart and using "pin-bar" clamps that attach pins to outriggers. The authors therefore hypothesized that the near-far construct is stiffer and less expensive. They compared mechanical stiffness and costs of near-far and pin-bar constructs commonly used for temporary external fixation of femoral shaft fractures. Their testing model simulated femoral shaft fractures in damage control situations. Fourth-generation synthetic femora (n=18) were used. The near-far construct had 2 pins that were 106 mm apart, placed 25 mm from the gap on each side of the fracture. The pin-bar construct pins were 55 mm apart, placed 40 mm from the gap. Mechanical testing was performed on a material test system machine. Stiffness was determined in the linear portion of the load-displacement curve for both constructs in 4 modes: axial compression, torsional loading, frontal plane 3-point bending, and sagittal plane 3-point bending. Costs were determined from a 2012 price guide. Compared with the near-far construct, the pin-bar construct had stiffness increased by 58% in axial compression (P<.05) and by 52% in torsional loading (P<.05). The pin-bar construct increased cost by 11%. In contrast to the authors' hypothesis and existing orthopedic dogma, the near-far construct was less stiff than the pin-bar construct and was similarly priced. Use of the pin-bar construct is mechanically and economically reasonable. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e238-e241.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Size effects of nano-scale pinning centers on the superconducting properties of YBCO single grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutalbi, Nahed; Noudem, Jacques G.; M'chirgui, Ali

    2014-08-01

    High pinning superconductors are the most promising materials for power engineering. Their superconducting properties are governed by the microstructure quality and the vortex pinning behavior. We report on a study of the vortex pinning in YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) single grain with defects induced through the addition of insulating nano-particles. In order to improve the critical current density, YBCO textured bulk superconductors were elaborated using the Top Seeded Melt Texture and Growth process with different addition amounts of Al2O3 nano-particles. Serving as strong pinning centers, 0.05% excess of Al2O3 causes a significant enhancement of the critical current density Jc under self field and in magnetic fields at 77 K. The enhanced flux pinning achieved with the low level of alumina nano-particles endorses the effectiveness of insulating nano-inclusions to induce effectives pinning sites within the superconducting matrix. On the other side, we focused on the effect of the size of pinning centers on the critical current density. This work was carried out using two batches of alumina nano-particles characterized by two different particle size distributions with mean diameters PSD1 = 20 nm and PSD2 = 2.27 μm. The matching effects of the observed pinning force density have been compared. The obtained results have shown that the flux pinning is closely dependent on the size of the artificial pinning centers. Our results suggest that the optimization of the size of the artificial pinning centers is crucial to a much better understanding of the pinning mechanisms and therefore to insure high superconducting performance for the practical application of superconducting materials.

  18. The PIN1 family gene PvPIN1 is involved in auxin-dependent root emergence and tillering in switchgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijie Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.; family Poaceae is a warm-season C4 perennial grass. Tillering plays an important role in determining the morphology of aboveground parts and the final biomass yield of switchgrass. Auxin distribution in plants can affect a variety of important growth and developmental processes, including the regulation of shoot and root branching, plant resistance and biological yield. Auxin transport and gradients in plants are mediated by influx and efflux carriers. PvPIN1, a switchgrass PIN1-like gene that is involved in regulating polar transport, is a putative auxin efflux carrier. Neighbor-joining analysis using sequences deposited in NCBI databases showed that the PvPIN1gene belongs to the PIN1 family and is evolutionarily closer to the Oryza sativa japonica group. Tiller emergence and development was significantly promoted in plants subjected toPvPIN1 RNA interference (RNAi, which yielded a phenotype similar to that of wild-type plants treated with the auxin transport inhibitor TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid. A transgenic approach that inducedPvPIN1 gene overexpression or suppression altered tiller number and the shoot/root ratio. These data suggest that PvPIN1plays an important role in auxin-dependent adventitious root emergence and tillering.

  19. Integrated Entry Guidance for Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Guo-dong; ZHANG Shu-guang; FANG Zhen-ping

    2007-01-01

    A method for the implementation of integrated three-degree-of-freedom constrained entry guidance for reusable launch vehicle is presented. Given any feasible entry conditions, terminal area energy management interface conditions, and the reference trajectory generated onboard then, the method can generate a longitudinal guidance profile rapidly, featuring linear quadratic regular method and a proportional-integral-derivative tracking law with time-varying gains, which satisfies all the entry corridor constraints and meets the requirements with high precision. Afterwards, by utilizing special features of crossrange parameter, establishing bank-reversal corridor,and determining bank-reversals according to dynamically adjusted method, the algorithm enables the lateral entry guidance system to fly a wide range of missions and provides reliable and good performance in the presence of significant aerodynamic modeling uncertainty.Fast trajectory guidance profiles and simulations with a reusable launch vehicle model for various missions and aerodynamic uncertainties are presented to demonstrate the capacity and reliability of this method.

  20. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  1. Entry Mode and Performance of Nordic Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether the relationship between mode of international market entry and non-location bound international experience is weaker for firms that are large or have a high foreign to total sales ratio, labeled multinational experience. Empirical evidence based on 250 foreign...... market entries made by Norwegian, Danish and Swedish firms suggests that the association between equity mode choice and non-location bound international experience diminishes in the presence of higher levels of multinational experience. Furthermore, firms whose entry mode choice is predicted by the model...... including the proposed moderating effect, on average, yield higher post-entry performance. This study sheds light on inconsistent results found in previous research investigating the impact of international experience and has practical implications for managerial decision-making....

  2. The Effects of Entry in Bilateral Oligopoly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Dickson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of entry into the market for a single commodity in which both sellers and buyers are permitted to interact strategically. With the inclusion of an additional seller, the market is quasi-competitive: the price falls and volume of trade increases, as expected. However, contrary to the conventional wisdom, existing sellers’ payoffs may increase. The conditions under which entry by new sellers raises the equilibrium payoffs of existing sellers are derived. These depend in an intuitive way on the elasticity of a strategic analog of demand and the market share of existing sellers, and encompass entirely standard economic environments. Similar results are derived relating to the entry of additional buyers and the effects of entry on both sides of the market are investigated.

  3. Experimental and numerical investigations on the dynamic response of turbine blades with tip pin dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, S.; Berruti, T.; Cosi, L.

    2016-09-01

    Friction dampers are used to reduce vibration amplitude of turbine blades. The dynamics of these assemblies (blades + dampers) is nonlinear and the analysis is challenging from both the experimental and the numerical point of view. The study of the dynamics of blades with a tip damper is the aim of the present paper. The blades with axial-entry fir tree attachment carry a damper in a pocket between the blade covers. Pin dampers significantly affect the resonance frequency of the first blade bending mode and introduces non linearity due to friction contacts. A test rig, made of two blades held in a fixture by an hydraulic press with one damper between the blades was used for the experimental activity. Three different types of dampers (cylindrical, asymmetrical, wedge) have been experimentally investigated and experiments have shown that asymmetrical damper performs better than the others. The response of the blades with the asymmetrical damper was then simulated with a non linear code based on the Harmonic Balance Method (HBM). In the analysis, both the blade and the damper are modelled with the Finite Elements and then the matrices reduced with the Craig- Bampton Component Mode Synthesis (CB-CMS), while the periodical contact forces are modelled with state-of-the-art node-to-node contact elements. Numerical analysis has shown a strong influence of the actual extent of the contact area on the dynamics of the assembly. A model updating process was necessary. In the end, the numerical predictions match very well with the experimental curves.

  4. Entry and exit decisions under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Hans Christian

    1996-01-01

    This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result......This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result...

  5. An Analysis of the Equivalent Resistance of PIN Diodes at Microwave Frequencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guo-yu; SONG Kai-jun; MAO Rui-jie; LU Shi-qiang

    2004-01-01

    The forward bias equivalent resistance of PIN diodes, an important parameter in applications, is usually measured at lower frequencies. But in fact, due to skin effect the effective conduction area of the region I of a PIN diode decreases as the frequency increases. In this paper, the affection of skin effect to forward bias equivalent resistance is considered and an analytic expression of the equivalent resistance of the region I is presented. In result, the forward bias resistance ora PIN diode at microwave frequencies is much higher than that at DC and low frequencies. It is necessary, therefore,to consider the skin effect of PIN diodes in high frequency applications.

  6. Design and fabrication of PIN-PMN-PT single-crystal high-frequency ultrasound transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Zhou, Qifa; Zhu, Benpeng; Wu, Dawei; Hu, Changhong; Cannata, Jonathan M; Tian, Jin; Han, Pengdi; Wang, Gaofeng; Shung, K Kirk

    2009-12-01

    High-frequency PIN-PMN-PT single crystal ultrasound transducers at center frequencies of 35 MHz and 60 MHz were successfully fabricated using lead indium niobate-lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (0.23PIN- 0.5PMN-0.27PT) single crystal. The new PIN-PMN-PT single crystal has higher coercivity (6.0 kV/cm) and higher Curie temperature (160 degrees C) than PMN-PT crystal. Experimental results showed that the PIN-PMN-PT transducers have similar performance but better thermal stability compared with the PMN-PT transducers.

  7. Design and Fabrication of PIN-PMN-PT Single-Crystal High-Frequency Ultrasound Transducers

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Ping; Zhou, Qifa; Zhu, Benpeng; WU, DAWEI; Hu, Changhong; Cannata, Jonathan M.; Tian, Jin; Han, Pengdi; Wang, Gaofeng; Shung, K. Kirk

    2009-01-01

    High-frequency PIN-PMN-PT single crystal ultrasound transducers at center frequencies of 35 MHz and 60 MHz were successfully fabricated using lead indium niobate-lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (0.23PIN-0.5PMN-0.27PT) single crystal. The new PIN-PMN-PT single crystal has higher coercivity (6.0 kV/cm) and higher Curie temperature (160°C) than PMN-PT crystal. Experimental results showed that the PIN-PMN-PT transducers have similar performance but better thermal stability compared with the ...

  8. Effects of Pin1 loss in HdhQ111 knock-in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eAgostoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD is a fatal, dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disorder due to a pathological expansion of the CAG repeat in the coding region of the HTT gene. In the quest for understanding the molecular basis of neurodegeneration, we have previously demonstrated that the prolyl isomerase Pin1 plays a crucial role in mediating p53-dependent apoptosis triggered by mutant huntingtin (mHtt in vitro. To assess the effects of the lack of Pin1 in vivo, we have bred Pin1 knock-out mice with HdhQ111 knock-in mice, a genetically precise model of HD. We show that Pin1 genetic ablation modifies a portion of HdhQ111 phenotypes in a time-dependent fashion. As an early event, Pin1 activity reduces the DNA damage response. In midlife mice, by taking advantage of next-generation sequencing technology, we show that Pin1 activity modulates a portion of the alterations triggered by mHtt, extending the role of Pin1 to two additional HdhQ111 phenotypes: the unbalance in the synthesis/concentration of hormones, as well as the alteration of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In aging animals, Pin1 significantly increases the number of mHtt-positive nuclear inclusions while it reduces gliosis. In summary, this work provides further support for a role of Pin1 in HD pathogenesis.

  9. Functionally different PIN proteins control auxin flux during bulbil development in Agave tequilana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham Juárez, María Jazmín; Hernández Cárdenas, Rocío; Santoyo Villa, José Natzul; O'Connor, Devin; Sluis, Aaron; Hake, Sarah; Ordaz-Ortiz, José; Terry, Leon; Simpson, June

    2015-07-01

    In Agave tequilana, reproductive failure or inadequate flower development stimulates the formation of vegetative bulbils at the bracteoles, ensuring survival in a hostile environment. Little is known about the signals that trigger this probably unique phenomenon in agave species. Here we report that auxin plays a central role in bulbil development and show that the localization of PIN1-related proteins is consistent with altered auxin transport during this process. Analysis of agave transcriptome data led to the identification of the A. tequilana orthologue of PIN1 (denoted AtqPIN1) and a second closely related gene from a distinct clade reported as 'Sister of PIN1' (denoted AtqSoPIN1). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed different patterns of expression for each gene during bulbil formation, and heterologous expression of the A. tequilana PIN1 and SoPIN1 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed functional differences between these genes. Although no free auxin was detected in induced pedicel samples, changes in the levels of auxin precursors were observed. Taken as a whole, the data support the model that AtqPIN1 and AtqSoPIN1 have co-ordinated but distinct functions in relation to auxin transport during the initial stages of bulbil formation.

