WorldWideScience

Sample records for pilot scale study

  1. Pilot-scale study of ballasted-flocculation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liem, L.E.; Brant, W.H.; Gagne, B.; Michaud, J.; Beaudet, J.-F.; Landry, D.; Braden, K.; Campbell, D.

    2002-01-01

    A ballasted-flocculation pilot-scale study was undertaken to treat a wide-range river water turbidity (17 to 2,608 NTU). The pilot-scale unit was operated at flowrates of 30 to 63 m 3 /h, which corresponded to loading rates of 40 to 84 m/h. Coagulants, polymers, and microsand were added to enhance the floc agglomeration. The weighted flocs settled rapidly resulting in excellent turbidity removals of 94.7 to 99.9%. At the peak turbidity, the unit had a 99.9% removal performance (2.7 from 2,608 NTU) at a loading rate of 40 m/h. In this case, polyaluminum silicosulfate and anionic polymer dosages were 82 and 1 mg/L, respectively. The microsand recycle rate was kept constant at 4.5 m 3 /h, and 1mg microsand was added for each liter of water treated. (author)

  2. Scaling the quality of clinical audit projects: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, A D

    1999-06-01

    To pilot the development of a scale measuring the quality of audit projects through audit project reports. Statements about clinical audit projects were selected from existing instruments, assessing the quality of clinical audit projects, to form a Likert scale. The audit facilitators were based in Scottish health boards and trusts. The participants were audit facilitators known to have over 2 years experience of supporting clinical audit. The response at first test was 11 out of 14 and at the second test it was 27 out of 46. The draft scale was tested by 27 audit facilitators who expressed their strength of agreement or disagreement with each statement for three reports. Validity was assessed by test-re-test, item-total, and total-global indicator correlations. Of the 20 statements, 15 had satisfactory correlations with scale totals. Scale totals had good correlations with global indicators. Test-re-test correlation was modest. The wide range of responses means further research is needed to measure the consistency of audit facilitators' interpretations, perhaps comparing a trained group with an untrained group. There may be a need for a separate scale for reaudits. Educational impact is distinct from project impact generally. It may be more meaningful to treat the selection of projects and aims, methodology and impact separately as subscales and take a project profiling approach rather than attempting to produce a global quality index.

  3. Assessment of Commonly Used Pediatric Stool Scales: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Saps, M.; Nichols-Vinueza, D.; Dhroove, G.; Adams, P.; Chogle, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) and a modified child-friendly version (M-BSFS) are frequently used in clinical practice and research. These scales have not been validated in children. 3-D stool scale models may be better adapted to the child's development. Aims: To assess the usefulness of the BSFS, M-BSFS, and a newly developed 3-D stool scale in children. Methods: Fifty children were asked to rank the picture cards of the BSFS and 3-D models from hardest to softest and...

  4. Assessment of commonly used pediatric stool scales: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saps, M; Nichols-Vinueza, D; Dhroove, G; Adams, P; Chogle, A

    2013-01-01

    The Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) and a modified child-friendly version (M-BSFS) are frequently used in clinical practice and research. These scales have not been validated in children. 3-D stool scale models may be better adapted to the child's development. To assess the usefulness of the BSFS, M-BSFS, and a newly developed 3-D stool scale in children. Fifty children were asked to rank the picture cards of the BSFS and 3-D models from hardest to softest and to match the pictures with descriptors for each stool type. Thirty percent of the children appropriately characterized the stools as hard, loose, or normal using the BSFS vs. 36.6% with the 3-D model (p=0.27). Appropriate correlation of stools as hard, loose, or normal consistency using the BSFS vs. the 3-D model by age group was: 6 to 11-year-olds, 27.5% vs. 33.3% (p=0.58) and 12 to 17-year-olds, 32.1% vs. 39.5% (p=0.41). Thirty-three percent correlated the BSFS pictures with the correct BSFS words, 46% appropriately correlated with the M-BSFS words, and 46% correlated the 3-D stool models with the correct wording. The BSFS and M-BSFS that are widely used as stool assessment instruments are not user-friendly for children. The 3-D model was not found to be better than the BSFS and the M-BSFS. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Perspectives for pilot scale study of RDF in Istanbul, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, Mustafa; Guenay, Esin; Tabak, Yasemin; Yildiz, Senol

    2009-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the most important environmental problems arising from rapid urbanization and industrialization. The use of alternative fuels in rotary kilns of cement plants is very important for reducing cost, saving fossil fuels and also eliminating waste materials, accumulated during production or after using these materials. Cement industries has an important potential for supplying preferable solutions to the waste management. Energy recovery from waste is also important for the reduction of CO 2 emissions. This paper presents an investigation of the development of refuse derived fuel (RDF) materials from non-recycling wastes and the determination of its potential use as an alternative fuel in cement production in Istanbul, Turkey. RDF produced from MSW was analyzed and its effects on cement production process were examined. For this purpose, the produced RDF was mixed with the main fuel (LPG) in ratios of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Then chemical and mineralogical analyses of the produced clinker were carried out. It is believed that successful results of this study will be a good example for municipalities and cement industries in order to achieve both economic and environmental benefits.

  6. GROWTH KINETIC STUDY OF CHLORELLA VULGARIS USING LAB-SCALE AND PILOT-SCALE PHOTOBIOREACTOR: EFFECT OF CO2 CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAN KEE LAM

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, growth kinetic of Chlorella vulgaris was performed when the microalgae was cultivated with different concentrations of CO2 . The experiments were carried out using lab-scale and pilot-scale photobioreactors, and the growth results were analyzed using POLYMATH 6.0 with different growth kinetic models. The growth of the microalgae was found fitted well to the Richards growth model with attainable high R2 values as demonstrated in all studied cases, in concert with low values of root mean squares deviation (RMSD and variance. In addition, the output from the plots of experimental values versus predicted values and residual plots further confirmed the good fit of Richards model. The predicted specific growth rate from Richards model was similar to the experimental specific growth rate with deviation lesser than 5%. The attained results paved a preliminary prediction of microalgae growth characteristic when the cultivation is scaled-up to commercial scale.

  7. [Validation of a scale for adolescents (EBHAD): a pilot study in Puerto Rico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechavarría, Rosa M; Martínez, Daniel; Rodríguez, José R

    2004-06-01

    This investigation presents the development and validation process of a scale whose principal purpose is to identify those areas in which one is required to achieve improved functioning and adequate emotional health resulting in improved sports performance with adolescent athletes. The "Hechavarria Wellness Scale for Adolescent Athletes" (HWSAA) was developed. The concept of wellness was measured utilizing the following 4 sub-scales measuring; depressive symptomatology, trait anxiety, self-esteem and social relations. A pilot study was undertaken with a universe of 149 adolescent athletes from both sexes with an average of 15.6 years old and residing within the different municipalities of Puerto Rico. The alpha coefficient reliability of the HWSAA and its' subscales fluctuated between 0.71 and 0.82. The results suggest that the HWSAA and its' subscales possess a psychometrically adequate internal consistency. This means that the instrument is valid and reliable for the sample utilized. We suggest further research with the HWSAA.

  8. Removal of ammonia nitrogen in wastewater by microwave radiation: A pilot-scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Li; Chen Jing; Xu Zuqun; Yuan Songhu; Cao Menghua; Liu Huangcheng; Lu Xiaohua

    2009-01-01

    A large removal of ammonia nitrogen in wastewater has been achieved by microwave (MW) radiation in our previous bench-scale study. This study developed a continuous pilot-scale MW system to remove ammonia nitrogen in real wastewater. A typical high concentration of ammonia nitrogen contaminated wastewater, the coke-plant wastewater from a Coke company, was treated. The output power of the microwave reactor was 4.8 kW and the handling capacity of the reactor was about 5 m 3 per day. The ammonia removal efficiencies under four operating conditions, including ambient temperature, wastewater flow rate, aeration conditions and initial concentration were evaluated in the pilot-scale experiments. The ammonia removal could reach about 80% for the real coke-plant wastewater with ammonia nitrogen concentrations of 2400-11000 mg/L. The running cost of the MW technique was a little lower than the conventional steam-stripping method. The continuous microwave system showed the potential as an effective method for ammonia nitrogen removal in coke-plant water treatment. It is proposed that this process is suitable for the treatment of toxic wastewater containing high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen.

  9. Evaluation and modeling of biochemical methane potential (BMP) of landfilled solid waste: a pilot scale study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgili, M Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Varank, Gamze

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to present a comparison of landfill performance with respect to solids decomposition. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) test was used to determine the initial and the remaining CH(4) potentials of solid wastes during 27 months of landfilling operation in two pilot...... scale landfill reactors. The initial methane potential of solid wastes filled to the reactors was around 0.347 L/CH(4)/g dry waste, which decreased with operational time of landfill reactors to values of 0.117 and 0.154 L/CH(4)/g dry waste for leachate recirculated (R1) and non-recirculated (R2...

  10. Development of a Social Skills Assessment Screening Scale for Psychiatric Rehabilitation Settings: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Poornima; Basavarajappa, Chethan; Guruprasad, Deepti; Hegde, Gayatri; Khanam, Fatema; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Chaturvedi, Santosh K

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in social skills may present in a range of psychiatric disorders, particularly in the more serious and persistent conditions, and have an influence on functioning across various domains. This pilot study aimed at developing a brief measure, for structured evaluation and screening for social skills deficits, which can be easily integrated into routine clinical practice. The sample consisted of 380 inpatients and their accompanying caregivers, referred to Psychiatric Rehabilitation Services at a tertiary care government psychiatric hospital. The evaluation included an Inpatient intake Proforma and the 20-item Social Skills Assessment Screening Scale (SSASS). Disability was assessed using the Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS) for a subset of 94 inpatients. The analysis included means and standard deviations, frequency and percentages, Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency, t -tests to assess differences in social skills deficits between select subgroups, and correlation between SSASS and IDEAS scores. The results indicated the profile of social skills deficits assessed among the inpatients with varied psychiatric diagnoses. The "psychosis" group exhibited significantly higher deficits than the "mood disorder" group. Results indicated high internal consistency of the SSASS and adequate criterion validity demonstrated by correlations with select IDEAS domains. Modifications were made to the SSASS following the pilot study. The SSASS has potential value as a measure for screening and individualised intervention plans for social skills training in mental health and rehabilitation settings. The implications for future work on the psychometric properties and clinical applications are discussed.

  11. Pilot scale ion exchange column study for reducing radioactivity discharges to environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kore, S.G.; Yadav, V.K.; Sonar, N.L.; Valsala, T.P.; Narayan, J.; Sharma, S.P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Dani, U.; Vishwaraj, I.

    2013-01-01

    Low level liquid waste (LLW) is generated during operation of Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS). Chemical co-precipitation is the treatment method used for decontamination of this waste with respect to radionuclide prior to discharge to environment. Further polishing of effluent from the treated LLW was planned using ion exchange column to reduce the discharges to the environment In view of this ion exchange column study was carried out in the laboratory using in-house prepared cobalt ferrocyanide (COFC) based composite resin. Based on the encouraging results obtained in the lab studies, pilot scale study was carried out in the plant. Decontamination factor (DF) of 14-15 was obtained with respect to Cs isotopes and overall DF of 2-5 was obtained with respect to gross beta activity. (author)

  12. Pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmeester, G.H.; Swart, A.; Dijk, E. van

    1984-01-01

    In May 1980 it was decided to organize an intercomparison of personal dosimeters for photon radiations. The Commission of the European Communities initiated the intercomparison by starting a pilot study in which three laboratories NPL (United Kingdom), PTB (Germany) and RIV (The Netherlands) were asked to irradiate a series of personal dosemeters from institutes, GSF (Muenchen), CEA (Fontenay-aux-Roses), CNEN (Bologna) and CEGB (Berkeley). The latter institutes are secondary standard laboratories and have a radiation protection service as well. A new aspect of this pilot study is the fact that the irradiations also take place in front of a phantom. Irradiations took place in July and August 1980. The results of 4 institutes show that the personal dosemeters are quite capable of measuring the backscattered photon components

  13. Pilot-scale study of the solar detoxification of VOC-contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehos, M.; Turchi, C.; Pacheco, J.; Boegel, A.J.; Merrill, T.; Stanley, R.

    1992-08-01

    The Solar Detoxification Field Experiment was designed to investigate the photocatalytic decomposition of organic contaminants in groundwater at a Superfund site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The process uses ultraviolet (UV) energy, available in sunlight, in conjunction with the photocatalyst, titanium dioxide, to decompose organic chemicals into nontoxic compounds. The field experiment was developed by three federal laboratories: the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNLA), and LLNL. The US Department of Energy funded the experiment. The objectives of the pilot-scale study included the advancement of the solar technology into a nonlaboratory waste-remediation environment the compilation of test data to help guide laboratory research and future demonstrations and the development of safe operational procedures. Results of the pilot study are discussed, emphasizing the effect of several process variables on the system performance. These variables include alkalinity, catalyst loading, flow velocity through the reactor, and incident solar UV radiation. The performance of the solar detoxification process are discussed as it relates to concentrating and nonconcentrating collectors

  14. A review of semi-pilot scale study on the irradiation of rice in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimah Yusof; Razley Mohamad Nordin.

    1986-08-01

    A semi-pilot scale study of milled-rice preservation using gamma irradiation project was started in 1984. The project was aimed to study the possibility of using irradiation in reducing losses during storage. Rice samples were subjected to doses ranging from 0.2 to kGy and stored in stack under conditions similar to a typical rice godown. Rice sampling was done every three to six months to determine the effect of gamma irradiation over 2 years of storage. After 9 months storage, radiation was found to reduce insect infestation with no effect on nutritional value (P 0.05) i.e. reducing sugar, water content, amino acid profile and fat acidity. However gel viscosity was markedly reduced with increase in radiation dose and storage time. Packaging materials (gunny sack, heavy duty plastic, woven laminated and woven non-laminated plastic) did not influence both chemical and physical quality of irradiated stored rice. (author)

  15. Laboratory and pilot plant scale study on the electrochemical oxidation of landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglada, Angela; Urtiaga, Ana M.; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2010-01-01

    Kinetic data regarding COD oxidation were measured in a laboratory scale cell and used to scale-up an electro-oxidation process for landfill leachate treatment by means of boron-doped diamond anodes. A pilot-scale reactor with a total BDD anode area of 1.05 m 2 was designed. Different electrode gaps in the laboratory and pilot plant cells resulted in dissimilar reactor hydrodynamics. Consequently, generalised dimensionless correlations concerning mass transfer were developed in order to define the mass transfer conditions in both electrochemical systems. These correlations were then used in the design equations to validate the scale-up procedure. A series of experiments with biologically pre-treated landfill leachate were done to accomplish this goal. The evolution of ammonia and COD concentration could be well predicted.

