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Sample records for pilulifera methanol extract

  1. Anti-photoaging activity and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) by marine red alga, Corallina pilulifera methanol extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Bo Mi [Department of Chemistry, Pukyoung National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Qian Zhongji [Marine Bioprocess Research Center, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moon-Moo [Department of Chemistry, Dong-Eui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Ki Wan [Department of Marine Biology, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se-Kwon [Department of Chemistry, Pukyoung National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Marine Bioprocess Research Center, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sknkim@pknu.ac.kr

    2009-02-15

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a key component in photoaging of the skin due to exposure to ultraviolet A, appear to be increased by UV-irradiation-associated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, the alga Corallina pilulifera methanol (CPM) extract has been shown to exert a potent antioxidant activity and protective effect on UVA-induced oxidative stress of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cell. Antioxidant evaluated by various antioxidant assays. These include reducing power, total antioxidant, DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and protective effect on DNA damage caused by hydroxyl radicals generated. Further, the ROS level was detected using a fluorescence probe, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), which could be converted to highly fluorescent dichlorofluorescein (DCF) with the presence of intracellular ROS on HT-1080 cells. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as {alpha}-tocopherol. In addition, the in vitro activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in HDF cell were inhibited by C. pilulifera methanol extract dose dependently by using gelatin zymography method. The results obtained in the present study suggested that the C. pilulifera methanol extract may be a potential source of natural anti-photoaging.

  2. Anti-photoaging activity and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) by marine red alga, Corallina pilulifera methanol extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, BoMi; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Kim, Moon-Moo; Nam, Ki Wan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2009-02-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a key component in photoaging of the skin due to exposure to ultraviolet A, appear to be increased by UV-irradiation-associated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, the alga Corallina pilulifera methanol (CPM) extract has been shown to exert a potent antioxidant activity and protective effect on UVA-induced oxidative stress of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cell. Antioxidant evaluated by various antioxidant assays. These include reducing power, total antioxidant, DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and protective effect on DNA damage caused by hydroxyl radicals generated. Further, the ROS level was detected using a fluorescence probe, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), which could be converted to highly fluorescent dichlorofluorescein (DCF) with the presence of intracellular ROS on HT-1080 cells. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as α-tocopherol. In addition, the in vitro activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in HDF cell were inhibited by C. pilulifera methanol extract dose dependently by using gelatin zymography method. The results obtained in the present study suggested that the C. pilulifera methanol extract may be a potential source of natural anti-photoaging.

  3. Anti-photoaging activity and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) by marine red alga, Corallina pilulifera methanol extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Bo Mi; Qian Zhongji; Kim, Moon-Moo; Nam, Ki Wan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a key component in photoaging of the skin due to exposure to ultraviolet A, appear to be increased by UV-irradiation-associated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, the alga Corallina pilulifera methanol (CPM) extract has been shown to exert a potent antioxidant activity and protective effect on UVA-induced oxidative stress of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cell. Antioxidant evaluated by various antioxidant assays. These include reducing power, total antioxidant, DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and protective effect on DNA damage caused by hydroxyl radicals generated. Further, the ROS level was detected using a fluorescence probe, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), which could be converted to highly fluorescent dichlorofluorescein (DCF) with the presence of intracellular ROS on HT-1080 cells. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as α-tocopherol. In addition, the in vitro activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in HDF cell were inhibited by C. pilulifera methanol extract dose dependently by using gelatin zymography method. The results obtained in the present study suggested that the C. pilulifera methanol extract may be a potential source of natural anti-photoaging

  4. Batch extractive distillation for high purity methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weijiang; Ma Sisi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the application in chemical industry and microelectronic industry, market status and the present situation of production of high purity methanol at home and abroad were introduced firstly. Purification of industrial methanol for high purity methanol is feasible in china. Batch extractive distillation is the best separation technique for purification of industrial methanol. Dimethyl sulfoxide was better as an extractant. (authors)

  5. Methanol Extract of Myelophycus caespitosus Inhibits the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol Extract of Myelophycus caespitosus Inhibits the Inflammatory Response in Lipopolysaccharidestimulated BV2 Microglial Cells by Downregulating NF-kB via Inhibition of the Akt Signaling Pathway.

  6. ( Asteraceae ) methanol extracts against Helicobacter pylori

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol vehicle did not affect H. pylori growth. Conclusion: The observed antibacterial effect of G. glutinosum extracts may be of benefit as an adjuvant treatment of diseases caused by H. pylori. Key words: Gymnosperma glutinosum, Helicobacter pylori, methanol extract, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC).

  7. Comparative Neuropharmacological Activities Methanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative neuropharmacological efficacy of the leaf and root 70 % methanol extract of Cissus cornifolia was studied in mice. The extractive values of the leaf and root methanol extract was found to be 31.5 g with yield of 12.6 %(w/w) and 37.8 g with the yield of 15.12 %(w/w) respectively. The acute toxicity (LD50) values ...

  8. Comparative antitrypanosomal screening of methanolic extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro and in vivo activities of methanolic extracts of defatted leaves and stems of Khaya senegalensis and Moringa oleifera on Trypanosoma brucei brucei were investigated and compared. The in vitro assessment involved incubating the parasite (in triplicate) in the presence of various extract concentrations in a ...

  9. Preliminary antidiarrhoeal activity of methanolic extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Securinega virosa is used as remedy for diarrhoea in tropical Africa, but has not been investigated for its antidiarrhoeal activity. This study was therefore aimed at investigating the methanolic extracts of the leaves, stem bark and root bark for antidirrhoeal activity, using castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model in mice. The effects ...

  10. In vitro evaluation of the interaction between methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial interaction studies between methanol extract of lichen (Ramalina farinacea (I) ach. (Fam: Ramalinacea) and tetracycline, against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated. Preliminary antimicrobial properties of the extract were evaluated. Antimicrobial interaction studies between the methanol ...

  11. Toxicological Evaluation of Tetrameles nudiflora Methanolic Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofna DS Banjarnahor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of Mekongga national park resulted in novel finding of anticancer property from Tetrameles nudiflora. The investigation of toxic features of T. nudiflora is vital for further studies of its pharmacological activities. Acute toxicity test was done on methanolic extracts of T. nudiflora in DDY mice. Animal models were ordered into five groups. Group 1 was given 1 ml solution of 2.5% Tween 80 in a sole oral dose. The remaining groups were appointed a sole dose of 1, 2, 4 and 8 g/kg body weight T. nudiflora, respectively. Toxic effects of the extract were evaluated on the basis of behavioral observations in the form of locomotor activity; curiosity; defecation; urination and also animal mortality. Observations were carried out for 14 days. No significant changes in body weight and behavioral activities were recorded. Mortality was recorded up to 22% of the male group, and 11% of the female group. The T. nudiflora extracts tested for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC50 values of 46.67 μg/ml. It can be concluded that methanol extracts of T. nudiflora are potential to be explored as anticancer (LC50= 46.67 μg/ml. The extract is slightly toxic in male mice with Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 12.6 g/kg body weight, and practically nontoxic for female (LD50>15 g/kg body weight

  12. Antihyperglycaemic and hypolipidemic effect of methanol extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antihyperglycaemic and hypolipidemic potential of the methanol extracts of leaf, stem and root of Ageratum conyzoides in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: The extract of each of the plant part was obtained by extraction in methanol. A total of 60 male Wistar albino rats (30 ...

  13. Phytotoxic activity of the methanol leaves extract of Paullinia pinnata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity of the extract against the growth of Lemna minor was used to investigate the phytotoxic activity. The activity of the methanol extract of P. pinnata leaves against Lemna minor increased in a dose- dependent manner and was significant at 1000 μg/ml. Therefore, the methanol leaves extract of P. pinnata exhibited ...

  14. Effects of three macroalgae, Ulva linza (Chlorophyta), Corallina pilulifera (Rhodophyta) and Sargassum thunbergii (Phaeophyta) on the growth of the red tide microalga Prorocentrum donghaiense under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renjun; Xiao, Hui; Wang, You; Zhou, Wenli; Tang, Xuexi

    2007-10-01

    Allelopathic effects of several concentrations of fresh tissue and dry powder of three macroalgae, Ulva linza, Corallina pilulifera and Sargassum thunbergii, on the red tide microalga Prorocentrum donghaiense were evaluated in microcosms. Preliminary studies on the algicidal effects of one aqueous and four organic solvent extracts from the macroalgae on the microalga were carried out to confirm the existence of allelochemicals in the tissues of the macroalgae. The effects of macroalgal culture medium filtrate on P. donghaiense were investigated using initial or semi-continuous filtrate addition. Furthermore, the potential effects of the microalga on these three macroalgae were also tested. The results of the microcosm assay showed that the growth of P. donghaiense was strongly inhibited by using fresh tissues and dry powder of the three macroalgae. Both aqueous and methanol extracts of the macroalgae had strong growth inhibitory effects on P. donghaiense, while the other three organic solvent extracts (acetone, ether and chloroform) had no apparent effect on its growth; this suggested that the allelochemicals from these three macroalga had relatively high polarities. The three macroalgal culture medium filtrates exhibited apparent growth inhibitory effect on the microalgae under initial or semi-continuous addition, which suggested that the cells of P. donghaiense are sensitive to the allelochemicals. In contrast, P. donghaiense had no apparent effect on the growth of the macroalgae in coexistence experiment.

  15. Evaluation of lubricity of methanolic extract of mango (Mangifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanolic extract of mango seed oil (Mangifera Indica) was evaluated for suitability as lubricant for machini-ng mild steel at various speeds, feeds and depths of cut. The coefficient of friction between the tool and chip in- dicated that the methanolic extract reduced friction between the tool and work piece. The oil also ...

  16. Immunomodulatory activity of methanol extract of Adansonia digitata L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the immune-modulatory activities of various plant parts Adansonia digitata L. using delayed-type hypersensitivity rat model. Methods: Defatted leaf, root bark and fruit pulp of A. digitata were extracted with methanol. Immunomodulatory activity of the methanol extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg) were ...

  17. Evaluation of the antidiarrhoeal activity of 80% methanol extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lantana camara L. is one of the medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhoea in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to evaluate antidiarrhoeal activity of the 80% methanol extract and solvent fractions using mice model of diarrhoea. The 80% methanol extract was prepared by maceration and the fractions ...

  18. Antimicrobial activities of methanol and aqueous extracts of the stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, proteins, carbohydrates, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids in both the methanol and aqueous extracts. The antimicrobial activity result showed that the methanol extract significantly (P < 0.01) demonstrated antibacterial action against B. subtilis ...

  19. Relaxant Activity of the Methanol Extract of Acanthus Montanus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of the methanol extract of Acanthus montanus on guinea pig trachealis muscle. Methods: Guinea pig tracheae were set up in 10 ml organ baths. The effect of the methanol extract of Acanthus montanus (0.5 - 8 mg/ml) on the spontaneous tone of the trachea and carbacholprecontracted ...

  20. Four new depsides in Origanum dictamnus methanol extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exarchou, V.; Takis, P.G.; Malouta, M.; Vervoort, J.; Karali, E.; Troganis, A.N.

    2013-01-01

    We herein describe the identification of four new depsides present in methanol extract of Origanum dictamnus. O. dictamnus’ (dittany) aerial parts methanol extract was subjected to semi-preparative RP-HPLC fractionation followed by identification of individual compounds in each fraction using 1D/2D

  1. Methanolic effect of Clerodendrum myricoides root extract on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study deals with the toxicological investigations of chronic treatment with methanol root extract of Clerodendrum myricoides on body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters, and liver and kidney tissue sections. Mice treated with 100mg/kg bw/day of methanol extract showed no behavioral changes.

  2. The Phytochemical constituents and the effects of methanol extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: The effects of the methanolic extracts of the leaves of Phyllanthus amarus on the ... use of the aerial part of this plant by traditional medicine practitioners to increase/improve libido and reproductive ... The crude drug was extracted.

  3. Antidiarrhoeal activity of leaf methanolic extract of Rauwolfia serpentina

    OpenAIRE

    II Ezeigbo; MI Ezeja; KG Madubuike; DC Ifenkwe; IA Ukweni; NE Udeh; SC Akomas

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiarrhoeal property of methanol extract of the leaves of Rauwolfia serpentina (R. serpentina) in experimental diarrhoea induced by castor oil in mice. Methods: Doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg R. serpentina leaf methanol extracts were administered to castor oil induced diarrhoea mice to determine its antidiarrhoeal activity. Results: All doses of the extract and the reference drug atropine sulphate (3 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a dose-dependent reduction in inte...

  4. Some behavioural studies on methanol root bark extract of Burkea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was conducted to evaluate some central nervous system properties of the root bark methanol extractof B. africana in mice. It involved the following animal models: diazepam-induced sleep, hole-board and walking beam assay. Results: The methanol extract showed a significant decrease in the onset of sleep ...

  5. In vitro antifungal activity of methanol extracts of some Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... vitro antifungal activity against some yeasts including Candida albicans (1) ATCC2091, ... Key words: medicinal plants, antifungal activity, methanol extracts, yeast, mould, Saussurea lappa. ... Caesalpinia pulcherrima.

  6. Effect of Interaction of Methanol Leaf Extract of Spondias mombin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the effect of interaction between methanol leaf extract of Spondias mombin and ... Keywords: Diarrheagenic E. coli, Drug interaction, Spondias mombin, Amoxicillin, ..... coli isolated from cattle, food, and children during a one-.

  7. Effect of aqueous methanol extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of aqueous methanol extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius fruit on carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in albino rats. Hassan B. Yesufu, Garba T. Mohammed, Salamat Amshi, Abdul L. Siyaka, Safiya Umar ...

  8. Toxicological evaluation of methanol leaves extract of Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment with 800mg/kg body weight of methanol leaf extract significantly decreased body .... active ingredient (Dichloromethane/DCM) in metha- nol leaf .... formalin over night at room temperature after blood ..... Ehrlich`s tumor cells in mice.

  9. Antibacterial activity of Methanol and Chloroform extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty OF Basic Medical Sciences, University ... crude methanol extracts of S. oleracea flowers produced average zones of inhibition of 28mm and 25mm (in ... aureus could be destroyed by the mold, Penicillium.

  10. crude methanolic extracts of ageratum conyzoides and cutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomy

    wound in the experimental group was dressed with crude methanolic extract of Ageratum conyzoides at a five daily interval while the animals in the control group were dressed with normal saline at ... in Africa (Almagboul et al, 1985), Asia, and.

  11. Phytochemical and analgesic evaluation of methanol leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical and analgesic evaluation of methanol leaf extract of ... Thirty minutes prior to intraperitoneal injection with 2 ml of 0.1% acetic acid, animals in groups ... (acetaminophen), aspirin and indomethacin while VII received saline water.

  12. Effects of methanolic root extract of ledebouria ovaltifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the extract was non specific on muscarinic, adreneceptors nor depolarised membrane site. The effect of the extract was more marked on potassium (K+) than receptor mediated contractions. (Afr. J. Biomed. Res. 11: 232 - 327). Key Words; ledebouria Ovaltifolia, Extract, methanolic, smooth muscle contractions, rodents ...

  13. Effects of Methanolic Extracts from the Leaves of Brimstone, Cassia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Methanolic Extracts from the Leaves of Brimstone, Cassia, Lemon Grass and Chanca Piedra on Meloidogyne Incognita in the Laboratory. ... and the highest level (20%) of aqueous extracts of all test plants completely inhibited egg hatch while the control (distilled water only) recorded 93% commulative egg hatch.

  14. In vitro trypanocidal effect of methanolic extract of some Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol extracts from twenty three plants harvested from the Savannah vegetation belt of Nigeria were analyzed in vitro for trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma congolense at concentrations of 4 mg/ml, 0.4 mg/ml and 0.04 mg/ml. Extracts of Khaya senegalensis, Piliostigma ...

  15. Effects of standardized methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees is used in traditional medicine for the treatment several diseases including inflammation, asthma and common cold. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of a clinical dose of the methanol extract of A. paniculata (AP) on tracheal cyclooxygenase and ...

  16. Effect of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens root on non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The non-selective inhibition of the agonists by the extract on non-vascular smooth muscle may in part be related to its non-specific mechanism of action. Keywords: Asparagus pubescens, non-vascular smooth muscle, methanolic extract, non-specific mechanism. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research ...

  17. Antidiarrhoeal activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Oxalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antidiarrhoeal activity of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Oxalis corniculata (Oxalidaceae) was evaluated on castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats and on small muscle intestinal transit. At orally administrated doses of 160, 320 and 640 mg/kg of body weight, the two plant extracts significantly (p<0.05) prolonged ...

  18. In vitro time kill assessment of crude methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro antibacterial activities and time kill regimes of crude methanol extract of Helichrysum pedunculatum was assessed using standard microbiological procedures. The experiment was conducted against a panel of bacterial species made up of clinical, environmental and reference strains. The extract was active ...

  19. Antidiarrhoeal activity of leaf methanolic extract of Rauwolfia serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeigbo, I I; Ezeja, M I; Madubuike, K G; Ifenkwe, D C; Ukweni, I A; Udeh, N E; Akomas, S C

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the antidiarrhoeal property of methanol extract of the leaves of Rauwolfia serpentina (R. serpentina) in experimental diarrhoea induced by castor oil in mice. Doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg R. serpentina leaf methanol extracts were administered to castor oil induced diarrhoea mice to determine its antidiarrhoeal activity. All doses of the extract and the reference drug atropine sulphate (3 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a dose-dependent reduction in intestinal weight and fluid volume. The extracts also significantly reduced the intestinal transit in charcoal meal test when compared to diphenoxylate Hcl (5 mg/kg, p.o.). The results show that the extract of R. serpentina leaves has a significant antidiarrhoeal activity and supports its traditional uses in herbal medicine.

  20. Antibacterial activity of Methanol and Chloroform extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Routine use of broad spectrum antibiotics in the treatment of dental caries including postoperative prophylactic use, has led to widespread bacteria resistance to ... 20mg/ml each of crude methanol and dichloromethane extracts of S. oleracea leaves produced average zones of inhibition ranging between 21mm and 29mm ...

  1. Methanol Extract of Codonopsis pilosula Inhibits Inducible Nitric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the mechanism of antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Codonopsis pilosula. Methods: Anti-oxidative properties were assessed by measuring free radical scavenging activity, nitric oxide (NO) levels, protein oxidation and reducing power, while the mechanism of antioxidative effect of ...

  2. Antibacterial Interaction of Crude Methanol Extract of Garcinia kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Concurrent use of orthodox and herbal medicines is likely to precipitate an overall effect which may or may not be beneficial to the patient. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial interaction between the methanol extract of Garcinia kola seed (GKS) which is chewed habitually as a masticatory ...

  3. Anti-anxiety effect of methanol extract of Pericarpium zanthoxyli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine if the methanol extract of Pericarpium zanthoxyli exerts anti-anxiety effects and also to explore any probable anti-anxiety mechanism in vivo. Methods: The staircase test, elevated plus maze test, rota-rod treadmill test and convulsions induced by strychnine and picrotoxin on mice were tested to identify ...

  4. Antidiuretic Activity of the Methanol Extract of Aporusa lindleyana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    several folk medicinal recipes in treatment of eye diseases, loose ... completely dry solid (79.98 g, 8.89 %) and weighed (Libror .... Table 2: Effect of oral administration of the methanol extract (ME) of Aporusa lindleyana (500 mg/kg) on some.

  5. Assessment of cardiotoxic potential of methanol extract of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of oral administration of crude methanol extract of red cultivar Allium cepa (Onion) on serum cardiac troponin (cTnI) in cardiac muscle and some haematological parameters were investigated in this study. Fifty five (55) male albino rats were housed and fed with standard growers ration and water ad libitum.

  6. In vitro antifungal activity of methanol extracts of some Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of 9 Indian medicinal plants belonging to 9 different families were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity against some yeasts including Candida albicans (1) ATCC2091, C. albicans (2) ATCC18804, Candida glabrata NCIM3448, Candida tropicalis ATCC4563, Cryptococcus luteolus ATCC32044, ...

  7. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Methanol extracts and alkaloid fractions of different parts of four plant species belonging to Solanaceae family and used in Mexican traditional medicine were investigated for their total phenolic contents, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Materials and Methods: The total phenolic compounds of each ...

  8. Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of methanol leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hymenocardia acida is a plant used in African folkloric medicine in the treatment of headache, rheumatic pain, sickle cell crisis, malaria, epilepsy and cancer. This study was aimed at investigating the anticonvulsant potential of the methanol leaf extract of H. acida (MLEHA) in chicks and mice. Preliminary phytochemical ...

  9. Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extract and Solvent Fractions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antioxidant activity of methanol extract (ME) and solvent fractions of Avrainvillea erecta as well as their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Methods: The antioxidant activities of ME as well as its chloroform, butanol, and aqueous fractions (CF, BF and WF, respectively) of A. erecta were ...

  10. Anti-dyslipidemic and Antioxidant Potentials of Methanol Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The activity of the methanol extract of the whole plant of Kalanchoe crenata (MEKC) was studied for the treatment of diabetes-induced nephropathy in rats. Methods: Five-day old Wistar rats received a single intraperitoneal streptozotocin injection (90 ìg/kg body weight) to induce diabetes. Kidney disease onset in ...

  11. Protective effect of methanol-methylene chloride extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Terminalia glaucescens (Combretaceae) is traditionally used in Cameroon in the treatment of diabetes. The anti-hyperglycemic effect of the methanol-methylene chloride extract of the leaves of this plant was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Methods: Diabetes was induced in mice by a ...

  12. Biological effect of methanol extracts of Candlewood Zanthoxylum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol extract of dried leaf (DLE), dried bark (DBE), dried root (DRE), fresh bark (FBE) and fresh root (FRE) of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Lam.) was assessed in the laboratory against infestation of Sitophilus zeamais, Callosobruchus maculatus and Tribolium castaneum in stored maize and cowpea. One hundred ...

  13. Cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of the methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ethno-botanical information shows that Eremomastax speciosa is used in the traditional management of various stomach complaints including gastro-duodenal ulcers. Materials and Methods: In this study, we tested the cytoprotective potential of the whole plant methanol extract (100-200 mg/kg, p.o), against ...

  14. In vitro antibacterial activity of crude methanol extracts of various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parthenium hysterophorus is an aggressive and exotic weed plant traditionally reported to be used as remedy for various diseases. In the present study in vitro antibacterial activities of P. hysterophorus leaf, flower, bark and root crude methanol extracts were evaluated against five reference strains of pathogenic bacterial ...

  15. Methanol Extract of Hydroclathrus clathratus Inhibits Production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol Extract of Hydroclathrus clathratus Inhibits Production of Nitric Oxide, Prostaglandin E2 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Lipopolysaccharidestimulated BV2 Microglial Cells via Inhibition of NF-κB Activity. RGPT Jayasooriya, D-O Moon, YH Chol, C-H Yoon, G-Y Kim ...

  16. Acute toxicity study of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicity study of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens root was studied on rats. The indices of the study were the liver enzymes (transaminases), cholesterol, creatinine and urea serum levels as well as the ionic analysis. Both alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) showed a ...

  17. Antioxidant properties of methanol extract of a new commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    White variety of Auricularia fuscosuccinea is a newly cultivated gelatinous mushrooms which is found only in Taiwan. In this study, total phenolic and total flavonoid content of methanol extract of white variety of A. fuscosuccinea was estimated, and in vitro antioxidant properties and antioxidant enzyme activities were also ...

  18. Antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of some species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant effects of the methanolic extract of Phlomis bruguieri, P. herba-venti, P. olivieri, Stachys byzantina, S. inflata, S. lavandulifolia and S. laxa were tested in sunflower oil stored at 70ºC, by measuring peroxide values after regular intervals and compared with rosemary-, green tea- and BHAcontaining samples.

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Sambucus ebulus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Increase in the emergence of drug - resistant pathogens led to the development of natural antimicrobials. In this study the antimicrobial effect of methanolic extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica on 16 skin and wound infections isolates of methicillin resistant. S. aureus have been studied. Material and ...

  20. Antidiuretic Activity of the Methanol Extract of Aporusa lindleyana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Three doses (500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg) of the methanol extract (ME) of Aporusa lindleyana (Leaf and bark in 5:1 ratio) were orally administered to female, adult Sprague Dawley rats. Furosemide, vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) and distilled water were used as diuretic reference, antidiuretic reference and ...

  1. Evaluation of the chelating effect of methanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The group administered with the methanol extract showed significant difference in the levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit compared to the negative control group. Lead concentration in treatment groups showed a decrease compared to the positive control. Histological evaluation of tissue showed less damage in groups ...

  2. Comparative Antitrypanosomal Screening Of Methanolic Extracts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities with per cent drop in parasite population of. 43.76 and 29.46 ... Intraperitoneal treatment of T. brucei brucei-infected mice using these stem extracts at ... brucei brucei, Traditional medicine. ..... Journal of Biological Chemistry. 214:839-.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of Caffeic Acid from Methanol Seed Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To describe caffeic acid-based pharmacokinetics of methanol extract of seed of Syzygium cumini L. in rats. Methods: A dose of the extract (500 mg, equivalent to 37.135 mg caffeic acid) was administered orally to 6 male Wister rats, weighing 200 ± 10 g. Blood samples (0.5 mL), collected from the tail vein at 0, 15, ...

  4. DETERMINATION ON THE AGRICULTURAL AND QUALITY PROPERTIES OF URTICA PILULIFERA L. (ISIRGAN) UNDER BORNOVA ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Sancaktaroğlu, Sezgin; Bayram, Emine

    2011-01-01

    Five species of nettle (Urtica sp.) are found in Turkey. Stinging Nettle (Urtica pilulifera L.), is naturally distributed in the temperate zone of the world. It contains proteins, flavonoids, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. So, its leaves, roots and seeds are used for food, fiber, herbal medicine, colour agent and cosmetic industry. U. pilulifera is an annual plant and its seeds are locally called ‘'black nettle seed''. The species hasn't been cultivated yet in agriculture. The aim ...

  5. Antimalarial Activity of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Piper betle L.

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    Adel A. Amran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for new compounds active against malaria parasites is made more urgent by the rapid spread of drug-resistance to available antimalarial drugs. The crude methanol extract of Piper betle leaves (50–400 mg/kg was investigated for its antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei (NK65 during early and established infections. The phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of the crude extract were evaluated to elucidate the possibilities of its antimalarial effects. The safety of the extract was also investigated in ICR mice of both sexes by the acute oral toxicity limit test. The leaf extract demonstrated significant (P < 0.05 schizonticidal activity in all three antimalarial evaluation models. Phytochemical screening showed that the leaf extract contains some vital antiplasmodial chemical constituents. The extract also exhibited a potent ability to scavenge the free radicals. The results of acute toxicity showed that the methanol extract of Piper betle leaves is toxicologically safe by oral administration. The results suggest that the Malaysian folklorical medicinal application of the extract of Piper betle leaf has a pharmacological basis.

  6. Antidiarrheal Activity of 80% Methanolic Leaf Extract of Justicia schimperiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belay Mekonnen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of preventable death in developing countries and mainly affects children and infants. It has been reported that the leaf of Justicia schimperiana is used as an antidiarrheal agent in Libo Kemekem district, northwest Ethiopia. Method. The 80% methanolic leaf extract of J. schimperiana was evaluated for its activity against castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility in mice. Results. Significant reduction (p<0.001 in the total defecation and diarrheal drops was produced by all the test doses of the extract. Percentage inhibition of wet feces was 42.58, 65.07, and 74.96% at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses of the extract, respectively. The extract also significantly inhibited castor oil-induced enteropooling at all test doses. The percent reduction in mean weight of intestinal contents was 66.96, 67.83, and 76.52% at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses of the extract, respectively. The extract significantly reduced gastrointestinal movement of charcoal meal as well at 200 (p<0.01 and 400 mg/kg (p<0.001 doses. Conclusion. In conclusion, the methanolic leaf extract of J. schimperiana has an antidiarrheal activity and this supports the use of this plant in the treatment of diarrhea in the traditional settings.

  7. Antioxidant activity of methanol extract of Helichrysum foetidum Moench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirillini, Bruno; Menghini, Luigi; Leporini, Lidia; Scanu, Nadia; Marino, Stefania; Pintore, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Methanol extract of Helichrysum foetidum Moench (Asteraceae) was investigated for antioxidative properties. The antioxidant activities were investigated by 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging, ß-carotene/linoleic acid assay, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide (HRPO test), superoxide anion scavenging (S.A.S. test) and hypochlorous acid scavenging (taurine test). The antioxidant activity was reported as IC50 and reveals Trolox-like antioxidative effects.

  8. Antimalarial activity of methanolic leaf extract of Piper betle L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Nor, Zurainee M; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Amran, Adel A; Mahmud, Rohela

    2010-12-28

    The need for new compounds active against malaria parasites is made more urgent by the rapid spread of drug-resistance to available antimalarial drugs. The crude methanol extract of Piper betle leaves (50-400 mg/kg) was investigated for its antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei (NK65) during early and established infections. The phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of the crude extract were evaluated to elucidate the possibilities of its antimalarial effects. The safety of the extract was also investigated in ICR mice of both sexes by the acute oral toxicity limit test. The leaf extract demonstrated significant (P Piper betle leaves is toxicologically safe by oral administration. The results suggest that the Malaysian folklorical medicinal application of the extract of Piper betle leaf has a pharmacological basis.

  9. High-antibacterial activity of Urtica spp. seed extracts on food and plant pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körpe, Didem Aksoy; İşerı, Özlem Darcansoy; Sahin, Feride Iffet; Cabi, Evren; Haberal, Mehmet

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate antibacterial activities of methanol (MetOH) and aqueous (dw) leaf (L), root (R) and seed (S) extracts of Urtica dioica L. (Ud; stinging nettle) and Urtica pilulifera L. (Up; Roman nettle) on both food- and plant-borne pathogens, with total phenolic contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities (DRSA). MetOH extracts of leaves and roots of U. dioica had the highest DRSA. Extracts with high antibacterial activity were in the order Up-LMetOH (13/16) > Ud-SMetOH (11/16) > Up-SMetOH (9/16). Results obtained with Up-SMetOH against food spoiling Bacillus pumilus, Shigella spp. and Enterococcus gallinarum with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in 128-1024 μg/ml range seem to be promising. Up-SMetOH also exerted strong inhibition against Clavibacter michiganensis with a considerably low MIC (32 μg/ml). Ud-SMetOH and Up-LMetOH were also effective against C. michiganensis (MIC = 256 and 1024 μg/ml, respectively). Ud-SMetOH and Ud-RMetOH had also antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas vesicatoria (MIC = 512 and 1024 μg/ml, respectively). Results presented here demonstrate high-antibacterial activity of U. pilulifera extracts and U. dioica seed extract against phytopathogens for the first time, and provide the most comprehensive data on the antibacterial activity screening of U. pilulifera against food-borne pathogens. Considering limitations in plant disease control, antibacterial activities of these extracts would be of agricultural importance.

  10. Anticancer potential of Thevetia peruviana fruit methanolic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Silva, Alberto; Tavares-Carreón, Faviola; Figueroa, Mario; De la Torre-Zavala, Susana; Gastelum-Arellanez, Argel; Rodríguez-García, Aída; Galán-Wong, Luis J; Avilés-Arnaut, Hamlet

    2017-05-02

    Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum or Cascabela peruviana (L.) Lippold (commonly known as ayoyote, codo de fraile, lucky nut, or yellow oleander), native to Mexico and Central America, is a medicinal plant used traditionally to cure diseases like ulcers, scabies, hemorrhoids and dissolve tumors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, antiproliferative and apoptotic activity of methanolic extract of T. peruviana fruits on human cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of T. peruviana methanolic extract was carried out on human breast, colorectal, prostate and lung cancer cell lines and non-tumorigenic control cells (fibroblast and Vero), using the MTT assay. For proliferation and motility, clonogenic and wound-healing assays were performed. Morphological alterations were monitored by trypan blue exclusion, as well as DNA fragmentation and AO/EB double staining was performed to evaluate apoptosis. The extract was separated using flash chromatography, and the resulting fractions were evaluated on colorectal cancer cells for their cytotoxic activity. The active fractions were further analyzed through mass spectrometry. The T. peruviana methanolic extract exhibited cytotoxic activity on four human cancer cell lines: prostate, breast, colorectal and lung, with values of IC 50 1.91 ± 0.76, 5.78 ± 2.12, 6.30 ± 4.45 and 12.04 ± 3.43 μg/mL, respectively. The extract caused a significant reduction of cell motility and colony formation on all evaluated cancer cell lines. In addition, morphological examination displayed cell size reduction, membrane blebbing and detachment of cells, compared to non-treated cancer cell lines. The T. peruviana extract induced apoptotic cell death, which was confirmed by DNA fragmentation and AO/EB double staining. Fractions 4 and 5 showed the most effective cytotoxic activity and their MS analysis revealed the presence of the secondary metabolites: thevetiaflavone and cardiac glycosides. T. peruviana extract has

  11. Evaluating the ethyl-acetate fraction of crude methanol leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ointment formulations of the ethyl acetate fraction of the crude methanol leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum was in this study evaluated for wound healing activities in rat using the excision wound model. The air-dried and pulversied leaves were extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet extraction apparatus to obtain the ...

  12. Hepato-Protective Potential of Methanol Extract of Leaf of Ziziphus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the methanol leaf extract of Ziziphus mucronata (ZMLM). Method: The extract was prepared by soaking in 70% methanol/water and rotary evaporation. The phenol content of extract was then estimated. Twenty five adult male Sprague dawley ...

  13. Efficiency of Methanolic Extract of Gamma Irradiated Parsley as Antioxidant and Antimicrobial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M.H.; Ali, H.G.M.; Mohamed, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract of gamma irradiated parsley (Petroselinum crispum) at dose levels of 3, 6 and 9 kGy were determined, and the composition of methanolic extracts of non-irradiated and irradiated parsley were identified by GC-MS. The results showed that the methanolic extracts of non-irradiated and irradiated parsley had higher contents of total phenolic compounds and exhibited antioxidant of DPPH radical scavenging activity. Based on these results, the methanolic extracts of irradiated parsley at 6 kGy were selected for their higher activity as antioxidant as compared to other samples owing to their high content of total phenolic compounds and scavenging effect on DPPH radical. The analysis by GC-MS led to the identification of 23 and 24 components for non-irradiated and irradiated samples at 6 kGy, respectively. The main compound of the methanolic extract of non-irradiated parsley was acetic acid ethyl ester (28.5%). Meanwhile, the main compound of irradiated parsley at 6 kGy methanolic extract was phenol,2-methoxy-3(27.3 %). The antibacterial effect of methanolic extract of non-irradiated and irradiated parsley and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were assayed. The methanolic extract of irradiated parsley (6 kGy) was generally more effective against tested bacterial strains than the extract of non-irradiated parsley. The study exhibited that gram- negative bacteria under study were more sensitive than gram-positive one. The MIC values of tested bacteria of the methanolic extract of irradiated parsley (6 kGy) were in the range 4 to 20 μg/ml. It could be concluded that the methanolic extract of parsley can be used in food industry as natural food additive and in particular that extract from irradiated parsley at 6 kGy

  14. Methanol extract of grain dust shows complement fixing activity and other characteristics similar to tannic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skea, D; Broder, I

    1986-01-01

    We have found several similarities between tannic acid and grain dust extract prepared with methanol. Both formed a precipitate with IgG, and these interactions were inhibited by albumin. In addition, both preparations fixed complement; this activity was heat stable and was removed by prior adsorption of the preparations with hide powder. Adsorption with polyvinyl polypyrrolidone reduced the complement-fixing activity of tannic acid but not that of the methanol grain dust extract. The similarities between tannic acid and the methanol grain dust extract are consistent with the presence of a tannin or tanninlike material in grain dust. Images FIGURE 1. PMID:3709479

  15. In vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava L.

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    Anju Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Psidium guajava Linn (Myrtaceae. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory effect of methanolic extract of P. guajava was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains by using the paper disc diffusion method. Results: The methanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli with minimum inhibitory concentration, 0.78 μg/ml, minimum bactericidal concentration of 50 μg/ml, and appreciable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract revealed the presence of antimicrobial compounds such as flavonoids, steroids, and tannins, which may contribute for the antimicrobial action of P. guajava. Conclusion: The extract was found to be bacteriostatic and fungistatic in action.

  16. In vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Anju; Nanda, Arun; Ahmad, Sayeed; Narasimhan, B.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Psidium guajava Linn (Myrtaceae). Materials and Methods: The inhibitory effect of methanolic extract of P. guajava was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains by using the paper disc diffusion method. Results: The methanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli with minimum inhibitory concentration, 0.78 μg/ml, minimum bactericidal concentration of 50 μg/ml, and appreciable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract revealed the presence of antimicrobial compounds such as flavonoids, steroids, and tannins, which may contribute for the antimicrobial action of P. guajava. Conclusion: The extract was found to be bacteriostatic and fungistatic in action. PMID:21687350

  17. Growth inhibition of periphytic diatoms by methanol extracts of sponges and holothurians

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mokashe, S.S.; Garg, A; Anil, A; Wagh, A

    Crude methanol extracts of a holothurian Holothuria leucospilota, and two sponges Craniella sp. and Ircinia ramosa were tested for their inhibitory effects on the growth of two marine diatoms, Navicula subinflata and N. crucicula, by diatom plating...

  18. In vitro H1-receptor antagonist activity of methanolic extract of tuber of Stephania glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ahmad Khan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, methanolic extract of tuber of Stephania glabra was evaluated for H1-bloker activity by employing in vitro screening models of guinea pig ileum and goat tracheal chain preparation. Goat isolated trachea and guinea pig ileum contracted to histamine in a dose-dependent manner while chlorpheniramine blocked this effect. The methanolic extract produced significant dose-dependent H1-receptor antagonist activity by blocking histamine-induced contraction.

  19. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis (L), Quercus infectoria (Oliver) and Canthium parviflorum (Lam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, P. Sathiya; Sasikumar, J.M.; Gowsigan, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis, L., (Rutaceae), Quercus infectoria Oliver., (Fagaceae) and Canthium parviflorum Lam., (Rubiaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytocoa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The experiment was carried out using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanol extract of aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis (L) presented the highest zone of inhibition against tested pathogens. Other plants showed significant zone of inhibition. PMID:22557348

  20. Methanolic effect of Clerodendrum myricoides root extract on blood, liver and kidney tissues of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayelom, K; Mekbeb, A; Eyasu, M; Wondwossen, E; Kelbesa, U

    2012-12-01

    The present study deals with the toxicological investigations of chronic treatment with methanol root extract of Clerodendrum myricoides on body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters, and liver and kidney tissue sections. Mice treated with 100mg/kg bw/day of methanol extract showed no behavioral changes. However, there was a general reduction of activity in mice treated with 400mg/kg bw/day methanol extract and LD50 treated mice showed hypoactivity, grooming, prostration, piloroerection and irritation during administration towards the last days of the treatment period. The body weight gain difference in the 100mg/kg bw/day methanol extract treated group was not significant, while those of the others were significant as compared with the controls. Hematological results for the RBC count, HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC in methanol extract treated mice showed no significant changes at both doses of treatments as compared with the controls. However, the value of lymphocytes was found significantly increased at 100 and 400mg/kg bw/day methanol extract. Similarly, HGB was significantly increased at 100 and 400mg/kg bw/day of methanol extract treated groups. On the other hand, WBC and platelets count were significantly decreased after treatment with 400mg/kg bw/day methanol extract. ALT, ALP, AST and urea values were significantly increased respectively at 100mg/kg bw/day and 400mg/kg bw/day methanol extract. Several histopathological changes of liver and kidney were observed in the extract treated mice as compared to the controls. Such histopathological changes observed in both liver and kidneys were inflammations and hydropic degenerations of hepatocytes at both doses of methanol. In addition, in the LD50 treated mice of the extracts there were also hemorrhages and signs in congestion of glomeruli of the kidney. chronic treatment with Clerodendrum myricoides extracts in mice causes reduction in body weight gain, damage to liver & kidney and changes in some

  1. Assessment of antidiarrhoeal activity of the methanol extract of Xylocarpus granatum bark in mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouf, Razina; Uddin, Shaikh Jamal; Shilpi, Jamil Ahmad; Alamgir, Mahiuddin

    2007-02-12

    The methanol extract of Xylocarpus granatum bark was studied for its antidiarrhoeal properties in experimental diarrhoea, induced by castor oil and magnesium sulphate in mice. At the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg per oral, the methanol extract showed significant and dose-dependent antidiarrhoeal activity in both models. The extracts also significantly reduced the intestinal transit in charcoal meal test when compared to atropine sulphate (5 mg/kg; i.m.). The results showed that the extracts of Xylocarpus granatum bark have a significant antidiarrhoeal activity and supports its traditional uses in herbal medicine.

  2. Optimization of HPLC method for the isolation of Hypericum perforatum L. methanol extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković, J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum L. is one of the most studied plant species in the family Hypericaceae. The aim of this study was the identification of the constituents of methanol extract of H. perforatum and optimization of conditions for their isolation. The main components of the methanol extract were isolated on preparative ZORBAX Eclipse XDB C18 column with solvent system consisting of methanol and 1x10-2 M ammonium acetate in water. Constituents of the extract were identified by comparing their retention times with the retention times of the standards, with the literature data and the UV spectra. By varying the conditions of chromatography, the optimal conditions for isolation of the methanol extract constituents were determined: mobile phase consisting of methanol and 1x10-2 M ammonium acetate in water in ratio 1 : 1, sample concentration 100 mg/mL, sample volume 30 µL, flow 2 mL/min. Under these conditions 7 components of the methanol extract were isolated.

  3. Antifungal activity of methanolic root extract of Withania somnifera

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proff.Adewunmi

    remedy for many diseases in various regions of the world, especially in ... For control, 2 mL of DMSO was added to 16 mL of water, and 4 mL of this .... 3E). Since the four organic solvents used for fractionation of methanolic root .... Purification of a Lectin-Like Antifungal Protein from the Medicinal Herb, Withania Somnifera.

  4. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Littorina littorea and Galatea paradoxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Sheringham Borquaye

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic environment is a vital resource for bioprospecting pharmacologically important natural products. Molluscs are known to harbour compounds with antimicrobial, antitumor and antioxidant activities. This study evaluated the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of ethyl acetate and methanol tissue extracts of two molluscs, Littorina littorea (L. littorea and Galatea paradoxa (G. paradoxa. Agar diffusion and broth dilution assays were used to test for antimicrobial activity against nine microbes. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method was used to determine antioxidant activity of the extracts. Extracts of both molluscs showed significant activity against all the bacteria strains tested but were inactive towards the fungus. The best antibacterial activity was recorded by methanol extract of L. littorea towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In comparison to ethyl acetate extracts, methanol extracts were more efficient in scavenging the DPPH radical. Methanol extracts of L. littorea had an IC50 of 0.37 mg/mL which was closer to that of the standard ascorbic acid drug (0.0048 mg/mL than any of the other extracts. The findings of this work indicate that the tissue extracts of L. littorea and G. paradoxa are promising sources of antimicrobial and antioxidant agents that can be utilized for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes.

  5. In vivo screening antifungal activity of methanolic extract of Protoparmeliopsis muralis against Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Rashki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Lichens are the result of the symbiosis of fungi and algae or a cyanobacterium. Various biological activities of some lichen and their components such as: antifungal, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antiprotozoal substances are known. In the present study, antifungal activity of methanolic extract of Protoparmeliopsis muralis against Aspergillus flavus is investigated on rats. Materials & Methods: 500 g of Protoparmeliopsis muralis was collected from KaneGonbad mountains in Ilam province, the methanol extract was prepared by soxhle. In order to determine the antifungal activity in in vivo conditions, a wound was created and infected with Aspergillus flavus. Having infected the wound, the researchers divided the rats into 4 subgroups: negative control group, treated with Kotrimoksazol, %5 ointment extract methanolic P. muralis, and with %10 ointment extract methanolic P. muralis. Treatment continued until complete healing of the wound. Finally, the percentage of wound healing was calculated. Results: The result of the present study demonstrated that methanolic extract of P. muralis decreased the area of wound in the treatment group compared to the control group. Conclusion: The antifungal and antioxidant activity of the extract of Protoparmeliopsis muralis accelerated the wound healing process.

  6. Phytochemical screening and in vitro anthelmintic activity of methanol extract of Terminalia citrina leaves

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    Narhari Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate anthelmintic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Terminalia citrina (T. citrina plant belonging to the Combretaceae family. Methods: The tests of phytochemical screening included alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, quinines, anthocyanins, glycosides, carbohydrates and reducing sugars. The anthelmintic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of T. citrina was evaluated against Pheretima posthuma at three different concentrations (25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL of extracts which involved determination of time of paralysis and time of death of worms. Results: The phytochemical screening of T. citrina leaves revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, carbohydrates and reducing sugars. The present study indicated that methanolic extract significantly exhibited paralysis and also caused death of worms especially at highest concentration of 100 mg/mL, as compared to standard reference Albendazole (10 mg/mL. Conclusions: This study suggests that the leaves of T. citrina possess potent anthelmintic activity.

  7. Antileishmanial Activity of Myrtle Methanolic Extract against Leishmaniamajor: an In Vitro Study

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    Hossein Mahmoudvand

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In this study we assessed the in vitro antileishmanial activity of myrtle (Myrtus communis L. methanolic extract against Leishmania major. Materials and Methods: The in vitro antileishmanial effects of myrtle methanolic extract against L. major promastigote and amastigotes were determined by colorimetric cell viability (MTT assay and macrophage model, respectively. The IC50 values were also calculated by probit test in SPSS software. Results:The obtained results showed that myrtle extract was significantly inhibited promastigote growth of L. major based on a dose and time dependent manner. The measured IC50 values for myrtle methanolic extract and MA as control drug against promastigote forms of L. major were 23.6 µg/mL and 88.3 µg/mL, respectively. The obtained IC50 values were 13.8

  8. Inhibition of iNOS and DNA Oxidation by Methanol Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant properties of the methanol extract of S. tenuifolia as well as its effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cycleooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced cell damage in macrophage cells. Methods: The antioxidant activities of the plant extract ...

  9. Anti-plasmodial and antioxidant activities of methanol extract of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at investigating the anti-plasmodial and antioxidant activities of the extract of the leaf of Lophira lanceolata, a traditional medicine recipe. The methanol extract (ME) obtained by 72 h cold maceration was evaluated for acute toxicity test (LD50) and phytochemical constituents. The suppressive and ...

  10. Analgesic Effect of Methanol Leaf Extract of Alstonia Boonei De Wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pain and other conditions. Methods: Alstonia boonei leaves were extracted with methanol. Rodent models were employed in screening the analgesic effect of the extract. Pain indices evaluated in hot plate and tail flick tests, formalin pain test and mouse writhing assay were mean reaction time to latent heat, time spent in ...

  11. Antioxidant and antihepatotoxic efficacy of methanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber Linn in Wistar rats

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    Kannakuzhiyil Oommen Sheeba

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber root against CCl4 induced liver damage in rats. Methods: In vitro antioxidant activity was studied by determining superoxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and Fe 2+ ascorbate induced lipid peroxidation inhibiting activity of methanolic extract. The in vivo hepatoprotective activity was studied by estimating AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, total protein, albumin levels and by histopathological examination in CCl4 toxicity induced experimental rats. The peroxidative hepatic damage was studied by assessing TBARS, CD, SOD, CAT and GSH in liver. Results: Methanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber root at doses of 75mg and 150mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the levels of AST, ALT, ALP & GGT and increased the level of TP and Albumin. The levels of TBARS and CD were decreased and the level of GSH increased. The levels of SOD and CAT were decreased. Histopathological changes induced by CCl4 were reduced by the treatment of methanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber root. The effect was compared with reference drug curcumin. Conclusions: The antioxidant and antihepatotoxic activities of methanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber root was probably due to free radical scavenging activity

  12. Protective effect of crude Curcuma longa and its methanolic extract in alloxanized rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mobasher; Kamran, Sairah Hafeez; Mobasher, Afroze

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma longa (C. longa) is commonly found in different areas of Pakistan. It has been locally utilized as a traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, hepatoprotective and total antioxidant effect of the crude drug and its methanolic extract in rabbits. Diabetes was induced with alloxan (180mg/kg). Two major groups were designed, curative and protective groups. In curative group the crude drug and its methanolic extract was orally administered to the diabetic animals and acute study was performed. On the other hand in protective group the crude drug and its methanolic extract were administered for eight days prior to the diabetes induction. Results indicated that in Curative group the crude and methanolic extract of C. longa significantly improved the levels of serum glucose, serum transaminases and antioxidant activity (AOA). In protective group, serum glucose, serum transaminases were not significantly increased by alloxan, in both crude as well as methanolic extract group. This study shows that C. longa acts as antidiabetic, hepatoprotective and antioxidant in diabetes especially type 1 diabetes.

  13. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and urease inhibiting activities of methanolic extracts from Cyphostemma digitatum stem and roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rasool; Saif, Abdullah Qasem; Quradha, Mohammed Mansour; Ali, Jawad; Rauf, Abdur; Khan, Ajmal

    2016-01-01

    Cyphostemma digitatum stem and roots extracts were investigated for antioxidant, antimicrobial, urease inhibition potential and phytochemical analysis. Phytochemical screening of the roots and stem extract revealed the presence of secondary metabolites including flavonoids, alkaloids, coumarins, saponins, terpenoids, tannins, carbohydrates/reducing sugars and phenolic compounds. The methanolic extracts of the roots displayed highest antioxidant activity (93.518%) against DPPH while the crude methanolic extract of the stem showed highest antioxidant activity (66.163%) at 100 μg/mL concentration. The methanolic extracts of both stem and roots were moderately active or even found to be less active against the selected bacterial and fungal strains (Tables S2 and S3). The roots extract (methanol) showed significant urease enzyme inhibition activity (IC50 = 41.2 ± 0.66; 0.2 mg/mL) while the stem extract was found moderately active (IC50 = 401.1 ± 0.58; 0.2 mg/mL) against thiourea (IC50 = 21.011; 0.2 mg/mL).

  14. Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects of methanol, ethanol, and water extracts of Angelicae Dahuricae Radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Myeong-Hyeon; Jeong, Su-Hyeon; Guo, Huifang; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    Angelicae Dahuricae Radix has been used for the treatment of headaches, rhinitis, and colds in traditional medicine. Methanol, ethanol, and water extracts of Angelicae Dahuricae Radix were collected. A statistically significant reduction in the cellular viability of the mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage cell line was noted after treatment with water extracts of Angelicae Dahuricae Radix. Stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) for 24 h led to a robust increase in nitric oxide production, but Angelicae Dahuricae Radix at 400 μg/mL concentration significantly suppressed nitric oxide produced by the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells in 70% ethanol, absolute ethanol, 70% methanol, absolute methanol, and boiling water groups (P ethanol extract of Angelicae Dahuricae Radix suppressed the LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-1β, and cycloxygenase-2 expression. Angelicae Dahuricae Radix showed significant cytotoxic effects on the human adenocarcinoma cell line and keratin-forming cell line. (J Oral Sci 58, 125-131, 2016).

  15. Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Barleria montana leaves in ethanol treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanaz Banu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect and possible mechanism of methanolic extract of Barleria montana (BM on ethanol-induced rat hepatic injury. Method: This respective activity was assessed through monitoring liver function tests through the measurement of triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, total bilirubin, serum enzymes like SGOT and SGPT and in vivo antioxidant parameters like lipid peroxidase, Superoxide dismutase(SOD and catalase,. Further, hepatic tissues were also subjected to histopathological studies. Result: Pretreatment of BM methanolic extract (500mg/kg reduced the fatty liver symptoms and significantly (p<0.001 inhibited the increase of respective serum enzyme levels. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that BM methanolic extract possess hepatoprotective effects which could act as an effective treatment for acute hepatic diseases.

  16. Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of methanol extract of Polygonum minus leaves in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christapher, Parayil Varghese; Parasuraman, Subramani; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran

    2017-06-01

    Medicinal plant preparations may contain high levels of toxic chemical constituents to potentially cause serious harm to animals and/or humans. Thus, toxicity studies are important to assess the toxic effects of plant derived products. Polygonum minus is used traditionally for different ailments in Southeast Asia. This study was conducted to establish the acute and subchronic toxicity profile of the methanol extract of P. minus leaves. The acute toxicity study showed that the methanol extract of P. minus is safe even at the highest dose tested of 2000 mg/kg in female Sprague Dawley rats. There were no behavioural or physiological changes and gross pathological abnormalities observed. The subchronic toxicity study of methanol extract of P. minus at 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg were conducted in both sexes of Sprague Dawley rats. There were no changes observed in the extract treated animal's body weight, food and water intake, motor coordination, behaviour and mental alertness. The values of haematological and biochemical parameters were not different between the treated and control animals. The relative organ weights of extract-treated animals did not differ with that of control animals. Based on the present findings, the methanol extract of P. minus leaves could be considered safe up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of Dracaena cinnabari resin methanol extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Afifi, Nashwan Abdullah; Alabsi, Aied Mohammed; Bakri, Marina Mohd; Ramanathan, Anand

    2018-02-05

    Dracaena cinnabari (DC) is a perennial tree that located on the Southern coast of Yemen native to the Socotra Island. This tree produces a deep red resin known as the Dragon's blood, the Twobrother's Blood or Damm Alakhwain. The current study performed to evaluate the safety of the DC resin methanol extract after a single or 28 consecutive daily oral administrations. In assessing the safety of DC resin methanol extract, acute and sub-acute oral toxicity tests performed following OECD guidelines 423 and 407, respectively, with slight modifications. In acute oral toxicity test, DC resin methanol extract administered to female Sprague Dawley rats by oral gavage at a single dose of 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. Rats observed for toxic signs for 14 days. In sub-acute oral toxicity test, DC resin methanol extract administered to the rats by oral gavage at 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg body weight daily up to 28 days to male and female Spradgue Dawley rats. The control and high dose in satellite groups were also maintained and handled as the previous groups to determine the late onset toxicity of DC resin methanol extract. At the end of each test, hematological and biochemical analysis of the collected blood were performed as well as gross and microscopic pathology. In acute oral toxicity, no treatment-related death or toxic signs were observed. It revealed that the DC resin methanol extract could be well tolerated up to the dose 2000 mg/kg body weight and could be classified as Category 5. The sub-acute test observations indicated that there are no treatment-related changes up to the high dose level compared to the control. Food consumption, body weight, organ weight, hematological parameters, biochemical parameters and histopathological examination (liver, kidney, heart, spleen and lung) revealed no abnormalities. Water intake was significantly higher in the DC resin methanol extract treated groups compared to the control. This study demonstrates tolerability of DC

  19. Methanolic Extract of Plumbago Zeylanica - A Remarkable Antibacterial Agent Against Many Human and Agricultural Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The current investigation was carried out to determine the cytotoxic and the antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of Plumbago zeylanica. Methods: The stems, leaves, and whole plants were air dried and extracted with methanol by using a Soxhlet extractor for 72 hours at 55 - 60°C. The antimicrobial activities were determined from the zones of inhibition, which were measured by using the agar well diffusion method, and the cytotoxicity assays were performed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay method. Results: The methanolic extracts of the stem and the leaves of Plumbago zeylanica were tested against six bacterial species and nine fungal species, and both extracts showed antimicrobial activity in a dose-dependent manner. The leaf extract of Plumbago zeylanica showed maximum antimicrobial activity against both Staphylococcus aureus sub sp aureus and Fusarium oxysporum. The stem extract was found to be more antimicrobial against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Penicillium expansum species. MTT assays were used to test the cytotoxicity of the whole plant extract in the HCT-116 and the K-562 cell lines, and that extract was shown to have weak cytotoxicity in both cell lines. Conclusion: In the present study, the methanolic stem extracts of Plumbago zeylanica were found to possess remarkable antibacterial activities against many human and agricultural pathogens. The extracts were also found to possess significant antifungal activities, but the antifungal activities were less than the antibacterial activities. Finally, the extracts were found to have weak cytotoxicities in the HCT-116 and the K-562 cell lines.

  20. Behavioural effects of methanol stem bark extract of Boswellia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the open field test, the extract at all doses tested (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) ... The extract did not produce motor coordination deficit in the beam walking ... Keywords: Boswellia dalzielii, Behaviour, Exploration, Motor coordination, Sleeping time ...

  1. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of four Algerian marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cmi

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... and antifungal activities of the extracts of marine algae from southern coast of India. Botanica marina. 40: 507-515. Patra JK, Patra AP, Mahapatra NK, Thatoi HN, Das S, Sahu, RK, Swain. GC (2009). Antimicrobial activity of organic solvent extracts of three marine macroalgae from Chilika Lake, Orissa, India.

  2. Anti-tuberculosis activities of the crude methanolic extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    standard drugs. The petri dishes were sealed with a carbon-dioxide permeable tape, left overnight in biosafety hood to allow diffusion of the extract, fractions. It was then incubated at 370C in a carbon- dioxide incubator for 4 weeks. The susceptibility of. M. tuberculosis isolates to the extract and the drugs was determined by ...

  3. Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Methanol Extract and Its Fraction from the Root of Schoenoplectus grossus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Kumar Subedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to evaluate analgesic and antipyretic activities of the methanol extract and its different fractions from root of Schoenoplectus grossus using acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail flick method of pain models in mice and yeast induced pyrexia in rats at the doses of 400 and 200 mg/kg. In acetic acid writhing test, the methanol extract, petroleum ether, and carbon tetrachloride fractions produced significant (P<0.001 and P<0.05 inhibition of writhing responses in dose dependent manner. The methanol extract at 400 and 200 mg/kg being more protective with 54% and 45.45% of inhibition compared to diclofenac sodium of 56% followed by petroleum ether fractions of 49.69% and 39.39% at the same doses. The extracts did not produce any significant antinociceptive activity in tail flick test except standard morphine. When studied on yeast induced pyrexia, methanol and petroleum ether fractions significantly lowered the rectal temperature time dependently in a manner similar to standard drug paracetamol and distinctly more significant (P<0.001 after second hour. These findings suggest that the root extracts of S. grossus possess significant peripherally acting analgesic potential and antipyretic property. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins.

  4. Sedative and Hypnotic Activities of the Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Lavandula officinalis from Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnamer, Rachad; Alaoui, Katim; Bouidida, El Houcine; Benjouad, Abdelaziz; Cherrah, Yahia

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the sedative and hypnotic activities of the methanolic and aqueous extract of Lavandula officinalis L. on central nervous system (CNS). In this study, the effect of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of this plant was investigated in a battery of behavioural models in mice. Stems and flowers of Lavandula officinalis L. have several therapeutic applications in folk medicine in curing or managing a wide range of diseases, including insomnia. The methanolic extract produced significant sedative effect at the doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg (by oral route), compared to reference substance diazepam (DZP), and an hypnotic effect at the doses of 800 and 1000 mg/kg while the treatment of mice with the aqueous extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg via oral pathway significantly reduced in both the reestablishment time and number of head dips during the traction and hole-board tests. In conclusion, these results suggest that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lavandula officinalis possess potent sedative and hypnotic activities, which supported its therapeutic use for insomnia. PMID:22162677

  5. Sedative and Hypnotic Activities of the Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Lavandula officinalis from Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachad Alnamer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the sedative and hypnotic activities of the methanolic and aqueous extract of Lavandula officinalis L. on central nervous system (CNS. In this study, the effect of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of this plant was investigated in a battery of behavioural models in mice. Stems and flowers of Lavandula officinalis L. have several therapeutic applications in folk medicine in curing or managing a wide range of diseases, including insomnia. The methanolic extract produced significant sedative effect at the doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg (by oral route, compared to reference substance diazepam (DZP, and an hypnotic effect at the doses of 800 and 1000 mg/kg while the treatment of mice with the aqueous extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg via oral pathway significantly reduced in both the reestablishment time and number of head dips during the traction and hole-board tests. In conclusion, these results suggest that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lavandula officinalis possess potent sedative and hypnotic activities, which supported its therapeutic use for insomnia.

  6. Anatomia do xilema secundário de Mimosa pilulifera Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O presente trabalho trata da primeira descrição detalhada do xilema secundário de Mimosa pilulifera Benth. São fornecidas medições de 30 características anatômicas e fotomicrografias da estrutura lenhosa. A anatomia da madeira indica um alto grau de especialização filogenética e reúne diversos caracteres indicativos da família Leguminosae, sub-família Mimosoideae, série Lepidotae Benth. e gênero Mimosa L.

  7. Antiasthmatic and antiallergic potential of methanolic extract of leaves of Ailanthus excelsa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was antiasthmatic potential of methanolic extract of leaves of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb., Simaroubaceae. Traditionally or in Indian system of medicine, A. excelsa is used in the treatment of asthma, cough, colic pain, cancer, diabetes and also used as antispasmodic, antifertility, bronchodilator. Stem bark of A. excelsa already reported for its potential against asthma. The pollens of Ailanthus excelsa reported allergic in nature and the time of collection of leaves were important in this study, generally the flowering stage of plant was avoided for the collection due to maximum chance of pollens at that time. Methanolic extract of leaves of A. excelsa was evaluated using in vitro goat tracheal chain preparation model and in vivo- Milk induced leucocytosis, eosinophilia, Clonidine induced catalepsy in mice model while Passive paw anaphylaxis and Clonidine induced mast cell degranulation in rat model. The extract showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, quassonoids and test was also positive for alkaloids and steroids. The extract also showed the presence of quercetin which is flavonoid and detected on the preparative TLC plate with the help of standard quercetin. Dose response studies of methanolic extract of leaves of A. excelsa Roxb. were conducted at 100 µg mL-1 in vitro and 100, 200, 400 mg kg-1 p.o. in vivo models. The treatment with methanolic extract of A. excelsa at different dose level showed the significant (*p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001 antiasthmatic activity. Inhibition or decrease the release of inflammatory mediators potentiates the antiasthmatic as well as antiallergic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of A. excelsa.

  8. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of methanolic plant part extracts of Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2014-11-10

    The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50) was 358.3±7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0±1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4%±1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50)=41.4±3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.

  9. In Vitro Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Methanolic Plant Part Extracts of Theobroma cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Baharum

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50 was 358.3 ± 7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0 ± 1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4% ± 1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50 = 41.4 ± 3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.

  10. Phytochemical and anti-microbial activity of methanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam, Azadirachta indica, Aspilia africana (Pers) C. D. Adams against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saphrophyticus were determined using agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ...

  11. Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Methanol Leaf Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral acute toxicity and phytochemical screening were also carried out on the extract. Results: The ... pancreatic insulin secretion, with or without ... management of chronic illnesses, one of which is ..... is because diabetes mellitus is a metabolic.

  12. Effects of methanol leaf extracts of Loranthus micranthus Linn from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    blood glucose, lipid profile and other biochemical indices of diabetic rats. Methods: The ... Diabetes mellitus is a disease of metabolic origin which is .... Fasting blood sugar level after ..... (Iridaceae) leaf extract in ICR mice fed high fat diet.

  13. Phytochemical and anti-microbial activity of methanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam, Azadirachta indica, Aspilia Africana (Pers) C. D. Adams against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saphrophyticus were determined using agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ...

  14. Pharmacokinetics of Caffeic Acid from Methanol Seed Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A dose of the extract (500 mg, equivalent to 37.135 mg caffeic acid) was administered orally to 6 male .... emission. Validation studies. Linearity. The rat plasma samples were spiked by caffeic acid solutions ..... Atomic structure of.

  15. Antihyperglycaemic and hypolipidemic effect of methanol extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    extracts of Ageratum conyzoides L (Asteraceae) in normal and diabetic rats ..... damaged beta-cells in diabetic mice [24,25]. Ageratum .... New York: The National Academies. Press ... Clark L, Lyons C. Development of the first glucose enzyme ...

  16. Antihypertensive Activity of Aqueous-Methanol Extract of Berberis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Median lethal dose (LD50) and sub-chronic toxicity of the extract were also determined ... possible mode(s) of action, side effects, toxicity ... medicinal uses. Berberis ... evaluate the possible antihypertensive effect of this plant. EXPERIMENTAL.