  10. Phylogeny and molecular evolution analysis of PIN-FORMED 1 in angiosperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengkai Wang

    Full Text Available PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1 is an important secondary transporter and determines the direction of intercellular auxin flow. As PIN1 performs the conserved function of auxin transport, it is expected that the sequence and structure of PIN1 is conserved. Therefore, we hypothesized that PIN1 evolve under pervasive purifying selection in the protein-coding sequences in angiosperm. To test this hypothesis, we performed detailed evolutionary analyses of 67 PIN1 sequences from 35 angiosperm species. We found that the PIN1 sequences are highly conserved within their transmembrane regions, part of their hydrophilic regions. We also found that there are two or more PIN1 copies in some of these angiosperm species. PIN1 sequences from Poaceae and Brassicaceae are representative of the modern clade. We identified 12 highly conserved motifs and a significant number of family-specific sites within these motifs. One family-specific site within Motif 11 shows a different residue between monocots and dicots, and is functionally critical for the polarity of PIN1. Likewise, the function of PIN1 appears to be different between monocots and dicots since the phenotype associated with PIN1 overexpression is opposite between Arabidopsis and rice. The evolution of angiosperm PIN1 protein-coding sequences appears to have been primarily driven by purifying selection, but traces of positive selection associated with sequences from certain families also seem to be present. We verified this observation by calculating the numbers of non-synonymous and synonymous changes on each branch of a phylogenetic tree. Our results indicate that the evolution of angiosperm PIN1 sequences involve strong purifying selection. In addition, our results suggest that the conserved sequences of PIN1 derive from a combination of the family-specific site variations and conserved motifs during their unique evolutionary processes, which is critical for the functional integrity and stability of these auxin

  11. Flavonoids Redirect PIN-mediated Polar Auxin Fluxes during Root Gravitropic Responses*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelia, Diana; Henrichs, Sina; Vincenzetti, Vincent; Sauer, Michael; Bigler, Laurent; Klein, Markus; Bailly, Aurélien; Lee, Youngsook; Friml, Jir̆í; Geisler, Markus; Martinoia, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    The rate, polarity, and symmetry of the flow of the plant hormone auxin are determined by the polar cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolites, have been suspected to modulate auxin transport and tropic responses. Nevertheless, the identity of specific flavonoid compounds involved and their molecular function and targets in vivo are essentially unknown. Here we show that the root elongation zone of agravitropic pin2/eir1/wav6/agr1 has an altered pattern and amount of flavonol glycosides. Application of nanomolar concentrations of flavonols to pin2 roots is sufficient to partially restore root gravitropism. By employing a quantitative cell biological approach, we demonstrate that flavonoids partially restore the formation of lateral auxin gradients in the absence of PIN2. Chemical complementation by flavonoids correlates with an asymmetric distribution of the PIN1 protein. pin2 complementation probably does not result from inhibition of auxin efflux, as supply of the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid failed to restore pin2 gravitropism. We propose that flavonoids promote asymmetric PIN shifts during gravity stimulation, thus redirecting basipetal auxin streams necessary for root bending. PMID:18718912

  12. Controlling flux flow dissipation by changing flux pinning in superconducting films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimaldi, G.; Leo, A.; Nigro, A.; Pace, S. [CNR SPIN Salerno and Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. R. Caianiello' ' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Silhanek, A. V. [Department de Physique, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Sart Tilman (Belgium); INPAC-Institute for Nanoscale Physics and Chemistry, Nanoscale Superconductivity and Magnetism Group, K. U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Verellen, N.; Moshchalkov, V. V. [INPAC-Institute for Nanoscale Physics and Chemistry, Nanoscale Superconductivity and Magnetism Group, K. U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Milosevic, M. V. [Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Casaburi, A.; Cristiano, R. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' ' E. Caianiello' ' , CNR, 80078 Pozzuoli (Italy)

    2012-05-14

    We study the flux flow state in superconducting materials characterized by rather strong intrinsic pinning, such as Nb, NbN, and nanostructured Al thin films, in which we drag the superconducting dissipative state into the normal state by current biasing. We modify the vortex pinning strength either by ion irradiation, by tuning the measuring temperature or by including artificial pinning centers. We measure critical flux flow voltages for all materials and the same effect is observed: switching to low flux flow dissipations at low fields for an intermediate pinning regime. This mechanism offers a way to additionally promote the stability of the superconducting state.

  13. Controlled pinning and depinning of domain walls in nanowires with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Theo; Drews, André; Meier, Guido

    2012-01-18

    We investigate switching and field-driven domain wall motion in nanowires with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy comprising local modifications of the material parameters. Intentional nucleation and pinning sites with various geometries inside the nanowires are realized via a local reduction of the anisotropy constant. Micromagnetic simulations and analytical calculations are employed to determine the switching fields and to characterize the pinning potentials and the depinning fields. Nucleation sites in the simulations cause a significant reduction of the switching field and are in excellent agreement with analytical calculations. Pinning potentials and depinning fields caused by the pinning sites strongly depend on their shapes and are well explained by analytical calculations.

  14. Enquiry into the Topology of Plasma Membrane-Localized PIN Auxin Transport Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodzyński, Tomasz; Vanneste, Steffen; Zwiewka, Marta; Pernisová, Markéta; Hejátko, Jan; Friml, Jiří

    2016-11-07

    Auxin directs plant ontogenesis via differential accumulation within tissues depending largely on the activity of PIN proteins that mediate auxin efflux from cells and its directional cell-to-cell transport. Regardless of the developmental importance of PINs, the structure of these transporters is poorly characterized. Here, we present experimental data concerning protein topology of plasma membrane-localized PINs. Utilizing approaches based on pH-dependent quenching of fluorescent reporters combined with immunolocalization techniques, we mapped the membrane topology of PINs and further cross-validated our results using available topology modeling software. We delineated the topology of PIN1 with two transmembrane (TM) bundles of five α-helices linked by a large intracellular loop and a C-terminus positioned outside the cytoplasm. Using constraints derived from our experimental data, we also provide an updated position of helical regions generating a verisimilitude model of PIN1. Since the canonical long PINs show a high degree of conservation in TM domains and auxin transport capacity has been demonstrated for Arabidopsis representatives of this group, this empirically enhanced topological model of PIN1 will be an important starting point for further studies on PIN structure-function relationships. In addition, we have established protocols that can be used to probe the topology of other plasma membrane proteins in plants.

  15. 风险、知识与记忆对在线搜索进入路径选择的影响研究%Impact of Risk, Knowledge and Memory on Choice of Entry Path of Online Search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵星; 董晓松; 姜旭平

    2013-01-01

    The risk, prior knowledge and memory structure are the straightforward determining and important factors affecting online search strategies.The MNL model is applied to the study to measure the endogenous role of the risk perception , prior knowledge and memory structure variables.In addition, the research indicates that the path of the initial online search is the key stage to the network marketing, and the company must meet the information needs of consumers in the first time.Finally, the study gives an example to estimate the online search behavior of the target consumers.%运用MNL模型,通过对消费者在网络搜索起始阶段的探索性实证研究,测度风险感知、先验知识、记忆结构等消费者内在特质因素对在线搜索路径选择的驱动作用.研究提出,消费者在线搜索的初始进入路径是网络营销吸引与跟踪顾客的关键阶段,为避免客户流失,必须在第一时间点迎合消费者信息需要.以在线搜索工具区分三种搜索路径,对搜索环境的解释更贴近用户的真实需求.

  16. Hypersonic and planetary entry flight mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, N. X.; Busemann, A.; Culp, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The book treats hypersonic flight trajectories and atmospheric entry flight mechanics in light of their importance for space shuttle entry. Following a review of the structures of planetary atmospheres and aerodynamic forces, equations are derived for flight over a spherical planet, and the performance of long-range hypervelocity vehicles in extra-atmospheric flight is analyzed. Consideration is then given to vehicle trajectories in the powered and atmospheric reentry phases of flight, and several first-order solutions are derived for various planetary entry situations. The second-order theory of Loh for entry trajectories is presented along with the classical theories of Yaroshevskii and Chapman for entry into planetary atmospheres, and the thermal problems encountered in hypersonic flight are analyzed. A unified theory for entry into planetary atmospheres is then introduced which allows the performance of a general type of lifting vehicle to be studied, and applied to the analysis of orbit contraction due to atmospheric drag, flight with lift modulation and lateral maneuvers.

  17. The Half-Pin and the Pin Tract: A Survey of the Limb Lengthening and Reconstruction Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    report no actual or potential conflict of interest in relation to this article. AJO DO NOT COPY Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...dealing with half-pin scars? 9. Do you remove frames in the operating room or clinic? AJO DO NOT COPY E70    The American Journal of Orthopedics...open-ended question soliciting comments and tips/tricks not addressed in the 9-question survey (Table I). AJO DO NOT COPY A Survey of the Limb

  18. Measurement strategy and analytic model to determine firing pin force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesenciuc, Ioan; Suciu, Cornel

    2016-12-01

    As illustrated in literature, ballistics is a branch of theoretical mechanics, which studies the construction and working principles of firearms and ammunition, their effects, as well as the motions of projectiles and bullets1. Criminalistics identification, as part of judiciary identification represents an activity aimed at finding common traits of different objects, objectives, phenomena and beings, but more importantly, traits that differentiate each of them from similar ones2-4. In judicial ballistics, in the case of rifled firearms it is relatively simple for experts to identify the used weapon from traces left on the projectile, as the rifling of the barrel leaves imprints on the bullet, which remain approximately identical even after the respective weapon is fired 100 times with the same barrel. However, in the case of smoothbore firearms, their identification becomes much more complicated. As the firing cap suffers alterations from being hit by the firing pin, determination of the force generated during impact creates the premises for determining the type of firearm used to shoot the respective cartridge. The present paper proposes a simple impact model that can be used to evaluate the force generated by the firing pin during its impact with the firing cap. The present research clearly showed that each rifle, by the combination of the three investigated parameters (impact force maximum value, its variation diagram, and impact time) leave a unique trace. Application of such a method in ballistics can create the perspectives for formulating clear conclusions that eliminate possible judicial errors in this field.

  19. Optimal pinning controllability of complex networks: dependence on network structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mahdi; Askari Sichani, Omid; Yu, Xinghuo

    2015-01-01

    Controlling networked structures has many applications in science and engineering. In this paper, we consider the problem of pinning control (pinning the dynamics into the reference state), and optimally placing the driver nodes, i.e., the nodes to which the control signal is fed. Considering the local controllability concept, a metric based on the eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix is taken into account as a measure of controllability. We show that the proposed optimal placement strategy considerably outperforms heuristic methods including choosing hub nodes with high degree or betweenness centrality as drivers. We also study properties of optimal drivers in terms of various centrality measures including degree, betweenness, closeness, and clustering coefficient. The profile of these centrality values depends on the network structure. For homogeneous networks such as random small-world networks, the optimal driver nodes have almost the mean centrality value of the population (much lower than the centrality value of hub nodes), whereas the centrality value of optimal drivers in heterogeneous networks such as scale-free ones is much higher than the average and close to that of hub nodes. However, as the degree of heterogeneity decreases in such networks, the profile of centrality approaches the population mean.

  20. Characterization of Nb-Ti superconductors with artificial pinning structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietderich, D.R.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1990-06-01

    A series of multifilamentary APC Nb-Ti superconductors have been made with Nb added as a normal second phase to provide flux pinning centers. Two compositions, 12.5% vol % and 25 vol % Nb in Nb-Ti, have fabricated into multifilamentary composites using two different fabrication methods. One method used hot isostatic compaction and hot extrusion thoughout the processing. The other method (bundle-and-draw process) discontinued all hot processing at an intermediate level. While the J{sub c} values of the bundle-and-draw wires are quite promising, the critical current of the extruded wires appears to be limited by poor uniformity of the filament cross-sectional area along the conductor length. The large values of the index of the resistive transition and small filament standard-deviation-to-average area ratios observed in the wires produced by the bundle-and-draw process suggest extrinsic factors have little effect on J{sub c}. The variation in J{sub c} as the wire diameter is reduced appears to be most strongly affected by intrinsic factors: Nb distribution and pinning strength. The final filament microstructure and Nb spacing are shown to be difficult to calculate, e.g., the mean Nb spacing near the final wire size may be {1/2} to 1/3 that of the calculated value. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Modeling the Interaction between AFM Tips and Pinned Surface Nanobubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhenjiang; Liu, Yawei; Xiao, Qianxiang; Schönherr, Holger; Zhang, Xianren

    2016-01-26

    Although the morphology of surface nanobubbles has been studied widely with different AFM modes, AFM images may not reflect the real shapes of the nanobubbles due to AFM tip-nanobubble interactions. In addition, the interplay between surface nanobubble deformation and induced capillary force has not been well understood in this context. In our work we used constraint lattice density functional theory to investigate the interaction between AFM tips and pinned surface nanobubbles systematically, especially concentrating on the effects of tip hydrophilicity and shape. For a hydrophilic tip contacting a nanobubble, its hydrophilic nature facilitates its departure from the bubble surface, displaying a weak and intermediate-range attraction. However, when the tip squeezes the nanobubble during the approach process, the nanobubble shows an elastic effect that prevents the tip from penetrating the bubble, leading to a strong nanobubble deformation and repulsive interactions. On the contrary, a hydrophobic tip can easily pierce the vapor-liquid interface of the nanobubble during the approach process, leading to the disappearance of the repulsive force. In the retraction process, however, the adhesion between the tip and the nanobubble leads to a much stronger lengthening effect on nanobubble deformation and a strong long-range attractive force. The trends of force evolution from our simulations agree qualitatively well with recent experimental AFM observations. This favorable agreement demonstrates that our model catches the main intergradient of tip-nanobubble interactions for pinned surface nanobubbles and may therefore provide important insight into how to design minimally invasive AFM experiments.

  2. Flux-Vortex Pinning and Neutron Star Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpar, M. Ali

    2017-09-01

    G. Srinivasan et al. (1990) proposed a simple and elegant explanation for the reduction of the neutron star magnetic dipole moment during binary evolution leading to low mass X-ray binaries and eventually to millisecond pulsars: Quantized vortex lines in the neutron star core superfluid will pin against the quantized flux lines of the proton superconductor. As the neutron star spins down in the wind accretion phase of binary evolution, outward motion of vortex lines will reduce the dipole magnetic moment in proportion to the rotation rate. The presence of a toroidal array of flux lines makes this mechanism inevitable and independent of the angle between the rotation and magnetic axes. The incompressibility of the flux-line array (Abrikosov lattice) determines the epoch when the mechanism will be effective throughout the neutron star. Flux vortex pinning will not be effective during the initial young radio pulsar phase. It will, however, be effective and reduce the dipole moment in proportion with the rotation rate during the epoch of spindown by wind accretion as proposed by Srinivasan et al. The mechanism operates also in the presence of vortex creep.

  3. Raman spectroscopy of PIN hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keya, Kimitaka; Torigoe, Yoshihiro; Toko, Susumu; Yamashita, Daisuke; Seo, Hyunwoong; Itagaki, Naho; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    Light-induced degradation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is a key issue for enhancing competitiveness in solar cell market. A-Si:H films with a lower density of Si-H2 bonds shows higher stability. Here we identified Si-H2 bonds in PIN a-Si:H solar cells fabricated by plasma CVD using Raman spectroscopy. A-Si:H solar cell has a structure of B-doped μc-SiC:H (12.5 nm)/ non-doped a-Si:H (250nm)/ P-doped μc-Si:H (40 nm) on glass substrates (Asahi-VU). By irradiating HeNe laser light from N-layer, peaks correspond to Si-H2 bonds (2100 cm-1) and Si-H bonds (2000 cm-1) have been identified in Raman scattering spectra. The intensity ratio of Si-H2 and Si-H ISiH2/ISiH is found to correlate well to light induced degradation of the cells Therefore, Raman spectroscopy is a promising method for studying origin of light-induced degradation of PIN solar cells.