  16. Using minced horseradish roots and peroxides for the deodorization of swine manure: a pilot scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govere, Ephraim M; Tonegawa, Masami; Bruns, Mary Ann; Wheeler, Eileen F; Kephart, Kenneth B; Voigt, Jean W; Dec, Jerzy

    2007-04-01

    Enzymes that have proven to be capable of removing toxic compounds from water and soil may also be useful in the deodorization of animal manures. Considering that pork production in the US is a $40-billion industry with over half a million workers, odor control to protect air quality in the neighboring communities must be considered an essential part of managing livestock facilities. This pilot scale (20-120 L) study tested the use of minced horseradish (Armoracia rusticana L.) roots (1:10 roots to swine slurry ratio), with calcium peroxide (CaO(2) at 34 mM) or hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2) at 68 mM), to deodorize swine slurry taken from a 40,000-gallon storage pit at the Pennsylvania State University's Swine Center. Horseradish is known to contain large amounts of peroxidase, an enzyme that, in the presence of peroxides, can polymerize phenolic odorants and thus reduce the malodor. Twelve compounds commonly associated with malodor (seven volatile fatty acids or VFAs, three phenolic compounds and two indolic compounds) were used as odor indicators. Their concentration in swine slurry before and after treatment was determined by gas chromatography (GC) to assess the deodorization effect. The pilot scale testing demonstrated a complete removal of phenolic odorants (with a detection limit of 0.5 mg L(-1)) from the swine slurry, which was consistent with our previous laboratory experiments using 30-mL swine slurry samples. Horseradish could be recycled (reused) five times while retaining significant reduction in the concentration of phenolic odorants. In view of these findings, inexpensive plant materials, such as horseradish, represent a promising tool for eliminating phenolic odorants from swine slurry.

  17. Evaluation of potential particulate/colloidal TEP foulants on a pilot scale SWRO desalination study

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng; Sinha, Shahnawaz; Leiknes, TorOve; Amy, Gary L.; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the variation of potential foulants and different fractions of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), along the treatment scheme under different conditions. The objectives are to provide a comprehensive understanding

  18. Personal abilities in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. A pilot study using the existence scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Johannes P; Kopriva-Altfahrt, Gertrude; Söllner, Wolfgang; König, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Personality psychology is increasingly used in various clinical medicine settings to help in decision-making in difficult situations, especially in chronic disease. Patients with chronic renal disease are very dependent on modern medicine, and psychological aspects could help give answers in certain circumstances. Logotherapy and Existence analysis, after Viktor Frankl (Third Viennese School of Psychotherapy), is the theory of the possibilities and conditions for a fulfilled existence and evaluates a different aspect of personality psychology, namely meaning (in life). We used the existence scale questionnaire in this pilot study to investigate the personal abilities self-distancing, self-transcendence, freedom and responsibility in dialysis patients and compared a group of hemodialysis (HD) patients with patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). We studied a mixed dialysis cohort (24 HD, 24 CAPD) at two Austrian centers (Innsbruck Medical University Hospital and Wilhelminenspital of the City of Vienna). Overall, results for dialysis patients (n = 48) were very close to those reported for healthy persons; however, CAPD patients scored significantly better than HD patients (p = 0.017) on the subscale self-distancing. This significant difference was also seen in the overall scores (p = 0.045). Our results might indicate that contented CAPD patients have personal abilities that predestine them for this type of treatment. The existence scale might help decide between CAPD and HD treatment alternatives.

  19. SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING / FEASIBILITY STUDIES FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SPRITZER,M; HONG,G

    2005-01-01

    Under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC36-00GO10529 for the Department of Energy, General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The Key potential advantages of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reaching and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carreid out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an acitvated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low

  20. Transformation of Bisphenol A in Water Distribution Systems, A Pilot-scale Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halogenations of bisphenol A (BPA) in a pilot-scale water distribution system (WDS) of cement-lined ductile cast iron pipe were investigated under the condition: pH 7.3±0.3, water flow velocity of 1.0 m/s, and 25 °C ± 1 °C in water temperature. The testing water was chlorinated f...

  1. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 study for emerging organic contaminants decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaona; Xiao, Yan; Hu, Jiangyong; Quek, Elaine; Xie, Rongjin; Pang, Thomas; Xing, Yongjie

    2016-03-01

    Human behaviors including consumption of drugs and use of personal care products, climate change, increased international travel, and the advent of water reclamation for direct potable use have led to the introduction of significant amounts of emerging organic contaminants into the aqueous environment. In addition, the lower detection limits associated with improved scientific methods of chemical analysis have resulted in a recent increase in documented incidences of these contaminants which previously were not routinely monitored in water. Such contaminants may cause known or suspected adverse ecological and/or human health effects at very low concentrations. Conventional drinking water treatment processes may not effectively remove these organic contaminants. Advanced oxidation process (AOP) is a promising treatment process for the removal of most of these emerging organic contaminants, and has been accepted worldwide as a suitable treatment process. In this study, different groups of emerging contaminants were studied for decomposition efficiency using pilot-scale UV/H2O2 oxidation setup, including EDCs, PPCPs, taste and odor (T&O), and perfluorinated compounds. Results found that MP UV/H2O2 AOP was efficient in removing all the selected contaminants except perfluorinated compounds. Study of the kinetics of the process showed that both light absorption and quantum yield of each compound affected the decomposition performance. Analysis of water quality parameters of the treated water indicated that the outcome of both UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 processes can be affected by changes in the feed water quality.

  2. Biotreatability and pilot-scale study for remediation of Arctic diesel at 10 degrees C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.; Rowsell, S. [HydroQual Laboratories Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Chu, A. [Chimera Consultants Inc., Victoria, BC (Canada); MacDonald, A. [Inuvialuit Environmental and Geotechnical Inc., NT (Canada); Hetman, R. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    A series of environmental programs were initiated at a former petroleum tank site on the west channel of the Mackenzie River following concerns of fuel odours in the soil. A biotreatability study was conducted for the silty soil contaminated with Arctic diesel fuel. The treatment included a bioslurry test that could quickly determine the hydrocarbon biodegradation endpoint under optimum conditions. The treatment also involved a modified soil pan test to monitor real-time oxygen uptake. The test included abiotic, control, nutrient-amended and nutrient/high moisture treatments. CCME and USEPA methods were used to analyze for petroleum hydrocarbons. The response of the bacterial community to different treatments was also examined. Higher degradation rates were observed in the soil pan test than in the slurry test, despite optimum conditions of the slurry test. Higher than expected volatile losses also occurred, suggesting that bioremediation may be possible in the field. These initial field pilot-scale studies offer insight into the challenges of remediating diesel contaminated soils in cold climates. 6 tabs., 6 figs.

  3. Benzalkonium runoff from roofs treated with biocide products - In situ pilot-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromaire, M C; Van de Voorde, A; Lorgeoux, C; Chebbo, G

    2015-09-15

    Roof maintenance practices often involve the application of biocide products to fight against moss, lichens and algae. The main component of these products is benzalkonium chloride, a mixture of alkyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chlorides with mainly C12 and C14 alkyl chain lengths, which is toxic for the aquatic environment. This paper describes, on the basis of an in-situ pilot scale study, the evolution of roof runoff contamination over a one year period following the biocide treatment of roof frames. Results show a major contamination of roof runoff immediately after treatment (from 5 to 30 mg/L), followed by an exponential decrease. 175-375 mm of cumulated rainfall is needed before the runoff concentrations become less than EC50 values for fish (280 μg/l). The residual concentration in the runoff water remains above 4 μg/L even after 640 mm of rainfall. The level of benzalkonium ions leaching depends on the roofing material, with lower concentrations and total mass leached from ceramic tiles than from concrete tiles, and on the state of the tile (new or worn out). Mass balance calculations indicate that a large part of the mass of benzalkonium compounds applied to the tiles is lost, probably due to biodegradation processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Importance of Pilot Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Van Teijlingen, Edwin; Hundley, Vanora

    2001-01-01

    The term 'pilot studies' refers to mini versions of a full-scale study (also called 'feasibility' studies), as well as the specific pre-testing of a particular research instrument such as a questionnaire or interview schedule. \\ud Pilot studies are a crucial element of a good study design. Conducting a pilot study does not guarantee success in the main study, but it does increase the likelihood. \\ud Pilot studies fulfil a range of important functions and can provide valuable insights for othe...

  5. Ecotoxicity assessment of artificial groundwater recharge with reclaimed water: a pilot-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Zhao, Xuan

    2013-11-01

    A demonstration of artificial groundwater recharge with tertiary effluent was evaluated using a set of bioassays (acute toxicity to Daphnia, genotoxicity, estrogenic and antiestrogenic toxicity). Around 95 % genotoxicity and 53 % antiestrogenicity were removed from the feed water by ozonation, whereas significant reduction of acute toxicity to Daphnia magna was achieved during a 3 days vadose soil treatment. The toxicity was further removed to the same level as the local groundwater during a 20 days aquifer soil treatment. The pilot study has shown that ozonation and soil treatments can improve the quality of municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents for possible groundwater recharge purposes.

  6. Evaluation of potential particulate/colloidal TEP foulants on a pilot scale SWRO desalination study

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng

    2016-01-21

    This pilot study investigated the variation of potential foulants and different fractions of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), along the treatment scheme under different conditions. The objectives are to provide a comprehensive understanding on which fraction of TEP is more problematic in seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) fouling, and which pretreatment can better reduce the concentration of TEP. Results showed that TEP deposited on the RO membranes, and the extent of RO fouling increased with the increase of TEP concentration in RO feed water. More TEP was produced in water after chlorination, probably because of the breakdown of bacterial cells and thus the release of internal exopolymers. Moreover, the cartridge filters could behave as an incubator for the regrowth of bacteria deactivated by chlorination and a spot for potential foulant (bacterial TEP) production, and thus enhance the RO membranes fouling. The presence of residual iron and addition of phosphate based antiscalant may also contribute to the higher biofouling of RO membranes. This pilot study provided an opportunity to identify the TEP related issues under different operational conditions in RO desalination of Red Sea water.

  7. Pilot scale study of a chemical treatment process for decontamination of aqueous radioactive waste of pakistan research reactor-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, F.; Hussain, M.; Ahmad, S.S.; Aslam, M.; Haq, E.U.

    2007-12-01

    Chemical treatment process for the low level liquid radioactive waste generated at PINSTECH was previously optimized on lab-scale making use of coprecipitation of hydrous oxides of iron in basic medium. Ferrous sulfate was used as coagulant. Batch wise application of this procedure on pilot scale has been tested on a 1200 L batch volume of typical PINSTECH liquid waste. Different parameters and unit operations have been evaluated. The required data for the construction of a small size treatment plant envisioned can be used for demonstration/teaching purpose as well as for the decontamination of the waste effluents of the Institute. The lab-scale process parameters were verified valid on pilot scale. It was observed that reagent doses can further be economized with out any deterioration of the Decontamination Factors (DF) achieved or of any other aspect of the process. This simple, cost- effective, DF-efficient and time-smart batch wise process could be coupled with an assortment of other treatment operations thus affording universal application. Observations recorded during this study are presented. (author)

  8. Leachate/domestic wastewater aerobic co-treatment: A pilot-scale study using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, F M; Bruni, A T; Povinelli, J; Vieira, E M

    2016-01-15

    Multivariate analysis was used to identify the variables affecting the performance of pilot-scale activated sludge (AS) reactors treating old leachate from a landfill and from domestic wastewater. Raw leachate was pre-treated using air stripping to partially remove the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN). The control AS reactor (AS-0%) was loaded only with domestic wastewater, whereas the other reactor was loaded with mixtures containing leachate at volumetric ratios of 2 and 5%. The best removal efficiencies were obtained for a ratio of 2%, as follows: 70 ± 4% for total suspended solids (TSS), 70 ± 3% for soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), 70 ± 4% for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and 51 ± 9% for the leachate slowly biodegradable organic matter (SBOM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis confirmed that most of the SBOM was removed by partial biodegradation rather than dilution or adsorption of organics in the sludge. Nitrification was approximately 80% in the AS-0% and AS-2% reactors. No significant accumulation of heavy metals was observed for any of the tested volumetric ratios. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) indicated that the data dimension could be reduced and that TAN, SCOD, DOC and nitrification efficiency were the main variables that affected the performance of the AS reactors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and validation of a psychometric scale for assessing PA chest image quality: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mraity, H.; England, A.; Akhtar, I.; Aslam, A.; De Lange, R.; Momoniat, H.; Nicoulaz, S.; Ribeiro, A.; Mazhir, S.; Hogg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate a psychometric scale for assessing image quality perception for chest X-ray images. Methods: Bandura's theory was used to guide scale development. A review of the literature was undertaken to identify items/factors which could be used to evaluate image quality using a perceptual approach. A draft scale was then created (22 items) and presented to a focus group (student and qualified radiographers). Within the focus group the draft scale was discussed and modified. A series of seven postero-anterior chest images were generated using a phantom with a range of image qualities. Image quality perception was confirmed for the seven images using signal-to-noise ratio (SNR 17.2–36.5). Participants (student and qualified radiographers and radiology trainees) were then invited to independently score each of the seven images using the draft image quality perception scale. Cronbach alpha was used to test interval reliability. Results: Fifty three participants used the scale to grade image quality perception on each of the seven images. Aggregated mean scale score increased with increasing SNR from 42.1 to 87.7 (r = 0.98, P < 0.001). For each of the 22 individual scale items there was clear differentiation of low, mid and high quality images. A Cronbach alpha coefficient of >0.7 was obtained across each of the seven images. Conclusion: This study represents the first development of a chest image quality perception scale based on Bandura's theory. There was excellent correlation between the image quality perception scores derived using the scale and the SNR. Further research will involve a more detailed item and factor analysis