  17. In vivo pharmacological activities of methanolic extract of Tabernaemontana recurva Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robel Chandra Singha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate analgesic, hypoglycemic, anxiolytic, and anthelmintic activities with phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of Tabernaemontana recurva (T. recurva whole plants. Methods: The plant parts of T. recurva were collected, dried, powdered and extracted with methanol. Then the extracts were subjected to in vivo analgesic, hypoglycemic, anxiolytic activity in mice model and in vitro anthelmintic activity. Results: The analysis of phytochemical screening confirmed the existence of alkaloid, saponin, tannins, carbohydrate, phytosterols, glycosides and phenol. In analgesic test, a significant level of percentage inhibition of abdominal constriction was observed with concentration of 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight of extract and this was found better with formalin induced hind paw licking test rather than acetic acid induced writhing test. In hypoglycemic test, it was observed that concentration 200 mg/kg reduced blood sugar level slightly while concentration 400 mg/ kg increased glucose level by 22.95%. A significant level of anxiolytic activity was observed for the study plant extract. The extract revealed potent anthelmintic activity at different concentrations. Conclusions: In light, the methanolic extract of T. recurva exhibited excellent anthelmintic, anxiolytic and analgesic activity. This plant showed moderate hypoglycemic effect at lower concentration but higher concentration increased blood glucose level.

  18. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of the methanol root bark extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cochlospermum planchonii (Hook f) is a common medicinal plant used in Nigeria traditional medicine for treatment of different ailments including ulcers. The anti ulcer activity of the root bark methanol extract of Cochlospermum planchonii was evaluated using different [ethanol, acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), cold/restraint ...

  19. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of methanol extract of Clinacanthus nutans in mice. Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria, Mohammad Hafiz Abdul Rahim, Norhafizah Mohtarrudin, Arifah Abdul Kadir, Manraj Singh Cheema, Zuraini Ahmad, Ching Siew Mooi, Siti Farah Md. Tohid ...

  20. Effect of methanol, n-hexane and aqueous extract of Irvingia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bush mango leaf (Irvingia gabonensis) is commonly used locally to treat diarrhoea. The present study evaluated the anti-diarrhoea effect of this plant extract on albino rats induced with castor oil. Fresh tender leaf of this plant was collected, air-dried, powdered and percolated in n-hexane, methanol and aqueous solvents.

  1. Effects of the methanol extract of Erythrina abyssinica on hot flashes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the estrogen-like properties of the methanol extract of Erythrina abyssinica in ovariectomized rats. Climaterix was induced in female rats by surgically removing the ovaries. Data loggers implanted in the abdominal cavity during the procedure recorded core temperatures at predetermined time intervals for 72 ...

  2. Apoptotic and free radical scavenging properties of the methanolic extract of Gentianella alborosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Nuria; Llinares, Francisco; Galán de Mera, Antonio; Oltra, Beatriz; Muñoz-Mingarro, Dolores

    2006-09-01

    Gentianella alborosea ("Hercampure") is a Peruvian species used in folk medicine for the treatment of a variety of health disorders. We tested the free radical scavenging (DPPH) and induction of apoptosis on a human uterus tumor cell line (HeLa) by its methanolic extract. The results showed a noticeable radical scavenging activity and a dose-dependent apoptotic effect.

  3. Screening of Methanol and Acetone Extracts of Fourteen Indian Medicinal Plants for Antimicrobial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    VAGHASIYA, Yogeshkumar; CHANDA, Sumitra V.

    2014-01-01

    The methanol and acetone extracts of 14 plants belonging to different families were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against five Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus flavus; seven Gram-negative bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhimurium, Citrobacter freundii; and three fungi: Candida tropicalis, Cryptococcus lut...

  4. Evaluation of In-vivo Antimalarial Activity of Methanol Leaf Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To evaluate the in-vivo antimalarial activity of the methanol extract of the leaves of Glyphaea brevis in ... alternative malarial drugs, with novel modes of action [4]. ... The mean lethal dose of the three fractions. (ethylacetate ...

  5. Ecological observations and GC-MS analysis of methanolic extract of Sacoglossan Elysia bangtawaensis (Swennen)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenai-Tirodkar, P.S.; Desai, N.M.; Jagtap, T.G.

    H and temperature (air and water). Moreover, GC-MS analysis of methanolic extract of E. bangtawaensis showed major constituents of fatty acids such as myristic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid, etc. The presence of such bioactive compounds (identified...

  6. The In Vitro Effects of Graded Concentrations of Methanol Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The worms were recovered from those infected mice from the mesenteric and portal veins by the perfusion techniques and were incubated in Bueding medium at 37 C°. The same experiment was repeated after adding graded concentrations of the methanol extract to the medium. Quantitative analysis of glucose in the ...

  7. Antioxidant Effects of Methanol Extract of Allium cepa linn on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    These effects were compared to those of sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3), a classical antidote of cyanide toxicity. The rats ... The results indicate that onion extract reduced lipid peroxidation in the kidney and ..... Research and Health. 27 (4): ...

  8. Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Methanol Extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    fractions were subjected to in vitro antioxidant evaluation using the DPPH free radical scavenging ... The crude extract has IC-50 value for radical scavenging activity of 5μg/mL which was .... effective concentration of the sample that is required.

  9. Antihyperglycemic activity of the bark methanolic extract of Syzygium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahul Chandran

    The glucose homeostasis was observed till 180th min in glucose loaded rats treated with the ... formation.1 The pathogenesis of type-2 diabetes is not fully under- stood. .... Becker.15 The results are expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The ..... (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis) extracts and certain non-protein amino/imino · acids ...

  10. Pytotoxic activity of crude methanolic extract of Euphorbia prostrata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... preservative. Almost all the active principles responsible for the pharmacological action are known (Bulletin of the. WHO, 1998, 1993; Khan et al., 2010a, b). ... The plant was extracted and filtered by using Whatman filter paper No 1. The filtrate of the sample was concentrated by using rotary evaporator.

  11. Effect of Allium sativum (garlic) methanol extract on viability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allium sativum extract following 48-h treatment on U-937, Jurkat Clone E6-1 and K-562 cell lines. The mode of ... correlated with down-regulation of Bcl-2, XIAP, and cIAP-1 ... Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and then dried at room temperature ..... the authors named in this article and all liabilities ... health maintenance: A review.

  12. In vitro evaluation of the interaction between methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-21

    Mar 21, 2011 ... lichen species have antibiotic properties (Prea et al.,. 2002). They are active against bacteria, mostly gram- positive forms, free-living moulds, yeast and viruses (Lewis et al., 2002; Odis et al., 2001). Lichens have been in medical use for a long time. (Odds et al., 2001). Lichens and lichen extracts “helped” in.

  13. Some Neuropharmacological Effects of the Methanolic Root Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. S.B. OLALEYE

    Pentobarbital-sleeping time. Albino mice were grouped of six each. They were treated as follows; Group 1 received normal saline, groups 2, 3 and 4 received the extract (dose 50,100 and 200 mg/kg). Animals were administered with sodium pentobarbitone (40 mg/kg i.p.) 30 min later and index of hypnotic effect recorded.

  14. In vivo Antimalarial Activity of Methanol and Water Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The possible active compounds responsible for the observed chemosupression may be flavonoids, terpeneoids and anthraquinones which are present in the extract. This is the first report on the in vivo antimalarial activity of E. thorifolium. Keywords: Antimalarial, Eryngium thorifolium, Plasmodium berghei, ...

  15. Effect of Allium sativum (garlic) methanol extract on viability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay at concentrations of 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 ug/mL of Allium sativum extract following 48-h treatment on U-937, Jurkat Clone E6-1 and K-562 cell lines. The mode of cell death was ...

  16. Phytochemical Analysis, Identification and Quantification of Antibacterial Active Compounds in Betel Leaves, Piper betle Methanolic Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahidah, A; Saad, C R; Hassan, M D; Rukayadi, Y; Norazian, M H; Kamarudin, M S

    2017-01-01

    The problems of bacterial diseases in aquaculture are primarily controlled by antibiotics. Medicinal plants and herbs which are seemed to be candidates of replacements for conventional antibiotics have therefore gained increasing interest. Current study was performed to investigate the presence of phytochemical constituents, antibacterial activities and composition of antibacterial active compounds in methanolic extract of local herb, Piper betle . Qualitative phytochemical analysis was firstly carried out to determine the possible active compounds in P. betle leaves methanolic extract. The antibacterial activities of major compounds from this extract against nine fish pathogenic bacteria were then assessed using TLC-bioautography agar overlay assay and their quantity were determined simultaneously by HPLC method. The use of methanol has proved to be successful in extracting numerous bioactive compounds including antibacterial compounds. The TLC-bioautography assay revealed the inhibitory action of two compounds which were identified as hydroxychavicol and eugenol. The $-caryophyllene however was totally inactive against all the tested bacterial species. In this study, the concentration of hydroxychavicol in extract was found to be 374.72±2.79 mg g-1, while eugenol was 49.67±0.16 mg g-1. Based on these findings, it could be concluded that hydroxychavicol and eugenol were the responsible compounds for the promising antibacterial activity of P. betle leaves methanolic extract. This inhibitory action has significantly correlated with the amount of the compounds in extract. Due to its potential, the extract of P. betle leaves or it compounds can be alternative source of potent natural antibacterial agents for aquaculture disease management.

  17. Analytical chemical study of alkaloid fraction of methanolic extract of Croton baillonianus (AUBL) leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuertes R, Cesar M.; Benavides, Angelyne; Pizza, Cosimo; Napolitano, Asunta; Basarello, Carla; Piacente, Sonia; Carbone Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study has been to extract and isolate the alkaloids from leaves of Croton baillonianus, corresponding to the methanolic extract by exclusion chromatography with Sephadex LH-20 followed by a purification by high performance liquid chromatography, obtaining six alkaloids. Two low polarity alkaloid and two glycoside alkaloids were analyzed by Electronic System impact mass spectrometry; these alkaloids belong to bencylisoquinolinic type; the study has connection to the determination of its antioxidant, antiulcerose and cytotoxic properties. (author).

  18. Preliminary studies on the antiplasmodial potential of aqueous and methanol extracts ofeucalyptus camadulensis leaf

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    Kabiru, Y. A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The rising problem of resistance to the classical drugs like chloroquine and the problem of recrudescence of malaria after treatment with artemisinin suggest the need for new antimalaria agents. This project was designed to explore the antiplasmodial potential of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf extracts. Methods: The antiplasmodial potential of the methanol and aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus camadulensis (leaf were evaluated in a mouse model of malaria. Swiss albino mice were intraperitoneally infected with plasmodium berghei (NK65, a rodent malaria parasite. The level of parasitemia, life span, variation in weight and percentage packed cell volume (% PCV of infected and treated mice were used to assess the efficacy of extracts. Treatment with the extracts at dose levels of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight commenced 72 hours post infection for the test groups, while a standard antimalarial drug, Artesunate, at a dose of 50mg/kg body weight was administered on the positive control group. The negative control group was left untreated. Results: Animals treated with the methanol extract showed a significant decrease in parasitaemia (p < 0.05, and survived for 29 days compared with those treated with the aqueous extract which survived for 19 days with a higher level of parasitemia. However, the control group treated with Artesunate showed a significantly lower parasitaemia (p < 0.05 and survived for 34 days when compared with the groups treated with methanol and aqueous extracts. The level of parasitemia, decrease in weight and %PCV in all the treated groups was significantly lower (P < 0.05 compared with the infected but untreated group (negative control which survived for only 7 days. Conclusions: The methanol extract of the leaves of E. camadulensis has an antimalarial potential that could be exploited for the benefit of mankind.

  19. Antibacterial activities of methanolic extracts of aerial parts of delphinium uncinatum hook's and thoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, M.; Khan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of aerial parts of Delphinium uncinatum Hook's and Thoms were analysed for its antibacterial activities aligned to two gram positive bacterial strains, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus and two gram negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli and Klebsilla pneumonia, using Agar Well Diffusion method. Bactericidal activity was observed against both gram negative and gram positive bacterial strains. Extracts used were more active against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus at all prepared concentrations but lesser against Klebsilla pneumonia. (author)

  20. Antihyperlipidemic, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Different Parts of Star Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghir, Sultan A M; Sadikun, Amirin; Al-Suede, Fouad S R; Majid, Amin M S A; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran

    Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) is a well-known plant in Malaysia which bears a great significance in traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic effect, antioxidant potential and cytotoxicity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of ripe and unripe fruits, leaves and stem of A. carambola. Antihyperlipidemic activity was assessed in poloxamer-407 (P-407) induced acute hyperlipidemic rat's model. The antioxidant activity was assessed in vitro using 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, 1-diphenyl-2-dipicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. In addition, cytotoxicity of A. carambola extracts was assessed using MTS assay on four leukemic cell lines (human colon cancer, human promyeloid leukemia, erythroid leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia) and one normal cell (human umbilical vein endothelial cells). Methanolic extract of leaves had the most potent antihyperlipidemic activity in P-407 model, whereby it significantly reduced serum levels of total cholesterol (Pcarambola stem and leaves showed the strongest antioxidant activity. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts exhibited significant correlations with antioxidant but not with antihyperlipidemic activities. All plant parts showed no cytotoxic effect on the selected cancer or normal cell lines. Antihyperlipidemic activity of different parts of A. carambola is greatly affected by extraction solvents used. Methanolic extract of A. carambola leaves exhibited higher antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant potentials compared to other parts of the plant.

  1. The anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effect of the methanol extract from brittle star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharara, Javad; Amini, Elaheh; Mousavi, Marzieh

    2015-04-01

    Anti-angiogenic therapy is a crucial step in cancer treatment. The discovery of new anti-angiogenic compounds from marine organisms has become an attractive concept in anti-cancer therapy. Because little data correlated to the pro- and anti-angiogenic efficacies of Ophiuroidea, which include brittle star, the current study was designed to explore the anti-angiogenic potential of brittle star methanol extract in vitro and in vivo. The anti-proliferative effect of brittle star extract on A2780cp cells was examined by MTT assays, and transcriptional expression of VEGF and b-FGF was evaluated by RT-PCR. In an in vivo model, 40 fertilized Ross eggs were divided into control and three experimental groups. The experimental groups were incubated with brittle star extract at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml, and photographed by photo-stereomicroscopy. Ultimately, numbers and lengths of vessels were measured by Image J software. Data were analyzed with SPSS software (pstar extract exerted a dose- and time-dependent anti-proliferative effect on A2780cp cancer cells. In addition, VEGF and b-FGF expression decreased with brittle star methanol extract treatment. Macroscopic evaluations revealed significant changes in the second and third experimental group compared to controls (pstar methanol extract in vitro and in vivo confer novel insight into the application of natural marine products in angiogenesis-related pathologies.

  2. Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Malva parviflora against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Malva parviflora (cheeseweed is traditionally used as hepatoprotective. The current study was conducted to determine its hepatoprotective activity of aqueous methanolic extract of whole plant. Two doses of plant (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg were administered in paracetamol intoxicated mice and results were compared with silymarin. Observational parameters were ALT, AST, ALP and total bilirubin. The results showed that the extract of M. parviflora produced significant (p<0.001 reduction in liver enzymes and total bilirubin. Results were supported by histopathological investigation, phytochemical screening and detection of hepatoprotective constituents (kaempferol and apigenin by HPLC. So, the current study showed that aqueous methanolic extract of M. parviflora possesses hepatoprotective activity.

  3. Evaluation of antiepileptic activity of the methanol extract of Trachyspermum ammi (L.

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    Rajput Muhammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effect of a methanol extract of Trachyspermum ammi (L. as an antiepileptic agent. Tests were conducted with a single- and multiple-dosing schedule of Trachyspermum ammi (L., using a strychnine-induced seizure model for epilepsy. Twenty-one animals were divided into three groups; control (vehicle, standard (diazepam and test (Trachyspermum ammi (L. extract. Trachyspermum ammi (L. demonstrated antiepileptic effects, since there was a highly significant delay in the onset of convulsions as compared to the control, whereas the percentage of animals that survived or ignored seizure was also greater compared to the control. However, the duration of convulsions was significantly increased with both Trachyspermum ammi (L. and diazepam as compared to the control. The methanol extract of Trachyspermum ammi (L. showed antiepileptic activity, which may be due to the presence of thymol.

  4. Extraction of glutathione from EFB fermentation waste using methanol with sonication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muryanto, Muryanto; Alvin, Nurdin, Muhammad; Hanifah, Ummu; Sudiyani, Yanni

    2017-11-01

    Glutathione is important compound on the human body. Glutathione have a widely use at pharmacy and cosmetics as detoxification, skin whitening agent, antioxidant and many other. This study aims to obtain glutathione from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in fermentation waste of second generation bioethanol. The remaining yeast in the empty fruit bunch (EFB) fermentation was separated from the fermentation solution use centrifugation process and then extracted using a methanol-water solution. The extraction process was done by maceration which was assisted by sonication process. Solvent concentration and time of sonication were varied to see its effect on glutathione concentration. The concentration of glutathione from the extraction process was analyzed using alloxan method with UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results show that the highest glutathione concentration was approximately 1.32 g/L obtained with methanol solvent at 90 minutes of maceration following with 15 minutes sonication.

  5. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous methanolic extract of Morus nigra against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Morus nigra (Family Moraceae is traditionally used injaundice, diabetes, hypertension, cough, fever and cancer. The current study was conducted to determine hepatoprotective activity of aqueous methanolic extract of leaves of M. nigra. Two doses of 250 mg/kg p.o and 500 mg/kg p.o showed that extract of M. nigra produced significant (p<0.001 reduction in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP and total bilirubin induced by paracetamol and the results are comparable to silymarin (p<0.001. Results were supported by histopathologi-cal investigations, phytochemical screening and detection of active consti-tuents by HPLC. The current study showed that aqueous methanolic extract of M. nigra possess hepatoprotective activity that might be due to quercetin, luteolin and isorhamnetin. It was concluded from this study that M. nigra has hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced liver injury in mice.

  6. Antidepressant-like effects of methanol extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus flowers in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Hibiscus tiliaceus L. (Malvaceae) is used in postpartum disorders. Our purpose was to examine the antidepressant, anxiolytic and sedative actions of the methanol extract of H. tiliaceus flowers using animal models. Methods Adult male Swiss albino mice were treated with saline, standard drugs or methanol extract of H. tiliaceus and then subjected to behavioral tests. The forced swimming and tail suspension tests were used as predictive animal models of antidepressant activity, where the time of immobility was considered. The animals were submitted to the elevated plus-maze and ketamine-induced sleeping time to assess anxiolytic and sedative activities, respectively. Results Methanol extract of H. tiliaceus significantly decreased the duration of immobility in both animal models of antidepressant activity, forced swimming and tail suspension tests. This extract did not potentiate the effect of ketamine-induced hypnosis, as determined by the time to onset and duration of sleeping time. Conclusion Our results indicate an antidepressant-like profile of action for the extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus without sedative side effect. PMID:22494845

  7. Antidepressant-like effects of methanol extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus flowers in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanzella Cláudia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hibiscus tiliaceus L. (Malvaceae is used in postpartum disorders. Our purpose was to examine the antidepressant, anxiolytic and sedative actions of the methanol extract of H. tiliaceus flowers using animal models. Methods Adult male Swiss albino mice were treated with saline, standard drugs or methanol extract of H. tiliaceus and then subjected to behavioral tests. The forced swimming and tail suspension tests were used as predictive animal models of antidepressant activity, where the time of immobility was considered. The animals were submitted to the elevated plus-maze and ketamine-induced sleeping time to assess anxiolytic and sedative activities, respectively. Results Methanol extract of H. tiliaceus significantly decreased the duration of immobility in both animal models of antidepressant activity, forced swimming and tail suspension tests. This extract did not potentiate the effect of ketamine-induced hypnosis, as determined by the time to onset and duration of sleeping time. Conclusion Our results indicate an antidepressant-like profile of action for the extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus without sedative side effect.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of selected marine macroalgae against some pathogenic microorganisms

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    Ehab Omer Abdalla

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of six marine macroalgae belonging to green algae (Chlorophyceae, brown algae (Phaeophyceae and the red algae (Rhodophyceae collected from the intertidal area of the Sudanese Red Sea coast near Port Sudan. Methods: Methanol was used for extracting the active principles of the algae and the disc diffusion method was performed to examine the activity and the minimum inhibitory concentration of the samples against four pathogenic bacteria and two fungi. Results: All tested algal extracts exhibited considerable bioactivity and inhibited the growth of all pathogenic microorganisms under investigation. The green alga Caulerpa racemosa produced the maximum inhibition zone (21 mm against Candida albicans while the red alga Laurencia papillosa showed low antimicrobial activity with the minimum inhibition zone of 10 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The tested algal extracts did not show any special antimicrobial influence on the selected microorganisms when they were considered as Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi but the most efficient methanolic extracts in inhibiting microbial growth were those of green macroalgae followed by the brown and the red macroalgae respectively. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that the tested marine macroalgae from Sudanese Red Sea coast may represent a potential and alternative source for secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activity.

  9. Immune responses to methanolic extract of black cumin (Nigella sativa) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik Altunoglu, Yasemin; Bilen, Soner; Ulu, Ferhat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2017-08-01

    The immune stimulating effects of the methanolic extract of black cumin (Nigella sativa) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated. Variable concentrations of black cumin methanolic extract [0 (Control), 0.1 and 0.5 g kg -1 of feed] were individually added to the basal diet and rainbow trout was fed for 30 days to assess the innate immune responses and growth performance. Feed conversion ratio significantly decreased in the group fed with 0.5 g kg -1 black cumin extract. Respiratory burst activity was observed to be the highest in the 0.5 g kg -1 black cumin extract fed group. Lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities were significantly increased in fish of experimental groups compared to control (P  0.05) after challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. The results indicate that the methanolic extract of black cumin is a stimulator of some innate humoral immune responses, but it is ineffective for cytokine-related gene trancriptions in rainbow trout. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. In vivo trypanocidal activity of Nymphaea lotus Linn. methanol extract against Trypanosoma brucei brucei

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    Muhammad Haruna Garba

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antitrypanosomal potentials of methanol extract of Nymphaea lotus Linn. (N. lotus with the aim of obtaining a new lead for formulating safe, inexpensive, nontoxic and readily available trypanocidal drugs. Methods: Seventy percent (v/v (methanol/water crude extract of N. lotus was evaluated for antitrypanosomal activity in experimental trypanosomiasis using Trypanosoma brucei bruceiinfected mice. Infected mice in different groups were administered intraperitoneally 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day of the crude for two weeks, while a positive control group was treated with standard drug, berenil. Results: The crude extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight/day was more effective than the higher doses in completely clearing parasites from the blood of mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Pre-treatment of healthy mice with the crude extract for 5 days before infection did not prevent the establishment of the infection, indicating that the extract had no prophylactic activity. Subinoculation of the blood and cerebrospinal fluid drawn from the cured mice into healthy mice failed to produce any infection within 50 days post inoculation. Administration of 1 000 mg/kg body weight of the crude extract led to the death of 50% of the experimental animals indicating a high level of toxicity of the extract at higher doses. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the potency of the crude extract of N. lotus in treating experimental trypanosomiasis at lower doses.

  11. Antidiabetic potential of methanol extracts from leaves of Piper umbellatum L. and Persea americana Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Sedar Singor Njateng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine inhibitory activity of methanolic leaf extract of Piper umbellatum and Persea americana (P. americana (traditionally used in Cameroon against diabetes on α -glucosidase, β -glucosidase, maltase-glucoamylase, aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase activities, enzymes involved in starch digestion or diabetic complications. Methods: The methanol extracts from Piper umbellatum and P. americana were prepared by maceration. To assess relative efficacy of these extracts, the determination of concentrations that were needed to inhibit 50% of enzyme activity was done, whereas, gas chromatography-mass spectrum was used to identify components from extracts that may be responsible for the activities. Results: The tested extracts strongly inhibited α -glucosidase, maltase-glucoamylase, aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase activities with IC50 ranging from (1.07 ± 0.03 to (31.77 ± 1.17 μg/mL. Among the tested extracts, P. americana was the most active against sensitive enzymes (IC50 of 1.07 ± 0.03 to 15.63 ± 1.23. But, none of the extracts showed interesting inhibitory effect against β -glucosidase as their percentage inhibitions were less than 16%. From gas chromatography-mass spectrum analysis, 10 and 8 compounds were identified in Piper umbellatum and P. americana extracts respectively, using NIST library 2014. Conclusions: Results of this study provide the scientific credential for a prospective usage of these plants to treat diabetes.

  12. Screening of anti-dengue activity in methanolic extracts of medicinal plants

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    Tang Leon IC

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue fever regardless of its serotypes has been the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral diseases among the world population. The development of a dengue vaccine is complicated by the antibody-dependent enhancement effect. Thus, the development of a plant-based antiviral preparation promises a more potential alternative in combating dengue disease. Methods Present studies investigated the antiviral effects of standardised methanolic extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon citratus, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum and Pelargonium citrosum on dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1. Results O. sanctum contained 88.6% of total flavonoids content, an amount that was the highest among all the six plants tested while the least was detected in M. charantia. In this study, the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD of the six medicinal plants was determined by testing the methanolic extracts against Vero E6 cells in vitro. Studies also determined that the MNTD of methanolic extract was in the decreasing order of M. charantia >C. limon >P. citrosum, O. sanctum >A. paniculata >C. citratus. Antiviral assay based on cytopathic effects (CPE denoted by degree of inhibition upon treating DENV1-infected Vero E6 cells with MNTD of six medicinal plants showed that A. paniculata has the most antiviral inhibitory effects followed by M. charantia. These results were further verified with an in vitro inhibition assay using MTT, in which 113.0% and 98.0% of cell viability were recorded as opposed to 44.6% in DENV-1 infected cells. Although methanolic extracts of O. sanctum and C. citratus showed slight inhibition effect based on CPE, a significant inhibition was not reflected in MTT assay. Methanolic extracts of C. limon and P. citrosum did not prevent cytopathic effects or cell death from DENV-1. Conclusions The methanol extracts of A. paniculata and M. charantia possess the ability of inhibiting the activity of DENV-1 in in vitro assays

  13. Antioxidant, phytotoxic and cytotoxic activity of methanolic extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum

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    Amin Ullah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the methanol extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum (T. foenumgraecum for antioxidant, phytotoxic and cytotoxic activity. Methods: The powder of T. foenum-graecum was extracted in diluted methanol with the help of random shaking method. All extracts of the plant were measured for cytotoxic activity (beside brine shrimp and antioxidant activity vs. 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical. Results: Various concentrations of methanolic extract of T. foenum-graecum were observed as 36.16% to 54.12% with rising concentrations of 50 to 1000 μg/mL. Significantly phytotoxic activity (100 and 1000 μg/mL reduced the growth of roots (radicals and shoots (hypocotyls of rice when compared to control after 3 and 7 days’ treatment. At a concentration of 10 μg/ mL, the survival rate of cytotoxic activity of brine shrimp was maximum and at a concentration of 250 μg/mL, the death rate of brine shrimp was maximum. Conclusions: T. foenum-graecum has potential activity against free radical mediated sickness and thus it is possible to treat cancer.

  14. Urtica urens L., Urtica membranacea Poiret et Urtica pilulifera L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 mars 2015 ... Methods and results: The crude and fractionated extracts of the ... screening, flavonoids and total phenolic dosing and antibacterial activity against five pathogenic bacteria, ..... phytochimique de Caesalpinia benthamiana.

  15. In vitro screening of methanol plant extracts for their antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.; Arshad, M.; Khan, S.; Sattar, H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the antibacterial activity of aqueous methanolic extracts of 10 plants against 2-gram negative bacteria (Pasteurella multocida, Escherichia coli) and 3-gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium bovis) by using disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by agar well diffusion method and agar dilution method. All the bacteria were susceptible to different plant extracts. Lawsonia inermis, Embellia ribes and Santalum album showed antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria. The extract of Santalum album showed maximum antibacterial activity of the 10 plant extracts used. Bacillus cereus and Pasteurella multocida were the most sensitive bacteria against most of the plant extracts. It is clear from the results of the present studies that the plant extracts have great potential as antimicrobial compounds against bacteria. However, there is a need of further research to isolate the active ingredients for further pharmacological evaluation. (author)

  16. Analgesic, anti-inflmmatory and antipyretic activities of methanolic leaf extract of Maerua crassifolia

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    Godwin Christian Akuodor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the methanolic leaf extract of Maerua crassifolia in mice and rats. Methods: Acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion methods were used to assess analgesic activity, while xylene and carrageenan-induced paw oedema methods were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of the leaf extract. Yeast and amphetamine-induced pyrexia were used to investigate the antipyretic activity. The phytochemical analysis and oral acute toxicity of the methanolic leaf extract of Maerua crassifolia were also evaluated. Results: The leaf extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg showed a dose dependent and significant (P < 0.05 inhibition of pain in acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests. The extract also produced significant (P < 0.05 anti-inflammatory activity in both paradigms. A significant (P < 0.05 reduction in hyperpyrexia was also observed with the leaf extract. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, steroids, resins, saponins and cardiac glycosides. The oral median lethal dose of the leaf extract was estimated to be greater than 5 000 mg/kg in rats. Conclusions: The findings confirmed its ethnomedical use in the treatment of pains and feverish conditions.

  17. Antiplasmodial activity of methanolic extract of asparagus officinalis l. stem on plasmodium berghei infected mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minari, J.B.; Adutuga, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the antiplasmodial activity of methanolic extract of Asparagus officinalis L. stem on Plasmodium berghei infected mice. To investigate this, the mice were infected with P.berghei to cause malaria. The mice were simultaneously given oral doses (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg body weight) of methanolic extract of A. officinalis L. stem. The phytochemical constituents of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, terpenoid and steroid. The extract administered to the infected mice significantly suppressed the parasite. The extract also significantly (P<0.05) reduced the activities of serum aspatate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphate (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT). White blood corpuscles (WBC), red blood corpuscles (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), packed cell volume (PCV), platelets (PLT) and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) showed significant (P<0.05) increase after the administration of the extract while mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) showed significant (P<0.05) reduction. Present findings suggests that the plant extract contains phytochemicals that have antiplasmodial and hepatoprotective properties. (author)

  18. Phytoconstituents and in vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Capacities of Cotula Cinerea (Morocco Methanol Extracts

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    Farid Khallouki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available T he purpose of this study was to determine the phytochemical content of Cotula cinerea to establish principal components which may consolidate its use as a medicinal plant in the southeast of Morocco. The amount of total phenolic compounds as determined by analytical HPLC in methanol extracts was 79.23 ± 2.5 mg/g dry matter. The major phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-ESI-MS were neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and luteolin-4´-O-glucoside. All compounds displayed very strong antioxidant capacities in the DPPH, FRAP and ORAC assays . The data indicates that methanol extracts of C. cinerea via their antioxidant capacities, may be effective disease prevention potions in traditional African medicine which is probably related to the significant content of echinoids and flavonoids.

  19. In vivo hypoglycemic effect of methanolic fruit extract of Momordica charantia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkambo, W; Anyama, N G; Onegi, B

    2013-12-01

    Momordica charantia L. is a medicinal plant commonly used in the management of diabetes mellitus. We investigated the blood glucose lowering effect of the methanolic fruit extract of the Ugandan variety of M. charantia L. in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. 500g of M. charantia powder were macerated in methanol and the extract administered to two groups of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The first group received 125mg/kg, the second 375mg/kg and a third group 7mg/kg of metformin. A fourth group received 1ml normal saline. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were measured at 0.5,1,2,3,5,8 and 12 hours and compared using one-way ANOVA. There was an initial rise in FBG for 1 hour after administration of extracts followed by steep reductions. Significant reduction in FBG occurred at 2 hours for 125mg/kg of extract (-3.2%, 313±25.9 to 303±25.0mg/dL, p = 0.049), 375mg/kg of extract (-3.9%, 356±19.7 to 342±20.3mg/dL, p = 0.001), and metformin (-2.6%, 344±21.7 to 335±21.1mg/dL, p = 0.003) when compared to normal saline. The maximum percentage reduction in FBG by both extracts occurred between 3 and 12 hours post dose. The methanolic fruit extract of M. charantia exhibits dose dependent hypoglycaemic activity in vivo.

  20. In vivo hypoglycemic, antinociceptive and in vitro antioxidant activities of methanolic bark extract of Crataeva nurvala

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    Uddin Jalal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To rationalize the folkloric use of hypoglycemic, antinociceptive and antioxidant potentials with phytochemical screening of methanolic bark extract of Crataeva nurvala (C. nurvala in vivo and in vitro. Methods: The collected bark was dried and grinded. The coarse powder was soaked in 2 000 mL of 90% methanol for several days then filtrated. At 40 °C the volume of crude methanolic extract (CME was reduced by a vacuum rotary evaporator, then the aqueous methanol extract was separated into petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, and aqueous soluble fractions by Kupchan protocol. Then the extracts were subjected to evaluate in vivo analgesic, hypoglycemic activities in Swiss albino mice model and antioxidant in vitro. Results: In quantitative phytochemical analysis, total phenolic content was found maximum (235.94 mg of GAE/g in aqueous soluble fraction; in case of antioxidant potentials, DPPH free radical scavenging assay showed IC50 value of 9.25 μg/mL exhibited by aqueous soluble fraction in comparison to ascorbic acid (8.27 μg/mL as a reference standard. The CMEs potentially (P < 0.05 reduced the acetic acid-induced writhing and increased (P < 0.05; P < 0.01 latency period in the tail immersion method at a dose dependent manner. The CME significantly reduced blood sugar level of diabetic rat induced by alloxan monohydrate. Conclusions: This study was conducted to validate the extensive use of C. nurvala bark as folk medicine with antinociceptive, hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects. It can be concluded that the bark of C. nurvala possesses good antinociceptive, moderate hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities. However, further chemical and pharmacological revise are needed to elucidate the detail mode of action behind this and identify the responsible active principles.

  1. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF GYMNOSPERMA GLUTINOSUM (SPRENG.) LESS. (ASTERACEAE) METHANOL EXTRACTS AGAINST HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Espinosa-Ramos, David; Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Barr?n-Gonzalez, Mar?a Porfiria; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia; Tamez-Guerra, Reyes; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prolonged use of antibiotics may lead to the selection of drug-resistant bacteria; as a result, efforts are being made to identify new and effective antimicrobial agents, particularly, from medicinal plants, against bacterial infections. Antimicrobial activity of Gymnosperma glutinosum against Helicobacter pylori has not yet been reported. Materials and methods: The antibacterial in vitro effect of Gymnosperma glutinosum methanol leaf extracts against Helicobacter pylori (ATCC 435...

  2. PHYTOCHEMICALS ANALYSIS AND TLC FINGERPRINTING OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta Jayashree

    2013-01-01

    The present work is done on three medicinal plants (Enhydra fluctuans, Lecuas aspera and Dillinia indica) in order to investigate the presence of the various types of Phytoconstituents. The leaves of all three plants were extracted using methanol as solvents. For the purpose of phytochemical investigation, Preliminary qualitative chemical test and TLC were mainly used. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) has been carried out on all the three plants in two different solvent systems, which showed d...

  3. Evaluation of the Analgesic Activity of the Methanolic Stem Bark Extract of Dialium Guineense (Wild)

    OpenAIRE

    Ezeja, MI; Omeh, YS; Ezeigbo, II; Ekechukwu, A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dialium guineense is a medicinal plant used by some communities of Enugu-Ezike in Enugu State, Nigeria for treatment of fever, headache and other diverse ailments. Objectives: The present study evaluated the analgesic activity of the methanolic stem bark extract of the plant. Method: Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction or writhing, tail immersion and hot plate analgesic models in albino Wistar mice were used for the study. Three test doses (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight)...

  4. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of some indigenous plants against common soil-borne fungi

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    Tuba, T.; Abid, M.; Shaukat, S. S.; Shaikh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Present study was conducted to evaluate the fungicidal property of methanolic extracts of some indigenous plants of Karachi such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (leaves), The spesia populnea (leaves, stem and fruit), Withania somnifera (leaves and stem), Solanum surattense (shoot) and Melia azedarach (fruit) against common soil-borne phytopathogens viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum by using food poison technique. Among the eight methanolic extracts of tested parts of plants, seven showed antifungal activity, of which T. populnea leaves and S. surattense shoots inhibited growth of all three test pathogens. Leaves of H. rosa-sinensis did not exhibit antifungal activity. T. populnea (leaves and stem), W. somnifera (stem) and M. azedarach (fruit) suppressed growth of Rhizoctonia solani by 100 percent. T. populnea leaves and M. azedarach fruit inhibited growth of M. phaseolina by 100 percent and 82 percent, respectively T. populnea leaves inhibited 99 percent mycelial growth of F. oxysporum. It is concluded that the methanolic extracts of the tested indigenous plants contain natural fungicidal compounds, which can be used for the control of common soil-borne pathogens. (author)

  5. Cytotoxic activity of methanol extracts from Basidiomycete mushrooms on murine cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, S; Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, F; Sauleau, P; Bézivin, C; Boustie, J

    2004-04-01

    Crude methanol extracts of 58 mushroom species were screened for their cytotoxic activities against two murine cancer cell lines, L1210 and 3LL, using the tetrazolium assay. A majority of extracts (74%) exhibited IC50 > 100 microg/ml against both cell lines. A most marked activity against one of the cell lines was noted for nine species (14% of the tested species). While Amanitales and Russulales tested were not found active, Polyporales and Boletales gave better results. Four species exhibited a significant cytotoxic activity (IC50 Suillus granulatus, S. luteus). The last one had never been investigated for its cytotoxic compounds before.

  6. Phytochemical screening and toxicity studies on the methanol extract of the seeds of moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajibade, Temitayo Olabisi; Arowolo, Ruben; Olayemi, Funsho Olakitike

    2013-05-07

    The seeds of Moringa oleifera were collected, air-dried, pulverized, and subjected to cold extraction with methanol. The methanol extract was screened phytochemically for its chemical components and used for acute and sub-acute toxicity studies in rats. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and cardiac glycosides but the absence of anthraquinones. Although signs of acute toxicity were observed at a dose of 4,000 mg kg-1 in the acute toxicity test, and mortality was recorded at 5,000 mg kg-1, no adverse effect was observed at concentrations lower than 3,000 mg kg-1. The median lethal dose of the extract in rat was 3,873 mg kg-1. Sub-acute administration of the seed extract caused significant (p<0.05) increase in the levels of alanine and aspartate transferases (ALT and AST), and significant (p<0.05) decrease in weight of experimental rats, at 1,600 mg kg-1. The study concludes that the extract of seeds of M. oleifera is safe both for medicinal and nutritional uses.

  7. Radical Scavenging Capacity of Methanolic Phillyrea latifolia L. Extract: Anthocyanin and Phenolic Acids Composition of Fruits

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    Naciye Erkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical scavenging capacity of a crude methanolic extract from the fruits of Phillyrea latifolia L., commonly known as green olive tree or mock privet, was investigated with reference to anthocyanin standards, as flavonoids, and phenolic acid standards, as phenylpropanoids. Characterization with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD indicated the presence of keracyanin, kuromanin, cyanidin, ferulic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid at amounts of 289.1, 90.4, 191.4, 225.2, 221.2 and 190.1 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW of fruits, respectively. Chlorogenic and p-coumaric acids were found to exist in lower amounts. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and IC50 values of the plant extract were found to be 1.8 mM Trolox equivalents (TE/g FW of fruits and 69.4 µg/mL, respectively, indicating the close radical scavenging activity of the extract to those of keracyanin and p-coumaric acid. The crude methanolic P. latifolia L. fruit extract was seen to be fairly potent in radical scavenging. Total phenolic content (TPC of the plant extract was found to be 1652.9 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g FW of fruits.

  8. Antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract and compounds from the twigs of Dorstenia mannii (Moraceae

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    Mbaveng Armelle T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dorstenia mannii (Moraceae is a medicinal herb used traditionally for the treatment of many diseases. In the present study, the methanol extract of D. mannii and nine of its isolated compounds, namely dorsmanin A (1, B (2, C (3, D (4, E (6, F (7, G (8 dorsmanin I (9 and 6,8-diprenyleriodictyol (5, were tested for their antimicrobial activities against yeast, Mycobacteria and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA and the broth microdilution method were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC of the above extract and compounds on a panel of bacterial species. Results The results of the MIC determinations demonstrated that the methanol extract as well as compounds 3 and 8 were able to prevent the growth of all the fourteen studied microorganisms within the concentration range of 4 to 1024 μg/ml. The lowest MIC value for the methanol extract (64 μg/ml was obtained on Candida albicans. The lowest value for individual compounds (4 μg/ml was recorded with compounds 3 on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 and 7 on Eschericia coli ATCC strain. The MIC values recorded with compounds 3 on P. aeruginosa PA01, 6 on C. albicans,7 on P. aeruginosa PA01 and K. pneumoniae ATCC strain and C. albicans,and 8 on P. aeruginosa PA01, PA124, P. stuartii, M. tuberculosis MTCS1 were lower than or equal to those of the reference drugs. MMC values not greater than 1024 μg/ml were recorded on all studied microorganisms with compounds 3 and 8. Conclusion The overall results of the present investigation provided evidence that the crude extract of D. mannii as well as some of its compounds such compounds 3 and 8 could be a potential source of natural antimicrobial products.

  9. Antibacterial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extract and its fractions of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Billah, Muhammad Mutassim; Islam, Rafikul; Khatun, Hajera; Parvin, Shahnaj; Islam, Ekramul; Islam, SM Anisul; Mia, Akbar Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Caesalpinia bonducella is an important medicinal plant for its traditional uses against different types of diseases. Therefore, the present study investigated the antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of the methanol extract and ethyl acetate, chloroform, and petroleum ether (pet. ether) fractions of C. bonducella leaves. Methods The antibacterial potentialities of methanol extract and its fractions of C. bonducella leaves were investigated by the disc diffusion m...

  10. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Agaricus blazei methanolic extract fractions assessed using gene and chromosomal mutation assays

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    Marilanda Ferreira Bellini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional food investigations have demonstrated the presence of substances that could be beneficial to human health when consumed. However, the toxic effects of some substances contained in foods have been determined. Reported medicinal and nutritive properties have led to the extensive commercialization of the basidiomycete fungi Agaricus blazei Murrill (sensu Heinemann, also known as Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser et al., Agaricus subrufescens Peck or the Brazilian medical mushroom (BMM. Different methanolic extract fractions (ME of this mushroom were submitted to the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN clastogenic assay and the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus (HGPRT assay for gene mutation, both using Chinese hamster ovary cells clone K1 (CHO-K1. The results suggest that all the fractions tested possess cytotoxic and mutagenic potential but no clastogenic effects. Further information is needed on the biochemical components of the A. blazei methanol fractions to identify any substances with cytotoxic and/or mutagenicity potential. These findings indicate that A. blazei methanolic extract should not be used due to their genotoxicity and care should be taken in the use of A. blazei by the general population until further biochemical characterization of this fungi is completed.

  11. IMMUNOSTIMULATORY EFFECT OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF FLAMBOYANT LEAF [Delonix regia (Boj. ex Hook. Raf.] IN MICE

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    Kartini Eriani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Flamboyant [Delonix regia (Boj. ex Hook Raf.] leaf contains flavonoid compounds that are expected to have immunostimulatory effect. This research was done to determine the effect of flamboyant leaf extract on immune response by accessing the activity of immune cells and capability test the extract as immunostimulant in mice. Leaf extraction was done by maceration using methanol in the Laboratory of Biology of Chemistry Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences of Syiah Kuala University whereas animal treatment and testing were carried out Micro-technique Laboratory of Biology Department of the same faculty. This research used 20 male mice strain Swiss-Webster aged 7-8 weeks were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups with five replications each. Group 1 (P0 was untreated control; group 1-3 were mice administration flamboyant leaf extract 250 mg/kg BW (P1, 500 mg/kg BW (P2, and 750 mg/kg BW (P3 per oral. The treatments were given for 14 days after one week of adaptation period. Blood samples were collected before and after extract treatment and used for leukocyte count analysis. Phagocytosis activity was accessed by carbon clearance assay on day 15. At the end of the study, all mice were sacrificed for spleen weight analysis. Data obtained was analyzed by Analysis of Variance followed by Tukey test (Leukocyte count and spleen weight or regression analysis (carbon clearance. The results showed a flamboyant leaf extract administration resulted in increased leukocyte counts that were significantly different (p<0.05 between treatment groups.  Phagocytosis test indicated the extract had moderate to strong immunostimulatory effect whereas spleen weight analysis did not show any difference among treatment groups. In conclusion, flamboyant leaf methanol extract was able to increase immune cells and had potential immunostimulatory activity in mice. Keywords: Delonix regia, immunostimulant, leukocytes, lymphocyte proliferation.

  12. Senna singueana: Antioxidant, Hepatoprotective, Antiapoptotic Properties and Phytochemical Profiling of a Methanol Bark Extract

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    Mansour Sobeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are considered as an important source for the discovery of new drugs to treat aging-related degenerative diseases and liver injury. The present study profiled the chemical constituents of a methanol extract from Senna singueana bark using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS and 36 secondary metabolites were identified. Proanthocyanidins dominated the extract. Monomers, dimers, trimers of (epicatechin, (epigallocatechin, (epiguibourtinidol, (entcassiaflavan, and (epiafzelechin represented the major constituents. The extract demonstrated notable antioxidant activities in vitro: In DPPH (EC50 of 20.8 µg/mL, FRAP (18.16 mM FeSO4/mg extract assays, and total phenolic content amounted 474 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g extract determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Also, in an in vivo model, the extract increased the survival rate of Caenorhabditis elegans worms pretreated with the pro-oxidant juglone from 43 to 64%, decreased intracellular ROS inside the wild-type nematodes by 47.90%, and induced nuclear translocation of the transcription factor DAF-16 in the transgenic strain TJ356. Additionally, the extract showed a remarkable hepatoprotective activity against d-galactosamine (d-GalN induced hepatic injury in rats. It significantly reduced elevated AST (aspartate aminotransferase, and total bilirubin. Moreover, the extract induced a strong cytoplasmic Bcl-2 expression indicating suppression of apoptosis. In conclusion, the bark extract of S. sengueana represents an interesting candidate for further research in antioxidants and liver protection.

  13. Sedative, membrane stability, cytotoxic and antioxidant properties of methanol extract of leaves of Protium serratum Wall.

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    Md. Rafikul Islam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the sedative, membrane stability, cytotoxic and antioxidant properties of the leaves of Protium serratum extracted using methanol. Methods: Sedative test was performed using hole cross and open field methods at 200 and 400 mg/kg. Membrane stability of red blood cell was used for anti-inflammatory test at different concentrations. Cytotoxic study was performed using brine shrimp lethality test. Total flavonoid contents, total phenol contents and reducing power were used to assess antioxidant properties of the extract. Results: Extract showed better sedative action at lower doses in both experiments. Maximum 73.33% locomotion reduction was found at 200 mg/kg at 1 20 min and that was 89.29% for diazepam in hole cross test. In membrane stability test, extract and standard drug diclofenac have 35.66% and 91.20% stability, respectively. LC50 value of the extract was 22.91 µg/mL. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were (55.53依14.63 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract and (1 06.33依7.35 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of extract, respectively per gram of extract. Significant reducing power was observed as compared to ascorbic acid. Conclusions: Extract possesses good pharmacological properties. Hence, further extensive study is essential to find out possible active constituents for the treatment of anxiety, inflammation or sickle cell disease, cancer and free radical mediated abnormalities.

  14. Protein extraction from methanol fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks: A new possibility using cell blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkat, Theresa J.; McGarvey, Diane; Patel, Miral S.; Tieniber, Andrew D.; LiVolsi, Virginia A.; Baloch, Zubair W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Methanol fixed and paraffin embedded (MFPE) cellblocks are an essential cytology preparation. However, MFPE cellblocks often contain limited material and their relatively small size has caused them to be overlooked in biomarker discovery. Advances in the field of molecular biotechnology have made it possible to extract proteins from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks. In contrast, there are no established methods for extracting proteins from MFPE cellblocks. We investigated commonly available CHAPS (3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate) buffer, as well as two commercially available Qiagen® kits and compared their effectiveness on MFPE tissue for protein yields. Materials and Methods: MFPE blocks were made by Cellient™ automated system using human tissue specimens from normal and malignant specimens collected in ThinPrep™ Vials. Protein was extracted from Cellient-methanol fixed and paraffin embedded blocks with CHAPS buffer method as well as FFPE and Mammalian Qiagen® kits. Results: Comparison of protein yields demonstrated the effectiveness of various protein extraction methods on MFPE cellblocks. Conclusion: In the current era of minimally invasive techniques to obtain minimal amount of tissue for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, the use of commercial and lab made buffer on low weight MFPE scrapings obtained by Cellient® processor opens new possibilities for protein biomarker research. PMID:24403950

  15. Haematopoetic effect of methanol extract of Nigerian honey bee (Apis mellifera propolis in mice

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    Bashir Lawal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the haematopoetic effect of methanol extract of Nigerian honey bee propolis in mice. Methods: Fifteen white Albino mice were grouped into 3(A-C of 5 animals each. Group A mice serve as control group, while groups B and C received 300 and 600 mL/kg of honey bee propolis respectively, for 21 days. The haematological parameters were determined using the automated haematologic analyzer Sysmex kx21, (product of Sysmex Corporation, Japan using standard techniques. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and the level of significance was at P 0.05 alteration to the erythrocytic indices like red blood cells, haematocrite, haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width, but increase mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in dose related fashion. Acute oral toxicity showed the extract to be relatively safe at a high dose on acute exposure. However, 21-days of treatment with the extract do neither increase nor decrease the body weight of the mice. Conclusions: Administration of methanol extract of Nigerian honey bee propolis in mice at the doses investigated has brought about leucopoietic and thrombopoietic changes without any significant effect on red blood cells and factors that relate to it, except for the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration.

  16. In Vitro Antilisterial Properties of Crude Methanol Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel Seeds

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    Dambudzo Penduka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs ranging between 0.157 and 0.625 mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2 h at the highest concentration of 4×MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18.

  17. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.): stabilization of sunflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, F.; Abdul Qayyum, H. M.; Hussein, A. I.; Iqbal, S.

    2010-07-01

    The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93) was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol) to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol). The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values) and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE) were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 {mu}g/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO) with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis). The stabilized (treated with extract) and the control (without extract addition) SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60 degree centigrade for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day) storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation. (Author) 32 refs.

  18. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EXTRACT OF SUCCULENT LEAVES OF LIVING PLANT WITH METHANOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF BERLERIA LUPULINA LINDL. AGAINST PATHOGENIC MICROBES BY DISC DIFFUSION AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRY

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    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Berleria lupulina Lindl. was evaluated for its reported antimicrobial activity in a novel way. The extract of succulent leaves collected from living plant was studied along with conventional methanolic and watery extracts made from the dry leaves of the plant. The extracts were tested on three pathogenic bacteria and the antimicrobial activity was tested both by conventional single disc diffusion method and a novel Spectrophotometric method. In disc diffusion study, it was found that the methanolic extract (100 mg/ml. and 200 mg/ ml. diluted in 70% of methanol and extract of succulent leaves can induce 12 mm, 13 mm and 14 mm diameter zone of inhibition comparable with 24 mm of Ceftriaxone against Escherichia coli. The zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus were 13 mm, 14 mm, 15 mm and 25 mm and against Salmonella enteritides were 12 mm, 14 mm, 15 mm and 28 mm correspondingly. The watery extract made from the dry plant and the methanolic extract diluted in water failed to induce any inhibition in growth of the organisms. In spectrophotometric study, the methanolic extract showed antimicrobial efficacy in the concentration of 10 mg/ml. or above against Salmonella enteritides and Staphylococcus aureus. But against Escherichia coli, effective control was found in 20 mg/ml concentration. The fresh extract of the plant showed antimicrobial efficacy in the concentration of 16.5%. The anti microbial efficacy above that concentration cannot be detected in the available spectrophotometrical method for presence of color material in that fresh extract.

  19. Antinociceptive and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Telfairia occidentalis Seeds

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    Olukemi Adetutu Osukoya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The seeds of Telfairia occidentalis have been known to possess different biological properties and are used in traditional medicine in Africa and Asia to treat many ailments. The plant is particularly noted traditionally for its healing properties and is usually consumed in the form of herbal decoctions/concoctions as a blood tonic, to treat sudden attacks of convulsions, pain, malaria and anaemia. Aims: In the present study, various phytochemical and pharmacological studies were done on the methanolic extract of the seeds of Telfairia occidentalis to evaluate its antioxidant and antinociceptive properties to substantiate its traditional use. Methods: Phytochemical screening of the extract was done according to standard procedures. Antioxidant potential was ascertained using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity, total phenolic content and total flavonoid content assays. Analgesic activity was analyzed using formalin induced paw licking test in albino rats at 100, 200 and 400 mg extract per kg body weight. Statistical Analysis Used: All results extrapolated from the experiments were expressed as mean ± SEM. Data obtained was analyzed statistically using ANOVA (one-way followed by Dennett's posthoc test. Results: Phytochemicals present in the extract were alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, steroid and anthraquinones. The extract significantly inhibited DPPH scavenging activity with percentage inhibition of 147.3%. The methanolic seed extract of T. occidentalis significantly reduced (P < 0.05 formalin induced paw licking in both neurogenic and inflammatory phases of formalin induced paw licking test, with 35.59 and 78.51% inhibition at 400 mg/kg, in albino rats in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: The seed extract in this study significantly reduced formalin induced hind paw licking, and could be used as an analgesic for treatment of pain and also showed marked antioxidant potential.

  20. Ovipositional Deterrence of Methanolic and Etherial Extracts of Five Plants to the Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

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    E.A. Elhag

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Methanol and diethyl ether extracts of Harmal, Rhazya stricta Decne.; neem seed kernels, Azadirachta indica A.Juss; cloves, Syzygeum aromarticum (L.; citrus peel and Ramram, Heliotropium bacciferum (Forssk- were evaluated for their deterrence to oviposition by Callosobruchus maculatus (F. on chickpeas in choice tests. Both extracts of all materials significantly reduced oviposition on treated seeds. Maximum deterrent effects (91.8% were obtained in the neem seed methanol extract at 0.5% concentration, citrus peel O. l% ether extract (90.9%, R stricta 0.5% methanol extract (83.9%, and clove 0. 1% ether extract (80.0%. Methanol extracts of neem seeds and R. stricta evoked higher deterrent effects than their etherial extracts, whereas the responses for cloves and citrus peel were more pronounced in their ether extracts. H. bacirferum % deterrency due to both types of extracts were practically identical. The results encourage future incorporation of such plant extracts as ovipositional deterrents in stored-product lPM programmes.

  1. Chemical constituents of methanolic extracts of Jatropha curcas L and effects on Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

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    Ribeiro, Sandra Santos; Silva, Thanany Brasil da; Moraes, Valeria Regina de Souza; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de Lima; Costa, Emmanoel Vilaca [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Bernardo, Antonio Rogerio; Matos, Andreia Pereira; Fernandes, Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Pessoa, Angela Maria dos Santos; Silva-Mann, Renata, E-mail: djbf@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agronomica

    2012-07-01

    The biological activity of seven extracts from leaves of different Jatropha curcas L (Euphorbiaceae) accessions was evaluated on Spodoptera frugiperda. Methanol extracts were incorporated into an artificial diet and offered to the larval stage of S. frugiperda. The parameters evaluated were length of larval and pupal stages, mortality of larval and total cycle stage, and weight of pupae. The extracts of the EMB accessions showed the best result for larval mortality at 60.00 and 56.67%, compared with the control, respectively. Hexane partition of the methanol extract of the leaves of PM-14 accessions allowed the identification of phytosterols, phytol and n-alkanols. (author)

  2. Chemical constituents of methanolic extracts of Jatropha curcas L and effects on Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Sandra Santos; Silva, Thanany Brasil da; Moraes, Valeria Regina de Souza; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de Lima; Costa, Emmanoel Vilaca; Bernardo, Antonio Rogerio; Matos, Andreia Pereira; Fernandes, Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Pessoa, Angela Maria dos Santos; Silva-Mann, Renata

    2012-01-01

    The biological activity of seven extracts from leaves of different Jatropha curcas L (Euphorbiaceae) accessions was evaluated on Spodoptera frugiperda. Methanol extracts were incorporated into an artificial diet and offered to the larval stage of S. frugiperda. The parameters evaluated were length of larval and pupal stages, mortality of larval and total cycle stage, and weight of pupae. The extracts of the EMB accessions showed the best result for larval mortality at 60.00 and 56.67%, compared with the control, respectively. Hexane partition of the methanol extract of the leaves of PM-14 accessions allowed the identification of phytosterols, phytol and n-alkanols. (author)

  3. Allium Sativum Methanolic Extract (garlic) Improve Therapeutic Efficacy of Albendazole Against Hydatid Cyst: In Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Mohammadi, K H; Heidarpour, M; Borji, H

    2018-04-25

    After gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of prepared methanolic extract of Allium sativum, 40 laboratory BALB/c mice were infected intraperitoneally by injection of 1,500 viable protoscoleces. Five months after infection, the infected mice were allocated into four treatment groups, including 1- Albendazole (100 mg/kg); 2- Allium sativum methanolic extract (10 mL/L); 3- A. sativum methanolic extract (10 mL/L) + Albendazole (50 mg /kg); and 4- untreated control group. After 30 days of daily treatment, total number and weight of cysts and size of the largest cyst as well as blood serum bilirubin and liver enzymes were compared between the mice of different groups. The total number and weight of cysts and size of the largest cyst were significantly lower in treated groups A. sativum 10 mL/L + Albendazole 50 and Albendazole 100 in comparison to those of the control group (p sativum 10 mL/L and A. sativum 10 mL/L + Albendazole 50, when compared to the control group. In addition, bilirubin concentration revealed significant decrease in A. sativum 10 mL/L and A. sativum 10 mL/L + Albendazole 50 groups, when compared to the Albendazole group. In conclusion, administration of A. sativum 10 mL/L improved the anti-hydatidosis activity of Albendazole 50 mg /kg, due to parasitological effects similar to Albendazole 100 mg /kg but less hepatotoxic effects.

  4. Antibacterial properties of essential oils and methanol extracts of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum occurring in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M Amzad; Kabir, M J; Salehuddin, S M; Rahman, S M Mizanur; Das, A K; Singha, Sandip Kumar; Alam, Md Khorshed; Rahman, Atiqur

    2010-05-01

    The antibacterial potential of essential oils and methanol extracts of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) was evaluated for controlling the growth range of food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the leaves and stems were analyzed by GC-MS. Fifty-seven compounds representing 94.9 and 96.1% of the total leaf and stem oils, respectively, were identified, of which methyl chavicol (36.7 and 29.9%), gitoxigenin (9.3 and 10.2%), trimethoquinol (10.3 and 8.4%), beta-guaiene (3.7 and 4.1%), aciphyllene (3.4 and 3.0%), alizarin (3.2 and 4.4%), naphthaline (2.2 and 3.8%), (-)-caryophyllene (2.0 and 1.9%), and mequinol (1.6 and 1.8%) were the major compounds. The essential oils (10 microL/disc of 1:5, v/v dilution with methanol) and methanol extracts (300 microg/disc) of O. basilicum displayed a great potential of antibacterial activity against Bacillius cereus, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Shigella boydii, S. dysenteriae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. mimicus, and Salmonella typhi with their respective zones of inhibition of 11.2-21.1 mm and MIC values of 62.5-500 microg/mL. The results of this study suggest that the natural products derived from O. basilicum may have potential use in the food and/or pharmaceutical industries as antimicrobial agents.

  5. Drug Leads Agents from Methanol Extract of Nigerian Bee (Apis mellifera Propolis

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    Bashir Lawal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Propolis is a Bee (Apis mellifera product of plant origin with varied chemical composition depending on the ecology of the botanical origin. It has been reported in literatures to possess various therapeutic effects both traditionally, clinical trial and animal study. Objectives In the present study bioactive principle in methanol extract of Nigerian bee (Apis mellifera propolis was determined GC-MS study. Methods The methanol extract of Nigerian bee (Apis mellifera propolis was characterized for its chemical composition by preliminary phytochemicals and GC–MS using standard procedures and methods. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones phlobatannins and steroids while GC–MS chromatogram revealed nineteen peaks representing sixty (60 different chemical compounds. The first compounds identified with less retention time (13.33s were Methyl tetradecanoate, Tridecanoic acid, methyl ester, Decanoic acid, methyl ester while Squalene, All-trans-Squalene, 2,6,10-Dodecatrien-1-ol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-, (E,E- and Farnesol isomer a took longest retention time (23.647s to identify. Methyl 14-methylpentadecanoate, Hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, Methyl isoheptadecanoateand Methyl tridecanoate were the most concentrated constituent as revealed by there peak height (26.01% while eicosanoic acid was the least concentrated (Peak height 0.81% constituent of Nigerian bee propolis. Conclusion: The presence of these chemical principles is an indication that methanol extract of Nigeria bee propolis, if properly screened could yield a drug of pharmaceutical importance [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(1.000: 43-48

  6. Anti-Toxoplasma Effects of Methanol Extracts of Feijoa sellowiana, Quercus castaneifolia, and Allium paradoxum

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    Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The currently available agents for use against toxoplasmosis have serious limitations. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii activities of methanol extracts of Feijoa sellowiana (F. sellowiana (leaves and fruits, Quercus castaneifolia (Q. castaneifolia (fruits, and Allium paradoxum (A. paradoxum (leaves in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Vero cells were treated with different concentrations (from 0 to 400 μg/mL of the above extracts or with pyrimethamine at a dose of 50 mg/mL (positive control. Then, the viabilities of the T. gondii-infected cells were measured by using colorimetric MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl 2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. In addition, the survival rates of mice acutely infected with 2 × 104 RH strain tachyzoites of T. gondii were examined in vivo after intraperitoneal injection of the extracts at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for 5 days. Results: In the in vitro anti- T. gondii assay, the IC50 values were 12.77, 180.2, 74.73, 213.2 and 163.8 μg/mL, and the selectivity indices were 6.05, 1.31, 0.35, 0.69 and 1.30 for the F. sellowiana (leaves and fruits, Q. castaneifolia, and A. paradoxum extracts and pyrimethamine, respectively. Moreover, the mice treated with F. sellowiana (leaves and fruits achieved better results in terms of survival than the others (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that methanol extract of F. sellowiana has significant anti-Toxoplasma activity. Further study should be conducted to investigate the potential bioactivity of this extract through bioactivity-guided fractionation.

  7. Cardiovascular activity of the n-butanol fraction of the methanol extract of Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb.

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    O.Z. Ameer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the vascular responses and the blood pressure reducing effects of different fractions obtained from the methanol extract of Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb. (F. Loranthaceae. By means of solvent-solvent extraction, L. ferrugineus methanol extract (LFME was successively fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The ability of these LFME fractions to relax vascular smooth muscle against phenylephrine (PE- and KCl-induced contractions in isolated rat aortic rings was determined. In another set of experiments, LFME fractions were tested for blood pressure lowering activity in anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g, 14-18 weeks. The n-butanol fraction of LFME (NBF-LFME produced a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of PE- and KCl-induced aortic ring contractions compared to other fractions. Moreover, NBF-LFME had a significantly higher relaxant effect against PE- than against high K+-induced contractions. In anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, NBF-LFME significantly lowered blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner and with a relatively longer duration of action compared to the other fractions. HPLC, UV and IR spectra suggested the presence of terpenoid constituents in both LFME and NBF-LFME. Accordingly, we conclude that NBF-LFME is the most potent fraction producing a concentration-dependent relaxation in vascular smooth muscle in vitro and a dose-dependent blood pressure lowering activity in vivo. The cardiovascular effects of NBF-LFME are most likely attributable to its terpenoid content.

  8. Toxicological Evaluation of the Methanol Extract of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Bark in Mice and Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Y. A.; Veeranjaneyulu, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate acute and repeated dose toxicity of the methanol extract (ME) of the Gmelina arborea stem bark. Materials and Methods: For the acute toxicity study, ME of G. arborea was orally administered to Swiss albino mice at a dose range of 300–5000 mg/kg. For the repeated dose toxicity study, the Wistar rats of either sex were orally administered with ME of G. arborea at the doses of 300, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day for a period of 28 days. The effects...

  9. Effect of methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. on lipopolysaccharide induced-oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad Parwez; Hussain, Arshad; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Wahab, Shadma; Adak, Manoranjan

    2015-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress and impairment of normal physiological function generally categorized by increased anxiety and reduced mobility. Therefore, the present study was to find out the effect Methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus (MEAR ) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress in rats . LPS-induced oxidative stress in rats was measured by locomotor activity by photoactometer test, anxiety with elevated plus maze test and also studied the oxidative stress markers, nitric oxide and cytokines. The obtained data shows that LPS markedly exhausted (pAsparagus racemosus Willd. is a functionally newer type of cerebroprotective agent.