  4. Electrical detection of spin coherence in microcrystalline pin solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrends, Jan [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Abt. Silizium-Photovoltaik, Berlin (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Boehme, Christoph; Lips, Klaus [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Abt. Silizium-Photovoltaik, Berlin (Germany); Haas, Stefan [Institute of Photovoltaics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Rech, Bernd [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Abt. Silizium-Photovoltaik, Berlin (Germany); Institute of Photovoltaics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Defects in the band gap of hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon ({mu}cSi:H) pin solar cells, even at low concentrations, can act as recombination centres and thus, they can influence the electronic properties of the device significantly. A powerful technique to investigate these recombination processes is pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance (pEDMR). This method is based on transient photocurrent measurements after varying specific recombination or transport rates and reveals information about the microscopic mechanisms of recombination and transport that involve paramagnetic states. In this study we report on the application of pEDMR on state-of-the-art {mu}c-Si:H pin solar cells prepared on ZnO coated glass. An adapted contact structure allows the observation of Rabi oscillations in the photocurrent at low temperatures (T=10 K) reflecting coherent spin motion. The coherence time is found to be on the order of several hundred nanoseconds and is determined by recombination. A Fourier analysis of the observed Rabi oscillations allows a distinction between the involved recombination processes. A discussion on the different recombination mechanisms in {mu}c-Si:H cells is given.

  5. Strength of self-pinning in coffee drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latka, Andrzej; Kawczinski, Kimberly; Nagel, Sidney

    The equilibrium contact angle θe of a liquid drop placed on a solid surface is uniquely determined by a balance of surface tension forces according to Young's Equation, yet is rarely observed in real systems. Due to contact angle hysteresis, liquids can make contact with a surface at any angle between the receding and advancing contact angle: θR coffee stain. For coffee θR = 0 , thus as the drop evaporates the contact line remains pinned at its initial location. This results in the majority of the coffee being deposited in a characteristic ring at the drop's original boundary. We investigate how solid particles suspended in a liquid could so strongly influence contact angle hysteresis, by measuring the receding contact angle of a drop at various times during the evaporation process. For low solute concentrations, θR slowly decreases as the drop evaporates, but remains positive. Surprisingly, we find that increasing the solute concentration results in θR = 0 and a fully pinned contact line almost immediately after the drop is deposited.

  6. Temperature dependent simulation of diamond depleted Schottky PIN diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathwar, Raghuraj; Dutta, Maitreya; Koeck, Franz A. M.; Nemanich, Robert J.; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Goodnick, Stephen M.

    2016-06-01

    Diamond is considered as an ideal material for high field and high power devices due to its high breakdown field, high lightly doped carrier mobility, and high thermal conductivity. The modeling and simulation of diamond devices are therefore important to predict the performances of diamond based devices. In this context, we use Silvaco® Atlas, a drift-diffusion based commercial software, to model diamond based power devices. The models used in Atlas were modified to account for both variable range and nearest neighbor hopping transport in the impurity bands associated with high activation energies for boron doped and phosphorus doped diamond. The models were fit to experimentally reported resistivity data over a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures. We compare to recent data on depleted diamond Schottky PIN diodes demonstrating low turn-on voltages and high reverse breakdown voltages, which could be useful for high power rectifying applications due to the low turn-on voltage enabling high forward current densities. Three dimensional simulations of the depleted Schottky PIN diamond devices were performed and the results are verified with experimental data at different operating temperatures

  7. Tungsten disrupts root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana by PIN targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Panteris, Emmanuel; Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P

    2014-08-15

    Tungsten is a heavy metal with increasing concern over its environmental impact. In plants it is extensively used to deplete nitric oxide by inhibiting nitrate reductase, but its presumed toxicity as a heavy metal has been less explored. Accordingly, its effects on Arabidopsis thaliana primary root were assessed. The effects on root growth, mitotic cell percentage, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide levels, the cytoskeleton, cell ultrastructure, auxin and cytokinin activity, and auxin carrier distribution were investigated. It was found that tungsten reduced root growth, particularly by inhibiting cell expansion in the elongation zone, so that root hairs emerged closer to the root tip than in the control. Although extensive vacuolation was observed, even in meristematic cells, cell organelles were almost unaffected and microtubules were not depolymerized but reoriented. Tungsten affected auxin and cytokinin activity, as visualized by the DR5-GFP and TCS-GFP expressing lines, respectively. Cytokinin fluctuations were similar to those of the mitotic cell percentage. DR5-GFP signal appeared ectopically expressed, while the signals of PIN2-GFP and PIN3-GFP were diminished even after relatively short exposures. The observed effects were not reminiscent of those of any nitric oxide scavengers. Taken together, inhibition of root growth by tungsten might rather be related to a presumed interference with the basipetal flow of auxin, specifically affecting cell expansion in the elongation zone.

  8. Planetary/DOD entry technology flight experiments. Volume 2: Planetary entry flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, H. E.; Krieger, R. J.; Mcneilly, W. R.; Vetter, H. C.

    1976-01-01

    The technical feasibility of launching a high speed, earth entry vehicle from the space shuttle to advance technology for the exploration of the outer planets' atmospheres was established. Disciplines of thermodynamics, orbital mechanics, aerodynamics propulsion, structures, design, electronics and system integration focused on the goal of producing outer planet environments on a probe shaped vehicle during an earth entry. Major aspects of analysis and vehicle design studied include: planetary environments, earth entry environment capability, mission maneuvers, capabilities of shuttle upper stages, a comparison of earth entry planetary environments, experiment design and vehicle design.

  9. The kinetics of root gravitropism in PIN mutants suggest redundancy in the signal transduction pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Chris

    As nonmotile organisms, plants rely on differential growth responses to maximize exposure to the resources necessary for growth and reproduction. One of the primary environmental cues causing differential growth in roots is gravity, which is thought to be sensed predominately in the root cap. This gravity perception event is thought to be transduced into information in the form of an auxin gradient across the cap and propagating basipetally toward the elongation zone. The discovery of several families of auxin efflux and influx carriers has provided significant insight into the mechanisms of directional auxin transport, and the identification of mutants in the genes encoding these carriers provides the opportunity to test the roles of these transporters in plant gravitropism. In this study, we report the results of a systematic, high-resolution study of the kinetics of root gravitropism of mutants in the PIN family of auxin efflux carriers. Based on reported expression and localization patterns, we predicted mutations in PIN2, PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7 to cause the greatest reduction in root gravitropism. While pin2 mutants showed severe gravitropic deficiencies in roots as reported previously, several alleles of pin3, pin4 and pin7 remained strongly gravitropic. PIN3 has been localized to the central columella cells, the purported gravisensing cells in the root, and shown to rapidly relocate to the lower flank of the columella cells upon gravistimulation, suggesting an early role in auxin gradient formation. Mutant alleles of PIN3 showed an early delay in response, with just 7 deg of curvature in the first hour compared to approximately 15 deg h-1 in wild-type, but their rate of curvature recovered to near wild-type levels over the ensuing 3 h. Pin3 mutants also showed a slower overall growth rate (124 µm h-1 ), elongating at approximately half the rate of wild-type roots (240 µm h-1 ). PIN4 has been localized to the quiescent center in the root, where it presumably

  10. Thermal-Hydraulic Simulations of Single Pin and Assembly Sector for IVG- 1M Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Garner, P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hanan, N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Thermal-hydraulic simulations have been performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for the highly-enriched uranium (HEU) design of the IVG.1M reactor at the Institute of Atomic Energy (IAE) at the National Nuclear Center (NNC) in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Steady-state simulations were performed for both types of fuel assembly (FA), i.e. the FA in rows 1 & 2 and the FA in row 3, as well as for single pins in those FA (600 mm and 800 mm pins). Both single pin calculations and bundle sectors have been simulated for the most conservative operating conditions corresponding to the 10 MW output power, which corresponds to a pin unit cell Reynolds number of only about 7500. Simulations were performed using the commercial code STAR-CCM+ for the actual twisted pin geometry as well as a straight-pin approximation. Various Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models gave different results, and so some validation runs with a higher-fidelity Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code were performed given the lack of experimental data. These singled out the Realizable Two-Layer k-ε as the most accurate turbulence model for estimating surface temperature. Single-pin results for the twisted case, based on the average flow rate per pin and peak pin power, were conservative for peak clad surface temperature compared to the bundle results. Also the straight-pin calculations were conservative as compared to the twisted pin simulations, as expected, but the single-pin straight case was not always conservative with regard to the straight-pin bundle. This was due to the straight-pin temperature distribution being strongly influenced by the pin orientation, particularly near the outer boundary. The straight-pin case also predicted the peak temperature to be in a different location than the twisted-pin case. This is a limitation of the straight-pin approach. The peak temperature pin was in a different location from the peak power pin in every case simulated, and occurred at an

  11. Sensitive pre-amplifier to load for Pin diodes; Pre-amplificador sensible a carga para diodos PIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobo V, R. Y.; Hernandez D, V. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico); Ramirez J, F. J., E-mail: yoshimarv@gmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The electronic instrumentation is indispensable for the measurement and characterization of the radiation. By means of this essential characteristics of the radiation are determined, as activity and their energy components. The nuclear instrumentation is based on the technical characteristics of the radiation detectors and the electronic devices associates (amplifiers, ana logical and digital converters, multichannel analyzers, etc.) The radiation detectors are very important instruments in fields as the nuclear physics, medicine, radiological protection, industry and in other fields, since they are the only method to capture the radiation and to be able to quantify it in precise form. To detect radiation diverse detector types are used, as the semiconductor type, inside them are the photodiodes type Pin. In this work the results that were obtained of the design, simulation, construction and tests of a preamplifier that was designed starting from a photodiode type Pin are presented. The system was designed and simulated with a program for electronic circuits, in this were carried out many tests being obtained a compact design and achieving the best necessary characteristics for its optimization. With the results of the simulation phase the electronics phase was built, which was couples to a spectroscopic amplifier and a multichannel analyzer. The total of the system was evaluated analyzing its performance before a triple source of alphas. Of the tests phase we find that the system allows obtaining, in a multichannel analyzer, the pulses height spectrum, with a good resolution and with this was calibrated the multichannel analyzer.

  12. 19 CFR 142.44 - Entry number range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry number range. 142.44 Section 142.44 Customs... (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.44 Entry number range. After an application for Line Release has received final approval, filers must provide the port director, in writing, with a range of entry...

  13. 77 FR 5681 - Establishment of Global Entry Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... assist in developing a marketing strategy. The firm has created a new Global Entry logo and tag line... SENTRI II. Analysis of Comments A. Program Performance and Entry Process B. Marketing of Global Entry C.... Marketing of Global Entry Comment: CBP received two comments suggesting that CBP should expand marketing...

  14. Heat transfer and pressure drop in a compact pin-fin heat exchanger with pin orientation at 18 deg to the flow direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    The heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of a novel, compact heat exchanger in helium gas were measured at 3.5 MPa and Reynolds numbers of 450 to 12,000. The pin-fin specimen consisted of pins, 0.51 mm high and spaced 2.03 mm on centers, spanning a channel through which the helium flows; the angle of the row of pins to the flow direction was 18 deg. The specimen was radiatively heated on the top side at heat fluxes up to 74 W/sq cm and insulated on the back side. Correlations were developed for the friction factor and Nusselt number. The Nusselt number compares favorably to those of past studies of staggered pin-fins, when the measured temperatures are extrapolated to the temperature of the wall-fluid interface.

  15. Aluminium toxicity targets PIN2 in Arabidopsis root apices: Effects on PIN2 endocytosis, vesicular recycling,and polar auxin transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hong; HOU NingYan; Markus SCHLICHT; WAN YingLang; Stefano MANCUSO; Frantisek BALUSKA

    2008-01-01

    The most obvious symptom of AI toxicity is the inhibition of root growth.However,the mechanism of AI-inhibiting root growth remains to be elucidated.In this study,auxin transport and vesicle movement of an auxin-efflux carrier (PIN2) were investigated in Arabidopsis roots in response to AI stress.Results indicated that AI inhibited the apical transport of auxin in root tips of Arabidopsis significantly.The severe inhibition was localized in the cells of transition zone,where the concentration of auxin was only 34% that of the control.Brefeldin A (BFA),an inhibitor of vesicle transport,induced the dot-like structure of PIN2 vesicle significantly.Al decreased the size of dot-like structure of PIN2 vesicles.Re-sults of real-time RT-PCR and Western-blotting analysis showed that Al increased the transcript level of PIN2 and the accumulation of PIN2 protein in horizontal direction of plasma membrane,but decreased its distribution in endosomes,suggesting that AI inhibited the transport of PIN2 vesicles from plasma membrane to endosomes.Results of cytoskeleton-depolymering drugs indicated that it was via the pathway of disruption of actin microfilaments that AI inhibited the transport of PIN2 vesicles.Exposed to AI stress,the cells of elongation zone had less AI uptake and less transport frequency of vesicles than cells of transition zone.Taken together,our results suggested that AI inhibited root growth mainly by modulating the transport of PIN2 vesicles between plasma membrane and endosomes,thus block-ing auxin transport and root growth.