  10. Letter report: Pre-conceptual design study for a pilot-scale Non-Radioactive Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.A.; Morrissey, M.F.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a pre-conceptual design study for a Non-Radioactive Low-Level Waste, Pilot-Scale Vitrification System. This pilot plant would support the development of a full-scale LLW Vitrification Facility and would ensure that the full-scale facility can meet its programmatic objectives. Use of the pilot facility will allow verification of process flowsheets, provide data for ensuring product quality, assist in scaling to full scale, and support full-scale start-up. The facility will vitrify simulated non-radioactive LLW in a manner functionally prototypic to the full-scale facility. This pre-conceptual design study does not fully define the LLW Pilot-Scale Vitrification System; rather, it estimates the funding required to build such a facility. This study includes identifying all equipment necessary. to prepare feed, deliver it into the melter, convert the feed to glass, prepare emissions for atmospheric release, and discharge and handle the glass. The conceived pilot facility includes support services and a structure to contain process equipment

  11. Mitigation of trichloroethylene contaminated air streams through biofiltration: a pilot-scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackey, L.W.; Gamble, J.R.; Boles, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of abundant usage and improper disposal practices, trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the most prevalent groundwater contaminants. Traditional cleanup methods of aquifers contaminated with TCE include pumping the water to the surface and treating with stripper technology, soil vapor extraction, and air sparging. As a result of each of these mitigation schemes, TCE is transferred from the aqueous to the gas phase. As regulations associated with air emission tighten, development of technologies both technically feasible and cost effective for remediating TCE laden gas streams becomes imperative. This project demonstrated the use of biofiltration technology to mitigate TCE contaminated air streams. A pilot-scale biofilter system was designed, constructed, and subsequently installed at the Anniston Army Depot (ANAD), Anniston, AL. The system was inoculated with a propane-oxidizing microbial consortium that had previously been shown to degrade TCE as well as other short-chained chlorinated aliphatics and a variety of one-and two-ring aromatic compounds. Critical process variables were identified and their effects on system performance analyzed. Results indicated that the process scheme used to introduce propane into the biofiltration system had a significant impact on the observed TCE removal efficiency. The inlet contaminant concentration as well as the loading rate also had an impact on observed TCE degradation rates. Results suggest that biofilter performance and economics are generally improved by manipulating a specific waste stream so as to increase the TCE concentration and decrease the volumetric flow rate of the contaminated air fed to the biofilter. Through manipulation of process variables, including the empty bed contact time, TCE degradation efficiencies greater than 99.9 percent were sustained. No microbial inhibition was observed at inlet TCE concentrations as high as 87 parts per million on a volume basis (ppmv). (author)

  12. Radioisotope tracer study in a pilot-scale trickle bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pant, H.J.; Pendharkar, A.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Isotope Applications Div, Bombay (India); Prasad, J.S.; Maiti, R.N.; Chawla, R.; Lahri, R.N.; Ram Babu, D. [Engineers India Limited, Gurgaon, Haryana (India); Berne, Ph. [CEA Grenoble, DTEN/SAT, 38 (France)

    2001-07-01

    Trickle bed reactor (TBR) is a reactor in which a liquid and a gas phase flow concurrently downwards through a fixed bed of catalyst particles while the reaction takes place. The trickle bed reactors find a number of applications in petroleum refining, chemical. petro-chemical and bio-chemical processes due to their suitability for hydro-processing operations.The knowledge of radial distribution, mean residence time (MRT). liquid holdup and degree of axial mixing is a basic requirement to evaluate the reactor performance of a TBR, its optimal size, the physical and chemical interactions and the pumping requirements. Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase facilitate the determination of these parameters. This paper describes the measurement of RTD of liquid phase in a pilot-scale trickle bed reactor operating at high pressure. Kerosene and nitrogen were used as liquid and gas phase, respectively. Porous alumina catalyst particles were used as packing. Bromine-82 as para-di-bromo benzene was used as a tracer to measure RTD of organic liquid phase. The RTD of kerosene was measured as a function of liquid and gas flow rates and pressure. The axial dispersion model with exchange between active and dead zones was proposed and used to simulate the measured RTD data and model parameters i.e mean residence time ({tau}), Peclet Number (Pe), dynamic fraction of the liquid ({phi}) and the number of transfer units (N) were obtained. The results of the simulations indicated intermediate degree of axial mixing of liquid phase. The RTD predicted by the axial dispersion model with exchange between active and dead zones fits well to the experimentally measured RTD data and thus is a suitable model to describe the dynamics of the liquid phase in TBRs filled with porous catalyst particles. (authors)

  13. Dissemination of aerosol and splatter during ultrasonic scaling: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Veena

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Context: Routine dental procedures produce aerosol and splatter, which pose a potential risk to the clinician and dental personnel, as well as the immunocompromised patient. Reports indicate that the ultrasonic scaler is the greatest producer of aerosol and splatter. Aims: The study aimed to evaluate the contamination distance, contamination amount and contamination duration of aerosol produced during ultrasonic scaling. Methods and materials: The study was performed on a mannequin fitted with phantom jaws on a dental chair. Mock scaling was done for 15 min using an auto-tuned magnetostrictive ultrasonic scaler with the simultaneous use of a low volume saliva ejector. An ultrafiltrate-containing fluorescent dye was used in the reservoir supplying the scaler unit. Filter paper discs were placed in different positions and distances in the operatory. Immediately following scaling, the filter paper discs were replaced with new ones. This was done every 30 min for a total duration of 90 min. Results: Maximum contamination was found on the right arm of the operator and left arm of the assistant. Contamination was also found on the head, chest and inner surface of the face mask of the operator and of the assistant. The aerosol was found to remain in the air up to 30 min after scaling. Conclusions: The occupational health hazards of dental aerosols can be minimized by following simple, inexpensive precautions. Keywords: Aerosol, Splatter, Infection control, Aerosol contamination in dentistry, Dental unit water lines, Ultrasonic scaling

  14. Development and Validation of Information Technology Mentor Teacher Attitude Scale: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltan, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study development and validation of a teacher attitude scale toward Information Technology Mentor Teachers (ITMT). ITMTs give technological support to other teachers for integration of technology in their lessons. In the literature, many instruments have been developed to measure teachers' attitudes towards the technological tools…

  15. Pilot-scale field study for ammonia removal from lagoon biogas using an acid wet scrubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongjian; Wu, Xiao; Miller, Curtis; Zhu, Jun; Hadlocon, Lara Jane; Manuzon, Roderick; Zhao, Lingying

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic activities in swine slurry storage and treatment generate biogas containing gaseous ammonia component which is a chemical agent that can cause adverse environmental impacts when released to the atmosphere. The aim of this pilot plant study was to remove ammonia from biogas generated in a covered lagoon, using a sulfuric acid wet scrubber. The data showed that, on average, the biogas contained 43.7 ppm of ammonia and its concentration was found to be exponentially related to the air temperature inside the lagoon. When the air temperature rose to 35°C and the biogas ammonia concentration reached 90 ppm, the mass transfer of ammonia/ammonium from the deeper liquid body to the interface between the air and liquid became a limiting factor. The biogas velocity was critical in affecting ammonia removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. A biogas flow velocity of 8 to 12 mm s(-1) was recommended to achieve a removal efficiency of greater than 60%. Stepwise regression revealed that the biogas velocity and air temperature, not the inlet ammonia concentration in biogas, affected the ammonia removal efficiency. Overall, when 73 g L(-1) (or 0.75 M) sulfuric acid solution was used as the scrubber solution, removal efficiencies varied from 0% to 100% with an average of 55% over a 40-d measurement period. Mass balance calculation based on ammonium-nitrogen concentration in final scrubber liquid showed that about 21.3 g of ammonia was collected from a total volume of 1169 m(3) of biogas, while the scrubber solution should still maintain its ammonia absorbing ability until its concentration reaches up to 1 M. These results showed promising use of sulfuric acid wet scrubber for ammonia removal in the digester biogas.

  16. Capability of microalgae-based wastewater treatment systems to remove emerging organic contaminants: A pilot-scale study

    OpenAIRE

    Matamoros, Victor; Gutiérrez Martínez, Raquel; Ferrer Martí, Ivet; García Serrano, Joan; Bayona, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and seasonality on the removal efficiency of 26 organic microcontaminants from urban wastewater was studied in two pilot high-rate algal ponds (HRAPs). The targeted compounds included pharmaceuticals and personal care products, fire retardants, surfactants, anticorrosive agents, pesticides and plasticizers, among others. The pilot plant, which was fed at a surface loading rate of 7-29 g of COD m(-2) d(-1), consisted of a homogenisation tank and two...

  17. Pilot study of large-scale production of mutant pigs by ENU mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Tang; Cao, Chunwei; Shang, Haitao; Guo, Weiwei; Mu, Yanshuang; Yang, Shulin; Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Qiantao; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Xianlong; Liu, Yu; Kong, Qingran; Li, Kui; Wang, Dayu; Qi, Meng; Hong, Qianlong; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xiupeng; Jia, Qitao; Wang, Xiao; Qin, Guosong; Li, Yongshun; Luo, Ailing; Jin, Weiwu; Yao, Jing; Huang, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Hongyong; Li, Menghua; Xie, Xiangmo; Zheng, Xuejuan; Guo, Kenan; Wang, Qinghua; Zhang, Shibin; Li, Liang; Xie, Fei; Zhang, Yu; Weng, Xiaogang; Yin, Zhi; Hu, Kui; Cong, Yimei; Zheng, Peng; Zou, Hailong; Xin, Leilei; Xia, Jihan; Ruan, Jinxue; Li, Hegang; Zhao, Weiming; Yuan, Jing; Liu, Zizhan; Gu, Weiwang; Li, Ming; Wang, Yong; Wang, Hongmei; Yang, Shiming; Liu, Zhonghua; Wei, Hong; Zhao, Jianguo; Zhou, Qi; Meng, Anming

    2017-06-22

    N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis is a powerful tool to generate mutants on a large scale efficiently, and to discover genes with novel functions at the whole-genome level in Caenorhabditis elegans, flies, zebrafish and mice, but it has never been tried in large model animals. We describe a successful systematic three-generation ENU mutagenesis screening in pigs with the establishment of the Chinese Swine Mutagenesis Consortium. A total of 6,770 G1 and 6,800 G3 pigs were screened, 36 dominant and 91 recessive novel pig families with various phenotypes were established. The causative mutations in 10 mutant families were further mapped. As examples, the mutation of SOX10 (R109W) in pig causes inner ear malfunctions and mimics human Mondini dysplasia, and upregulated expression of FBXO32 is associated with congenital splay legs. This study demonstrates the feasibility of artificial random mutagenesis in pigs and opens an avenue for generating a reservoir of mutants for agricultural production and biomedical research.

  18. The study of a pilot-scale aerobic/Fenton/anoxic/aerobic process system for the treatment of landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyong; Zhou, Yu; Min, Xiaobo; Liu, Jingyi; Li, Xinyu; Luo, Lin; Zhang, Jiachao; Mao, Qiming; Chai, Liyuan; Zhou, YaoYu

    2017-06-29

    In this study, a combined aerobic-Fenton-anoxic/aerobic system was designed for the remediation of raw landfill leachate in a pilot-scale experiment. This system included (i) a granular sludge biological oxidation procedure that achieves the accumulation of nitrite nitrogen ([Formula: see text]) under aerobic conditions; (ii) a Fenton process that improves the biodegradability of the biotreated leachate and (iii) an activated sludge biological oxidation component under anoxic and aerobic conditions. Additionally, a shortcut nitrification and denitrification pathway was achieved. The effects of free ammonia, temperature and pH on nitrite accumulation were discussed. The change in the biochemical oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand ratio of the effluent after shortcut nitrification was also analysed. The microbial community in the reactor were also investigated. The problem of the lack of carbon source in the denitrification process can be solved by the Fenton reagent method. Moreover, it was beneficial to achieving nitrogen removal as well as the more extensive removal of organic matter. The treatment strategy employed in this study exhibited good results and provided the potential practical application for treating landfill leachate.

  19. Co-gasification of biosolids with biomass: Thermogravimetric analysis and pilot scale study in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming Ming; Masnadi, Mohammad S; Grace, John R; Bi, Xiaotao T; Lim, C Jim; Li, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    This work studied the feasibility of co-gasification of biosolids with biomass as a means of disposal with energy recovery. The kinetics study at 800°C showed that biomass, such as switchgrass, could catalyze the reactions because switchgrass ash contained a high proportion of potassium, an excellent catalyst for gasification. However, biosolids could also inhibit gasification due to interaction between biomass alkali/alkaline earth metals and biosolids clay minerals. In the pilot scale experiments, increasing the proportion of biosolids in the feedstock affected gasification performance negatively. Syngas yield and char conversion decreased from 1.38 to 0.47m(3)/kg and 82-36% respectively as the biosolids proportion in the fuel increased from 0% to 100%. Over the same range, the tar content increased from 10.3 to 200g/m(3), while the ammonia concentration increased from 1660 to 19,200ppmv. No more than 25% biosolids in the fuel feed is recommended to maintain a reasonable gasification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermal versus high pressure processing of carrots: A comparative pilot-scale study on equivalent basis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, L.; Plancken, Van der L.; Grauwet, T.; Verlinde, P.; Matser, A.M.; Hendrickx, M.; Loey, van A.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the first study comparing different high pressure (HP) and thermal treatments at intensities ranging from mild pasteurization to sterilization conditions. To allow a fair comparison, the processing conditions were selected based on the principles of equivalence. Moreover,

  1. WTP Pilot-Scale Evaporation Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    QURESHI, ZAFAR

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the design, assembly, and operation of a Pilot-Scale Evaporator built and operated by SRTC in support of Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) Project at the DOE's Hanford Site. The WTP employs three identical evaporators, two for the Waste Feed and one for the Treated LAW. The Pilot-Scale Evaporator was designed to test simulants for both of these waste streams. The Pilot-Scale Evaporator is 1/76th scale in terms of evaporation rates. The basic configuration of forced circulation vacuum evaporator was employed. A detailed scaling analysis was performed to preserve key operating parameters such as basic loop configuration, system vacuum, boiling temperature, recirculation rates, vertical distances between important hardware pieces, reboiler heat transfer characteristics, vapor flux, configuration of demisters and water spray rings. Three evaporation test campaigns were completed. The first evaporation run used water in order to shake down the system. The water runs were important in identifying a design flaw that inhibited mixing in the evaporator vessel, thus resulting in unstable boiling operation. As a result the loop configuration was modified and the remaining runs were completed successfully. Two simulant runs followed the water runs. Test 1: Simulated Ultrafiltration Recycles with HLW SBS, and Test 2: Treated AN102 with Envelop C LAW. Several liquid and offgas samples were drawn from the evaporator facility for regulatory and non-regulatory analyses. During Test 2, the feed and the concentrate were spiked with organics to determine organic partitioning. The decontamination factor (DF) for Test 1 was measured to be 110,000 (more than the expected value of 100,000). Dow Corning Q2-3183A antifoam agent was tested during both Tests 1 and 2. It was determined that 500 ppm of this antifoam agent was sufficient to control the foaminess to less than 5 per cent of the liquid height. The long-term testing (around 100 hours of operation) did not show any

  2. LCA Study for Pilot Scale Production of Cellulose Nano Crystals (CNC) from Wood Pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongmei Gu; Richard Reiner; Richard Bergman; Alan Rudie

    2015-01-01

    Interest in cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)/cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) made from woody biomass has been growing rapidly with close attention from pulp and paper industry, governments, universities, and research institutes. Many new products development with CNCs have been studied intensively. However, little life-cycle analysis (LCA) has been conducted for the...