  10. Testicular Dysfunction Ameliorative Effect of the Methanolic Roots Extracts of Maytenus procumbens and Ozoroa paniculosa

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    Nkosinathi David Cele

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional use of medicinal plants in the management of sexual dysfunctions has a long history. This study investigated testicular dysfunction ameliorative effect of the methanolic roots extracts of Maytenus procumbens and Ozoroa paniculosa in a butanol-induced testicular dysfunction rat model. The rats in respective experimental groups were orally administered with the extract at 50 and 250 mg/kg bw, daily for 28 days. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated against HEK293, MCF-7, and HT29 cell lines. The extracts exhibited moderate (LC50 30.3–330.2 μg/mL to weak (LC50 200.8–438.4 μg/mL cytotoxicity level on the cancer and normal cells, respectively. While relatively lower serum testosterone levels and total sperm count along with decreased numbers of spermatogonia were noted in the untreated group, all these parameters were improved in the groups treated with the extracts at 250 mg/kg. Improved histomorphological changes of the testes were also observed when compared to the untreated group. While the extracts (at 250 mg/kg increased serum reduced glutathione content and decreased malondialdehyde content, a relatively higher serum creatinine level was also observed in the treated animals group. The results indicate that the two plant extracts have potential to ameliorate testicular dysfunction.

  11. Anticonvulsant properties of methanol leaf extract of Laggera Aurita Linn. F. (Asteraceae) in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malami, S; Kyari, H; Danjuma, N M; Ya'u, J; Hussaini, I M

    2016-09-15

    Preparation of Laggera aurita Linn. (Asteraceae) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various kinds of diseases such as epilepsy, malaria, fever, pain and asthma. Its efficacy is widely acclaimed among communities in Northern Nigeria. The present study is aimed at establishing the possible anticonvulsant effects of the methanol leaf extract of Laggera aurita using acute and chronic anticonvulsant models. Median lethal dose (LD50) was determined in mice and rats via oral and intraperitoneal routes. Anticonvulsant screening of the extract was performed using maximal electroshock-induced seizure test in day-old chicks; pentylenetetrazole-, strychnine- and picrotoxin- induced seizure models in mice. Similarly; its effects on pentylenetetrazole-induce kindling in rats as well as when co-administered with fluphenamic and cyproheptadine in mice, were evaluated. Median lethal dose (LD50) values were found to be >5000mg/kg, p.o. and 2154mg/kg, i.p., each for both rats and mice. The extract showed dose dependent protection against tonic hind limb extension (THLE) and significantly (p<0.05) decreased the mean recovery from seizure in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure. In the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model, the extract offered 50% protection at 600mg/kg and also increased the mean onset of seizure at all doses with significant (p<0.05) increase at the highest dose (600mg/kg). Similarly the extract produced significant (p<0.05) increase in the onset of seizures in both strychnine- and picrotoxin- induced seizure models, at all the doses except at 150mg/kg for the picrotoxin model. Co-administration of fluphenamic acid (FFA) (5mg/kg) and the extract (600mg/kg) showed an enhanced effect with percentage protection of 70% while co-administration of FFA (5mg/kg) and phenytoin (5mg/kg) as well phenytoin (5mg/kg) and the extract (600mg/kg) produced an additive effect. Administration of the extract (600mg/kg), phenytoin (20mg/kg) and cyproheptadine (4mg

  12. Antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of pomegranate fruit peel methanolic extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background This study evaluated, using in vitro assays, the antibacterial, antioxidant, and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of methanolic extracts from peels of seven commercially grown pomegranate cultivars. Methods Antibacterial activity was tested on Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) using a microdilution method. Several potential antioxidant activities, including radical-scavenging ability (RSA), ferrous ion chelating (FIC) and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), were evaluated. Tyrosinase enzyme inhibition was investigated against monophenolase (tyrosine) and diphenolase (DOPA), with arbutin and kojic acid as positive controls. Furthermore, phenolic contents including total flavonoid content (TFC), gallotannin content (GTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) were determined using colourimetric methods. HPLC-ESI/MSn analysis of phenolic composition of methanolic extracts was also performed. Results Methanolic peel extracts showed strong broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.2 to 0.78 mg/ml. At the highest concentration tested (1000 μg/ml), radical scavenging activities were significantly higher in Arakta (83.54%), Ganesh (83.56%), and Ruby (83.34%) cultivars (P50%) against monophenolase and diphenolase activities at the highest screening concentration. The most active peel extract was the Bhagwa cultivar against monophenolase and the Arakta cultivar against diphenolase with IC50 values of 3.66 μg/ml and 15.88 μg/ml, respectively. High amounts of phenolic compounds were found in peel extracts with the highest and lowest total phenolic contents of 295.5 (Ganesh) and 179.3 mg/g dry extract (Molla de Elche), respectively. Catechin, epicatechin, ellagic acid and gallic acid were found in all cultivars, of which ellagic acid was the most abundant comprising

  13. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10‑12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long‑term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride‑induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography‑electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identified in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol‑3‑O‑rutinoside, kaempferol‑3‑O‑glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion

  14. Phytochemical analysis and In-vitro Biochemical Characterization of aqueous and methanolic extract of Triphala, a conventional herbal remedy

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    Romana Parveen

    2018-03-01

    Results revealed the presence of valuable bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, etc which might be responsible for biochemical activities. Extracts exhibited satisfactory radical-scavenging activity comparable with ascorbic acid. Methanolic extracts demonstrated higher antioxidant activity compared to aqueous extract. Extracts showed promising antibacterial potential against tested strain comparable to ampicillin. Hence, it can be concluded that triphala may be a promising candidate in pharmaceuticals and future medicine.

  15. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content in methanol extract obtained from leaves Commiphora Myrrha

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    Celia Eliane de Lara da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents shows the study of antioxidant activity and quantification of phenolic content determined for the methanol extract obtained from Commiphora myrrha. The high content of phenolic compounds were evaluated against the potential to sequester free radical through the model 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrizil hydrazyl (DPPH and compared with a standard rutin. The results show that the inhibitory capacity of the extract (IC50 was 0.21 mg.L-1. The extract pursued an antioxidant activity of 91.3% compared to the scavenging ability of rutin standard. The content of phenolic extract was assessed by using the Folin-Ciocalteu determined where the IC50 was 3,02 mg.L-1. The concentration of total phenols was determined 1.176 ± 0.263 mg gallic acid equivalent . g-1 of extract (n=5. The results show that extracts of C. myrrha have high antioxidant potential and additional studies are needed for isolation, characterization and use of their property in pharmaceutical, nutritinal and cosmetology.

  16. Methanolic extracts of Uncaria rhynchophylla induce cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Kyung-Jin; Cha, Mi-Ran; Lee, Mi-Ra; Yoon, Mi-Young; Park, Hae-Ryong

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we report the anticancer activities of Uncaria rhynchophylla extracts, a Rubiaceae plant native to China. Traditionally, Uncaria rhynchophylla has been used in the prevention and treatment of neurotoxicity. However, the cytotoxic activity of Uncaria rhynchophylla against human colon carcinoma cells has not, until now, been elucidated. We found that the methanolic extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla (URE) have cytotoxic effects on HT-29 cells. The URE showed highly cytotoxic effects via the MTT reduction assay, LDH release assay, and colony formation assay. As expected, URE inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, the methanolic URE of the 500 microg/ml showed 15.8% inhibition against growth of HT-29 cells. It induced characteristic apoptotic effects in HT-29 cells, including chromatin condensation and sharking occurring 24 h when the cells were treated at a concentration of the 500 microg/ml. The activation of caspase-3 and the specific proteolytic cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase were detected over the course of apoptosis induction. These results indicate that URE contains bioactive materials with strong activity, and is a potential chemotherapeutic agent candidate against HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells.

  17. Screening of Phytoconstituents, Investigation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Cucumis sativus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahar, A.; Naqvi, S.A.; Khan, Z.A.; Ahmad, M.; Hussain, Z.; Sahar, T.; Nosheen, S.

    2013-01-01

    The phytoconstituents, antioxidant potential and antibacterial activity of Cucumis sativus (C. sativus) cultivated in Pakistan were studied. In addition, the effect of extraction techniques (mercerization and refluxing) on the total phenolics, antioxidant activity and antibacterial potential of C. sativus fruit pulp were also studied. Methanol extract was screened for its phytoconstituents. The antioxidant activity was assessed by determination of total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC) and performing different in vitro antioxidant models such as 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, reducing power, percent inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid and nitric oxide free radical scavenging assays. Phytochemicals screening results revealed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides, tannic acid and saponins while absence of alkaloids, steroids and anthraquinones. The TPC was found in appreciable concentration (41.03 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g) in extract obtained by 4h methanolic mercerization. Long refluxing technique (4h refluxing) was found unfavorable to some extent as it resulted only 33.69 mg GAE/g TPC in methanolic extract. Anyhow the extraction with water using mercerization and refluxing techniques found least effective e.g. 4h mercerization and refluxing showed 14.14 and 18.16 mg GAE/g respectively. Antibacterial assay showed extract obtained by 4h and 2h methanolic mercerization have good potential to inhibit the growth (09.6+-0.7 to 18.5+-0.8 mm) of infection causing bacteria. The results of antioxidants and antibacterial in vitro assays advocated that 4h methanolic mercerization is an effective extraction technique. Therefore, it could be concluded that methanolic mercerization is a technique of maximum extraction of phenolics and bioactive constituents. (author)

  18. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves

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    Badrul Alam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities ofthe methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL. Materials and Methods: MPBL was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model. Analgesic activity of MPBL was evaluated by hot plate, writhing, and formalin tests. Total phenolic and flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, peroxynitrate (ONOO- as well as  inhibition of total ROS generation, and assessment of reducing power were used to evaluate antioxidant potential of MPBL. Results: The extract of MPBL, at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, produced a significant (p

  19. Effect of methanol leaf extract of Dalbergia saxatilis Hook.f (fabaceae on renal function

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    Fatima Ismail Hassan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dalbegia saxatilis (D.saxatilis is used as a decoction in traditional medicine for ailments such as cough, small pox, skin lesions, bronchial ailments and toothache. This study is aimed at evaluating the toxic effect of methanol leaf extract of D.saxatilis on renal function. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into four groups of five: control animals (group 1 received distilled water 1 ml/kg while groups 2, 3 and 4 were given graded doses of the extract (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively daily for 28 days. Body weight changes were estimated by weighing the rats twice weekly using digital weighing balance. After 28 days, blood samples were obtained for evaluation of renal indices and the kidney was used for histopathology. Data were analysed using one–way and repeated measures ANOVA using SPSS version 20. Results: Significant weight increase in all groups were observed (p

  20. Neuroprotective effect of the methanolic extract of Hibiscus asper leaves in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hritcu, Lucian; Foyet, Harquin Simplice; Stefan, Marius; Mihasan, Marius; Asongalem, Acha Emmanuel; Kamtchouing, Pierre

    2011-09-01

    While the Hibiscus asper Hook.f. (Malvaceae) is a traditional herb largely used in tropical region of the Africa as vegetable, potent sedative, tonic and restorative, anti-inflammatory and antidepressive drug, there is very little scientific data concerning the efficacy of this. The antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities of the methanolic extract of Hibiscus asper leaves (50 and 100 mg/kg) were assessed using superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) specific activities, total glutathione (GSH) content, malondialdehyde (MDA) level (lipid peroxidation) and DNA fragmentation assays in male Wistar rats subjected to unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesion. In 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, methanolic extract of Hibiscus asper leaves showed potent antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities. Chronic administration of the methanolic extract (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p., daily, for 7 days) significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, GPX and CAT), total GSH content and reduced lipid peroxidation (MDA level) in rat temporal lobe homogenates, suggesting antioxidant activity. Also, DNA cleavage patterns were absent in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rats treated with methanolic extract of Hibiscus asper leaves, suggesting antiapoptotic activity. Taken together, our results suggest that the methanolic extract of Hibiscus asper leaves possesses neuroprotective activity against 6-OHDA-induced toxicity through antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities in Parkinson's disease model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuroprotective effect of Buddleja cordata methanolic extract in the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium Parkinson's disease rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Barrón, Gabriela; Avila-Acevedo, José Guillermo; García-Bores, Ana María; Montes, Sergio; García-Jiménez, Sara; León-Rivera, Ismael; Rubio-Osornio, Moisés; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the irreversible loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway with subsequent dopamine deficiency. Environmental causes have been proposed through molecules, such as 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), to induce oxidative stress. The methanolic extract of plants of the genus Buddleja has been reported to have in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties to protect against neuronal death. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of Buddleja cordata methanolic extract in the MPP(+) PD rat model was investigated. Animals were administered orally with 50 or 100 mg/kg of methanolic extract every 24 h for 14 days. Twenty hours later, rats were infused with an intrastriatal stereotaxic microinjection of 10 µg MPP(+) in 8 μl sterile saline solution. Six days later, the animals were treated with 1 mg/kg apomorphine to record ipsilateral rotations for 1 h. All the rats were killed by decapitation and the lesioned striatum was dissected for dopamine and lipid peroxidation quantifications. Both methanolic extract doses led to a significantly lower (P Buddleja cordata methanolic extract in the MPP(+) PD rat model, possibly due to the involvement of phenylpropanoids.

  2. Evaluation of Anti-Convulsant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Seeds of Cassia Fistula against Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in mice

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    Nilesh P. Sawadadkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassia Fistula is a popular Indian herb which is used as tonic, laxative, anti-pyretic, astringent, febrifuge, strong purgative etc. The aim of present study was to evaluate anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ induced convulsions in mice. All the animals were divided into four groups of six mice each and were injected PTZ (60mg/kg intraperitonially Group I was served as toxic control, Group II was pretreated with  Gabapentin (200mg/kg P.O.. Group III was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (100 mg/kg P.O. for 7 days. Group IV was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (200mg/kg P.O. for 7 days.The result shows that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula significantly reduced duration of clonic convulsions and also delayed the onset of convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol. The result was expressed as mean ± SEM and were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. It is concluded that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula can show anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazol induced convulsions in mice.

  3. Antioxidant and antifungal potential of methanol extracts of Phellinus spp. from Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Zavala, Jesús Fernando; Silva-Espinoza, Brenda Adriana; Cruz-Valenzuela, Manuel Reynaldo; Villegas-Ochoa, Mónica Alejandra; Esqueda, Martín; González-Aguilar, Gustavo Adolfo; Calderón-López, Yazaric

    2012-01-01

    Among the potential natural sources of bioactive compounds, those of the macroscopic fungi Phellinus spp. have been identified by previous researches. Phenolic compounds are among the major antioxidant and antimicrobial contributors due to their bioactive properties. The goal of this study was to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and its relation with the antioxidant and antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of Phellinus gilvus, Phellinus rimosus and Phellinus badius, respectively. The collected and identified organisms of Phellinus spp. were treated with methanol and the generated aqueous extract was analyzed to quantified total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, radical scavenging activity against DPPH, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and oxygen absorbance capacity. The antifungal property of the extracts was evaluated against Alternaria alternata. The content of phenolic compounds was of 49.31, 46.51 and 44.7 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g, for P. gilvus, P. rimosus and P. badius, respectively. The total flavonoid content followed the same pattern with values of 30.58, 28, and 26.48 mg of quercetin equivalents/g for P. gilvus, P. rimosus and P. badius, respectively. The variation on the content of phenolic components was reflected on the antioxidant activity of every organism. The antioxidant activity ranked as follows: P. gilvus>P. rimosus>P. badius. The antifungal effect of the different extracts against A. alternata showed a significant effect, all of them, inhibiting the growth of this pathogen. P. gilvus showed the best potential to inactivate free radicals, being all the tested fungi effective to inhibit A. alternata growth. Copyright © 2011 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Antihyperglycemic Effect of Methanol Extract of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight. Leaf in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Tri Widyawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium polyanthum (S. polyanthum, a plant belonging to Myrtaceae, is widely used in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisines. Diabetic patients in Indonesia also commonly use it as a traditional medicine. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of the methanol extract (ME of S. polyanthum leaf and its possible mechanisms of action. To test for hypoglycemic activity, ME was administered orally to normal male Sprague Dawley rats after a 12-h fast. To further test for antihyperglycemic activity, the same treatment was administered to glucose-loaded (intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, IPGTT and streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats, respectively. Hypoglycemic test in normal rats did not show significant reduction in blood glucose levels (BGLs by the extract. Furthermore, IPGTT conducted on glucose-loaded normal rats also did not show significant reduction of BGLs. However, repeated administration of metformin and three doses of ME (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg for six days caused significant reduction of fasting BGLs in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The possible mechanisms of action of S. polyanthum antihyperglycemic activity were assessed by measurement of intestinal glucose absorption and glucose uptake by isolated rat abdominal muscle. It was found that the extract not only inhibited glucose absorption from the intestine but also significantly increased glucose uptake in muscle tissue. A preliminary phytochemical qualitative analysis of ME indicated the presence of tannins, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins. Additionally, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS analysis detected squalene. In conclusion, S. polyanthum methanol leaf extract exerts its antihyperglycemic effect possibly by inhibiting glucose absorption from the intestine and promoting glucose uptake by the muscles.

  5. In vitro antibacterial activity and acute toxicity studies of aqueous-methanol extract of Sida rhombifolia Linn. (Malvaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assam, Assam J P; Dzoyem, J P; Pieme, C A; Penlap, V B

    2010-07-27

    Many bacteria among the Enterobacteria family are involved in infectious diseases and diarrhoea. Most of these bacteria become resistant to the most commonly used synthetic drugs in Cameroon. Natural substances seem to be an alternative to this problem. Thus the aim of this research was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the methanol and aqueous-methanol extracts of Sida rhombifolia Linn (Malvaceae) against seven pathogenic bacteria involved in diarrhoea. Acute toxicity of the most active extract was determined and major bioactive components were screened. The agar disc diffusion and the agar dilution method were used for the determination of inhibition diameters and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MICs) respectively. The acute toxicity study was performed according WHO protocol. The aqueous-methanol extract (1v:4v) was the most active with diameters of inhibition zones ranging from 8.7 - 23.6 mm, however at 200 microg/dic this activity was relatively weak compared to gentamycin. The MICs of the aqueous-methanol extract (1v:4v) varied from 49.40 to 78.30 microg/ml. Salmonella dysenteriae was the most sensitive (49.40 microg/ml). For the acute toxicity study, no deaths of rats were recorded. However, significant increase of some biochemical parameters such as aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and creatinine (CRT) were found. The phytochemical analysis of the aqueous methanol extract indicated the presence of tannins, polyphenols, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids and saponins The results showed that the aqueous-methanol extract of S. rhombifolia exhibited moderate antibacterial activity. Some toxic effects were found when rats received more than 8 g/kg bw of extract.

  6. Mechanism of antagonistic effects of Andrographis paniculata methanolic extract against Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Hussain, Roslinah Mohamad; Razak, Zayan Nabilah Rasyidah Abd; Saad, Wan Mazlina Md; Mustakim, Maimunah

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the effects of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. Ex Nees (A. paniculata) on expressions and activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and alkylhydroperoxide reductase C in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with respect to its survival in vitro. Antioxidative property of methanolic leaves extract of A. paniculata (0.06 mg/mL). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by its ability to reduce hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) toxicity against S. aureus ATCC 25923 [(3.8 × 10 8 ) cfu/mL]. Effects of the extract on expressions of katA (encoding catalase), sodA and sodM [encoding superoxide dismutases (SODs)], and ahpC [encoding alkylhydroperoxide reductase C (AhpC)] in S. aureus were determined by RT-qPCR and corresponding enzyme activity assays were performed. Nitroblue tetrazolium reduction (NBT) assay was performed to determine effects of the extract on intracellular and extracellular levels of O 2- in S. aureus. Cells challenged with 7.5 mmol/L H 2 O 2 showed 0% survival in 30 min whereas 25% survived after treatment with the extract and H 2 O 2 . Cells that were treated with the extract alone had 43% survival in the same exposure period. Expressions of sodA and sodM genes in extract-treated cells were lowered 0.8-fold and 0.7-fold, respectively with decrease in total SOD activity of 26.8 U compared to untreated cells, 32.4 U (P paniculata methanolic leaves extract (0.06 mg/mL) reduce H 2 O 2 toxicity and more importantly, was in itself effectively inhibitory against S. aureus. Further, our observations suggest that a probable mode of its inhibitory mechanism against S. aureus is by reducing total SOD activity through downregulation of sodA and sodM expressions. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of Cd-induced genotoxic damage in Urtica pilulifera L. using RAPD-PCR analysis

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    Ilhan Dogan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants can be used as biological indicators in assessing the damage done by bioaccumulation of heavy metals and their negative impact on the environment. In the present research, Roman nettle (Urtica pilulifera L. was employed as a bioindicator for cadmium (Cd pollution. The comparisons between unexposed and exposed plant samples revealed inhibition of the root growth (∼25.96% and ∼45.92% after treatment with 100 and 200 µmol/L Cd concentrations, respectively, reduction in the total soluble protein quantities (∼53.92% and ∼66.29% after treatment with 100 and 200 µmol/L Cd concentrations, respectively and a gradual genomic instability when the Cd concentrations were increased. The results indicated that alterations in randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD profiles, following the Cd treatments, included normal band losses and emergence of new bands, when compared to the controls. Also, the obtained data from F1 plants, utilized for analysis of genotoxicity, revealed that DNA alterations, occurring in parent plants due to Cd pollution, were transmitted to the next generation.

  8. ACTIVITY TEST OF GUAVA (Psidium guajava L. LEAF METHANOL EXTRACT AS CONTRACEPTION ANTIFERTILITY TO WHITE MICE (Rattus norvegicus

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    Sri Retno Dwi Ariani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to know about if the guava (Psidium guajava L. leaf methanol extract on 10.5 mg/mL and 21.0 mg/mL dossages indicate a positive test as contraception antifertility to white mice (Rattus norvegicus. The sample is guava leaf from Mungkid, Magelang Central of Java Indonesia. The animals experiment are the white mice on 140-300 g for female, 200-250 g for male and about 3 months of age in average. The steps of this research are : (1 preparing  sample, i.e. washing, drying on to indirect sunlight and make the sample into powder, (2 isolation the guava leaf powder in soxhlet instrument with hexane, (3 evaporation the sample with rotary evaporator until guava leaf hexane extract produced, (4 maseration the sample with methanol, (5 evaporation the sample with rotary evaporator until guava leaf methanol extract produced, (6 conducting contraception antifertility activity test to guave leaf methanol extract on 10.5 mg/mL and 21.0 mg/mL dossages to mice white. The results of this research are guava leaf methanol extract on 10.5 mg/mL and 21.0 mg/mL dossages indicate a negative contraception antifertility test to white mice but in these dossages have indicated that an antiimplantation effect (the total natality of fetus is less than the total implantation site in mice white.   Keywords: Guava leaf, contraseption antifertility, methanol extract, white mice, implantation

  9. Phytochemical characterization of bioactive compounds on methanolic and ethanolic leaf extracts of Myrciaria sp.

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    Nathalia F. Naspolini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the native species of importance in Brazil, jabuticabeira (Myrciaria sp. is a native fruit tree from several Brazilian regions. Few studies report the chemical constituents of the leaves and its pharmacological and nutraceutical properties. The aim of this study was to identify the phenolic compounds of the methanolic (MeOH and ethanolic (EtOH leaf extracts of Myrciaria sp. Phytochemical profile of the extracts was carried-out using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analysis. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by radical scavenging capacity with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and total phenolics were determined with Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. A total of nine different compounds were identified in the free and bound phenolics extractions: 2,4 dihydroxybenzoic, vanillin, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapinic, rutin, epicatechin, trans-caffeic and myricetin. The extracts demonstrated high radical scavenging capacity (MeOH: 1.83 and EtOH: 8.05 mg/mL and high phenolic content (MeOH: 1.15; and EtOH: 1.04 mg/g dry matter. The wide variability of compounds revealed and the amount of peaks not identified, gives us a background of a potential plant matrix for further investigations in order to develop a nutraceutical agent.

  10. Phytochemical characterization of bioactive compounds on methanolic and ethanolic leaf extracts of Myrciaria sp.

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    Nathalia F. Naspolini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the native species of importance in Braz il, jabuticabeira ( Myrciaria sp. is a native fruit tree from several Brazilian regions. Few studies report the chemical constituents of the leaves and its pharmacological and nutraceutical properties. The aim of this study was to identify the phenolic com pounds of the methanolic (MeOH and ethanolic (EtOH leaf extracts of Myrciaria sp. Phytochemical profile of the extracts was carried - out using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analysis. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by radical scavengin g capacity with 2,2 - diphenyl - 1 - picryl - hydrazyl (DPPH and total phenolics were determined with Folin -Ciocalteau reagent. A total of nine different compounds were identified in the free and bound phenolics extractions: 2,4 dihydroxybenzoic, vanillin, p- coumaric, ferulic, sinapinic, rutin, epicatechin, trans- caffeic and myricetin. The extracts demonstrated high radical scavenging capacity (MeOH: 1.83 and EtOH: 8.05 mg/mL and high phenolic content (MeOH: 1.15; and EtOH: 1.04 mg/g dry matter. The wide variability of compounds revealed and the amount of peaks not identified, gives us a background of a potential plant matrix for further investigations in order to develop a nutraceutical agent.

  11. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity of Methanolic Plant Extracts against Nosocomial Microorganisms

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    Eduardo Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm is a complex microbial community highly resistant to antimicrobials. The formation of biofilms in biotic and abiotic surfaces is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. New alternatives for controlling infections have been proposed focusing on the therapeutic properties of medicinal plants and their antimicrobial effects. In the present study the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of 8 methanolic plant extracts were evaluated against clinical isolated microorganisms. Preliminary screening by diffusion well assay showed the antimicrobial activity of Prosopis laevigata, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Gutierrezia microcephala. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined ranging from 0.7 to >15 mg/mL. The specific biofilm formation index (SBF was evaluated before and after the addition of plant extracts (MBC × 0.75. Opuntia ficus-indica caused the major reduction on SBF in dose-dependent manner. Cytotoxic activity of plant extracts was determined using brine shrimp lethality test (Artemia salina L.. Lethal Dose concentration (LD50 values of the plant extracts was calculated. LD50 values for P. laevigata and G. microcephala were 141.6 and 323.3 µg/mL, respectively, while O. ficus-indica showed a slight lethality with 939.2 µg/mL. Phytochemical analyses reveal the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and coumarines.

  12. Evaluation of the In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Potentials of Aframomum melegueta Methanolic Seed Extract

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    Samuel Okwudili Onoja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aframomum melegueta Schum (Zingiberaceae is a perennial herb widely cultivated for its valuable seeds in the tropical region of Africa. The present study evaluated the antioxidant effects of methanolic seed extract of A. melegueta. The antioxidant effects were evaluated using in vitro, 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay and in vivo serum catalase, superoxide dismutase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay method. The extract (25–400 μg/mL concentration produced concentration dependent increase in antioxidant activity in 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay. The extract (400 mg/kg showed a significant (P<0.05 increase in serum catalase and superoxide dismutase activity when compared with the control group. The extract (400 mg/kg showed a significant (P<0.05 decrease in the serum level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance when compared with the control group. These findings suggest that the seed of A. melegueta has potent antioxidant activity which may be responsible for some of its reported pharmacological activities and can be used as antioxidant supplement.

  13. Phytotoxicity assessment of a methanolic coal dust extract in Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado-Posada, Nadia; Cabarcas-Montalvo, Maria; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2013-09-01

    Coal mining generates negative effects on environment, human health, hydrodynamics of mining areas and biodiversity. However, the impacts of this activity are less known in plants. Lemna minor is one of the most commonly used plants in aquatic toxicity tests due to its ubiquitous distribution in ponds and lakes, culture conditions and the free-floating habitat that exposes it to hydrophobic as well as dissolved compounds. The goal of this research was to evaluate the effects of a methanolic coal dust extract on L. minor. Macrophytes were exposed to six different concentrations of coal extract (from 7.81 to 250 mg/L) for 5 days, following the OECD test guideline 221. The coal extract had a half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 99.66 (184.95-54.59) mg/L for the number of fronds. Several signs of toxicity such as chlorosis, reduction in the size of the fronds, abscission of fronds and roots, and the presence of necrotic tissues were observed at concentrations lower than the IC50. Preliminary Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis of the coal dust extract revealed the presence of several compounds, including, among others, alkanes, carboxylic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), these lasts, may be responsible for some of the observed effects. These results demonstrated that coal dust has phytotoxic effects and should not be considered as an inert material. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Antiproliferative and Apoptosis Induction Potential of the Methanolic Leaf Extract of Holarrhena floribunda (G. Don

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    J. A. Badmus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural plant products with potent growth inhibition and apoptosis induction properties are extensively being investigated for their cancer chemopreventive potential. Holarrhena floribunda (HF is used in a wide range of traditional medicine practices. The present study investigated the antiproliferative and apoptosis induction potential of methanolic leaf extracts of HF against breast (MCF-7, colorectal (HT-29, and cervical (HeLa cancer cells relative to normal KMST-6 fibroblasts. The MTT assay in conjunction with the trypan blue dye exclusion and clonogenic assays were used to determine the effects of the extracts on the cells. Caspase activities were assayed with Caspase-Glo 3/7 and Caspase-9 kits. Apoptosis induction was monitored by flow cytometry using the APOPercentage and Annexin V-FITC kits. Reactive oxygen species (ROS was measured using the fluorogenic molecular probe 5-(and-6-chloromethyl-2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester and cell cycle arrest was detected with propidium iodide. Dose-response analyses of the extract showed greater sensitivity in cancer cell lines than in fibroblast controls. Induction of apoptosis, ROS, and cell cycle arrest were time- and dose-dependent for the cancer cell lines studied. These findings provide a basis for further studies on the isolation, characterization, and mechanistic evaluation of the bioactive compounds responsible for the antiproliferative activity of the plant extract.

  15. The Effect of Methanolic Soy Extract on Heart Tissue Changes in Ovariectomized Rats

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    Mohammad Reza Nasirzadeh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Following to estrogen depletion in postmenopausal womens, its cardioprotective effect decreases. Stroke usually occurs in women during the menopause years. Estrogen hormone therapy is still controversial. Epidemiological data suggest that phytoestrogens have a preventive effect on various estrogen-related diseases/symptoms such as menopausal symptoms, cardiovascular diseases. Some studies suggest that genistein as an important component of soy have cardioprotection effects but its role on inflammation and cardiomyocte injury remained to be elucidated. So, this study was goaled to investigate the cardioprotective effect of methanolic soy extract on heart tissue injures.   Method: In this study 40 female rats were randomly allocated into 4 groups: 1 Control (intact animals, 2 sham surgery (without ovarictomy, 3 ovariectomized (ovx, and 4 treatment (ovx and soy gavage group that received 60mg/kg per day soy extract in drinking water for 28days (4 weeks. At the end of experiments, the rat heart tissue was processed histologically and the sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to examine under light microscope. Statistical analysis was performed using the wilcoxon test.   Results: The results showed that ovariectomy significantly increased inflammation and cardiomyocte injury and soy extract significantly promoted heart tissue recovery (p<0.05.   Conclosions: This study indicated that oral administration of soy extract has a positive effect on attenuation of inflammation and myocyte injury in ovariectomized rat.

  16. Antimicrobial effect of Satureja bachtiarica extracts aqueous, ethanol, methanol and glycerin on streptococcus pyogenes, pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus epidermidis

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Heidari Sureshjani; Farideh Tabatabaei Yazdi; Ali Mortazavi; Fakhri Shahidi; Behrooz Alizadeh Behbahani

    2013-01-01

    The Iranian medicinal plants, such as Satureja bachtiarica have been utilized as traditional medicines by the indigenous people of Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari in Iran. In this study, Satureja bachtiarica were dried in suitable condition (in shadow) after extraction with watery, ethanol 96 %, methanol 96% and 20% glycerin antimicrobial effect of extract were determined by “screening antimicrobial activity” and “disk agar diffusion test” in 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/ml concentration of the extract agai...

  17. Immunomodulation Potential of Andrographis Paniculata and Tinospora Cordifolia Methanolic Extracts in Combination Forms

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    Rajesh Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This work mainly focuses on the immunomodulatory effect of different drug combinations (DC-I to DC-V of methanolic extracts of aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata (AP and mature stems of Tinospora cordifolia (TC.Materials and Methods: The  coarse  powder  (40-mesh  of  shade  dried  aerial parts of AP and mature stems of TC  (500g each  was  subjected  separately to successive extraction with 1000ml each of petroleum ether (60-80oC followed by methanol. The doses of DC-I to DC-V were selected and were administered orally at doses of 200 mg/kg body weight to Albino Wistar rats and compared with the control group and standard drug i.e.  cyclophosphamide (100mg/kg respectively.Results: Results suggest that although all the five tested combinations (DC-I to DC-V prepared using different proportion of methanol extracts of A. paniculata and T. cordifolia (100:Zero, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and Zero:100 showed a significant  increase  in macrophase count,  neutrophil  adhesion(NA,  haemagglutinating  antibody (HA  titre  and delayed  type  hypersensitivity  (DTH  response. In rats immunized with sheep RBC,  DC-I to DC-V enhanced  the humoral  antibody  response  to  the  antigen  and  significantly potentiated  the cellular immunity by facilitating the footpad thickness response to sheep RBC in sensitized rats on chosen experimental models.Conclusion: The values of macrophase, NA, HA, DTH and cellular responses of combination DC-II at a 200 mg/kg body weight were statistically significant as compared to other combinations. Combination DC-II exhibited best immunostimulant potential, indicating that it has promising immunomodulatory activity, as proposed from commercial point of view.

  18. Anticoccidial activity of the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca root in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anosa, George Nnamdi; Okoro, O Josephine

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the anticoccidial activity of the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca root in chickens. The chickens were divided into six groups of 12 chickens each. Each chicken in five groups was infected with 8,000 infective coccidia (Eimeria tenella) oocysts at day 28 of age while one group served as uninfected control. At day 7 post-infection, two chickens remaining in each group were sacrificed for postmortem examination to confirm coccidiosis. Also at day 7 post-infection, each chicken in four infected groups was given graded doses (250, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg b.w.) of the extract or amprolium (conventional drug). Two groups (an infected and uninfected group) did not receive treatment. Parameters used to assess progress of infection and response to treatment included clinical signs typical of coccidiosis, oocyst count per gramme of faeces (OPG) and packed cell volume (PCV). Treatment of previously infected chickens with M. paradisiaca root extract resulted in a progressive decrease in severity of observed clinical signs, marked reductions in OPG and a gradual increase in PCV. In each case, the changes were dose dependent. There was no significant difference in mean OPG and mean PCV of the extract (at 1,000 mg/kg b.w.) and amprolium-treated groups at termination of the study (at day 50 of age). In the acute toxicity study, the extract was found to be non-toxic to the chickens even at the highest dose of 4,000 mg/kg b.w. The results of this study demonstrated that the extract has anticoccidial activity in a dose-dependent manner and at a dosage of 1,000 mg/kg b.w. had similar efficacy with amprolium in the treatment of chicken coccidiosis.

  19. Antidiarrheal activity of methanolic extract of the root bark of Cordia africana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrie, Assefa Belay; Abdelwuhab, Mohammedbrhan; Shewamene, Zewdneh; Gelayee, Desalegn Asmelashe; Adinew, Getnet Mequanint; Birru, Eshetie Melese

    2016-01-01

    An ethnobotanical study in Agew-Awi and Amhara peoples in northwest Ethiopia reported that Cordia africana is used traditionally in the treatment of liver disease, amebiasis, stomachache, and diarrhea. The root and root bark are reported to be used in the treatment of diarrhea. Therefore, this study was intended to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of C. africana against castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. The antidiarrheal effect of the plant was tested on castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice (23-25 g) of either sex. Number of diarrheic defecations, intestinal length traveled by the charcoal meal, and weight of intestinal fluid were taken as important parameters to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of the plant extract. In preliminary phytochemical screening tests, the methanolic extract of C. africana was found to contain phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, and saponins. Reduction in the number of diarrheic drops was observed in groups of mice that received 200 mg/kg ( P <0.05) and 400 mg/kg ( P <0.01) of the extract compared to the negative controls. The percent inhibition of intestinal fluid accumulation was 26.83%, 46.34%, and 53.66% at the doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. Relative to the negative control group, the mean percent of intestinal length moved by the charcoal meal was decreased by 24.41%, 39.89%, and 51.66% in groups of mice given 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the plant extract, respectively. To iterate the finding, the root bark extract of C. africana was found to be effective in preventing castor oil-induced diarrhea and intestinal motility in a dose-dependent manner. This reveals that the plant material has promising antidiarrheal activity as it is claimed in traditional medical practice.

  20. Evaluation of the analgesic activity of the methanolic stem bark extract of dialium guineense (wild).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeja, Mi; Omeh, Ys; Ezeigbo, Ii; Ekechukwu, A

    2011-01-01

    Dialium guineense is a medicinal plant used by some communities of Enugu-Ezike in Enugu State, Nigeria for treatment of fever, headache and other diverse ailments. The present study evaluated the analgesic activity of the methanolic stem bark extract of the plant. Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction or writhing, tail immersion and hot plate analgesic models in albino Wistar mice were used for the study. Three test doses (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight) of the extract were administered orally by gastric gavage. The activity was compared with a standard reference drug, acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) (400 mg/kg) and negative control. The results were analysed by SPSS version 17 using ANOVA and Post Hoc Duncan. In the acetic acid-induced writhing reflex model, D. guineense extract and the reference drug significantly (P =0.014 - 0.002) decreased the mean total number of abdominal constriction in the mice in a dose dependent fashion. The percentage inhibition of the abdominal constriction reflex was increased dose dependently from 0% in the negative control group to 71% at the highest dose of the extract (1000mg/kg). In the tail immersion model the extract at the dose of 1000 mg/kg significantly (P = 0. 048) increased the pain reaction time (PRT) while in hot plate model the extract and drug also significantly (P = 0.048 - 0.05) increased the mean PRT at the doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg. The dose of 250 mg/kg showed no analgesic activity in tail immersion and hot plate models. Dialium guineense demonstrated significant analgesic activity that may be mediated through peripheral pain mechanism.

  1. Antimicrobial activities of the crude methanol extract of Acorus calamus Linn.

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    Souwalak Phongpaichit

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A partially-purified fraction obtained from column chromatographic preparation of the crude methanol extract of Acorus calamus Linn. rhizomes was investigated for its antimicrobial activities on various microorganisms including bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi. It exhibited high activity againstfilamentous fungi: Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, and Penicillium marneffei with IC50 values of 0.2, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/ml, respectively. However, it showed moderate activity against yeasts: Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MIC 0.1-1 mg/ml and low activity against bacteria (MIC 5->10 mg/ml. Scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that hyphae and conidia treated with this fraction were shrunken and collapsed, which might be due to cell fluid leakage.

  2. Anti-inflammatory and opioid-like activities in methanol extract of Mikania lindleyana, sucuriju

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    Frederico A. Vanderlinde

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mikania lindleyana DC., Asteraceae (sucuriju, grows in the Amazon region, where is frequently used to treat pain, inflammatory diseases and scarring. This study was carried out to investigate phytochemical profile accompanied by in vivo antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory screening of n-hexane (HE, dichloromethane (DME and methanol (ME extracts obtained from the aerial parts of the plant. The oral administration of ME (0.1, 0.3, 1 g/kg caused a dose-related reduction (16.2, 42.1 e 70.2% of acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing while HE and DME (1 g/kg, p.o. were ineffective. In the hot plate test, ME (300 mg/kg, p.o. increased the latency of heat stimulus between 30 and 120 min and inhibited the first (45% and second (60% phases of nociception in the formalin test. The antinociception induced by ME or positive control fentanyl (150 µg/kg, s.c. in hot plate and formalin tests was prevented by naloxone (3 mg/kg, s.c.. When submitted to the carrageenan-induced peritonitis test, ME (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g/kg, p.o. impaired leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity by 46.8, 59.4 and 64.8% respectively, while positive control dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, s.c., inhibited leukocyte migration by 71.1%. These results indicate that the antinociception obtained after oral administration of methanol extract of M. lindleyana involves anti-inflammatory mechanisms accompanied with opioid-like activity which could explain the use of the specie for pain and inflammatory diseases.

  3. Methanol extract of Xanthium strumarium L. possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Tae; Park, Young-Mi; Won, Jong-Heon; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Park, Hee-Juhn; Choi, Jong-Won; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2005-01-01

    As an attempt to identify bioactive natural products with anti-inflammatory activity, we evaluated the effects of the methanol extract of the semen of Xanthium strumarium L. (MEXS) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production in RAW 264.7 cells. Our data indicate that MEXS is a potent inhibitor of NO, PGE2 and TNF-alpha production. Consistent with these findings, the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-alpha mRNA were down-regulated in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, MEXS inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) DNA binding activity and the translocation of NF-kappaB to the nucleus by blocking the degradation of inhibitor of kappa B-alpha (IkappaB-alpha). We further evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of MEXS in vivo. MEXS (100, 200 mg/kg/d, p.o.) reduced acute paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats, and showed analgesic activities in an acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and a hot plate test in mice. Thus, our study suggests that the inhibitions of iNOS, COX-2 expression, and TNF-alpha release by the methanol extract of the semen of Xanthium strumarium L. are achieved by blocking NF-kappaB activation, and that this is also responsible for its anti-inflammatory effects.

  4. Atheromic and lymphoplasmacytic effects of Mangifera indica methanolic leaf extract on the heart of chinchilla rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngokere, Anthony Ajuluchukwu; Ezeofor, Peace Chinelo; Okoye, Jude Ogechukwu; Chukwuanukwu, Rebecca Chinyelu

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of methanol extract of Mangifera indica on serum concentration of creatine kinase, total white blood cell (WBC) count and lymphocyte counts and the micro-anatomical architecture of the heart in chinchilla rabbits in order to find its safe and toxic levels. A total of 24 Chinchilla rabbits aged 10-14 weeks, divided into four experimental groups were orally administered the doses of none, 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg body weight of the methanol extract of M. indica, respectively, for 28 days. The modified International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) method was used to estimate the serum concentration of creatine kinase (CK (-MB)) while the haematology auto-analyser was used to estimate the total WBC count and lymphocyte count. The estimated values were subjected to analysis of variance using the SPSS software application (version 16) and expressed as mean±standard deviation. Tissue sections were stained by phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin and haematoxylin and eosin staining techniques. The result showed significant increases in serum concentrations of CK (-MB) (12.05±3.11-21.55±9.93 U/L) and total WBC count (5.33±0.66-6.51±0.38 103/μL) when the control group was compared with the treated groups (p0.05). Significant differences were also observed in the body weight of the treated groups (pindica is indicated to have some health benefits at 500 mg/kg and shows toxicity on the micro-architecture of the heart at a concentration of ≥1000 mg/kg.

  5. Antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from three coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. fruit varieties

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    Kamel Msaada

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fruit methanolic extract of three coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. varieties (Tunisian, Syrian and Egyptian was assayed for their antioxidant activities. Obtained results showed that there are significant (P < 0.05 variations in total polyphenols (0.94 ± 0.05–1.09 ± 0.02 mg GAE/g DW, total flavonoids (2.03 ± 0.04–2.51 ± 0.08 mg EC/g DW and total condensed tannin (0.09 ± 0.01–0.17 ± 0.01 mg EC/g DW contents. The RP-HPLC analysis revealed the identification of phenolics in coriander fruits with chlorogenic and gallic acids as main compounds in Tunisian, Syrian and Egyptian varieties, respectively. Moreover, fruit methanolic extracts exhibited remarkable DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 values ranged from 27.00 ± 6.57 to 36.00 ± 3.22 μg/mL. EC50 values of reducing power activity varied significantly (P < 0.05 from 54.20 ± 6.22 to 122.01 ± 13.25 μg/mL. The IC50 values of β-carotene bleaching assay were between 160.00 ± 18.63 and 240.00 ± 26.35 μg/mL. Our results indicated that coriander fruit might constitute a rich and novel source of natural antioxidants and may be suggested as a new potential source of natural antioxidant and could be used as food additive.

  6. The Antibacterial Effect of Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Stachys schtschegleevii (Poulk Leave on Bacteria Causing Urinary Infection

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    Atefe Bayat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The medical herb Poulk is used for the treatment of infectious diseases in urinary tract, vagina, respiratory tract, rheumatism, ear infections, and other inflammatory conditions. In this study, the antibacterial effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Poulk on bacterial infection of urine, was investigated. Methods: In this experimental study, techniques for determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of bacterial growth, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC, and disk diffusion were used to investigate the antibacterial effects of Poulk on the mentioned bacteria. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan’s tests. Significance level was considered p<0.05. Results: In this study, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes bacteria showed sensitivity to aqueous and methanolic extracts of Poulk in different concentrations. Proteus mirabilis bacteria with an inhibition zone diameter of (2.00±0.2 mm was the most resistant and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria with an inhibition zone diameter of (20.50±0.2mm was the most sensitive bacteria to the extract effect. The effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts on staphylococcus aureus was the same. Hydro-methanolic extracts showed MIC and MBC, but aqueous extracts had no bactericidal effect on the bacteria. Conclusion: The findings of this research indicate that aqueous and methanolic extracts of poulk have strong antibacterial effects                on Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus (bacteria causing urinary infections, but no effect on Proteus mirabilis.

  7. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanol stem bark extract of Prosopis africana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanwuyi, Lydia O; Yaro, Abdullahi H; Abodunde, Olajumoke M

    2010-03-01

    Prosopis africana (Guill. & Perr.) Taub. (Mimosoideae) is a shrub used for menstrual and general body pain in Nupe land in north central Nigeria. In this study, the methanol extract of the stem bark of Prosopis africana (at doses of 62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities using acetic acid-induced writhing assay and carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats. The extract significantly (P acetic acid-induced writhing with the highest activity observed at the highest dose, 250 mg/kg (76.89%) comparable to that of piroxicam (83.16%) the standard agent used. In the carrageenan-induced inflammation assay, the extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity (P screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, tannins, and alkaloids. The oral median lethal dose was found to be 3807.9 mg/kg in mice and > 5000 mg/kg in rats. This study supports the folkloric claim of the use of Prosopis africana in the management of pain.

  8. Antiproliferative mechanism of the methanolic extract of Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowemimo, Abimbola; Venables, Luanne; Odedeji, Modeola; Koekemoer, Trevor; van de Venter, Maryna; Hongbing, Liu

    2015-01-15

    Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb. is a tropical tree that has folkloric implications against many ailments and diseases including cancer. To explore the ethnopharmacological claims against cancer, the cytotoxicity of the methanolic extract of the leaves, was investigated using the brine shrimp lethality assay, MTT assay using cervical (HeLa) and breast (MCF7) cancer cell lines, cell cycle analysis and Annexin V-FITC/PI assay. In the brine shrimp lethality assay, the extract showed cytotoxic activity with LC50 value of 31.63 µg/mL. Significant growth inhibition was observed in both cell lines with IC50 values of 2.07 ± 1.30 µg/mL and 11.84 ± 1.18 µg/mL for HeLa and MCF7, respectively. Cell cycle analysis indicated that HeLa cells were arrested in the G2/M phase while MCF7 cells arrested in the G1/G0 phase. The Annexin V-FITC/PI assay revealed phosphatidylserine translocation in both cell lines and thus apoptosis induction upon treatment with the extract. The study demonstrated the potential antiproliferative activity of Enterolobium cyclocarpum thereby supporting the traditional claim and provides basis for further mechanistic studies and isolation of active constituents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using methanolic root extracts of Diospyros paniculata and their antimicrobial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, N.Hanumanta; Lakshmidevi, N.; Pammi, S.V.N.; Kollu, Pratap; Ganapaty, S.; Lakshmi, P.

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery and subsequent widespread use of antibiotics, a variety of bacterial species of human and animal origin have developed numerous mechanisms that render bacteria resistant to some, and in certain cases to nearly all antibiotics, thereby limiting the treatment options and compromising effective therapy. In the present study, the green synthesis of nanoparticles is carried out by the reduction of silver acetate in the presence of crude methanolic root extracts of Diospyros paniculata, a member of family Ebenaceae. The UV–Vis absorption spectrum of the biologically reduced reaction mixture showed the surface plasmon peak at 428 nm, a characteristic peak of silver nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the face-centered cubic crystalline structure of metallic silver. The average diameter of Ag NPs is about 17 nm from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) which is in good agreement with the average crystallite size (19 nm) calculated from XRD analysis. Further the study has been extended to the antimicrobial activity against test pathogenic Gram (+), Gram (−) bacterial and fungal strains. The biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed promising activity against all the tested pathogenic strains and the activity has been enhanced with the increased dose levels. - Highlights: • Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using root extracts of Diospyros paniculata. • Average diameter of Ag NPs is about 17 nm from TEM analysis which is in good agreement with XRD analysis. • Antimicrobial activities of root extract mediated synthesis of silver Ag NPs were discussed in detail.

  10. Antinociceptive Activity of Methanol Extract of Muntingia calabura Leaves and the Mechanisms of Action Involved

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    M. H. Mohd. Sani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Muntingia calabura L. (family Elaeocarpaceae has been traditionally used to relieve various pain-related ailments. The present study aimed to determine the antinociceptive activity of methanol extract of M. calabura leaves (MEMC and to elucidate the possible mechanism of antinociception involved. The in vivo chemicals (acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-, capsaicin-, glutamate-, serotonin-induced paw licking test and thermal (hot plate test models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. The extract (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg was administered orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. The results obtained demonstrated that MEMC produced significant (P<0.05 antinociceptive response in all the chemical- and thermal-induced nociception models, which was reversed after pretreatment with 5 mg/kg naloxone, a non-selective opioid antagonist. Furthermore, pretreatment with L-arginine (a nitric oxide (NO donor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME; an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS, methylene blue (MB; an inhibitor of cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP pathway, or their combination also caused significant (P<0.05 change in the intensity of the MEMC antinociception. In conclusion, the MEMC antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms, and modulation via, partly, the opioid receptors and NO/cGMP pathway.

  11. CUPRAC assay-guided profiling of antioxidant compounds in methanol extract of Lentinus squarrosulus Mont. mycelium

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    Sumaiyah ABDULLAH

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC-guided purification approach was performed on a methanol extract of Lentinus squarrosulus (LsqMeOH by using reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography. Using reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography, three fractions were separated arbitrarily named FR1, FR2 and FR3. Results showed that FR2 exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in CUPRAC assay (A450, 0.86 but not significantly different from LsqMeOH (A450, 0.84. FR1 and FR3 showed much lower absorbance, with values (A450, 0.21 and (A450, 0.36 respectively at 1 mg ml-1. The most active fraction (F3 was further subjected to LC-MS/MS to obtain its detailed chemical profile. Uridine, ganoderic acid derivative, and flavonoids were the first time being found in L. squarrosulus antioxidative fractions. The present results indicate that the fraction extracts of L. squarrosulus possess antioxidant properties and can be used as free radical inhibitors. Therefore, this research suggested the potentials of L. squarrosulus as a source of antioxidant extract to be used in food industries (functional food.

  12. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using methanolic root extracts of Diospyros paniculata and their antimicrobial activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, N.Hanumanta [Advanced Analytical Laboratory, DST-PURSE Programme, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India); Lakshmidevi, N. [Department of Microbiology, College of Science and Technology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India); Pammi, S.V.N. [Advanced Analytical Laboratory, DST-PURSE Programme, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daeduk Science Town, 305-764, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kollu, Pratap [DST-INSPIRE Faculty, Department of Metallurgical Engineering & Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Ganapaty, S. [GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam (India); Lakshmi, P., E-mail: lmkandregula@gmail.com [Department of Microbiology, College of Science and Technology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India)

    2016-05-01

    Since the discovery and subsequent widespread use of antibiotics, a variety of bacterial species of human and animal origin have developed numerous mechanisms that render bacteria resistant to some, and in certain cases to nearly all antibiotics, thereby limiting the treatment options and compromising effective therapy. In the present study, the green synthesis of nanoparticles is carried out by the reduction of silver acetate in the presence of crude methanolic root extracts of Diospyros paniculata, a member of family Ebenaceae. The UV–Vis absorption spectrum of the biologically reduced reaction mixture showed the surface plasmon peak at 428 nm, a characteristic peak of silver nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the face-centered cubic crystalline structure of metallic silver. The average diameter of Ag NPs is about 17 nm from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) which is in good agreement with the average crystallite size (19 nm) calculated from XRD analysis. Further the study has been extended to the antimicrobial activity against test pathogenic Gram (+), Gram (−) bacterial and fungal strains. The biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed promising activity against all the tested pathogenic strains and the activity has been enhanced with the increased dose levels. - Highlights: • Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using root extracts of Diospyros paniculata. • Average diameter of Ag NPs is about 17 nm from TEM analysis which is in good agreement with XRD analysis. • Antimicrobial activities of root extract mediated synthesis of silver Ag NPs were discussed in detail.

  13. Neuroprotection by methanol extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla against global cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Kyoungho; Kim, Sun Yeou; Leem, Kanghyun; Kim, Young Ock; Park, Sun Young; Hur, Jinyoung; Baek, Jihwoon; Lee, Kang Jin; Zheng, Hu Zhan; Kim, Hocheol

    2002-04-21

    In traditional Oriental medicine, Uncaria rhynchophylla has been used to lower blood pressure and to relieve various neurological symptoms. However, scientific evidence related to its effectiveness or precise modes of action has not been available. Thus, in the current study, we evaluated neuroprotective effects of U. rhynchophylla after transient global ischemia using 4-vessel occlusion model in rats. Methanol extract of U. rhynchophylla administered intraperitoneally (100-1000 mg/kg at 0 and 90 min after reperfusion) significantly protected hippocampal CA1 neurons against 10 min transient forebrain ischemia. Measurement of neuronal cell density in CA1 region at 7 days after ischemia by Nissl staining revealed more than 70% protection in U. rhynchophylla-treated rats compared to saline-treated animals. In U. rhynchophylla-treated animals, induction of cyclooxygenase-2 in hippocampus at 24 hr after ischemia was significantly inhibited at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, U. rhynchophylla extract inhibited TNF-alpha and nitric oxide production in BV-2 mouse microglial cells in vitro. These anti-inflammatory actions of U. rhynchophylla extract may contribute to its neuroprotective effects.

  14. Methanol leaves extract Hibiscus micranthus Linn exhibited antibacterial and wound healing activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begashaw, Berhan; Mishra, Bharat; Tsegaw, Asegedech; Shewamene, Zewdneh

    2017-06-26

    Infectious diseases are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Wound and wound infections are also major health problem. Nowadays, medicinal plants play a major role in treatment of infectious diseases and wound healing and they are easily available and more affordable as compared to synthetic compounds. The aim of this study is therefore, to investigate the antibacterial and wound healing activities of 80% methanol extract of Hibiscus micranthus leaves using disc diffusion methods and rat excision model respectively. In vitro antibacterial screening was carried out against S. aureus, S.pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis bacterial strains using disc-well diffusion assay. Would healing activity was done in rats divided into four groups each consisting of six animals. Group I was served as a negative control (ointment base), Group II served as a positive control Nitrofurazone (NFZ 0.2% ointment), Groups III and IV was treated 5 and 10% extracts respectively. The acute oral toxicity test and skin sensitivity test were also performed before conducting the actual study. The extract was analyzed for secondary metabolites using standard methods. Preliminary phytochemical screening have revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, phenols, diterpines, anthraquinones and the absence of glycosides, terpinoides and triterpines. Based on acute oral toxicity test the extract was found to be safe up to a dose of 2 g/kg. In addition, acute dermal toxicity test indicated no sign of skin irritation. The leaves extract exhibited varying degrees of sensitivity with zones of inhibition ranging from 14.00 ± 0.333 (S.pyogenes) to 22.67 ± 1.202 mm (S.aureus). It was found that S. aureus and S. pneumonia (p < 0.05) were the most sensitive to the extracts of the leaves at concentrations of 800 μg/ml and 400 μg/ml respectively followed by P. aeuruginosa [(18.33

  15. Hypoglycemic Effect of Aqueous and Methanolic Extract of Artemisia afra on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice

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    Idris Ahmed Issa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is metabolic syndrome that causes disability, early death, and many other complications. Currently insulin and many synthetic drugs are used in diabetes treatment. However, these pharmaceutical drugs are too expensive particularly for sub-Saharan population in addition to their undesirable side effects. The present study was aimed to evaluate antidiabetic effect and toxicity level of Artemisia afra which was collected from its natural habitat in Bale Zone, around Goba town, 455 km southeast of Addis Ababa. Air dried aerial parts of Artemisia afra were separately extracted with both distilled water and 95% methanol. Oral acute toxicity test was conducted on healthy Swiss albino mice. Antidiabetic effect of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Artemisia afra was separately evaluated on alloxan induced diabetic mice at doses of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/Kg body weight orally. The results indicate that mean lethal dose (LD50 for aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was 9833.4 mg/Kg. Blood glucose level was significantly decreased by 24% (p<0.005 and 56.9% (p<0.0004 in groups that received aqueous extract of Artemisia afra at dose of 500 mg/Kg and 750 mg/Kg, respectively. The methanolic extract of Artemisia afra also significantly lowered blood glucose by 49.8% (p<0.0001 at doses of 1000 mg/kg on the 5th hr. Aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was regarded as nontoxic and safe since its LD50 was found above 5000 mg/Kg. Aqueous extract showed higher effect at relatively lower dose as compared to methanolic extract. The aqueous extract was screened positive for phytochemicals like flavonoids, polyphenols, and tannins that were reported to have antioxidant activity.

  16. Effect of methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum leaves on neointimal foam cell infiltration in rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Adel A.; Zakaria, Zaiton; Othman, Faizah; Das, Srijit; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Raj, Santhana; Nordin, Nor-Anita MM

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown the beneficial effects of aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum (P.s) on atherosclerosis. The first stage in atherosclerosis is the formation of foam cell. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the methanol extract of P.s on fatty streaks by calculating neointimal foam cell infiltration in rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet. Thirty six male New Zealand white rabbits were divided equally into six groups: (i) C: control group fed normal rabbit chow; (ii) CH: cholesterol diet (1 % cholesterol); (iii) PM1: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (62.5 mg/kg); (iv) PM2: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (125 mg/kg); (v) PM3: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (250 mg/kg); (vi) SMV group fed 1 % cholesterol supplemented with Simvistatin drug (1.2 mg/kg). All animals were treated for 10 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the rabbits were fasted and sacrificed and the aortic tissues were collected for histological studies to measure the area of the neointimal foam cell infiltration using software. The thickening of intima ratio of atherosclerosis and morphological changes by scanning electron microscope were measured. The results showed that the atherosclerotic group had significantly bigger area of fatty streak compared to the control group. The area of fatty streak in the abdominal aorta was significantly reduced in the treatment groups which were similar with the SMV group. Similarly, there was a reduction in the number of foam cell in the treatment groups compared to the atherosclerotic group as seen under scanning microscope. In conclusion, histological study demonstrated that the methanol extract of the P.s could reduce the neointimal foam cell infiltration in the lumen of the aorta and the atherosclerotic lesion. PMID:27366140

  17. Methanol extract of Nigella sativa seed induces changes in the levels of neurotransmitter amino acids in male rat brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Tarek; Carretero, María Emilia; Arce, Carmen; Gómez-Serranillos, María Pilar

    2017-12-01

    Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae) (NS) has been used for medicinal and culinary purposes. Different parts of the plant are used to treat many disorders. This study investigates the effects of NS methanol extract on brain neurotransmitter amino acid levels. We measured the changes in aspartate, glutamate, glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid in five brain regions of male Wistar rats after methanol extract treatment. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with saline solution (controls) or NS methanol extract (equivalent of 2.5 g/kg body weight) and sacrificed 1 h later or after administering 1 daily dose for 8 days. The neurotransmitters were measured in the hypothalamus, cortex, striatum, hippocampus and thalamus by HPLC. Results showed significant changes in amino acids compared to basal values. Glutamate increased significantly (16-36%) in the regions analyzed except the striatum. Aspartate in the hypothalamus (50 and 76%) and glycine in hippocampus (32 and 25%), thalamus (66 and 29%) and striatum (75 and 48%) also increased with the two treatment intervals. γ-Aminobutyric acid significantly increased in the hippocampus (38 and 32%) and thalamus (22 and 40%) but decreased in the cortex and hypothalamus although in striatum only after eight days of treatment (24%). Our results suggest that injected methanol extract modifies amino acid levels in the rat brain regions. These results could be of interest since some neurodegenerative diseases are related to amino acid level imbalances in the central nervous system, suggesting the prospect for therapeutic use of NS against these disorders.

  18. Toxicity and Safety Profiles of Methanolic Extract of Pistacia integerrima J. L. Stewart ex Brandis (PI for Wistar Rats

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    Gotmi Sharwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The goals of this research were to evaluate acute (single-dose and sub-acute (repeated-dose toxicity profiles of methanolic extract of Pistacia integerrima J. L. Stewart ex Brandis (PI for Wistar rats and to assess the safety profile of PI by observing physiological changes, mortality, changes in body weight

  19. Antifungal activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of some seaweeds against common soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Abid, M.; Hussain, F.

    2017-01-01

    Total 32 species of different seaweeds belonging to Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta were collected from the coast of Karachi, Pakistan to investigate their antifungal activity. Most of the seaweeds inhibited growth of Fusarium oxypsorum, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani. The highest antifungal activities were observed in Sargasssum tenerrimum in both aqueous and methanolic extracts as compared to other seaweeds. (author)

  20. Antibacterial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extract and its fractions of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billah, Muhammad Mutassim; Islam, Rafikul; Khatun, Hajera; Parvin, Shahnaj; Islam, Ekramul; Islam, Sm Anisul; Mia, Akbar Ali

    2013-05-12

    Caesalpinia bonducella is an important medicinal plant for its traditional uses against different types of diseases. Therefore, the present study investigated the antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of the methanol extract and ethyl acetate, chloroform, and petroleum ether (pet. ether) fractions of C. bonducella leaves. The antibacterial potentialities of methanol extract and its fractions of C. bonducella leaves were investigated by the disc diffusion method against four gram-positive and five gram-negative bacteria at 300, 500 and 800 μg/disc. Kanamycin (30 μg/disc) was used as the standard drug. Antidiarrhoeal activities of leaf extracts were evaluated at two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg) and compared with loperamide in a castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model in rat. The fractions were subjected to a brine shrimp lethality test to evaluate their cytotoxicity. The methanol extract and other three fractions exhibited better activities at higher concentrations. Amongst, the chloroform fraction showed maximum activity at all three concentrations (300, 500, and 800 μg/disc) against almost all bacteria. S. aureus and P. aeruginosa showed better sensitivities to all extracts at all three concentrations excluding the pet. ether fraction. Bacillus megaterium and Klebsiella spp. were two bacteria amongst nine that showed lowest sensitivity to the extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition (25-mm) was obtained by the methanol extract at an 800 μg/disc concentration against S. aureus. In the antidiarrhoeal test, all fractions exhibited dose-dependent actions, which were statistically significant (p extract and its three fractions compared with the standard drug vincristine sulfate in the brine shrimp bioassay. In the present study, the LC50 values of the methanol crude extract and ethyl acetate, chloroform, pet. ether fractions and vincristine sulfate were 223.87, 281.84, 112.2, 199.53, and 12.59 μg/mL, respectively. Therefore, the ethyl acetate fraction

  1. Efficacy of different methanolic plant extracts on anti-methanogenesis, rumen fermentation and gas production kinetics in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    P. Pandey; N. Goel; S.K. Sirohi

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of methanolic extracts of three plants, mehandi (Lawsonia inermis), jaiphal (Myristica fragrans) and green chili (Capsicum annuum) on methanogenesis, rumen fermentation and fermentation kinetic parameters by in vitro gas production techniques. Single dose of each plant extract (1 ml / 30 ml buffered rumen fluid) and two sorghum fodder containing diets (high and low fiber diets) were used for evaluating the effect on methanogenesis and r...

  2. In-vitro Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activities and Anti-Genotoxic Effects of Hypericum retusum Aucher Flowers, Fruits and Seeds Methanol Extracts in Human Mononuclear Leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Cumali; Aktepe, Necmettin; Yükselten, Yunus; Sunguroglu, Asuman; Boğa, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the antioxidant, anticancer, anticholinesterase, anti-genotoxic activities and phenolic contents of flower, fruit and seed methanol extracts of Hypericum retusum AUCHER. The amounts of protocatechuic acid, catechin, caffeic acid and syringic acid in methanol extracts were determined by HPLC. Total phenolic content of H. retusum seed extract was found more than fruit and flower extracts. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity of flower and seed methanol extracts showed close activity versus BHT as control. Among three extracts of H. retusum only flower methanol extract was exhibited considerable cytotoxic activities against to HeLa and NRK-52E cell lines. Moreover, seed methanol extract showed both acetyl and butyrl-cholinesterase inhibitory activity. The highest anti-genotoxic effects were seen 25 and 50 μg/mL concentrations. In this study, the extracts showed a strong antioxidant and anti-genotoxic effect. The seed extract was more efficient- than extracts of fruit and flowers. Our results suggest that the antioxidant and anti-genotoxic effects of extracts depend on their phenolic contents. Further studies should evaluate the in-vitro and in-vivo the benefits of H. retusum seed methanol extracts.