  16. Lessons learned from planetary entry probe missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Hasso; Atreya, Sushil K.; Kasprzak, Wayne

    Probing the atmospheres and surfaces of the planets and their moons with fast moving entry probes has been a very useful and essential technique to obtain in situ or quasi in situ scientific data (ground truth) which could not otherwise be obtained from fly by or orbiter only missions and where balloon, aircraft or lander missions are too complex and too costly. Planetary entry probe missions have been conducted successfully on Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Titan after having been first demonstrated in the Earth's atmosphere. Future planetary missions should also include more entry probe missions back to Venus and to the outer planets. The success of and science returns from past missions, the need for more and unique data, and a continuously advancing technology generate confidence that future missions will be even more successful with respect to science return and technical performance. There are, however, unique challenges associated with entry probe missions and with building instruments for an entry probe, as compared to orbiters, landers, or rovers. Conditions during atmospheric entry are extreme. There are operating time constraints due to the usually short duration of the probe descent, and the instruments experience rapid environmental changes in temperature and pressure. In addition, there are resource limitations, i.e. mass, power, size and bandwidth. Because of the protective heat shield and the high acceleration the probe experiences during entry, the ratio of payload to total probe mass is usually much smaller than in other missions. Finally, the demands on the instrument design are determined in large part by conditions (pressure, temperature, composition) unique to the particular body under study, and as a result, there is no one-size-fits-all instrument for an atmospheric probe. Many of these requirements are more easily met by miniaturizing the probe instrumentation and consequently reducing the required size of the probe. Improved heat shield

  17. 76 FR 82315 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Entry/Immediate Delivery Application and Simplified Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Entry/Immediate... Budget (OMB) for review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Entry/Immediate... process is conducted in accordance with 5 CFR 1320.10. DATES: Written comments should be received on or...

  18. Autonomous gliding entry guidance with geographic constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jie; Wu Xuzhong; Tang Shengjing

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel three-dimensional autonomous entry guidance for relatively high lift-to-drag ratio vehicles satisfying geographic constraints and other path constraints. The guidance is composed of onboard trajectory planning and robust trajectory tracking. For trajectory planning, a longitudinal sub-planner is introduced to generate a feasible drag-versus-energy profile by using the interpolation between upper boundary and lower boundary of entry corridor to get the desired trajectory length. The associated magnitude of the bank angle can be specified by drag profile, while the sign of bank angle is determined by lateral sub-planner. Two-reverse mode is utilized to satisfy waypoint constraints and dynamic heading error corridor is utilized to satisfy no-fly zone constraints. The longitudinal and lateral sub-planners are iteratively employed until all of the path constraints are satisfied. For trajectory tracking, a novel tracking law based on the active disturbance rejection control is introduced. Finally, adaptability tests and Monte Carlo simulations of the entry guidance approach are performed. Results show that the proposed entry guidance approach can adapt to different entry missions and is able to make the vehicle reach the prescribed target point precisely in spite of geographic constraints.

  19. Financial Performance of Entry Mode Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Hollensen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    Based on a survey of 170 Danish SMEs the paper examines influences on entry mode choices and the financial outcome of these decisions. The main research objectives are divided into two steps: Step 1: To determine the factors influencing the choice of foreign entry modes by Danish companies. Step ...... and implications are provided for companies willing to invest more into foreign markets in order to achieve a higher degree of control and better financial results.......Based on a survey of 170 Danish SMEs the paper examines influences on entry mode choices and the financial outcome of these decisions. The main research objectives are divided into two steps: Step 1: To determine the factors influencing the choice of foreign entry modes by Danish companies. Step 2......: To determine the relationship between the choice of entry mode and export performance, measured in terms of financial outcome. Drawing from transaction cost theory the authors develop and test a model where different factors affect the level of control chosen by the parent company. This study contributes...

  20. Using the Missing Pin to Challenge Concepts of Refraction and Total Internal Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Sushmika; Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Chitaree, Ratchapak; Nopparatjamjomras, Thasaneeya R.

    2015-01-01

    A container was placed on top of a piece of white paper, and a pin positioned so that it vertically touched an outside wall of the container. Students were asked to predict the image of the pin when it was observed from the top of the container. Two scenarios of either an empty container or a container completely filled with water were considered…

  1. Experimental adiabatic vortex ratchet effect in Nb films with asymmetric pinning trap

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J E Villegas; N O nunez; M P Gonzalez; E M Gonalez; J L Vicent

    2006-01-01

    Nb films grown on top of an array of asymmetric pinning centers show a vortex ratchet effect. A net flow of vortices is induced when the vortex lattice is driven by fluctuating forces on an array of pinning centers without reflection symmetry. This effect occurs in the adiabatic regime and it could be mimiced only by reversible DC driven forces.

  2. Antagonistic regulation of PIN phosphorylation by PP2A and PINOID directs auxin flux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michniewicz, M.; Zago, M.K.; Abas, L.; Weijers, D.; Schweighofer, A.; Meskiene, I.; Heisler, M.G.; Ohno, C.; Zhang, J.; Huang, F.; Schwab, R.; Weigel, D.; Meyerowitz, E.M.; Luschnig, C.; Offringa, R.; Friml, J.

    2007-01-01

    In plants, cell polarity and tissue patterning are connected by intercellular flow of the phytohormone auxin, whose directional signaling depends on polar subcellular localization of PIN auxin transport proteins. The mechanism of polar targeting of PINs or other cargos in plants is largely

  3. Thermoelastic properties of sandwich materials with pin-reinforced foam cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Pin-reinforced foam is a novel type of sandwich core materials formed by inserting pins(trusses) into a foam matrix to create a truss-like network reinforced foam core.Upon loading,the pins deform predominantly by local stretching whilst the deformation of foam is governed by local bending.This paper presents a theoretical study on the thermoelasticity of pin-reinforced foam sandwich cores.To calculate the effective thermoelastic properties of pin-reinforced foam cores,the energy-based homogenization approach is employed to develop a micromechanics-based model,calibrated by the existing experimental data.It is found that the stiffness of the sandwich core is mainly governed by pin reinforcements:the foam matrix contributes little to sandwich stiffness.Compared with traditional foam cores without pin reinforcements,the changes in inplane thermal expansion coefficients are not vigorous as a result of pin reinforcements,while the through-thickness thermal expansion coefficient changes significantly.It is also demonstrated that it is possible to design materials with zero or negative thermal expansion coefficients under such a context.

  4. Thermoelastic properties of sandwich materials with pin-reinforced foam cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU TianJian; LIU Tao; DENG ZiChen

    2008-01-01

    Pin-reinforced foam is a novel type of sandwich core materials formed by inserting pins (trusses) into a foam matrix to create a truss-like network reinforced foam core. Upon loading, the pins deform predominantly by local stretching whilst the defor-mation of foam is governed by local bending. This paper presents a theoretical study on the thermoelasllcity of pin-reinforced foam sandwich cores. To calculate the effective thermoelastic properties of pin-reinforced foam cores, the energy-based homogenization approach is employed to develop a micromechanics-based model, calibrated by the existing experimental data. It is found that the stiffness of the sandwich core is mainly governed by pin reinforcements: the foam matrix con-tributes little to sandwich stiffness. Compared with traditional foam cores without pin reinforcements, the changes in in-plane thermal expansion coefficients are not vigorous as a result of pin reinforcements, while the through-thickness thermal expansion coefficient changes significantly. It is also demonstrated that it is pos-sible to design materials with zerO or negative thermal expansion coefficients un-der such a context.

  5. Nasal foreign body: removal of an open safety pin from the left nostril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salley, L H; Wohl, D L

    2000-02-01

    We describe the case of a woman who presented with an open safety pin lodged in her left nostril. An attempt to remove the pin with the patient under local anesthesia was not successful. Removal was eventually accomplished in the operating room with the patient under general anesthesia.

  6. A covalent PIN1 inhibitor selectively targets cancer cells by a dual mechanism of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campaner, Elena; Rustighi, Alessandra; Zannini, Alessandro; Cristiani, Alberto; Piazza, Silvano; Ciani, Yari; Kalid, Ori; Golan, Gali; Baloglu, Erkan; Shacham, Sharon; Valsasina, Barbara; Cucchi, Ulisse; Pippione, Agnese Chiara; Lolli, Marco Lucio; Giabbai, Barbara; Storici, Paola; Carloni, Paolo; Rossetti, Giulia; Benvenuti, Federica; Bello, Ezia; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Cappuzzello, Elisa; Rosato, Antonio; Del Sal, Giannino

    2017-06-01

    The prolyl isomerase PIN1, a critical modifier of multiple signalling pathways, is overexpressed in the majority of cancers and its activity strongly contributes to tumour initiation and progression. Inactivation of PIN1 function conversely curbs tumour growth and cancer stem cell expansion, restores chemosensitivity and blocks metastatic spread, thus providing the rationale for a therapeutic strategy based on PIN1 inhibition. Notwithstanding, potent PIN1 inhibitors are still missing from the arsenal of anti-cancer drugs. By a mechanism-based screening, we have identified a novel covalent PIN1 inhibitor, KPT-6566, able to selectively inhibit PIN1 and target it for degradation. We demonstrate that KPT-6566 covalently binds to the catalytic site of PIN1. This interaction results in the release of a quinone-mimicking drug that generates reactive oxygen species and DNA damage, inducing cell death specifically in cancer cells. Accordingly, KPT-6566 treatment impairs PIN1-dependent cancer phenotypes in vitro and growth of lung metastasis in vivo.

  7. Effect of Pin Tool Shape on Metal Flow During Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, J. C.; Coronado, E.; Aloor, S.; Nowak, B.; Murr, L. M.; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown that metal moves behind the rotating Friction Stir Pin Tool in two separate currents or streams. One current, mostly on the advancing side, enters a zone of material that rotates with the pin tool for one or more revolutions and eventually is abandoned behind the pin tool in crescent-shaped pieces. The other current, largely on the retreating side of the pin tool is moved by a wiping process to the back of the pin tool and fills in between the pieces of the rotational zone that have been shed by the rotational zone. This process was studied by using a faying surface copper trace to clarify the metal flow. Welds were made with pin tools having various thread pitches. Decreasing the thread pitch causes the large scale top-to-bottorn flow to break up into multiple vortices along the pin and an unthreaded pin tool provides insufficient vertical motion for there to be a stable rotational zone and flow of material via the rotational zone is not possible leading to porosity on the advancing side of the weld.

  8. Ginzburg-Landau vortices with pinning functions and self-similar solutions in harmonic maps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    We obtain the H1-compactness for a system of Ginzburg-Landau equations with pinning functions and prove that the vortices of its classical solutions are attracted to the minimum points of the pinning functions. As a corollary, we construct a self-similar solution in the evolution of harmonic maps.

  9. Antagonistic regulation of PIN phosphorylation by PP2A and PINOID directs auxin flux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michniewicz, M.; Zago, M.K.; Abas, L.; Weijers, D.; Schweighofer, A.; Meskiene, I.; Heisler, M.G.; Ohno, C.; Zhang, J.; Huang, F.; Schwab, R.; Weigel, D.; Meyerowitz, E.M.; Luschnig, C.; Offringa, R.; Friml, J.

    2007-01-01

    In plants, cell polarity and tissue patterning are connected by intercellular flow of the phytohormone auxin, whose directional signaling depends on polar subcellular localization of PIN auxin transport proteins. The mechanism of polar targeting of PINs or other cargos in plants is largely unidentif

  10. Shuttle program. MCC Level C formulation requirements: Entry guidance and entry autopilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpold, J. C.; Hill, O.

    1980-01-01

    A set of preliminary entry guidance and autopilot software formulations is presented for use in the Mission Control Center (MCC) entry processor. These software formulations meet all level B requirements. Revision 2 incorporates the modifications required to functionally simulate optimal TAEM targeting capability (OTT). Implementation of this logic in the MCC must be coordinated with flight software OTT implementation and MCC TAEM guidance OTT. The entry guidance logic is based on the Orbiter avionics entry guidance software. This MCC requirements document contains a definition of coordinate systems, a list of parameter definitions for the software formulations, a description of the entry guidance detailed formulation requirements, a description of the detailed autopilot formulation requirements, a description of the targeting routine, and a set of formulation flow charts.

  11. Pin1 Modulates the Synaptic Content of NMDA Receptors via Prolyl-Isomerization of PSD-95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Roberta; De Filippo, Roberto; Middei, Silvia; Stancheva, Stefka; Pastore, Beatrice; Ammassari-Teule, Martine; Barberis, Andrea; Cherubini, Enrico; Zacchi, Paola

    2016-05-18

    Phosphorylation of serine/threonine residues preceding a proline regulates the fate of its targets through postphosphorylation conformational changes catalyzed by the peptidyl-prolyl cis-/trans isomerase Pin1. By flipping the substrate between two different functional conformations, this enzyme exerts a fine-tuning of phosphorylation signals. Pin1 has been detected in dendritic spines and shafts where it regulates protein synthesis required to sustain the late phase of long-term potentiation (LTP). Here, we demonstrate that Pin1 residing in postsynaptic structures can interact with postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), a key scaffold protein that anchors NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in PSD via GluN2-type receptor subunits. Pin1 recruitment by PSD-95 occurs at specific serine-threonine/proline consensus motifs localized in the linker region connecting PDZ2 to PDZ3 domains. Upon binding, Pin1 triggers structural changes in PSD-95, thus negatively affecting its ability to interact with NMDARs. In electrophysiological experiments, larger NMDA-mediated synaptic currents, evoked in CA1 principal cells by Schaffer collateral stimulation, were detected in hippocampal slices obtained from Pin1(-/-) mice compared with controls. Similar results were obtained in cultured hippocampal cells expressing a PSD-95 mutant unable to undergo prolyl-isomerization, thus indicating that the action of Pin1 on PSD-95 is critical for this effect. In addition, an enhancement in spine density and size was detected in CA1 principal cells of Pin1(-/-) or in Thy-1GFP mice treated with the pharmacological inhibitor of Pin1 catalytic activity PiB.Our data indicate that Pin1 controls synaptic content of NMDARs via PSD-95 prolyl-isomerization and the expression of dendritic spines, both required for LTP maintenance. PSD-95, a membrane-associated guanylate kinase, is the major scaffolding protein at excitatory postsynaptic densities and a potent regulator of synaptic strength and plasticity. The

  12. Cross section generation for LWR pin lattices simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, Carlos E.; Macedo, Anderson A.P.; Cardoso, Fabiano S.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Costa, Antonella L. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores/CNPq, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Barros, Graiciany de P. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The majority of the neutron data library provided with the MCNP code is set at room temperature. Therefore, it is important to generate continuous energy cross section library for MCNP code for different temperatures. To evaluate the methodology used, the criticality calculations obtained using MCNP with the cross section generated at DEN/UFMG, are compared with the criticality data from the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmarks Experiments about the PIN lattices for light water reactors. It was used nuclear data from the ENDF-VII.1, JEFF-3.1 and TENDL-2014, which were processed using the NJOY99 code for different energies and temperatures. This code provides the nuclear data in ACE libraries, which then are added to MCNP libraries to perform the simulations. The results indicate the methodology efficiency developed by DEN/UFMG. (author)

  13. PINS Measurements of Explosive Simulants for Cargo Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.H. Seabury

    2008-06-01

    As part of its efforts to prevent the introduction of explosive threats on commercial flights, the Transportation Security Administration (TSL) is evaluating new explosives detection systems (EDSs) for use in air cargo inspection. The TSL has contracted Battelle to develop a new type of explosives simulant to assist in this development. These are designed to mimic the elemental profile (C, H, N, O, etc.) of explosives as well as their densities. Several “neutron in—gamma out” (n,?) techniques have been considered to quantify the elemental profile in these new simulants and the respective explosives. The method chosen by Battelle is Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS), developed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Battelle wishes to validate that the simulants behave like the explosive threats with this technology. The results of the validation measurements are presented in this report.