  3. Dynamic study of an anaerobic reactor in pilot plant scale using radioactive tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, A.M.F.; Moreira, R.M.; Chernicharo, C.A.L.

    1995-01-01

    The use of flow traces is a common practice in hydrodynamic studies. However chemical tracers have some shortcomings, such as the need of sampling, analysis and possible interferences with the delicate biological processes taking place within the reactor. Thus a radiotracer, Br 82 has been chosen for this purpose. The advantages of this radioisotope are its energetic gamma emission which can be easily detected outside the reactor walls, its solubility and lack of adsorption, besides having a convenient half-life and being easily produced is small nuclear reactors. The tracer responses to instantaneous injections at the reactor entrance were used to determine the resistance time and the mixing patterns of the reactors. The normalized residence time distributions were fitted to mathematical models by a least-squares subroutine. The axial dispersion model and the tanks-in-series model have been used, thus allowing the determination of the dispersion coefficient and the Peclet Number. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  4. Impact of Interfacial Characteristics on Foam Structure: Study on Model Fluids and at Pilot Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezdour Samir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Foams represent an important area of research because of their relevance to many industrial processes. In continuous foaming operations, foaming ability depends on the process parameters and the characteristics of the raw materials used for foamed products. The effects of fluid viscosity and equilibrium surface tension on foam structure have been studied extensively. Furthermore, as surface active agents diffuse to the interface, they can modify other interface properties through their adsorption, such as interfacial rheology and surface tension kinetics. In order to better understand how these two interfacial properties influence foam structuring, we formulated model foaming solutions with different interface viscoelasticity levels and adsorption rates, but all with the same equilibrium surface tension and viscosity. The solutions were made up of a surface active agent and glucose syrup, so as to maintain a Newtonian behaviour. Five surface active agents were used: Whey Protein Isolate (WPI, sodium caseinate, saponin, cetyl phosphate and Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS, at concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 1%. Their molecular characteristics, and their interaction with the glucose syrup, made it possible to obtain a range of interface viscoelasticities and surface tension kinetics for these model solutions. The solutions were whipped in a continuously-operating industrial foaming device in order to control process parameters such as shearing and overrun, and to ensure that the experiment was representative of industrial production. The structure of the foams thus obtained foams was then determined by characterising bubble size using image analysis. For all the model solutions, both the viscoelastic moduli and apparent diffusion coefficient were linked to foam structure. The results showed that both high interface viscoelasticity and rapid diffusion kinetics induced a foam structure containing small bubbles. Both effects, as well as the impact of

  5. Effects of local alendronate sodium gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing on smokers with chronic periodontitis: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Farin Kiany; Hashem Montaseri; Sadaf Adibi; Masoud Golshah; Saba Golshah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chemical treatments for the modulation of host response are applied along with mechanical modalities as adjunctive to periodontal treatment. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of locally-delivered alendronate sodium gel in adjunction to scaling and root planning on periodontal indices and bone formation within vertical defects of smokers with chronic periodontitis. Methods and Materials: In this study vertical defects (n=8) with depth>5 mm have be...

  6. Removal of 226Ra from tailings pond effluents and stabilization of uranium mine tailings. Bench and pilot scale studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidtke, N.W.; Averill, D.; Bryant, D.N.; Wilkinson, P.; Schmidt, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    Increased world demand for uranium has resulted in recent expansion of Canadian uranium mining operations. Problems have been identified with the discharge of radionuclides such as 226 Ra from tailings pond effluents and with the stabilization of mine tailings. At Environment Canada's Wastewater Technology Centre (WTC) two projects were undertaken in cooperation with the Canadian Uranium Mining Industry and other federal government agencies to address these problems. The first project reports on the progress of bench and pilot scale process simulations for the development of a data base for the design of a full scale mechanical physical/chemical 226 Ra removal waste treatment system with an effluent target level of 10 pCi 226 Ra total per litre. The second project addresses problems of the leachability of radionuclides and the stabilization of both uranium mine tailings and BaRaSO 4 sediments from the treatment of acid seepages

  7. The Association between Noise, Cortisol and Heart Rate in a Small-Scale Gold Mining Community—A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson Green

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We performed a cross-sectional pilot study on salivary cortisol, heart rate, and personal noise exposures in a small-scale gold mining village in northeastern Ghana in 2013. Cortisol level changes between morning and evening among participants showed a relatively low decline in cortisol through the day (−1.44 ± 4.27 nmol/L, n = 18, a pattern consistent with chronic stress. A multiple linear regression, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and time between samples indicated a significant increase of 0.25 nmol/L cortisol from afternoon to evening per 1 dBA increase in equivalent continuous noise exposure (Leq over that period (95% CI: 0.08–0.42, Adj R2 = 0.502, n = 17. A mixed effect linear regression model adjusting for age and sex indicated a significant increase of 0.29 heart beats per minute (BPM for every 1 dB increase in Leq. Using standard deviations (SDs as measures of variation, and adjusting for age and sex over the sampling period, we found that a 1 dBA increase in noise variation over time (Leq SD was associated with a 0.5 BPM increase in heart rate SD (95% CI: 0.04–−0.9, Adj. R2 = 0.229, n = 16. Noise levels were consistently high, with 24-hour average Leq exposures ranging from 56.9 to 92.0 dBA, with a mean daily Leq of 82.2 ± 7.3 dBA (mean monitoring duration 22.1 ± 1.9 hours, n = 22. Ninety-five percent of participants had 24-hour average Leq noise levels over the 70 dBA World health Organization (WHO guideline level for prevention of hearing loss. These findings suggest that small-scale mining communities may face multiple, potentially additive health risks that are not yet well documented, including hearing loss and cardiovascular effects of stress and noise.

  8. The Association between Noise, Cortisol and Heart Rate in a Small-Scale Gold Mining Community-A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Allyson; Jones, Andrew D; Sun, Kan; Neitzel, Richard L

    2015-08-21

    We performed a cross-sectional pilot study on salivary cortisol, heart rate, and personal noise exposures in a small-scale gold mining village in northeastern Ghana in 2013. Cortisol level changes between morning and evening among participants showed a relatively low decline in cortisol through the day (-1.44 ± 4.27 nmol/L, n = 18), a pattern consistent with chronic stress. A multiple linear regression, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and time between samples indicated a significant increase of 0.25 nmol/L cortisol from afternoon to evening per 1 dBA increase in equivalent continuous noise exposure (Leq) over that period (95% CI: 0.08-0.42, Adj R(2) = 0.502, n = 17). A mixed effect linear regression model adjusting for age and sex indicated a significant increase of 0.29 heart beats per minute (BPM) for every 1 dB increase in Leq. Using standard deviations (SDs) as measures of variation, and adjusting for age and sex over the sampling period, we found that a 1 dBA increase in noise variation over time (Leq SD) was associated with a 0.5 BPM increase in heart rate SD (95% CI: 0.04--0.9, Adj. R(2) = 0.229, n = 16). Noise levels were consistently high, with 24-hour average Leq exposures ranging from 56.9 to 92.0 dBA, with a mean daily Leq of 82.2 ± 7.3 dBA (mean monitoring duration 22.1 ± 1.9 hours, n = 22). Ninety-five percent of participants had 24-hour average Leq noise levels over the 70 dBA World health Organization (WHO) guideline level for prevention of hearing loss. These findings suggest that small-scale mining communities may face multiple, potentially additive health risks that are not yet well documented, including hearing loss and cardiovascular effects of stress and noise.

  9. Electrodialytic remediation of CCA treated waste wood in pilot scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    study the utility of the method Electrodialytic Remediation was demonstrated for handling of CCA treated waste wood in pilot scale. The electrodialytic remediation method, which uses a low level DC current as the cleaning agent, combines elektrokinetic movement of ions in the wood matrix with the princi......-ples of electrodialysis. It has previously been shown that it is possible to remove Cu, Cr and As from CCA treated wood using electrodialytic remediation in laboratory scale (Ribeiro et al., 2000; Kristensen et al., 2003), but until now, the method had not been studied in larger scale. The pilot scale plant used...... in this study was designed to contain up to 2 m3 wood chips. Six remediation experiments were carried out. In these experiments, the process was up-scaled stepwise by increasing the distance between the electrodes from initially 60 cm to fi-nally 150 cm. The remediation time was varied between 11 and 21 days...

  10. Pilot-scale gasification of woody biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Elder; Leslie H. Groom

    2011-01-01

    The gasification of pine and mixed-hardwood chips has been carried out in a pilot-scale system at a range of gas flow rates. Consuming ~17-30 kgh-1 of feedstock, the producer gas was composed of ~200 dm3 m-3 carbon monoxide, 12 dm3 m-3 carbon dioxide, 30 dm3 m-3 methane and 190 dm3 m-3 hydrogen, with an energy content of ~6 MJ m-3 for both feedstocks. It was found that...

  11. [Translation and Validation of the FOUR Scale for Children and its Use as Outcome Predictor: A Pilot Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sofia Simões; Meireles, Daniel; Pinto, Alexandra; Abecasis, Francisco

    2017-09-29

    The Full Outline of UnResponsiveness - FOUR scale has been previously validated to assess impaired consciousness in the adult population. The aim of this study is the translation into Portuguese and validation of the FOUR scale in the pediatric population. The study also compares the FOUR scale and Glasgow coma scale score ratings and the clinical outcome of patients hospitalized in Pediatric Intensive Care Units. This study prospectively rated patients admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Units with impaired consciousness during one year. Both scales were applied daily to patients by three types of examiners: intensivists, residents and nurses, from the moment of admission until clinical discharge. Neurological sequelae was evaluated using the King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury - KOSCHI. Twenty seven patients between one and 17 years of age were included. Both scales are reliable and inter-rater reliability was greater for the FOUR score. Glasgow coma scale showed a minimum score in eight evaluations, whereas the FOUR scale obtained the minimum score in only two of these evaluations. In both scales there was a strong association between the admission score and the patient's outcome (area under curve FOUR = 0.939, versus Glasgow coma scale = 0.925). The FOUR scale provides more neurological information than Glasgow coma scale in patients with impaired consciousness and has prognostic interest. The FOUR scale can be applied in patients admitted with impaired consciousness in Pediatric Intensive Care Units. We think that a multicenter study would be very beneficial for confirming and generalizing these results.

  12. Hollow Fiber Membrane Contactors for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture: A Scale-Up Study from Laboratory to Pilot Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabanon E.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Membrane contactors have been proposed for decades as a way to achieve intensified mass transfer processes. Post-combustion CO2 capture by absorption into a chemical solvent is one of the currently most intensively investigated topics in this area. Numerous studies have already been reported, unfortunately almost systematically on small, laboratory scale, modules. Given the level of flue gas flow rates which have to be treated for carbon capture applications, a consistent scale-up methodology is obviously needed for a rigorous engineering design. In this study, the possibilities and limitations of scale-up strategies for membrane contactors have been explored and will be discussed. Experiments (CO2 absorption from a gas mixture in a 30%wt MEA aqueous solution have been performed both on mini-modules and at pilot scale (10 m2 membrane contactor module based on PTFE hollow fibers. The results have been modelled utilizing a resistance in series approach. The only adjustable parameter is in fitting the simulations to experimental data is the membrane mass transfer coefficient (km, which logically plays a key role. The difficulties and uncertainties associated with scaleup computations from lab scale to pilot scale modules, with a particular emphasis on the km value, are presented and critically discussed.

  13. A pilot-scale study of the precursors leading to the formation of mixed bromo-chloro dioxins and furans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, P.M.; Stewart, E.S. [US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA). Office of Research & Development

    2004-02-01

    Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator simulator, where a mixture of chlorinated and brominated surrogate waste was burned in the presence of injected flyash from a coal-fired utility boiler. Measurements were made of semivolatile products of incomplete combustion (PICs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), and mixed bromo-chloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PXDDs/Fs). A statistical analysis of the data has been performed so that variability in the PCDDs/Fs can be accounted for by variation in the semivolatile PICs, particularly the chlorobenzenes (CBz) and chlorophenols (CPh). In addition, a statistical analysis was performed to investigate the variability of the PXDDs/Fs as a function of the concentrations of the semivolatile chlorinated, brominated, and mixed bromo-chloro organics.