  3. IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC EFFECT OF METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF Gliricidia sepium AGAINST GASTROINTESTINALE NEMATODES OF SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mateo Hernandez-Villegas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of local resources for food and health care of animals is a highly profitable and sustainable strategy. Among these resources are native trees and shrubs which in addition to providing good quality nutrients, produce secondary metabolites with anthelmintic (AH effect. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro AH effect of Gliricidia sepium leaves methanol extract (GSME, through the egg hatch inhibition assay (EHA. Three concentrations of the extracts were tested: 125, 250 and 500 μg/mL.  Also a negative control (distilled water and a positive control (levamisole 2 mg/mL were included. The GSME showed significant differences P<0.05 when compared with the positive control. The GSME also showed a dose-dependent response in inhibition of eggs hatching. Effectiveness percentages found were: 27.7%, 46.2%, 49.7% of inhibition at 125, 250, and 500 μg/mL respectively. The average dose (ED50 obtained through probit analysis was 394.96 μg/mL. These results suggest that the ME of leaves of G. sepium has anthelmintic activity against eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes.

  4. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity from non-toxic Mexican Jatropha curcas L. shell methanolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea-Domínguez, Xiomara Patricia; Espinosa-Alonso, Laura Gabriela; Hosseinian, Farah; HadiNezhad, Mehri; Valdez-Morales, Maribel; Medina-Godoy, Sergio

    2017-03-01

    Jatropha curcas seed shells are the by-product obtained during oil extraction process. Recently, its chemical composition has gained attention since its potential applications. The aim of this study was to identify phenolic compounds profile from a non-toxic J. curcas shell from Mexico, besides, evaluate J. curcas shell methanolic extract (JcSME) antioxidant activity. Free, conjugate and bound phenolics were fractionated and quantified (606.7, 193.32 and 909.59 μg/g shell, respectively) and 13 individual phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC. The radical-scavenging activity of JcSME was similar to Trolox and ascorbic acid by DPPH assay while by ABTS assay it was similar to BHT. Effective antioxidant capacity by ORAC was found (426.44 ± 53.39 μmol Trolox equivalents/g shell). The Mexican non-toxic J. curcas shell is rich in phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity; hence, it could be considerate as a good source of natural antioxidants.

  5. Effect of Brown Algae Cystoseira trinodis Methanolic Extract on Renal Tissue

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    Rouhollah Gazor, Ardalan Pasdaran Lashgari, Shabnam Almasi, Saeed Ghasemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: C.trinodisis brown algae of Oman Sea coast is used traditionally as a diuretic in Chabahar, Sistan and Baluchestan province of Iran. But no researches have been conducted on the distractive effects of this alga on the renal tissues until now. Methods: Forty-two adult male mice were divided into 6 groups. Control group received normal saline (E0, group (E1 treated with 5mg/kg methanolic extract (ME and group (E2 to (E5 received 10, 15, 25 and 50 mg/kg of ME of alga respectively. All animals in 6 groups were treated for 2 weeks (once every other day. Finally, histopathological evaluations were made especially by morphology and photometric method. Results: ME of C.trinodis induced histological damage in kidney. Administration of ME in all experimental groups induced severe glomerular congestion, hyaline cast and severe interstitial inflammatory centers in treated groups. All distractive parameter in test groups increased with increasing dose of extract (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results showed that ME of the C.trinodis has a nephrotoxic effect on the renal tissues.

  6. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of Morus alba Linn. (mulberry) leaves.

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    Bharani, Shendige Eswara Rao; Asad, Mohammed; Dhamanigi, Sunil Samson; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Morus alba Linn. (Family: Moraceae) commonly known as mulberry are mainly used as food for the silkworms and they are sometimes eaten as vegetable or used as cattle fodder in different parts of the world. The effect of Morus alba on the immune system was evaluated by using different experimental models such as carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia, neutrophil adhesion test, effect on serum immunoglobulins, mice lethality test and indirect haemagglutination test. Methanolic extract of Morus alba was administered orally at low dose and high dose of 100 mg/kg and 1 g/kg respectively and Ocimum sanctum (100 mg/kg, po) was used as standard drug. Morus alba extract in both doses increased the levels of serum immunoglobulins and prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. It also increased the circulating antibody titre in indirect haemagglutination test. On the other hand, it showed significant increase in the phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay, a significant protection against cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and increased the adhesion of neutrophils in the neutrophil adhesion test. Hence, it was concluded that Morus alba increases both humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity.

  7. CNS Depressant and Antiepileptic Activities of the Methanol Extract of the Leaves of Ipomoea Aquatica Forsk

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    Dhanasekaran Sivaraman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS depressant and antiepileptic activities of the methanol extract of the leaves of Ipomoea aquatica Forsk (IAF were investigated on various animal models including pentobarbitone sleeping time and hole-board exploratory behavior for sedation tests and strychnine, picrotoxin and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in mice. IAF (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o., like chlorpromazine HCl (1 mg/kg, i.m., produced a dose-dependent prolongation of pentobarbitone sleeping time and suppression of exploratory behavior. IAF (200 and 400 mg/kg produced dose-dependent and significant increases in onset to clonic and tonic convulsions and at 400 mg/kg, showed complete protection against seizures induced by strychnine and picrotoxin but not with pentylenetetrazole. Acute oral toxicity test, up to 14 days, did not produce any visible signs of toxicity. These results suggest that potentially antiepileptic compounds are present in leaf extract of IAF that deserve the study of their identity and mechanism of action.

  8. Biolarvacidal activity of methanol extract of Kipahit leaves (Tithonia diversifolia against larvae of Chrysomya bezziana fly

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    Wardhana AH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis or “belatungan” is the infestation of live human and vertebrate animal tissue with dipterous larvae, Chrysomya bezziana. In general, synthetic insecticides were applied to control the disease. However, it causes negative impact on animal product, so that it is required to find an alternative treatment using herbal medicine. The aim of this study was to access activity of methanol extract of Kipahit leaves (Tithonia diversifolia against various stages of C. bezziana larvae (L1, L2 and L3. Five treatments were applied with five replications, i.e. control/water (P0, 0,5%, 1%, 2% of the extract for PI, PII and PIII, respectively. Another treatment was 0,05% Asuntol for positive control (PIV. Each treatment was added with1% DMSO and twenty larvae were examined for each replication. Bioassay of L1 and L2 was addressed to investigate effect of intestinal toxicity by mixing the extract with Meat-Blood Mixture (MBM and Larval Rearing Media (LRM for L1 and L2, respectively. Bioassay of L3 was to investigate effect of contact toxicity through soaking the larvae into the extract solution for 10 seconds followed by incubating in vermiculite at 36oC. All living larvae after being treated by various concentration of the extract were reared to pupae and allowed to emerge as imago. Number of living larvae and pupae, pupae weight and number of imago were observed. All data were analysed using ANOVA followed by Dunnett test at 95% confidential limit. For L2, larval mortality were counted and probit analysed using POLO-PC software, therefore the lethal concentration (LC50 and LC95 and lethal time (LT50 and LT95 were defined. Results demonstrated that 1% of the extract was the most effective concentration which was able to kill the larvae and decrease the pupae weight. It also caused to fail pupation and imago emergence. The further study might be pursued to investigate in vivo assay of the extract in infested livestock.

  9. The effect of the operation conditions and the extraction techniques on the yield, kinetics and composition of methanol extracts of Hieracium pilosella L.

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    Stanojević Ljiljana P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal operational extraction conditions were determined by investigating the influence of the methanol concentration, solvomodule and temperature of the maceration extraction on the yield and kinetics of total extractive matter, chlorogenic acid, umbelliferone and apigenin-7-O-glucoside from Hieracium pilosella L. Based on the results of Soxhlet and Tillepape extraction kinetics investigations of the total extractive matter and the components under the optimal maceration operation conditions it was found that the highest yields of the extractive matter and investigated bioactive components extracted from the dry plant material were obtained by using the Soxhlet extraction method. The contents of chlorogenic acid, umbelliferone and apigenin-7-O-glucoside in the extracts were determined by HPLC method. Chlorogenic acid is the component with the highest share in all the extracts.

  10. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Galls of Quercus infectoria (Olivier in Rats

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    Sook-Ha Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the analgesic activity of the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria in rats using hot plate and tail-flick methods. The extract was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg while morphine sulfate and sodium salicylate (10 mg/kg served as standards. The methanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity in the tail-flick model (P<0.05 by increasing the reaction time of the rats to 8.0 sec at 30 min after treatment in comparison to control (4.4 sec. Morphine sulfate produced a reaction time of 11.9 sec in the same test. At the peak of activity (30 min, the extract produced maximum possible analgesia (MPA of 34.2%, whilst morphine sulfate achieved a peak MPA of 70.9%. No analgesic effects have been observed using sodium salicylate in the tail-flick model. In the same model, the extract and sodium salicylate demonstrated comparable reaction times. Tail-flick is a better method to evaluate analgesic activity as no significant results were observed for all treatments using hot plate with the exception of morphine sulfate, which showed significant results only at 45 and 60 min after treatment. In conclusion, the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria displayed analgesic activity.

  11. Traditional Preparations and Methanol Extracts of Medicinal Plants from Papua New Guinea Exhibit Similar Cytochrome P450 Inhibition

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    Erica C. Larson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis underlying this current work is that fresh juice expressed from Papua New Guinea (PNG medicinal plants (succus will inhibit human Cytochrome P450s (CYPs. The CYP inhibitory activity identified in fresh material was compared with inhibition in methanol extracts of dried material. Succus is the most common method of traditional medicine (TM preparation for consumption in PNG. There is increasing concern that TMs might antagonize or complicate drug therapy. We have previously shown that methanol extracts of commonly consumed PNG medicinal plants are able to induce and/or inhibit human CYPs in vitro. In this current work plant succus was prepared from fresh plant leaves. Inhibition of three major CYPs was determined using human liver microsomes and enzyme-selective model substrates. Of 15 species tested, succus from 6/15 was found to inhibit CYP1A2, 7/15 inhibited CYP3A4, and 4/15 inhibited CYP2D6. Chi-squared tests determined differences in inhibitory activity between succus and methanol preparations. Over 80% agreement was found. Thus, fresh juice from PNG medicinal plants does exhibit the potential to complicate drug therapy in at risk populations. Further, the general reproducibility of these findings suggests that methanol extraction of dried material is a reasonable surrogate preparation method for fresh plant samples.

  12. Investigations of Antibacterial Activity of Methanol and Aqueous Ex-tracts of the Body Wall of Sea Cucumber Holothuria leucospilota on some Human Pathogenic Bacteria

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    M. Nazemi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Holothuria leucospilota, sea cucumber, is a species of the Phylum Echinodermata. Sea cucumbers have the most natural products with biological activity. In this study we investigated the antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanol extract of H. leucospilota used against gram positive and gram negative human pathogenic bacteria. Materials & Methods: 9 Samples of H. leucospilota were harvested from the Hengam Island,. The methanol extract was prepared from the powder of sea cucumber. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by broth dilution methods against clinical Gram-negative bacteria to identify MIC and MBC. Results: Aqueous extract of H. leucospilota was inactive on the bacteria. Methanol extract was active on Gram-negetive bacteria; E. coli, Salmonella typhi and Serratia marcescens. But it killed only Salmonella typhi and Serratia marcescens. The MBC of H. leucospilota methanol extract was 10 mg/ml. Methanol extract was active on all Gram-positive bacteria; B. pumilus, B. cereus and S. aureus but it killed only S. aureus. The MBC of H. leucospilota methanol extract was 40 mg/ml. Conclusion: Based on our results, H. leucospilota methanol extract. can be considered as a source of novel antibiotic. Contrary to many marine organisms, sea cucumbers are active against gram-negative bacteria. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (1:75-82

  13. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of methanolic extract from red seaweed Dichotomaria obtusata

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    Neivys García Delgado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of methanolic extract from D. obtusata using classic models in mice (croton oil-induced ear edema and acetic acid-induced writhing and a phospholipase A2 activity test. Qualitative analysis of the chemical composition of seaweed was also determined by extraction with solvents of increasing polarity and precipitation and color tests. Results of qualitative chemical study showed the presence of lactonic and phenolic compounds, reduced carbohydrates, other sugars, flavonoids, fatty compounds, triterpenes and steroids. The extract inhibited mouse ear edema in a dose-dependent manner with an efficacy higher than 90% and a mean effective dose of 4.87µg/ear, while intraperitoneal administration presented a moderate activity. The extract did not inhibit phospholipase A2 activity. In the writhing test, the intraperitoneal administration of the extract showed a strong antinociceptive activity (80.2%, while the oral route showed a lower efficacy. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of methanol extract of D. obtusata in experimental models, suggesting its therapeutic potential in the treatment of peripheral painful and/or inflammatory pathologies.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar os efeitos antiinflamatórios e antinociceptivos de um extrato metanólico de D. obtusata, utilizando modelos clássicos em ratos (teste do edema de orelha induzido por óleo de cróton e teste de contorções induzidas por ácido acético e um teste de atividade de fosfolipase A2. A análise qualitativa da composição química das algas foi também determinada através de extração com solventes de polaridade crescente e testes de precipitação e cor. Os resultados do estudo de química qualitativa mostraram a presença de compostos lactônicos e fenólicos, hidratos de carbono reduzidos e outros a

  14. ANTI-DIABETIC EFFICACY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF PAWPAW (Carica papaya GROWN IN NORTH CENTRAL NIGERIA.

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    Ayorinde Victor Ogundele

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Carica papaya leaves samples (Green were freshly harvested from Islamic village in Ilorin, Ilorin west local Government, Kwara State Nigeria. The leaves were extracted with methanol; the resulting extracts were screened for the phytochemical constituents using standard procedure. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of bioactive compounds such as tannins, saponins, terpenoids, glycosides and alkaloids. The in-vitro anti-diabetic potential of the plant was also determined so as to justify the traditional usage of the plant in treating diabetes. The result of the present study confirmed that the methanolic extract of C.papaya leaves possess significant anti-diabetic activity in-vitro, this shows that the leaves has the potential for the development of drugs in combating diabetes.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Salehzadeh, Ali; Asadpour, Leila; Naeemi, Akram Sadat; Houshmand, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Increase in the emergence of drug -resistant pathogens led to the development of natural antimicrobials. In this study the antimicrobial effect of methanolic extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica on 16 skin and wound infections isolates of methicillin resistant S. aureus have been studied. Solvent extraction procedure was done using soxhlet apparatus for extracting antimicrobial agents from freeze dried plants. Antibacterial activity was measured using agar well diffusion method. The MIC of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica extracts against the standard strain of S. aureus ATCC 6538 were determined using the micro dilution method at 15 mg and 20 mg respectively. All the test bacteria were found sensitive to the Sambucus ebulus extract and only one isolate was resistant to Urtica dioica extract. Extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica possess antibacterial potency against MRSA isolates and may be used as a natural antiseptics and antimicrobial agents in medicine.

  16. Anti-inflammatory, Antinociceptive, and Antioxidant Activities of Methanol and Aqueous Extracts of Anacyclus pyrethrum Roots

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    Houria Manouze

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Anacyclus pyrethrum (L. is a plant widely used in Moroccan traditional medicine to treat inflammatory and painful diseases. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of Anacyclus pyrethrum roots (AEAPR and MEAPR. The anti-inflammatory effect of AEAPR and MEAPR was determined in xylene–induced ear edema and Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA-induced paw edema. The antinociceptive activity of AEAPR and MEAPR (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg administered by gavage was examined in mice by using acetic acid-induced writhing, hot plate, and formalin tests, and the mechanical allodynia were assessed in CFA-induced paw edema. In addition, the in vitro antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging method, ferric reducing power and β-carotene-linoleic acid assay systems. AEAPR and MEAPR produced significant reductions in CFA-induced paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema. A single oral administration of these extracts at 250 and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced mechanical hypersensitivity induced by CFA, which had begun 1 h 30 after the treatment, and was maintained till 7 h. Chronic treatment with both extracts significantly reduced mechanical hypersensitivity in persistent pain conditions induced by CFA. Acute pretreatment with AEAPR or MEAPR at high dose caused a significant decrease in the number of abdominal writhes induced by acetic acid injection (52.2 and 56.7%, respectively, a marked increase of the paw withdrawal latency in the hot plate test, and also a significant inhibition of both phases of the formalin test. This antinociceptive effect was partially reversed by naloxone pretreatment in the hot plate and formalin tests. Additionally, a significant scavenging activity in DPPH, reducing power and protection capacity of β-carotene was observed in testing antioxidant assays

  17. The dual effects of polar methanolic extract of Hypericum perforatum L. in bladder cancer cells

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    Nseyo, U. O.; Nseyo, O. U.; Shiverick, K. T.; Medrano, T.; Mejia, M.; Stavropoulos, N.; Tsimaris, I.; Skalkos, D.

    2007-02-01

    Introduction and background: We have reported on the polar methanolic fraction (PMF) of Hypericum Perforatum L as a novel photosensitizing agent for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photodynamic diagnosis (PDD). PMF has been tested in human leukemic cells, HL-60 cells, cord blood hemopoietic progenitor cells, bladder cancers derived from metastatic lymph node (T-24) and primary papillary bladder lesion (RT-4). However, the mechanisms of the effects of PMF on these human cell lines have not been elucidated. We have investigated mechanisms of PMF + light versus PMF-alone (dark experiment) in T-24 human bladder cancer cells. Methods: PMF was prepared from an aerial herb of HPL which was brewed in methanol and extracted with ether and methanol. Stock solutions of PMF were made in DSMO and stored in dark conditions. PMF contains 0.57% hypericin and 2.52% hyperforin. The T24 cell line was obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). In PDT treatment, PMF (60μg/ml) was incubated with cells, which were excited with laser light (630nm) 24 hours later. Apoptosis was determined by DNA fragmentation/laddering assay. DNA isolation was performed according to the manufacture's instructions with the Kit (Oncogene Kit#AM41). Isolated DNA samples were separated by electrophoresis in 1.5% in agarose gels and bands were visualized by ethidium bromide labeling. The initial cell cycle analysis and phase distribution was by flow cytometry. DNA synthesis was measured by [3H] thymidine incorporation, and cell cycle regulatory proteins were assayed by Western immunoblot. Results: The results of the flow cytometry showed PMF +light induced significant (40%) apoptosis in T24 cells, whereas Light or PMF alone produced little apoptosis. The percentage of cells in G 0/G I phase was decreased by 25% and in G2/M phase by 38%. The main impact was observed on the S phase which was blocked by 78% from the specific photocytotoxic process. DNA laddering analysis showed that PMF (60

  18. Ovicidal effect of the methanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Fasciola hepatica eggs: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Khademolhoseini, Ali Asghar

    2016-09-01

    Fasciolosis is of considerable economic and public health importance worldwide. Little information is available on the ovicidal effects of anthelminthic drugs. The use of ovicidal anthelmintics can be effective in disease control. In this study, the effectiveness of the methanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on the eggs of Fasciola hepatica is investigated. Fasciola hepatica eggs were obtained from the gall bladders of naturally infected sheep and kept at 4 °C until use. The eggs were exposed to varying concentrations of ginger extract (1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 mg/mL) for 24, 48 and 72 h. To investigate the effect of the ginger extracts on the miracidial formation, the treated eggs were incubated at 28 °C for 14 days. The results indicated that F. hepatica eggs are susceptible to the methanolic extract of Z. officinale. The ovicidal effect of ginger extract at a concentration of 1 mg/mL with 24, 48 and 72 h treatment time was 46.08, 51.53 and 69.09 % respectively (compared with 22.70 % for control group). The ovicidal effect of ginger extract at a concentration of 5 mg/mL after 24 h was 98.84 %. One hundred percent ovicidal efficacy was obtained through application of ginger extract at concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/mL with a 48 and 24 h treatment time respectively. The in vitro ovicidal effect of the methanolic extract of Z. officinale was satisfactory in this study, however, in vivo efficacy of this extract, remains for further investigation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the ovicidal effect of Z. officinale against F. hepatica eggs.

  19. In vitro antioxidant evaluation and total phenolics of methanolic leaf extracts of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L.

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    Michael, J Savarimuthu; Kalirajan, A; Padmalatha, C; Singh, A J A Ranjit

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the methanolic leaf extract of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. (NA). The sample was tested using five in vitro antioxidant methods (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine radical scavenging activity (DPPH), hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (-OH), nitric oxide scavenging activity (NO), superoxide radical-scavenging activity, and total antioxidant activity) to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of NA and the total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu method). The extract showed good free radical scavenging property which was calculated as an IC50 value. IC50 (Half maximal inhibitory concentration) of the methanolic extract was found to be 57.93 μg·mL(-1) for DPPH, 98.61 μg·mL(-1) for -OH, 91.74 μg·mL(-1) for NO, and 196.07 μg·mL(-1) for superoxide radical scavenging activity. Total antioxidant capacity of the extract was found to be (1198 ± 24.05) mg ascorbic acid for the methanolic extract. Free radical scavenging activity observed in the extracts of NA showed a concentration-dependent reaction. The in vitro scavenging tested for free radicals was reported to be due to high phenolic content in the leaf extract. The leaf extract of NA showed the highest total phenolic content with a value of 78.48 ± 4.2 equivalent mg TAE/g (tannic acid equivalent). N. arbor-tristis leaf extract exhibited potent free radical scavenging activity. The finding suggests that N. arbor-tristis leaves could be a potential source of natural antioxidant. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Methanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaf possesses anti-ulcer activity.

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    Zakaria, Z A; Abdul Hisam, E E; Norhafizah, M; Rofiee, M S; Othman, F; Hasiah, A H; Vasudevan, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-ulcer activity of a methanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaf (MEBP). MEBP was administered at doses of 100, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg and its effects on acute toxicity, absolute ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration, and pyloric ligation tests in rats were investigated. At a dose of 5,000 mg/kg, MEBP did not cause any signs of toxicity in rats when given orally. Oral administration of MEBP exerted anti-ulcer activity (p < 0.05) in all models tested. However, a dose-dependent protection was observed only in the indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration model. Histological studies supported the observed anti-ulcer activity of MEBP. In the pyloric ligation assay, MEBP significantly increased gastric wall mucus secretion (p < 0.05), but did not affect the acidity of the gastric contents. MEBP exhibited anti-ulcer activity, which could be due to the presence of flavonoids, saponins or other polyphenols, thereby validating the traditional use of B. purpurea in the treatment of ulcers. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Effects of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves on semen and biochemical parameters in cryptorchid rats.

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    Afolabi, Ayobami Oladele; Aderoju, Hameed Adeola; Alagbonsi, Isiaka Abdullateef

    2013-01-01

    While anti-oxidant effects of Moringa oleifera in much oxidative stress related diseases have been well reported, cryptorchidism on the other hand has been shown to cause oxidative stress. However, study is scanty on the likely role of Moringa oleifera in reducing cryptorchidism-induced oxidative stress in rats has not been studied. The present study looked into the effects of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (MEMO) on semen and biochemical parameters in cryptorchid rats. Twenty male albino rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=5 each). Groups A and B were sham-operated and treated with corn-oil and 200 mg/kg of MEMO respectively, while groups C and D were rendered cryptorchid and also treated with corn-oil and 200 mg/kg of MEMO respectively. Cryptorchid rats had lower testicular weight, sperm count, germ cell count, testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration, testicular total protein and higher testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration compared to sham-operated rats. MEMO had no significant effect on testicular weight and MDA concentration, while it significantly increased sperm count, germ cell count, testicular SOD and total protein in the cryptorchid rats. The present study suggests that MEMO ameliorates cryptorchidism associated germ cell loss and oxidative stress.

  2. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methanol Extract of Ficus pumila L. in Mice

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    Chi-Ren Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the methanol extract of Ficus pumila (FPMeOH. Analgesic effects were evaluated in two models including acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking. The results showed FPMeOH decreased writhing response in the acetic acid assay and licking time in the formalin test. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by λ-carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema and histopathological analyses. FPMeOH significantly decreased the volume of paw edema induced by λ-carrageenan. Histopathologically, FPMeOH abated the level of tissue destruction and swelling of the edema paws. This study indicated anti-inflammatory mechanism of FPMeOH may be due to declined levels of NO and MDA in the edema paw through increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in the liver. Additionally, FPMeOH also decreased the level of inflammatory mediators such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2. HPLC fingerprint was established and the contents of three active ingredients, rutin, luteolin, and apigenin, were quantitatively determined. This study provided evidence for the classical treatment of Ficus pumila in inflammatory diseases.

  3. In vivo immunomodulatory effects of the methanolic leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre in Swiss albino mice

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    Ahirwal Laxmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we performed a comparative phytochemical analysis of the immunomodulating activities of the methanol leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre (MLEGS in Swiss albino mice. The phytochemical screening conducted on MLEGS revealed the presence of several phytoconstituents, including saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, tannins, and flavonoids. Immunomodulatory activities were determined by hemagglutination antibody (HA titer and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH tests for determining specific and non-specific immune responses. Flow cytometric techniques were performed for the estimation of B lymphocytes (CD3 and CD19 and Th2 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4. The response produced by oral administration of MLEGS elicited a significant reduction in a dose-related manner in the primary and secondary antibody response and DTH response. The response produced by oral administration of MLEGS elicited significant reduction in a dose-related manner in the primary and secondary antibody and DTH responses, with maximum reduction observed at 200 mg/kg-body wt. The maximal reductions in the production of CD3, CD19, IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 were 31.59, 32.12, 29.51, 32.45 and 33.53%, respectively, at 200 mg/kg body weight. This study demonstrates that G. sylvestre exerts immunosuppressive effects on the components of the immune system of mice, and points to its significant immunomodulatory potential.

  4. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using methanolic root extracts of Diospyros paniculata and their antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N Hanumanta; N, Lakshmidevi; Pammi, S V N; Kollu, Pratap; S, Ganapaty; P, Lakshmi

    2016-05-01

    Since the discovery and subsequent widespread use of antibiotics, a variety of bacterial species of human and animal origin have developed numerous mechanisms that render bacteria resistant to some, and in certain cases to nearly all antibiotics, thereby limiting the treatment options and compromising effective therapy. In the present study, the green synthesis of nanoparticles is carried out by the reduction of silver acetate in the presence of crude methanolic root extracts of Diospyros paniculata, a member of family Ebenaceae. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the biologically reduced reaction mixture showed the surface plasmon peak at 428 nm, a characteristic peak of silver nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the face-centered cubic crystalline structure of metallic silver. The average diameter of Ag NPs is about 17 nm from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) which is in good agreement with the average crystallite size (19 nm) calculated from XRD analysis. Further the study has been extended to the antimicrobial activity against test pathogenic Gram (+), Gram (-) bacterial and fungal strains. The biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed promising activity against all the tested pathogenic strains and the activity has been enhanced with the increased dose levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Phenolic Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Carduus acicularis Bertol. (Asteraceae

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    Iliya Zh. Slavov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic acid and flavonoid profiles of Carduus acicularis were investigated for the first time. Eleven phenolic acids and eight flavonoids were identified and quantified in the inflorescences, by high performance liquid chromatography. The main phenolic compounds were found to be: sinapic acid (930.41 ± 21.72 µg/g dw, chlorogenic acid (582.66 ± 13.60 µg/g dw, rutin (545.65 ± 12.82 µg/g dw, apigenin (478.75 ± 11.38 µg/g dw, luteolin (288.46 ± 6.86 µg/g dw and myricetin (276.32 ± 5.21 µg/g dw. The antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of inflorescences has been investigated, employing four different established testing systems: scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenil-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS radical cation decolorization assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and copper reduction antioxidant assays (FRAP. The highest antioxidant activity values were measured by the ABTS assay, among all performed methods.

  6. Hypoglycemic effect of methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca (Musaceae) green fruits in normal and diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, J A O; Adewunmi, C O

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a debilitating hormonal disorder in which strict glycemic control and prevention of associated complications are of crucial importance. This study was designed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of methanolic extract of mature, green fruits of Musa paradisiaca (MEMP) in normal (normoglycemic) and streptozotocin (STZ)-treated, diabetic (hyperglycemic) mice, using chlorpropamide as the reference antidiabetic agent. MEMP (100-800 mg/kg p.o.) induced significant, dose-related (p < 0.05-0.001) reductions in the blood glucose concentrations of both normal and diabetic mice. Chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p.o.) also produced significant (p < 0.01-0.001) reductions in the blood glucose concentrations of normal and diabetic mice. The results of this experimental study indicate that, in the mammalian model used, MEMP possesses hypoglycemic activity. Although the precise mechanism of the hypoglycemic action of MEMP is still unclear and will have to await further studies, it could be due, at least in part, to stimulation of insulin production and subsequent glucose utilization. Nevertheless, the findings of this experimental animal study indicate that MEMP possesses hypoglycemic activity, and thus lends credence to the suggested folkloric use of the plant in the management and/or control of adult-onset, type-2 diabetic mellitus among the Yoruba-speaking people of South-Western Nigeria.

  7. Methanol Extract of Euchelus asper Prevents Bone Resorption in Ovariectomised Mice Model

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    Babita Balakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine molluscs are widely distributed throughout the world and many bioactive compounds exhibiting antiviral, antitumor, antileukemic, and antibacterial activity have been reported worldwide. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effect of methanol extract of Euchelus asper (EAME on estrogen deficiency induced osteoporosis in ovariectomised mice model. Forty-two female Swiss albino mice were randomly assigned into Sham operated (Sham group and six ovariectomised (OVX subgroups such as OVX with vehicle (OVX; OVX with estradiol (2 mg/kg/day; OVX with EAME of graded doses (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day. Bone turnover markers like serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP, serum acid phosphatase (ACP, serum calcium, and histological investigations of tibia and uterus were analysed. Metaphyseal DNA content of the femur bone was also studied. Antiosteoclastogenic activity of EAME was examined. Administration of EAME was able to reduce the increased bone turnover markers in the ovariectomised mice. Histomorphometric analysis revealed an increase in bone trabeculation and restoration of trabecular separation by EAME treatment. Metaphyseal DNA content of the femur of the OVX mice was increased by EAME administration. EAME also showed a potent antiosteoclastogenic behaviour. Thus, the present study reveals that EAME was able to successfully reduce the estrogen deficiency induced bone loss.

  8. Subchronic Toxicity Study of Standardized Methanolic Extract of Mitragyna Speciosa Korth in Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    Mohd Ulul Ilmie Ahmad Nazri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitragyna speciosa Korth, or better known as ketum, has long been used by traditional folk around Southeast Asia to prevent fatigue from working under hot tropical weather and as a replacement of opium, which can then cause addiction. To date, no findings have been reported of the toxic effect of ketum subchronically (28 days. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of subchronic effect of standardised methanolic extract of ketum (SMEMS in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were orally administered with 100, 200, and 500 mg/kg of SMEMS for 28 days. Body weights were recorded daily. They were terminated at day 28 to obtain data for haematology, biochemistry, and histopathology of the brain, liver, kidney, lung, heart, sciatic nerve, and spinal cord. The SMEMS affected body weight compared to control group. Biochemistry findings showed that liver and kidney were affected with the abnormal values in AST, creatinine, globulin, glucose, total protein, and urea. However, SMEMS produced toxic effect more to liver, kidney, and lung than other organs as observed histopathologically. The results suggested subchronic exposure of ketum is toxic to the physiology of the animals.

  9. In vivo examination of the anticoagulant effect of the Brassica oleracea methanol extract

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    Khan Rafeeq Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticoagulant effect of the methanol extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (MEB was examined in rabbits. The animals were divided into five groups, each comprising seven animals. Three groups were administered increasing doses of MEB (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg, respectively; one group received warfarin (0.54 mg/kg; animals in the control group received saline (1 ml/day equivalent to the volume of doses applied to the treated and standard animals. Biochemical tests were performed on the 16th and 31st days of dosing. Animals that were administered MEB (500 mg MEB/kg 30 days displayed increases of 24.07 s, 28.79 s and 4.08 s in activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT, fibrinogen (Fg and thrombin time (TT. Compared to the control, the increase in aPTT and Fg was highly significant and the increase in TT was significant. The anticoagulant effect exhibited by MEB in rabbits may be due to inactivation or inhibition of factors affecting coagulation.

  10. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Badrul; Akter, Fahima; Parvin, Nahida; Sharmin Pia, Rashna; Akter, Sharmin; Chowdhury, Jesmin; Sifath-E-Jahan, Kazi; Haque, Ekramul

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL). MPBL was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model. Analgesic activity of MPBL was evaluated by hot plate, writhing, and formalin tests. Total phenolic and flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, peroxynitrate (ONOO) as well as inhibition of total ROS generation, and assessment of reducing power were used to evaluate antioxidant potential of MPBL. The extract of MPBL, at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, produced a significant (p<0.05) increase in pain threshold in hot plate method whereas significantly (p<0.05) reduced the writhing caused by acetic acid and the number of licks induced by formalin in a dose-dependent manner. The same ranges of doses of MPBL caused significant (p<0.05) inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema after 4 h in a dose-dependent manner. In DPPH, ONOO(-), and total ROS scavenging method, MPBL showed good antioxidant potentiality with the IC50 value of 16.33±1.02, 25.16±0.61 , and 41.72±0.48 µg/ml, respectively with a significant (p<0.05) good reducing power. The findings of the study suggested that MPBL has strong analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects, conforming the traditional use of this plant for inflammatory pain alleviation to its antioxidant potentiality.

  11. Evaluation of anti-arthritic potential of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Costus speciosus

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    Shruti Srivastava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Costus speciosus Koen. (Keu, Crape ginger, an ornamental plant, widely distributed in India is traditionally used as astringent, aphrodisiac, purgative, anthelmintic, depurative, febrifuge and expectorant. The plant is also used in rheumatism, dropsy, urinary diseases and jaundice. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Costus speciosus (CS in experimental animal models. Materials and Methods: The powdered drug was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity to obtain the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant. CS was evaluated for anti-arthritic action by Freund′s adjuvant induced arthritis test in adult Albino rats (150-200 gm. Rats were injected 0.1 ml of complete Freund′s adjuvant into the planter region of the left hind paw. Statistical analysis was performed using One way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Bonferonni test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results : The methanolic extract of CS in doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg showed 75.50% and 68.33% protection against increase in paw edema, respectively. CS showed dose-dependent action in all the experimental models. Conclusion : The present study indicates that CS has significant anti-arthritic properties.

  12. Radioprotective effect of methanolic root extract of Loeseneriella arnottiana on radiation induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prajna, P.S.

    2012-01-01

    Intense exposure to ionization radiation by accidental, occupational or therapeutical purpose causes cellular damage mainly by formation of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) or by free radicals. Humans are intentionally exposed to ionising radiation for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. The use of ionising radiation in cancer therapy may lead to transient and/or permanent injury to normal tissues within the treatment field. To increase the therapeutic index of radiation therapy, various modes of radioprotection have been developed that selectively reduce cytotoxic effects to normal tissues. Because radiation-induced cellular damage is attributed primarily to the harmful effects of free radicals, molecules with radical scavenging properties are particularly promising as radioprotectors. Loeseneriella arnottiana, a member of family Hippocrateaceae, is a climbing shrub used by traditional medicine practitioners. To study the antioxidant activity and radioprotective effect of methanolic root extract of Loeseneriella arnottiana against electron beam radiation induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Loeseneriella arnottiana roots were dried and extracted using methanol by solvent extraction method. Antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH method. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay parameters. The lymphocytes were incubated for one hour with two different concentrations 10 μg and 50 μg of root extract before exposure to 2 Gy electron beam radiation. 30 μg of methanolic root extract of Loeseneriella arnottiana exhibited 96% radical scavenging activity comparable to 15 μg of ascorbic acid. In reducing power assay it showed dose dependent increase in absorbance indicating that extract is capable of donating hydrogen atoms. Pretreatment of lymphocytes with 10 μg and 50 μg of root extract before irradiation resulted in reduction in the Comet length, Olive tail moment, percentage of DNA in tail when compared to the radiation control group. Results of this

  13. Anti-inflammatory evaluation of the methanolic extract of Taraxacum officinale in LPS-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Daun; Kim, Seok Joong; Kim, Hong Seok

    2017-11-29

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic vascular inflammatory disease. Since even low-level endotoxemia constitutes a powerful and independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis, it is important to find therapies directed against the vascular effects of endotoxin to prevent atherosclerosis. Taraxacum officinale (TO) is used for medicinal purposes because of its choleretic, diuretic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic properties, but its anti-inflammatory effect on endothelial cells has not been established. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of TO filtered methanol extracts in LPS-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by monocyte adhesion and western blot assays. HUVECs were pretreated with 100 μg/ml TO for 1 h and then incubated with 1 μg/ml LPS for 24 h. The mRNA and protein expression levels of the targets (pro-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules) were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot assays. We also preformed HPLC analysis to identify the components of the TO methanol extract. The TO filtered methanol extracts dramatically inhibited LPS-induced endothelial cell-monocyte interactions by reducing vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. TO suppressed the LPS-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB, whereas it did not affect MAPK activation. Our findings demonstrated that methanol extracts of TO could attenuate LPS-induced endothelial cell activation by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. These results indicate the potential clinical benefits and applications of TO for the prevention of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis.

  14. Antimicrobial Effect of Aqueous, Ethanol, Methanol and Glycerin Extracts of Satureja bachtiarica on Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Heidari-Sureshjani; Faride Tabatabaei-Yazdi; Behrooz Alizadeh-Behbahani; Ali Mortazavi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Iranian medicinal plants, such as Satureja bachtiarica have been utilized as traditional medicines by the indigenous people of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari in Iran. Objectives: According to biologically active compounds and traditional use of the Satureja bachtiarica, seem that this plant has significant antimicrobial effects. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Satureja bachtiarica after extraction with watery, ethanol 96%, methanol 96% and 20% glycerin anti...

  15. Comparative studies on the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Tanacetum vulgare L. essential oil and methanol extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Devrnja, Nina; Anđelković, Boban; Aranđelović, Sandra; Radulović, Siniša; Soković, Marina; Krstić Milošević, Dijana; Ristić, Mihailo; Ćalić, Dušica

    2017-01-01

    Chemical composition of essential oil (EO) and methanol extracts (MEs) from different parts of Tanacetum vulgare L. plant was analyzed and investigated for potential biological activities and correlated with the main constituents detected in EO and MEs. The EO was characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes with trans-chrysanthenyl acetate as major compound. All MEs were characterized by neochlorogenic, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic and caffeoylquinic acids. High phenolic content in M...

  16. Anticancer activity and apoptosis inducing effect of methanolic extract of Cordia dichotoma against human cancer cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Azizur Rahman; Arshad Hussain

    2015-01-01

    MTT assay and DAPI staining test were performed to evaluate anticancer potential and to assess apoptosis inducing effect of methanolic extract of Cordia dichotoma leaves (MECD) against human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). Changes in MMP and intracellular ROS level were also assessed by JC-1 and DCFH-DA staining. Total phenolic contents were determined by colorimetric principle. Levels of statistical significance were determined by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett’s posttest...

  17. Determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant activitity of methanol extract of Maranta arundinacea L fresh leaf and tuber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusbandari, A.; Susanti, H.

    2017-11-01

    Maranta arundinacea L is one of herbaceous plants in Indonesia which have flavonoid content. Flavonoids has antioxidants activity by inhibition of free radical oxidation reactions. The study aims were to determination total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of methanol extract of fresh leaf and tuber of M. arundinacea L by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The methanol extracts were obtained with maceration and remaseration method of fresh leaves and tubers. The total phenolic content was assayed with visible spectrophotometric using Folin Ciocalteau reagent. The antioxidant activity was assayed with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH) compared to gallic acid. The results showed that methanol extract of tuber and fresh leaf of M. arundinacea L contained phenolic compound with total phenolic content (TPC) in fresh tuber of 3.881±0.064 (% GAE) and fresh leaf is 6.518±0.163 (% b/b GAE). IC50 value from fresh tuber is 1.780±0.0005 μg/mL and IC50 fresh leaf values of 0.274±0.0004 μg/mL while the standard gallic acid is IC50 of 0.640±0.0002 μg/mL.

  18. Antinociceptive activities of crude methanolic extract and phases, n-butanolic, chloroformic and ethyl acetate from Caulerpa racemosa (Caulerpaceae

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    Everton T. Souza

    Full Text Available In this study, we attempted to identify the possible antinociceptive actions of n-butanolic phase, chloroformic phase, ethyl acetate phase and crude methanolic extract obtained from Caulerpa racemosa. This seaweed is cosmopolitan in world, mainly in tropical regions. The n-butanolic, chloroformic, ethyl acetate phases and crude methanolic extract, all administered orally in the concentration of 100 mg/kg, reduced the nociception produced by acetic acid by 47.39%, 70.51%, 76.11% and 72.24%, respectively. In the hotplate test the chloroformic and ethyl acetate phase were activite in this models. In the neurogenic phase on formalin test, were observed that crude methanolic extract (51.77%, n-butanolic phase (35.12%, chloroformic phase (32.70% and indomethacin (32.06% were effective in inhibit the nociceptive response. In the inflammatory phase, only the ethyl acetate phase (75.43% and indomethacin (47.83% inhibited significantly the nociceptive response. Based on these data, we can infer that the ethyl acetate phase shows a significant anti-inflammatory profile, whose power has not yet been determined. However, pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism(s responsible for the antinociceptive action and also to identify other active principles present in Caulerpa racemosa.

  19. Antitrypanosomal effect of methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (ginger on Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected Wistar mice

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    P. I. Kobo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out to determine the in vivo antitrypanosomal effect of methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (ginger in Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected mice. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five mice were randomly allocated into five groups of five animals each. Group I and II were given Tween 80 (1 ml/kg and diminazene aceturate (3.5 mg/kg to serve as untreated and treated controls, respectively. Groups III-V received the extract at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight, respectively. All treatments were given for 6 consecutive days and through the oral route. The mean body weight, mean survival period and daily level of parasitaemia were evaluated. Results: Acute toxicity showed the extract to be relatively safe. There was an insignificant increase in body weight and survival rate of mice treated with the extract. The level of parasitaemia in the extract treated groups was decreased. Conclusion: This study shows the in vivo potential of methanolic extract of Z. officinale in the treatment of trypanosomiasis.

  20. Dechlorophyllation of Cosmos caudatus Kunth., Morinda citrifolia, and Mangifera indica L. Leaves Methanolic Extract by Electrocoagulation Technique

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    Ratna Budhi Pebriana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present of chlorophyll is not expected in the isolation process of plant active constituent. Electrocoagulation is a potential dechlorophyllation method. This research aims to know the effectivity of electrocoagulation in the dechlorophyllation process of Cosmos caudatus Kunth., Morinda citrifolia, and Mangifera indica L. leaves methanolic extract as well as the effect to the total phenolic content. Electrocoagulation are performed using copper, silver, aluminum and iron plates as the electrode. Dechlorophyllation by extraction using n-hexane is performed as reference. The % absorbance of chlorophyll and % of total phenolic content of dechlorophyllated samples are measured spectrophotometrically. Electrocoagulation process reduces % absorbance of chlorophyll in Cosmos caudatus Kunth., Morinda citrifolia, and Mangifera indica L. leaves methanolic extract. The more the duration of electrocoagulaton process the lower the % absorbance of chlorophyll obtained. % absorbance of chlorophyll of the electrocoagulated extract according to paired t-test (P=0.95 are significantly different with the previous. One way ANOVA continued with LSD (P=0.95 shows that the % absorbance of chlorophyll from the electrocoagulated extract are significantly different with those extracted with n-hexane. Electrocoagulation process reduces total phenolic content along with duration of electrocoagulation.

  1. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic studies of methanolic extract, fractions and essential oil of curry patta (chalcas koeingii) from pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari, T.; Hussain, M.; Zubair, M.; Hina, S.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the antioxidant antimicrobial activities and cytotoxicity of methanolic extract and essential oil of Chalcas koeingii leaves. The ground leaves were extracted with absolute methanol and further fractionated by solvent-solvent extraction method with increasing polarity based absolute solvents i.e. n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The Chalcas koeingii leaves extract and fractions contained appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (99.82 -1750.23 CE, mg/100g) and total flavonoid contents (70.23 -1159.23 GAE, mg/100g). The GC-MS analysis of Chalcas koeingii essential oil revealed the presence of 19 compounds, with 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecane(19.76 %), Crocetane (13.28 %), Benzene,1,1-(thiobis(methylene))bis(4-chloro (12.77 %), 2-chloro-1,2-diphenylethanone (9.24 %), Hexatriacontane (6.99 %) as the major components. Chalcas koeingii leaves extracts also exhibited good DPPH radical scavenging activity, showing IC50 ranged from 17.37-84.23 microg/mL and % inhibition linoleic acid peroxidation 37.23-91.09 respectively. The results of the present study demonstrated significant (p<0.05) variations in the antioxidant activities of Chalcas koeingii leaves essential oil, extract and fractions. (author)

  2. Laboratory evaluation of methanolic extract of Atlantia monophylla (Family: Rutaceae against immature stages of mosquitoes and non-target organisms

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    N Sivagnaname

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extracts of the leaves of Atlantia monophylla (Rutaceae were evaluated for mosquitocidal activity against immature stages of three mosquito species, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti in the laboratory.Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and pupae of An. stephensi were found more susceptible, with LC50 values of 0.14 mg/l and 0.05 mg/l, respectively. Insect growth regulating activity of this extract was more pronounced against Ae. aegypti, with EI50 value 0.002 mg/l. The extract was found safe to aquatic mosquito predators Gambusia affinis, Poecilia reticulata, and Diplonychus indicus, with the respective LC50 values of 23.4, 21.3, and 5.7 mg/l. The results indicate that the mosquitocidal effects of the extract of this plant were comparable to neem extract and certain synthetic chemical larvicides like fenthion, methoprene, etc.

  3. Biomedical potentialities of Taraxacum officinale-based nanoparticles biosynthesized using methanolic leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Tahir; Bilal, Muhammad; Li, Chuanlong; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2018-02-14

    In the present study, the potential of methanolic leaf extract of Taraxacum officinale plant as a function of bio-inspired green synthesis for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been explored. The bio-reduction of aqueous silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution was confirmed by visually detecting the color change from pale yellow to blackish-brown. Maximum absorbance was observed at 420 nm due to the presence of characteristic surface Plasmon resonance of nano silver by UV-visible spectroscopy. The role of various functional groups in the bio-reduction of silver and chemical transformation was verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) predicts the shape (rocky, flack type, ellipsoidal, etc.), size (68 nm) and elemental composition (Ag as a major constituent) of the biosynthesized AgNPs, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis further corroborated the morphology of the AgNPs. Color mapping and atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirmed the nano-sized topography. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed the charge, stability, and size of the AgNPs. The generated AgNPs presented potential antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Haemophilus influenzae. The biosynthesized AgNPs also showed antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, results clearly indicate that biosynthesized AgNPs could be used as effective nano drug for treating infectious diseases caused by multidrug resistant bacterial strains in the near future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. AP-1-Targeting Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Methanolic Extract of Persicaria chinensis

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    Muhammad Jahangir Hossen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine, Persicaria chinensis L. has been prescribed to cure numerous inflammatory disorders. We previously analyzed the bioactivity of the methanol extract of this plant (Pc-ME against LPS-induced NO and PGE2 in RAW264.7 macrophages and found that it prevented HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcers in mice. The purpose of the current study was to explore the molecular mechanism by which Pc-ME inhibits activator protein- (AP- 1 activation pathway and mediates its hepatoprotective activity. To investigate the putative therapeutic properties of Pc-ME against AP-1-mediated inflammation and hepatotoxicity, lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated RAW264.7 and U937 cells, a monocyte-like human cell line, and an LPS/D-galactosamine- (D-GalN- induced acute hepatitis mouse model were employed. The expression of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin- (IL- 1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α was significantly diminished by Pc-ME. Moreover, Pc-ME reduced AP-1 activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphorylation in both LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and differentiated U937 cells. Additionally, we highlighted the hepatoprotective and curative effects of Pc-ME pretreated orally in a mouse model of LPS/D-GalN-intoxicated acute liver injury by demonstrating the significant reduction in elevated serum AST and ALT levels and histological damage. Therefore, these results strongly suggest that Pc-ME could function as an antihepatitis remedy suppressing MAPK/AP-1-mediated inflammatory events.

  5. A methanolic extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek seeds regulates markers of macrophage polarization.

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    Nurudeen Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Macrophages are key cellular mediators in diabetes-related inflammation. Molecular cues such as cytokines found in the tissue microenvironment regulates the polarization of macrophages into an M1 (pro-inflammatory or M2 (immunoregulatory phenotype. Recent evidence suggests that M1 macrophages in diabetic patients may contribute to the complications associated with the disease such as atherosclerosis. Trigonella foenum- graecum (Tfg: fenugreek seeds have been used in traditional medicine in Asia, Africa and the Middle-East for their alleged anti-diabetic properties. Objective: To identify the molecular mechanism(s through which Tfg seeds exert their effects, we investigated the role of a crude methanolic extract of Tfg (FME seeds on macrophage polarization in vitro. Method: THP-1 macrophages (Mϕ were treated with gBSA in the presence/absence of FME and the release and expression of M1 and M2 markers/cytokines were analysed. The role of FME on NF-κB activity was also explored using transfected HEK-293T cells. Results: This study found that the FME significantly (P<0.05 decreased gBSA-induced secretion of M1 cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in THP-1 Mϕ cells. In the presence of gBSA, FME also significantly increased the gene expression of the M2 marker Dectin-1, but had no effect on IL-10, IL-1Ra. FME also significantly decreased TNF-α induced NF-kB reporter activity. Conclusion: These results suggest that FME can regulate the expression of M1 and M2 markers in THP-1 Mϕ cells. This may be potentially through the modulation of NF-kB activity. Further work should be carried out to identify precise mechanism(s involved in the effects of FME and Tfg seeds.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Piper attenuatum Methanol Extract in LPS-Stimulated Inflammatory Responses

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    You Jin Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Piper attenuatum is used as a traditional medicinal plant in India. One of the substances in P. attenuatum has been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, there is insufficient research about the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action of P. attenuatum. The effects of P. attenuatum methanol extract (Pa-ME on the production of inflammatory mediators nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, the expression of proinflammatory genes, the translocation level of transcription factors, and intracellular signaling activities were investigated using macrophages. Pa-ME suppressed the production of NO and PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-, pam3CSK4-, and poly(I:C-stimulated RAW264.7 cells without displaying cytotoxicity. The mRNA expression levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2 were decreased by Pa-ME. P-ME reduced the translocation of p50/NF-κB and AP-1 (c-Jun and c-Fos, as well as the activity of their upstream enzymes Src, Syk, and TAK1. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed failure of binding between their substrates, phospho- (p- p85 and p-MKK3/6. p-p85 and p-MKK3/6, which were induced by overexpression of Src, Syk, and TAK1, were also reduced by Pa-ME. Therefore, these results suggest that Pa-ME exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by targeting Src and Syk in the NF-κB signaling pathway and TAK1 in the AP-1 signaling pathway.

  7. Modulatory Effect of Methanol Extract of Piper guineense in CCl₄-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Osunsanmi, Foluso Oluwagbemiga; Ajiboye, Basiru Olaitan; Ojo, Oluwafemi Adeleke; Kappo, Abidemi Paul

    2017-08-24

    This study seeks to investigate the possible protective role of the methanol extract of Piper guineense seeds against CCl₄-induced hepatotoxicity in an animal model. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administering oral doses of CCl₄ (1.2 g/kg bw) three times a week for three weeks. Group 1 (Control) and Group 2 (CCl₄) were left untreated; Piper guineense (PG; 400 mg/kg bw) was administered to Group 3 (T₁) by oral gavage for 14 days prior to the administration of CCl₄ and simultaneously with CCl₄; PG (400 mg/kg bw) was administered simultaneously with CCl₄ in Group 4 (T₂); and Livolin forte (20 mg/kg bw) was administered simultaneously with CCl₄ in Group 5 (T₃), the standard drug group. The administration of CCl₄ induces histopathological alteration in the liver, with concomitant increased activities of serum hepatic marker enzymes associated with increased levels of lipid peroxidation. Similarly, there was decrease in non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione) and enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione S-transferase), superoxide dismutase, and catalase. An elevation in serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels was noticed along with decreased levels of serum total protein. Treatment with PG 400 mg/kg bw exhibited excellent modulatory activity with respect to the different parameters studied by reversing all the above-mentioned biochemical changes significantly in the experimental animals. These results suggest that PG offered protection comparable to that of Livolin forte with better efficacy when pre-treated with 400 mg/kg bw 14 days prior to CCl₄-exposure.

  8. Analgesic activity of Gleditsia triacanthos methanolic fruit extract and its saponin-containing fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Dalia Osama; Kassem, Iman; Melek, Farouk Rasmy

    2016-01-01

    Gleditsia triacanthos L. (Leguminosae) pods are used in folk medicine for pain relief as anodyne and narcotic. The objective of this study is to evaluate analgesic activity of Gleditsia triacanthos methanolic fruit extract (MEGT) and its saponin-containing fraction (SFGT). Peripheral analgesic activity was assessed using the acetic acid-induced writhing model in mice at doses of 140, 280, and 560 mg/kg and formalin test in rats at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses. Central analgesic activity was evaluated using the hotplate method in rats (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg). In the writhing test, six mice groups treated with MEGT and SFGT found ED50 values 268.2 and 161.2 mg/kg, respectively, displayed a significant decrease in writhing count compared with the group treated with standard drug indomethacin (14 mg/kg). SFGT (280 and 560 mg/kg) showed 64.94 and 70.78% protection, respectively, which are more than double % protection caused by indomethacin (31.82%). In the formalin test, MEGT and SFGT (ED50 values 287.6 and 283.4 mg/kg for phase I as well as 295.1 and 290.4 mg/kg for phase II, respectively) at 400 mg/kg showed significant % inhibition in both phase I (18.86 and 52.57%) and phase II (39.36 and 44.29%) with reference to 10 mg/kg indomethacin (56.0 and 32.29%). MEGT and SFGT caused significant delay in responses in hotplate model (ED50 values 155.4 and 200.6 mg/kg, respectively) compared with that of 10 mg/kg indomethacin at 30, 60, and 120 min. Central and peripheral analgesic activities induced by Gleditsia triacanthos fruits might account for its uses in folk medicine.

  9. Antiulcer activity of methanol-chloroform extract of Channa striatus fillet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azemi, Ahmad Khusairi; Abd Rahim, Mohd Hafiz; Mamat, Siti Syariah; Mat Jais, Abdul Manan; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin

    2018-01-01

    Channa striatus (Haruan) is Malaysian freshwater fish that is traditionally used to treat ailments related to wound and also ulcers. The aimed of the present study was to determine the mechanisms of anti-ulcer activity of chloroform: methanol extract of C. striatus fillet (CMCS) in rats. The antiulcer profile of CMCS, given orally in the doses of 50, 250 and 500mg/kg, was assessed using the ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer models. The mechanisms of antiulcer of CMCS were determined as follows; i) the antisecretory activity of CMCS was measured using the pyloric ligation rat model, and; ii) the role of nitric oxide (NO) and sulfhydryl compounds in the modulation of CMCS antiulcer activity were determined by pre-treating the rats with L -NAME or NEM, respectively, followed by the pre-treatment of rats with CMCS before subjecting the animals to the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. From the results obtained, CMCS exerted significant (P<0.05) antiulcer activity in both models of gastric ulcer wherein the macroscopic and microscopic analysis of the stomach supported the antiulcer claim. With regard to its antisecretory effect, CMCS did not change the volume and pH, but reduce the total acidity only at the lower doses of the gastric juice. Moreover, CMCS demonstrated antiulcer activity was reversed by NEM, but not affected by L-NAME. In conclusion, CMCS shows antiulcer activity that is modulated via its cytoprotective, but not antisecretory effect, and in the presence of sulfhysryl compounds, but not NO.

  10. IN VIVO AND IN VITRO ANTILEISHMANIAL EFFECTS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM BARK OF BURSERA APTERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Yañez, O. J.; Resendiz-Albor, A. A.; Ruiz-Hurtado, P. A.; Rivera-Yañez, N.; Rodriguez-Canales, M.; Rodriguez-Sosa, M.; Juarez-Avelar, I.; Rodriguez-Lopez, M. G.; Canales-Martinez, M. M.; Rodriguez-Monroy, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis lacks effective and well-tolerated treatments. The current therapies mainly rely on antimonial drugs that are inadequate because of their poor efficacy. Traditional medicine offers a complementary alternative for the treatment of various diseases. Additionally, several plants have shown success as anti-leishmanial agents. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo activity of MEBA against Leishmania mexicana. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of B. aptera was obtained by macetration, after we determined in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of MEBA by MTT assay and the induced apoptosis in promastigotes by flow cytometry. To analyze the in vivo anti-leishmanial activity, we used infected mice that were treated and not treated with MEBA and we determined the levels of cytokines using ELISA. The phytochemical properties were determined by CG-MS and DPPH assay. Results: We determined of LC50 of 0.408 mg/mL of MEBA for in vitro anti-leishmanial activity. MEBA induced apoptosis in promastigotes (15.3% ± 0.86). Treated mice exhibited smaller lesions and contained significantly fewer parasites than did untreated mice; in addition, we found that IFN-γ and TNF-α increased in the sera of MEBA-treated mice. GC-MS analysis showed that podophyllotoxin was the most abundant compound. Evaluation of the activity by DPPH assay demonstrated an SC50 of 11.72 μg/mL. Conclusion: Based on the above data, it was concluded that MEBA is a good candidate in the search for new anti-leishmanial agents. PMID:28573235

  11. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Methanol Extract from Pogostemon cablin

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    Tsung-Chun Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pogostemon cablin (PC is a herbal medicine traditionally applied to treat not only common cold, nausea and diarrhea but also headache and fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of standardized PC methanol extract (PCMeOH in vivo. Investigations were performed in mice with two analgesic models. One was acetic acid-induced writhing response and the other formalin-induced paw licking. The anti-inflammatory effect was tested by λ-carrageenan (Carr-induced mice paw edema. These analgesic experimental results indicated that PCMeOH (1.0 g/kg decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing responses and PCMeOH (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg decreased the licking time in the second phase of the formalin test. Moreover, Carr-induced paw edema inflammation was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner when PCMeOH (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg was administered 3 and 4 h after the Carr injection. Mechanistic studies showed that PCMeOH decreased the levels of malondialdehyde in the edema paw by increasing the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, in the liver and decreasing the cyclooxygenase 2 and tumor necrosis factor-α activities in the edema paw. This study has demonstrated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of PCMeOH, thus verifying its popular use in traditional medicine.

  12. PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON THE BEHAVIOURAL EFFECTS OF THE METHANOL EXTRACT OF LEONOTIS NEPETIFOLIA LINN STEM IN MICE

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    Ayanwuyi, Lydia O.; Kwanashie, Helen O.; Hussaini, Isa M.; Yaro, Abdullahi H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leonotis nepetifolia Linn (Lamiaceae) is used in traditional medicine for its calming (tranquilizing) effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is any scientific justification for this use. To achieve this purpose, we investigated the behavioural effects of the methanol extract of Leonotis nepetifolia stem (37.5, 75 and 150 mg/kg) in mice. Methods: Acute toxicity studies were carried out on the methanol stem extract of Leonotis nepetifolia to determine the LD50. The behavioural tests employed were diazepam-induced sleep onset and duration, hole board assay for exploratory activity, mouse beam walk assay for motor coordination, and the staircase test for the detection of anxiolytic compounds. Preliminary phytochemical screening was also carried out on the extract. Results: The intraperitoneal LD50 value was found to be 3.8 g/kg. The results showed that the extract significantly prolonged the duration of diazepam-induced sleep at the highest dose (150 mg/kg). There was no observable effect on exploratory activity and motor coordination at the doses tested (37.5, 75 and 150 mg/kg). The extract, however, at 150 mg/kg elicited a significant decrease in the number of rearings in the staircase test, an effect also observed in the group of mice injected with an anxiolytic dose of diazepam. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, glycosides and triterpenoids. Conclusion: The results obtained suggest that the crude methanol extract of Leonotis nepetifolia stem possesses some biologically active constituents with potential anxiolytic activity and thus may justify its traditional use as a tranquilizer. PMID:28852715

  13. Toxicity of lemon grass Cymbopogon citratus powder and methanol extract against rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

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    Martin Osaigbokan Uwamose

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the toxicity potential of lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (C. citratus] products against adult rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae. Methods: Lemon grass (C. citratus leaves were sundried for 7 days, pulverized and sieved using 0.5 mm mesh size to obtain fine powders. About 500 g of the powder were dissolved in 1000 mL of 90% methanol to produce the extract. The powder and extract were used for the bioassay. The powder was tested at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g/10 g rice grains, respectively. The toxic potential of the extract of concentration of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mg/mL were evaluated using the filter paper method. The experiment was setup on a completely randomized design using three replicates per treatment. Results: The results indicated significant difference (F = 7.450; df = 3.15; P < 0.05 in mean percentage mortality after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h exposure with the powder compared with the control. Significantly (F = 5.519; df = 3.15; P < 0.05 higher percentage adult mortality was also observed in the extract after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h exposure compared with the control. The LC50 value of the powder was 4.91 g/10 g of rice while the LT50 was 160.51 h. The LC50 value of the extract was 2.16 mg/20 mL of methanol with an LT50 of 75.10 h. The methanol extract of C. citratus showed the highest mortality compared to the powder which was less toxic. Conclusions: The study showed that C. citratus products are promising insecticides and can be used effectively in the management of Sitophilus oryzae in storage..

  14. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

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    Adnalizawati, A. Siti Noor; Nazlina, I. [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yaacob, W. A. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division.