  14. Detecting pin diversion from pressurized water reactors spent fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Young S.; Sitaraman, Shivakumar

    2017-01-10

    Detecting diversion of spent fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) by determining possible diversion including the steps of providing a detector cluster containing gamma ray and neutron detectors, inserting the detector cluster containing the gamma ray and neutron detectors into the spent fuel assembly through the guide tube holes in the spent fuel assembly, measuring gamma ray and neutron radiation responses of the gamma ray and neutron detectors in the guide tube holes, processing the gamma ray and neutron radiation responses at the guide tube locations by normalizing them to the maximum value among each set of responses and taking the ratio of the gamma ray and neutron responses at the guide tube locations and normalizing the ratios to the maximum value among them and producing three signatures, gamma, neutron, and gamma-neutron ratio, based on these normalized values, and producing an output that consists of these signatures that can indicate possible diversion of the pins from the spent fuel assembly.

  15. Vortex pinning and dynamics in the neutron star crust

    CERN Document Server

    Wlazłowski, Gabriel; Magierski, Piotr; Bulgac, Aurel; Forbes, Michael McNeil

    2016-01-01

    The nature of the interaction between superfluid vortices and the neutron star crust, conjectured by Anderson and Itoh in 1975 to be at the heart vortex creep and the cause of glitches, has been a longstanding question in astrophysics. Previous estimates of the vortex-"nucleus" interaction have been error-prone, being either phenomenological or derived from tiny differences of large energies of stationary configurations. Using a qualitatively new approach, we follow the dynamics as superfluid vortices move in response to the presence of "nuclei" (nuclear defects in the crust). The resulting motion is perpendicular to the force, similar to the motion of a spinning top when pushed. We show that nuclei repel vortices in the neutron star crust, leading thus to interstitial vortex pinning, and characterize the force as a function of the vortex-nucleus separation.

  16. Gratings and Random Reflectors for Near-Infrared PIN Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunapala, Sarath; Bandara, Sumith; Liu, John; Ting, David

    2007-01-01

    Crossed diffraction gratings and random reflectors have been proposed as means to increase the quantum efficiencies of InGaAs/InP positive/intrinsic/ negative (PIN) diodes designed to operate as near-infrared photodetectors. The proposal is meant especially to apply to focal-plane imaging arrays of such photodetectors to be used for near-infrared imaging. A further increase in quantum efficiency near the short-wavelength limit of the near-infrared spectrum of such a photodetector array could be effected by removing the InP substrate of the array. The use of crossed diffraction gratings and random reflectors as optical devices for increasing the quantum efficiencies of quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) was discussed in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. While the optical effects of crossed gratings and random reflectors as applied to PIN photodiodes would be similar to those of crossed gratings and random reflectors as applied to QWIPs, the physical mechanisms by which these optical effects would enhance efficiency differ between the PIN-photodiode and QWIP cases: In a QWIP, the multiple-quantum-well layers are typically oriented parallel to the focal plane and therefore perpendicular or nearly perpendicular to the direction of incidence of infrared light. By virtue of the applicable quantum selection rules, light polarized parallel to the focal plane (as normally incident light is) cannot excite charge carriers and, hence, cannot be detected. A pair of crossed gratings or a random reflector scatters normally or nearly normally incident light so that a significant portion of it attains a component of polarization normal to the focal plane and, hence, can excite charge carriers. A pair of crossed gratings or a random reflector on a PIN photodiode would also scatter light into directions away from the perpendicular to the focal plane. However, in this case, the reason for redirecting light away from the perpendicular is to increase the length of the

  17. Dynamic interaction of fingertip skin and pin of tactile device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigas, Vytautas; Tolocka, Rymantas T.; Ziliukas, Pranas

    2007-12-01

    The present paper deals with investigations performed with the aim to study transmitting tactile information into the area of mechanoreceptors of the fingertip skin segment and to estimate the dynamic properties and behavior of the skin by performing numerical analysis. A computational finite element model consisting of four main layers of skin was used for transient analysis of contact dynamic interaction when loading the skin by a moving pin, as well as for modal analysis of skin and analysis of skin stress-strain state under harmonic loading (a plane strain case was studied). Material properties of the skin were assumed as linear elastic because of a very small excitation signal level. The efficiency of the regime of the skin dynamic loading in terms of the tactile signal level was defined on the basis of the strain level in the dermis zone where mechanoreceptors are placed. The possibilities of using vibratory control signal were analyzed.

  18. High-performance monolithic PIN-MODFET transimpedance photoreceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Aitken, A. L.; Bhattacharya, P.; Chen, Y. C.; Pavlidis, D.; Brock, T.

    1993-08-01

    The performance characteristics of a transimpedance photoreceiver using an In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As p-i-n photodiode integrated with a 0.1-micron gate length regrown pseudomorphic In(0.60)Ga(0.40)As MODFET grown by MBE were investigated. The regrown MODFET's have extrinsic transconductance values as high as 610 mS/mm and channel currents up to 350 mA/mm at a drain bias of 1.5 V. The measured temporal response of the photoreceiver exhibits a FWHM value of 90 ps, which indicates a bandwidth of approximately 6 GHz and expected 10-Gb/s operation. The transimpedance gain was as high as 55 dB-ohm with an 800-ohm feedback resistor.

  19. Sharp critical behavior for pinning model in random correlated environment

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Quentin

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the effect for random pinning models of long range power-law decaying correlations in the environment. For a particular type of environment based on a renewal construction, we are able to sharply describe the phase transition from the delocalized phase to the localized one, giving the critical exponent for the (quenched) free-energy, and proving that at the critical point the trajectories are fully delocalized. These results contrast with what happens both for the pure model (i.e. without disorder) and for the widely studied case of i.i.d. disorder, where the relevance or irrelevance of disorder on the critical properties is decided via the so-called Harris Criterion.

  20. Using Pin as a Memory Reference Generator for Multiprocessor Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCurdy, C

    2005-10-22

    In this paper we describe how we have used Pin to generate a multithreaded reference stream for simulation of a multiprocessor on a uniprocessor. We have taken special care to model as accurately as possible the effects of cache coherence protocol state, and lock and barrier synchronization on the performance of multithreaded applications running on multiprocessor hardware. We first describe a simplified version of the algorithm, which uses semaphores to synchronize instrumented application threads and the simulator on every memory reference. We then describe modifications to that algorithm to model the microarchitectural features of the Itanium2 that affect the timing of memory reference issue. An experimental evaluation determines that while cycle-accurate multithreaded simulation is possible using our approach, the use of semaphores has a negative impact on the performance of the simulator.

  1. Model of Ni-63 battery with realistic PIN structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Charles E.; Voss, Paul L.; Ougazzaden, Abdallah, E-mail: aougazza@georgiatech-metz.fr [Georgia Tech Lorraine, Georgia Tech-C.N.R.S., UMI2958, 2-3 rue Marconi, 57070 Metz (France); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 777 Atlantic Drive NW, 30332-0250 Atlanta (United States); Arif, Muhammad; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul [Georgia Tech Lorraine, Georgia Tech-C.N.R.S., UMI2958, 2-3 rue Marconi, 57070 Metz (France); Université de Lorraine, CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, EA 4423, 2 rue E. Belin, 57070 Metz (France); Streque, Jeremy; El Gmili, Youssef [Georgia Tech Lorraine, Georgia Tech-C.N.R.S., UMI2958, 2-3 rue Marconi, 57070 Metz (France); Belahsene, Sofiane; Martinez, Anthony; Ramdane, Abderrahim [Laboratory for Photonics and Nanostructures, CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France)

    2015-09-14

    GaN, with its wide bandgap of 3.4 eV, has emerged as an efficient material for designing high-efficiency betavoltaic batteries. An important part of designing efficient betavoltaic batteries involves a good understanding of the full process, from the behavior of the nuclear material and the creation of electron-hole pairs all the way through the collection of photo-generated carriers. This paper presents a detailed model based on Monte Carlo and Silvaco for a GaN-based betavoltaic battery device, modeled after Ni-63 as an energy source. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing it with experimental values obtained for a GaN-based p-i-n structure under scanning electron microscope illumination.

  2. Statistical mechanics of homogeneous partly pinned fluid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakoviack, Vincent

    2010-12-01

    The homogeneous partly pinned fluid systems are simple models of a fluid confined in a disordered porous matrix obtained by arresting randomly chosen particles in a one-component bulk fluid or one of the two components of a binary mixture. In this paper, their configurational properties are investigated. It is shown that a peculiar complementarity exists between the mobile and immobile phases, which originates from the fact that the solid is prepared in presence of and in equilibrium with the adsorbed fluid. Simple identities follow, which connect different types of configurational averages, either relative to the fluid-matrix system or to the bulk fluid from which it is prepared. Crucial simplifications result for the computation of important structural quantities, both in computer simulations and in theoretical approaches. Finally, possible applications of the model in the field of dynamics in confinement or in strongly asymmetric mixtures are suggested.

  3. Fulx-pinning mechanism and activation energy in malic acid-doped MgB2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR Ghorbani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fulx-pinning mechanism and activation energy of MgB2 doped with 10 wt % malic- acid has been investigated by measurement of critical current density and resistivity as a function of magnetic fields and temperatures. The field dependence of the critical current density, Jc(B, was analyzed within the collective pinning model. A crossover field, Bsb, from the single vortex to the small vortex bundle-pinning regime was observed. For sintered sample, the temperature dependence of Bsb(T at low temperature is in good agreement with the δℓ pinning mechanism, i.e., pinning associated with charge-carrier mean free path fluctuation. The activation energy was decreased linearly by increasing magnetic field.

  4. Prophylactic pinning for slipped capital femoral epiphysis: does it affect proximal femoral morphology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Gerard R; Campbell, Donald M; Wilson, Neil I L; Maclean, Jamie G B

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to determine whether prophylactic pinning of the unaffected hip in unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis affects the proximal femoral morphology. Twenty-four hips prophylactically pinned were compared with 26 cases observed. The articulotrochanteric distance (ATD) and the trochanteric-trochanteric distance (TTD) were measured. Postoperative radiographs were compared with final follow-up radiographs. The final TTD : ATD ratio was higher (P=0.048) in the pinned group, suggesting relative coxa vara/breva. There was a smaller difference between the two hips in the prophylactically pinned group (0.7) as opposed to those observed (1.47). Prophylactic pinning does not cause growth to stop immediately but alters the proximal femoral morphology.

  5. Synchronization for an array of neural networks with hybrid coupling by a novel pinning control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Dawei; Lewis, Frank L; Wang, Liping; Xu, Ke

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a novel pinning synchronization (synchronization with pinning control) scheme for an array of neural networks with hybrid coupling is investigated. The main contributions are as follows: (1) A novel pinning control strategy is proposed for the first time. Pinning control schemes are introduced as an array of column vector. The controllers are designed as simple linear systems, which are easy to be analyzed or tested. (2) Augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) is applied to introduce more relax variables, which can alleviate the requirements of the positive definiteness of the matrix. (3) Based on the appropriate LKF, by introducing some free weighting matrices, some novel synchronization criteria are derived. Furthermore, the proposed pinning control scheme described by column vector can also be expanded to almost all the other array of neural networks. Finally, numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  6. Sodium Loop Safety Facility W-2 experiment fuel pin rupture detection system. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, M.A.; Kirchner, T.L.; Meyers, S.C.

    1980-05-01

    The objective of the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) W-2 experiment is to characterize the combined effects of a preconditioned full-length fuel column and slow transient overpower (TOP) conditions on breeder reactor (BR) fuel pin cladding failures. The W-2 experiment will meet this objective by providing data in two technological areas: (1) time and location of cladding failure, and (2) early post-failure test fuel behavior. The test involves a seven pin, prototypic full-length fast test reactor (FTR) fuel pin bundle which will be subjected to a simulated unprotected 5 cents/s reactivity transient overpower event. The outer six pins will provide the necessary prototypic thermal-hydraulic environment for the center pin.

  7. Los Alamos Hot-Cell-Facility modifications for examining FFTF fuel pins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, B.M.; Ledbetter, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Commissioned in 1960, the Wing 9 Hot Cell Facility at Los Alamos was recently modified to meet the needs of the 1980s. Because fuel pins from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) are too long for examination in the original hot cells, we modified cells to accommodate longer fuel pins and to provide other capabilities as well. For instance, the T-3 shipping cask now can be opened in an inert atmosphere that can be maintained for all nondestructive and destructive examinations of the fuel pins. The full-length pins are visually examined and photographed, the wire wrap is removed, and fission gas is sampled. After the fuel pin is cropped, a cap is seal-welded on the section containing the fuel column. This section is then transferred to other cells for gamma-scanning, radiography, profilometry, sectioning for metallography, and chemical analysis.