  14. Change of International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale subscales with treatment and placebo: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell UH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ulrike H Mitchell,1 Sterling C Hilton2 1Brigham Young University, Department of Exercise Sciences, 2Department of Educational Leadership and Foundations, Provo, UT, USA Background: In 2003, the 10-question International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale (IRLS was developed as a means of assessing the severity of restless legs syndrome. Two subscales were identified: symptom severity (SS 1 and symptom impact (SS 2. Only one study has investigated the subscales' responsiveness to a 12-week treatment with ropinirole. This current study was undertaken to assess the impact of a 4-week, non-pharmaceutical treatment on the two subscales and to explore whether or not both subscales were impacted by the observed placebo effect. Methods: The pooled data from questionnaires of 58 patients (41 from both treatment groups and 17 from the sham treatment control group, who participated in two clinical studies, were reviewed. Their change in score over a 4-week trial was computed. The average change in both subscales in both groups was computed and t-tests were performed. Results: In the treatment group, the average scores of both subscales changed significantly from baseline to week 4 (P<0.005 for both. Compared to the control, SS 1 changed (P<0.001, but not SS 2 (P=0.18. In the sham treatment group, the scores for SS 1 changed significantly (P=0.002, but not for SS 2 (P=0.2. Conclusion: This study corroborated findings from an earlier study in which both subscales changed with a 12-week drug treatment. It also showed that the observed placebo effect is attributed to a small but significant change in symptom severity, but not symptom impact. Keywords: restless legs syndrome, RLS severity scale, IRLS subscales, symptom impact, symptom severity

  15. Photocatalytic treatment of an industrial effluent using artificial and solar UV radiation: an operational cost study on a pilot plant scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; San Martín, I

    2012-05-15

    The aim of this work was to study the operation costs of treating a real effluent from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power station located in Spain. The study compares different homogeneous photocatalytic processes on a pilot plant scale using different types of radiation (artificial UV or solar UV with a compound parabolic collector). The efficiency of the processes was evaluated by an analysis of the total organic carbon (TOC) removed. The following processes were considered in the study: (i) a photo-Fenton process at an artificial UV pilot plant (with the initial addition of H(2)O(2)), (ii) a modified photo-Fenton process with continuous addition of H(2)O(2) and O(2) to the system and (iii) a ferrioxalate-assisted solar photo-Fenton process at a compound parabolic collector (CPC) pilot plant. The efficiency of these processes in degrading pollutants has been studied previously, and the results obtained in each of those studies have been published elsewhere. The operational costs due to the consumption of electrical energy, reagents and catalysts were calculated from the optimal conditions of each process. The results showed that the solar photo-Fenton system was economically feasible, being able to achieve up to 75% mineralization with a total cost of 6 €/m(3), which can be reduced to 3.6 €/m(3) by subtracting the electrical costs because the IGCC plant is self-sufficient in terms of energy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Capability of microalgae-based wastewater treatment systems to remove emerging organic contaminants: a pilot-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Raquel; Ferrer, Ivet; García, Joan; Bayona, Josep M

    2015-05-15

    The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and seasonality on the removal efficiency of 26 organic microcontaminants from urban wastewater was studied in two pilot high-rate algal ponds (HRAPs). The targeted compounds included pharmaceuticals and personal care products, fire retardants, surfactants, anticorrosive agents, pesticides and plasticizers, among others. The pilot plant, which was fed at a surface loading rate of 7-29 g of COD m(-2)d(-1), consisted of a homogenisation tank and two parallel lines, each one with a primary settler and an HRAP with a surface area of 1.5 m(2) and a volume of 0.5 m(3). The two HRAPs were operated with different HRTs (4 and 8 d). The removal efficiency ranged from negligible removal to more than 90% depending on the compound. Microcontaminant removal efficiencies were enhanced during the warm season, while the HRT effect on microcontaminant removal was only noticeable in the cold season. Our results suggest that biodegradation and photodegradation are the most important removal pathways, whereas volatilization and sorption were solely achieved for hydrophobic compounds (log Kow>4) with a moderately high Henry's law constant values (11-12 Pa m(-3)mol(-1)) such as musk fragrances. Whereas acetaminophen, ibuprofen and oxybenzone presented ecotoxicological hazard quotients (HQs) higher than 1 in the influent wastewater samples, the HQs for the effluent water samples were always below 1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Phenol Removal by a Novel Non-Photo-Dependent Semiconductor Catalyst in a Pilot-Scaled Study: Effects of Initial Phenol Concentration, Light, and Catalyst Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel non-photo-dependent semiconductor catalyst (CT was employed to degrade phenol in the present pilot-scaled study. Effect of operational parameters such as phenol initial concentration, light area, and catalyst loading on phenol degradation, was compared between CT catalyst and the conventional photocatalyst titanium dioxide. CT catalyst excelled titanium dioxide in treating and mineralizing low-level phenol, under both mild UV radiation and thunder conditions of nonphoton. The result suggested that CT catalyst could be applied in circumstances when light is not easily accessible in pollutant-carrying media (e.g., particles, cloudy water, and colored water.

  18. Laboratory, semi-pilot and room scale study of nitrite and molybdate mediated control of H(2)S emission from swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Lyman; Predicala, Bernardo; Nemati, Mehdi

    2010-04-01

    The effects of manure age on emission of H(2)S and required level of nitrite or molybdate to control these emissions were investigated in the present work. Molybdate mediated control of H(2)S emission was also studied in semi-pilot scale open systems, and in specifically designed chambers which simulated swine production rooms. With fresh 1-, 3- and 6-month old manures average H(2)S concentration in the headspace gas of the closed systems were 4856+/-460, 3431+/-208, 1037+/-98 ppm and non-detectable, respectively. Moreover, the level of nitrite or molybdate required to control the emission of H(2)S decreased as manure age increased. In the semi-pilot scale open system and chambers, average H(2)S concentration at the surface of agitated fresh manure were 831+/-26 and 88.4+/-5.7 ppm, respectively. Furthermore, 0.1-0.25 mM molybdate was sufficient to control the emission of H(2)S. A cost study for an average size swine operation showed that the cost of treatment with molybdate was less than 1% of the overall production cost for each market hog. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Comparative CFD Study on Simulating Flameless Oxy-Fuel Combustion in a Pilot-Scale Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mersedeh Ghadamgahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents a method to model the flameless oxy-fuel system, with a comparative approach, as well as validation of the predictions. The validation has been done by comparing the predicted results with previously published experimental results from a 200 kW pilot furnace. A suction pyrometer has been used to measure the local temperature and concentrations of CO, CO2, and O2 at 24 different locations. A three-dimensional CFD model was developed and the validity of using different submodels describing turbulence and chemical reactions was evaluated. The standard k-ε model was compared with the realizable k-ε model for turbulence, while Probability Density Function (PDF with either chemical equilibrium or the Steady Laminar Flamelet Model (SLFM was evaluated for combustion. Radiation was described using a Discrete Ordinates Model (DOM with weighted-sum-of-grey-gases model (WSGGM. The smallest deviation between predictions and experiments for temperature (1.2% was found using the realizable k-ε model and the SLFM. This improvement affects the prediction of gaseous species as well since the deviation between predictions and experiments for CO2 volume percentages decreased from 6% to 1.5%. This provides a recommendation for model selections in further studies on flameless oxy-fuel combustion.

  20. Initial Development of a Cultural Values and Beliefs Scale among Dakota/Nakota/Lakota People: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, W. Rusty; Quevillon, Randal P.; Boyd, Beth; Mackey, Duane

    2006-01-01

    This study was the initial phase in the development of a mental health assessment tool. The Native American Cultural Values and Beliefs Scale is a 12-item instrument that assesses three dimensions of American Indian/Alaska Native values and beliefs: 1) the importance, 2) the frequency of practicing, and 3) the amount of distress caused by not…

  1. Pilot-scale tests of HEME and HEPA dissolution process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Z.H.; Strege, D.K.

    1994-06-01

    A series of pilot-scale demonstration tests for the dissolution of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME`s) and High Efficiency Particulate Airfilters (HEPA) were performed on a 1/5th linear scale. These fiberglass filters are to be used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to decontaminate the effluents from the off-gases generated during the feed preparation process and vitrification. When removed, these filters will be dissolved in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The contaminated fiberglass is converted to an aqueous stream which will be transferred to the waste tanks. The filter metal structure will be rinsed with process water before its disposal as low-level solid waste. The pilot-scale study reported here successfully demonstrated a simple one step process using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The proposed process requires the installation of a new water spray ring with 30 nozzles. In addition to the reduced waste generated, the total process time is reduced to 48 hours only (66% saving in time). The pilot-scale tests clearly demonstrated that the dissolution process of HEMEs has two stages - chemical digestion of the filter and mechanical erosion of the digested filter. The digestion is achieved by a boiling 5 wt% caustic solutions, whereas the mechanical break down of the digested filter is successfully achieved by spraying process water on the digested filter. An alternate method of breaking down the digested filter by increased air sparging of the solution was found to be marginally successful are best. The pilot-scale tests also demonstrated that the products of dissolution are easily pumpable by a centrifugal pump.

  2. Pilot-scale tests of HEME and HEPA dissolution process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Z.H.; Strege, D.K.

    1994-06-01

    A series of pilot-scale demonstration tests for the dissolution of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME's) and High Efficiency Particulate Airfilters (HEPA) were performed on a 1/5th linear scale. These fiberglass filters are to be used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to decontaminate the effluents from the off-gases generated during the feed preparation process and vitrification. When removed, these filters will be dissolved in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The contaminated fiberglass is converted to an aqueous stream which will be transferred to the waste tanks. The filter metal structure will be rinsed with process water before its disposal as low-level solid waste. The pilot-scale study reported here successfully demonstrated a simple one step process using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The proposed process requires the installation of a new water spray ring with 30 nozzles. In addition to the reduced waste generated, the total process time is reduced to 48 hours only (66% saving in time). The pilot-scale tests clearly demonstrated that the dissolution process of HEMEs has two stages - chemical digestion of the filter and mechanical erosion of the digested filter. The digestion is achieved by a boiling 5 wt% caustic solutions, whereas the mechanical break down of the digested filter is successfully achieved by spraying process water on the digested filter. An alternate method of breaking down the digested filter by increased air sparging of the solution was found to be marginally successful are best. The pilot-scale tests also demonstrated that the products of dissolution are easily pumpable by a centrifugal pump

  3. Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil | Mensah | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil. ... Abstract. A laboratory process for refining soybean has been scaled up to a 145 tonne per annum pilot plant to refine crude soybean oil. ... The quality of the refined oil was found to be within national and codex standard specifications for edible oil from vegetable sources.

  4. Establishing the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression Scale in a UK student population: an online pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Challenor Emily C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is thought that depressive disorders will be the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. Recently, there is a steady increase in the number of university students diagnosed and treated as depression patients. It can be assumed that depression is a serious mental health problem for university students because it affects all age groups of the students either younger or older equally. The current study aims to establish the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression scale in a UK sample. Methods The study was a cross-sectional online survey. A sample of 133 out of 275 undergraduate students from a range of UK Universities in the academic year 2008-2009, aged 20.3 ± 6.3 years old were recruited. A modified back translated version of Zagazig Depression scale was used. In order to validate the Zagazig Depression scale, participants were asked to complete the Patient Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis includes Kappa analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Spearman's correlation analysis, and Confirmatory Factor analysis. Results Using the recommended cut-off of Zagazig Depression scale for possible minor depression it was found that 30.3% of the students have depression and higher percentage was identified according to the Patient Health Questionnaire (37.4%. Females were more depressed. The mean ZDS score was 8.3 ± 4.2. Rates of depression increase as students get older. The reliability of The ZDS was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha was .894. For validity, ZDS score was strongly associated with PHQ, with no significant difference (p-value > 0.05, with strong positive correlation (r = +.8, p-value Conclusion The strong, significant correlation between the PHQ and ZDS, along with high internal consistency of the ZDS as a whole provides evidence that ZDS is a reliable measure of depressive symptoms and is promising for the use of the translated ZDS in a large-scale cross-culture study.

  5. Establishing the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression Scale in a UK student population: an online pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed K; Kelly, Shona J; Challenor, Emily C; Glazebrook, Cris

    2010-12-10

    It is thought that depressive disorders will be the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. Recently, there is a steady increase in the number of university students diagnosed and treated as depression patients. It can be assumed that depression is a serious mental health problem for university students because it affects all age groups of the students either younger or older equally. The current study aims to establish the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression scale in a UK sample. The study was a cross-sectional online survey. A sample of 133 out of 275 undergraduate students from a range of UK Universities in the academic year 2008-2009, aged 20.3 ± 6.3 years old were recruited. A modified back translated version of Zagazig Depression scale was used. In order to validate the Zagazig Depression scale, participants were asked to complete the Patient Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis includes Kappa analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Spearman's correlation analysis, and Confirmatory Factor analysis. Using the recommended cut-off of Zagazig Depression scale for possible minor depression it was found that 30.3% of the students have depression and higher percentage was identified according to the Patient Health Questionnaire (37.4%). Females were more depressed. The mean ZDS score was 8.3 ± 4.2. Rates of depression increase as students get older. The reliability of The ZDS was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha was .894). For validity, ZDS score was strongly associated with PHQ, with no significant difference (p-value > 0.05), with strong positive correlation (r = +.8, p-value depressive symptoms and is promising for the use of the translated ZDS in a large-scale cross-culture study.

  6. Pilot-scale studies of soil vapor extraction and bioventing for remediation of a gasoline spill at Cameron Station, Alexandria, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Joss, C.J.; Martino, L.E. [and others

    1994-07-01

    Approximately 10,000 gal of spilled gasoline and unknown amounts Of trichloroethylene and benzene were discovered at the US Army`s Cameron Station facility. Because the base is to be closed and turned over to the city of Alexandria in 1995, the Army sought the most rapid and cost-effective means of spill remediation. At the request of the Baltimore District of the US Army Corps of Engineers, Argonne conducted a pilot-scale study to determine the feasibility of vapor extraction and bioventing for resolving remediation problems and to critique a private firm`s vapor-extraction design. Argonne staff, working with academic and private-sector participants, designed and implemented a new systems approach to sampling, analysis and risk assessment. The US Geological Survey`s AIRFLOW model was adapted for the study to simulate the performance of possible remediation designs. A commercial vapor-extraction machine was used to remove nearly 500 gal of gasoline from Argonne-installed horizontal wells. By incorporating numerous design comments from the Argonne project team, field personnel improved the system`s performance. Argonne staff also determined that bioventing stimulated indigenous bacteria to bioremediate the gasoline spin. The Corps of Engineers will use Argonne`s pilot-study approach to evaluate remediation systems at field operation sites in several states.