  15. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnalizawati, A. Siti Noor; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division

  16. Phytochemical and toxicological investigations of crude methanolic extracts, subsequent fractions and crude saponins of Isodon rugosus

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    Anwar Zeb Abdul Sadiq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isodon rugosus is used traditionally in the management of hypertension, rheumatism, tooth-ache and pyrexia. Present study was arranged to investigate I. rugosus for phytoconstituents, phytotoxic and cytotoxic activities to explore its toxicological, pharmacological potentials and to rationalize its ethnomedicinal uses. Briefly, qualitative phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts were carried out for the existence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, oils, glycosides, anthraquinones, terpenoids, sterols and tannins. Plant crude methanolic extract (Ir.Cr, its subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Ir.Hex, chloroform (Ir.Chf, ethyl acetate (Ir.EtAc, aqueous (Ir.Aq and saponins (Ir.Sp in different concentrations were tested for phytotoxic and cytotoxic activities using radish seeds and brine shrimps (Artemia salina respectively. The phytotoxic activity was determined by percent root length inhibition (RLI and percent seeds germination inhibition (SGI while the cytotoxicity was obtained with percent lethality of the brine shrimps. RESULTS: Ir.Cr was tested positive for the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, oils, terpenoids, saponins, tannins and anthraquinones. Among different fractions Ir.Sp, Ir.Chf, Ir.EtAc, and Ir.Cr were most effective causing 93.55, 89.32, 81.32 and 58.68% inhibition of seeds in phytotoxicity assay, with IC50 values of 0.1, 0.1, 0.1 and 52 μg/ml respectively. Similarly, among all the tested samples, Ir.Sp exhibited the highest phytotoxic effect causing 91.33% root length inhibition with IC50 of 0.1 μg/ml. Ir.Sp and Ir.Chf were most effective against brine shrimps showing 92.23 and 76.67% lethality with LC50 values of 10 and 12 μg/ml respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It may be inferred from the current investigations that I. rugosus contains different secondary metabolites and is a potential source for the isolation of natural anticancer and herbicidal drug molecules. Different fractions exhibited phytotoxic and

  17. A comparative profile of methanol extracts of Allium cepa and Allium sativum in diabetic neuropathy in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Abhishek; Shri, Richa

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetic Neuropathy (DN) is a major microvascular complication of uncontrolled diabetes. This may result from increased oxidative stress that accompanies diabetes. Hence plants with antioxidant action play an important role in management of diabetes and its complications. Materials and Methods: This study was designed to evaluate preventive as well as curative effect of methanol extracts of outer scales and edible portions of two plants with established antioxidant action - Allium cepa and Allium sativum, in induced DN in albino mice. Mice were divided into control, diabetic and test extracts treated groups. Test extracts were administered daily at a dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. for 21 days, in the preventive group prior to onset of DN, and in the curative group after the onset of DN. Hyperalgesia and oxidative stress markers were assessed. STZ-diabetic mice showed a significant thermal hyperalgesia (as assessed by the tail-flick test), indicating development of DN. Results: Treatment with test extracts prevented loss in body weight, decreased plasma glucose level, and significantly ameliorated the hyperalgesia, TBARS, serum nitrite and GSH levels in diabetic mice. Conclusion: Methanol extract of outer scales of onion has shown most significant improvement; may be due to higher content of phenolic compounds in outer scales of A. cepa. PMID:21713142

  18. Antidiabetic and renoprotective effect of Fagonia cretica L. methanolic extract and Citrus paradise Macfad. juice in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits

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    Sairah H. Kamran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fagonia cretica is a medicinal herb reported to have flavanoids of potential therapeutic value and Citrus paradisi is a fruit, whose juice is of great therapeutic value due to its anti-hyperglycemic effects. Aims: To determine anti-hyperglycemic and renal protective effect of methanolic extract of Fagonia cretica and Citrus paradisi juice (grapefruit juice in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. Methods: Diabetes was induced in rabbits by alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg, i.p.. The therapies including Fagonia cretica methanolic extract (500 mg/kg, Citrus paradisi juice (7 mL/kg and sitagliptin (10 mg/kg were administered (p.o. to diabetic groups for 14 days. The biochemical parameters, glucose, creatinine, urea, bilirubin, albumin, total protein, globulins and albumin/globulin ratio were estimated. Results: Fagonia cretica extract and grapefruit juice therapy significantly (p<0.05 reduced glucose levels in diabetic rats. Fagonia cretica extract was more effective anti-hyperglycemic agent than Citrus paradisi juice and sitagliptin. Significant (p<0.05 improvement in kidney function was observed in treated groups, the plant extract showing significant improvement as compared to the other two treatments. The histopathological results verified improvement in structural damage of kidney, liver and pancreas with these treatments. Conclusions: Fagonica cretica and Citrus paradisi juice therapy markedly improved hyperglycemia and kidney functions in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

  19. Methanolic Extracts from Brown Seaweeds Dictyota cilliolata and Dictyota menstrualis Induce Apoptosis in Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma HeLa Cells

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    Dayanne Lopes Gomes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the second most common female tumor worldwide, surpassed only by breast cancer. Natural products from seaweeds evidencing apoptotic activity have attracted a great deal of attention as new leads for alternative and complementary preventive or therapeutic anticancer agents. Here, methanol extracts from 13 species of tropical seaweeds (Rhodophytas, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta collected from the Northeast of Brazil were assessed as apoptosis-inducing agents on human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa. All extracts showed different levels of cytotoxicity against HeLa cells; the most potent were obtained from the brown alga Dictyota cilliolata (MEDC and Dictyota menstrualis (MEDM. In addition, MEDC and MEDM also inhibits SiHa (cervix carcinoma cell proliferation. Studies with these two extracts using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that HeLa cells exposed to MEDM and MEDC exhibit morphological and biochemical changes that characterize apoptosis as shown by loss of cell viability, chromatin condensation, phosphatidylserine externalization, and sub-G1 cell cycle phase accumulation, also MEDC induces cell cycle arrest in cell cycle phase S. Moreover, the activation of caspases 3 and 9 by these extracts suggests a mitochondria-dependent apoptosis route. However, other routes cannot be ruled out. Together, these results point out the methanol extracts of the brown algae D. mentrualis and D. cilliolata as potential sources of molecules with antitumor activity.

  20. Phytochemicals and heavy metals analysis of methanolic extract of edible mushrooms collected from Karak District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

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    Farhan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To qualitatively evaluate the phytochemicals and quantitatively determine the heavy metals of three species of edible mushrooms collected from the Karak area of Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa, Pakistan. Methods: The plant sample was subjected to methanolic extraction. The extraction was then concentrated by using rotary evaporator. The methanolic extract was screened for the qualitative study of various phytochemicals and quantitative measurement of heavy metals. Results: A maximum of phytochemicals were confirmed by carring out different tests. Among the different phytochemicals, alkaloids, flavonoids, proteins and carbohydrates were found to be present in the extracts, while saponins and glycosides were not detected. Similarly quantitative study of heavy metals was also conducted on the same extracts of the edible mushrooms. The results suggested that iron was present in maximum concentration than all other metals and nickel was found to be present in little amount when compared with other metals. All the metals were found present. Conclusions: The concentrations of heavy metals were investigated in the samples which were different in all samples. The presence of different phytochemicals in the mushroom is the key for its active biological profile.

  1. Polyphenolic Profile and Targeted Bioactivity of Methanolic Extracts from Mediterranean Ethnomedicinal Plants on Human Cancer Cell Lines

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    Antonino Pollio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extracts of the aerial part of four ethnomedicinal plants of Mediterranean region, two non-seed vascular plants, Equisetum hyemale L. and Phyllitis scolopendrium (L. Newman, and two Spermatophyta, Juniperus communis L. (J. communis and Cotinus coggygria Scop. (C. coggygria, were screened against four human cells lines (A549, MCF7, TK6 and U937. Only the extracts of J. communis and C. coggygria showed marked cytotoxic effects, affecting both cell morphology and growth. A dose-dependent effect of these two extracts was also observed on the cell cycle distribution. Incubation of all the cell lines in a medium containing J. communis extract determined a remarkable accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase, whereas the C. coggygria extract induced a significant increase in the percentage of G1 cells. The novelty of our findings stands on the observation that the two extracts, consistently, elicited coherent effects on the cell cycle in four cell lines, independently from their phenotype, as two of them have epithelial origin and grow adherent and two are lymphoblastoid and grow in suspension. Even the expression profiles of several proteins regulating cell cycle progression and cell death were affected by both extracts. LC-MS investigation of methanol extract of C. coggygria led to the identification of twelve flavonoids (compounds 1–11, 19 and eight polyphenols derivatives (12–18, 20, while in J. communis extract, eight flavonoids (21–28, a α-ionone glycoside (29 and a lignin (30 were found. Although many of these compounds have interesting individual biological activities, their natural blends seem to exert specific effects on the proliferation of cell lines either growing adherent or in suspension, suggesting potential use in fighting cancer.

  2. Ethnobotanical survey, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of methanolic extract of the root bark of Annona cuneata Oliv.

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    Khallouki, Farid; Haubner, Roswitha; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Owen, Robert W

    2011-11-01

    The root bark of Annona cuneata Oliv. is traditionally used in the Democratic Republic of Congo to treat several debilitating conditions, such as hernia, female sterility, sexual asthenia, and parasitic infections. However, little is known about the composition of the secondary plant substances, which may contribute to these traditional medicinal effects. We conducted an ethnobotanical study and then evaluated the composition of the secondary plant substances in extracts of the root bark by using spectroscopic methods. After delipidation, the root bark was lixiviated in methanol, and components in the extract were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectometry, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-MS and nano-electrospray ionization-MS-MS. These methods identified 13 secondary plant substances (almost exclusively phenolic compounds): p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (I), vanillin (II), tyrosol (III), 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (IV), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (V), vanillyl alcohol (VI), syringaldehyde (VII), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethanol (VIII), vanillic acid (IX), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (X), syringic acid (XI), and ferulic acid (XII), along with the phytosterol squalene (XIII). In the HPLC-based hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase antioxidant assay system, the methanolic extract exhibited potent antioxidant capacity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 72 μL, equivalent to 1.38 mg/mL of raw extract. Thus, a methanol extract of A. cuneata Oliv. contained a range of polyphenolic compounds, which may be partly responsible for its known traditional medicinal effects. More detailed studies on the phytochemistry of this important plant species are therefore warranted.

  3. Anti-Cancer Activity of Methanol Extracts of Cichorium Intybus on Human Breast Cancer SKBR3 Cell Line

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    Reza Mehrandish

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer and the second cause of death among women around the world. In many cancers, including breast cancer, Fatty acid synthase (FASN gene expression is increased significantly. In breast cancer cell lines, expression of FASN is higher in HER2 positive cell line like SKBR3 than the others. FASN is the key enzyme for fatty acid synthesis de novo pathway and it is producing palmitate which is necessary for cell membrane formation. Cichorium intybus is a medicinal plant that effectively leads to inhibition of fatty acid synthase and thus reduces the percentage of survival of cancer cell lines. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of methanol extract of Chicorium intybus root on percentage of survival in SKBR3 cell line. Methods Human breast cancer SKBR3 cell line was cultured in DMEM medium. Methanol extract of Cichorium intybus root was extracted and different dilutions (200, 300, 400, 500 and 600µg/mL were added to cell culture. Cell viability was quantitated by MTT assay after 24, 48 and 72 hours. Results Cichorium intybus could decrease cell viability. The effects of extract on cell viability were observed after 24, 48 and 72 hours on SKBR3 cell line and IC50 was 800, 400 and 300 after 24, 48 and 72 hours of treatment, respectively. Conclusions Our study shows that methanol extract of Cichorium intybus has cytotoxic effects on tumor cells. This is a pilot work for further evaluation in the future.

  4. Hepato-protective potential of methanol extract of leaf of Ziziphus mucronata (ZMLM) against dimethoate toxicity: biochemical and histological approach.

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    Kwape, T E; Chaturvedi, P; Kamau, J M; George, S

    2013-09-01

    The leaves of Ziziphus mucronata are used locally as food and a health drink; the leaf paste can also be used in the treatment of boils. The root of the plant is usually used in the treatment of a wide range of pains. The study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the methanol leaf extract of Ziziphus mucronata (ZMLM). The extract was prepared by soaking in 70% methanol/water and rotary evaporation. The phenol content of extract was then estimated. Twenty five adult male Sprague dawley rats (aged 21 weeks) were divided into five groups of five rats each and treated as follows; normal control (NC) received distilled water. Dimethoate control (DC) (received 6 mg/kg.bw.day(-1) dimethoate dissolved in distilled water). Experimental Groups (E1) received dimethoate (6mg/kg.bw) + ZMLM (100 mg/kg.bw(-1)); (E2) received dimethoate (6 mg/kg.bw) + ZMLM (200 mg/kg.bw(-1)) and (E3) received dimethoate (6 mg/kg.bw) + ZMLM (300 mg/kg.bw(-1)). In both the cases a normal control and dimethoate control were kept to compare the results. After 90 days, blood was collected and rats were sacrificed to collect the liver tissue for biochemical assays and histological estimations. The results of E1 did not show much change from the normal control group but was significantly different from the dimethoate control group (P≤ 0.05). The preventive effect which was tested in E2 and E3 proved that the extract could almost retain the normal condition in 90 days time. Histological observations also agreed with the results obtained in biochemical parameters. Ziziphus mucronata methanol leaf extract possesses a preventive effect against dimethoate induced oxidative stress as observed in male albino Sprague Dawley rats.

  5. Determination of DPPH Radical Oxidation Caused by Methanolic Extracts of Some Microalgal Species by Linear Regression Analysis of Spectrophotometric Measurements

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    Ulf-Peter Hansen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The demonstrated modified spectrophotometric method makes use of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical and its specific absorbance properties. Theabsorbance decreases when the radical is reduced by antioxidants. In contrast to otherinvestigations, the absorbance was measured at a wavelength of 550 nm. This wavelengthenabled the measurements of the stable free DPPH radical without interference frommicroalgal pigments. This approach was applied to methanolic microalgae extracts for twodifferent DPPH concentrations. The changes in absorbance measured vs. the concentrationof the methanolic extract resulted in curves with a linear decrease ending in a saturationregion. Linear regression analysis of the linear part of DPPH reduction versus extractconcentration enabled the determination of the microalgae’s methanolic extractsantioxidative potentials which was independent to the employed DPPH concentrations. Theresulting slopes showed significant differences (6 - 34 μmol DPPH g-1 extractconcentration between the single different species of microalgae (Anabaena sp.,Isochrysis galbana, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Porphyridium purpureum, Synechocystissp. PCC6803 in their ability to reduce the DPPH radical. The independency of the signal on the DPPH concentration is a valuable advantage over the determination of the EC50 value.

  6. Evaluation of the acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and anti - ulcer properties of methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata in mice

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    Valentine Uneojo Omoja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and anti - ulcer properties of methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata in mice. The anti - ulcer activity was evaluated using absolute ethanol-induced ulcer and aspirin-induced ulcer models in mice. An LD50 of 354.8 +/- 8 mg/kg body weight, bw of the extract was obtained on oral administration. Investigation of the phytochemical constituents of the plant extract revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids and traces of tannins. All doses of the extract (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg used for the study significantly reduced (p<0.05 the mean number of ulcers in both ulcer models when compared to the untreated group A (10 ml/kg distil water. Optimum antiulcer activity of the extract against absolute ethanol-induced ulcer was noted at 50 mg/kg bw. At this 50 mg/kg, the mean number of ulcers and mean ulcer index of the extract was significantly lower (p<0.05 than that of Cimetidine at 100 mg/kg (3.60 +/- 0.51: 5.00 +/- 0.32; 1.5+/-0.05: 0.98+/-0.03, the treated control group whereas the protective index of the extract was higher than that of cimetidine (50.51 %: 24.24 %. The results obtained from this study strongly suggest that methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata can be effectively used for the treatment of ulcer in low doses and can provide better therapeutic effect than cimetidine if used in ulcers caused by alcoholism and related agents. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 37-43

  7. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.: stabilization of sunflower oil

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    Iqbal, Shahid

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93 was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol. The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis. The stabilized (treated with extract and the control (without extract addition SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60ºC for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation.El potencial antioxidante de extractos de metanol al 100% y el 80% de semillas de tres variedades de cebada (Jou 83, Jou 87 y Haider 93 fue evaluada. El rendimiento de los extractos de las semillas de cebada vario desde un 3.23% (Haider, 100% methanol a un 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% metanol. El contenido total de fenoles, la actividad atrapadora del radical DPPH (valores IC50 y la inhibición de la oxidación del ácido linoleico de los extractos de semilla de cebada (BSE fueron 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL y 62.6- 74.6%, respectivamente. La efectividad antioxidante de BSE fue tambi

  8. Efficacy of different methanolic plant extracts on anti-methanogenesis, rumen fermentation and gas production kinetics in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, S K; Goel, N; Pandey, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of methanolic extracts of three plants, mehandi (Lawsonia inermis), jaiphal (Myristica fragrans) and green chili (Capsicum annuum) on methanogenesis, rumen fermentation and fermentation kinetic parameters by in vitro gas production techniques. Single dose of each plant extract (1 ml / 30 ml buffered rumen fluid) and two sorghum fodder containing diets (high and low fiber diets) were used for evaluating the effect on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation pattern, while sequential incubations (0, 1, 2, 3, 6 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 96 h) were carried out for gas production kinetics. Results showed that methane production was reduced, ammonia nitrogen was increased significantly, while no significant effect was found on pH and protozoal population following addition of different plant extracts in both diets except mehandi. Green chili significantly reduced digestibility of dry matter, total fatty acid and acetate concentration at incubation with sorghum based high and low fiber diets. Among all treatments, green chili increased potential gas production, while jaiphal decreased the gas production rate constant significantly. The present results demonstrate that methanolic extracts of different plants are promising rumen modifying agents. They have the potential to modulate the methane production, potential gas production, gas production rate constant, dry matter digestibility and microbial biomass synthesis.

  9. Suppression of thermal and chemical nociception in rats by methanol extract and its sub-fraction from lantana camara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simjee, S.U.; Perveen, H.; Zehra, S.Q.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional use of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) is reported to include anti-nociceptive, antimicrobial, and immunosuppressant activity. To our knowledge no systematic study has been carried out on the anti-nociceptive activity of L. camara. The present study was designed to delineate the analgesic activity of L. camara extract and its fractions to elucidate the traditional belief in the painkilling effects. Experimental models employed were thermal and chemical-induced nociception assays. After initial screening of the methanol extract and its fractions prepared from the aerial parts of the plant, the dose of 50,100 and 200 mg/kg were selected and route of administration was i.p. The test samples were tested against a reference drug indomethacine (i.p. 5 mg/kg). The observations were made at 15, 30, 60, and 120 seconds following the administration of the samples or reference drug. Experiments on naloxone antagonism were conducted to determine involvement of opioid receptors. Compared to concurrent controls, a significant anti-nociceptive activity was observed in methanol extract LC (ED50 50 mg/kg, P < 0.002) and its sub-fractions LCEA-AQ (ED50 50 mg/kg, P < 0.004), LCEA (ED50 100 mg/kg, P < 0.004) and LCEA-PEI (ED50 100 mg/kg, P < 0.005). No apparent acute toxicity was observed in any test groups. The anti-nociceptive activity was not precipitated by naloxone antagonism indicating that these fractions do not act through opioid receptors. The methanol extract and active fractions of Lantana camara possess anti-nociceptive activity. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the mechanism of its action. (author)

  10. Phytochemical investigation of crude methanol extracts of different species of Swertia from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Supreet; Shakya, Niroj; Thapa, Krishna; Pant, Deepak Raj

    2015-12-26

    The genus Swertia is reported to contain potent bitter compounds like iridoids, xanthones and c-glucoflavones that are known to heal many human disorders. In contrast to high ethnomedicinally valued Swertia chirayita, its other species have not been studied extensively, in spite of their common use in traditional medicinal system in Nepalese communities. So, the present study attempts to investigate the content of total polyphenols, flavonoids, antioxidant activity and estimate the rough content of amarogentin, swertiamarin and mangiferin from different species of Swertia from Nepalese Himalayas. Whole plant parts of S. chirayita (SCH), S. angustifolia (SAN), S. paniculata (SPA), S. racemosa (SRA), S. nervosa (SNE), S. ciliata (SCI) and S. dilatata (SDI) were collected; total phenolic and flavonoid contents were quantified spectrophotometrically and in vitro DPPH free radical scavenging assay was measured. Thin layer chromatography was performed on TLC aluminium plates pre-coated with silica gel for identification of swertiamarin, amarogentin and mangiferin from those species and semi quantitative estimation was done using GelQuant.NET software using their standard compounds. The phenolic content was highest in the methanol extract of SCH (67.49 ± 0.5 mg GAE/g) followed by SDI, SRA, SNE, SCI, SPA and SAN. The contents of flavonoids were found in the order of SCH, SPA, SRA, SNE, SDI, SCI and SAN. Promising concentration of phenolics and flavonoids produced promising DPPH free radical scavenging values. The IC50 values for the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test was lowest in SCH (23.35 ± 0.6 μg/ml), even lower than the standard ascorbic acid among the seven studied species. A significant correlation of 0.977 was observed between the polyphenol content and antioxidant values. The TLC profile showed the presence of all three major phytochemicals; amarogentin, swertiamarin and mangiferin in all of the plant samples. Among the seven studied

  11. Anti-Melanogenic Effect of Oenothera laciniata Methanol Extract in Melan-a Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Eun; Lee, Chae Myoung; Kim, Young Chul

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the antioxidant activity and anti-melanogenic effects of Oenothera laciniata methanol extract (OLME) in vitro by using melan-a cells. The total polyphenol and flavonoid content of OLME was 66.3 and 19.0 mg/g, respectively. The electron-donating ability, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of OLME (500 μg/mL) were 94.5%, 95.6%, and 63.6%, respectively. OLME and arbutin treatment at 50 μg/mL significantly decreased melanin content by 35.5% and 14.2%, respectively, compared to control ( p < 0.05). OLME and arbutin treatment at 50 μg/mL significantly inhibited intra-cellular tyrosinase activity by 22.6% and 12.6%, respectively, compared to control ( p < 0.05). OLME (50 μg/mL) significantly decreased tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), TRP-2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor-M (MITF-M) mRNA expression by 57.1%, 67.3%, 99.0%, and 77.0%, respectively, compared to control ( p < 0.05). Arbutin (50 μg/mL) significantly decreased tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2 mRNA expression by 24.2%, 42.9%, and 48.5%, respectively, compared to control ( p < 0.05). However, arbutin (50 μg/mL) did not affect MITF-M mRNA expression. Taken together, OLME showed a good antioxidant activity and anti-melanogenic effect in melan-a cells that was superior to that of arbutin, a well-known skin-whitening agent. The potential mechanism underlying the anti-melanogenic effect of OLME was inhibition of tyrosinase activity and down-regulation of tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2, and MITF-M mRNA expression.

  12. Study of the Antibacterial Activity of Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Myrtus communis on Pathogenic Strains Causing Infection

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    Behrooz Alizadeh Behbahani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Medicine plants have been used as sources of medicine in virtually all cultures. During the last decade, the use of traditional medicine (TM has been expanded globally and is gaining popularity. Objectives The antimicrobial activities of methanol and water extracts of Myrtus communis L. leaves were evaluated in this study. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, the tests were carried out using disk agar diffusion method at four extract concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/mL. The MICs and MBCs of the extracts of M. communis were determined by agar dilution method. Average results were reported as the mean and standard error (mean ± SE and SPSS-18 statistical software, oneway ANOVA followed by Turkey’s test were used to do inter-group comparison, while considering P ≤ 0.05 as the significance level. Results Methanol extract of M. communis exhibited significant antibacterial activity in the concentration of 20 mg/mL (P ≤ 0.05 against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis with a greater inhibition zone of 20 mm, while a 14 mm zone of inhibition was observed in Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the extracts ranged between 2 mg/mL and 128 mg/mL while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC ranged between 4 mg/mL and 256 mg/mL. Conclusions The study showed that species, strains and concentrations of M. communis extract are of those factors that may influence the sensitivity of the tested bacteria. A significant correlation was observed between zone of inhibition and concentration of extract.

  13. Antibacterial and Antibiotic-Modifying Activity of Methanol Extracts from Six Cameroonian Food Plants against Multidrug-Resistant Enteric Bacteria

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    Joachim K. Dzotam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was designed to investigate the antibacterial activities of methanol extracts from six Cameroonian edible plants and their synergistic effects with some commonly used antibiotics against multidrug-resistant (MDR Gram-negative bacteria expressing active efflux pumps. The extracts were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening and the microdilution broth method was used for antibacterial assays. The results of phytochemical tests indicate that all tested crude extracts contained polyphenols, flavonoids, triterpenes, and steroids. Extracts displayed selective antibacterial activities with the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 32 to 1024 μg/mL. The lowest MIC value (32 μg/mL was recorded with Coula edulis extract against E. coli AG102 and K. pneumoniae K2 and with Mangifera indica bark extract against P. aeruginosa PA01 and Citrus sinensis extract against E. coli W3110 which also displayed the best MBC (256 μg/mL value against E. coli ATCC8739. In combination with antibiotics, extracts from M. indica leaves showed synergistic effects with 75% (6/8 of the tested antibiotics against more than 80% of the tested bacteria. The findings of the present work indicate that the tested plants may be used alone or in combination in the treatment of bacterial infections including the multidrug-resistant bacteria.

  14. Evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antiulcer effect of aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves of Polygonum minus Huds. (Polygonaceae in rodents

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    Parayil Varghese Christapher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polygonum minus (Kesum is an annual plant that grows throughout South East Asian countries. The Leaf of P. minus is commonly used as diet ingredient in Malaysia. Traditionally the decoction of leaves of this plant is used to treat stomach ache and digestive problems. The plant has known antioxidant activity, and its pharmacological properties are remaining unclear. Hence the study is planned to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer and antipyretic activity of kesum. Materials and methods: P. minus leaves was extracted with methanol and distilled water by simple maceration. The dried extract was used for further phytochemical and pharmacological analysis. The analgesic effect of methanol and aqueous extract of P. minus was studied using acetic acid, tail immersion and formalin induced pain in rats. The anti-inflammatory effect of both extracts was studied using carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. The pyloric ligation model was used to study the antiulcer effect. The antipyretic effect was studied using Brewer′s yeast induced pyrexia. Results: The percentage yield of aqueous and methanol extract of P. minus leaves were 1.15 and 2.57% w/w respectively. Both the extract showed significant analgesic effect against acetic acid writing, tail immersion and formalin induced pain methods, but the effect was not equivalent to that of standard. Aqueous extract showed significant anti-inflammatory action and methanol extract showed significant anti-ulcer effect. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of the P. minus has significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory action, whereas methanolic extract showed presence of analgesic and anti-ulcer activity. Both aqueous and methanolic extract did not show any significant antipyretic activity.

  15. Effect of Methanol extract of Kigelia africana on Sperm Motility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fertility activities of the fruit of Kigelia africana Lam. Benth. Family Bignoniaceae, a medicinal plant used in south eastern Nigeria by local traditional healers for treatment of fertility abnormalities especially in male and female adults has been carried out. The research revealed that male rats treated with the methanol ...

  16. Anti-proliferative and mutagenic activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves from Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Hui Meng; Cheng, En-Hsiang; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty

    2007-09-25

    The anti-proliferative effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae) against a mouse mammary cancer cell line (4T1) and a normal mouse fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3) were evaluated under an optimal (in culture medium containing 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS)) and a sub-optimal (in culture medium containing 0.5% FBS) conditions. Under the optimal condition, the aqueous extract showed a significant (pCactaceae) do not have appreciable anti-proliferative effect on the 4T1 and NIH/3T3 cells as the EC(50) values obtained are greater than 50 microg/mL when tested under optimal culture condition. Moreover, the aqueous extract may form mutagenic compound(s) upon the metabolisation by liver enzymes.

  17. Hepatoprotective efficiency of methanol extract of red algae against chromium-induced oxidative damage in Wistar rats

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    Murugesan Subbiah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of red algae Portieria hornemannii (Lyngbye Silva (P. hornemannii and Spyridia fusiformis Boergesen (S. fusiformis by using the chromium treated rat liver as the animal model. Methods: The extract of red algae at a dosage of 0.200 g/kg of whole body weight was orally administrated to Cr (VI intoxicated rats for 28 consecutive days. The effect of drug in rats was evaluated by comparing the degree of the production of enzymes responsible for antioxidant activity such lipid peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione with Cr (VI analogs in the absence of any secondary treatment. The overall damage of liver was detected by measuring serum enzymes such as aspartate amino transferase and alanine aminotransferase activities which released into the blood from the damaged cells. Results: It was observed that these enzyme levels were noticed in the animals treated with methanol extracts of red algae (200 mg/kg through preventing the leakage of the above enzymes into the blood. The hepatoprotection obtained using LIV 52 (standard reference drug appeared relatively higher. The antihepatotoxic potential of red algae P. hornemannii and S. fusiformis might be due to their antioxidative and membrane stabilizing activities. Conclusions: Our results indicated that the extract of P. hornemannii and S. fusiformis obtained from methanol could be a promising hepatoprotective agent against chromium (VI-induced liver damage.

  18. Therapeutic effect of methanolic extract of Laportea aestuans (L.) Chew, on oxidative stress in the brain of male Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth, Omotosho Omolola; Olawumi, Ogunlade Oladipupo

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of diclofenac-induced oxidative stress in the brain of Wistar rats. The experiment was carried out using thirty-six rats. Six groups contained six rats in each. The first group being the control group received 1ml of gum acacia which is the vehicle. Groups 2 to 6 were induced with oxidative stress by oral administration of 40 mg/kg body weight of diclofenac and pretreated as follows: group 2 received only diclofenac, group 3 with 200 mg/kg body weight of methanolic extract of Laportea aestuans (L.) Chew, group 4 with 400 mg/kg body weight of Laportea aestuans extract, group 5 with 800 mg/kg body weight of Laportea aestuans and group 6 with 50 mg/kg body weight of cimetidine. The pretreatment was carried out for a period of seven days after which oxidative stress was induced. The animals were thereafter sacrificed and brain was excised. Antioxidant enzymes and molecules such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, levels of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl were assayed by standard methods. The results showed significant increases in glutathione level and activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and significant decrease in lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl in groups 3 to 5 when compared to group 2. This shows that the methanolic extract of Laportea aestuans has a protective effect on the brain against oxidative stress.

  19. IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY TEST OF SOME COMPOUNDS FROM METHANOL EXTRACT PEEL OF BANANA (Musa paradisiaca Linn.

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    Sri Atun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of these research was measured activity as antioxidant some compounds in methanol extracts of peel of banana (Musa paradisiaca Linn., isolated some compounds which had activities as antioxidant, and determined this structure. Method of this study was extracted powdered peel of banana with methanol at room temperature. Extract was concentrated in vaccuo and then successively was partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, etyl acetate, and buthanol. Antioxidant test from each fractions was measured by hydroxyl radical scavenger test with Fenton reaction method. The result of this study showed activity each fractions as  hydroxyl radical scavenger activity of chloroform, etyl acetate, and buthanol fraction were IC50 693.15; 2347.40; and 1071.14 mg/mL respectively. The isolation of secondary metabolite compounds from chloroform fraction obtained two isolate compounds. Identification by spectroscopy IR,  MS, 1H and 13C NMR one and two dimension showed that the compounds are 5,6,7,4'-tetrahidroxy-3,4-flavan-diol and a new compound cyclohexenon derivative (2-cyclohexene-1-on-2,4,4-trimethyl-3-O-2'-hydroxypropyl ether.   Keywords: antioxidant, peel of banana, Musa paradisiaca, hydroxyl radical scavenger

  20. Assessment of the medicinal potentials of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Buddleja saligna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedapo, Adeolu A; Jimoh, Florence O; Koduru, Srinivas; Masika, Patrick J; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2009-07-06

    Buddleja saligna Willd (Loganiaceae) is a small to medium-sized evergreen tree; trunk short, often gnarled and crooked; crown dense, rounded or domed-shaped; foliage greyish green. The wild olives are traditionally used to lower blood pressures in many parts of the world. In southern Africa, bark and leaf decoctions are used to treat colic, coughs, colds, sore eyes, urinary problems and as purgatives. The antibacterial, antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Buddleja saligna were evaluated using in vitro standard methods. Spectrophotometry was the basis for the determinations of total phenol, total flavonoids, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins. Tannins, quercetin and catechin equivalents were used for these parameters. The antioxidant activities of the leaves and stem extracts of Buddleja saligna were determined by ABTS, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) methods. Laboratory isolates of 10 bacteria species which included five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative strains were used to assay for antibacterial activity of this plant. The antioxidant activities of the leaves as determined by the ABTS and DPPH were similar to that of the stem. The flavonoids and the flavonols contents of the leaves were higher than that of the stem but the total phenols, proanthocyanidins and FRAP activities were higher in the methanol extracts of the stem. The extracts did show activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. For instance, while the methanol extract of the leaves showed good activities on all the organisms except Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at MICs of between 2.5 and 5.0 mg/ml, the extract of the stem only showed activities on Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus pyrogens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the same concentration. The results from this study indicate that the leaves and stem extracts of Buddleja saligna possess antioxidant properties and could serve as

  1. Assessment of the medicinal potentials of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Buddleja saligna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masika Patrick J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Buddleja saligna Willd (Loganiaceae is a small to medium-sized evergreen tree; trunk short, often gnarled and crooked; crown dense, rounded or domed-shaped; foliage greyish green. The wild olives are traditionally used to lower blood pressures in many parts of the world. In southern Africa, bark and leaf decoctions are used to treat colic, coughs, colds, sore eyes, urinary problems and as purgatives. Methods The antibacterial, antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Buddleja saligna were evaluated using in vitro standard methods. Spectrophotometry was the basis for the determinations of total phenol, total flavonoids, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins. Tannins, quercetin and catechin equivalents were used for these parameters. The antioxidant activities of the leaves and stem extracts of Buddleja saligna were determined by ABTS, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP methods. Laboratory isolates of 10 bacteria species which included five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative strains were used to assay for antibacterial activity of this plant. Results The antioxidant activities of the leaves as determined by the ABTS and DPPH were similar to that of the stem. The flavonoids and the flavonols contents of the leaves were higher than that of the stem but the total phenols, proanthocyanidins and FRAP activities were higher in the methanol extracts of the stem. The extracts did show activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. For instance, while the methanol extract of the leaves showed good activities on all the organisms except Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at MICs of between 2.5 and 5.0 mg/ml, the extract of the stem only showed activities on Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus pyrogens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the same concentration. Conclusion The results from this study indicate that the leaves and stem extracts of

  2. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and methanol extract of the Egyptian lemongrass Cymbopogon proximus Stapf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, S.A.

    2011-07-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the essential oil (Eo) and methanol extract from a unique, Egyptian endemic plant, Cymbopogon proximus STAPF. The chemical composition of a hydrodistilled Eo of C. proximus was analyzed by a GC and GC/MS system. A total of 19 constituents representing 95.47% of the oil were identified: piperitone (72.44%), elemol (9.43%), a - eudesmol (4.34%), limonene (2.45%) and a - eudesmol. (Author).

  3. Analysis of pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals using methanolic extraction and detection by LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Andersen, Jens Hinge; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: A method for analysing carbamates and other relatively polar pesticides by LC–MS–MS with electrospray ionisation has been developed. The method is based on extraction by ultrasonication using a methanolic ammonium acetate–acetic acid buffer. After centrifugation the samples are filtered...... in Miniprep filter HPLC vials and detected by LC–MS–MS. To compensate for variations in the MS response [13C6]-carbaryl was used as internal standard and matrix-matched pesticide solutions were used as external standards for the quantification. The method has been validated for the matrices apple, avocado...

  4. Anthelminthic activity of methanol extracts of Diospyros anisandra and Petiveria alliacea on cyathostomin (Nematoda: Cyathostominae) larval development and egg hatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flota-Burgos, G J; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Arjona-Cambranes, K A

    2017-12-15

    Methanol extracts of plant structures are promising alternatives to traditional pharmaceutical anthelminthic treatments. An in vitro evaluation was done of how methanol extracts of Diospyros anisandra bark and leaves, and Petiveria alliacea stems and leaves, collected during the rainy and dry seasons, effected cyathostomin larval development and egg hatching. Seven concentrations (600, 300, 150, 75, 37.5, 18.7 and 9.3μg/ml) were tested using the egg hatch assay. An ANOVA was applied to identify differences between the concentrations and the controls. Fifty percent lethal concentration (LC 50 ) and the 95% confidence interval were calculated with a probit analysis. At and above 37.5μg/ml, the D. anisandra bark extracts from both seasons exhibited ≥95% egg hatch inhibition (EHI), while the D. anisandra leaf extracts had >90% EHI at and above 75μg/ml. For P. alliacea, the extracts from leaves and stems from either season exhibited >97% EHI at and above 300μg/ml, although similar efficacy was also observed at lower concentrations with the rainy season stems (75μg/ml) and leaves (150μg/ml). Values for LC 50 were lowest for the rainy season D. anisandra bark (10.2μg/ml) and leaf extracts (18.4μg/ml), followed by the rainy season P. alliacea stems extract (28.2μg/ml). In the D. anisandra extracts, EHI was largely due to its ovicidal activity (≥96% beginning at 37.5μg/ml), whereas in the P. alliacea extracts it was due to L 1 larval hatch failure (≥90% beginning at 75μg/ml). Overall, the rainy season D. anisandra bark extracts had a strong in vitro anthelminthic effect against cyathostomins by inhibiting larval development, and the rainy season P. alliacea stem extracts had a strong effect by preventing egg hatching. Both are possible control alternatives for these nematodes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Acetonic and Methanolic Extracts of Heterotheca inuloides, and Quercetin, Decrease CCl4-Oxidative Stress in Several Rat Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; Huerta-Gertrudis, Bernardino; García-Cruz, Mercedes Edna; Montesinos-Correa, Hortencia; Sánchez-González, Dolores Javier; Camacho-Carranza, Rafael; Espinosa-Aguirre, Jesús Javier

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the acetonic and methanolic extracts of H. inuloides prevent carbon tetrachloride-(CCl4) induced oxidative stress in vital tissues. Pretreatment with both H. inuloides extracts or quercetin attenuated the increase in serum activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (BB), creatinine (CRE), and creatine kinase (CK), and impeded the decrease of γ-globulin (γ-GLOB) and albumin (ALB) observed in CCl4-induced tissue injury. The protective effect was confirmed by histological analysis with hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid/Schiff's reagent. Level of lipid peroxidation was higher in the organs of rats exposed to CCl4 than in those of the animals treated with Heterohteca extracts or quercetin, and these showed levels similar to the untreated group. Pretreatment of animals with either of the extracts or quercetin also prevented the increase of 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-nitrotyrosine. Pretreatment with the plant extracts or quercetin attenuated CCl4 toxic effects on the activity of several antioxidant enzymes. The present results strongly suggest that the chemopreventive effect of the extracts used and quercetin, against CCl4 toxicity, is associated with their antioxidant properties and corroborated previous results obtained in liver tissue. PMID:23365610

  6. Anti-obesity activity of chloroform-methanol extract of Premna integrifolia in mice fed with cafeteria diet

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    Prashant Y Mali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-obesity activity of chloroform:methanol extract of P. integrifolia (CMPI in mice fed with cafeteria diet. Materials and Methods: Female Swiss Albino mice were divided into six groups, which received normal and cafeteria diet, standard drug simvastatin (10 mg/kg and CMPI (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg daily for 40 days. Parameters such as body weight, body mass index (BMI, Lee index of obesity (LIO, food consumption, locomotor behavior, serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, atherogenic index, organ weight and organ fat pad weight were studied for evaluating the anti-obesity activity of P. integrifolia. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC fingerprint profile of chloroform-methanol extract was also studied using quercetin as the reference standard. Results: There was a significant increase in body weight, BMI, LIO, food consumption, organ weight (liver and small intestine, organ fat pad weight (mesenteric and peri-renal fat pad and in the levels of serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL with a significant decrease in locomotor behavior (ambulation, rearing, grooming and HDL level in cafeteria diet group. Animals treated with CMPI showed dose dependent activity. P. integrifolia (200 mg/kg supplementation attenuated all the above alterations, which indicates the anti-obesity activity. HPLC fingerprint profile of CMPI showed two peaks in the solvent system of 50 mm potassium diphosphate (pH-3 with ortho phosphoric acid: Methanol (30:70 v/v at 360 nm. Conclusion: Present findings suggest that, CMPI possessed anti-obesity activity that substantiated its ethno-medicinal use in the treatment of obesity.

  7. PURIFICATION AND FRACTIONAL ANALYSIS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF WEDELIA TRILOBATA POSSESSING APOPTOTIC AND ANTI-LEUKEMIC ACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Uday; Javarasetty, Chethan; Murari, Satish Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitch (WT), commonly known as yellow dots or creeping daisy, is a shrub possessing potent biological activities, and is traditionally used a medicinal plant in Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani systems of medicines, and it has also been tried against leukemia cell line MEG- 01. In the present study, purification and screening of the plant was done for bioactive compounds in methanolic extract of WT for apoptotic and anti-leukemia activity. Materials and methods: The methanolic extract of WT was initially purified through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and screened for the apoptotic and anti-leukemia activities. The positive band of TLC was subjected to silica gel column chromatography for further purification and the fractions obtained from it were screened again for anti-leukemia activity through thymidine uptake assay and apoptotic activity by DNA fragmentation, nuclear staining and flow cytometry assays. The fraction with positive result was subjected to HPLC for analysis of bioactive components. Results: Out of many combinations of solvents, the methanol and dichloromethane combination in the ratio 6:4 has revealed two bands in TLC, among which the second band showed positive results for apoptotic and anti-leukemic activities. Further purification of second band through silica gel chromatography gave five fractions in which the 3rd fraction gave positive results and it shows single peak during compositional analysis through HPLC. Conclusion: The single peak revealed through HPLC indicates the presence of pure compound with apoptotic and anti-leukemia activities encouraging for further structural analysis. PMID:28480428

  8. Solvent extraction of lanthanide ions with 1-Phenyl-3-Methyl-4-Benzoyl-Pyrazolone-5 (HPMBP), 2. Extraction of Erbium(III), Ytterbium(III) and Lutetium(III) by HPMBP from aqueous-methanol solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czakis-Sulikowska, D.M.; Kuznik, B.; Malinowska, A.

    1990-01-01

    The solvent extraction of lanthanides(III)(Ln = Er, Yb, Lu) by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5 (HL) in carbon tetrachloride from aqueous-methanol phase was investigated. The equilibrium constants for the extraction from aqueous-50 % (ν/ν) methanol phase (K ex ), two-phase stability constants of the complexes LnL 3 (β 3 * ) and stability constants of complexes LnL 2+ , LnL 2 + , LnL 3 (β n )(Ln = Yb, Lu) were calculated. It was confirmed that the addition of methanol to the aqueous phase causes a synergistic effect. The influence of methanol on the dissociation constant of HPMBP (K a ) and the distribution constant of HPMBP (p HL ) between carbon tetrachloride and water-methanol solutions was investigated. (Authors)

  9. In vitro anthelmintic activity and chemical composition of methanol extracts and fractions of Croton paraguayensis and Vernonia brasiliana against Eisenia fetida

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    Andrea Leticia Cáceres

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the chemical composition and the anthelmintic activity of the methanol extracts and the acid and basic fractions of Croton paraguayensis (C. paraguayensis and Vernonia brasiliana (V. brasiliana against Eisenia fetida. Methods: A preliminary phytochemical analysis was performed to assess the presence of groups of secondary metabolites. The plants were extracted with methanol to obtain the crude extracts. A differential pH extraction was performed to isolate basic compounds like alkaloids. The methanolic extracts and the fractions obtained were tested for anthelmintic activity against Eisenia fetida, using albendazole as positive control. Results: The phytochemical test demonstrated the presence of alkaloids in the crude extracts and alkaline fractions, along with flavonoids, coumarins, steroids/triterpenes and tannins. The anthelmintic activity of the extracts and fractions of C. paraguayensis and V. brasiliana showed a statistically significant decrease of the times for paralysis and death compared to albendazole. Conclusions: The methanolic extracts and fractions of C. paraguayensis and V. brasiliana contain compounds that possess anthelmintic activity. The isolation of the substances responsible for the biological effect described could result in the development of new drugs to treat helminth diseases.

  10. Protective effect of methanol extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla against excitotoxicity induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongseok; Son, Dongwook; Lee, Pyeongjae; Kim, Dae-Keun; Shin, Min-Chul; Jang, Mi-Hyeon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Yong-Sik; Kim, Sun-Yeou; Kim, Hocheol

    2003-05-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla is a medicinal herb used for convulsive disorders in Oriental medicine. In this study, the effect of the methanol extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla against N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced excitotoxicity was investigated. Pretreatment with the extract of Uncaria rhynchopylla reduced the degree of neuronal damage induced by NMDA exposure in cultured hippocampal slices. In the patch clamp study, Uncaria rhynchophylla significantly inhibited NMDA receptor-activated ion current in acutely dissociated hippocampal CA1 neurons. These results indicate that Uncaria rhynchophylla offers protection against NMDA-induced neuronal injury and inhibitory action on NMDA receptor-mediated ion current may be a mechanism behind the neuroprotective effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla.

  11. Anticancer activity and apoptosis inducing effect of methanolic extract of Cordia dichotoma against human cancer cell line

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    Md. Azizur Rahman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available MTT assay and DAPI staining test were performed to evaluate anticancer potential and to assess apoptosis inducing effect of methanolic extract of Cordia dichotoma leaves (MECD against human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa. Changes in MMP and intracellular ROS level were also assessed by JC-1 and DCFH-DA staining. Total phenolic contents were determined by colorimetric principle. Levels of statistical significance were determined by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett’s posttest. Results showed that MECD with obtained IC50 of 202 µg/mL inhibited in vitro proliferation of human cervical cancer cells and induced apoptosis indicating its promising anticancer activity as compared to the standard tamoxifen with obtained IC50 of 48 µg/mL. Total phenolic contents was found to be 176.5 mg GAE/g dried extract. It was concluded that MECD possess promising anticancer activity and induce apoptosis.

  12. Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil

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    Gamel, T. H.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil. Methanol phenolic extracts of dry rosemary leaves and olive vegetable water filtrate, in combination with BHA, were added to olive oil (blend of refined and virgin olive oil, 3 to 1 and to sunflower oil and their antioxidant effects under accelerated conditions were evaluated. Accelerated conditions included the oven test (at 63 °C and the conductivity method (Rancimat at 120 °C. Frying process at 180 °C was also applied. The methanol phenolic extracts and the BHA were added to each oil at the following concentrations: 200 ppm rosemary extract; 200 ppm olive vegetable water extract; 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA; 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA and 200 ppm BHA. In general, antioxidant effect of phenolic additives of rosemary and of BHA was in the following order: 200 ppm rosemary extract > 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA > and 200 ppm BHA. The addition of 200 ppm vegetable water extract and 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA exhibited similar antioxidant effect to that of 200 ppm BHA.

    Extractos metanólicos de fenoles de hojas secas de romero y filtrados de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, en combinación con BHA, se añadieron al aceite de oliva (mezcla de aceite de oliva refinado y virgen, 3 a 1 y al aceite de girasol, evaluándose sus efectos antioxidantes usando condiciones aceleradas. Estas condiciones incluyeron el test del horno de oxidación (a 63 °C y el método de conductividad (Rancimat a 120 °C. También se aplicó al proceso de fritura a 180 °C. Los extractos metanólicos de fenoles y el BHA se añadieron a cada aceite en las siguientes concentraciones: 200 ppm de extracto de romero, 200 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, 100 ppm de extracto de romero + 100 ppm de BHA, 100 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación + 100 ppm de BHA y 200 ppm de BHA

  13. In vitro thrombolytic, anthelmintic, anti-oxidant and cytotoxic activity with phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of Xanthium indicum leaves

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    Antara Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xanthium indicum is an important medicinal plant traditionally used in Bangladesh as a folkloric treatment. The current study was undertaken to evaluate thrombolytic, anthelmintic, anti-oxidant, cytotoxic properties with phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of X. indicum leaves. The analysis of phytochemical screening confirmed the existence of phytosetrols and diterpenes. In thrombolytic assay, a significant clot lysis was observed at four concentrations of plant extract compare to the positive control streptokinase (30,000 IU, 15,000 IU and negative control normal saline. The extract revealed potent anthelmintic activity at different concentrations. In anti-oxidant activity evaluation by two potential experiments namely total phenolic content determination and free radical scavenging assay by 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, the leaves extract possess good anti-oxidant property. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the crude extract showed potent (LC50 1.3 μg/mL cytotoxic activity compare to the vincristine sulfate as a positive control (LC50 0.8 μg/mL.

  14. Antimalarial activity of 80 % methanolic extract of Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. (Brassicaceae) seeds against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluye, Abrham Belachew; Melese, Eshetie; Adinew, Getnet Mequanint

    2015-10-15

    Resistances to currently available drugs and insecticides, significant drug toxicities and costs and lack of vaccines currently complicated the treatment of malaria. A continued search for safe, effective and affordable plant-based antimalarial agents thus becomes crucial and vital in the face of these difficulties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimalarial activity of 80 % methanolic extract of the seeds of Brassica nigra against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. Chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain) was used to test the antimalarial activity of the extract. In suppressive and prophylactic models, Swiss albino male mice were randomly grouped into five groups of five mice each. Group I mice were treated with the vehicle, group II, III and IV were treated with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively and the last group (V) mice were treated with chloroquine (10 mg/kg). The level of parasitemia, survival time and variation in weight of mice were used to determine the antimalarial activity of the extract. Chemosuppressive activities produced by the extract of the seeds of Brassica nigra were 21.88, 50.00 (P activities were 17.42, 21.21 and 53.79 % (P activities and the plant may contain biologically active principles which are relevant in the treatment and prophylaxis of malaria, thus supporting further studies of the plant for its active components.

  15. Analgesic effects of the methylene chloride/methanol extract of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CH2Cl2/CH3OH) extract of Laportea ovalifolia (Urticaceae) were evaluated using acetic acid and formalin test. The anticonvulsant effects of the same extract were also investigated on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) and picrotoxin.

  16. Antinociceptive properties of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Petersianthus macrocarpus (P. Beauv.) Liben (Lecythidaceae) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomba, Francis Desire Tatsinkou; Wandji, Bibiane Aimee; Piegang, Basile Nganmegne; Awouafack, Maurice Ducret; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Kamanyi, Albert; Nguelefack, Telesphore Benoit

    2015-11-04

    Aqueous maceration from the stem barks of Petersianthus macrocarpus (P. Beauv.) Liben (Lecythidaceae) is taken orally in the central Africa for the management of various ailments, including pain. This work was carried out to evaluate in mice, the antinociceptive effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the stem bark of P. macrocarpus. The chemical composition of the aqueous and methanol extracts prepared as cold macerations was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LCMS). The antinociceptive effects of these extracts administered orally at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were evaluated using behavioral pain model induced by acetic acid, formalin, hot-plate, capsaicin and glutamate. The rotarod test was also performed at the same doses. The oral acute toxicity of both extracts was studied at the doses of 800, 1600, 3200 and 6400 mg/kg in mice. The LCMS analysis revealed the presence of ellagic acid as the major constituent in the methanol extract. Both extracts of P. macrocarpus significantly and dose dependently reduced the time and number of writhing induced by acetic acid. They also significantly inhibited the two phases of formalin-induced pain. These effects were significantly inhibited by a pretreatment with naloxone, except for the analgesic activity of the methanol extract at the earlier phase. In addition, nociception induced by hot plate, intraplantar injection of capsaicin or glutamate was significantly inhibited by both extracts. Acute toxicity test showed no sign of toxicity. These results demonstrate that aqueous and methanol extracts of P. macrocarpus are none toxic substances with good central and peripheral antinociceptive effects that are at least partially due to the presence of ellagic acid. These extracts may induce their antinociceptive effect by interfering with opioid, capsaicin and excitatory amino acid pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of in vitro total phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract of Echium amoenum L.

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    Fathi H

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In traditional and modern medicine, active ingredients of medicinal plants have many applications in food, pharmaceutical, medical and industry. Antioxidants are compounds that prevent the oxidation process in the cell. Echium amoenum L. is a plant which grows in the mountainous regions of Mazandaran. This plant has different biological effects such as sedation, anti-inflammation, antidepressant and cancer preventive properties in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the total phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract of E.amoenum plant. Methods:In this experimental laboratory study the content of total phenolic Using the folin-siokalatio reactive at 760 nm wavelength and flavonoid With the use of aluminum chloride reagent at 420nm of E.amoenum extract were measured and antioxidant capacities of different concentrations of the extract were evaluated. Results: The results showed that total phenolic content of the extract was 429±2μg gallic acid equivalent/ml and flavonoid content was 148.56±1.52μg quercetin equivalent/ml, respectively. The radical scavenging activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl hydrate (DPPH,inhibitory concentration of 50%(IC50,was determined 178.11 μg/ml. Assessment of the reducing ability of extract showed that the extract had more activity than vitamin C. The percent nitric oxide trap inhibition of the extract was 57.89% and power iron chelating properties was 51.74%,that showed statistically significant difference in comparison with vitamin C and Quercetin (P=0.0473 and (P=0.0096 respectively. Conclusion: According to the results, E.amoenum extract had remarkable antioxidant capacity and can be proposed as an antioxidant compound used in the manufacture of food and pharmaceutical products.

  18. Methanol leaf extract of Actinodaphne sesquipedalis (Lauraceae) enhances gastric defense against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Hanita; Nordin, Noraziah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Azizan, Ainnul Hamidah Syahadah; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Mohd Hashim, Najihah; Mohd Ali, Hapipah

    2017-01-01

    Actinodaphne sesquipedalis Hook. F. Var. Glabra (Kochummen), also known as “Medang payung” by the Malay people, belongs to the Lauraceae family. In this study, methanol leaf extract of A. sesquipedalis was investigated for their acute toxicity and gastroprotective effects to reduce ulcers in rat stomachs induced by ethanol. The rats were assigned to one of five groups: normal group (group 1), ulcer group (group 2), control positive drug group (group 3) and two experimental groups treated with 150 mg/kg (group 4) and 300 mg/kg (group 5) of leaf extract. The rats were sacrificed an hour after pretreatment with extracts, and their stomach homogenates and tissues were collected for further evaluation. Macroscopic and histological analyses showed that gastric ulcers in rats pretreated with the extract were significantly reduced to an extent that it allowed leukocytes penetration of the gastric walls compared with the ulcer group. In addition, an ulcer inhibition rate of >70% was detected in rats treated with both doses of A. sesquipedalis extract, showing a notable protection of gastric layer. Severe destruction of gastric mucosa was prevented with a high production of mucus and pH gastric contents in both omeprazole-treated and extract-treated groups. Meanwhile, an increase in glycoprotein uptake was observed in pretreated rats through accumulation of magenta color in Periodic Acid Schiff staining assay. Analysis of gastric homogenate from pretreated rats showed a reduction of malondialdehyde and elevation of nitric oxide, glutathione, prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and protein concentration levels in comparison with group 2. Suppression of apoptosis in gastric tissues by upregulation of Hsp70 protein and downregulation of Bax protein was also observed in rats pretreated with extract. Consistent results of a reduction of gastric ulcer and the protection of gastric wall were obtained for rats pretreated with A. sesquipedalis extract, which showed its

  19. Methanol leaf extract of Actinodaphne sesquipedalis (Lauraceae) enhances gastric defense against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Hanita; Nordin, Noraziah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Azizan, Ainnul Hamidah Syahadah; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Mohd Hashim, Najihah; Mohd Ali, Hapipah

    2017-01-01

    Actinodaphne sesquipedalis Hook. F. Var. Glabra (Kochummen), also known as "Medang payung" by the Malay people, belongs to the Lauraceae family. In this study, methanol leaf extract of A. sesquipedalis was investigated for their acute toxicity and gastroprotective effects to reduce ulcers in rat stomachs induced by ethanol. The rats were assigned to one of five groups: normal group (group 1), ulcer group (group 2), control positive drug group (group 3) and two experimental groups treated with 150 mg/kg (group 4) and 300 mg/kg (group 5) of leaf extract. The rats were sacrificed an hour after pretreatment with extracts, and their stomach homogenates and tissues were collected for further evaluation. Macroscopic and histological analyses showed that gastric ulcers in rats pretreated with the extract were significantly reduced to an extent that it allowed leukocytes penetration of the gastric walls compared with the ulcer group. In addition, an ulcer inhibition rate of >70% was detected in rats treated with both doses of A. sesquipedalis extract, showing a notable protection of gastric layer. Severe destruction of gastric mucosa was prevented with a high production of mucus and pH gastric contents in both omeprazole-treated and extract-treated groups. Meanwhile, an increase in glycoprotein uptake was observed in pretreated rats through accumulation of magenta color in Periodic Acid Schiff staining assay. Analysis of gastric homogenate from pretreated rats showed a reduction of malondialdehyde and elevation of nitric oxide, glutathione, prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and protein concentration levels in comparison with group 2. Suppression of apoptosis in gastric tissues by upregulation of Hsp70 protein and downregulation of Bax protein was also observed in rats pretreated with extract. Consistent results of a reduction of gastric ulcer and the protection of gastric wall were obtained for rats pretreated with A. sesquipedalis extract, which showed its prominent

  20. A comparative study on the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from different parts of Morus alba L. (Moraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Antioxidants play an important role to protect damage caused by oxidative stress (OS). Plants having phenolic contents are reported to possess antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents (total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthrocyanidins) of methanolic extracts from Morus alba (locally named as Tut and commonly known as white mulberry) stem barks (TSB), root bark (TRB), leaves (TL) and fruits (TF) to make a statistical correlation between phenolic contents and antioxidant potential. Methods The antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of methanolic extractives were evaluated by in vitro standard method using spectrophotometer. The antioxidant activities were determined by total antioxidant capacity, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine) radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay methods. Results Among the extracts, TSB showed the highest antioxidant activity followed by TRB, TF and TL. Based on DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, the TSB extract was the most effective one with IC50 37.75 and 58.90 μg/mL, followed by TRB, TF and TL with IC50 40.20 and 102.03; 175.01 and 114.63 and 220.23 and 234.63 μg/mL, respectively. The TSB extract had the most potent inhibitory activity against lipid peroxidation with IC50 145.31 μg/mL. In addition, the reducing capacity on ferrous ion was in the following order: TSB > TRB > TL > TF. The content of phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins of TSB was found to be higher than other extractives. Conclusion The results indicate high correlation and regression (p-value <0 .001) between phenolic contents and antioxidant potentials of the extracts, hence the Tut plant could serve as effective free radical inhibitor or scavenger which may be a good candidate for pharmaceutical plant-based products. However, further

  1. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

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    Ehsan Karimi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431 and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96 pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

  2. Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oil and methanol extract of Echinophora platyloba D.C against some of food-borne pathogenic bacteria

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    Mohammad Hashemi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Echinophora Platyloba D.C as a medicinal plant is used for preservation of foods and treatment of many diseases in different regions of Iran. The present study was undertaken to determine the chemical composition and investigation of the antibacterial effects of essential oil as well as methanol extract from aerial part of Echinophora Platyloba D.C against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, S. Thyphimurium and E. coli. Chemical analysis using gas chromatography and mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS showed that ocimene (26.51%, 2,3-Dimethyl-cyclohexa- 1,3-diene (9.87%, alpha-pinene (7.69% and gamma-dodecanolactone (5.66% were dominant components of essential oil and the main constituents of methanol extract were o- Cymene (28.66%, methanol (8.50%, alpha-pinene (7.42% and gamma-decalactone (5.20%. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria, whereas the methanol extract almost remained inactive against gram-negative bacteria. The most sensitive bacteria to essential oil and extract of Echinophora Platyloba D.C were L. mono- cytogenes and S. aureus. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of essential oil against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were 6250 and 12500 ppm, respectively. MIC of methanol extract against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes was 25000 ppm. Therefore, purifying and evaluation of antibacterial effects of the active substances of the essential oil and methanol extract of this plant for future application as antibacterial agents and food preservatives to combat pathogenic and toxigenic microorganisms is recommended.

  3. Study on The Potency of Methanol Extracts From Xanthosoma nigrum Stellfeld As Natural Anti Oxidant by Thiobarbituric Acid Method

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    Devi Ratnawati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research Xanthosoma nigrum Stellfeld (the Purple yam was selected as experimental material. This plant was collected from Rejang Lebong region, Bengkulu Province. Methanol extract 96% from stem of purple yam was studied its anti-oxidant activity in various concentrations with α-tocopherol (200 ppm as standard of antioxidant. Antioxidant activity was determined using Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA method. Linoleic acid was oxidized at 40 ºC for seven days with or without extract and the final product malondialdehyde (MDA was reacted with thiostembituric acid to be of red colored complex (MDA-TBA and was then measured by UV-VIS spectrophotometer at λ 532 nm. Stem extract of purple yam with concentration of 100 ppm, 150 ppm, 200 ppm and 300 ppm respectively had the inhibition of 19.32%, 21.85%, 29.47%, and 31.05%. α-Tocopherol as positive control which showed inhibition ability of 85.14% at 200 ppm. Based on the result obtained in this study, the stem’s extract of Purpel yam plant showed that antioxidant activity was lower than α-tocopherol.

  4. Antioxidant activity profiling by spectrophotometric methods of aqueous methanolic extracts of Helichrysum stoechas subsp. rupestre and Phagnalon saxatile subsp. saxatile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddouchi, Farah; Chaouche, Tarik Mohammed; Ksouri, Riadh; Medini, Faten; Sekkal, Fatima Zohra; Benmansour, Abdelhafid

    2014-06-01

    The aqueous methanolic extracts of two plants from Algeria, Helichrysum stoechas subsp. rupestre and Phagnalon saxatile subsp. saxatile, were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Total phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins were determined by spectrophotometric techniques. In vitro antioxidant and radical scavenging profiling was determined by spectrophotometric methods, through: Total antioxidant capacity, and radical scavenging effects by the DPPH and ABTS methods, reducing and chelating power, and blanching inhibition of the β-carotene. All of the extracts showed interesting antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. The highest contents in phenolics, tannins, and the highest total antioxidant capacity as gallic acid equivalents of 97.5 ± 0.33 mg GAE/g DW was obtained for the flowers of H. stoechas subsp. rupestre extract in the phosphomolybdenum assay. An extract of the leafy stems of P. saxatile subsp. saxatile revealed the highest content of flavonoids, and the highest antioxidant activity by the radical scavenging and β-carotene assays when compared with standards. The best activity was by the scavenging radical DPPH with an IC50 value of 5.65 ± 0.10 μg·mL(-1). The studied medicinal plants could provide scientific evidence for some traditional uses in the treatment of diseases related to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Carpobrotus edulis methanol extract inhibits the MDR efflux pumps, enhances killing of phagocytosed S. aureus and promotes immune modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Diane; Hohmann, Judit; Viveiros, Miguel; Viveiros, Antonio; Molnar, Joseph; Leandro, Clara; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Gracio, Maria Amelia; Amaral, Leonard

    2003-05-01

    Although alkaloids from the family Aizoaceae have anticancer activity, species of this family have received little attention. Because these alkaloids also exhibit properties normally associated with compounds that have activity at the level of the plasma membrane, a methanol extract of Carpobrotus edulis, a common plant found along the Portuguese coast, was studied for properties normally associated with plasma membrane active compounds. The results of this study show that the extract is non-toxic at concentrations that inhibit a verapamil sensitive efflux pump of L5178 mouse T cell lymphoma cell line thereby rendering these multi-drug resistant cells susceptible to anticancer drugs. These non-toxic concentrations also prime THP-1 human monocyte-derived macrophages to kill ingested Staphylococcus aureus and to promote the release of lymphokines associated with cellular immune functions. The extract also induces the proliferation of THP-1 cells within 1 day of exposure to quantities normally associated with phytohaemagglutinin. The potential role of the compound(s) isolated from this plant in cancer biology is intriguing and is currently under investigation. It is supposed that the resistance modifier and immunomodulatory effect of this plant extract can be exploited in the experimental chemotherapy of cancer and bacterial or viral infections. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Antioxidant Activity and ROS-Dependent Apoptotic Effect of Scurrula ferruginea (Jack Danser Methanol Extract in Human Breast Cancer Cell MDA-MB-231.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Marvibaigi

    Full Text Available Scurrula ferruginea (Jack Danser is one of the mistletoe species belonging to Loranthaceae family, which grows on the branches of many deciduous trees in tropical countries. This study evaluated the antioxidant activities of S. ferruginea extracts. The cytotoxic activity of the selected extracts, which showed potent antioxidant activities, and high phenolic and flavonoid contents, were investigated in human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231 and non-cancer human skin fibroblast cells (HSF-1184. The activities and characteristics varied depending on the different parts of S. ferruginea, solvent polarity, and concentrations of extracts. The stem methanol extract showed the highest amount of both phenolic (273.51 ± 4.84 mg gallic acid/g extract and flavonoid contents (163.41 ± 4.62 mg catechin/g extract and strong DPPH• radical scavenging (IC50 = 27.81 μg/mL and metal chelation activity (IC50 = 80.20 μg/mL. The stem aqueous extract showed the highest ABTS•+ scavenging ability. The stem methanol and aqueous extracts exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 of 19.27 and 50.35 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited the migration and colony formation of MDA-MB-231 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Morphological observations revealed hallmark properties of apoptosis in treated cells. The methanol extract induced an increase in ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting its potent apoptotic activity. The present study demonstrated that the S. ferruginea methanol extract mediated MDA-MB-231 cell growth inhibition via induction of apoptosis which was confirmed by Western blot analysis. It may be a potential anticancer agent; however, its in vivo anticancer activity needs to be investigated.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effect of methanol extracts of hemp leaf in IL-1β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of some hemp (Canabis sativa) leaf extracts as an antiinflammatory agent on synovitis in vitro. Methods: Synovial fibroblast cell line SW982 was induced with 5 ng/mL of interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β) to trigger cellular inflammation. The cells were then treated with prepared extracts of hemp ...