  8. Cell polarity and patterning by PIN trafficking through early endosomal compartments in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Tanaka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PIN-FORMED (PIN proteins localize asymmetrically at the plasma membrane and mediate intercellular polar transport of the plant hormone auxin that is crucial for a multitude of developmental processes in plants. PIN localization is under extensive control by environmental or developmental cues, but mechanisms regulating PIN localization are not fully understood. Here we show that early endosomal components ARF GEF BEN1 and newly identified Sec1/Munc18 family protein BEN2 are involved in distinct steps of early endosomal trafficking. BEN1 and BEN2 are collectively required for polar PIN localization, for their dynamic repolarization, and consequently for auxin activity gradient formation and auxin-related developmental processes including embryonic patterning, organogenesis, and vasculature venation patterning. These results show that early endosomal trafficking is crucial for cell polarity and auxin-dependent regulation of plant architecture.

  9. Mechanism of store-operated calcium entry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Devkanya Dutta

    2000-12-01

    Activation of receptors coupled to the phospholipase C/IP3 signalling pathway results in a rapid release of calcium from its intracellular stores, eventually leading to depletion of these stores. Calcium store depletion triggers an influx of extracellular calcium across the plasma membrane, a mechanism known as the store-operated calcium entry or capacitative calcium entry. Capacitative calcium current plays a key role in replenishing calcium stores and activating various physiological processes. Despite considerable efforts, very little is known about the molecular nature of the capacitative channel and the signalling pathway that activates it. This review summarizes our current knowledge about store operated calcium entry and suggests possible hypotheses for its mode of activation.

  10. Modes and orders of market entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the initial questions of how and when to enter a market from the perspective of a firm. By entry mode is meant a firm’s strategy (innovation or imitation) for entering the market in response to environmental changes. Entry order refers to the related issue of market timing...... strategies are more ambiguous. Based on a corporate technology and innovation strategy perspective, the paper reconceptualises and extends existing modes and orders of market entry, and in particular clarifies the ambiguity associated with imitative strategies. Four distinct imitator strategies...... are identified. The paper closes with a brief discussion of limitations, avenues for future research, and implications for managers and affected policymakers....

  11. 19 CFR 113.62 - Basic importation and entry bond conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... entitling it to duty-free treatment; (2) If a fishing vessel, to present the original approved application to Customs within 24 hours on each arrival of the vessel in the Customs territory of the United... officers from any risk, loss, or expense arising out of principal's importation, entry, or withdrawal...

  12. Automated Re-Entry System using FNPEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wyatt R.; Lu, Ping; Stachowiak, Susan J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation and simulated performance of the FNPEG (Fully Numerical Predictor-corrector Entry Guidance) algorithm into GNC FSW (Guidance, Navigation, and Control Flight Software) for use in an autonomous re-entry vehicle. A few modifications to FNPEG are discussed that result in computational savings -- a change to the state propagator, and a modification to cross-range lateral logic. Finally, some Monte Carlo results are presented using a representative vehicle in both a high-fidelity 6-DOF (degree-of-freedom) sim as well as in a 3-DOF sim for independent validation.

  13. Form, its meaning, and dictionary entries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    It is worth stressing that distinguishing between the form and its meaning in comparing the material 6 languages belonging to three different groups of Slavic languages (as is the case in the MONDILEX Project will allow us to avoid numeorus substantiva mistakes and erroneous conclusions. Hence dictionary entries should be verified and made uniform in that respect before they are “digitalized”... Distinction between the form and its meaning in a dictionary entry is fully possible, as shown by works of Z. Saloni (2002 and A.Przepiórkowski (2008.

  14. Project Prometheus and Future Entry Probe Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on project Prometheus and future entry probe missions is shown. The topics include: 1) What Is Project Prometheus?; 2) What Capabilities Can Project Prometheus Offer? What Mission Types Are Being Considered?; 3) Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO); 4) How Are Mission Opportunities Changing?; 5) Missions Of Interest a Year Ago; 6) Missions Now Being Considered For Further Study; 7) Galileo-Style (Conventional) Probe Delivery; 8) Galileo-Style Probe Support; 9) Conventional Delivery and Support of Multiple Probes; 10) How Entry Probe Delivery From an NEP Vehicle Is Different; and 11) Concluding Remarks.

  15. "Generic Entry and the Pricing of Pharmaceuticals"

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Richard G.; David S. Salkever

    1995-01-01

    During the 1980s the share of prescriptions sold by retail pharmacies that was accounted for by generic products roughly doubled. The price response to generic entry of brand-name products has been a source of controversy. In this paper we estimate models of price responses to generic entry in the market for brand-name and generic drugs. We study a sample of 32 drugs that lost patent protection during the early to mid-1980s. Our results provide strong evidence that brand-name prices increase ...

  16. Dynamics of two-dimensional vortex system in a strong square pinning array at the second matching field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Qing-Bao [Department of Physics, Lishui University, Lishui 323000 (China); Luo, Meng-Bo, E-mail: Luomengbo@zju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2013-10-30

    We study the dynamics of a two-dimensional vortex system in a strong square pinning array at the second matching field. Two kinds of depinning behaviors, a continuous depinning transition at weak pinning and a discontinuous one at strong pinning, are found. We show that the two different kinds of vortex depinning transitions can be identified in transport as a function of the pinning strength and temperature. Moreover, interstitial vortex state can be probed from the transport properties of vortices.

  17. Pinning efficiency of splayed columnar defects in Bi-2212 single crystal: Evidence of a cage pinning effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaidiuk, V. A.; Ruyter, A.; Plessis, D.; Simon, Ch.; Maignan, A.; Wahl, A.; de Brion, S.; Ammor, L.

    2011-05-01

    A three-directional configuration of columnar defects has been induced in a Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 single crystal by irradiation with heavy ions of high energy. Persistent current densities have been extracted, using the Bean model, from hysteresis loops recorded in the orientation H||c. We have shown that improvements in pinning properties are larger in this three-directional splayed configuration than in the one obtained with columnar defects parallel to the c-axis. This effect exists only for H larger than HΦ, where HΦ is the matching field, and disappears as temperature is increased and vortices become less stiff. This is the first time that such a beneficial effect is reported for a compound of such a high electronic anisotropy.

  18. Position-optimization on retained entry and backfilling wall in gob-side entry retaining techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaowei Feng; Nong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the stability problem of gob-side entry retaining (GER) and backfilling wall which located under the key block B. Based on the combined research of elastic–plastic mechanics, structure mechanics and modern theory of mining-induced pressure, the caving characteristic and roof structure over the GER were analyzed, and the vertical force and the torque on retained entry roof were also derived as the position for the retained entry varies. On the basis of the specific geology in Huainan mining area, the results indicate that a relatively more stable position for retained entry neighbors the hinge point of block A and B, and it also located at a scope ranging from this point to the one-third length of block B in horizontal direction. As to appropriate position for backfilling wall, this study recommends partial-road-in backfilling method for GER. Field trial conducted at panel face 12418 of Xieqiao Mine demonstrates that the recommended width for original entry is 3.6 m and the preferred width proportion between original retained entry and original entry is 75%or so whereas the avoidable one is 88%or so. These findings provide qualitative references to the mines which share similar geology as what Huainan mining area characterized.

  19. A ROP GTPase-dependent auxin signaling pahtway regulates the subcellular distribution of PIN2 in Arabidopsis roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, D.; Nagawa, S.; Chen, J.; Cao, L.; Scheres, B.

    2012-01-01

    PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein-mediated auxin polar transport is critically important for development, pattern formation, and morphogenesis in plants. Auxin has been implicated in the regulation of polar auxin transport by inhibiting PIN endocytosis [1 and 2], but how auxin regulates this process is

  20. A ROP GTPase-dependent auxin signaling pahtway regulates the subcellular distribution of PIN2 in Arabidopsis roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, D.; Nagawa, S.; Chen, J.; Cao, L.; Scheres, B.

    2012-01-01

    PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein-mediated auxin polar transport is critically important for development, pattern formation, and morphogenesis in plants. Auxin has been implicated in the regulation of polar auxin transport by inhibiting PIN endocytosis [1 and 2], but how auxin regulates this process is poorl

  1. Evaluation of FFTF fuel pin design procedure vis-a-vis steady state irradiation performance in EBR II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R.J.

    1976-11-01

    The FFTF fuel pin design analysis is shown to be conservative through comparison with pin irradiation experience in EBR-II. This comparison shows that the actual lifetimes of EBR-II fuel pins are either greater than 80,000 MWd/MTM or greater than the calculated allowable lifetimes based on thermal creep strain.

  2. Testing of the KRI-developed Silicon PIN Radioxenon Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxe, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McIntyre, Justin I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-23

    Radioxenon detectors are used for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) in a network of detectors throughout the world called the International Monitoring System (IMS). The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) has tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with testing a V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) and Lares Ltd-developed Silicon PIN detector for radioxenon detection. PNNL measured radioxenon with the silicon PIN detector and determined its potential compared to current plastic scintillator beta cells. While the PNNL tested Si detector experienced noise issues, a second detector was tested in Russia at Lares Ltd, which did not exhibit the noise issues. Without the noise issues, the Si detector produces much better energy resolution and isomer peak separation than a conventional plastic scintillator cell used in the SAUNA systems in the IMS. Under the assumption of 1 cm3 of Xe in laboratory-like conditions, 24-hr count time (12-hr count time for the SAUNA), with the respective shielding the minimum detectable concentrations for the Si detector tested by Lares Ltd (and a conventional SAUNA system) were calculated to be: 131mXe – 0.12 mBq/m3 (0.12 mBq/m3); 133Xe – 0.18 mBq/m3 (0.21 mBq/m3); 133mXe – 0.07 mBq/m3 (0.15 mBq/m3); 135Xe – 0.45 mBq/m3 (0.67 mBq/m3). Detection limits, which are one of the important factors in choosing the best detection technique for radioxenon in field conditions, are significantly better than for SAUNA-like detection systems for 131mXe and 133mXe, but similar for 133Xe and 135Xe. Another important factor is the amount of “memory effect” or carry over signal from one radioxenon measurement to the subsequent sample. The memory effect is

  3. 19 CFR 4.8 - Preliminary entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... electronic equivalent of a complete Customs Form 1302 (Cargo Declaration), in the manner provided in § 4.7(b... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary entry. 4.8 Section 4.8 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  4. 19 CFR 145.25 - Entry correct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... director believes the duty originally assessed was correct, he shall send the addressee a notice in writing... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry correct. 145.25 Section 145.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  5. Continuous Aerodynamic Modelling of Entry Shapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkx, D.; Mooij, E.

    2011-01-01

    During the conceptual design phase of a re-entry vehicle, the vehicle shape can be varied and its impact on performance evaluated. To this end, the continuous modeling of the aerodynamic characteristics as a function of the shape is useful in exploring the full design space. Local inclination method

  6. Radon entry into a simple test structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Søgaard-Hansen, J.; Majborn, B.

    1992-01-01

    A simple test structure for studies of radon entry into houses has been constructed at a field site at Riso National Laboratory. It consists of a 40 1, stainless-steel cylinder placed in a 0.52 m deep quadratic excavation with a side length of 2.4 m. The excavation is lined with an airtight...

  7. Flavivirus cell entry and membrane fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jolanda M.; Moesker, Bastiaan; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela; Wilschut, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Flaviviruses, such as dengue virus and West Nile virus, are enveloped viruses that infect cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and fusion from within acidic endosomes. The cell entry process of flaviviruses is mediated by the viral E glycoprotein. This short review will address recent advance

  8. Processes with multiple entries and exits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Stefanescu, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to integrate the algebra of communicating processes (ACP) and the algebra of flownomials (AF). Basically, this means to combine axiomatized parallel and looping operators. To this end we introduce a model of process graphs with multiple entries and exits. In this model the u

  9. HIV-1 Entry Inhbitors: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuritzkes, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review This review provides an overview of HIV-1 entry inhibitors, with a focus on chemokine receptor antagonists. Recent findings Entry of HIV-1 into target cells is an ordered multi-step process involving attachment, co-receptor binding and fusion. Inhibitors of each step have been identified and shown to have antiviral activity in clinical trials. Phase 1-2 trials of monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule attachment inhibitors have demonstrated activity in HIV-1-infected subjects, but none has progressed to later phase clinical trials. The post-attachment inhibitor ibalizumab has shown activity in phase 1 and 2 trials; further studies are anticipated. The CCR5 antagonists maraviroc (now been approved for clinical use) and vicriviroc (in phase 3 trials) have shown significant benefit in controlled trials in treatment-experienced subjects; additional CCR5 antagonists are in various stages of clinical development. Targeting CXCR4 has proven to be more challenging. Although proof of concept has been demonstrated in phase 1-2 trials of two compounds, neither proved suitable for chronic administration. Little progress has been reported in developing longer acting or orally bioavailable fusion inhibitors. Summary ACCR5 antagonist and a fusion inhibitor are approved for use as HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Development of drugs targeting other steps in HIV-1 entry is ongoing. PMID:19339945

  10. Duopoly Dynamics with a Barrier to Entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbring, J.H.; Campbell, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the effects of raising the cost of entry for a potential competitor on infinite-horizon Markov-perfect duopoly dynamics with ongoing demand uncertainty. All entrants serving the model industry incur sunk costs, and exit avoids future fixed costs. We focus on the unique equilibri

  11. Internet portals as portfolios of entry options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Rossetto, S.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the valuation of platform investment, such as a software operating system or an Internet portal WebPage. Platform investment is the creation of an innovative distribution and production infrastructure, which increases access to customers; as a result it reduces entry costs in related

  12. Internet portals as portfolios of entry options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Rossetto, S.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the valuation of platform investment, such as a software operating system or an Internet portal WebPage. Platform investment is the creation of an innovative distribution and production infrastructure, which increases access to customers; as a result it reduces entry costs in related

  13. Flavivirus cell entry and membrane fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jolanda M.; Moesker, Bastiaan; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela; Wilschut, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Flaviviruses, such as dengue virus and West Nile virus, are enveloped viruses that infect cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and fusion from within acidic endosomes. The cell entry process of flaviviruses is mediated by the viral E glycoprotein. This short review will address recent advance

  14. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    distance from foreign firms. Domestic firms with smaller technological distance from their foreign counterparts tend to experience faster productivity growth, while firms with larger technological distance tend to lag further behind. We test this hypothesis using a unique firm-level data of Chinese...... manufacturing. Our empirical results confirm that foreign entry indeed generates strong heterogeneous growth patterns among domestic firms....