  7. Discrimination of surface wear on obsidian tools using LSCM and RelA: pilot study results (area-scale analysis of obsidian tool surfaces).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemp, W James; Chung, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study tests the reliability of laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) to quantitatively measure wear on experimental obsidian tools. To our knowledge, this is the first use of confocal microscopy to study wear on stone flakes made from an amorphous silicate like obsidian. Three-dimensional surface roughness or texture area scans on three obsidian flakes used on different contact materials (hide, shell, wood) were documented using the LSCM to determine whether the worn surfaces could be discriminated using area-scale analysis, specifically relative area (RelA). When coupled with the F-test, this scale-sensitive fractal analysis could not only discriminate the used from unused surfaces on individual tools, but was also capable of discriminating the wear histories of tools used on different contact materials. Results indicate that such discriminations occur at different scales. Confidence levels for the discriminations at different scales were established using the F-test (mean square ratios or MSRs). In instances where discrimination of surface roughness or texture was not possible above the established confidence level based on MSRs, photomicrographs and RelA assisted in hypothesizing why this was so. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Pilot study of personality traits assessed by the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) in asthma, atopy, and rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runeson, Roma; Wahlstedt, Kurt; Norbäck, Dan

    2011-12-01

    Asthma and atopy are common diseases. To study associations between personality and asthma, atopy, rhinitis, and personality traits were measured on the Karolinska Scales of Personality for 193 persons working in 19 buildings with suspected indoor air problems. In addition, information on history of atopy, asthma, and rhinitis was collected by postal questionnaire. In analyses, asthma was associated with higher impulsiveness scores, and atopy in non-asthmatics was associated with higher social desirability scores and lower irritability, guilt, and impulsiveness scores. Non-atopic rhinitis was associated with scores on several anxiety-related scales, while atopic rhinitis was not associated with scores on the Karolinska Scales of Personality. This exploration implies that asthma, atopy, and rhinitis may be associated with various but different personality trait scores. The finding of such personality trait associations in persons with non-asthmatic atopy raises the question of a potential role of an emotional conflict in atopy and the role of personality in asthma, atopy, and rhinitis.

  9. Feasibility, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the Postoperative Quality of Recovery Scale: a first pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yusuke; Tanaka, Yuu; Sasaoka, Noriyuki; Iwata, Toshio; Fujimoto, Yuko; Okamoto, Nozomi; Inoue, Satoki; Kawaguchi, Masahiko

    2015-06-01

    The Postoperative Quality of Recovery Scale (PQRS) is a multi-domain tracking scale to assess recovery after surgery. The PQRS is used in seven countries and five languages; however, the Japanese version of the PQRS (PQRSj) has not been established. We therefore translated the PQRS into Japanese, and examined the feasibility, reliability and validity of the PQRSj. The time taken to complete the test was measured to assess feasibility. Cronbach's alpha was calculated to assess reliability. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Japanese version of the Quality of Recovery Scale 40 (QoR-40 J) were performed for comparison with the PQRSj (validity). Fifty-one patients were enrolled in the study. The mean completion time was 3.9 min for baseline (feasibility). Cronbach's alpha was between 0.40 and 0.94 in each domain (reliability). A relationship was shown between cognitive domain and MMSE at baseline (r = 0.65, P < 0.01); however, no relationship was found between the other domains and the MMSE and QoR-40 J. Ceiling effects were observed in 78% of the questions. These results indicate that the PQRSj can be used to assess recovery after surgery, although it may be better to revise some of the questions to improve the validity of the PQRSj.

  10. Performance of granular activated carbon to remove micropollutants from municipal wastewater-A meta-analysis of pilot- and large-scale studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benstoem, Frank; Nahrstedt, Andreas; Boehler, Marc; Knopp, Gregor; Montag, David; Siegrist, Hansruedi; Pinnekamp, Johannes

    2017-10-01

    For reducing organic micropollutants (MP) in municipal wastewater effluents, granular activated carbon (GAC) has been tested in various studies. We did systematic literature research and found 44 studies dealing with the adsorption of MPs (carbamazepine, diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole) from municipal wastewater on GAC in pilot- and large-scale plants. Within our meta-analysis we plot the bed volumes (BV [m 3 water /m 3 GAC ]) until the breakthrough criterion of MP-BV20% was reached, dependent on potential relevant parameters (empty bed contact time EBCT, influent DOC DOC 0 and manufacturing method). Moreover, we performed statistical tests (ANOVAs) to check the results for significance. Single adsorbers operating time differs i.e. by 2500% until breakthrough of diclofenac-BV20% was reached (800-20,000 BV). There was still elimination of the "very well/well" adsorbable MPs such as carbamazepine and diclofenac even when the equilibrium of DOC had already been reached. No strong statistical significance of EBCT and DOC 0 on MP-BV20% could be found due to lack of data and the high heterogeneity of the studies using GAC of different qualities. In further studies, adsorbers should be operated ≫20,000 BV for exact calculation of breakthrough curves, and the following parameters should be recorded: selected MPs; DOC 0; UVA 254 ; EBCT; product name, manufacturing method and raw material of GAC; suspended solids (TSS); backwash interval; backwash program and pressure drop within adsorber. Based on our investigations we generally recommend using reactivated GAC to reduce the environmental impact and to carry out tests on pilot scale to collect reliable data for process design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fitzmaurice Voicework Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Lynn; Nayak, Sadhana

    2015-11-01

    A repeated-measures pilot study was used to investigate acoustic changes in the voices of participants in a Fitzmaurice Voicework (FV) teacher certification program. Maximum phonation time (MPT) was also measured. Eleven participants with no reported voice problems were studied. Pretraining and posttraining recordings were made of each participant. Measures of MPT were made, and the recordings were analyzed for jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonics ratio (NHR). The measure of effect size for MPT was moderate, and there was an overall increase in MPT from pretraining to posttraining, with 70% of participants showing an increase in MPT. The measure of effect sizes for jitter, shimmer, and NHR were small, with measurements showing no significant changes from pretraining to posttraining. There were indications that FV training may have positive outcomes for actors and professional voice users, particularly in increasing MPT. Further studies with larger subject groups are needed to investigate the significance of the increase in MPT noted in this study and to test whether FV training can help to lower rates of shimmer and jitter. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Scaling up ART adherence clubs in the public sector health system in the Western Cape, South Africa: a study of the institutionalisation of a pilot innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Hayley; McKenzie, Andrew; Jacobs, Tanya; Ullauri, Angelica

    2018-04-25

    In 2011, a decision was made to scale up a pilot innovation involving 'adherence clubs' as a form of differentiated care for HIV positive people in the public sector antiretroviral therapy programme in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. In 2016 we were involved in the qualitative aspect of an evaluation of the adherence club model, the overall objective of which was to assess the health outcomes for patients accessing clubs through epidemiological analysis, and to conduct a health systems analysis to evaluate how the model of care performed at scale. In this paper we adopt a complex adaptive systems lens to analyse planned organisational change through intervention in a state health system. We explore the challenges associated with taking to scale a pilot that began as a relatively simple innovation by a non-governmental organisation. Our analysis reveals how a programme initially representing a simple, unitary system in terms of management and clinical governance had evolved into a complex, differentiated care system. An innovation that was assessed as an excellent idea and received political backing, worked well whilst supported on a small scale. However, as scaling up progressed, challenges have emerged at the same time as support has waned. We identified a 'tipping point' at which the system was more likely to fail, as vulnerabilities magnified and the capacity for adaptation was exceeded. Yet the study also revealed the impressive capacity that a health system can have for catalysing novel approaches. We argue that innovation in largescale, complex programmes in health systems is a continuous process that requires ongoing support and attention to new innovation as challenges emerge. Rapid scaling up is also likely to require recourse to further resources, and a culture of iterative learning to address emerging challenges and mitigate complex system errors. These are necessary steps to the future success of adherence clubs as a cornerstone of

  13. Geochemistry of soils along a transect from Central Mexico to the Pacific Coast: a pilot study for continental-scale geochemical mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiprés, J.A.; de la Calleja,; Tellez, J.I.; Jiménez, F.; Cruz, Carlos; Guerrero, E.G.; Castro, J.; Monroy, M.G.; Salinas, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mexican Geological Survey (SGM), the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (INEGI) and the Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi (UASLP) have established a multidisciplinary team with the objective of creating a national program of geochemical mapping of soils in Mexico. This is being done as part of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project in partnership with the US Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada. As the first step, a pilot study was conducted over a transect that extends from the Mexico–US border near Ciudad Juarez in the north to the Pacific Ocean in the south. This pilot transect was conducted in two phases, and this paper presents results from the first phase, which sampled soils at about a 40-km spacing along a 730-km transect beginning in Central Mexico and ending at the Pacific Coast. Samples were collected from the A and C horizons at each site and 60 elements were analyzed. This pilot study demonstrates that geochemical mapping based on a 40-km spacing is adequate to identify broad-scale geochemical patterns. Geologic influence (i.e., soil parent material) was the most important factor influencing the distribution of elements along the transect, followed by the influence of regional mineralization. The study also showed that influence by human activities over the transect is minimal except possibly in large mining districts. A comparison of element abundance in the A horizon with the environmental soil guidelines in Mexico showed that the natural concentrations of the studied soils were lower than the established threshold for soil restoration with the exception of V and As. The former had a median value (75 mg/kg) approximately equal to the value established in Mexico for soil restoration in agricultural and residential lands (78 mg/kg), and the latter had three values higher than the 22 mg/kg threshold for soil restoration in agricultural and residential lands. These cases demonstrate

  14. Effects of different pretreatments on the performance of ceramic ultrafiltration membrane during the treatment of oil sands tailings pond recycle water: a pilot-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Kavithaa; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal

    2015-03-15

    Membrane filtration is an effective treatment method for oil sands tailings pond recycle water (RCW); however, membrane fouling and rapid decrease in permeate flux caused by colloids, organic matter, and bitumen residues present in the RCW hinder its successful application. This pilot-scale study investigated the impact of different pretreatment steps on the performance of a ceramic ultrafiltration (CUF) membrane used for the treatment of RCW. Two treatment trains were examined: treatment train 1 consisted of coagulant followed by a CUF system, while treatment train 2 included softening (Multiflo™ system) and coagulant addition, followed by a CUF system. The results indicated that minimum pretreatment (train 1) was required for almost complete solids removal. The addition of a softening step (train 2) provided an additional barrier to membrane fouling by reducing hardness-causing ions to negligible levels. More than 99% removal of turbidity and less than 20% removal of total organic carbon were achieved regardless of the treatment train used. Permeate fluxes normalized at 20 °C of 127-130 L/m(2) h and 111-118 L/m(2) h, with permeate recoveries of 90-93% and 90-94% were observed for the treatment trains 1 and 2, respectively. It was also found that materials deposited onto the membrane surface had an impact on trans-membrane pressure and influenced the required frequencies of chemically enhanced backwashes (CEBs) and clean-in-place (CIP) procedures. The CIP performed was successful in removing fouling and scaling materials such that the CUF performance was restored to baseline levels. The results also demonstrated that due to their low turbidity and silt density index values, permeates produced in this pilot study were suitable for further treatment by high pressure membrane processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation Involving Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds - Design and Deployment Guidelines (Parris Island, SC, U.S. Marine Corp Recruit Depot, Site 45 Pilot Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) demonstration, involving subsurface injections of sodium permanganate (NaMnO4), was performed at the US Marine Corp Recruit Depot (MCRD), site 45 (Parris Island (PI), SC). The ground water was originally contaminated with perchloroe...

  16. Mapping diffuse interstellar bands in the local ISM on small scales via MUSE 3D spectroscopy. A pilot study based on globular cluster NGC 6397

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Martin; Husser, Tim-Oliver; Kamann, Sebastian; Monreal-Ibero, Ana; Richter, Philipp; Brinchmann, Jarle; Dreizler, Stefan; Weilbacher, Peter M.; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2017-11-01

    Context. We map the interstellar medium (ISM) including the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in absorption toward the globular cluster NGC 6397 using VLT/MUSE. Assuming the absorbers are located at the rim of the Local Bubble we trace structures on the order of mpc (milliparsec, a few thousand AU). Aims: We aimed to demonstrate the feasibility to map variations of DIBs on small scales with MUSE. The sightlines defined by binned stellar spectra are separated by only a few arcseconds and we probe the absorption within a physically connected region. Methods: This analysis utilized the fitting residuals of individual stellar spectra of NGC 6397 member stars and analyzed lines from neutral species and several DIBs in Voronoi-binned composite spectra with high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). Results: This pilot study demonstrates the power of MUSE for mapping the local ISM on very small scales which provides a new window for ISM observations. We detect small scale variations in Na I and K I as well as in several DIBs within few arcseconds, or mpc with regard to the Local Bubble. We verify the suitability of the MUSE 3D spectrograph for such measurements and gain new insights by probing a single physical absorber with multiple sight lines.

  17. Pilot-scale study of the radiation-induced silica removal from underground brackish water in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aljohani, Mohammed S. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2017-08-01

    Silica scaling deposition in industrial water systems is one of the biggest challenges facing the water treatment industry due the low solubility of the scalants in the feed waters. In this preliminary work, we investigated the effectiveness of the ionizing radiation induced removal of silica in water sample from the Salbukh, Saudi Arabia, water treatment plant by using metallic iron as the source of ferric hydroxide to co-precipitate the silica. The influence of several reaction parameters, i.e. iron powder dosage, radiation dose, initial pH and equilibrium pH effect were investigated. In the optimum conditions, up to 75% of silica was removed. This preliminary study showed that this environmentally friendly process is effective in silica removal from underground water.

  18. Photocatalytic Treatment of Shower Water Using a Pilot Scale Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Boyjoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of shower water deserves special consideration for reuse not only because of its low pollutant loading but also because it is produced in large quantities. In this study, a pilot scale study of photocatalytic degradation of impurities in real shower water was performed in a 31 L volume reactor using titanium dioxide as the photocatalyst. The reactor was operated in a continuous slurry recirculation mode. Several operational parameters were studied including the slurry initial pH, catalyst concentration, air flow rate, and slurry recirculation rate. Up to 57% of total organic carbon (TOC elimination was obtained after 6 hours of treatment (for 3.0 slurry initial pH, 0.07 gL−1 catalyst concentration, 1.8 Lmin−1 air flow rate, and 4.4 Lmin−1 slurry recirculation rate. This study showed that photocatalysis could be successfully transposed from bench scale to pilot scale. Furthermore, the ease of operation and the potential to use solar energy make photocatalysis an attractive prospect with respect to treatment of grey water.