  8. Activation of the mu-opiate receptor by Vitex agnus-castus methanol extracts: implication for its use in PMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, D E; Lu, J; Chen, S-N; Farnsworth, N R; Wang, Z Jim

    2006-06-30

    The dried ripe fruit of Vitex agnus-castus L. (VAC) is widely used for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). A previous study reported that extracts of VAC showed affinity to opiate receptors; however, functional activity was not determined. We tested two different VAC extracts in receptor binding and functional assays. Our objectives were: (1) to confirm the opiate affinity; (2) to rule out interference by free fatty acids (FFA); (3) to determine the mode of action of VAC at the mu-opiate receptor. Methanol extracts of VAC were prepared either before (VAC-M1) or after (VAC-M2) extraction with petroleum ether to remove fatty acids. Both extracts showed significant affinities to the mu-opiate receptor, as indicated by the concentration-dependent displacement of [3H]DAMGO binding in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-human mu-opiate receptor (hMOR) cells. The IC50 values were estimated to be 159.8 microg/ml (VAC-M1) and 69.5 microg/ml (VAC-M2). Since the defatted extract not only retained, but exhibited a higher affinity (p<0.001), it argued against significant interference by fatty acids. In an assay to determine receptor activation, VAC-M1 and VAC-M2 stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding by 41 and 61% (p<0.001), respectively. These results suggested for the first time that VAC acted as an agonist at the mu-opiate receptor, supporting its beneficial action in PMS.

  9. Research on acute toxicity and the behavioral effects of methanolic extract from psilocybin mushrooms and psilocin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, Olga; Jasicka-Misiak, Izabela; Poliwoda, Anna; Kazakova, Anastasia; Godovan, Vladlena V; Halama, Marek; Wieczorek, Piotr P

    2015-03-27

    The pharmacological activities and acute toxicity of the psilocin (PC) and dried residues of the crude extracts of psychotropic mushrooms were investigated in mice. The hallucinogenic substances were effectively isolated, by using methanol, from the species of Psilocybe semilanceata and Pholiotina cyanopus, that were collected in the north-east region of Poland. The chemical analysis of these extracts, which was performed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS), indicated the presence of psilocin and other hallucinogenic substances, including indolealkylamines and their phosphorylated analogues. When the pure psilocin or fungal extracts were used, slight differences in determined LD50 values were observed. However, the application of PC evoked the highest level of toxicity (293.07 mg/kg) compared to the activity of extracts from Ph. cyanopus and P. semilanceata, where the level of LD50 was 316.87 mg/kg and 324.37 mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, the behavioral test, which considered the head-twitching response (HTR), was used to assess the effects of the studied psychotropic factors on the serotonergic system. Both, the fungal extracts and psilocin evoked characteristic serotoninergic effects depending on the dose administered to mice, acting as an agonist/partial agonist on the serotonergic system. A dose of 200 mg/kg 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) induced spontaneous head-twitching in mice (100% effect), as a result of the formation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the brain. Compared to the activity of 5-HTP, the intraperitoneal administration of 1mg/kg of psilocin or hallucinogenic extracts of studied mushrooms (Ph. cyanopus and P. semilanceata) reduced the number of head-twitch responses of about 46% and 30%, respectively. In contrast, the administration of PC exhibited a reduction of about 60% in HTR numbers.

  10. Research on Acute Toxicity and the Behavioral Effects of Methanolic Extract from Psilocybin Mushrooms and Psilocin in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zhuk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological activities and acute toxicity of the psilocin (PC and dried residues of the crude extracts of psychotropic mushrooms were investigated in mice. The hallucinogenic substances were effectively isolated, by using methanol, from the species of Psilocybe semilanceata and Pholiotina cyanopus, that were collected in the north-east region of Poland. The chemical analysis of these extracts, which was performed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS, indicated the presence of psilocin and other hallucinogenic substances, including indolealkylamines and their phosphorylated analogues. When the pure psilocin or fungal extracts were used, slight differences in determined LD50 values were observed. However, the application of PC evoked the highest level of toxicity (293.07 mg/kg compared to the activity of extracts from Ph. cyanopus and P. semilanceata, where the level of LD50 was 316.87 mg/kg and 324.37 mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, the behavioral test, which considered the head-twitching response (HTR, was used to assess the effects of the studied psychotropic factors on the serotonergic system. Both, the fungal extracts and psilocin evoked characteristic serotoninergic effects depending on the dose administered to mice, acting as an agonist/partial agonist on the serotonergic system. A dose of 200 mg/kg 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP induced spontaneous head-twitching in mice (100% effect, as a result of the formation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT in the brain. Compared to the activity of 5-HTP, the intraperitoneal administration of 1mg/kg of psilocin or hallucinogenic extracts of studied mushrooms (Ph. cyanopus and P. semilanceata reduced the number of head-twitch responses of about 46% and 30%, respectively. In contrast, the administration of PC exhibited a reduction of about 60% in HTR numbers.

  11. Cytotoxicity and antiangiogenic effects of Rhus coriaria, Pistacia vera and Pistacia khinjuk oleoresin methanol extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirian, M; Behrooeian, M; Ghanadian, M; Dana, N; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, H

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis, formation of new blood vessels, play an important role in some diseases such as cancer and its metastasis. Using angiogenesis inhibitors, therefore, is one of the ways for cancer treatment and prevention of metastasis. Medicinal plants have been shown to play a major role in the treatment of a variety of cancers. In this direction, cytotoxic and angiogenic effects of oleo gum resin extracts of Rhus coriaria, Pistacia vera and Pistacia khinjuk from Anacardiaceae family were studied. For IC50 values, cytotoxic effects of the plant extracts were evaluated at different concentrations (1, 10, 20, 40, 80,100 μg/ml) against human umbilical vein endothelial normal cell (HUVEC) and Y79 cell lines using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In vitro tube formation on matrigel base was used to evaluate angiogenic effects in the presence of increasing concentrations (50, 100, 250 μg/ml) of the extracts. Vascular endothelium growth factor was used as angiogenesis stimulator. Gas chromatography results showed that α-pinene and β-pinene were the major essential oils constituents of all plant extracts. According to the MTT assay results, the R. coriaria resin extract was more cytotoxic than those of P. vera and P. khinjuk extracts (IC50, 9.1 ± 1.6 vs 9.8 ± 2.1 and 12.0 ± 1.9, respectively; P<0.05). Cytotoxic effects of all extracts against Y79 cell line was significantly higher than those of HUVEC used as a normal cell line (P<0.05). Tube formation assay also showed that extract of R. coriaria resin inhibited angiogenesis more significantly than other tested extracts (P<0.05). It could be concluded that R. coriaria resin extract possess cytotoxic effect and antiangiogenesis against cancer cells and as an anticancer natural product has a good potential for future studies.

  12. A green chemistry approach for the synthesis and characterization of bioactive gold nanoparticles using Azolla microphylla methanol extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunjiappan, Selvaraj; Chowdhury, Ranjana; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2014-06-01

    This article reports the environmentally benign synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using methanol extract of Azolla microphylla as the stabilizing and reducing agent. The GNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry and FTIR, and the morphological characteristics were analyzed by XRD, FESEM-EDX and HRTEM. The GNPs could be formed in very short time, even in less than 30 min. The nanoparticles measured by UV-spectrophotometer demonstrated a peak at 540 nm corresponding to surface plasmon resonance spectra, and the peaks showed by FTIR suggested the presence of organic biomolecules on the surface of the GNPs. XRD results confirmed the crystalline nature of the GNPs, and FESEM-EDX and HRTEM analyses had been performed in the size ranges of 17-40 nm and 1.25-17.5 nm respectively. The synthesized GNPs showed excellent antioxidant activity. This study shows the feasibility of using plant sources for the biosynthesis of GNPs.

  13. Separation of thorium and uranium by liquid-liquid extraction from mixed aqueous nitric acidic-methanolic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, E.R.; Kenndler, E.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for the separation of Th and U from each other and from other elements, usually occuring in minerals, by liquid-liquid extraction with Aliquat Nitrate (tricaprylmethyl ammoniumnitrate, 6 vol%) in benzene from a mixed solution of 2.5 M HNO 3 and methanol (1:1 volume ratio). Permissible upper concentration ratios of interfering elements, such as Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Al, Cu, Co(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Ti(IV), La(III), U(VI), Cl - , ClO 4 - , SO 4 2- , PO 4 3- , have been determined. Following the separation, Th has been determined by spectrophotometry using Thorin, and U by fluorometry. Results for yield under varying conditions, together with elemental concentrations in the ppm range for U and Th in minerals, are given. (B.T.)

  14. [Studies on chemical protectors against radiation. XXXII. Protective effects of methanol extracts of various Taiwan crude drugs on radiation injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C M; Ohta, S; Shinoda, M

    1990-11-01

    This study is to investigate radioprotective effects of 23 Taiwan crude drugs on X-ray induced bone marrow death and skin injury in mice. Each methanol extract of these Taiwan crude drugs was injected intraperitoneally into ICR male mice at 6 weeks of age before irradiation. Mice were whole-body irradiated with a soft X-ray generator. Radiation factors of the two screening tests used were as follows: 70 kVp, 10 mA, 10 mm acrylate filter, 70R/min, 2100R for survival test, and 30 kVp, 10 mA, 190R/min, 1100R for protective test on skin injury. As a result of these studies, the survival effect was recognized in Solani Incani Herba and Orthosiphi Aristati Herba. On the other hand, Mimosae Herba, Canarii Radix, Bombacis Radix, Arecae Fructus, Hedyotidis Diffusae Herba and Cynomorii Caulis were shown to have significant protective potency on skin injury.

  15. Evaluation of the effects of Olea europaea L. subsp. africana (Mill.) P.S. Green (Oleaceae) leaf methanol extract against castor oil-induced diarrhoea in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabeoku, George J; Bamuamba, Kapinga

    2010-03-01

    Olea europaea L. subsp. africana (Mill.) P.S. Green is widely used in South Africa by traditional medicine practitioners to treat diarrhoea. However, little is known scientifically about this South African species in the treatment of diarrhoea. The main aim of the study therefore was to investigate the antidiarrhoeal effect of the leaf methanol extract of the plant species in mice. The antidiarrhoeal activity of the leaf methanol extract of O. europaea subsp. africana was studied using a castor oil-induced diarrhoeal test. The antipropulsive activity of the plant extract was also investigated using the charcoal meal transit test. Standard methods were used to investigate the acute toxicity and effect of O. europaea subsp. africana on castor oil-induced intraluminal fluid accumulation. Leaf methanol extract of O. europaea subsp. africana and loperamide, a standard antidiarrhoeal drug, significantly reduced the number of diarrhoeal episodes induced by castor oil, significantly decreased the stool mass, significantly delayed the onset of the diarrhoea and protected the animals against castor oil-induced diarrhoea. Both O. europaea subsp. africana and loperamide significantly decreased the gastrointestinal transit of charcoal meal and castor oil-induced intraluminal fluid accumulation in mice. The LD50 value was found to be 3475 mg/kg (p.o.). The results obtained suggest that the leaf methanol extract of O. europaea subsp. africana has an antidiarrhoeal property and that, given orally, it may be non-toxic and/or safe in mice.

  16. Antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Ferula assafoetida and its essential oil composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehpour, A.; Ebrahimzadeh, A.; Seyed Fazel, N.; Seyed Mohammad, N.

    2009-07-01

    The antioxidant activity of the aerial parts of Ferula assafoetida was determined by employing various in vitro assay systems. IC{sub 5}0 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 380 {+-} 12 mg ml{sup -}1. The extracts showed good nitric oxide-scavenging activity (IC{sub 5}0 was 270 {+-}3) and Fe{sup 2}+ chelating ability (IC{sub 5}0 was 0.57 {+-} 0.02 mg ml-1). The peroxidation inhibition (antioxidant activity) of the extracts exhibited values from 82% (at 24 hrs) and 88% (at 72 hrs). The extract exhibited a fairy weak reducing power at 25-800 {mu}g ml-1 of extracts which was not comparable with Vitamin C (p < 0.001). The tested extracts exhibited very low antioxidant activity. In addition, the chemical composition of the essential oil of the aerial parts was determined. The major compounds were phenol, 2-methyl-5-(1-methyl ethyl) (18.2 %), {alpha}.-Bisabolol (10.4%) and Arsine triethyl (8.7 %). Total phenol compounds, as determined by the Folin Ciocalteu method, were 94.8 {+-} 5.9 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder and the total flavonoid content (by AlCl{sub 3} method) was 90.9 {+-} 6.3 mg quercetin equivalent/g of extract powder. (Author) 30 refs.

  17. In vitro antibacterial activity of methanol and water extracts of adiantum capillus veneris and tagetes patula against multidrug resistant bacterial strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.M.; Ahmad, B.; Bashid, E.; Hashim, S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study was to screen the antimicrobial activities of extracts of leaves and stems of Adiantum capillus veneris and Tagetes patula against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial strains. Extracts from the leaves and stems of these plants were extracted with methanol and water and tested for their antibacterial activity by disc diffusion method against ten MDR bacterial strains i.e., Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Providencia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Shigella and Vibrio cholerae. Leaves methanol extract (LME) of Adiantum showed maximum Zone of Inhibition (ZI) against Providencia, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella typhi, whereas its stem methanol extract (SME) was very active against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi. Similarly LME of Tagetes showed highest ZI against Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae while SME showed highest ZI to Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Providencia, Shigella and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Leaves water extract (LWE) of Adiantum was very active against all ten bacterial strains while its stem water extract (SWE) showed maximum ZI against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi, Shigella, Proteus vulgaris and Providencia. LWE of Tagetes was only active against Vibrio cholerae whereas SWE was very active against Salmonella typhi and active against P. vulgaris, Citrobacter freundii and Vibrio cholerae. It was concluded from this study that extracts of both Adiantum and Tagetes have prominent activities against most of the MDR bacterial strains and needs further studies for utmost benefits. (author)

  18. Extraction of tar acids with methanol from low-temperature tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funasaka, W; Yokogawa, C; Suga, S

    1948-01-01

    From 20 grams crude middle oil, boiling at 200/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/, acid content 40%, tar acids were extracted at 20/sup 0/ to 30/sup 0/ with MeOH for comparison with EtOH, NMe/sub 3/, and ethylene glycol. When 80% MeOH is used, the oil extracted amounts to 61%, including 9% acids, if the ratio of crude oil and solvent is kept at 1:2. EtOH is inferior to MeOH. The properties of the crude oil and the purified oil extracted with 80% MeOH are described.

  19. Hepatoprotective Activity of Methanolic Extract of Bauhinia purpurea Leaves against Paracetamol-Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yahya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to further establish the pharmacological properties of Bauhinia purpurea (Fabaceae, hepatoprotective potential of methanol extract of B. purpurea leaves (MEBP was investigated using the paracetamol- (PCM- induced liver toxicity in rats. Five groups of rats (n=6 were used and administered orally once daily with 10% DMSO (negative control, 200 mg/kg silymarin (positive control, or MEBP (50, 250, and 500 mg/kg for 7 days, followed by the hepatotoxicity induction using paracetamol (PCM. The blood samples and livers were collected and subjected to biochemical and microscopical analysis. The extract was also subjected to antioxidant study using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay with the total phenolic content (TPC also determined. From the histological observation, lymphocyte infiltration and marked necrosis were observed in PCM-treated groups (negative control, whereas maintenance of the normal hepatic structural was observed in group pretreated with silymarin and MEBP. Hepatotoxic rats pretreated with silymarin or MEBP exhibited significant decrease (P<0.05 in ALT and AST enzyme level. Moreover, the extract also exhibited antioxidant activity and contained high TPC. In conclusion, MEBP exerts potential hepatoprotective activity that could be partly attributed to its antioxidant activity and high phenolic content and thus warrants further investigation.

  20. Biological Activities and Chemical Composition of Methanolic Extracts of Selected Autochthonous Microalgae Strains from the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Four lipid-rich microalgal species from the Red Sea belonging to three different genera (Nannochloris, Picochlorum and Desmochloris, previously isolated as novel biodiesel feedstocks, were bioprospected for high-value, bioactive molecules. Methanol extracts were thus prepared from freeze-dried biomass and screened for different biological activities. Nannochloris sp. SBL1 and Desmochloris sp. SBL3 had the highest radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, and the best copper and iron chelating activities. All species had potent butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (>50% and mildly inhibited tyrosinase. Picochlorum sp. SBL2 and Nannochloris sp. SBL4 extracts significantly reduced the viability of tumoral (HepG2 and HeLa cells with lower toxicity against the non-tumoral murine stromal (S17 cells. Nannochloris sp. SBL1 significantly reduced the viability of Leishmania infantum down to 62% (250 µg/mL. Picochlorum sp. SBL2 had the highest total phenolic content, the major phenolic compounds identified being salicylic, coumaric and gallic acids. Neoxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-carotene were identified in the extracts of all strains, while canthaxanthin was only identified in Picochlorum sp. SBL2. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the microalgae included in this work could be used as sources of added-value products that could be used to upgrade the final biomass value.

  1. A Methanol Extract of Brugmansia arborea Affects the Reinforcing and Motor Effects of Morphine and Cocaine in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bracci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous reports have shown that several of the effects of morphine, including the development of tolerance and physical withdrawal symptoms, are reduced by extracts of Brugmansia arborea (L. Lagerheim (Solanaceae (B. arborea. In the present study we evaluate the action of the methanol extract of B. arborea (7.5–60 mg/kg on the motor and reinforcing effects of morphine (20 and 40 mg/kg and cocaine (25 mg/kg using the conditioned place preference (CPP procedure. At the doses employed, B. arborea did not affect motor activity or induce any effect on CPP. The extract partially counteracted morphine-induced motor activity and completely blocked the CPP induced by 20 mg/kg morphine. On the other hand, B. arborea blocked cocaine-induced hyperactivity but did not block cocaine-induced CPP. Reinstatement of extinguished preference with a priming dose of morphine or cocaine was also inhibited by B. arborea. The complex mechanism of action of B. arborea, which affects the dopaminergic and the cholinergic systems, seems to provide a neurobiological substrate for the effects observed. Considered as a whole, these results point to B. arborea as a useful tool for the treatment of morphine or cocaine abuse.

  2. Antibacterial activity of Tribulus terrestris methanol extract against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batoei Sara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Tribulus terrestris L. is traditionally used for treatment of urinary tract infections. Escherichia coli, as the most prominent agent of urinary tract infections, can be sensitive to T. terrestris extract.

  3. Antidermatophytic and Toxicological Evaluations of Dichloromethane-Methanol Extract, Fractions and Compounds Isolated from Coula edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean De Dieu Tamokou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coula edulis Bail (Olacaceae, is an evergreen tree growing to a height of 25-38 m. This study aimed at evaluating the antidermatophytic and toxicological properties of the stem bark of C. edulis extract as well as fractions and compounds isolated from it. Methods: The plant extract was prepared by maceration in CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v. The fractionation of this extract was done by silica gel column chromatography. Antidermatophytic activities were assayed using agar dilution method. The acute and sub-acute toxicities of oral administrations of the extract were studied in rodents. Results: The crude extract of C. edulis displayed antidermatophytic activity against the tested microorganisms with highest activity against Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The fractionation enhanced the antidermatophytic activity in fraction F3 (MIC=0.62-1.25 mg/ml compared to the crude extract (MIC=1.25-5 mg/ml. Further fractionation and purification of the fractions F2 and F3 gave respectively 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside of sitosterol (MIC=0.20-0.40 mg/ml and a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and n-hexadecanoid acid (MIC=0.80 mg/ml. The median lethal doses (LD50 of the crude extract were 16.8 and 19.6 g/kg body weight (BW in male and female mice, respectively. At 200 mg/kg BW, there was a decrease in body weight gain, food and water consumptions. Gross anatomical analysis revealed white vesicles on the liver of the rats treated with the extract at 200 mg/kg BW. This dose also induced significant (P<0.05 changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in rats after 28 days of treatment. Conclusion: These data suggest that the CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v extract of C. edulis stem bark possesses antidermatophytic properties. They also show that at high doses (≥ 200 mg/kg BW, the extract has significant hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic activities

  4. Evaluation of methanolic extract of Phragmites karka on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta ur Rehman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Phragmites karka has been reported for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Here, extracts of leaf and rhizome of the plant were individually investigated in CCl4-induced hepatofibrosis in male Wistar rats by administering CCl4 intraperitoneally biweekly for 6 weeks. Afterwards the animals were investigated for liver fibrosis at biochemical, molecular and histological levels, and it showed a profound increase (p<0.001 in elevation of serum levels of transaminases, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, mRNA expression of α smooth muscle actin, collagen and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ, and extracellular matrix deposition and perilobular necrosis. Both extracts markedly (p<0.001 decreased the elevated levels of these markers. Histopathological investigations also substantiated the above results by exhibiting a decreased in extracellular matrix deposition in post-treatment animals. In conclusion, both extracts had substantially modified the biochemical and molecular markers of liver fibrosis, in addition to histological improvement in architecture of liver.

  5. Effect of crude methanol leaf extract of Combretum racemosum on histamine-stimulated gastric secretion in rats

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    Chukwugozie Nwachukwu Okwuosa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of crude methanolic extract of Combretum racemosum (C. racemosum leaves on histamine-stimulated gastric secretion in rats. Methods: Phytochemical and acute toxicity tests were performed. Anti-secretory activity of C. racemosum extract was investigated in pyloric ligated rats administered histamine. Gastric juice was collected from all the animals and the volume, titratable acidity, pH and mucus content were measured. The effect of C. racemosum extract on calcium chloride induced contractions of the guinea-pig ileum suspended in high potassium, calcium-deficient depolarizing solution was investigated. The H2 receptor antagonistic potency was also evaluated using the isolated non-gravid rat uterus. Results: Phytochemistry revealed the presence of abundant amounts of saponins and moderate amounts of glycosides, terpenoids, proteins, reducing sugar, resins, alkaloids, flavonoids and carbohydrates. The oral LD50 of the extract was greater than 8 000 mg/kg body weight in mice. Pretreatment of pyloric ligated rats with C. racemosum prior to histamine administration significantly reduced (P < 0.001 the volume of gastric juice and titratable acidity, and significantly increased (P < 0.001 gastric pH and gastric mucus when compared to the negative control. Both doses of C. racemosum protected rats significantly (P < 0.001 from histamine-induced ulceration. C. racemosum potently inhibited contractions evoked by calcium chloride in a dose-dependent and reversible manner with an IC50 of 1 132 µg/mL. It also antagonized the relaxant effect of histamine on the isolated rat uterus in a manner comparable to cimetidine. Conclusions: The leaves of C. racemosum possess gastric anti-secretory and anti-ulcer effects and justify its use in traditional medicine in South-East Nigeria for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease.

  6. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of methanol seed extract of Citrus paradisi Macfad (Rutaceae) in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeneye, A A

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol decoction of Citrus paradisi Macfad (Rutaceae) seed is reputed for the local management of array of human diseases including, anemia, diabetes mellitus and obesity by some Yoruba herbalists (SouthWest, Nigeria). Despite its historic use, scientific evaluation of its folkloric use in the management of diabetes mellitus is scarce. The present study was designed at investigating the glucose and lipid lowering effects of methanol seed extract of Citrus paradisi Macfad (MECP) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In addition, the phytochemical analysis of the extract was also conducted using standard procedures. Young adult, male, alloxan-induced diabetic rats were randomly divided into groups I - VI with 12 rats in each group. Group I rats were the normal untreated rats while group II rats served as the diabetic untreated rats while Rats in groups III - VI served as diabetic rats treated with 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg/day MECP and 20 mg/kg/ day metformin, respectively, for 30 days. On the 15th and respectively, 31st day, blood samples from the fasted rats were obtained for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-c) from the sacrificed rats. Oral treatment with 100 - 600 mg/kg/day MECP, for 30 days, resulted in significant (p extract also caused significant (p extract could be due to any or a combination of these phytochemical constituents. Results of this study lend support to the traditional use of grapefruit seeds in the management of type 1 diabetic patients and may suggest a role in orthodox management of the disease.

  7. Cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of Elephantopus mollis, Kalanchoe crenata and 4 other Cameroonian medicinal plants towards human carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuete, Victor; Fokou, Fabrice W; Karaosmanoğlu, Oğuzhan; Beng, Veronique P; Sivas, Hülya

    2017-05-25

    Cancer still constitutes one of the major health concerns globally, causing serious threats on patients, their families, and the healthcare system. In this study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of Elephantopus mollis whole plant (EMW), Enantia chlorantha bark (ECB), Kalanchoe crenata leaves (KCL), Lophira alata bark (LAB), Millettia macrophylla leaves (MML) and Phragmanthera capitata leaves (PCL) towards five human solid cancer cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts, was evaluated. Extracts were subjected to qualitative chemical screening of their secondary metabolite contents using standard methods. The cytotoxicity of samples was evaluated using neutral red uptake (NR) assay meanwhile caspase activation was detected by caspase-Glo assay. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell cycle distribution and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) whilst spectrophotometry was used to measure the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of polyphenols, triterpenes and sterols in all extracts. The IC 50 values of the best samples ranged from 3.29 μg/mL (towards DLD-1 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells) to 24.38 μg/mL (against small lung cancer A549 cells) for EMW, from 2.33 μg/mL (mesothelioma SPC212 cells) to 28.96 μg/mL (HepG2 hepatocarcinoma) for KCL, and from 0.04 μg/mL (towards SPC212 cells) to 0.55 μg/mL (towards A549 cells) for doxorubicin. EMW induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells mediated by MMP loss and increased ROS production whilst KCL induced apoptosis via ROS production. This study provides evidences of the cytotoxicity of the tested plant extract and highlights the good activity of Elephantopus mollis and Kalanchoe crenata. They deserve more exploration to develop novel cytotoxic drugs.

  8. Genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity study of aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts of Spondias mombin L., Nymphaea lotus L. and Luffa cylindrical L. using animal bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Ifeoluwa Temitayo; Yekeen, Olaide Maruf; Odusina, Paul Olayinka; Ologun, Taiwo Mary; Ogbaide, Orezimena Michelle; Olaleye, Olayinka Israel; Bakare, Adekunle A

    2015-12-01

    Spondias mombin (Linn), Nymphaea lotus (Linn) and Luffa cylindrica (Linn) (syn Luffa aegyptiaca Mill) are plants traditionally used as food ingredients and in the management of diseases, including cancer, in Nigeria. Despite the therapeutic potentials attributed to these plants, reports on their genotoxicity are scanty. In this study, the genotoxicity of the aqueous and hydro-methanol extract of these plants was evaluated using mouse bone marrow micronucleus and sperm morphology assays. Antigenotoxicity was assessed by the bone marrow micronucleus test. The highest attainable dose of 5 000 mg/kg according to OECD guidelines was first used to assess acute toxicity of the aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts in Swiss albino mice. For each extract, there were five groups of mice (n=4/group) treated with different concentrations of the extract as against the negative and positive control group for the genotoxicity study. In the antigenotoxicity study, five groups of mice were exposed to five different concentrations of the extracts along with 60 mg/kg of methyl methane sulfonate (MMS), which was used to induce genotoxicity. The mice were administered 0.2 mL of extract per day for 10 days in the genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity groups. Administration of each of the extracts at the concentration of 5 000 mg/kg did not induce acute toxicity in mice. At the concentrations tested, all the extracts, except aqueous S. mombin, increased micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts of N. lotus increased the frequency of aberrant sperm cells. All the extracts were also able to ameliorate MMS induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of the exposed mice. The results showed the potential of the extracts to induce somatic and germ cell mutation in male mice. The extracts also ameliorated the genotoxic effect of MMS.

  9. Genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity study of aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts of Spondias mombin L., Nymphaea lotus L. and Luffa cylindrical L. using animal bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeyemi Ifeoluwa Temitayo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spondias mombin (Linn, Nymphaea lotus (Linn and Luffa cylindrica (Linn (syn Luffa aegyptiaca Mill are plants traditionally used as food ingredients and in the management of diseases, including cancer, in Nigeria. Despite the therapeutic potentials attributed to these plants, reports on their genotoxicity are scanty. In this study, the genotoxicity of the aqueous and hydro-methanol extract of these plants was evaluated using mouse bone marrow micronucleus and sperm morphology assays. Antigenotoxicity was assessed by the bone marrow micronucleus test. The highest attainable dose of 5 000 mg/kg according to OECD guidelines was first used to assess acute toxicity of the aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts in Swiss albino mice. For each extract, there were five groups of mice (n=4/group treated with different concentrations of the extract as against the negative and positive control group for the genotoxicity study. In the antigenotoxicity study, five groups of mice were exposed to five different concentrations of the extracts along with 60 mg/kg of methyl methane sulfonate (MMS, which was used to induce genotoxicity. The mice were administered 0.2 mL of extract per day for 10 days in the genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity groups. Administration of each of the extracts at the concentration of 5 000 mg/kg did not induce acute toxicity in mice. At the concentrations tested, all the extracts, except aqueous S. mombin, increased micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts of N. lotus increased the frequency of aberrant sperm cells. All the extracts were also able to ameliorate MMS induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of the exposed mice. The results showed the potential of the extracts to induce somatic and germ cell mutation in male mice. The extracts also ameliorated the genotoxic effect of MMS.

  10. Anti-plasmodial and antioxidant activities of methanol extract of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... al., 2011) out of the 30 species, accounting for more than. 95% of the cases of malaria in the world. .... standard procedures (Trease and Evans, 1989). Acute toxicity test. The safety of the extract orally ... when thick and thin films were prepared with blood collected from the tail of each mouse. The films were ...

  11. Gastro-protective effect of methanol extract of Ficus asperifolia bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastric juice pH, gastric acid concentration, gastric ulcer score, percentage gastric ulcer inhibition, activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and malondiadehyde (MDA) were determined. Ficus asperifolia extract significantly increased gastric pH (p<0.05) but decreased (p<0.01) gastric acid secretion in dose ...

  12. Evaluation of the Anti-plasmodial Activity of the Methanolic Root Extracts of Anthocleista nobilis G. Don, Nauclea latifolia Smith and Napoleona imperialis P. Beauv

    OpenAIRE

    Ijeoma H. Ogbuehi; Omotayo O. Ebong; Eme O. Asuquo; Chijioke A. Nwauche

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of resistant strains of the malaria parasite has necessitated the continued search for other effective, safe and cheap plant-based anti-malarial agents. This study was carried out to evaluate in vivo the anti-plasmodial effect of the extract of a combination of three plants as used in traditional medicine in South-east, Nigeria. Dried and ground roots of the three plants: Anthocleista nobilis, Nauclea latifolia and Napoleona imperialis were extracted in 70% methanol as a combina...

  13. Antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Ferula assafoetida and its essential oil composition

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    Seyed Mohammad, Nabavi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of the aerial parts of Ferula assafoetida was determined by employing various in vitro assay systems. IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 380 ± 12 mg ml-1. The extracts showed good nitric oxide-scavenging activity (IC50 was 270 ± 3 and Fe2+ chelating ability (IC50 was 0.57 ± 0.02 mg ml-1. The peroxidation inhibition (antioxidant activity of the extracts exhibited values from 82% (at 24 hrs and 88% (at 72 hrs. The extract exhibited a fairy weak reducing power at 25-800 μg ml-1 of extracts which was not comparable with Vitamin C (p 3 method was 90.9 ± 6.3 mg quercetin equivalent/g of extract powder.La actividad antioxidante de las partes aéreas de Ferula assafoetida se determinó empleando varios sistemas de ensayos in vitro. El IC50 de la actividad captadora de radicales de DPPH fue 380 ± 12 mg ml-1. Los extractos también mostraron una buena actividad captadora de óxido nítrico (IC50 fue 270 ± 3 y capacidad quelatante de Fe2+ (IC50 fue 0.57 ± 0.02 mg ml-1. La inhibición de la peroxidación (actividad antioxidante de los extractos mostró valores del 82% (a las 24 horas y 88% (a las 72 horas. El extracto mostró un ligero descenso del poder reductor con 25- 800 μg ml-1 de extracto que no fue comparable con la vitamina C (p 3 fue de 90.9 ± 6.3 mg de equivalentes de quercitina/g de extracto en polvo.

  14. Induction of Mitochondria Mediated Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells (T-47D) by Annona reticulata L. Leaves Methanolic Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roham, Pratiksha H; Kharat, Kiran R; Mungde, Priyanka; Jadhav, Mahadev A; Makhija, Surinder J

    2016-01-01

    Annona reticulata Linn. (Common name: Bullock's-heart) (Annonaceae family) is a semi-evergreen and small deciduous tree. The extracts of various parts of Annona reticulata L. have been reported as cytotoxic to many cancer cells. Annona reticulata L. leaves' methanolic extract (ARME) was prepared and used against the breast cancer cells. The breast cancer cells (T-47D) viability and IC50 were evaluated by Vybrant® MTT Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Detection of phosphatidylserine on membranes of apoptotic cells was done by Attune flow cytometer. RNA transcripts were quantified in ARME treated and untreated cells. Finally, the Vybrant® FAM Poly Caspases assay kit was used for analysis of polycaspases activity in T-47D cells. The IC50 (5 ± 0.5 µg/mL) of the ARME was found against breast cancer cells (T-47D). The Paclitaxel was used as a control standard drug for the study. The downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax and Bak, and caspases activation suggested induction of apoptosis in T-47D cells by ARME through mitochondrial pathway. The cell cycle halted at G2/M phase in the ARME treated cells. The ARME was found to be effective against Breast cancer cells (T-47D).

  15. Effect of methanol extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seeds on anxiety, sedation and motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assad, Tahira; Khan, Rafeeq Alam

    2017-04-01

    Currently available anxiolytics cause numerous adverse effects and show craving and tolerance during long term treatment. Currently traditional medicines have been re-evaluated widely through work on various plant species. Numerous plants in traditional system show pharmacological activity with unlimited prospective for therapeutic use. Hence we planned to evaluate the effect of methanol extract of T. foenum-graecum L. seeds on anxiety, sedation and motor coordination in mice at different doses following 15 days of oral feeding. Effect on anxiety was assessed by Hole board test and Light and Dark transition models.Phenobarbitone induced sleeping time and Rota rod test were performed to assess effect on sedation and motor coordination. In Hole board test, T. foenum-graecum L. seeds decreased the number of head dips in mice at all the three doses. In Light and Dark transition model, T. foenum-graecum L. seeds increased the period spent in the light box and the number of moves among the two compartments at 100 and 200 mg/kg as compared to control animals. In phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, T. foenum-graecum L. seeds did not reveal any sedative effect. In Rota rod test, extract exhibited significant skeletal muscle relaxant effect at 200 mg/kg (at 90 min) as compared to the control animals. Results of our study shows significant antianxiety effects of T. foenum-graecum L. seeds and may also recommend improved adverse effect profile as compared to diazepam.

  16. Methanolic Root Extract of Rauwolfia serpentina Benth Improves the Glycemic, Antiatherogenic, and Cardioprotective Indices in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Muhammad Bilal Azmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the phytochemistry and the effect of methanolic root extract (MREt of Rauwolfia serpentina on alloxan-induced diabetic Wister male mice. Mice were divided in control (distilled water at 1 mL/kg and alloxan-induced diabetic mice which subdivided into diabetic (distilled water at 1 mL/kg, negative (0.05% dimethyl sulfoxide at 1 mL/kg, positive (glibenclamide at 5 mg/kg controls, and three test groups (MREt at 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg. All treatments were given orally for 14 days. Qualitatively MREt showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, phlobatannins, resins, saponins, steroids, tannins, and triterpenoids, while quantitatively extract was rich in total phenols. The flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids were also determined in root powder. MREt found effective in improving the body weights, glucose and insulin levels, insulin/glucose ratio, glycosylated and total hemoglobin in test groups as compared to diabetic control. Similarly, significantly decreased levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-c cholesterols were found in test groups. Significant lipolysis with improved glycogenesis was also found in liver tissues of all test groups. ALT levels were found normal in all groups. Thus, MREt improves the glycemic, antiatherogenic, coronary risk, and cardioprotective indices in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

  17. Methanolic Root Extract of Rauwolfia serpentina Benth Improves the Glycemic, Antiatherogenic, and Cardioprotective Indices in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Muhammad Bilal; Qureshi, Shamim A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the phytochemistry and the effect of methanolic root extract (MREt) of Rauwolfia serpentina on alloxan-induced diabetic Wister male mice. Mice were divided in control (distilled water at 1 mL/kg) and alloxan-induced diabetic mice which subdivided into diabetic (distilled water at 1 mL/kg), negative (0.05% dimethyl sulfoxide at 1 mL/kg), positive (glibenclamide at 5 mg/kg) controls, and three test groups (MREt at 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg). All treatments were given orally for 14 days. Qualitatively MREt showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, phlobatannins, resins, saponins, steroids, tannins, and triterpenoids, while quantitatively extract was rich in total phenols. The flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids were also determined in root powder. MREt found effective in improving the body weights, glucose and insulin levels, insulin/glucose ratio, glycosylated and total hemoglobin in test groups as compared to diabetic control. Similarly, significantly decreased levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-c) cholesterols were found in test groups. Significant lipolysis with improved glycogenesis was also found in liver tissues of all test groups. ALT levels were found normal in all groups. Thus, MREt improves the glycemic, antiatherogenic, coronary risk, and cardioprotective indices in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

  18. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of essential oils and methanol extracts of three wild Lavandula L. species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoud, C; Chograni, H; Boussaid, M

    2012-11-01

    A comparative study of essential oil composition, polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of Lavandula coronopifolia, Lavandula multifida and Lavandula stoechas subsp. stoechas were reported. Qualitative and quantitative variations in the composition of oils according to species were shown. Lavandula coronopifolia's oil was characterised by high proportions of trans-β-ocimene (26.9%), carvacrol (18.5%), β-bisabolene (13.1%) and myrcene (7.5%). The main components of L. multifida oil are carvacrol (65.1%) and β-bisabolene (24.7%). Lavandula stoechas oil is rich in fenchone (34.3%) and comphor (27.4%). The total phenolic and flavonoid contents also significantly varied among species. Lavandula coronopifolia exhibits the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents (31.3 mg GAE g(-1) and 16.3 mg RE g(-1), respectively), followed by L. multifida (30.8 mg GAE g(-1) and 12.3 mg RE g(-1)). Methanolic extracts and essential oils displayed significant antioxidant activities. The level of antioxidant capacity varied according to extracts and species.

  19. The Methanol Extract of Angelica sinensis Induces Cell Apoptosis and Suppresses Tumor Growth in Human Malignant Brain Tumors

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    Yu-Ling Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is a highly vascularized and invasive neoplasm. The methanol extract of Angelica sinensis (AS-M is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat several diseases, such as gastric mucosal damage, hepatic injury, menopausal symptoms, and chronic glomerulonephritis. AS-M also displays potency in suppressing the growth of malignant brain tumor cells. The growth suppression of malignant brain tumor cells by AS-M results from cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. AS-M upregulates expression of cyclin kinase inhibitors, including p16, to decrease the phosphorylation of Rb proteins, resulting in arrest at the G0-G1 phase. The expression of the p53 protein is increased by AS-M and correlates with activation of apoptosis-associated proteins. Therefore, the apoptosis of cancer cells induced by AS-M may be triggered through the p53 pathway. In in vivo studies, AS-M not only suppresses the growth of human malignant brain tumors but also significantly prolongs patient survival. In addition, AS-M has potent anticancer effects involving cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and antiangiogenesis. The in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects of AS-M indicate that this extract warrants further investigation and potential development as a new antibrain tumor agent, providing new hope for the chemotherapy of malignant brain cancer.

  20. Effect of methanol extract of Prosopis juliflora on mild steel corrosion in 1M HCl

    OpenAIRE

    Zulfareen, Nasarullah; Kannan, Kulanthi; Venugopal, Thiruvengadam

    2016-01-01

    The Prosopis juliflora extract was investigated as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1M HCl using weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The inhibition efficiency of Prosopis juliflora increases with an increase in inhibitor concentration and temperature. Polarization studies revealed that Prosopis juliflora acts as a mixed type inhibitor for mild steel in 1M HCl. AC impedance indicates that the value of charge transfer ...

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Ephedra pachyclada Methanol Extract on Some Enteric Gram Negative Bacteria Which Causes Nosocomial Infections by Agar Dilution Method

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    Amin Sadeghi Dosari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Past history indicates that plants were served as an important source of medicine. Otherwise, in developing countries people use medicinal plants against infectious disease because they cannot afford expensive drugs. Due to increasing rate of drug-resistant diseases, there is an urgent need to detect novel antimicrobial compounds from medicinal plants. Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine Antimicrobial activity of Ephedra pachyclada methanol extract on some enteric Gram-negative bacteria which causes nosocomial infections by agar dilution method. Methods In this cross-sectional study, in order to examine the antimicrobial effects of Ephedra pachyclada extract on intestinal Gram-negative bacteria, we exposed them to 0/128, 0/25, 0/5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg/mL of the extract. Ephedra pachyclada was collected from Jiroft Heights and methanolic extract was prepared with maceration method, during which, 50 gr powder of Ephedra pachyclada was dissolved in 300 mL of 80% methanol. Results In this study, the antibacterial effects of Ephedra pachyclada extract on Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli (PTCC-O157, Escherichia coli (ATCC-25922, Klebsiella pnemoniae, Serratia marcescens was investigated, defining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC by agar dilution method. It has been demonstrated that methanolic extract of Ephedra pachyclada affect intestinal Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusions The result showed that, Ephedra pachyclada extract has effective antimicrobial ingredients which are cheap and readily available. It can be used for medicinal purposes in the production of antimicrobial drug.

  2. Antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the methanol extracts of the stems of Acokanthera oppositifolia and Adenia gummifera

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    Afolayan Anthony J

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acokanthera oppositifolia Lam (family: Apocynaceae is a shrub or small tree with white latex, and the leaves of this plant are used in the form of a snuff to treat headaches and in infusions for abdominal pains and convulsions and septicaemia. Adenia gummifera Harv of the family Passifloraceae is a distinctive woody climber whose infusions are used as emetics and are said to help with some forms of depression. Lipid peroxidation has gained more importance today because of its involvement in pathogenesis of many diseases. Free radicals are the main agents in lipid peroxidation. Antioxidants thus play an important role of protecting the human body against damage by the free radicals. Plants containing phenolic compounds have been reported to possess strong antioxidant properties. Methods The antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the methanol extracts of the stems of Acokanthera oppositifolia and Adenia gummifera were evaluated using in vitro standard procedures. Spectrophotometry was the basis for the determinations of total phenol, total flavonoids, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins. Tannins, quercetin and catechin equivalents were used for these parameters. The antioxidant activities of the stem extract of Acokanthera oppositifolia were determined by the 2,2'-azinobis-3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP methods. Results The results from this study showed that the antioxidant activities of the stem extract of Acokanthera oppositifolia as determined by the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP methods, were higher than that of Adenia gummifera. The levels of total phenols and flavonols for A. oppositifolia were also higher. On the other hand, the stem extract of Adenia gummifera had higher level of total flavonoids and proanthocyanidins than that of Acokanthera oppositifolia

  3. Quantitative determination, Metal analysis and Antiulcer evaluation of Methanol seeds extract of Citrullus lanatus Thunb (Cucurbitaceae in Rats

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    Okunrobo O. Lucky

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The use of herbs in treatment of diseases is gradually becoming universally accepted especially in non industrialized societies. Citrullus lanatus Thunb (Cucurbitaceae commonly called water melon is widely consumed in this part of the world as food and medicine. This work was conducted to investigate the phytochemical composition, proximate and metal content analysis of the seed of Citrullus lanatus and to determine the antiulcer action of the methanol seed extract. Methods: Phytochemical screening, proximate and metal content analysis was done using the standard procedures and the antiulcer activity was evaluated against acetylsalicylic acid-induced ulcers. Results: The results revealed the presence of the following phytochemicals; flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides. Proximate analysis indicated high concentration of carbohydrate, protein and fat while metal analysis showed the presence of sodium, calcium, zinc, magnesium at levels within the recommended dietary intake. Antiulcer potential of the extract against acetylsalicylic acid induced ulceration of gastric mucosa of Wister rats was evaluated at three doses (200mg/kg, 400mg/kg, and 800mg/kg. The ulcer parameters investigated included ulcer number, ulcer severity, ulcer index and percentage ulcer protection. The antiulcer activity was compared against ranitidine at 20mg/kg. The extract exhibited a dose related antiulcer activity with maximum activity at 800mg/kg (P<0.001. Conclusions: Proximate and metal content analysis of the seeds provides information that the consumption of the seeds of Citrullus lanatus is safe. This present study also provides preliminary data for the first time that the seeds of Citrullus lanatus possesses antiulcer activity in animal model.

  4. Anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract from Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. stems and roots in mice: A comparison to diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Pérez, A; Hernández-Medel, M del R

    2016-04-01

    In ancient and current traditional medicine in México, extracts from the leaves or whole plant of 'life leaf' (Kalanchoe pinnata [K. pinnata]Lam) have been used to treat an entity known locally as 'yellow epilepsy' (alferecía amarilla) when it is accompanied by seizures. However, the anticonvulsive activity of its stems and roots remains unexplored The anticonvulsant activity of the methanolic root extract (MER) or stem (MES) of K. pinnata Lam. was evaluated in a pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure model in Balb/C mice, and effects were compared to those of diazepam. The stem extract fractions that produced anticonvulsant activity were subsequently evaluated using the pentylenetetrazol -induced seizure model. We observed increased latency of tonic-clonic seizures that was inversely proportional to the dose of MRE, with a similar impact on the lethal effects of pentylenetetrazol. Different doses of the MSE showed a dose-dependent increase in latency to myoclonus, clonus, and tonic-clonic seizures, acting similarly to diazepam and offering 100% protection against the lethal effects of pentylenetetrazol. Fractioning MSE decreased its effectiveness, but when fractions were mixed with fractions of chloroform and ethyl acetate, anticonvulsive activity was restored. The preliminary phytochemical analysis identified alkaloids and sterols in MRE, and sterols and terpenes in MSE CONCLUSIONS: The anticonvulsant activity of K. pinnata Lam. decreases with increased doses of MRE, whereas the effect of MSE is dose-dependent and preserved in the mixture chloroform and ethyl acetate. We suggest that the metabolites responsible for these effects are sterols in MRE, and sterols and terpenes in MSE. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Effect of Cinnamomum verum Methanolic Extract and Essential Oil: A Study on Bio-preservative in Ketchup Sauce

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    Anoosheh Sharifan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of natural antimicrobial compounds extracted from plants such as cinnamon as preservative to extend the shelf life has gain much attention. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity and bio- preservative potential of the methanolic extract of Cinnamomum verum bark and its oil against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosae and Escherichia coli in ketchup sauce. In order to evaluate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of essential oil and methanolic extract from the bark of C. verum, agar dilution method was performed. Then the effective inhibitory concentrations were evaluated on growth of test bacteria in ketchup sauce at 4 °C and room temperature in different storage times (1, 7, 14 and 30 days. In addition, the sensory quality of treated ketchups was assessed. This study showed bacteriostatic effect of the essential oils and methanolic extract on all tested bacteria. The best treatment in ketchup sauce was obtained on days 14 at 4 °C in concentrations of 1500 µg/ml essential oil. In sensory evaluation, the sample containing 1000 µg/ml essential oil had higher score in odor, taste and overall acceptability than other treated samples (P<0.05. This study shows that cinnamon oil is a more potent antimicrobial agent than cinnamon extract and it has the potential to be used as food preservative and is recommended for quality attributes enhancement.

  6. Effect of the methanolic extracts of different parts of Ferula assa-foetida on naloxone-induced withdrawal behavior in morphine-dependent mice

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    Mahnaz Khanavi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ferula assa-foetida, a native species in Iran, is used for treatment of several diseases particularly for neurological disorders in Iranian Traditional Medicine. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of methanolic roots, fruits, and aerial parts extracts of Ferula assa-foetida on withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent mice. Materials and Methods: Aerial parts, roots, and fruits of the plant were separately extracted with 80% MeOH. For induction of dependence, morphine (50, 50 and 75 mg/kg was injected subcutaneously three times daily (10 am, 1 pm and 4 pm for three days and a last dose of morphine (50 mg/kg was administrated on the fourth day. Withdrawal syndrome was induced by injection of naloxone (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal 2 hr after the final dose of morphine. Different doses of the extracts were administered i.p. 60 minutes before naloxone injection and withdrawal sign was recorded 2 minutes after naloxone injection for a period of 60 minutes.   Results: Pre-treatment of animals with different doses (2.5, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg of methanolic extract of the aerial parts of F. assa-foetida caused a significant decrease in naloxone-induced behavior. Intraperitoneal administration of different doses (10, 15, 20, 25 mg/kg of methanolic extract of the fruit significantly reduced the naloxone-induced withdrawal behavior (p

  7. In vitro antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of herbal parts and callus cultures of Satureja hortensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güllüce, M; Sökmen, M; Daferera, D; Ağar, G; Ozkan, H; Kartal, N; Polissiou, M; Sökmen, A; Sahin, F

    2003-07-02

    The present study was designated to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil, obtained by using a Clevenger distillation apparatus, water soluble (polar) and water insoluble (nonpolar) subfractions of the methanol extracts from aerial parts of Satureja hortensis L. plants, and methanol extract from calli established from the seeds using Gamborg's B5 basal media supplemented with indole-3-butyric acid (1.0 ppm), 6-benzylaminopurine (N(6)-benzyladenine) (1.0 ppm), and sucrose (2.5%). The antimicrobial test results showed that the essential oil of S. hortensis had great potential antimicrobial activities against all 23 bacteria and 15 fungi and yeast species tested. In contrast, the methanol extract from callus cultures and water soluble subfraction of the methanol extract did not show antimicrobial activities, but the nonpolar subfraction had antibacterial activity against only five out of 23 bacterial species, which were Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus fecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Antioxidant studies suggested that the polar subfractions of the methanol extract of intact plant and methanol extract of callus cultures were able to reduce the stable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl to the yellow-colored diphenylpicrylhydrazine. In this assay, the strongest effect was observed for the tissue culture extract, with an IC(50) value of 23.76 +/- 0.80 microgram/mL, which could be compared with the synthetic antioxidant agent butylated hydroxytoluene. On the other hand, linoleic acid oxidation was 95% inhibited in the presence of the essential oil while the inhibition was 90% with the chloroform subfraction of the intact plant. The chemical composition of a hydrodistilled essential oil of S. hortensis was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)/flame ionization detection (FID) and a GC-mass spectrometry system. A total 22 constituents representing 99.9% of the essential oil were

  8. In vitro antioxidant and, α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and comprehensive metabolite profiling of methanol extract and its fractions from Clinacanthus nutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Ariful; Zaidul, I S M; Ghafoor, Kashif; Sahena, F; Hakim, M A; Rafii, M Y; Abir, H M; Bostanudin, M F; Perumal, V; Khatib, A

    2017-03-31

    This study was aimed to evaluate antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, with a subsequent analysis of total phenolic and total flavonoid content of methanol extract and its derived fractions from Clinacanthus nutans accompanied by comprehensive phytochemical profiling. Liquid-liquid partition chromatography was used to separate methanolic extract to get hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and residual aqueous fractions. The total antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The antidiabetic activity of methanol extract and its consequent fractions were examined by α-glucosidase inhibitory bioassay. The chemical profiling was carried out by gas chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC Q-TOF MS). The total yield for methanol extraction was (12.63 ± 0.98) % (w/w) and highest fractionated value found for residual aqueous (52.25 ± 1.01) % (w/w) as compared to the other fractions. Significant DPPH free radical scavenging activity was found for methanolic extract (63.07 ± 0.11) % and (79.98 ± 0.31) % for ethyl acetate fraction among all the fractions evaluated. Methanol extract was the most prominent in case of FRAP (141.89 ± 0.87 μg AAE/g) whereas most effective reducing power observed in ethyl acetate fraction (133.6 ± 0.2987 μg AAE/g). The results also indicated a substantial α-glucosidase inhibitory activity for butanol fraction (72.16 ± 1.0) % and ethyl acetate fraction (70.76 ± 0.49) %. The statistical analysis revealed that total phenolic and total flavonoid content of the samples had the significant (p < 0.05) impact on DPPH free radical scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Current results proposed the therapeutic potential of Clinacanthus nutans, especially ethyl acetate and butanol fraction as chemotherapeutic agent against oxidative related cellular damages and control the

  9. FLAVONOIDS AND ANTI-OXIDANT ACTIVITY MEDIATED GASTROPROTECTIVE ACTION OF LEATHERY MURDAH, TERMINALIA CORIACEA (ROXB. WIGHT & ARN. LEAF METHANOLIC EXTRACT IN RATS

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    Mohammed Safwan ALI KHAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Leathery Murdah, Terminalia coriacea (Roxb. Wight & Arn. from family Combretaceae is used in Ayurveda and Siddha traditional systems of medicine to heal ulcers. OBJECTIVE The present study was conducted to assess the gastroprotective effect and understand the fundamental mechanism of action of Leathery Murdah, Terminalia coriacea (Roxb. Wight & Arn. Leaf Methanolic Extract. METHODS The test extract was screened for anti-ulcer activity by Aspirin induced ulcerogenesis in pyloric ligation and ethanol induced gastric ulcers at three doses - 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, p.o. using Ranitidine 50 mg/kg and Misoprostol 100 μg/kg as standard drug in respective models. Seven parameters were carefully examined, that is, ulcer index, total protein, mucin, catalase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase levels and histopathology. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic - Ultra Violet profiling and Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectral analysis of crude Terminalia coriacea leaves methanolic extract were carried out as a part of chemical characterization to identify bioactive compounds. RESULTS All the test doses exhibited significant gastroprotective function, particularly the higher doses demonstrated improved action. The results revealed a significant increase in the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and Mucin with reduction in ulcer index, the levels of total protein, and malondialdehyde. Histopathological observations also illustrated the gastroprotective effect of Terminalia coriacea leaves methanolic extract. CONCLUSION Terminalia coriacea leaves methanolic extract exhibited strong anti-oxidant and anti-secretory activities mediated gastroprotection besides inducing the gastric mucosal production. The observed pharmacological response can be attributed to the flavonoidal compounds namely - Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, Luteolin-7-O-glucoside, Myricetin hexoside, Quercetin-3-O-glucoside, Isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnosylglucoside and

  10. Antimigratory Effects of the Methanol Extract from Momordica charantia on Human Lung Adenocarcinoma CL1 Cells

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    Hsue-Yin Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia has been found to exhibit anticancer activity, in addition to its well-known therapeutic functions. We have demonstrated that the leaf extract of Momordica charantia (MCME induces apoptosis in several human cancer cells through caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathways. In this study, a different susceptibility to MCME was found in human lung adenocarcinoma CL1 cells with different metastatic ability, leading to the significant difference of cell viability and invasiveness between MCME-treated CL1-0 and CL1-5 cells. MCME was found to upregulate the expression of Wnt-2 and affect the migratory and invasive ability of CL1 cells through suppressed MMP-2 and MMP-9 enzymatic activities. We proposed that MCME mediates inhibition against migration of CL1 cells by reducing the expression and activation of Src and FAK to decrease the expression of downstream Akt, β-catenin, and MMPs.

  11. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil, Total Phenolics, Total Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Satureja montana L.

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    Avni Hajdari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerial parts of Satureja montana L. (Lamiaceae were collected from seven growing wild populations (four populations in Kosovo, two in Albania and one in Montenegro in 2013 with the aim of assessing the natural variation in the chemical composition of the essential oils, total flavonoids, total phenolics and the antioxidant activity of their methanolic extracts. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analysed using GC-FID and GC-MS, whereas total flavonoids, total phenolics and antioxidant activities were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Sixty-one volatile constituents were identified. The main constituents were myrcene, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, linalool, thymol, carvacrol and viridiflorol. Total phenolics ranged from 68.1 to 102.6 mg/g dry mass, the total flavonoid content ranged from 38.3 to 67.0 mg/g dm, and the antioxidant activity according to the DPPH assay ranged from 253.3 to 342.9 mg TE/g dm and according to the FRAP assay ranged from 8.9 to 11.4 mg TE/g dm. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analyses were used to assess the geographical variations in the essential oil composition. Statistical analysis revealed that the analysed populations are grouped into four main clusters that appear to reflect the environmental impact on the chemical composition, which is influenced by differences in habitat composition, altitude and microclimatic conditions.

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Methanol Extract of Moutan Cortex in LPS-Activated Raw264.7 Cells

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    Seung-Chul Chun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Moutan Cortex (MCE has been used in traditional medicine to remove heat from the blood, promote blood circulation and alleviate blood stasis. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of MCE on regulatory mechanisms of cytokines and nitric oxide (NO involved in immunological activity of Raw264.7 cells. Cells were pretreated with methanolic extracts of MCE, and further cultured for an appropriate time after lipopolyssacharide (LPS addition. During the entire experimental period, 0.1 and 0.3 mg ml−1 of MCE had no cytotoxicity. In these concentrations, MCE inhibited the production of NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and phosphorylated inhibitor of κBα (p-IκBα, and the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB. MCE also reduced the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in the Raw264.7 cells that were activated by LPS. These results demonstrate that MCE has anti-inflammatory effects through the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression by suppressing the phosphorylation of I-κBα and the activation of NF-κB.

  13. Antihyperglycaemic activity of the methanol extract from leaves of Eremophila maculata (Scrophulariaceae) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Fadia S; Ashour, Mohamed L; Ebada, Sherif S; Sobeh, Mansour; El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; Singab, Abdel Nasser; Wink, Michael

    2017-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic activity of the methanol leaf extract of Eremophila maculata (EMM) both in vitro and in vivo. The antihyperglycaemic activity was assessed in vitro using differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, whereas in-vivo effect was evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Chemical profiling of EMM was done using LC-ESI-MS techniques. Molecular modelling experiments of the identified compounds were performed using C-Docker protocol. Eremophila maculata slightly enhanced cellular glucose uptake and utilization in vitro by 3.92% relative to the untreated control. A stronger in-vivo effect was observed for EMM and its dichloromethane fraction. A pronounced elevation in serum insulin by 88.89 and 66.67%, respectively, accompanied by an apparent decline in fasting blood glucose (FBG) level by 65.60 and 70.37% comparable to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was observed. This effect was stronger than that of the reference drug glibenclamide (GLB). Chemical profiling of EMM revealed that leucoseptoside A, verbascoside, syringaresinol-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, pinoresinol-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and pinoresinol-4-O-[6″-O-(E)-feruloyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside are the major compounds. Molecular modelling showed that martynoside, verbascoside and phillygenin exhibited the highest inhibition to human pancreatic α-amylase (HPA), maltase glucoamylase (MGAM) and aldose reductase (AR), respectively. Eremophila maculata offers an interesting relatively safer antihyperglycaemic candidate comparable to synthetic analogues. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Experimental evidences of methanolic extraction of Cressa cretica Linn. on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats

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    B. Lalitha Kumari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the physico-metabolic parameters measured were: serum insulin, serum lipid profile, serum biomarker enzymes and anti-oxidant enzymes, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, total proteins, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, creatinine, insulin assay (RIA, for in vivo anti-oxidant activity of MECC was measured in liver tissue homogenate (LTH by malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes and histopathological examination of pancreas were also observed. Previously, the methonolic extract of Cressa cretica Linn. effect on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats was proved by taking the parameters like body weight, blood glucose, glycogen content in liver and muscle. Oral administration of MECC (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg for 28 days exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose, serum ALT, AST, CR, lipid profile and hepatic MDA levels. The improvement of hepatic enzymes such as GSH, serum TP, HDL, insulin levels were also observed. The results of this work also suggest that MECC may possess anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidant property.

  15. Hepatoprotective effect of methanolic Tanacetum parthenium extract on CCl4-induced liver damage in rats

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    Yavar Mahmoodzadeh

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Tanacetum Parthenium Extract (TPE on Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes, biochemical factors, and liver enzymes in the rats damaged by Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4.54 male Wistar rats were divided into 9 groups each consisting of 6 rats. Two of the groups were control groups (normal and damage control groups, 4 of them were exposure groups which were respectively administered with 40, 80, and 120 mg/kg of TPE and silymarin for 14 days before being damaged by CCl4, and the other 3 groups were post-treatment groups which received 80 and 120 mg/kg of TPE and silymarin 2, 6, 24, and 48 h after being injected with CCl4. At the end of the study, biochemical factors, serum liver enzymes, malondialdehyde level, antioxidant enzymes, and liver morphology were assayed.Pre- and post-treatment with TPE could significantly decrease ALT, AST, ALP, TG, LDL, TC, and glucose levels and increase HDL, and albumin levels and catalase, SOD, and GPx activities compared to the CCl4-damaged control group.The results of this study are indicative of the antioxidant activity of TPE, its potential hepatoprotective effects, and its probable therapeutic properties for laboratory animals damaged by CCl4. Keywords: Tanacetum parthenium, Carbon tetrachloride, Oxidative stress, Antioxidant enzymes, Liver damage

  16. Evaluation of the diuretic and urinary electrolyte effects of methanolic extract of Peganum harmala L. in Wistar albino rats

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    Fahad I. Al-Saikhan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of traditional medicines as a diuretic agent has been increasing in recent years. The diuretic activity of a number of plant extracts used as diuretic agents in ethnomedicine has been confirmed in experimental animals. However, despite the widespread use of Peganum harmala in traditional medicine, there is a paucity of data supporting its use as a diuretic agent. Therefore, the present study aimed to envisage the true effect and magnitude of diuresis of methanolic extract of P. harmala (MEPH in comparison with a well-known diuretic drug furosemide using Wistar albino rats. MEPH was administered orally in three different doses (150, 300 and 450 mg/kg to experimentally dehydrated rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg orally was used as a reference drug. The diuretic effect of the MEPH was evaluated by measuring urine volume, urine pH, urinary electrolyte levels, natriuretic and saliuretic effects. The urine volume (in mL measured at 5 h and 24 h and electrolyte excretion (Na+, K+, and Cl− at 24 h duration were measured. The urine output and urinary electrolyte excretion were found to be significantly higher in rats treated with MEPH as compared to normal rats in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.05. The results of our study were comparable to furosemide drug. Based on observed results, we can recommend that P. harmala may be an effective diuretic, however, toxicity studies should be conducted before administration. Keywords: Peganum harmala L., Diuretic, Furosemide, Harmine, Harmaline, Carbonic anhydrase

  17. Bio-guided fractionation of methanol extract of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. (bark and effect of the most active fraction on cancer cell lines

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    Richard Simo Tagne

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the anticancer and antioxidant potential of methanol bark extract of Ziziphus mauritiana (Z. mauritiana, which is used by traditional healers to cure some cases of cancer in Cameroon. Methods: The methanol crude extract of Z. mauritiana has the antiproliferative activity on four cancer cell lines and its antioxidant activity. The extract was partitioned in five different solvents, and each fraction was tested. The effect of the most antiproliferative fraction on cell cycle was determined. Bio-guided fractionation was performed on the fraction with the highest antiproliferative and the highest antioxidant activities. Results: Z. mauritiana methanol extract was active on all tested cells, and showed promising antioxidant activity. All fractions except hexane fraction were active with the dichloromethane fraction being the most active and showed S and G2-M phase arrest (P<0.01 on cell cycle progression of NCI-H460 and MCF-7, respectively. Bio-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane fraction led to lupeol and betulinic acid. The greatest antioxidant activity was recorded with ethyl acetate fraction and its fractionation led to catechin and epigallocatechin. Conclusions: Overall, this study showed that Z. mauritiana barks has benefits as a chemoprevention agent cancer.

  18. Studies of methanolic extract of Amaranthus paniculatus L. on Mice Liver against

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, M.; Sisodia, R.; Bhatia, A. I.

    2004-01-01

    India has a rich heritage of medicinal plants, many of which have been explored for the various bioactivities since ages, but the radioprotective potential of the plants have been hardly explored. Since Amaranthus, a common weed and very often caten as vegetable by rural population, has been used as emollient, astringent, diuretic, blood purifier, hemorrhagic diathesis and biliousness from time immemorial. Hence the present study aims to judge whether Amaranthus paniculatus (Linn) has the antiradiation efficacy against radiation induced histopathological and biochemical alterations in mice liver. Amaranthus paniculatus (Linn) belongs to family Amaranthaceae and commonly called as Amaranth, has good natural sources of carotenoids (beta carotene-1490 μg/100 gm of edible portion), vitamin C and high level of critical lysine and methionine, protein content (22 gm/100 gm of edible portion). Swiss albino mice of 6-8 weeks weighing 22 ± 3 gm were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. One group served as normal and two groups were administered with alcoholic extract at a dose of 600 mg/Kg-body weight/day dissolved in distilled water for fifteen days. Fourth group was given distilled water, orally and ad libitum. Then two groups, one with drug treated and another with distilled water treated, were exposed to 5 Gy of gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.07 Gy/min with a source to surface distance (SSD) of 77.5 cm. The animals were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days post exposure. the optimum dose was calculated to be 600mg/kg b.wt/day after treating mice with AE for fifteen consecutive days prior to irradiation (9 Gy) to get maximum protection against radiation injury. By the survival assay, DRF 1.43 was calculated with different doses of gammas radiation (6, 9, 12 Gy). The radiation induced augmentation in MDA, protein, glycogen, alkaline and acid phosphatase content of liver is significantly ameliorated by the drug. The radiation induced

  19. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities of aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of ladies finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreddula, Sathish Kumar; Bonam, Srinivasa Reddy; Gaddam, Durga Prasad; Desu, Brahma Srinivasa Rao; Ramarao, Nadendla; Pandy, Vijayapandi

    2014-01-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus L. (ladies finger, okra) is a well-known tropical vegetable, widely planted from Africa to Asia and from South Europe to America. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo protective effect of the aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment using passive avoidance task and acute restraining stress-induced behavioural and biochemical changes using elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Our results demonstrated that the pretreatment of mice with aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus (200 mg/kg, p.o.) for seven days significantly (P nootropic activities which promisingly support the medicinal values of ladies finger as a vegetable.