  15. Cyclohexyl Ketone Inhibitors of Pin1 Dock in a Trans-Diaxial Cyclohexane Conformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoyan G.; Slebodnick, Carla; Etzkorn, Felicia A.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclohexyl ketone substrate analogue inhibitors (Ac–pSer-Ψ[C = OCH]-Pip–tryptamine) of Pin1, the cell cycle regulatory peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase), were designed and synthesized as potential electrophilic acceptors for the Pin1 active site Cys113 nucleophile to test a proposed nucleophilic addition-isomerization mechanism. Because they were weak inhibitors, models of all three stereoisomers were docked into the active site of Pin1. Each isomer consistently minimized to a trans-diaxial cyclohexane conformation. From this, we hypothesize that Pin1 stretches substrates into a trans-pyrrolidine conformation to lower the barrier to isomerization. Our reduced amide inhibitor of Pin1 adopted a similar trans-pyrrolidine conformation in the crystal structure. The molecular model of 1, which mimics the l-Ser-l-Pro stereochemistry, in the Pin1 active site showed a distance of 4.4 Å, and an angle of 31° between Cys113-S and the ketone carbon. The computational models suggest that the mechanism of Pin1 PPIase is not likely to proceed through nucleophilic addition. PMID:23028504

  16. Cyclohexyl ketone inhibitors of Pin1 dock in a trans-diaxial cyclohexane conformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyan G Xu

    Full Text Available Cyclohexyl ketone substrate analogue inhibitors (Ac-pSer-Ψ[C = OCH]-Pip-tryptamine of Pin1, the cell cycle regulatory peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase, were designed and synthesized as potential electrophilic acceptors for the Pin1 active site Cys113 nucleophile to test a proposed nucleophilic addition-isomerization mechanism. Because they were weak inhibitors, models of all three stereoisomers were docked into the active site of Pin1. Each isomer consistently minimized to a trans-diaxial cyclohexane conformation. From this, we hypothesize that Pin1 stretches substrates into a trans-pyrrolidine conformation to lower the barrier to isomerization. Our reduced amide inhibitor of Pin1 adopted a similar trans-pyrrolidine conformation in the crystal structure. The molecular model of 1, which mimics the l-Ser-l-Pro stereochemistry, in the Pin1 active site showed a distance of 4.4 Å, and an angle of 31° between Cys113-S and the ketone carbon. The computational models suggest that the mechanism of Pin1 PPIase is not likely to proceed through nucleophilic addition.

  17. Load monitoring of pin-connected structures using piezoelectric impedance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yabin; Li, Dongsheng; Parvasi, Seyed Mohammad; Song, Gangbing

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study on a developed impedance-based technique using Lead Zirconate Titanate patches for load monitoring of pin-connected structures, which are widely used in construction industry. The basic principle behind the load-monitoring technique is to utilize a high-frequency excitation signal (typically >30 kHz) through a surface-bonded piezoelectric sensor/actuator to detect changes in mechanical impedance of the structure due to the variations in structural loads. In order to verify the effectiveness of the developed technique, a tension-controllable structure with a pin connection was fabricated and investigated in this study. A load monitoring index was used to correlate the dominating peak frequency of the real part of the electrical impedance signature to the pin connection load. Experimental results obtained from twenty repeated tests prove that the proposed load-monitoring index increases as the load on the pin connection increases due to the enlarging true contact area of the pin connection. A 3D finite element method was also used to simulate and analyze the impedance signature of a pin connection model. Very good agreement exists between the numerical simulation’s results and the experimental results which demonstrates that the impedance-based technique can successfully be used to monitor the loading status of pin connections in practical applications.

  18. Closed-Loop Control System for Friction Stir Welding Retractable Pin Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey; Romine, Peter L.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA invention disclosure, NASA Case No. MFS-31413, entitled "System for Controlling the Stirring Pin of a Friction Stir Welding Apparatus", (Patent Pending) authored by Jeff Ding, Dr Peter Romine and Pete Oelgoetz, addresses the precision control of the friction stir welding process. The closed-loop control system automatically adjusts the spinning welding pin, real-time, to maintain a precise penetration ligament (i.e., distance between pin-tip and weld panel backside surface). A specific pin length can be maintained while welding constant thickness or tapered material thickness weld panels. The closed-loop control system provides operator data and information relative to the exact position of the welding pin inside the weld joint. This paper presents the closed-loop RPT control system that operates using the auto-feedback of force signals sensed by the tip and shoulder of the welding pin. Significance: The FSW process can be successfully used in a production environment only if there is a method or technique that informs the FSW operator the precise location of the welding pin inside the weld joint. This is essential for applications in aerospace, automotive, pressure vessel, commercial aircraft and other industries.

  19. Experimental study of the mechanical behaviour of pin reinforced foam core sandwich materials under shear load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimassi, M. A.; Brauner, C.; Herrmann, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    Sandwich structures with a lightweight closed cell hard foam core have the potential to be used in primary structures of commercial aircrafts. Compared to honeycomb core sandwich, the closed cell foam core sandwich overcomes the issue of moisture take up and makes the manufacturing of low priced and highly integrated structures possible. However, lightweight foam core sandwich materials are prone to failure by localised external loads like low velocity impacts. Invisible cracks could grow in the foam core and threaten the integrity of the structure. In order to enhance the out-of-plane properties of foam core sandwich structures and to improve the damage tolerance (DT) dry fibre bundles are inserted in the foam core. The pins are infused with resin and co-cured with the dry fabric face sheets in an out-of-autoclave process. This study presents the results obtained from shear tests following DIN 53294-standard, on flat sandwich panels. All panels were manufactured with pin-reinforcement manufactured with the Tied Foam Core Technology (TFC) developed by Airbus. The effects of pin material (CFRP and GFRP) and pin volume fraction on the shear properties of the sandwich structure and the crack propagation were investigated and compared to a not pinned reference. It has been concluded that the pin volume fraction has a remarkable effect on the shear properties and damage tolerance of the observed structure. Increasing the pin volume fraction makes the effect of crack redirection more obvious and conserves the integrity of the structure after crack occurrence.

  20. Down-regulation of Pin1 in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients and Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lan; Zhang, Yanke; Chen, Guojun; Xiong, Yan; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhu, Binglin

    2017-02-27

    Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (Pin1) is a unique PPIase belonging to the parvulin family, and it isomerizes peptide bond between phospho-(Ser/Thr) and Pro. Pin1 has been linked to the pathogenesis of various human diseases; however, its exact biological functions remain unclear. The aim of the present study is to explore the expression pattern of Pin1 in patients with refractory epilepsy and in a chronic pilocarpine-induced epileptic mouse model. Using Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis, we found that Pin1 protein was mainly distributed in neurons, demonstrated by colocalization with the dendritic marker, MAP2. However, the expression of Pin1 decreased remarkably in epileptic patients and experimental mice. Furthermore, the reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation analysis showed that Pin1 interacted with NR2A and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors not AMPA receptors in epileptic mouse models. Our results are the first to indicate that the expression of Pin1 in epileptic brain tissue could play important roles in epilepsy.

  1. Effect of pinning and driving force on the metastability effects in weakly pinned superconductors and the determination of spinodal line pertaining to order-disorder transition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A D Thakur; S S Banerjee; M J Higgins; S Ramakrishnan; A K Grover

    2006-01-01

    We explore the effect of varying drive on metastability features exhibited by the vortex matter in single crystals of 2H-NbSe2 and CeRu2 with varying degree of random pinning. The metastable nature of vortex matter is reflected in the path dependence of the critical current density, which in turn is probed in a contact-less way via AC-susceptibility measurements. The sinusoidal AC magnetic field applied during AC susceptibility measurements appears to generate a driving force on the vortex matter. In a nascent pinned single crystal of 2H-NbSe2, where the peak effect (PE) pertaining to the order-disorder phenomenon is a sharp first-order-like transition, the supercooling feature below the peak temperature is easily wiped out by the reorganization caused by the AC driving force. In this paper, we elucidate the interplay between the drive and the pinning which can conspire to make the path-dependent AC-susceptibility response of different metastable vortex states appear identical. An optimal balance between the pinning and driving force is needed to view the metastability effects in typically weakly pinned specimen of low temperature superconductors. As one uses samples with larger pinning in order to differentiate the response of different metastable vortex states, one encounters a new phenomenon, viz., the second magnetization peak (SMP) anomaly prior to the PE. Supercooling/superheating can occur across both the PE and the SMP anomalies and both of these are known to display non-linear characteristics as well. Interplay between the path dependence in the critical current density and the non-linearity in the electromagnetic response determine the metastability effects seen in the first and the third harmonic response of the AC susceptibility across the temperature regions of the SMP and the PE. The limiting temperature above which metastability effects cease can be conveniently located in the third harmonic data, and the observed behavior can be rationalized within

  2. Outcome after pin fixation of supracondylar humerus fractures in children: postoperative radiographic examinations are unnecessary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomilehto, Noora; Kivisaari, Reetta; Sommarhem, Antti; Nietosvaara, Aarno Y

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose — The quality of pin fixation of displaced supracondylar humerus fractures in children has not been assessed, and the clinical value of radiographic examinations after pin fixation is unclear. We evaluated pin configuration, quality of osteosynthesis, and outcome in 264 supracondylar fractures. The clinical significance of postoperative radiographs was analyzed. Patients and methods — 252 Gartland-III and 12 flexion-type supracondylar humerus fractures were pin-fixed in the periods 2002–2006 and 2012–2014. During 2012–2014, staff were intructed that postoperative radiographs should not be taken. Quality of reduction was assessed by measuring Baumann and lateral capitellohumeral angles (LCHA) and also by recording the crossing point of the anterior humeral line (AHL) with bony capitellum. Rotatory alignment was registered as normal or abnormal. Pin configuration and quality of osteosynthesis were evaluated. The clinical significance of postoperative radiographs was analyzed. Results — Postoperatively, Baumann angle was normal in 66% of the fractures, AHL crossed the capitellum in 84%, and no malrotation was evident in 85% of the fractures. Crossed pins were used in 89% of the cases. 2 or more pins fixed both fracture fragments in 66%. Radiographic examinations were inadequate for assessment of LCHA in 13%, of Bauman angle in 8%, of AHL in 2%, of rotation in 1%, and of pin fixation in 2% of the cases. Postoperative radiographs did not give useful information except in 1 patient who had corrective osteotomy. All 94 patients with follow-up (97%) who were treated during 2012–2014 were satisfied with the outcome. Interpretation — Despite pin fixation being deemed unsatisfactory in one-third of the cases, significant malunion was rare. Postoperative radiography did not alter management or outcome. PMID:27774833

  3. Preterm birth, age at school entry and educational performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Odd

    Full Text Available To investigate if the lack of gestational age correction may explain some of the school failure seen in ex-preterm infants.A cohort study based on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. The primary outcome was a low Key Stage 1 score (KS1 score at age 7 or having special educational needs (SEN. Exposure groups were defined as preterm (<37 weeks gestation, n = 722 or term (37-42 weeks, n = 11,268. Conditional regression models were derived, matching preterm to term infants on date of birth (DOB, expected date of delivery (EDD or expected date of delivery and year of school entry. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing covariate data.When matching for DOB, infants born preterm had an increased odds of a low KS1 score (OR 1.73 (1.45-2.06 and this association persisted after adjusting for potential confounders (OR 1.57 (1.25-1.97. The association persisted in the analysis matching for EDD (fully adjusted OR 1.53 (1.21-1.94 but attenuated substantially after additionally restricting to those infants who entered school at the same time as the control infants (fully adjusted OR 1.25 (0.98-1.60. A compatible reduction in the population attributable risk fraction was seen from 4.60% to 2.12%, and year of school entry appeared to modify the association between gestational age and the risk of a poor KS1 score (p = 0.029.This study provides evidence that the school year placement and assessment of ex-preterm infants based on their actual birthday (rather than their EDD may increase their risk of learning difficulties with corresponding school failure.

  4. Does low reading achievement at school entry cause conduct problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kathryn J; Brown, K Stephen; Boyle, Michael; Racine, Yvonne; Offord, Dan

    2003-06-01

    Conduct problems place children at increased risk for a broad array of negative health and social outcomes that include conduct disorder, injuries and violence, school failure, substance abuse, depression, and suicide. Prevention interventions have the potential to interrupt the chain of events linking early conduct problem symptoms to future negative life outcomes, but have received much less emphasis than interventions designed to treat established cases of disorder. Reading problems are a well-established correlate of conduct disorder. However, whether or not reading problems cause conduct disorder continues to be debated. If they are in fact a causal risk factor this would justify the design and evaluation of interventions designed to enhance reading skills and/or remediate problems. In this paper we use logistic regression techniques to evaluate the relation between reading achievement at school entry and conduct problems 30 months later, in a representative, non-clinic sample of kindergarten and grade one children, in Ontario, Canada. The findings show that an eight point increase in reading scores (equivalent to an moderate effect size of 0.5) would result in a 23 per cent decrease in the risk of conduct problems 30 months later, after controlling for gender, income and baseline conduct problem symptoms. We conclude that reading problems may contribute to the early onset of conduct disorder. Randomized experimental studies designed to evaluate the effects of reading programmes in non-clinic samples of children are needed to: (i) establish whether the link between reading problems at school entry and conduct disorder is causal; and (ii) determine whether reading intervention programmes are an effective conduct disorder prevention strategy.