  19. ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CFCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of the characterization of organic emissions resulting from the pilot-scale incineration of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) under varied feed concentrations. (NOTE: As a result of the Montreal Protocol, an international...

  20. A Scale to Assist the Diagnosis of Autism and Asperger's Disorder in Adults (RAADS): A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward R.; Guthrie, Donald; Yuwiler, Arthur; Ritvo, Max Joseph; Weisbender, Leo

    2008-01-01

    An empirically based 78 question self-rating scale based on DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria was developed to assist clinicians' diagnosis of adults with autism and Asperger's Disorder-the Ritvo Autism and Asperger's Diagnostic Scale (RAADS). It was standardized on 17 autistic and 20 Asperger's Disorder and 57 comparison subjects. Both autistic and…

  1. Kinetic model for torrefaction of wood chips in a pilot-scale continuous reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Jens Kai

    2014-01-01

    accordance with the model data. In an additional step a continuous, pilot scale reactor was built to produce torrefied wood chips in large quantities. The "two-step reaction in series" model was applied to predict the mass yield of the torrefaction reaction. Parameters used for the calculation were...... at different torrefaction temperatures, it was possible to predict the HHV of torrefied wood chips from the pilot reactor. The results from this study and the presented modeling approach can be used to predict the product quality from pilot scale torrefaction reactors based on small scale experiments and could...

  2. A Pilot-Scale System for Carbon Molecular Sieve Hollow Fiber Membrane Manufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Karvan, O.; Johnson, J. R.; Williams, P. J.; Koros, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    research on these materials with a variety of applications being studied. The results from a pilot-scale CMS production system are presented. This system was designed based on extensive laboratory research, and hollow fiber membranes produced in this system

  3. Summary of Pilot-Scale Activities with Mercury Contaminated Sludges (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.; Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Smith, M.E.; Miller, D. H.; Ritter, J.A.; Hardy, B.J.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    Technologies for treatment of low level mixed wastes (LLMW) are currently being investigated by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been chartered by the MWFA to study vitrification treatment of the wastes through an Office of Technology Development (OTD) Technical Task Plan (TTP). SRTC's efforts have included crucible-scale studies and pilot-scale testing on simulated LLMW sludges, resins, soils, and other solid wastes. Results from the crucible-scale studies have been used as the basis for the pilot-scale demonstrations. One of the streams to be investigated in fiscal year (FY) 1995 by SRTC was a mercury waste. In FY 1995, SRTC performed crucible-scale studies with mercury contaminated soil. This waste stream was selected because of the large number of DOE sites that have an inventory of contaminated or hazardous soil. More importantly, it was readily available for treatment. Pilot-scale studies were to be completed in FY 1995, but could not be completed due to a reduction in funding. Since the main driver for focusing on a mercury waste stream was to determine how the mercury could be treated, a compilation of pilot-scale tests with mercury sludges performed under the guidance of SRTC is provided in this report. The studies summarized in this report include several pilot-scale vitrification demonstrations with simulated radioactive sludges that contained mercury. The pilot-scale studies were performed at the SRTC in the Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS). The studies involved complete glass and offgas product characterization. Future pilot-scale studies with mercury streams will likely be performed with mercury contaminated soils, sediments, or sludges because of the need to dispose of this technically challenging waste stream. (Abstract Truncated)

  4. A pilot-scale study of biohydrogen production from distillery effluent using defined bacterial co-culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatsala, T.M.; Raj, S. Mohan; Manimaran, A. (Shri AMM Murugappa Chettiar Research Centre, Photosynthesis and Energy Division, Tharamani, Chennai, India, 600)

    2008-10-15

    We evaluated the feasibility of improving the scale of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production from sugar cane distillery effluent using co-cultures of Citrobacter freundii 01, Enterobacter aerogenes E10 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris P2 at 100 m{sup 3} scale. The culture conditions at 100 ml and 2 L scales were optimized in minimal medium and we observed that the co-culture of the above three strains enhanced H{sub 2} productivity significantly. Results at the 100 m{sup 3} scale revealed a maximum of 21.38 kg of H{sub 2}, corresponding to 10692.6 mol, which was obtained through batch method at 40 h from reducing sugar (3862.3 mol) as glucose. The average yield of H{sub 2} was 2.76 mol mol{sup -1} glucose, and the rate of H{sub 2} production was estimated as 0.53 kg/100 m{sup 3}/h. Our results demonstrate the utility of distillery effluent as a source of clean alternative energy and provide insights into treatment for industrial exploitation. (author)

  5. Combined Use of Self-Efficacy Scale for Oral Health Behaviour and Oral Health Questionnaire: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutome, Sakiko; Kajiwara, Kazumi; Oho, Takahiko

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether the combined use of a task-specific self-efficacy scale for oral health behaviour (SEOH) and an oral health questionnaire (OHQ) would be useful for evaluating subjects' behaviours and cognitions. Design: Questionnaires. Methods: One hundred and eighty-five students completed the SEOH and OHQ. The 30-item OHQ uses a…

  6. Electrocoagulation project: Pilot study testwork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donini, J.C.; Garand, D.K.; Hassan, T.A.; Kar, K.L.; Thind, S.S.

    1991-09-01

    When a suspension or emulsion flows between two sacrificial metal electrodes excited by ac, the dispersed phase is consolidated and then settles. Laboratory-scale investigation of this mechanism, called electrocoagulation, and of its areas of application to water treatment were previously completed and a subsequent project was initiated to design and construct pilot-scale equipment consisting of an electrocoagulation cell, power supply, and computerized control system. The constructed pilot plant was used to test the effectiveness of electrocoagulation to clarify coal processing plant effluent. Results obtained with clay suspensions showed that flow conditions in the cell have a major effect on electric power consumption, and a reduction by a factor of three on this crucial cost parameter appeared possible compared to a previously tested batch-scale electrocoagulation system. Results obtained using the coal plant thickener feed closely duplicated those obtained with the clay mixtures. Aluminum electrode consumption, however, remained unchanged compared to the bench-scale tests. Supernatant clarity far exceeded requirements, while settling rate was too low. The settling could be speeded up by appropriate use of chemicals, but such addition affects the coagulation mechanism and reduces supernatant clarity. A tradeoff between settling rate and clarity was thus established. The total cost of treatment was deemed to be in excess of coal company requirements, but the pilot tests revealed much about the electrocoagulation system under continuous flow conditions. The technology is seen as having application in other areas such as municipal and industrial waste treatment. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Ethanol dehydration via azeotropic distillation with gasoline fractions as entrainers: A pilot-scale study of the manufacture of an ethanol–hydrocarbon fuel blend

    OpenAIRE

    Gomis Yagües, Vicente; Pedraza Berenguer, Ricardo; Saquete Ferrándiz, María Dolores; Font, Alicia; Garcia-Cano, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We establish experimentally and through simulations the economic and technical viability of dehydrating ethanol by means of azeotropic distillation, using a hydrocarbon as entrainer. The purpose of this is to manufacture a ready-to-use ethanol–hydrocarbon fuel blend. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of this proposition, we have tested an azeotropic water–ethanol feed mixture, using a hydrocarbon as entrainer, in a semi pilot-plant scale distillation column. Four different hydrocarbons ...

  8. Scale effect experiment in a fractured rock mass. Pilot study in the certified Fanay-Augeres mine (F)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, E.; Peaudecerf, P.; Ledoux, E.; De Marsily, G.

    1985-01-01

    This report (in two volumes) presents the results of a first phase of research about ''scale effect'' on permeability and solute transport in a fractured rock mass, to assess its suitability for future disposal of radioactive wastes. The gallery which was ''certified'' is located in the Fanay-Augeres mine(F), at a depth of about 175 m, in a granite mass. The portion selected for the subsequent experimental work is about 100 m long

  9. Positive childhood experiences predict less psychopathology and stress in pregnant women with childhood adversity: A pilot study of the benevolent childhood experiences (BCEs) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela J; Rivera, Luisa M; Bernstein, Rosemary E; Harris, William W; Lieberman, Alicia F

    2018-04-01

    This pilot study examined the psychometric properties of the Benevolent Childhood Experiences (BCEs) scale, a new instrument designed to assess positive early life experiences in adults with histories of childhood maltreatment and other adversities. A counterpart to the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) questionnaire, the BCEs was developed to be multiculturally-sensitive and applicable regardless of socioeconomic position, urban-rural background, or immigration status. Higher levels of BCEs were hypothesized to predict lower levels of psychopathology and stress beyond the effects of ACES in a sample of ethnically diverse, low-income pregnant women. BCEs were also expected to show adequate internal validity across racial/ethnic groups and test-retest stability from the prenatal to the postnatal period. Participants were 101 pregnant women (M=29.10years, SD=6.56, range=18-44; 37% Latina, 22% African-American, 20% White, 21% biracial/multiracial/other; 37% foreign-born, 26% Spanish-speaking) who completed the BCEs and ACEs scales; assessments of prenatal depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, perceived stress, and exposure to stressful life events (SLEs) during pregnancy; and demographic information. Higher levels of BCEs predicted less PTSD symptoms and SLEs, above and beyond ACEs. The BCEs showed excellent test-retest reliability, and mean levels were comparable across racial/ethnic and Spanish-English groups of women. Person-oriented analyses also showed that higher levels of BCEs offset the effects of ACEs on prenatal stress and psychopathology. The BCEs scale indexes promising promotive factors associated with lower trauma-related symptomatology and stress exposure during pregnancy and illuminates how favorable childhood experiences may counteract long-term effects of childhood adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pilot plant study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories undertook the design and fabrication of an 8 ton/day dry sewage sludge irradiatior. The facility is intended (1) to function as a high-gamma-dose rate research facility; (2) to be a testbed for the unique electrical and mechanical components to be used in larger facilities; (3) to fulfill the formal requirements of a pilot plant so that design and construction of a demonstration facility could proceed; and (4) to provide accurate data base on construction and operating experience for the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the Safety Analysis Report (SAR), and the cost analyses for a larger facility. The facility and its component systems are described in detail

  11. Characterization of trabecular bone plate-rod microarchitecture using multirow detector CT and the tensor scale: Algorithms, validation, and applications to pilot human studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Punam K.; Liu, Yinxiao; Chen, Cheng; Jin, Dakai; Letuchy, Elena M.; Xu, Ziyue; Amelon, Ryan E.; Burns, Trudy L.; Torner, James C.; Levy, Steven M.; Calarge, Chadi A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Osteoporosis is a common bone disease associated with increased risk of low-trauma fractures leading to substantial morbidity, mortality, and financial costs. Clinically, osteoporosis is defined by low bone mineral density (BMD); however, increasing evidence suggests that trabecular bone (TB) microarchitectural quality is an important determinant of bone strength and fracture risk. A tensor scale based algorithm for in vivo characterization of TB plate-rod microarchitecture at the distal tibia using multirow detector CT (MD-CT) imaging is presented and its performance and applications are examined. Methods: The tensor scale characterizes individual TB on the continuum between a perfect plate and a perfect rod and computes their orientation using optimal ellipsoidal representation of local structures. The accuracy of the method was evaluated using computer-generated phantom images at a resolution and signal-to-noise ratio achievable in vivo. The robustness of the method was examined in terms of stability across a wide range of voxel sizes, repeat scan reproducibility, and correlation between TB measures derived by imaging human ankle specimens under ex vivo and in vivo conditions. Finally, the application of the method was evaluated in pilot human studies involving healthy young-adult volunteers (age: 19 to 21 yr; 51 females and 46 males) and patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (age: 19 to 21 yr; six males and six females). Results: An error of (3.2% ± 2.0%) (mean ± SD), computed as deviation from known measures of TB plate-width, was observed for computer-generated phantoms. An intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.95 was observed for tensor scale TB measures in repeat MD-CT scans where the measures were averaged over a small volume of interest of 1.05 mm diameter with limited smoothing effects. The method was found to be highly stable at different voxel sizes with an error of (2.29% ± 1.56%) at an in vivo voxel size

  12. Eliciting preferences for priority setting in genetic testing: a pilot study comparing best-worst scaling and discrete-choice experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Franziska; Schmidtke, Jörg; Mühlbacher, Axel; Rogowski, Wolf H

    2013-11-01

    Given the increasing number of genetic tests available, decisions have to be made on how to allocate limited health-care resources to them. Different criteria have been proposed to guide priority setting. However, their relative importance is unclear. Discrete-choice experiments (DCEs) and best-worst scaling experiments (BWSs) are methods used to identify and weight various criteria that influence orders of priority. This study tests whether these preference eliciting techniques can be used for prioritising genetic tests and compares the empirical findings resulting from these two approaches. Pilot DCE and BWS questionnaires were developed for the same criteria: prevalence, severity, clinical utility, alternatives to genetic testing available, infrastructure for testing and care established, and urgency of care. Interview-style experiments were carried out among different genetics professionals (mainly clinical geneticists, researchers and biologists). A total of 31 respondents completed the DCE and 26 completed the BWS experiment. Weights for the levels of the six attributes were estimated by conditional logit models. Although the results derived from the DCE and BWS experiments differed in detail, we found similar valuation patterns in the DCE and BWS experiments. The respondents attached greatest value to tests with high clinical utility (defined by the availability of treatments that reduce mortality and morbidity) and to testing for highly prevalent conditions. The findings from this study exemplify how decision makers can use quantitative preference eliciting methods to measure aggregated preferences in order to prioritise alternative clinical interventions. Further research is necessary to confirm the survey results.