  20. Acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark methanol extract in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

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    Nyadjeu Paulin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous study showed that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum possesses antihypertensive and vasodilatory properties. The present work investigates the acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of the methanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark (MECZ in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Methods The acute antihypertensive effects of MECZ (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg administered intravenously were evaluated in rats in which acute arterial hypertension has been induced by intravenous administration of L-NAME (20 mg/kg. For chronic antihypertensive effects, animals were treated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day plus the vehicle or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day in combination with captopril (20 mg/kg/day or MECZ (300 mg/kg/day and compared with control group receiving only distilled water. All drugs were administered per os and at the end of the experiment that lasted for four consecutive weeks, blood pressure was measured by invasive method and blood samples were collected for the determination of the lipid profile. The heart and aorta were collected, weighed and used for both histological analysis and determination of NO tissue content. Results Acute intravenous administration of C. zeylanicum extract (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg to L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats provoked a long-lasting decrease in blood pressure. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased by 12.5%, 26.6% and 30.6% at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. In chronic administration, MECZ and captopril significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure and organs’ weights, as well as tissue histological damages and were able to reverse the depletion in NO tissue’s concentration. The MECZ also significantly lower the plasma level of triglycerides (38.1%, total cholesterol (32.1% and LDL-cholesterol (75.3% while increasing that of HDL-cholesterol (58.4% with a significant low atherogenic index (1.4 versus 5.3 for L-NAME group. Conclusion MECZ

  1. Analysis of lipid profile and atherogenic index in hyperlipidemic rat (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769) that given the methanolic extract of Parijoto (Medinilla speciosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'adah, Noor Nailis; Purwani, Kristanti Indah; Nurhayati, Awik Puji Dyah; Ashuri, Nova Maulidina

    2017-06-01

    Diet of high lipids cause hyperlipidemia, which marked by an increase of total cholesterols, triglycerides, LDL-C, and decreasing of HDL-C. Hyperlipidemia lead the occurrence of atherosclerosis, one of factors that trigger cardiovascular disease, as hypertention; coronary heart and stroke. Parijoto (M. speciosa) is endemic plants in Asia with a distribution center in Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippines. Parijoto contain phytochemical components such as flavonoids, saponins and kardenolin. Flavonoid potensial as an antioxidants and can improve the hyperlipidemia condition. This study was aimed to determine lipid profiles and atherogenic index of hyperlipidemic Wistar rats (R. norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769) which given the methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa). The research was done with pre and post test randomized control group design. Rats were given a mixture of duck yolk and reused cooking oil (1:1) orally as much as 1% of body weight (BW) for 30 days. After hyperlipidemia achieved, rats were divided into 5 group: normal rats, hyperlipidemic rats, hyperlipidemic rats were given the methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa) 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 1500 mg/kg BW. Blood samples were collected when rats in hyperlipidemia conditions and after treatment with the methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa) for 30 days. The data of total cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol level, and atherogenic index were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey test at 5% significance level. The result showed that giving of methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa) in hyperlipidemic rats reduced the total cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol levels, and increased of HDL-cholesterol levels significantly (p<0.01), so atherogenic index reduced significantly too (p<0.01). Total cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol levels were positively correlated with the atherogenic index, whereas HDL-cholesterol levels were negatively correlated with the atherogenic index.

  2. Antinociceptive and Anxiolytic and Sedative Effects of Methanol Extract of Anisomeles indica: An Experimental Assessment in Mice and Computer Aided Models

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Josim Uddin; A. S. M. Ali Reza; Md. Abdullah-Al-Mamun; Mohammad S. H. Kabir; Mst. Samima Nasrin; Sharmin Akhter; Md. Saiful Islam Arman; Md. Atiar Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Anisomeles indica (L.) kuntze is widely used in folk medicine against various disorders including allergy, sores, inflammation, and fever. This research investigated the antinociceptive, anxiolytic and sedative effects of A. indica methanol extract. The antinociceptive activity was assessed with the acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced flicking test while sedative effects with open field and hole cross tests and anxiolytic effects with elevated plus maze (EPM) and thiopental...

  3. Genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity study of aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts of Spondias mombin L., Nymphaea lotus L. and Luffa cylindrical L. using animal bioassays

    OpenAIRE

    Oyeyemi, Ifeoluwa Temitayo; Yekeen, Olaide Maruf; Odusina, Paul Olayinka; Ologun, Taiwo Mary; Ogbaide, Orezimena Michelle; Olaleye, Olayinka Israel; Bakare, Adekunle A.

    2015-01-01

    Spondias mombin (Linn), Nymphaea lotus (Linn) and Luffa cylindrica (Linn) (syn Luffa aegyptiaca Mill) are plants traditionally used as food ingredients and in the management of diseases, including cancer, in Nigeria. Despite the therapeutic potentials attributed to these plants, reports on their genotoxicity are scanty. In this study, the genotoxicity of the aqueous and hydro-methanol extract of these plants was evaluated using mouse bone marrow micronucleus and sperm morphology assays. Antig...

  4. Effects of Methanolic Extracts of Annona Species on the Development and Reproduction of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, A F; Pereira, F F; Formagio, A S N; Lucchetta, J T; Vieira, M C; Mussury, R M

    2014-10-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) causes significant losses in corn crops and necessitates the use of alternative control strategies, such as the application of bioinsecticides. We report the effect of methanolic leaf extracts of Annona dioica, Annona cacans, and Annona coriacea on the development and reproduction of S. frugiperda. A quantitative analysis was carried out to determine the total concentration of phenolics, flavonoids, and condensed tannin (CT) in leaf extracts. Corn leaves were immersed in a 1% methanolic leaf extract solution and fed to second instars of S. frugiperda. Leaf disks dipped in the synthetic insecticide Connect® (Bayer CropScience Ltda) composed of a neonicotinoid (imidacloprid) and a pyrethroid (β-cyfluthrin), which are harmful to S. frugiperda, was used as positive control. Distilled water was used as a negative control treatment. The leaf extract of A. coriacea decreased larval survivorship, arrested pupal development, and affected the weight gain of S. frugiperda. A. dioica also affected larval survivorship, but its effects were more pronounced for the adult stage, as fecundity, fertility, egg hatchability, and embryonic development were severely affected. Leaf extracts from A. cacans had no effect on S. frugiperda. The leaf extracts of A. dioica and A. coriacea showed a higher content of flavonoids and phenols, respectively. Our results indicated that both A. dioica and A. coriacea have the potential for development as botanical insecticides.

  5. Chemical composition of essential oils of Piper jacquemontianum and Piper variabile from Guatemala and bioactivity of the dichloromethane and methanol extracts

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    Sully M. Cruz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from two native species from Guatemala were studied for their chemical composition and the dichloromethane and methanol extracts for their biological activity. A GC-MS analysis of the essential oil from Piper jacquemontianum Kunth, Piperaceae, showed 34 constituents, consisting mainly of linalool (69.4%, while Piper variabile C. DC. essential oil had 36 constituents, camphor (28.4%, camphene (16.6% and limonene (13.9% being the major components. Dichloromethane extracts of both species were cytotoxic against MCF-7, H-460 and SF-268 cell lines (<7 µg/mL. Dichloromethane extract of P. jacquemontianum was slightly active against bacteria (0.5 mg/mL, was active against promastigotes of Leishmania (20.4-61.0 µg/mL, and epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (51.9 µg/mL. The methanol extract of P. variabile showed antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum F32 (4.5 µg/mL, and the dichloromethane extract against Leishmania (55.8-76.3 µg/mL and T. cruzi (45.8 µg/mL. None of the extracts from the two species was active against Aedes aegypti larvae and Artemia salina nauplii.

  6. Quantity and quality of guinea pig (cavia porcellus) spermatozoa after administration of methanol extract of bitter melon (momordica charantia) seed and depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Syafruddin; Hutahaean, Salomo; Nursal

    2018-03-01

    The discovery of male contraceptive drugs continues to be pursued, due to the few participation of men associated with the lack of contraceptive options for men. The combination of bitter melon seed methanol extract and DMPA are the options that currently apply to men. Therefore, the use of guinea pigs as experimental animals conducted research using experimental methods with complete randomized design (CRD). There are 4 control groups and 4 treatment groups. The first group, control group of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) for 0 week (K0), The second one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g Body Weight/day for 0 week (P0), the third one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 4 weeks (K1), the fourth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 4 weeks + Depot medroxy Progesterone Acetate (P1), the fifth one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 8 weeks (K2), the sixth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 8 weeks + DMPA (P2), the seventh one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 12 weeks (K3), the eighth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 12 weeks + DMPA (P3). Methanol extract of bitter melon seed to decrease the quantity and quality of guinea pig spermatozoa decreased significantly, i.e. viability and normal morphology of spermatozoa (p<0.05).

  7. Spasmogenic and spasmolytic activities of Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana methanolic extracts on the guinea pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Martínez, Rosa; Rodríguez, Rodolfo; González-Trujano, María Eva; Ángeles-López, Guadalupe E; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Gómez, Claudia

    2017-01-20

    Agastache mexicana has been used in traditional medicine for relief of abdominal pain and treatment of other diseases. Two subspecies have been identified: A. mexicana ssp. mexicana (AMM) and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana (AMX) and both are used traditionally without distinction or in combination. To determine the effect of methanol extracts of A. mexicana ssp. mexicana and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana on gut motility and their possible mechanism of action. The effect of AMM and AMX methanol extracts were tested on the spontaneous activity in the isolated guinea pig ileum and on tissues pre-contracted with KCl, electrical field stimulation (EFS) or ACh. In addition, the possible mechanism of action of each subspecies on gut motility was analyzed in the presence of hexametonium, indomethacin, L-NAME, verapamil, atropine or pyrylamine. A comparative chromatographic profile of these extracts was also done to indicate the most abundant flavonoids presents in methanol extracts of both subspecies. AMM, but not AMX, induced a contractile effect in the guinea pig ileum. This spasmogenic effect was partially inhibited by atropine, antagonist of muscarinic receptors; and pyrilamine, antagonist of H 1 receptors. In contrast, AMX, but not AMM, diminished the contractions induced by KCl, EFS or ACh. The spasmolytic activity of AMX was partially inhibited by hexamethonium, ganglionic blocker; and indomethacin, inhibitor of the synthesis of prostaglandins; but not by L-NAME, inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. In addition, AMX diminished the maximal contraction induced by CaCl 2 in a calcium-free medium. Chromatographic analyses of these methanol extracts showed the presence of acacetin and tilanin in both. These results suggest that in folk medicine only AMX should be used as spasmolytic, and not in combination with AMM as traditionally occurs, due to the spasmogenic effects of the latter. In addition, activation of nicotinic receptors, prostaglandins and calcium channels, but

  8. Methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni unripe fruit attenuates ethanol-induced conditioned place preferences in mice

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    Yasmin Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytotherapy is an emerging field successfully utilized to treat various chronic diseases including alcohol dependence. In the present study, we examined the effect of the standardized methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. unripe fruit (MMC, on compulsive ethanol-seeking behaviour using the mouse conditioned place preference (CPP test. CPP was established by injections of ethanol (2g/kg, i.p. in a 12-day conditioning schedule in mice. The effect of MMC and the reference drug, acamprosate (ACAM, on the reinforcing properties of ethanol in mice was studied by the oral administration of MMC (1, 3 and 5g/kg and ACAM (300 mg/kg 60 min prior to the final CPP test postconditioning. Furthermore, CPPs weakened with repeated testing in the absence of ethanol over the next 12 days (extinction, during which the treatment groups received MMC (1, 3 and 5g/kg, p.o. or ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.. Finally, a priming injection of a low dose of ethanol (0.4g/kg, i.p. in the home cage (Reinstatement was sufficient to reinstate CPPs, an effect that was challenged by the administration of MMC or ACAM. MMC (3 and 5g/kg, p.o and ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o. significantly reversed the establishment of ethanol-induced CPPs and effectively facilitated the extinction of ethanol CPP. In light of these findings, it has been suggested that M. citrifolia unripe fruit could be utilized for novel drug development to combat alcohol dependence.

  9. Blockade of nicotine sensitization by methanol extracts of Glycyrrhizae radix mediated via antagonism of accumbal oxidative stress.

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    Zhao, Zheng Lin; Kim, Sang Chan; Liu, Hong Feng; Wu, Yi Yan; Li, Li Bo; Wang, Yu Hua; Jiao, Yu; Fan, Yu; Lee, Chul Won; Lee, Bong Hyeo; Cho, Il Je; Yang, Chae Ha; Zhao, Rong Jie

    2017-11-16

    We previously reported that a methanol extract of Glycyrrhizae radix (MEGR) blocked methamphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference in rats. In the present study, the effects of MEGR on repeated nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization and enhanced extracellular dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (Nacc) were evaluated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received repeated administrations of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, subcutaneous) or saline twice a day for 7 d and were challenged with nicotine 4 d after the last daily dosing. During the 4-d withdrawal period, the rats were treated once a day with MEGR (60 or 180 mg/kg/d). Extracellular DA levels were measured by in vivo microdialysis, the malondialdehyde levels and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the Nacc were biochemically evaluated, and the expression of antioxidant proteins was confirmed by Western blot assays. All data were assessed with analysis of variance tests followed by post-hoc comparison tests and p values nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization was dose-dependently attenuated by MEGR, and 180 mg/kg/d MEGR significantly inhibited augmented accumbal DA release induced by a direct local challenge of nicotine. Moreover, 180 mg/kg/d MEGR reversed increases in malondialdehyde production, decreases in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and the reduced expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase 1 in the nicotine-sensitized Nacc. These results suggest that MEGR inhibited nicotine-induced locomotion and dopaminergic sensitization via antioxidant action.

  10. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of methanol extract from aerial part of Phlomis younghusbandii Mukerjee.

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    Qiu-Shi Wang

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity of the methanol extract from the aerial part of Phlomis younghusbandii (MEAP and to explore the possible related mechanisms. Anti-inflammatory effects of MEAP were evaluated by using the ear edema test induced by dimethylbenzene and vascular permeability test induced by acetic acid. Anti-nociceptive activities of MEAP were evaluated by the chemical nociception in models of acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced hind paw licking, and by the thermal nociception in hot plate tests. Mechanisms of MEAP activities also were explored by evaluating expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and iNOS induced by LPS using real-time fluorogenic PCR and expression of COX-2 using Western blotting and an open-field test. The results indicated that the MEAP administered orally could significantly decrease ear edema induced by dimethylbenzene and increase vascular permeability induced by acetic acid. Additionally, the nociceptions induced by acetic acid and formalin were significantly inhibited. The anti-nociceptive effect could not be decreased by naloxone in the formalin test, and MEAP did not affect the normal autonomic activities of mice. Expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS induced by LPS were decreased obviously by treatment with MEAP. Furthermore, COX-2 expression in the spinal dorsal horns of the pain model mice induced by formalin was significantly down-regulated by MEAP. In conclusion, MEAP has significant anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, and the mechanisms may be related to the down-regulated expression of TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS and COX-2.

  11. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanol extract of Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC stem in mice.

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    Lai, Zhen-Rung; Peng, Wen-Huang; Ho, Yu-Ling; Huang, Shun-Chieh; Huang, Tai-Hung; Lai, Shang-Chih; Ku, Yoe-Ray; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Wang, Ching-Ying; Chang, Yuan-Shiun

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the analgesic effect of the methanol extract of Kalanchoe gracilis (MKGS) stem in animal models by inducing writhing response with acetic acid and conducting formalin test. The anti-inflammatory effect of MKGS was also estimated on mice with lambda-carrageenan induced paw edema model. In order to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of MKGS, we analyzed the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRx) in the liver, and the levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the edema paw tissue. In the analgesic tests, MKGS (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) decreased both the acetic acid-induced writhing response and the licking time in the late phase of the formalin test. In the anti-inflammatory test, MKGS (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) decreased paw edema at the third, fourth, fifth and sixth hours after lambda-carrageenan had been administrated. Furthermore, MKGS increased the activities of SOD and GRx in liver tissues and decreased MDA level in the edema paws three hours after lambda-carrageenan was injected. MKGS also affected the levels of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and NO induced by lambda-carrageenan. All these results suggested that MKGS possessed analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of MKGS might be related to the lowering of MDA level in the edema paw via increasing the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and GRx in the liver, as well as the decreases in the levels of TNF-alpha and NO, and the production of IL-1beta in inflamed tissues.

  12. Effects of Telfairia occidentalis (Hook F. Methanol Leaf Extract on the Haematological Indices and Histomorphology of the Endometrium and Liver of Female Albino Rats

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    Chidozie Nwabuisi OKOYE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administration of Telfairia occidentalis (Hook f. methanol leaf extract on some hematological indices and histomorphology of the uterus and liver of female albino rats. Acute toxicity study of the extract was performed with female rats, following standard procedure. They were randomly assigned into 3 groups. The first group (A served as the untreated control and received distilled water, while the second group (B and third (C received 200 and 800 mg/kg mg/kg body weight of the methanol leaf extract of T. occidentalis respectively. Administration of the extract was done daily via the oral route for 21 days. Blood was collected for hematological evaluation at weekly intervals. Hematological parameters assessed were the packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cell (RBC count, hemoglobin concentration (HB and total white blood cell (TWBC count. At the end of the study period uterine and liver tissues were excised and prepared for histological examination. Results showed that there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in the mean PCV, RBC and HB values of the treatment groups, but only at the end of the second week of administration of the extract. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05 in the mean total WBC throughout the duration of the study. Histological examination of uterine and liver tissues of the different groups did not show any lesions. It was concluded that the T. occidentalis leaf methanolic extract does not adversely affect the reproductive functions of the uterus.

  13. Ameliorative effect of hydro-methanolic extract from roots of Rauwolfia serpentina on some biochemical parameters of type 1 diabetic mice.

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    Azmi, Muhammad Bilal; Qureshi, Shamim A; Ahmed, Syed Danish Haseen; Mudassir, Hina Akram; Imtiaz, Fauzia; Rais, Sumera; Khan, Auwais Ahmed; Ahsan, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    Present work seeks to investigate the biochemical parameters in terms of hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of hydro-methanolic roots extract (HyMREt) of Rauwolfia serpentina in type 1 (alloxan induced) diabetic mice. Animals were divided into seven groups, four control groups, and three were test groups (HyMREt at 50, 100, & 150mg/kg). Each treatment was repeated for 14 days regularly in all seven respective groups and afterwards the body weights, fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, and serum lipid levels were determined. Total body weights of diabetic mice treated with HyMREt extract were dose dependently (pserpentina.

  14. Investigations of anticholinestrase and antioxidant potentials of methanolic extract, subsequent fractions, crude saponins and flavonoids isolated from Isodon rugosus

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    Anwar Zeb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Based on the ethnomedicinal uses and the effective outcomes of natural products in various diseases, this study was designed to evaluate Isodon rugosus as possible remedy in oxidative stress, alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. Acetylecholinestrase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE inhibitory activities of crude methanolic extract (Ir.Cr, resultant fractions (n-hexane (Ir.Hex, chloroform (Ir.Cf, ethyl acetate (Ir.EtAc, aqueous (Ir.Aq, flavonoids (Ir.Flv and crude saponins (Ir.Sp of I. rugosus were investigated using Ellman's spectrophotometric method. Antioxidant potential of I. rugosus was determined using DPPH, H2O2 and ABTS free radicals scavenging assays. Total phenolic and flavonoids contents of plant extracts were determined and expressed in mg GAE/g dry weight and mg RTE/g of dry sample respectively. RESULTS: Among different fractions Ir.Flv and Ir.Cf exhibited highest inhibitory activity against AChE (87.44 ± 0.51, 83.73 ± 0.64% and BChE (82.53 ± 0.71, 88.55 ± 0.77% enzymes at 1 mg/ml with IC50 values of 45, 50 for AChE and 40, 70 μg/ml for BChE respectively. Activity of these fractions were comparable to galanthamine causing 96.00 ± 0.30 and 88.61 ± 0.43% inhibition of AChE and BChE at 1 mg/ml concentration with IC50 values of 20 and 47 μg/ml respectively. In antioxidant assays, Ir.Flv, Ir.Cf, and Ir.EtAc demonstrated highest radicals scavenging activities in DPPH and H2O2 assays which were comparable to ascorbic acid. Ir.Flv was found most potent with IC50 of 19 and 24 μg/ml against DPPH and H2O2 radicals respectively. Whereas antioxidant activates of plant samples against ABTS free radicals was moderate. Ir.Cf, Ir.EtAc and Ir.Cr showed high phenolic and flavonoid contents and concentrations of these compounds in different fractions correlated well to their antioxidant and anticholinestrase activities. CONCLUSION: It may be inferred from the current investigations that the

  15. Neutralization of pharmacological and toxic activities of Bothrops jararacussu snake venom and isolated myotoxins by Serjania erecta methanolic extract and its fractions

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    RS Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the snakebites recorded in Brazil are caused by the Bothrops genus. Given that the local tissue damage caused by this genus cannot be treated by antivenom therapy, numerous studies are focusing on supplementary alternatives, such as the use of medicinal plants. Serjania erecta has already demonstrated anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and healing properties. In the current study, the aerial parts of S. erecta were extracted with methanol, then submitted to chromatographic fractionation on a Sephadex LH20 column and eluted with methanol, which resulted in four main fractions. The crude extract and fractions neutralized the toxic activities of Bothrops jararacussu snake venom and isolated myotoxins (BthTX-I and II. Results showed that phospholipase A2, fibrinogenolytic, myotoxic and hemorrhagic activities were inhibited by the extract. Moreover, the myotoxic and edematous activities induced by BthTX-I, and phospholipase A2 activity induced by BthTX-II, were inhibited by the extract of S. erecta and its fraction. The clotting time on bovine plasma was significantly prolonged by the inhibitory action of fractions SF3 and SF4. This extract is a promising source of natural inhibitors, such as flavonoids and tannins, which act by forming complexes with metal ions and proteins, inhibiting the action of serineproteases, metalloproteases and phospholipases A2.

  16. Antioxidant and neuroprotector effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) methanol leaf extract against 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity in PC12 cells.

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    Rodríguez-Huamán, Ángel; Casimiro-Gonzales, Sandra; Chávez-Pérez, Jorge Antonio; Gonzales-Arimborgo, Carla; Cisneros-Fernández, Richard; Aguilar-Mendoza, Luis Ángel; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2017-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are normally produced during cell metabolism, there is strong evidence to suggest that ROS produced in excess impair the cell and may be etiologically related to various neurodegenerative diseases. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) methanol leaf extract on neurotoxicity in PC12 cell exposed to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Fresh samples of "maca" leaves were processed in order to obtain foliar extracts and to evaluate the neurobiological activity on PC12 cells, subjected to the cytotoxic effect of 6-OHDA through the determination of the capacity antioxidant, cell viability and cytotoxicity assays on PC12 cells. The results of the tests of antioxidant activity, showed maximum values of 2262.37 and 1305.36 expressed in Trolox equivalents (TEAC), for the methanolic and aqueous fractions respectively. Cell viability assays at a dose of 10 μg extract showed an increase of 31% and 60% at 6 and 12 h of pretreatment, respectively. Cytotoxicity assays at the same dose and exposure time showed a 31.4% and 47.8% reduction in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The results allow us to affirm that the methanolic foliar extract of "maca" presents in vitro neurobiological activity of antioxidant protection, increase in cell viability and reduction of cytotoxicity against oxidative stress generated by 6-OHDA. In conclusion, the present study shows a protective role for Lepidium meyenii leaf extract on 6-OHDA-induced toxicity by an antioxidant effect.

  17. Adsorption and inhibitive properties of methanol extract of Eeuphorbia Heterophylla for the corrosion of copper in 0.5 M nitric acid solutions

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    Fouda A. S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption and the inhibitive properties of methanol extract of Euphorbia heterophylla on copper in 0.5 M HNO3 have been studied by weight loss method at different temperatures (30-50°C, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM techniques. Also, the surface morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was found that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing extract doses and decreased with increasing temperature. The polarization data revealed that this extract acts as mixed type inhibitor. The adsorption process was more favored at lower temperatures with larger negative standard free energy. The extract was adsorbed physically on the copper surface followed Frumkin isotherm.

  18. In vitro screening for anti-cholinesterase and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of ayurvedic medicinal plants used for cognitive disorders.

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    Maya Mathew

    Full Text Available Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE is still considered as the main therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer's disease (AD. Many plant derived phytochemicals have shown AChE inhibitory activity in addition to the currently approved drugs for AD. In the present study, methanolic extracts of 20 plants used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for improving cognitive function were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by Ellman's microplate colorimetric method. Out of 20 extracts, Emblica officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nelumbo nucifera, Punica granatum and Raulfia Serpentina showed IC50 values <100 µg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Antioxidant activities of these plants were assessed by DPPH scavenging assay. Among the extracts used, antioxidant activity was highest for Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis with IC50 values <10 µg/ml. Considering the complex multifactorial etiology of AD, these plant extracts will be safer and better candidates for the future disease modifying therapies against this devastating disease.

  19. In Vitro Screening for Anti-Cholinesterase and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants Used for Cognitive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Maya; Subramanian, Sarada

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is still considered as the main therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Many plant derived phytochemicals have shown AChE inhibitory activity in addition to the currently approved drugs for AD. In the present study, methanolic extracts of 20 plants used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for improving cognitive function were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by Ellman’s microplate colorimetric method. Out of 20 extracts, Emblica officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nelumbo nucifera, Punica granatum and Raulfia Serpentina showed IC50 values <100 µg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Antioxidant activities of these plants were assessed by DPPH scavenging assay. Among the extracts used, antioxidant activity was highest for Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis with IC50 values <10 µg/ml. Considering the complex multifactorial etiology of AD, these plant extracts will be safer and better candidates for the future disease modifying therapies against this devastating disease. PMID:24466247

  20. Antioxidant efficacy of crude methanol extract of ashitaba green tea against radiation induced oxidative stress in E.coli K12 bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darshan Raj, C.G.; Sindhu Priya, E.S.; Sarojini, B.K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant activity of methanol crude extract of ashitaba green tea (G). The DPPH scavenging assay was evaluated for green tea extract to determine its radical scavenging capacity. The bacteria was pretreated with ashitaba green tea extract, quercetin (Q) and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate (E) at below MIC level. Oxidative stress was induced at 0.4 Gy using gamma radiation. The antioxidant efficacy of ashitaba green tea was evaluated through enzyme antioxidant studies like SOD (Superoxidedismutase) and CAT (Catalase). The oxidative stress marker Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) was also evaluated. Further the protective efficacy of the(G) was confirmed by colony forming units (CFU) study. Among the tested compounds the crude extract of ashitaba (G) exhibited excellent antioxidant activity in comparison with quercetin and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate. (abstract)

  1. A novel multiple headspace extraction gas chromatographic method for measuring the diffusion coefficient of methanol in water and in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Yun; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2015-03-13

    A novel method for the determination of the diffusion coefficient (D) of methanol in water and olive oil has been developed. Based on multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography (MHE-GC), the methanol released from the liquid sample of interest in a closed sample vial was determined in a stepwise fashion. A theoretical model was derived to establish the relationship between the diffusion coefficient and the GC signals from MHE-GC measurements. The results showed that the present method has an excellent precision (RSDwater and olive oil, when compared with data reported in the literature. The present method is simple and practical and can be a valuable tool for the determination of the diffusion coefficient of volatile analyte(s) into food simulants from food and beverage packaging material, both in research studies and in actual applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antinociceptive and Anxiolytic and Sedative Effects of Methanol Extract of Anisomeles indica: An Experimental Assessment in Mice and Computer Aided Models

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    Md. Josim Uddin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Anisomeles indica (L. kuntze is widely used in folk medicine against various disorders including allergy, sores, inflammation, and fever. This research investigated the antinociceptive, anxiolytic and sedative effects of A. indica methanol extract. The antinociceptive activity was assessed with the acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced flicking test while sedative effects with open field and hole cross tests and anxiolytic effects with elevated plus maze (EPM and thiopental-induced sleeping time tests were assayed. Computer aided (pass prediction, docking analyses were undertaken to find out the best-fit phytoconstituent of total 14 isolated compounds of this plant for aforesaid effects. Acetic acid treated mice taking different concentrations of extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, intraperitoneal displayed reduced the writhing number. In the formalin-induced test, extract minimized the paw licking time of mice during the first phase and the second phase significantly. The open field and hole-cross tests were noticed with a dose-dependent reduction of locomotor activity. The EPM test demonstrated an increase of time spent percentage in open arms. Methanol extract potentiated the effect of thiopental-induced hypnosis in lesser extent comparing with Diazepam. The results may account for the use of A. indica as an alternative treatment of antinociception and neuropharmacological abnormalities with further intensive studies. The compound, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid was found to be most effective in computer aided models.

  3. Suppressive Effects of Clerodendrum volubile P Beauv. [Labiatae] Methanolic Extract and Its Fractions on Type 2 Diabetes and Its Complications

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    Ochuko L. Erukainure

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is the most prominent of all diabetes types, contributing to global morbidity and mortality. Availability and cost of treatment with little or no side effect especially in developing countries, remains a huge burden. This has led to the search of affordable alternative therapies especially from medicinal plants. In this study, the antidiabetic effect of the methanolic extract, dichloromethane (DCM, butanol (BuOH and aqueous fractions of Clerodendrum volubile leaves were investigated in type 2 diabetic rats for their effect on glucose homeostasis, serum insulin level and hepatic biomarkers, lipid profile, pancreatic redox balance and Ca2+ levels, and β-cell distribution and function. The DCM was further fractionated to isolate the active compounds, biochanin and 5,7,4′-trimethoxykaempferol. They were investigated for their toxicity and ADMET properties, α-glucosidase and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities in silico. There were significant (p < 0.05 decrease in blood glucose, cholesterol, LDL-C, vLDL-C, triglyceride, AST and ALT levels in all treated groups, with DCM fraction showing the best activity. All treated rats showed significantly (p < 0.05 improved anti-oxidative activities. Treatment with the DCM fraction led to significant (p < 0.05 increased serum insulin and pancreatic Ca2+ levels, as well as improved β-cell distribution and function. DCM fraction also showed improved glucose tolerance. DCM fraction dose-dependently inhibited ACE activity. The toxicity class of the isolated compounds was predicted to be 5. They were also predicted to be potent inhibitors of cytochrome P (CYPs 1A2, 2D6 and 3A4. They docked well with α-glucosidase and ACE. These results indicate the therapeutic potential of the plant against type 2 diabetes, with the DCM fraction being the most potent which may be attributed to the isolated flavones. It further suggests antihypertensive potentials of the DCM fraction

  4. The toxicity and the acaricidal mechanism against Psoroptes cuniculi of the methanol extract of Adonis coerulea Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiaofei; Guo, Xiao; Yang, Feng; Li, Bing; Pan, Hu; Miao, Xiaolou; Zhang, Jiyu

    2017-06-15

    Adonis coerulea Maxim. is a perennial herbaceous plant that grows in scrub, grassy slope areas, and as traditional medicine it has been used to treat animal acariasis for thousands of years. In this paper, we aimed to study the acute toxicity and cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of A. coerulea (MEAC) in vivo and in vitro for supporting the clinic uses. The acaricidal activity and the mechanism of action against Psoroptes cuniculi were investigated. The results showed that isoorientin, luteolin and apigenin were the primary compounds in MEAC. The toxicity test showed that median lethal dose (LD 50 ) and the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) of MEAC were estimated to be more than 5000mg/kg in mice in vivo and more than 50mg/ml against RAW 264.7 and GM00637 cells in the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test. After culturing with MEAC, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malonyldialdehyde (MDA), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Na + -K + -ATPase of mites were evaluated. Compared with the control group, SOD activity of MEAC-treated group of mites was inhibited, and CAT activity was activated at the preliminary phase but was gradually inhibited over the period of incubation. MDA content reached a peak at 6h and then gradually decreased. However, GST activity in the mites was activated in a dose- and time-dependent manner. AChE and Na + -K + -ATPase activities related to neural conduction, vital functions and the transmembrane ion gradient of the mites were inhibited. MEAC is safe in the given doses in both the in vitro and the in vivo tests, can be applied in the clinic and it had good acaricidal activity. The extension of the incubation time in the mites led to dynamic disequilibrium between the production and clearing of superoxide anions, a disruption of the energy metabolism and the transmembrane ion gradient, and the inhibition of motor function. These factors may

  5. Src Is a Prime Target Inhibited by Celtis choseniana Methanol Extract in Its Anti-Inflammatory Action

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    Han Gyung Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Celtis choseniana is the traditional plant used at Korea as a herbal medicine to ameliorate inflammatory responses. Although Celtis choseniana has been traditionally used as a herbal medicine at Korea, no systemic research has been conducted on its anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, the present study explored an anti-inflammatory effect and its underlying molecular mechanism using Celtis choseniana methanol extract (Cc-ME in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Cc-ME was evaluated using RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, pam3CSK4 (Pam3, or poly(I:C. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of Cc-ME was investigated using acute inflammatory disease mouse models, such as LPS-induced peritonitis and HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis. The molecular mechanism of Cc-ME-mediated anti-inflammatory activity was examined by Western blot analysis and immunoprecipitation using whole cell and nuclear fraction prepared from the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and HEK293 cells. Cc-ME inhibited NO production and mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α in the RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages induced by LPS, pam3, or poly(I:C without cytotoxicity. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis showed that Cc-ME contained anti-inflammatory flavonoids quercetin, luteolin, and kaempferol. Among those, the content of luteolin, which showed an inhibitory effect on NO production, was highest. Cc-ME suppressed the NF-κB signaling pathway by targeting Src and interrupting molecular interactions between Src and p85, its downstream kinase. Moreover, Cc-ME ameliorated the morphological finding of peritonitis and gastritis in the mouse disease models. Therefore, these results suggest that Cc-ME exerted in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated macrophages and mouse models of

  6. Potential role of meflquine (antimalarial drug and methanol extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Sesbania sesban in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

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    Mohamed Abdel-Wahab El-Emam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To elucidate the efficacy of mefloquine and methanol extract of the plants Chenopodium ambrosioides (C. ambrosioides and Sesbania sesban (S. sesban as a combined therapy for the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni infected mice, and study the parasitological, biochemical and histological parameters of treated mice. Methods: Two groups of male Swiss Albino mice were infected with S. mansoni cercariae. The first group untreated served as control. The second group was orally treated with a single dose (200 mg/kg of mefloquine 3 weeks post infection, then subsequently divided into 2 subgroups; the first orally retreated with the plant extracts 1 000 mg/kg of S. sesban followed by 1 250 mg/kg of C. ambrosioides with an 1 h interval, for 2 successive days. The second sub-group was re-treated with the same (dose and method plant extracts after 7 weeks post infection. Results: The results showed that S. mansoni infected mice treated with mefloquine and the plants’ extracts 3 weeks post infection significantly (P < 0.01 reduced the worm burden/ mouse by 95.5% and the few worms recovered from sacrificed mice in this treatment failed to lay ova. Moreover, no worms were recovered from infected mice treated with mefloquine (3 weeks post infection and re-treated by the plant’s extracts at 7 weeks post infection. Also, treatment of infected mice with mefloquine followed by the plants’ extracts either at 3 or 7 weeks post infection ameliorated the activities of the serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkline phosphatase and acid phosphatase as well as the hepatic granulomatous lesions compared to infected untreated group. Conclusions: It is concluded that successive treatment of S. mansoni infected mice with mefloquine and methanol extract of the plants C. ambrosioides and S. sesban could be a promising device in the strategy of schistosomiasis control.

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on the pigments and the biological activities of methanolic extracts from leaves of centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides Munro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Seung Sik; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Cho, Jae-Young; Kim, Tae Hoon; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2013-01-01

    Extracts from centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides Munro) have been previously identified as having beneficial effects medically and cosmetically. In this study, the effects of gamma irradiation on pigment removal and biological activities of centipedegrass extracts to promote industrial application were investigated. The methanolic extracts were exposed to gamma irradiation at dose ranging from 2 to 20 kGy. The major pigments of centipedegrass extracts, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-(6″-malonyl-)glucoside, were found to be effectively removed by gamma irradiation above 10 kGy. Although the reddish-orange color of the cyanidins was markedly decreased by gamma irradiation, the biological activities were relatively unaffected. The biological activities such as 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, inhibition of tyrosinase activity, and inhibition of elastase activity in methanolic extracts were modulated from 50.5% to 70.2%, from 50.9% to 65.8% and from 65.6% to 94.0%, respectively. Surprisingly, the biological activities have the highest activities after 6–8 kGy of gamma irradiation. These results indicate that despite pigment degradation, biological activities were maintained or increased by gamma irradiation. Based on these results, gamma irradiation may be a useful tool to remove the undesirable reddish-orange color present in centipedegrass without any loss of biological activities, thereby promoting its utility in industrial applications such as manufacturing of cosmetic products. - Highlights: • The pigments of centipedegrass extracts were decreased by gamma irradiation. • The contents of maysin and its derivatives were slightly changed by gamma irradiation. • The biological activities of centipedegrass extracts were retained or increased by gamma irradiation

  8. Antibacterial and antibiotic-potentiation activities of the methanol extract of some cameroonian spices against Gram-negative multi-drug resistant phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The present work was designed to evaluate the antibacterial properties of the methanol extracts of eleven selected Cameroonian spices on multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDR), and their ability to potentiate the effect of some common antibiotics used in therapy. Results The extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and AG100 strains showed the best activities, with the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 64 μg/ml. The extract of Dorstenia psilurus was the most active when tested in the presence of an efflux pump inhibitor, phenylalanine Arginine-β- Naphtylamide (PAβN), a synergistic effect being observed in 56.25 % of the tested bacteria when it was combined with Erythromycin (ERY). Conclusion The present work evidently provides information on the role of some Cameroonian spices in the fight against multi-resistant bacteria. PMID:22709668

  9. Antibacterial and antibiotic-potentiation activities of the methanol extract of some cameroonian spices against Gram-negative multi-drug resistant phenotypes

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    Voukeng Igor K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present work was designed to evaluate the antibacterial properties of the methanol extracts of eleven selected Cameroonian spices on multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDR, and their ability to potentiate the effect of some common antibiotics used in therapy. Results The extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and AG100 strains showed the best activities, with the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 64 μg/ml. The extract of Dorstenia psilurus was the most active when tested in the presence of an efflux pump inhibitor, phenylalanine Arginine-β- Naphtylamide (PAβN, a synergistic effect being observed in 56.25 % of the tested bacteria when it was combined with Erythromycin (ERY. Conclusion The present work evidently provides information on the role of some Cameroonian spices in the fight against multi-resistant bacteria.

  10. Determination of isoorientin levels in rat plasma after oral administration of Vaccinum bracteatum Thunb. methanol extract by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ji; Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Jang, Choon-Gon; Maeng, Han-Joo

    2018-01-15

    A simple, sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination of plasma isoorientin levels in rats. After simple protein precipitation using methanol, chromatographic analysis was performed using a Synergi 4μ polar-RP 80A column (150 × 2.0 mm, 4μm) under isocratic conditions and a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water and methanol (80:20, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. In positive electrospray ionization mode, the protonated precursor and product ion transitions of isoorientin (m/z 449.0 → 299.1) and of puerarin (the internal standard; m/z 417.1 → 297.1) were acquired by multiple reaction monitoring. Calibration curves obtained for plasma showed good linearity over the concentration range 1-1000 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification was 1 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-day precisions were within 8.8% relative standard deviation. Accuracies ranged from 92.1 and 109.7%. The isoorientin stability in rat plasma under typical handling/storage conditions also found to be acceptable. The developed method was applied successfully to a pharmacokinetic study of isoorientin orally administered as the methanol extract of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. or administered as pure isoorientin. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. In vitro study on the composition and antibacterial effects of aqueous and methanol extracts of on some of food-borne pathogens

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    A. Barati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Scrophularia khorassanica belongs to the Scrophulariaceae family that geographically grows wild only in Iran-Khorasan. There is insufficient information about its composition and antibacterial activity. Due to the application of S. khorassanica and related species in traditional medicine, the aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial effect of S. khorassanica aqueous and methanolic extracts on the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and also to determine the composition of the essential oil in-vitro. Extracts and the essential oil were prepared respectively by maceration and hydro-distillation methods. The composition of the essential oil examined by GC/MS and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC determined by broth micro-dilution assay. Composition analysis identified a total of 28 various components in which the main components were 1,3-Bis (trimethylsilyl, benzene (34.93%, р-Cymene (12.55%, Palmitic acid (6.79, Thymol (6.22%, Linalool (4.59%, 2-undecanone(4.35%, Sorbitol(1.87%, Carvacrol (1.74%, γ-Terpinene (1.06%, β -Elemene (1.03% and α-Pinene (0.3%. The MIC for methanolic extract against E. coli and S. aureus was 12.5 and 25 mg/ml, respectively. In the case of aqueous extract, it was estimated at 6.25 and 12.5 mg/ml, respectively. Based on these results, the aqueous extract had the strongest antibacterial effect. It was concluded that Scrophularia khorassanica extract can be used as an natural preservative.

  12. Anti-ulcerogenic effect of methanolic extracts from Enicosanthellum pulchrum (King) Heusden against ethanol-induced acute gastric lesion in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Noraziah; Salama, Suzy Munir; Golbabapour, Shahram; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Omar, Hanita; Fadaienasab, Mehran; Karimian, Hamed; Taha, Hairin; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    A natural source of medicine, Enicosanthellum pulchrum is a tropical plant which belongs to the family Annonaceae. In this study, methanol extract from the leaves and stems of this species was evaluated for its gastroprotective potential against mucosal lesions induced by ethanol in rats. Seven groups of rats were assigned, groups 1 and 2 were given Tween 20 (10% v/v) orally. Group 3 was administered omeprazole 20 mg/kg (10% Tween 20) whilst the remaining groups received the leaf and stem extracts at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. After an additional hour, the rats in groups 2-7 received ethanol (95% v/v; 8 mL/kg) orally while group 1 received Tween 20 (10% v/v) instead. Rats were sacrificed after 1 h and their stomachs subjected to further studies. Macroscopically and histologically, group 2 rats showed extremely severe disruption of the gastric mucosa compared to rats pre-treated with the E. pulchrum extracts based on the ulcer index, where remarkable protection was noticed. Meanwhile, a significant percentage of inhibition was shown with the stem extract at 62% (150 mg/kg) and 65% (300 mg/kg), whilst the percentage with the leaf extract at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg was 63% and 75%, respectively. An increase in mucus content, nitric oxide, glutathione, prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase, protein and catalase, and a decrease in malondialdehyde level compared to group 2 were also obtained. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of groups 4-7 exhibited down-regulation of Bax and up-regulation of Hsp70 proteins. The methanol extract from the leaves and the stems showed notable gastroprotective potential against ethanol.

  13. Cytotoxicity, Antiproliferative Effects, and Apoptosis Induction of Methanolic Extract of Cynometra cauliflora Linn. Whole Fruit on Human Promyelocytic Leukemia HL-60 Cells

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    T-Johari S. A. Tajudin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract of Cynometra cauliflora whole fruit was assayed for cytotoxicity against the human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 and the normal mouse fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell lines by using the MTT assay. The CD50 of the extract for 72 hours was 0.9 μg/mL whereas the value for the cytotoxic drug vincristine was 0.2 μg/mL. The viability of the NIH/3T3 cells was at 80.0% when treated at 15.0 μg/mL. The extract inhibited HL-60 cell proliferation with dose dependence. AO/PI staining of HL-60 cells treated with the extract revealed that majority of cells were in the apoptotic cell death mode. Flow cytometry analysis of HL-60 cells treated at CD50 of the extract showed that the early apoptotic cells were 31.0, 26.3 and 19.9% at 24, 48, and 72 hours treatment, respectively. The percentage of late apoptotic cells was increased from 62.0 at 24 hours to 64.1 and 70.2 at 48 and 72 hours, respectively. Meanwhile, percent of necrotic cells were 4.9, 6.6, and 8.5 at 24, 48, and 72 hours, respectively. This study has shown that the methanolic extract of C. cauliflora whole fruit was cytotoxic towards HL-60 cells and induced the cells into apoptotic cell death mode, but less cytotoxic towards NIH/3T3 cells.

  14. Free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of plum (Prunus domestica L. in both fresh and dried samples

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    Amin Morabbi Najafabad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Consumption of fruits, such as plums and prunes, is useful in treating blood circulation disorder, measles, digestive disorder, and prevention of cancer, diabetes, and obesity. The paper presents a description of antioxidant and antiradical capacity of plum (Prunus domestica L. in both fresh and dried samples. Materials and Methods: Samples were mixed with methanol and ethanol (as solvents and were extracted on magnetic shaker, separately. The experiments were carried out to measure the Total Phenolic Content (TPC, Total Flavonoid Content (TFC, Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC, Reducing Power Assay (RPA, Chain Breaking Activity (CBA, and quantity of Malondialdehyde (MDA, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH,Nitric Oxide (NO,Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and superoxide(O2- radicals inhibition. Results: The results showed that the highest values for the TPC, TFC,TAC, RPA, CBA, DPPH, and NO were related to ethanolic extractsof dried sample which showed statistically significant differences (p2O2 and O2-were related to ethanolic extracts of fresh sample. The correlations data were analyzed among all parameters and the TPC and TFC had a significant correlation (r2=0.977. Moreover, it was found that methanol was more successful in extraction procedure than ethanol (p

  15. Investigation of phytochemical contents, in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial behavior and in vivo anti-inflammatory potential of Ecballium elaterium methanol fruits extract

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    Samir FELHI

    Full Text Available Abstract Ecballium elaterium species are mostly used as therapeutic agents and food ingredient. The current work was designed to investigate phytochemical contents, antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties of methanol fruits extract of Ecballium elaterium. Good antioxidant activity was observed with IC50 values of 156 ± 4 and 377 ± 6 μg/mL for DPPH and ABTS, respectively, and EC50 of 126 ± 4 µg/mL for FRAP assays, which is related with their richness in total phenolic, flavonoid and condensed tannins contents. The results of antibacterial activity showed the effectiveness of methanol extract against Bacillus cereus with value of inhibition zone diameter of 15 ± 0 mm and a MIC and MBC values of 6 ± 0 and 12 ± 0 mg/mL, respectively. The in vivo anti-inflammatory effects have been also studied by carrageenan induced rat paw edema assay and the results revealed that a dose of 75 mg/kg induced a significant inhibition of 66.4% at 2 h. FT-IR spectral data justified the presence of biological functional groups such as ─OH, C─H, C─O, C─C and C=O. These results highlighted the potential using of Ecballium elaterium fruits extract as natural antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents for food applications and for the pharmaceutical industry.

  16. Laboratory evaluation of ethyl acetate and chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v extract of Swietenia mahagoni leaf against Japanese Encephalitis vector Culex vishuni group

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    Utpal Adhikari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the larvicidal activity of a furniture tree Swietenia mahagoni L. (S. mahagoni against mosquito Culex Vishnui group. Methods: Different concentrations of crude, chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v and ethyl acetate solvent extracts of S. mahagoni mature leaves were treated against Cx. vishnui group larvae. Results: Five graded concentrations (0.05%, 0.10%, 0.20%, 0.30% and 0.40% of crude extract of mature leaves and five graded concentrations (10 ppm, 20 ppm, 30 ppm, 40 ppm and 50 ppm of chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v and ethyl acetate solvent extracts showed significant (P<0.05 larval mortalities. LC50, LC90 values were calculated at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h of exposures. Adult Cx. vishnui group mosquitoes exposed to burning coils prepared from S. mahagoni mature leaves showed smoke repellency and toxicity up to 4 h. Conclusions: This study was a pioneer attempt to establish S. mahagoni as an effective mosquito larvicide.

  17. Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of Albizia adianthifolia, Alchornea laxiflora, Laportea ovalifolia and three other Cameroonian plants against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchinda, Cedric F; Voukeng, Igor K; Beng, Veronique P; Kuete, Victor

    2017-05-01

    In the last 10 years, resistance in Gram-negative bacteria has been increasing. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of six Cameroonian medicinal plants Albizia adianthifolia , Alchornea laxiflora , Boerhavia diffusa , Combretum hispidum , Laportea ovalifolia and Scoparia dulcis against a panel of 15 multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial strains. The broth microdilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts was conducted according to the reference qualitative phytochemical methods. Results showed that all extracts contained compounds belonging to the classes of polyphenols and triterpenes, other classes of chemicals being selectively distributed. The best antibacterial activities were recorded with bark and root extracts of A. adianthifolia as well as with L. ovalifolia extract, with MIC values ranging from 64 to 1024 μg/mL on 93.3% of the fifteen tested bacteria. The lowest MIC value of 64 μg/mL was recorded with A. laxiflora bark extract against Enterobacter aerogenes EA289. Finally, the results of this study provide evidence of the antibacterial activity of the tested plants and suggest their possible use in the control of multidrug resistant phenotypes.

  18. The Antimicrobial Effect of Methanolic Extracts of Achillea wilhelmsii, Myrtus communis, and Allium sativum on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Mehdi Rostami Rad

    2017-12-01

      In this study, the effect of Achillea Wilhelmsii, Myrtus communis, and Allium sativum extracts, was investigated on 4 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the effect of each extract, was studied using agar dilution method.   Among these three extracts, the Allium sativum  extract showed the highest antimicrobial activity. Also, observations were indicative of difference in the susceptibility of the studied strains to different extracts, which showed different reactions to each of the extracts based on the origin and antibiotic resistance level.   According to the results of this study, extracts are a natural and valuable sources to produce antimicrobial drugs against pseudomonas strains and other resistant pathogenic bacteria.    

  19. Experimental study and thermodynamic modeling for determining the effect of non-polar solvent (hexane)/polar solvent (methanol) ratio and moisture content on the lipid extraction efficiency from Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekzadeh, Mohammad; Abedini Najafabadi, Hamed; Hakim, Maziar; Feilizadeh, Mehrzad; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Rashtchian, Davood

    2016-02-01

    In this research, organic solvent composed of hexane and methanol was used for lipid extraction from dry and wet biomass of Chlorella vulgaris. The results indicated that lipid and fatty acid extraction yield was decreased by increasing the moisture content of biomass. However, the maximum extraction efficiency was attained by applying equivolume mixture of hexane and methanol for both dry and wet biomass. Thermodynamic modeling was employed to estimate the effect of hexane/methanol ratio and moisture content on fatty acid extraction yield. Hansen solubility parameter was used in adjusting the interaction parameters of the model, which led to decrease the number of tuning parameters from 6 to 2. The results indicated that the model can accurately estimate the fatty acid recovery with average absolute deviation percentage (AAD%) of 13.90% and 15.00% for the two cases of using 6 and 2 adjustable parameters, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Methanol Extract from Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC Guill. et Perr. (Combretaceae Stem Bark Quenches the Quorum Sensing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

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    Vincent Ouedraogo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to its extensive arsenal of virulence factors and inherent resistance to antibiotics, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a threat particularly in immunocompromised patients. Considering the central role of quorum sensing in the production of virulence factors, inhibition of bacterial communication mechanism constitute an opportunity to attenuate pathogenicity of bacteria resistant to available antibiotics. Our study aimed to assess the anti-quorum sensing activity of Anogeissus leiocarpus, traditionally used in Burkina Faso, for the treatment of infected burn wounds. Methods: Investigations were carried out on methanol extract from A. leiocarpus stem bark. The reporter strains Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 derivatives were used to evidence any interference with the bacterial quorum sensing and expression of related genes. P. aeruginosa PAO1 was used to measure the impact on pyocyanin production. Results: At a sub-inhibitory concentration (100 µg/mL, A. leiocarpus methanol extract quenched the quorum sensing mechanism of P. aeruginosa PAO1 by down-streaming the rhlR gene, with a subsequent reduction of pyocyanin production. Moreover, the antioxidant polyphenols evidenced are able to reduce the oxidative stress induced by pyocyanin. Conclusion: The antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing activities of A. leiocarpus stem bark could justify its traditional use in the treatment of infected burn wounds.

  1. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of the methanolic extracts of Piper alatabaccum branches and P. tuberculatum leaves and compounds isolated against Anopheles darlingi

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    Frances T. T. Trindade

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Piper is a notable genus among Piperaceae due to their secondary metabolites such as lignans, amides, esters and long chain fatty acids used as anti-herbivore defenses with comparable effects of pyrethroids, that holds a promise in insect control, including malaria vectors such as Anopheles darlingi, the main vector in the North of Brazil. Methanolic extracts of Piper tuberculatum Jacq., Piperaceae, and P. alatabaccum Trel. & Yunck., Piperaceae, and some isolated compounds, i.e, 3,4,5-trimetoxy-dihydrocinamic acid, dihydropiplartine; piplartine, piplartine-dihydropiplartine and 5,5',7-trimetoxy-3',4'-metilenodioxiflavone were tested as larvicides against A. darlingi. The Lethal Concentrations (LC50 and LC90 of methanolic extracts were 194 and 333 ppm for P. tuberculatum and 235 and 401 ppm for P. alatabacum, respectively. Isolated compounds had lower LC values, e.g. the LC50 and LC90 of the piplartine-dihidropiplartine isolated from both plant species was 40 and 79 ppm, respectively.

  2. Methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaf and low doses of gamma radiation alleviated amiodarone-induced lung toxicity in albino rats

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    Hasan Hesham F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera (MO and/or low doses of gamma radiation (LDR on amiodarone (AMD-induced lung toxicity in rats. AMD administered to female albino rats (100 mg/kg body weight for 10 consecutive days. Rats received methanolic extract of MO (250 mg/kg bwt for 15 successive days and/or were exposed to whole body LDR (0.25Gy on the 1st and 10th days, up to a total dose of 0.5Gy. MO administration induced a significant decrease in serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β levels as well as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity. Also, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA and hydroxyproline (HYP was significantly decreased in lung tissue. Furthermore, MO significantly increased reduced glutathione (GSH content in lung tissue as compared with AMD. The histopathological investigation of lung tissue revealed the appearance of interstitial pneumonia in rats treated with AMD. The oral administration of MO and/or exposure to LDR reversed the biochemical and histopathological alterations induced by AMD. It can be posited that MO and LDR might have a considerable role in the prevention of lung toxicity induced by AMD.

  3. Comparative evaluation of the medicinal activities of methanolic extract of seeds, fruit pulps and fresh juice of Syzygium cumini in vitro

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    Repon Kumer Saha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the health benefits of Syzgium cumin to discover functional components present in the seeds, fruit pulps and fresh juice of this fruit grown in Bangladesh. Methods: Thin layer chromatography and ultra-violet spectroscopy were used to detect the presence of various types of compound in seeds and juice. Antioxidant effects were measured by DPPH scavenging assay and total reducing assay. Receptor binding activities was performed by hemagglutination inhibition assay. Anti-inflammatory assay and hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis assay was also investigated. Disc diffusion assay was performed to show the antibacterial effect using Gram positive, Gram negative strains of bacteria and fungi. Results: Methanolic extract of the seeds showed stronger antioxidant, hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis activities, hemagglutination inhibition activities and membrane stabilization activities than those of fresh juice. However, fresh juice showed stronger antibacterial and antifungal activities than those of methanolic seed extract. The seed contains higher amount of polyphenols and flavanoids than those of fruit juice. Conclusions: Therefore, fruit juice, fruit pulp and seed of Syzygium cumini contain medicinal active components in different ratios.

  4. Evaluation of the toxicity of the methanolic extract of Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, subjected to gamma radiation, compared to saline artemias; Avaliacao da toxicidade do extrato metanolico de Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, submetido a radiacao gama, frente a artemias salinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Juanna G.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Costa, Michelle C.A.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Cabral, Daniela L.V.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible effect of irradiation of 60 Co in methanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (catingueira) with function of reducing the toxicity of the extract at concentrations of 1000, 500, 250 and 125 ppm irradiating them with doses of 5 kGy 7 kGy and 10 kGy, using lethality tests with saline Artemias.

  5. Inhibition of LDL oxidation and oxidized LDL-induced foam cell formation in RAW 264.7 cells show anti-atherogenic properties of a foliar methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Sinjitha S; Shetty, Nandini Prasad; Bhatt, Praveena; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2014-04-01

    Oxidation of low density lipoproteins and their further uptake by macrophages is known to result in the formation of foam cells, which are critical in the initiation of atherosclerosis through activation of inflammatory signalling cascades. Thus, powerful dietary antioxidants are receiving attention for the reversal of such pathological states. Extracts of Scoparia dulcis have been used as tea and health drinks with various health promoting effects. In the present study, we examined the reactive oxygen scavenging potential as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic efficacies, using leaf extracts obtained after successive extraction with various solvents. A methanol extract showed potent antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 570 μg/ml, caused hydrogen peroxide scavenging (28.9 µg/ml) and anti-inflammatory effects by improving human erythrocyte membrane stabilisation (about 86%). The methanol extract also efficiently inhibited lipid peroxidation and oxidation of low density lipoproteins, thus preventing foam cell formation in cultured RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, phytochemical screening of the extracts showed high accumulation of flavonoids. The foliar methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis has a strong anti-atherogenic potential and this property could be attributed maybe due to presence of flavonoids since HPLC analysis showed high concentrations of myricetin and rutin in the methanol extract.

  6. Effects of Methanol Seed Extract of Aframomum melegueta (Alligator Pepper on Wistar Rats with 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine-induced Hemolytic Anemia

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    Damilola A. Omoboyowa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of parasitic infections such as malaria, which leads to decrease in hematological indices, the major cause of anemia, constitutes a serious health challenge in many developing countries such as Nigeria. This study investigated the effect of methanol seed extract of Aframomum melegueta on selected hematological indices of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH-induced anemic rats model. The toxicity study and qualitative phytochemical screening of the extract were carried out using standard procedure. Twenty Wistar rats were grouped into five of four rats each (n = 4. Group I: Normal control; Group II: Negative control; Group III: administered 20 ml/kg b.w. of Astifer (Standard drug; Group IV and V were administered 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, respectively. The animals of Groups II to V were induced with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (20 mg/kg b.w. once daily for seven consecutive days; their blood samples were collected by ocular puncture into heparinized capillary tubes for hematological analysis and animals with packed cell volume (PCV ≥ 30% reduction were considered anemic for the study. The result of the qualitative phytochemical analysis showed that the methanol extract tested positive to alkaloids, carbohydrate, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, and anthraquinones. Acute toxicity and lethality studies on methanol extract showed an oral LD50 equal or less than 5000 mg/kg b.w. in mice. The rats administered 20 ml/kg b.w. of Astifer showed significant (P 0.05 decrease in hemoglobin count, RBC, platelet, neutrophils and lymphocyte count compared with the normal control animals. The rats administered 400 mg/kg b.w. of A. melegueta showed significant (P 0.05 lower PCV, RBC, WBC count, and lymphocyte count compared with anemic rats administered with 0.3 ml of normal saline. It can be concluded that Aframomum melegueta seed has beneficial immunological and hematological properties in Wistar rats and possessed

  7. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic effects of methanol extract of Cariniana rubra stem bark in animal models

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    Edson N. Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cariniana rubra Miers (Lecythidaceae, popularly known as "jequitibá-vermelho'', is a large Brazilian tree whose bark is used in infusion and decoction for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. This study aims to assess the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic effects of Cariniana rubra methanolic stem bark extract (EM Cr using experimental animals. Anti-inflammatory activity of EM Cr was tested on carrageenan and dextran-induced rat paw edema, carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats and acetic acid-increase vascular permeability in mice. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities were evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and hot-plate tests in mice, as well as brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The extract inhibitied carrageenan and dextran-induced edema, reduced exudate volume and leukocyte migration on the carrageenan-induced pleurisy and on the vascular permeability increase induced by acetic acid. The EM Cr inhibited nociception on the acetic acid-induced writhing and in the second phase of formalin test, and decreased rectal temperature. It was, however, inactive against thermal nociception.Phytochemical analysis with EM Cr showed the occurrence of saponins, triterpenes, sterols and phenolic compounds. Phytosterols (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, pentacyclic triterpenes (α- and β-amyrin as a mixture, arjunolic acid, a phytosterol glycoside (sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and triterpenoid saponins (28-β-glucopyranosyl-23-O-acetyl arjunolic acid; 3-O-β-glucopyranosyl arjunolic acid and 28-O-[α-L-Rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-β-glucopyranosyl]-23- O-acetyl arjunolic acid were the main identified compounds. It can be presumed that EM Cr caused their effects by inhibiting the liberation and/or action of different inflammatory mediators. These findings support the traditional use of Cariniana rubra preparations to treat inflammation.Cariniana rubra Miers (Lecythidaceae, popularmente conhecido como

  8. Identification of 6-octadecynoic acid from a methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist

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    Ohtera, Anna; Miyamae, Yusaku; Nakai, Naomi [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kawachi, Atsushi; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko [Alliance for Research on North Africa (ARENA), University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Faculty of Life and Environment, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Neffati, Mohamed [Arid Zone Research Institute (IRA), Médenine 4119 (Tunisia); Akita, Toru; Maejima, Kazuhiro [Nippon Shinyaku CO., LTD., Kyoto 601-8550 (Japan); Masuda, Seiji; Kambe, Taiho [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Mori, Naoki; Irie, Kazuhiro [Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nagao, Masaya, E-mail: mnagao@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •6-ODA, a rare fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified from Marrubium vulgare. •6-ODA was synthesized from petroselinic acid as a starting material. •6-ODA stimulated lipid accumulation in HSC-T6 and 3T3-L1 cells. •The first report of a fatty acid with a triple bond functioning as a PPARγ agonist. •This study sheds light on novel functions of a fatty acid with a triple bond. -- Abstract: 6-Octadecynoic acid (6-ODA), a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified in the methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Fibrogenesis caused by hepatic stellate cells is inhibited by PPARγ whose ligands are clinically used for the treatment of diabetes. Plant extracts of Marrubium vulgare L., were screened for activity to inhibit fibrosis in the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6 using Oil Red-O staining, which detects lipids that typically accumulate in quiescent hepatic stellate cells. A methanol extract with activity to stimulate accumulation of lipids was obtained. This extract was found to have PPARγ agonist activity using a luciferase reporter assay. After purification using several chromatographic methods, 6-ODA, a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified as a candidate of PPARγ agonist. Synthesized 6-ODA and its derivative 9-octadecynoic acid (9-ODA), which both have a triple bond but in different positions, activated PPARγ in a luciferase reporter assay and increased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a PPARγ-dependent manner. There is little information about the biological activity of fatty acids with a triple bond, and to our knowledge, this is the first report that 6-ODA and 9-ODA function as PPARγ agonists.

  9. EFFECT OF METHANOLIC SEED EXTRACT OF PERSEA AMERICANA(AVOCADO PEAR ON PROTHROMBIN TIME AND ACTIVATED PARTIAL THROMBOPLASTIN TIME IN MICE

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    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty (20 adult albino mice were used in the study to determine the effect of methanolic seed extract of Persea Americana on prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT test. The mice were obtained and kept for 2 weeks to acclimatize. They were weighed and divided into 5 groups. Group A served as control without the extract. Groups B to E were orally administered with graded doses of 200mg, 400 mg, 800 mg and 1600mg/kg body weight per mice daily for 28 days. Blood samples were collected through the median canthus into ti-sodium citrate anticoagulant containers for the analysis of PT and APTT, using standard operative procedure. The analysis was carried out at the Haematology Laboratory of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH Enugu. The results showed a prolonged APTT time at all the doses of the extract when compared with the control (P and lt;0.05. The prothrombin time at the dosage of 200mg/kg did not differ when compared with the control (P and gt;0.05. The increase in PT and APTT was dose dependent. This result pattern suggests that the extract causes prolonged prothrombin time and APTT at various concentrations possibly due to its high potassium content. The extract can be recommended in anticoagulant therapy since it prolongs PT and APTT.