  5. Design and analysis of a high heat load pin-post monochromator crystal with an integral water manifold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schildkamp, W. [Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Tonnessen, T. [Rocketdyne Albuquerque Operations, 2511 C. Broadbent Parkway, N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87107 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Conventional minichannel water cooling geometry will not perform satisfactorily for x-radiation from a wiggler source at the Advanced Photon Source. For closed-gap wiggler operation, cryogenic silicon appears to be the only option for crystals in Bragg-Bragg geometry. For operation of the wiggler at more modest critical energies ({lt}17 keV), the first crystal can be cooled by a pin-post cooling scheme, using water at room temperature as a coolant. In order to limit the water consumption to 4 gpm and hence the risk of introducing vibrations to the crystal, the intensely cooled area of the crystal was matched to the footprint of the beam, leaving a less cooled area of the crystal subject to survival in a missteered beam but not to perform as a monochromator. The manifold design avoids large areas of high water pressure that would bow the crystal. We present here the design of a pin-post monochromator consisting of a four-layer silicon manifold system and an integrally bonded 39{percent} nickel-iron alloy base plate. A transparent prototype of the design will be exhibited. Fabrication techniques and design advantages will be discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Morphometric measurements of dragonfly wings: the accuracy of pinned, scanned and detached measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laura; Mantle, Beth L; Gardner, Janet L; Backwell, Patricia R Y

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale digitization of museum specimens, particularly of insect collections, is becoming commonplace. Imaging increases the accessibility of collections and decreases the need to handle individual, often fragile, specimens. Another potential advantage of digitization is to make it easier to conduct morphometric analyses, but the accuracy of such methods needs to be tested. Here we compare morphometric measurements of scanned images of dragonfly wings to those obtained using other, more traditional, methods. We assume that the destructive method of removing and slide-mounting wings provides the most accurate method of measurement because it eliminates error due to wing curvature. We show that, for dragonfly wings, hand measurements of pinned specimens and digital measurements of scanned images are equally accurate relative to slide-mounted hand measurements. Since destructive slide-mounting is unsuitable for museum collections, and there is a risk of damage when hand measuring fragile pinned specimens, we suggest that the use of scanned images may also be an appropriate method to collect morphometric data from other collected insect species.

  7. Postirradiation examinations of fuel pins from the GCFR F-1 series of mixed-oxide fuel pins at 5. 5 at. % burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strain, R V; Johnson, C E

    1978-05-01

    Postirradiation examinations were performed on five fuel pins from the Gas-Cooled Fast-Breeder Reactor F-1 experiment irradiated in EBR-II to a peak burnup of approximately 5.5 at. %. These encapsulated fuel pins were irradiated at peak-power linear ratings from approximately 13 to 15 kW/ft and peak cladding inside diameter temperatures from approximately 625 to 760/sup 0/C. The maximum diametral change that occurred during irradiation was 0.2% ..delta..D/D/sub 0/. The maximum fuel-cladding chemical interaction depth was 2.6 mils in fuel pin G-1 and 1 mil or less in the other three pins examined destructively. Significant migration of the volatile fission products occurred axially to the fuel-blanket interfaces. Teh postirradiation examination data indicate that fuel melted at the inner surface of the annular fuel pellets in the two highest power rating fuel pins, but little axial movement of fuel occurred.

  8. Comparison between a silicon PIN diode and a CsI(Tl) coupled to a silicon PIN diode for dosimetric purpose in radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, Lucia; Bontempi, Marco; Rossi, Pier Luca; Rignanese, Luigi Pio; Zuffa, Mirco; Baldazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    The use of amorphous Si-PIN diodes showed interesting applications in detector research. Due to their properties and cost effective value, these devices can be used as small dosimeters for fast and real time dose evaluation. The responses of two different detectors to the measurement of X-ray total air KERMA are compared and presented, with the goal to get a dosimetric parameter directly during the X-ray patients exposure. A bare Si-PIN diode and a Si-PIN diode+CsI(Tl) scintillator were tested and compared to radiologic dosimeters. Both detector outputs were calibrated using a secondary reference standard (CAPINTEC PM 30 dosimeter), in order to analyze and discuss the dose and the energy dependence of the detectors in the range of radiologic interest (tube voltage: 40-140 kVp and additional filtration: 0 mm Al to 4 mm Al). The bare Si-PIN diode shows a very coherent response independently from the X-ray beam quality and from the additional filtration. The Si-PIN+CsI(Tl) detector, on the other hand, shows a high spread of the calibration curves as a function of the tube high voltage and the additional filtration. The presented results could be used to calibrate an image detector in dose.

  9. Comparison between a silicon PIN diode and a CsI(Tl) coupled to a silicon PIN diode for dosimetric purpose in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreani, Lucia, E-mail: lucia.andreani4@unibo.it [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Viale Berti-Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); INFN Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Bontempi, Marco [Laboratorio NaBi, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Rossi, Pier Luca [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Viale Berti-Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); INFN Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Rignanese, Luigi Pio [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Viale Berti-Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Zuffa, Mirco [INFN Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Baldazzi, Giuseppe [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Viale Berti-Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); INFN Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2014-10-21

    The use of amorphous Si-PIN diodes showed interesting applications in detector research. Due to their properties and cost effective value, these devices can be used as small dosimeters for fast and real time dose evaluation. The responses of two different detectors to the measurement of X-ray total air KERMA are compared and presented, with the goal to get a dosimetric parameter directly during the X-ray patients exposure. A bare Si-PIN diode and a Si-PIN diode+CsI(Tl) scintillator were tested and compared to radiologic dosimeters. Both detector outputs were calibrated using a secondary reference standard (CAPINTEC PM 30 dosimeter), in order to analyze and discuss the dose and the energy dependence of the detectors in the range of radiologic interest (tube voltage: 40–140 kVp and additional filtration: 0 mm Al to 4 mm Al). The bare Si-PIN diode shows a very coherent response independently from the X-ray beam quality and from the additional filtration. The Si-PIN+CsI(Tl) detector, on the other hand, shows a high spread of the calibration curves as a function of the tube high voltage and the additional filtration. The presented results could be used to calibrate an image detector in dose.

  10. Hysteretic rotational magnetization of pinned layer in NiO spin-valve

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, C G; Hwang, D G; Lee, S S; Kim, C O

    2002-01-01

    The magnetoresistance (MR) curves during the rotation of magnetic field in NiO spin-valve are well described by taking into account the involved magnetization process of free and pinned layers according to rotating field strength. In particular, hysteretic MR characteristics pronounced in a field strength of 1.5 times the exchange field are ascribed for by the viscosity effect on magnetization rotation of pinned layer. These analyses of MR curves provide a basis decomposing the MR components from each magnetization process of free and pinned layers.

  11. Solution structural analysis of the single-domain parvulin TbPin1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifang Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pin1-type parvulins are phosphorylation-dependent peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases. Their functions have been widely reported to be involved in a variety of cellular responses or processes, such as cell division, transcription, and apoptosis, as well as in human diseases including Alzheimer's disease and cancers. TbPin1 was identified as a novel class of Pin1-type parvulins from Trypanosoma brucei, containing a unique PPIase domain, which can catalyze the isomerization of phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro peptide bond. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined the solution structure of TbPin1 and performed (15N relaxation measurements to analyze its backbone dynamics using multi-dimensional heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. The average RMSD values of the 20 lowest energy structures are 0.50±0.05 Å for backbone heavy atoms and 0.85±0.08 Å for all heavy atoms. TbPin1 adopts the typical catalytic tertiary structure of Pin1-type parvulins, which comprises a globular fold with a four-stranded anti-parallel β-sheet core surrounded by three α-helices and one 3(10-helix. The global structure of TbPin1 is relatively rigid except the active site. The 2D EXSY spectra illustrate that TbPin1 possesses a phosphorylation-dependent PPIase activity. The binding sites of TbPin1 for a phosphorylated peptide substrate {SSYFSG[p]TPLEDDSD} were determined by the chemical shift perturbation approach. Residues Ser15, Arg18, Asn19, Val21, Ser22, Val32, Gly66, Ser67, Met83, Asp105 and Gly107 are involved in substantial contact with the substrate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The solution structure of TbPin1 and the binding sites of the phosphorylated peptide substrate on TbPin1 were determined. The work is helpful for further understanding the molecular basis of the substrate specificity for Pin1-type parvulin family and enzyme catalysis.

  12. Complications Using Bioabsorbable Cross-Pin Femoral Fixation: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saqib Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of bioabsorbable cross-pin transcondylar fixation has remained a viable option for femoral fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Although numerous biomechanical studies have demonstrated high fixation strength and minimal slippage with use of this method of fixation, there have been increasing reports of a variety of clinical complications associated with these implants. We reviewed the literature for all complications associated with the Bio-TransFix implant and present a case report of a patient status after ACL reconstruction using Bio-TransFix cross-pin femoral fixation with iliotibial band friction syndrome from a broken cross-pin four month post-operatively.

  13. Impact of pinning of the triple contact line on electrowetting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rohini; Sheth, Danica M; Boone, Teno K; Sevilla, Arianne B; Fréchette, Joëlle

    2011-12-20

    Pinning of the triple contact line adversely affects electrowetting on dielectric. Electrowetting response of substrates with contact angle hysteresis ranging from 1° to 30° has been characterized, and the results are interpreted within the framework of electromechanics corrected for pinning. The relationship between contact angle hysteresis, threshold potential for liquid actuation, and electrowetting hysteresis is quantified. Our results demonstrate that a modified electrowetting equation, based on balance of forces (including the pinning forces) acting on the triple contact line and on the drop, describes the electrowetting response of substrates with significant contact angle hysteresis. Finally, the surface properties of PDMS Sylgard 184 were found to be influenced by the electric field.

  14. Measurement of contact angle in a clearance-fit pin-loaded hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, R.; Naik, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    A technique which measures load-contact variation in a clearance-fit, pin-loaded hole is presented in detail. A steel instrumented pin, which activates a make-or-break electrical circuit in the pin-hole contact region, was inserted into one aluminum and one polycarbonate specimen. The resulting load-contact variations are indicated schematically. The ability to accurately determine the arc of contact at any load was crucial to this measurement. It is noted that this simple experimental technique is applicable to both conducting and nonconducting materials.

  15. Absorption coefficients of GeSn extracted from PIN photodetector response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Kaiheng; Zhang, Wogong; Oehme, Michael; Schmid, Marc; Gollhofer, Martin; Kostecki, Konrad; Widmann, Daniel; Körner, Roman; Kasper, Erich; Schulze, Jörg

    2015-08-01

    In this paper the optical absorption of the GeSn PIN photodetector was investigated. The vertical GeSn PIN photodetectors were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and dry etching. By means of current density-voltage (J-V) and capacity-voltage (C-V) measurements the photodetector device was characterized. The absorption coefficients of GeSn material were finally extracted from the optical response of PIN structure. With further direct bandgap analysis the influences of device structure was proved negligible.

  16. Pinning-controlled synchronization of delayed neural networks with distributed-delay coupling via impulsive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wangli; Qian, Feng; Cao, Jinde

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates pinning synchronization of coupled neural networks with both current-state coupling and distributed-delay coupling via impulsive control. A novel impulse pinning strategy involving pinning ratio is proposed and a general criterion is derived to ensure an array of neural networks with two different topologies synchronizes with the desired trajectory. In order to handle the difficulties of high-dimension criteria, some inequality techniques and matrix decomposition methods through simultaneous diagonalization of two matrices are introduced and low-dimensional criteria are obtained. Finally, an illustrative example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synchronization analysis of coloured delayed networks under decentralized pinning intermittent control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JIANG SHENGQIN; LU XIAOBO

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates synchronization of coloured delayed networks under decentralized pinning intermittent control. To begin with, the time delays are taken into account in the coloured networks. In addition, we propose a decentralized pinning intermittent control for coloured delayed networks, which is different from that most of pinning intermittent controls are only appliedto the nodes from 1 to l or centralized nodes. Moreover, sufficient conditions are derived to guarantee the synchronization of coloured delayed networks based on Lyapunov stability theorem. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to verify the validity of the obtained results.

  18. Pinning Control of Lag-Consensus for Second-Order Nonlinear Multiagent Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Ma, Zhongjun; Zheng, Song; Chen, Guanrong

    2016-07-29

    Lag consensus means that the corresponding state vectors of the followers are behind the leader with a lag time. In this paper, Lyapunov functional and matrix theory are applied to analyze pinning-controlled lag consensus of second-order nonlinear multiagent systems. The focus is twofold: 1) to find out which agents should be pinned and 2) to determine what the coupling strength should be, so that the multiagent systems can reach lag consensus. Moreover, the practical problem in a noisy environment is considered. Finally, an illustrative example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed pinning control protocol.

  19. Dislocation pinning effects on fracture behavior: Atomistic and dislocation dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, S. J.; Farkas, D.

    2002-10-01

    We introduce an approach in which results from atomistic simulations are combined with discrete dislocation dynamics simulations of crack-tip plasticity. The method is used to study the effects of dislocation pinning due to grain boundaries or secondary particles on the fracture behavior of aluminum. We find that the fracture resistance is reduced with decreasing pinning distance. The results show that the pinning of the dislocations causes a net decrease in the shear stress projected on the slip plane, preventing further dislocation emission. Semibrittle cleavage occurs after a certain number of dislocations is emitted.

  20. Flux Pinning Effects of Y2O3 Nanoparticulate Dispersions in Multilayered YBCO Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2012-0090 FLUX PINNING EFFECTS OF Y2O3 NANOPARTICULATE DISPERSIONS IN MULTILAYERED YBCO THIN FILMS (POSTPRINT) T.A...January 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FLUX PINNING EFFECTS OF Y2O3 NANOPARTICULATE DISPERSIONS IN MULTILAYERED YBCO THIN FILMS (POSTPRINT) 5a...Clearance Date: 06 Dec 2005. 14. ABSTRACT The flux pinning effects of Y2O3 nanoparticulate inclusions in YBa2Cu3O7-δ (Y123 or YBCO ) thin films