  10. Anti-hemolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Solenostemon Monostachyus (P.Beauv.) Briq. leaves in 2-butoxyethanol-hemolytic induced rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osikoya, Iyanuoluwa Olubukola; Afolabi, Israel Sunmola; Rotimi, Solomon Oladapo; Okafor, Adaobi Mary-Joy

    2018-04-01

    Traditional medicine is largely used to sustain global health requirements. Determining the biological activities of Solenostemon monostachyus is essential to provide a platform for treating hemolytic diseases. The methanolic extract of the leaves was orally administered for 5 days at 150 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg of body weight doses to determine concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and the activities of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) of plasma in the kidney, spleen and liver of 2-butoxyethanol hemolytic-induced rats. A dose of 150 mg of extract/kg of body weight significantly increased (p<0.05) HO-1 in the kidney. COX-2 activity was significantly reduced (p<0.05) mainly in the kidney untreated hemolytic induced rats. All treatments significantly increased (p<0.05) TNF-α concentrations in the kidney and spleen. HO-1 gene expression was downregulated, indicating stress reduction in the liver, by an extract dose of 200 mg/kg of body weight and caffeic acid and was upregulated, indicating stress in the spleen, by an extract dose of 150-200 mg/kg of body weight. A dose of 200-250 mg of extract/kg of body weight resulted in relatively good anti-inflammatory properties, and may possess healing properties in patients with hemolytic related diseases.

  11. The anthelmintic effect of aqueous methanol extract of Combretum molle (R. Br. x. G. Don) (Combretaceae) in lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M K; Ajanusi, O J; Abubakar, M S; Idris, A L; Suleiman, M M

    2012-06-08

    The aqueous methanol extract from the stem-bark of Combretum molle was evaluated for anthelmintic activity in lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus using faecal egg count (FEC) reduction assay. The extract showed a dose-dependent reduction in FEC in infected animals. At doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg kg(-1), the extract caused FEC reduction of 63%, 69.25% and 96.23%, respectively. Similarly, the standard anthelmintic (albendazole) at a dose of 200 mg kg(-1) produced FEC reduction of 99.24%. FEC reduction produced by the extract at doses of 500 and 1000 mg kg(-1) is below the minimum standard of 90% FEC recommended by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP). However, there was no significant (P>0.05) difference between the means of groups treated with 1000 mg kg(-1) and 2000 mg kg(-1) compared to that of albendazole. In this study, C. molle has shown a promising anthelmintic activity against experimental haemonchosis. Nonetheless, further studies to evaluate its detailed toxicity are required for the plant extract to be developed into a useful anthelmintic drug. There is also the need to evaluate other parts of the plant (root, leaves, fruits, etc.) for the same effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 80% Methanol Extract of Leonotis ocymifolia (Burm.f. Iwarsson Leaves in Rodent Models

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    Asnakech Alemu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pain and inflammation are the major health problems commonly treated with traditional remedies mainly using medicinal plants. Leonotis ocymifolia is one of such medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine of Ethiopia. However, the plant has not been scientifically evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the 80% methanol leaves extract of Leonotis ocymifolia using rodent models. Method. The central and peripheral analgesic effect of the extract at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg dose levels was evaluated using hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing rodent models, whereas carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma methods were used to screen anti-inflammatory effect of the extract at the same dose levels. Acute toxicity test was also done. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results. The extract did not produce mortality up to 2000 mg/kg. All tested doses of the extract showed significant analgesic effect with maximum latency response of 62.8% and inhibition of acetic acid induced writhing. Maximum anti-inflammatory effect was recorded at 6 h after induction, with 75.88% reduction in carrageenan induced paw edema. Moreover, all tested doses of extract significantly inhibited the formation of inflammatory exudates and granuloma formation (p<0.001. Conclusion. The study indicated that the extract was safe in mice and it has both analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in rodent models.

  13. Comparison of ASE and SFE with Soxhlet, Sonication, and Methanolic Saponification Extractions for the Determination of Organic Micropollutants in Marine Particulate Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemken, O P; Theobald, N; Wenclawiak, B W

    1997-06-01

    The methods of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aliphatic hydrocarbons, and chlorinated hydrocarbons from marine samples were investigated. The results of extractions of a certified sediment and four samples of suspended particulate matter (SPM) were compared to classical Soxhlet (SOX), ultrasonication (USE), and methanolic saponification extraction (MSE) methods. The recovery data, including precision and systematic deviations of each method, were evaluated statistically. It was found that recoveries and precision of ASE and SFE compared well with the other methods investigated. Using SFE, the average recoveries of PAHs in three different samples ranged from 96 to 105%, for ASE the recoveries were in the range of 97-108% compared to the reference methods. Compared to the certified values of sediment HS-6, the average recoveries of SFE and ASE were 87 and 88%, most compounds being within the limits of confidence. Also, for alkanes the average recoveries by SFE and ASE were equal to the results obtained by SOX, USE, and MSE. In the case of SFE, the recoveries were in the range 93-115%, and ASE achieved recoveries of 94-107% as compared to the other methods. For ASE and SFE, the influence of water on the extraction efficiency was examined. While the natural water content of the SPM sample (56 wt %) led to insufficient recoveries in ASE and SFE, quantitative extractions were achieved in SFE after addition of anhydrous sodium sulfate to the sample. Finally, ASE was applied to SPM-loaded filter candles whereby a mixture of n-hexane/acetone as extraction solvent allowed the simultaneous determination of PAHs, alkanes, and chlorinated hydrocarbons.

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF AN HPLC-DAD ANALYTICAL METHOD TO QUANTIFY 5-METHOXYFLAVONES IN METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF Vochysia divergens POHL CULTURED UNDER STRESS CONDITIONS

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    Letícia Pereira Pimenta

    Full Text Available Vochysia divergens Pohl, known as "Cambara" in Brazil, is an invasive species that is expanding throughout Pantanal in Brazil, to form mono-dominant communities. This expansion is affecting the agricultural areas that support the typical seasonal flood and drought conditions of this biome. This article describes the development and validation of an HPLC-DAD analytical method to quantify 5-methoxyflavones in methanolic extracts of greenhouse-grown V. divergens associated with one of two endophytic fungal species Zopfiella tetraspora (Zt or Melanconiella elegans (Me and later subjected to water stress. The developed method gave good validation parameters and was successfully applied to quantify the flavones 3',5-dimethoxy luteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside (1, 5-methoxy luteolin (2, and 3',5-dimethoxy luteolin (3 in the target extracts. Inoculation of the plant with Zt decreased the concentration of flavone 1 in the extract by 2.69-fold as compared to the control. Inoculation of the plant with Zt or Me did not significantly alter the contents of flavones 2 and 3 in the extracts as compared to the control. Therefore, the aerial parts of germinated V. divergens plants inoculated with either Zt or Me responded differently in terms of the production of flavones. These results can cast light on the symbiosis between fungal microorganisms and V. divergens, which most likely influences the response of V. divergens to changes in the availability of water in Pantanal.

  15. Hepatoprotective activity of petroleum ether, diethyl ether, and methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis L. against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, T K; Dharmaraj, S; Bajaj, Jitendra; Dhanabal, S P; Manimaran, S; Nanjan, M J; Razdan, Rema

    2009-06-01

    The present study was aimed at assessing the hepatoprotective activity of 1:1:1 petroleum ether, diethyl ether, and methanol (PDM) extract of Scoparia dulcis L. against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice. The PDM extract (50, 200, and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) and standard, silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o) were tested for their antihepatotoxic activity against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. The hepatoprotective activity was evaluated by measuring aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total proteins in serum, glycogen, lipid peroxides, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase levels in liver homogenate and by histopathological analysis of the liver tissue. In addition, the extract was also evaluated for its in vitro antioxidant activity using 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. The extract at the dose of 800 mg/kg, p.o., significantly prevented CCl4-induced changes in the serum and liver biochemistry (P Scoparia dulcis L. possesses potential hepatoprotective activity, which may be attributed to its free radical scavenging potential, due to the terpenoid constituents.

  16. Albizia lebbeck seed methanolic extract as a complementary therapy to manage local toxicity of Echis carinatus venom in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amog, P U; Manjuprasanna, V N; Yariswamy, M; Nanjaraj Urs, A N; Joshi, Vikram; Suvilesh, K N; Nataraju, A; Vishwanath, Bannikuppe Sannanaik; Gowda, T V

    2016-11-01

    Viperid venom-induced chronic local-toxicity continues even after anti-snake venom treatment. Therefore, traditional antidote Albizia lebbeck L. (Fabaceae) seed extract was tested against Echis carinatus S. (Viperidae) venom (ECV)-induced local toxicity to evaluate its complementary remedy. Soxhlet extraction of A. lebbeck seeds was performed with the increasing polarity of solvents (n-hexane to water); the extract was screened for phytochemicals (alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolics, saponins, steroids and tannins). In preliminary in vitro analysis, A. lebbeck methanolic extract (ALME) demonstrated significant inhibition of ECV proteases, the major enzyme-toxin responsible for local- toxicity. Therefore, in vitro neutralizing potential of ALME was further evaluated against hyaluronidases and phospholipase A 2 (1:1-1:100 w/w). In addition, alleviation of ECV induced characteristic local- toxicity [haemorrhage (i.d.) and myotoxicity (i.m.)] was determined in mice. ALME contained high concentrations of phenolics and flavonoids and demonstrated significant in vitro inhibition of ECV protease (IC 50  =   36.32 μg, p lebbeck in complementary medicine and identifies ALME as principle fraction responsible for antivenom properties.

  17. ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACTS, HEXANE AND METHANOLIC FROM THE LEAVES OF Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam. PERS (Malva corama AGAINST MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT STRAINS

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    Paloma de Souza Santana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The infections caused by bacteria and fungi, as well as the subsequent resistance of these microorganisms continue with high incidencesthus studies of medicinal plants and their combination with conventional therapy, are becoming essential. This study examined the antibacterial, antifungal and modifier of resistance to antibiotics and antifungal extracts of ethanol, hexane and methanol from the leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata, used in folk medicine. The phytochemical was performed qualitatively by visual observation of color changes and formation of precipitates after addition of specific reagents, such as ferric chloride (Fecl310% sodium hydroxide (NaOH10%, hydrochloric acid (HCl 1%, acid  acetic acid 5%, ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH 10%, chloroform and  reagent Draggendorff 10%. The analysis for antimicrobial activity was through the microdilution test for determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and modifying the action of antibiotics (gentamicin and amikacin and antifungals (ketoconazole and fluconazole in association with the extracts. The phytochemicals assays indicated the presence of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, alkaloids and flabobênicos tannins. In assessing the MIC results were obtained <1024μg/ mL for Candida albicans and Candida krusei. There was synergism between extracts of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves with aminoglycosides and antifungal, reducing the concentration of CIM of multidrug-resistant strains. Our results demonstrate that the extracts of Kalanchoe pinnata have bioactive constituents with antimicrobial activity in vitro. Keywords: Kalcinchoe pinnata, Microorganisms, Synergistic effect, Antifungal, Antibacterial.

  18. Antioxidant Evaluation of Methanolic Extract of Black Nightshades Ripe Fruits against Technical and Formulated Parathion-Induced Damage in Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rahiml, E.A.; Abdel-Rahim, G.A.; Atia, A.I.

    2009-01-01

    Parathion in technical or formulated form at a sub-lethal dose of 1/20 LD 50 was applied orally or dermally at 2-day interval for three months to determine its effect on RNA, DNA and protein content as well as RNA ase and DNA ase activity in different organs liver, brain and kidneys of adult male albino rats. Also, serum GOT, GPT and ALP activity as well as serum total soluble protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin and uric acid content were determined in adult male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). In addition, the present studies were undertaken to investigate different biological activities of the above parameters of black nightshades (Solanum nigrum L) methanolic extract. Two kinds of experimental works were taken off (antioxidants and protective). The results showed that technical and formulated parathion increased RNA and protein content but the content of DNA was insignificantly decreased in all rat organs tissue (liver, brain and kidneys) relative to control. The activity of RNA ase was also stimulated. In case of liver and kidney functions the present data observed that serum GOT, GPT and ALP activity was stimulated but total soluble protein, albumin and globulin content was decreased but the urea, uric acid and bilirubin content of serum was increased. Also, liver lipid peroxidation was elevated significantly either by technical or formulated parathion (ingested orally or induced dermally). It should be noted that formulated parathion ingested orally was the most effective, but the technical one had the lowest toxicity. The results of the present studies showed that crude methanolic extract of black nightshades ripe fruits has a strong antioxidant activity as showed by DPPH, nitric oxide scavenging, total reducing power, Fenton's reaction and total antioxidant capacity assay. Finally the the methanolic extract of the present medicinal plant observed a valuable influence as a protective agent in vivo in serum, liver, brain and kidneys damage of parathion

  19. Elucidation of mechanisms of actions of thymoquinone-enriched methanolic and volatile oil extracts from Nigella sativa against cardiovascular risk parameters in experimental hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shafeeque; Beg, Zafarul H

    2013-06-13

    Nigella sativa belonging to the Ranunculaceae family has been reported to use for thousands of years as protective and curative traditional medicine against a number of diseases. GC-MS analysis of methanolic extract (ME) and volatile oil (VO) extracted from Nigella sativa seed oil was performed by two different mass spectrometry libraries, WIlEY8 and NIST05s. The cholesterol lowering and antioxidant actions of VO and ME fractions were investigated in atherogenic suspension fed rats. In this study, four groups of male Wistar rats were used: normolipidemic control (NLP-C), hyperlipidemic control (HLP-C), methanolic extract (HLP-ME) and volatile oil treated (HLP-VO) groups for 30 days of duration. P value < 0.05 was assumed as significant data in groups. Administration of atherogenic suspension to male Wistar rats for 30 days resulted in a marked increase of plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol, and significant change in plasma lipoprotein levels along with a decrease in antioxidant arylesterase activity in hyperlipidemic control (HLP-C) group. The oral feeding of 100 mg ME or 20 mg VO per rat/day effectively reduced the plasma triglycerides to near normal level, while high density lipoprotein cholesterol and its subfraction along with arylesterase activity levels were significantly increased. The test fractions elicited a significant decrease in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity. The fractions significantly blocked the ex vivo basal and in vitro maximal formation of conjugated diene and malondialdehyde, and lengthened the lag times of low density lipoprotein, small dense low density lipoprotein and large buoyant low density lipoprotein. ME possessing ω-6 linoleic acid along with palmitic acid active compounds was more effective than VO extract containing thymol and isothymol phenolic antioxidant compounds, thymoquinone phenolic compound common to the both extracts, via reduction in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity as well as antioxidant mechanisms. The both

  20. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of methanolic leaf extract of Indigofera cassioides Rottl. Ex. DC.

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    Raju Senthil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: All the results obtained revealed that the extract MEIC showed potent anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity against all the tested models and the results obtained were comparable with the standards used. The activity of the extract may be due to the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids and other phytochemicals.

  1. Antihypertensive activity of 80% methanol seed extract of Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth. subsp. aurea (Fabaceae) is mediated through calcium antagonism induced vasodilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getiye, Yohannes; Tolessa, Tesfaye; Engidawork, Ephrem

    2016-08-02

    Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth. subsp. aurea (CASA) (Fabaceae) seeds are used to treat hypertension in Ethiopian folklore medicine, particularly by Shinasha, Agew-awi and Amhara people in northwest Ethiopia. However, the claim has so far not been substantiated scientifically. The study was conducted to evaluate the antihypertensive activity of 80% methanol extract of CASA in animal model of hypertension as well as its vasorelaxant effect and possible underlying mechanisms in isolated guinea pig aorta. Hypotensive and antihypertensive effect of CASA extract was determined in vivo through the intravenous (iv) route in normotensive and hypertensive anesthetized rats using 2-kidney-1-clip (2K1C) rat model. Ex vivo, guinea pig thoracic aortic rings were isolated and suspended in organ bath, and the vasodepressor effects as well as the mechanism of action of the extract were studied by means of isometric tension recording experiments. The blood pressure fell dose-dependently and significantly in renal hypertensive and normotensive rats following i.v. administration, suggesting that the hydroalcoholic extract possesses hypotensive and antihypertensive effects. The extract also caused a dose-dependent relaxation of aorta pre-contracted with KCl at a concentration of 5-250mg/L, with a maximum relaxation of 92.1% achieved at 250mg/L. The relaxation mechanism was found to be independent of the muscarinic receptors, histamine receptors, ATP dependent K(+) channels, cyclooxygenase enzymes, cGMP/NO pathway and the endothelium system. The extract caused rightward shift of the Ca(++) dose-response curves, similar to that caused by verapamil, indicating that it produced vasorelaxation by inhibiting extracellular Ca(2+) influx. The findings demonstrate that the plant is endowed with antihypertensive effect, providing evidence for its traditional use. The effect may be, at least in part, due to dilation of blood vessels through blockage of Ca(2+) channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  2. Isolation of quercetin from the methanolic extract of Lagerstroemia speciosa by HPLC technique, its cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells and photocatalytic activity.

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    Sai Saraswathi, V; Saravanan, D; Santhakumar, K

    2017-06-01

    The flavonoids present in the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa were extracted, characterized by spectral methods and studied for its cytotoxicity activity against MCF-cell lines and photocatalytic activity against azo dye. Direct and sequential soxhlet extraction was performed and its concentrated crude extract was subjected to high performance liquid chromatography. The yield obtained by the isolated compound (MEI-quercetin) from leaves of L. speciosa was found to be 1.8g from the methanolic extract. The phytochemical analysis and the Rf value of the isolated flavonoid was found to be 3.59. The isolated compound was characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy, NMR and Mass. Based on the characterization, the structure was elucidated as quercetin - a flavonoid. The isolated compound showed the significant in vitro cytotoxicity activity against MCF-7 cell lines at 500μg/ml when compared to the crude extract. Among the various concentrations (25, 50, 100, 250, and 500μg/ml), at higher concentration the cell viability was pronounced and also compared with that of the control. It was first time to report that the isolated flavonoid showed photocatalytic against azo dye-methyl orange. The dye degradation was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The isolated compound showed dye degradation of 91.66% with the crude extract 82.47% at 160min. Hence in the present findings, the photocatalytic degradation of MO dye under UV irradiation was investigated over isolated compound of L. speciosa. Hence we expect that this can be used to treat the waste water in near future based on the photocatalytic technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Protective effects of methanolic extract of Juglans regia L. leaf on streptozotocin-induced diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiry, Davood; Khalatbary, Ali Reza; Ahmadvand, Hassan; Talebpour Amiri, Fereshteh; Akbari, Esmaeil

    2017-10-02

    Oxidative stress has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), the most common and debilitating complications of diabetes mellitus. There is accumulating evidence that Juglans regia L. (GRL) leaf extract, a rich source of phenolic components, has hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties. This study aimed to determine the protective effects of Juglans regia L. leaf extract against streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy in rat. The DPN rat model was generated by intraperitoneal injection of a single 55 mg/kg dose of streptozotocin (STZ). A subset of the STZ-induced diabetic rats intragastically administered with GRL leaf extract (200 mg/kg/day) before or after the onset of neuropathy, whereas other diabetic rats received only isotonic saline as the same volume of GRL leaf extract. To evaluate the effects of GRL leaf extract on the diabetic neuropathy various parameters, including histopathology and immunohistochemistry of apoptotic and inflammatory factors were assessed along with nociceptive and biochemical assessments. Degeneration of the sciatic nerves which was detected in the STZ-diabetic rats attenuated after GRL leaf extract administration. Greater caspase-3, COX-2, and iNOS expression could be detected in the STZ-diabetic rats, which were significantly attenuated after GRL leaf extract administration. Also, attenuation of lipid peroxidation and nociceptive response along with improved antioxidant status in the sciatic nerve of diabetic rats were detected after GRL leaf extract administration. In other word, GRL leaf extract ameliorated the behavioral and structural indices of diabetic neuropathy even after the onset of neuropathy, in addition to blood sugar reduction. Our results suggest that GRL leaf extract exert preventive and curative effects against STZ-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats which might be due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. Protection against

  4. Larvicidal activity of the methanol extract and fractions of the green fruits of Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae against the vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Thamer Matias Pereira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The larvicidal activity of Solanum lycocarpum against Culex quinquefasciatus is unknown. Methods We evaluated the larvicidal activity of extracts of the green fruits of Solanum lycocarpum against third and fourth instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. Results Dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions showed the greatest larvicidal effect at 200mg/L (83.3% and 86.7%, respectively. The methanol and dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and hydromethanolic fractions demonstrated larvicidal effects against C. quinquefasciatus, with LC50 values of 126.24, 75.13, 83.15, and 207.05mg/L, respectively. Conclusions Thus, when considering new drugs with larvicidal activity from natural products, S. lycocarpum fruits may be good candidate sources.

  5. Comparative studies of the phytochemistry, proximate analysis, mineral and vitamin compositions of the methanol leaf extracts of Cucumis sativus L. and Daucus carota L.

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    Essien Augustine Dick

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available     Cucumis sativus  and Daucus carota are medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine to treat and prevent various diseases but the basis for this has not been highlighted. Quantitative phytochemicial analysis revealed the presence of anthocyanins, flavonoids, carotenoids and pyrrolidine in D. carota leaf methanol extract but in C. sativus only flavonoids and carotenoids was found present although in a lower amounts. Proximate analysis revealed  that both plants methanol leaf extracts contain moisture, protein, carbohydrate, fat, fiber and ash. The moisture content of C. sativus (95 ± 0.02% was more than that of D. Carota (82.20 ± 0.01% but the protein, carbohydrate, fat, ash and fiber contents of D. Carota was more than that of C. sativus. The mineral compositions also revealed the presence of Ca, P, Mg, Fe,Zn,Na, and K in both C.sativus and D. carota although in various proportions. The P, Ca, Mg, Fe and Na contents in D. carota were more than that of C. Sativus, but C. sativus has a higher Zn and K contents than D. carota. The vitamin analysis also revealed the presence of important vitamins including A, B1, B2,  B6 ,  C,E, niacin and folate. The vitamin A content of  D. carota were very high (2,901 ± 0.02µg compared to that of  C. Sativus (23 ± 0.01µg. These important macroelements, minerals and vitamins embedded in these important plants may be the reasons behind its use in forklore medicine for its various dietary and therapeutic applications.

  6. In vivo diabetic wound healing effect and HPLC–DAD–ESI–MS/MS profiling of the methanol extracts of eight Aloe species

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    Abeer M. El Sayed

    Full Text Available Abstract Genus Aloe, Xanthorrhoeaceae, is well distributed all over Egypt, and many species have been used as medicinal plants; mainly reported to prevent cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes. This study attempts to analyze the secondary metabolites in the methanol extract of the leaves of eight Aloe species; A. vera (L. Burm. f., A. arborescens Mill., A. eru A. Berger, A. grandidentata Salm-Dyck, A. perfoliata L., A. brevifolia Mill., A. saponaria Haw. and A. ferox Mill. growing in Egypt. For this aim HPLC–DAD–MS/MS in negative ion mode was used. Although belonging to the same genus, the composition of each species presented different particularities. Seventy one compounds were identified in the investigated Aloe species, of which cis-p-coumaric acid derivaties, 3,4-O-(E caffeoylferuloylquinic acid and caffeoyl quinic acid hexoside were the most common phenolic acids identified. Aloeresin E and isoaloeresin D, 2'-O-feruloylaloesin were the common anthraquinones identified. Lucenin II, vicenin II, and orientin were the common identified flavonoids in the investigated Aloe species. 6'-Malonylnataloin, aloe-emodin-8-O-glucoside, flavone-6,8-di-C-glucosides could be considered as chemotaxonomic markers for the investigated Aloe species. The eight Aloe species had significant anti-inflammatory activity, in addition to the significant acceleration of diabetic wound healing in rats following topical application of the methanol extracts of their leaves. This is the first simultaneous characterization and qualitative determination of multiple phenolic compounds in Aloe species from locally grown cultivars in Egypt using HPLC–DAD–MS/MS, which can be applied to standardize the quality of different Aloe species and the future design of nutraceuticals and cosmetic preparations.

  7. Parasiticidal and brine shrimp cytotoxicity potential of crude methanolic extract of rind of Punica granatum Linn against round worms and tape worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Niaz; Jamil, Ayesha; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Shah, Ismail; Ahmed, Ghayour; Junaid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Zahoor

    2015-05-01

    Rind of Punica granatum is traditionally used for anthelmintic purposes. The current work describes the possible anthelmintic activity of crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum (Pg. Cr) against round worms (Ascaridia galli) and the tape worms (Raillietina spiralis). Brine shrimp cytotoxicity is also performed. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity was tested using different concentrations (1000 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL) of Pg.Cr. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Pg. Cr was determined against the parasites using albendazole and piperazine citrate as standard anthelmintic drugs in concentration 10 mg/ml. LC50 value for Brine shrimp cytotoxicity was 189.44 ±28 μg/mL. In test concentration of 40mg/ml of the Pg. Cr, Raillietina spiralis was paralyzed in 23 minutes. However, for parasiticidal activity (death of the parasite), it took less time (40 minutes) as compared to standard Albendazole. Time taken for death of the parasite Raillietina spiralis, in concentration 40 mg /ml, is 40 min. While standard drugs took more time to kill the Raillietina spiralis. Pg. Cr took 19 minutes to paralyze the Ascaridia galli at concentration 40 mg/ml whereas; it took 48 minutes for to kill the parasite Ascaridia galli. The current work confirms the traditional use of rind of Punica granatum as anthelmintic against Raillietina spiralis and Ascaridia galli. Results of brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay warrant for the isolation of cytotoxic compounds. List of abbreviation- Pg. Cr = Crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum.

  8. Strawberry (cv. Romina Methanolic Extract and Anthocyanin-Enriched Fraction Improve Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Status in HepG2 Cells

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    Tamara Y. Forbes-Hernández

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia and oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL are recognized as critical factors in the development of atherosclerosis. Healthy dietary patterns, with abundant fruit and vegetable consumption, may prevent the onset of these risk factors due to the presence of phytochemical compounds. Strawberries are known for their high content of polyphenols; among them, flavonoids are the major constituents, and it is presumed that they are responsible for the biological activity of the fruit. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies that actually evaluate the effects of different fractions isolated from strawberries. In order to assess the effects of two different strawberry extracts (whole methanolic extract/anthocyanin-enriched fraction on the lipid profile and antioxidant status in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells, the triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol content, lipid peroxidation, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS content and antioxidant enzymes’ activity on cell lysates were determined. Results demonstrated that both strawberry extracts not only improved the lipid metabolism by decreasing triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol contents, but also improved the redox state of HepG2 cells by modulating thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances production, antioxidant enzyme activity and ROS generation. The observed effects were more pronounced for the anthocyanin-enriched fraction.

  9. Antifouling activity of the methanolic extract of Syringodium isoetifolium, and its toxicity relative to tributyltin on the ovarian development of brown mussel Perna indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyapparaj, P; Revathi, P; Ramasubburayan, R; Prakash, S; Anantharaman, P; Immanuel, G; Palavesam, A

    2013-03-01

    The present study evaluated reproductive toxicity and antifouling activity of methanolic extract of seagrass Syringodium isoetifolium (25 μg/ml) relative to the conventional antifoulant, tributyltin (TBT; 100 ng/l) on the ovarian development of the brown mussel Perna indica. Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) and Digestive Gland Index (DGI) of TBT exposed mussels decreased in comparison with mussels exposed to S. isoetifolium extract. Interestingly, mussels treated with S. isoetifolium showed normal cellular architecture in gills, digestive gland, muscle and ovary. However, TBT increased interfilamental space and fusion of the filaments in gills, disruption in the digestive tubules and reduction in basement membrane thickness. Besides in adductor muscle, TBT induced muscle degeneration, and necrotic muscle layer. In ovary, TBT inflicted the fusion of developing oocytes. TBT had significantly retarded the ovarian development and substantially affected the biochemical constituents leading to an impairment of oogenesis as against the null effects noticed from the S. isoetifolium extract treated mussels. On the ground of eco-friendly properties, the seagrass S. isoetifolium could be used as a source for the production of green antifoulant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Free Radicals Scavenging Activity of Essential Oils and Different Fractions of Methanol Extract of Zataria Multiflora, Salvia Officinalis, Rosmarinus Officinalis, Mentha Pulegium and Cinnamomum Zeylanicum

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    S Changizi Ashtiani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Essential oils and extracts from medicinal plants are regarded as natural food preservatives and health promoting drugs. Considering their antioxidant activity, most of them can prevent oxidative stress. The present study was aimed to evaluate free radicals scavenging activity of essential oils and different fractions of methanol extracts from cinnamon, pennyroyal, black cumin, sage, rosemary and azkand. Methods: Antioxidant property of essential oils and different fractions of these medicinal plants was studied by determining their DPPH(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals scavenging activity. Results: There were significant differences among the free radical scavenging activity of studied essential oils and different fractions. Ethyl acetate fractions were identified as the most active fractions than other ones and even synthetic antioxidant (BHT, IC50 value of 239.5μg/ml with the highest activity in Mentha pulegium (47.2 μg/ml μg/ml. Among others, n-hexane fraction of rosemary (969 μg/ml, dichloromethane fraction of rosemary (205.46 μg/ml and zatar (344 μg/ml and aqueous fractions of cinnamon (117.6 μg/ml and sage (321.3 μg/ml exhibited appreciable antioxidant activity. Conclusion: Regarding considerable activity of studied extracts, they have the potential to be used as natural antioxidants in relevant industries.

  11. Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of methanolic extract of Clitoria ternatea (Linn. flower against acetaminophen-induced liver damage

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    Kuppan Nithianantham

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Clitoria ternatea (C. ternatea flower extract against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity. Methods: The antioxidant property of C. ternatea flower extract was investigated by employing established in vitro antioxidant assay. The C. ternatea flower extract was studied in this work for its hepatoprotective effect against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in mice. Activity was measured by monitoring the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, billirubin and glutathione with histopathological analysis. Results: The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated to be 105.40依2.47 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and 72.21依0.05 mg/g catechin equivalent respectively. The antioxidant activity of C. ternatea flower extract was 68.9% at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and was also concentration dependant, with an IC 50 value of 327.00 µg/mL. The results of acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity experiment showed that mice treated with the extract (200 mg/kg showed a significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and bilirubin levels, which were all elevated in the paracetamol group (P<0.05. Meanwhile, the level of glutathione was found to be restored in extract treated animals compared to the groups treated with acetaminophen alone (P<0.05. Therapy of extract also showed its protective effect on histopathological alterations and supported the biochemical finding. Conclusion: The present work confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of C. ternatea flower against model hepatotoxicant acetaminophen.

  12. Biological activities of Rumex dentatus L: Evaluation of methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extracts of leaf and stem inhibited radish seed germination (70 and 61% respectively) and root length more than the hexane extracts. The R. dentatus methanol extract showed presence of alkaloids, saponins, anthraquinones and tannins while flavonoids were also found in both methanol as well as hexane ...

  13. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of Methanolic Extracts of Zilla spinosa and Hammada elegans Against Carbon Tetrachlorideinduced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

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    Ullah Riaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The detoxification, metabolism, and excretion of various endogenous and exogenous materials occur mainly in the liver. Liver diseases are a global concern, and classified as chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatosis. The development of safe hepatoprotective agents remains an unmet need. Therefore, we investigated the antioxidant effects of methanolic and n-hexane fractions of Zilla spinosa (ZSM and ZSH, respectively and Hammada elegans (HEM and HEH, respectively against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver toxicity in rats. Antioxidant activity was studied by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. The rats were divided into 11 groups (n=6–group, 1 (control, group 2 (CCl4 only, group 3 (CCl4+silymarin 10 mg/kg, group 4 (CCl4+HEM 250 mg/kg, group 5 (CC14+HEM 500 mg/kg, group 6 (CCl4+HEH 250 mg/kg, group, 7 (CCl4+HEH 500 mg/kg, group, 8 (CCl4+ZSM 250 mg/kg, group 9 (CCl4+ZSM 500 mg/kg, group 10 (CCl4+ZSH 250 mg/kg, and group 11 (CCl4+ZSH 500 mg/kg. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, and total bilirubin were measured. The extent of hepatic injury was histopathologically assessed. Treatment with ZSM and ZSH at 250 and 500 mg/kg did not significantly affect biochemical results compared with the CCl4 only group. However, treatment with both HEM and HEH at 250 and 500 mg/kg provided significant (p<0.001 results compared with the CCl4 only group. These results were consistent with histological findings. HEM and HEH at 250 μg/mL significantly inhibited DPPH radical formation by 38.E6 and 35.65%, rerpectively. However antioxidant effects of ZSM and ZSH were insignificant.

  14. Anti-hyperalgesic activity of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves of Pittosporum mannii Hook on CFA-induced persistent inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandji, Bibiane Aimée; Bomba, Francis Desire Tatsinkou; Nkeng-Efouet, Pepin Alango; Piegang, Basile Nganmegne; Kamanyi, Albert; Nguelefack, Télesphore Benoît

    2018-02-01

    Previous study showed that aqueous (AEPM) and methanol (MEPM) extracts from the leaves of Pittosporum mannii have analgesic effects in acute pain models. The present study evaluates the acute and chronic anti-hypernociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of AEPM and MEPM in a model of persistent inflammatory pain. The third day after induction of inflammatory pain by subplantar injection of 100 µL of CFA in Wistar rats, AEPM and MEPM were administered orally (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg/day) and their anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects were follow in acute (1-24 h) and chronic (for 14 days) treatments. At the end of the chronic treatment, oxidative stress and liver parameters were assessed. Effects of plant extracts were also evaluated on nociception induced by Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (PMA) and 8-bromo 3',5'-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) in mice. AEPM and MEPM significantly reversed the mechanical hyperalgesia caused by CFA in acute and chronic treatment. Moreover, AEPM and MEPM also significantly reduced the nociception caused by PMA (60%) and 8-Br-cAMP (87%). Nevertheless, AEPM and MEPM failed to inhibit the paw edema caused by CFA. Plant extracts significantly reduced the nitric oxide content in the spinal cord and the plasmatic concentration of alanine aminotransferase. MEPM also significantly increased the glutathione content in the spinal cord. AEPM and MEPM given orally are effective in inhibiting mechanical hyperalgesia in persistent inflammatory pain caused by CFA. Their mechanisms of action seem to involve an interaction with PKC, PKA and nitric oxide pathways. These extracts might be devoid of hepatotoxic effects.

  15. Hyphenated chromatographic techniques for the rapid screening and identification of antioxidants in methanolic extracts of pharmaceutically used plants .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exarchou, V.; Fiamegos, Y.C.; Beek, van T.A.; Nanos, C.G.; Vervoort, J.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis is an important scientific research area, which normally relies on a number of rather laborious and time-consuming techniques for compound identification. Isolation of the ingredients of plant extracts in adequate quantities for spectral and biological analysis was the basis

  16. The osteogenic differentiation stimulating activity of Sea cucumber methanolic crude extraction on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

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    Javad Baharara

    2014-08-01

    Materials and Methods: Isolated rBMMSc were grown in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS. The cells were exposed to different concentration of extract. After 21 days, Alizarin red staining, alkaline phosphatase assay and RT-PCR were performed. The results were analyzed by ANOVA software and P value

  17. In vitro and in vivo study of the antibacterial effects of Nigella sativa methanol extract in dairy cow mastitis

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    Hassan Rakhshandeh

    2011-07-01

    Results and conclusion: The extract showed significant in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects on causative organisms compared to standard drugs and also induced healing of the disease. This is the first veterinary experiment, to our knowledge, that investigated the antibacterial effects of Nigella sativa.

  18. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils and Methanol Extracts of Different Parts from Juniperus rigida Siebold & Zucc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaoxiao; Li, Dengwu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Dongmei; Meng, Xiaxia; Wang, Yongtao

    2016-09-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils and MeOH extracts of stems, needles, and berries from Juniperus rigida were studied. The results indicated that the yield of essential oil from stems (2.5%) was higher than from needles (0.8%) and berries (1.0%). The gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analysis indicated that 21, 17, and 14 compounds were identified from stems, needles, and berries essential oils, respectively. Caryophyllene, α-caryophyllene, and caryophyllene oxide were primary compounds in both stems and needles essential oils. However, α-pinene and β-myrcene mainly existed in berries essential oils and α-ionone only in needles essential oils. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that the phenolic profiles of three parts exhibited significant differences. Needles extracts had the highest content of chlorogenic acid, catechin, podophyllotoxin, and amentoflavone, and for berries extracts, the content of those compounds was the lowest. Meanwhile, three in vitro methods (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP) were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. Stems essential oil and needles extracts exhibited the powerful antioxidant activity than other parts. This is the first comprehensive study on the different parts of J. rigida. The results suggested that stems and needles of J. rigida are useful supplements for healthy products as new resources. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  19. Antioxidative effects of stabilized and unstabilized defatted rice bran methanolic extracts on the stability of rice bran oil under accelerated conditions

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    Adam Mariod, Abdalbasit

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research assessed the antioxidant activity against the synthetic 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, and β-carotene–linoleic acid assay of the methanolic extracts of defatted rice bran from stabilized and unstabilized rice bran. The effects of the extracts (0.1 and 0.25% w/w on the oxidative stability of refined-bleached rice bran oil were determined and compared with those of BHA (synthetic antioxidant. The study was carried out over a 168 hr period at 70°C and the progression of oxidation was measured by peroxide value, p-anisidine value, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS. The relative % of residual α-tocopherol and γ-oryzanol of the rice bran oil containing methanolic extracts of stabilized and unstabilized defatted rice bran during storage at 70°C were studied.

    La presente investigación evalúa la actividad antioxidante mediante el radical sintético 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil y el ensayo β-caroteno–ácido linoleico de extractos metanólicos de salvado de arroz desengrasado procedente de salvado de arroz estabilizado y no-estabilizado. El efecto de los extractos (0.1 y 0.25% w/w sobre la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite refinado de salvado de arroz fue determinado y comparado con el del BHA (antioxidante sintético. El estudio fue llevado a cabo durante un periodo de 168 hr a 70°C y la progresión de la oxidación fue medida mediante el valor de peróxidos, valor de p-anisidine y substancias reactivas del ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS. El porcentaje relativo del α-tocoferol y γ-orizanol residual en el aceite de germen de arroz conteniendo extracto metanólico de germen de arroz desengrasado estabilizado y no estabilizado durante el almacenamiento a 70°C fueron estudiados.

  20. Cytotoxic activity of different polarity fractions obtained from methanolic extracts of Vismia baccifera and Vismia macrophylla (Hypericaceae collected in Venezuela

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    Janne del C. Rojas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Cancer is a complex disease involving numerous changes in cell physiology and abnormal cell growth, which lead to malignant tumors. Many investigations are still carrying on in different areas including, natural products, to find a possible break point to this pathology. Aims: To evaluate the cytotoxic activity on different polar extracts from Vismia baccifera and Vismia macrophylla collected in two locations of the Venezuelan Andes. Methods: Cytotoxic activity assay was carried out following the colorimetric (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide MTT assay. Human tumor cell Lines from breast carcinoma without gene over-expression (MCF-7, breast carcinoma with overexpressed gene (SKBr3, prostate carcinoma (PC3 and cervix epithelial carcinoma (HeLa were tested with different polarity solvent extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol, water from the two species under investigation. Human dermis fibroblasts were used as control cells. Mean inhibitory concentration (IC50 was calculated. Results: Extracts from V. macrophylla showed significant inhibition of cervix epithelial carcinoma with values ranging from 6.09 µg/mL to 17.51 µg/mL; breast carcinoma with an overexpressed gene with values from 12.14 µg/mL to 16.90 µg/mL and prostate carcinoma from 10.91 µg/mL to 17.70 µg/mL. V. baccifera extracts showed the strongest activity against prostate carcinoma with an IC50 value of 2.92 µg/mL. Conclusions: The present study showed evidence for the anticancer activity of Vismia baccifera and Vismia macrophylla extracts since caused growth inhibition in different cell lines at low concentrations, thus, it is considered not only an important contribution to the natural products research but bring supportive data for further investigations on cancer research.

  1. Chemical analyses and in vitro and in vivo toxicity of fruit methanol extract of Sechium edule var. nigrum spinosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiñiga-Sánchez, Itzen; Cadena-Íñiguez, Jorge; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Gómez-García, Guadalupe; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rosado-Pérez, Juana; Ruíz-Ramos, Mirna; Cisneros-Solano, Víctor Manuel; Ledesma-Martínez, Edgar; Delgado-Bordonave, Angel de Jesus; Soto-Hernández, Ramón Marcos

    2017-12-01

    Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) is used in ethnomedicine, but the diversity of the varietal groups of this species has not often been considered. This is important because we previously reported that different variety of species exhibit different activities across different tumor cell lines. This study investigates the chemical composition and biological activities of extracts obtained from S. edule var. nigrum spinosum. The leukemia P388 cell line and mononuclear bone marrow cells (MNCBMs) were treated with the extract at a concentration ranging from 40 to 2370 μg/mL for cytotoxicity and viability assays. CD-1 mice were treated with 8-5000 mg/kg extract and monitored every hour for the first 24 h and subsequently for seven days for signs of toxicity (LD 50 ). In addition, the chromatographic profile of the extract was determined by HPLC. The extract inhibits the proliferation of both P388 cells and MNCBMs, with IC 50 values of 927 and 1911 μg/mL, respectively, but reduced the viability and induced the apoptosis of only leukemia cells. The LD 50 was higher than 5000 mg/kg, and this concentration did not alter the blood chemistry or cell count but doubled the mitotic index in the bone marrow. The HPLC showed the presence of cucurbitacins, phloridzin, naringenin, phloretin, apigenin, and gallic, chlorogenic, vanillic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, and p-coumaric acids. Sechium edule var. nigrum spinosum contains bioactive compounds that explain the antiproliferative and nutraceutical activities, and its lack of physiological side effects constitutes an added value to a widely consumed vegetable.

  2. Antiproliferative effect of a polysaccharide fraction of a 20% methanolic extract of stinging nettle roots upon epithelial cells of the human prostate (LNCaP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichius, J J; Lenz, C; Lindemann, P; Müller, H H; Aumüller, G; Konrad, L

    1999-10-01

    In Germany, plant extracts are often used in the treatment of early stages of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The effects of different concentrations of the polysaccharide fraction of the 20% methanolic extract of stinging nettle roots (POLY-M) on the cellular proliferation of lymph node carcinoma of the prostate (LNCaP) cells were determined by measurement of the genomic DNA content of the samples. All concentrations of POLY-M showed an inhibitory effect on the growth of the LNCaP cells during 7 days except the two lowest concentrations. The reduced proliferation of POLY-M treated LNCaP cells was significantly (p < 0.05) different from the untreated control. The inhibition was time- and concentration-dependent with the maximum suppression (50%) on day 6 and at concentrations of 1.0E-9 and 1.0E-11 mg/ml. No cytotoxic effect of POLY-M on cell proliferation was observed. The in vitro results show for the first time an antiproliferative effect of Urtica compounds on human prostatic epithelium and confirm our previous in vivo findings.

  3. Antibacterial activity of crude methanolic extract and various fractions of Vitex agnus castus and Myrsine africana against clinical isolates of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Bashir; Hafeez, Nabia; Ara, Gulshan; Azam, Sadiq; Bashir, Shumaila; Khan, Ibrar

    2016-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a nosocomial pathogen that resides in the soft tissues causing many diseases. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in ear discharge and pus of patients and antibacterial activity of crude methanolic extract (Cr. MeOH Ext.) and various fractions of M. Africana and V. agnus castus against clinical isolates of MRSA. A total of 40 samples were collected from ear, nose and throat (ENT) outpatient department and wards of Khyber Teaching Hospital (KTH), Peshawar. Out of 40 samples, 36 (90%) samples showed growth on Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) media out of which 9(25%) were MRSA and the remaining 27(75%) were methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). A good antibacterial activity was observed for the Cr. MeOH Ext. (76.1%) and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of V. agnus castus against S11 (71.4%). The n-hexane fraction also showed good antibacterial effect (70%) against S 26 . The chloroform (CHCl3), butanol (BuOH) and aqueous fractions of M. africana showed good antibacterial activity against S 11 (71.4%), S32 (70%) and S 26 (75%), respectively. The above results revealed that the selected plants can be further utilized for isolation of the active ingredients as the crude extracts were found good for inhibition of MRSA.

  4. In Vitro Bioactivity of Methanolic Extracts from Amphipterygium adstringens (Schltdl.) Schiede ex Standl., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Cirsium mexicanum DC., Eryngium carlinae F. Delaroche, and Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. Used in Traditional Medicine in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Knauth, Peter; Acevedo-Hernández, Gustavo J.; Cano, M. Eduardo; Gutiérrez-Lomelí, Melesio; López, Zaira

    2018-01-01

    Seven out of eight methanolic extracts from five plants native to Mexico were inactive against ten bacterial strains of clinical interest. The fruit extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides inhibited the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 4375 μg/ml), Escherichia coli (MIC = 1094 μg/ml), and Salmonella typhimurium (MIC = 137 μg/ml). The fruit extract of C. ambrosioides was with CC50 = 45 μg/ml most cytotoxic against the cell-line Caco-2, followed by the leaf extract from Pithecellobium dulce (C...

  5. Inhibiting Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Morganella morganii with Aqueous Methanol Extracts of Punica granatum and Galla chinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Morganella morganii are closely related to foodborne illnesses caused by the consumption of seafood and ready-to-eat (RTE) food. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) have been widely studied as complementary and alternative medicines, and many of them have been verified to have antimicrobial properties. The purpose of this research was to study antimicrobial effects of plant extracts as potential preservatives in seafood products and to ident...

  6. INVITRO STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF CURCUMA LONGA METHANOL EXTRACTS IN COLORECTAL HCT – 116 CELL LINES

    OpenAIRE

    Madhuri B S , Dinesh Bhaskar , Balasubramanian Sathyamurthy*

    2017-01-01

    The leaves of Curcuma longa is commonly known as gummy gardenia/cambi gum tree. It is traditional medicinal plant grown in India, have many medicinal and therapeutic properties in diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatitis, arthritis, and chronic anterior uveitis. This leaf extracts are found to have antioxidant, chemopreventive agents, anti-inflammatory and anti cancer activities. Curcumin is the active principle which is responsible for anticancer effects. This work was aimed...

  7. Assessment of the Anti-Hyperglycaemic, Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of the Methanol Extract of Moringa Oleifera in Diabetes-Induced Nephrotoxic Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omodanisi, Elizabeth I; Aboua, Yapo G; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O

    2017-03-23

    Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease of multiple aetiologies in insulin secretion. A deficiency in insulin results in hyperglycemia with metabolic disturbances of biomolecules. Moringa oleifera (MO) is endemic in the tropics with a variety of ethnomedicinal importance. The leaf of this plant has been reported to possess antioxidant and medicinal properties that may be helpful in the treatment and management of diabetes and its associated complications. Diabetes was induced intraperitoneally in rats by a single dose of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) and treated with methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera (250 mg/kg b.wt) for six weeks. Forty-eight (48) adult male Wistar strain rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control (NC), Moringa oleifera treated control rats (NC + MO), diabetic rats (DM) and Moringa oleifera treated diabetic rats (DM + MO). Estimation of antioxidant capacity, total polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols content of Moringa oleifera extract was performed and serum biochemical markers were evaluated. Antioxidants such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, glutathione (GSH) and inflammatory biomarkers were determined in the kidney. Results showed high antioxidant capacities of MO extract and improved serum biochemical markers, whilst lipid peroxidation (MDA) levels were reduced in non-diabetic and diabetic rats after MO treatment when compared to normal control. Subsequent administration of MO led to an increased concentration of serum albumin, globulin and total protein with a decrease in the level of MDA, and improvements in CAT, SOD, GSH, GPx, (tumour necrosis factor-alpha)TNF-α and (interleukin-6)IL-6. MO contains potent phytochemical constituents that offer protective action against diabetic-induced renal damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation and could therefore play a role in reducing diabetic complications, particularly in developing countries such as in

  8. PDK1 in NF-κB signaling is a target of Xanthium strumarium methanolic extract-mediated anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Muhammad Jahangir; Cho, Jae Youl; Kim, Daewon

    2016-08-22

    Xanthium strumarium L. (Asteraceae) has traditionally been used to treat bacterial infections, nasal sinusitis, urticaria, arthritis, chronic bronchitis and rhinitis, allergic rhinitis, edema, lumbago, and other ailments. However, the molecular mechanisms by which this plant exerts its anti-inflammatory effects are poorly characterized. Here we studied the immunopharmacological activities of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of this plant (Xs-ME) and validated its pharmacological targets. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Xs-ME, we employed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated macrophages and an HCl/EtOH-induced mouse model of gastritis. We also used HPLC to identify the potentially active anti-inflammatory components of this extract. The molecular mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory activity were studied by kinase assays, reporter gene assays, immunoprecipitation analysis, and overexpression of target enzymes. The production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were both suppressed by Xs-ME. Moreover, orally administered Xs-ME ameliorated HCl/EtOH-induced gastric lesions. Furthermore, this extract downregulated the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and reduced the nuclear levels of NF-κB. Signaling events upstream of NF-κB translocation, such as phosphorylation of AKT and the formation of PDK1-AKT signaling complexes, were also inhibited by Xs-ME. Moreover, Xs-ME suppressed the enzymatic activity of PDK1. Additionally, PDK1-induced luciferase activity and Akt phosphorylation were both inhibited by Xs-ME. We also identified the polyphenol resveratrol as a likely active anti-inflammatory component in Xs-ME that targets PDK1. Xs-ME exerts anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting PDK1 kinase activity and blocking signaling to its downstream transcription factor, NF-κB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Methanol Extracts of 28 Hieracium Species from the Balkan Peninsula - Comparative LC-MS Analysis, Chemosystematic Evaluation of their Flavonoid and Phenolic Acid Profiles and Antioxidant Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Violeta; Niketić, Marjan; Ušjak, Ljuboš; Nikolić, Dejan; Krunić, Aleksej; Zidorn, Christian; Petrović, Silvana

    2018-01-01

    Hieracium s. str. represents one of the largest and most complex genera of flowering plants. As molecular genetics seems unlikely to disentangle intricate relationships within this reticulate species complex, analysis of flavonoids and phenolic acids, known as good chemosystematic markers, promise to be more reliable. Data about pharmacological activity of Hieracium species are scarce. Evaluation of the chemosystematic significance of flavonoids and phenolic acids of methanol extracts of aerial flowering parts of 28 Hieracium species from the Balkans. Additionally, investigation of antioxidant potentials of the extracts. Comparative qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids and phenolic acids was performed by LC-MS. Multivariate statistical data analysis included non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS), unweighted pair-group arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Antioxidant activity was evaluated using three colorimetric tests. Dominant phenolics in almost all species were luteolin type flavonoids, followed by phenolic acids. Although the investigated Hieracium species share many compounds, the current classification of the genus was supported by nMDS and UPGMA analyses with a good resolution to the group level. Hieracium naegelianum was clearly separated from the other investigated species. Spatial and ecological distances of the samples were likely to influence unexpected differentiation of some groups within H. sect. Pannosa. The vast majority of dominant compounds significantly contributed to differences between taxa. The antioxidant potential of the extracts was satisfactory and in accordance with their phenolics composition. Comparative LC-MS analysis demonstrated that flavonoids and phenolic acids are good indicators of chemosystematic relationships within Hieracium, particularly between non-hybrid species and groups from the same location. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley

  10. Phytochemical and antioxidant potential of crude methanolic extract and fractions of Celtis eriocarpa Decne. leaves from lesser Himalaya Region of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.; Arshad, M.; Bibi, Y.; Ahmed, M.S.

    2018-01-01

    Celtis eriocarpa Decne. belongs to family cannabaceae. It is commonly found in Indo-Pak subcontinent and is used in healthcare practices. Decoction of leaves is used against amenorrhoea, fruits are used against colic. Powdered bark is used to treat pimples, sprain, contusions and joint pain. Leaves of Celtis eriocarpa were collected from lesser Himalayan region of Pakistan (Murree and Galliyat) in April 2014, and subjected to proximate analysis, qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals and DPPH antioxidant determination after fractionation. Quantitative determination of total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid (TFC) and DPPH antioxidant activity was carried out through spectrophotometric methods. Proximate analysis revealed low moisture content, higher protein, carbohydrate and nutritive values. Qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed presence of phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and saponins while absence of alkaloids. Higher TPC was found in Crude methanolic extract (79.96+-0.32 mg GAE /g) followed by ethyl acetate fraction (59.62+-1.00 mg GAE /g) and lowest TPC was found in n-Hexane fraction (24.97+-0.67 mg GAE/g) at p<0.05. Higher TFC was found in Crude methanolic extract (63.88+-0.40 mg QE/g) followed by ethyl acetate fraction (55.49+-1.22 mg QE /g) and lowest TFC was found in n-Hexane fraction (6.01+-0.66mg QE /g) at p<0.05. Ethyl acetate fraction showed higher DPPH EC50 value (324.81 mu g/ml) while n-hexane fraction showed lowest EC50 value (2981 mug/ml) at p<0.05. The mean EC50 value of ascorbic acid at p<0.05 was 10.86mu g/ml. As DPPH EC50 value, total phenolic content and total flavonoid content in the leaves of C. eriocarpa is considerably high therefore this plant could be a source of bioactive compounds. This study will be a benchmark for detailed evaluation of therapeutic potential of Celtis eriocarpa. (author)

  11. The Acute Toxicity Test of Methanolic Extract of Hyptis pectinata Poit on Liver Balb/c Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzery, M.; Cahyono, B.; Astuti, P.

    2017-02-01

    Plants from Lamiaceae family has almost entirely reported having physiological activities. One of them is Hyptis pectinata Poit plant. Research on the toxicity of Hyptis pectinata needs to be done to protect people from the possibility of its harmful effects. This study aim to know the acute toxicity effects of Hyptis pectinata extract (HPE) on liver of Balb/c mice. This research was a laboratory experimental study using the post test only controlled group design. Balb/c mice were randomly divided into 4 groups. K (control group), P1, P2 and P3 (treatment groups; given HPE 200mg/kgBW, 1000 mg/kgBW, and 5000 mg/kgBW, respectively). The extract was orally given with gastric tube on the first day and the mice were terminated at the 8th day then the livers were observed. The Kruskal-Wallis test for macroscopic morphological and volume of the liver showed there were no significant difference with p=0.406 and p=0.054. The highest liver histopathological score was in P3 group. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed significantly difference (p=0.000). Continued with Mann-Withney test that showed a significant difference in K-P1 (p=0.009), K-P2 (p=0.009), K-P3 (p=0.009), P1-P2 (p=0.028), and P1-P3 (p=0.009). In conclusion, the HPE is safe to use which has no complication with liver of mice.

  12. A study on the GC-MS analysis of bioactive components and pancreato-protective effect of methanolic extract of Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapriya, Sadanandan; Geetha, Arumugam; Ganesan Kripa, Kavasseri

    2017-09-01

    The ever-increasing problem of pancreatitis due to alcohol abuse demands evaluation of novel drugs of plant origin. This study explores the therapeutic effects of the methanolic extract of Brassica oleraceae (MEBO) on ethanol and cerulein induced pancreatitis in rats. The MEBO was subjected to GC-MS and HPLC analysis. Male albino Wistar rats were divided into various groups, fed with alcohol (36% of total calories for 5 weeks) and cerulein (20 μg/kg b.wt i.p, weekly thrice for last three weeks) with or without MEBO (40 mg/kg b.wt). Serum lipase, amylase, IL-1β, IL-18, caspase-1, lipid peroxides, oxidative stress index and antioxidant status were assessed in pancreas. Six compounds were identified in GC-MS analysis. Co-administration of MEBO reduced the pancreatic marker enzymes in serum, IL-1β, IL-18 and caspase-1 and increased the antioxidant status of pancreas. The pancreato-protective effect of Brassica oleraceae may be attributed to well-known anti-inflammatory flavonoids, luteolin, quercetin and myricetin.

  13. In vitro apoptotic effects of methanol extracts of Dianthus chinensis and Acalypha australis L. targeting specificity protein 1 in human oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji-Ae; Kim, Jae-Jin; Choi, Eun-Sun; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Ryu, Mi Heon; Kwon, Ki Han; Park, Hee-Min; Seo, Jin-Young; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Lim, Do-Won; Cho, Nam-Pyo; Cho, Sung-Dae

    2013-07-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the apoptotic activities and molecular mechanisms of methanol extracts of Dianthus chinensis (MEDC) and Acalypha australis L. (MEAL) in human oral cancer cells. The apoptotic effects and related molecular mechanisms of MEDC and MEAL on oral cancer cells were evaluated using MTS assay, DAPI staining, immunostaining, Western blotting, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Sp1 was overexpressed in oral tumor tissues compared with normal oral mucosa. Downregulation of Sp1 inhibited the growth of SCC-15 and YD-15 oral cancer cells. MEDC and MEAL inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in both cell lines by decreasing the expression of Sp1. In addition, treatment of cells with MEDC and MEAL decreased Mcl-1 expression, which is a downstream target of Sp1. Our results indicate that MEDC and MEAL are bioactive natural products that can potentially induce apoptosis of tumor cells that overexpress the Sp1 protein. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Methanolic Extract from Murraya koenigii L. Inhibits Glutamate-Induced Pain and Involves ATP-Sensitive K+ Channel as Antinociceptive Mechanism

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    Nushrat Sharmin Ani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Murraya koenigii L. is a perennial shrub, belonging to the family Rutaceae. Traditionally, the leaves of this plant are extensively used in treatment of a wide range of diseases and disorders including pain and inflammation. Although researchers have revealed the antinociceptive effects of this plant’s leaves during past few years, the mechanisms underlying these effects are still unknown. Therefore, the present study evaluated some antinociceptive mechanisms of the methanolic extract of M. koenigii (MEMK leaves along with its antinociceptive potential using several animal models. The antinociceptive effects of MEMK were evaluated using formalin-induced licking and acetic acid-induced writhing tests at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg. In addition, we also justified the possible participations of glutamatergic system and ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the observed activities. Our results demonstrated that MEMK significantly (p<0.01 inhibited the pain thresholds induced by formalin and acetic acid in a dose-dependent manner. MEMK also significantly (p<0.01 suppressed glutamate-induced pain. Moreover, pretreatment with glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker at 10 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05 reversed the MEMK-mediated antinociception. These revealed that MEMK might have the potential to interact with glutamatergic system and the ATP-sensitive potassium channels to exhibit its antinociceptive activities. Therefore, our results strongly support the antinociceptive effects of M. koenigii leaves and provide scientific basis of their analgesic uses in the traditional medicine.

  15. Safety assessment of the methanol extract of the stem bark of Amphimas pterocarpoides Harms: Acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job Tchoumtchoua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphimas pterocarpoides Harms (Leguminosae is widely used traditionally in Central and West Africa for the treatment of various ailments. However, no data regarding its safety have been published until now. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the potential toxicity of the methanol extract of the stem bark of Amphimas pterocarpoides (AP in Wistar rats following the OECD guidelines. In acute oral toxicity, female rats received a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of AP and were observed for 14 days. In subchronic toxicity, doses of 150, 300, 600 mg/kg/day of AP were given per os to rats (males and females for 28 days. No death and abnormal behaviors were observed in acute toxicity and the LD50 was estimated higher than 5000 mg/kg. In the subchronic study, AP induced no significant variation in body weight and relative weight of organs, whereas a delayed decrease of white blood cell count and granulocytes was observed. Inconsistent increase of the total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein was observed at 600 mg/kg in males. Such variation (not dose dependent and without biological relevance indicate a wide margin of safety for the traditional use of AP.

  16. Evaluation of Anticonvulsant, Sedative, Anxiolytic, and Phytochemical Profile of the Methanol Extract from the Aerial Parts of Swertia corymbosa (Griseb. Wight ex C.B. Clarke

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    G. Mahendran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic, antidepressant, and anticonvulsant activity of the methanolic extract of Swertia corymbosa (SCMeOH. After acute toxicity test, oral treatment with SCMeOH at doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg behavioral models of open field, elevated-plus-maze, actophotometer, rotarod, pentylenetetrazole, isoniazid, and maximal electroshock induced seizure models were utilized. In open field test, SCMeOH (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg (P<0.01, P<0.001 increased the number of rearings. However, the number of central motor and ambulation (P<0.01, P<0.001 were reduced. Likewise, the number of entries and the time spent in open arm were increased while the number of locomotion was decreased (P<0.001 in elevated-plus-maze and actophotometer test, respectively. SCMeOH (125–500 mg/kg protected the mice against the pentylenetetrazole and isoniazid induced convulsions; it causes significant (P<0.01 and P<0.001 dose dependent increase in latency of convulsion. Treatment with SCMeOH reduced the duration of the tonic hind limb extension induced by electroshock. Two major compounds such as gentiopicroside and swertianin were analyzed by HPLC system.

  17. Down-regulation of Akt by methanol extracts of Impatiens balsamina L. promotes apoptosis in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji-Ae; Ryu, Mi Heon; Kwon, Ki-Han; Choi, BuYoung; Cho, Sung-Dae

    2015-07-01

    The apoptotic activity of methanol extracts of Impatiens balsamina L. (MEIB) and related mechanisms in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells have been systematically investigated. The effects of MEIB on human OSCC cell lines were investigated using trypan blue exclusion assay, MTS assay, Western blot, 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, Live/Dead assay, Immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and promoter assay. MEIB decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in HSC-4 cells. Higher levels of p-Akt expression were observed in OSCC than in normal oral mucosa (NOM), and it correlated with poor survival of the patients. MEIB dephosphorylated p-Akt and decreased Akt expression through proteasome-dependent degradation. LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) decreased p-Akt and Akt, resulting in enhancing MEIB-induced apoptosis. MEIB down-regulated the expression level of survivin protein at the transcriptional level and YM155 (survivin inhibitor) decreased survivin, which facilitated MEIB-induced apoptosis. MEIB and LY294002 significantly increased Bax, thereby inducing the conformational change, mitochondrial translocation, and oligomerization. In addition, MEIB-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in OSC-20, another human OSCC cells were mediated by regulating Akt and it downstream targets, survivin and Bax. These results suggest that MEIB may serve as a potential drug candidate for the treatment of human OSCC. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Isolation, Characterization, and RP-HPLC Estimation of P-Coumaric Acid from Methanolic Extract of Durva Grass (Cynodon dactylon Linn. (Pers.

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    Ramadoss Karthikeyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available P-coumaric acid is a nonflavonoid phenolic acid and is a major constituent of the species Cynodon dactylon Linn. (Pers.. In this study isolation of P-coumaric acid was achieved by preparative TLC and the compound thus isolated was characterised by UV, mass, and H1 NMR spectral analysis. An isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of P-coumaric acid from methanolic extracts of durva grass. The chromatographic separations were achieved by RP-C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μ, Shimadzu LC-20AT Prominence liquid chromatograph, and a mobile phase composed of water : methanol : glacial acetic acid (65 : 34 : 1 v/v. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the analyses of column effluents were performed using UV-visible detector at 310 nm. Retention time of P-coumaric acid was found to be 6.617 min. This method has obeyed linearity over the concentration range of 2–10 μg/mL and the regression coefficient obtained from linearity plot for P-coumaric acid was found to be 0.999. RP-HPLC method was validated in pursuance of ICH guidelines.

  19. Isolation, Characterization, and RP-HPLC Estimation of P-Coumaric Acid from Methanolic Extract of Durva Grass (Cynodon dactylon Linn.) (Pers.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Ramadoss; Devadasu, Chapala; Srinivasa Babu, Puttagunta

    2015-01-01

    P-coumaric acid is a nonflavonoid phenolic acid and is a major constituent of the species Cynodon dactylon Linn. (Pers.). In this study isolation of P-coumaric acid was achieved by preparative TLC and the compound thus isolated was characterised by UV, mass, and H1 NMR spectral analysis. An isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of P-coumaric acid from methanolic extracts of durva grass. The chromatographic separations were achieved by RP-C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μ), Shimadzu LC-20AT Prominence liquid chromatograph, and a mobile phase composed of water : methanol : glacial acetic acid (65 : 34 : 1 v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the analyses of column effluents were performed using UV-visible detector at 310 nm. Retention time of P-coumaric acid was found to be 6.617 min. This method has obeyed linearity over the concentration range of 2–10 μg/mL and the regression coefficient obtained from linearity plot for P-coumaric acid was found to be 0.999. RP-HPLC method was validated in pursuance of ICH guidelines. PMID:25788944

  20. White Mulberry (Morus alba Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

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    Atefeh Sheikhlar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry foliage extract (MFE as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp. in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus. In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC, albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM. Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.