  13. Effects of local alendronate sodium gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing on smokers with chronic periodontitis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Kiany

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical treatments for the modulation of host response are applied along with mechanical modalities as adjunctive to periodontal treatment. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of locally-delivered alendronate sodium gel in adjunction to scaling and root planning on periodontal indices and bone formation within vertical defects of smokers with chronic periodontitis. Methods and Materials: In this study vertical defects (n=8 with depth>5 mm have been investigated. After performing the phase I of periodontal treatment, alendronate sodium gel (1% was applied into the periodontal pockets. The whole procedure was repeated after 4 weeks. Periodontal indices (plaque and bleeding, probing depth, gingival recession, and radiographic parameter (depth of bony defect were measured at the beginning and following 6 months. Results: Compared to pre-treatment, the probing depth, radiographic depth of bony defect and bleeding and plaque indices were significantly reduced by local application of alendronate sodium gel (P=0.026; P=0.012 and P=0.007 respectively. Gingival recession showed significant increase (P=0.011. Conclusion: Local alendronate sodium gel (1% plays an important role in the improvement process of periodontal indices and bone formation within vertical bony defects of smoker patients with chronic periodontitis.

  14. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale as a long-term outcome measurement tool in patients receiving clozapine ODT- A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar G

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This pilot, twelve-week, open-label study examined the effect of clozapine orally disintegrating tablet or ODT in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder utilizing Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS as a long-term outcome measurement tool.Methods: The final study sample consisted of nineteen subjects who were residents a long-term care psychiatric facility in Pomona, California. Subjects were using clozapine ODT (FazaClo® at the most clinically effective dosage depending on their symptoms and at the discretion of the psychiatrist and psychopharm consultant. PANSS were administered at baseline, week-4, week-8 and week-12. Paired sample t-tests were used to calculate the statistical significance of the mean differences for scores at baseline and week-12. Results: Mean differences from baseline indicated significant improvement on total score, as well as positive, negative, cognitive and general psychopathology subscales after twelve weeks of treatment. The greater average reduction in the negative syndrome subscale across the twelve weeks possibly illustrates the ability of clozapine ODT in improving negative symptoms, including cognitive function which is their ability to participate in their personal care and creative expressions in dance, arts, games, poetry to a greater extent their overall, quality of life and living along with the effect on positive symptoms.Conclusion: Overall, clozapine proved to affect a broad range of psychopathology including cognitive functions in this schizophrenic sample.

  15. Odour in composting processes at pilot scale: monitoring and biofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, M C; Serrano, A; Martín, M A; Chica, A F

    2014-08-01

    Although odour emissions associated with the composting process, especially during the hydrolytic stage, are widely known, their impact on surrounding areas is not easily quantifiable, For this reason, odour emissions during the first stage ofcomposting were evaluated by dynamic olfactometry at pilot scale in order to obtain results which can be extrapolated to industrial facilities. The composting was carried out in a commercial dynamic respirometer equipped with two biofilters at pilot scale filled with prunings (Populus) and mature compost obtained from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Given that the highest odour emissions occur in the first stage of the composting process, this stage was carried out in a closed system to better control the odour emissions, whose maximum value was estimated to be 2.78 ouF S-1 during the experiments. Odour concentration, the dynamic respiration index and temperature showed the same evolution during composting, thus indicating that odour could be a key variable in the monitoring process. Other variables such as total organic carbon (CTOC) and pH were also found to be significant in this study due to their influence over odour emissions. The efficiency of the biofilters (empty bed residence time of 86 s) was determined by quantifying the odour emissions at the inlet and outlet of both biofilters. The moisture content in the biofilters was found to be an important variable for improving odour removal efficiency, while the minimum moisture percentage to obtain successful results was found to be 55% (odour removal efficiency of 95%).

  16. Enhanced treatment of Fischer-Tropsch wastewater using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket system coupled with micro-electrolysis cell: A pilot scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dexin; Han, Yuxing; Han, Hongjun; Li, Kun; Xu, Chunyan

    2017-08-01

    The coupling of micro-electrolysis cell (MEC) with an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system in pilot scale was established for enhanced treatment of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) wastewater. The lowest influent pH (4.99±0.10) and reduced alkali addition were accomplished under the assistance of anaerobic effluent recycling of 200% (stage 5). Simultaneously, the optimum COD removal efficiency (93.5±1.6%) and methane production (2.01±0.13m 3 /m 3 ·d) at the lower hydraulic retention time (HRT) were achieved in this stage. In addition, the dissolved iron from MEC could significantly increase the protein content of tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances (TB-EPS), which was beneficial to formation of stable granules. Furthermore, the high-throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing in this study further confirmed that Geobacter species could utilize iron oxides particles as electron conduit to perform the direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) with Methanothrix, finally facilitating the syntrophic degradation of propionic acid and butyric acid and contributing completely methane production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A hybrid froth flotation-filtration system as a pretreatment for oil sands tailings pond recycle water management: Bench- and pilot-scale studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Kavithaa; Bromley, David; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-09-15

    Through sustainable water management, oil sands companies are working to reduce their reliance on fresh water by minimizing the amount of water required for their operations and by recycling water from tailings ponds. This study was the first pilot-scale testing of a hybrid technology consisting of froth flotation combined with filtration through precoated submerged stainless steel membranes used to treat recycle water from an oil sands facility. The results indicated that the most important factor affecting the performance of the hybrid system was the influent water quality. Any rise in the levels of suspended solids or total organic carbon of the feed water resulted in changes of chemical consumption rates, flux rates, and operating cycle durations. The selections of chemical type and dosing rates were critical in achieving optimal performance. In particular, the froth application rate heavily affected the overall recovery of the hybrid system as well as the performance of the flotation process. Optimum surfactant usage to generate froth (per liter of treated water) was 0.25 mL/L at approximately 2000 NTU of influent turbidity and 0.015 mL/L at approximately 200 NTU of influent turbidity. At the tested conditions, the optimal coagulant dose was 80 mg/L (as Al) at approximately 2000 NTU of influent turbidity and recycle water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Production of uranium hexafluoride by the catalysed fluorox process: pilot plant and supporting bench-scale studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janov, J.; Charlton, B.G.; LePage, A.H.; Vilkaitis, V.K.

    1982-04-01

    The feasibility of producing UF 6 by the catalysed reaction of UF 4 with oxygen (the Fluorox process) was investigated in a 150 mm diameter fluidised bed reactor and in supporting bench-scale experiments. The rate of the Fluorox reaction in batch experiments was increased by an order of magnitude with 1 to 5 per cent catalyst (containing 3 to 4 per cent platinum on alumina). The maximum UF 6 production rate at 650 deg. C was 0.9 kg h -1 . However, the platinum catalyst was completely poisoned after production of only 1 and 20 kg UF 6 per kg of catalyst when using respectively French and British UF 4 . Regeneration of the catalyst was demonstrated to be technically feasible by washing with water or ammonium oxalate solution or treating with hydrogen and hydrogen fluoride at 350-650 deg. C. However, since the very fast rate of poisoning would necessitate higher catalyst concentrations and/or frequent regeneration, the catalysed Fluorox process in unlikely to be economically competitive with the direct fluorination of UF 4

  19. The RID2 biofidelic rear impact dummy: a pilot study using human subjects in low speed rear impact full scale crash tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Arthur C; Philippens, Mathieu M G M

    2007-03-01

    Human subjects and the recently developed RID2 rear impact crash test dummy were exposed to a series of full scale, vehicle-to-vehicle crash tests. To evaluate the biofidelity of the RID2 anthropometric test dummy on the basis of calculated neck injury criterion (NIC) values by comparing these values to those obtained from human subjects exposed in the very same crashes. The widely used and familiar hybrid III dummy has been said to lack biofidelity in the special application of low speed rear impact crashes. Several attempts have been made to modify this dummy with only marginal success. Two completely new dummies have been developed; the BioRID and the RID2. Neither have been tested under real world crash boundary conditions in side-by-side comparisons with live human subjects. Volunteer subjects, including a 50th percentile male, a 95th percentile male, and a 50th percentile female, were placed in the driver's seat of a vehicle and subjected to a series of three low speed rear impact crashes each. The RID2 dummy, which is modeled after a 50th percentile male, was placed in the passenger seat in each case. Both subjects and dummy were fully instrumented and acceleration-time histories were recorded. From this data, velocities of the heads and torsos were determined and both were used to calculate the NIC values for both crash test subjects and the RID2. The RID2 demonstrated generally higher head accelerations and NIC values than those of the human subjects. Most of the observed variations might be explained on the basis of differing head restraint geometry, posture, and body size. The RID2 NIC values compared most favorably with those of the 50th percentile male subject. For the whole group, the correlations between RID2 and human subjects did not reach statistical significance. The small number of test subjects and crash tests limited the statistical power of this pilot study, and the correlation between the RID2 and human subject NIC values were not

  20. Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R

    2012-02-01

    Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ∕h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m∕s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg∕h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality.

  1. Er:YAG laser in defocused mode for scaling of periodontally involved root surfaces: an in vitro pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crespi, R.; Romanos, G.E.; Barone, A.; Sculean, A.; Covani, U.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Er:YAG laser may be used on periodontally involved teeth in combination with conventional periodontal therapy in order to improve the efficacy of root instrumentation. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of hand instrumentation on root surfaces of periodontally involved

  2. Establishing the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression Scale in a UK student population: an online pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Ahmed K; Kelly, Shona J; Challenor, Emily C; Glazebrook, Cris

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background It is thought that depressive disorders will be the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. Recently, there is a steady increase in the number of university students diagnosed and treated as depression patients. It can be assumed that depression is a serious mental health problem for university students because it affects all age groups of the students either younger or older equally. The current study aims to establish the reliability and validity of the Zag...

  3. Bioremediation and reclamation of soil contaminated with petroleum oil hydrocarbons by exogenously seeded bacterial consortium: a pilot-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Ashis K; Bordoloi, Naba K

    2011-03-01

    Spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons causes significant environmental pollution. Bioremediation is an effective process to remediate petroleum oil contaminant from the ecosystem. The aim of the present study was to reclaim a petroleum oil-contaminated soil which was unsuitable for the cultivation of crop plants by using petroleum oil hydrocarbon-degrading microbial consortium. Bacterial consortium consisting of Bacillus subtilis DM-04 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa M and NM strains were seeded to 20% (v/w) petroleum oil-contaminated soil, and bioremediation experiment was carried out for 180 days under laboratory condition. The kinetics of hydrocarbon degradation was analyzed using biochemical and gas chromatographic (GC) techniques. The ecotoxicity of the elutriates obtained from petroleum oil-contaminated soil before and post-treatment with microbial consortium was tested on germination and growth of Bengal gram (Cicer aretinum) and green gram (Phaseolus mungo) seeds. Bacterial consortium showed a significant reduction in total petroleum hydrocarbon level in contaminated soil (76% degradation) as compared to the control soil (3.6% degradation) 180 days post-inoculation. The GC analysis confirmed that bacterial consortium was more effective in degrading the alkane fraction compared to aromatic fraction of crude petroleum oil hydrocarbons in soil. The nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen compounds fraction was least degraded. The reclaimed soil supported the germination and growth of crop plants (C. aretinum and P. mungo). In contrast, seeds could not be germinated in petroleum oil-contaminated soil. The present study reinforces the application of bacterial consortium rather than individual bacterium for the effective bioremediation and reclamation of soil contaminated with petroleum oil.

  4. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Lactobacillus brevis in Low-fat Milk by Pulsed Electric Field Treatment: A Pilot-scale Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Gun Joon; Han, Bok Kung; Choi, Hyuk Joon; Kang, Shin Ho; Baick, Seung Chun; Lee, Dong-Un

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on microbial inactivation and the physical properties of low-fat milk. Milk inoculated with Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or Lactobacillus brevis was supplied to a pilot-scale PEF treatment system at a flow rate of 30 L/h. Pulses with an electric field strength of 10 kV/cm and a pulse width of 30 ?s were applied to the milk with total pulse energies of 50-250 kJ/L achieved by varying the pulse frequency. The ...

  5. Pilot study of synchronization on a femtosecond scale between the electronic gun REGAE and a laser-plasma accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titberidze, Mikheil

    2017-10-01

    given. Second, an advanced Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) based laser-to-RF synchronization setup has been successfully developed and tested. The conceptual design, a mathematical analysis, tolerance studies and experimental evaluation is presented. Electron beam-based measurements have been performed at REGAE where MZM based laser synchronization achieved a factor of 10 performance improvement in terms of amplitude-to-phase modulation (AM-PM) conversion compared to the previously used conventional photodiode based laser synchronization setup. This setup has been employed to phase lock the REGAE photo-injector laser with excellent long term timing drift performance of 31 fs peak-to-peak over 43 h and a short term timing jitter of 11 fs rms.

  6. Pilot study of synchronization on a femtosecond scale between the electronic gun REGAE and a laser-plasma accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titberidze, Mikheil

    2017-10-15

    are given. Second, an advanced Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) based laser-to-RF synchronization setup has been successfully developed and tested. The conceptual design, a mathematical analysis, tolerance studies and experimental evaluation is presented. Electron beam-based measurements have been performed at REGAE where MZM based laser synchronization achieved a factor of 10 performance improvement in terms of amplitude-to-phase modulation (AM-PM) conversion compared to the previously used conventional photodiode based laser synchronization setup. This setup has been employed to phase lock the REGAE photo-injector laser with excellent long term timing drift performance of 31 fs peak-to-peak over 43 h and a short term timing jitter of 11 fs rms.

  7. Modular Hydropower Engineering and Pilot Scale Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesser, Phillip C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Emrgy has developed, prototyped and tested a modular hydropower system for renewable energy generation. ORNL worked with Emrgy to demonstrate the use of additive manufacturing in the production of the hydrofoils and spokes for the hydrokinetic system. Specifically, during Phase 1 of this effort, ORNL printed and finished machined patterns for both the hydrofoils and spokes that were subsequently used in a sand casting manufacturing process. Emrgy utilized the sand castings for a pilot installation in Denver, CO, where the parts represented an 80% cost savings from the previous prototype build that was manufactured using subtractive manufacturing. In addition, the castings were completed with ORNL’s newly developed AlCeMg alloy that will be tested for performance improvements including higher corrosion resistance in a water application than the 6160 alloy used previously

  8. COOLING COIL EFFECTS ON BLENDING IN A PILOT SCALE TANK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.; Steeper, T.

    2010-01-01

    Blending, or mixing, processes in 1.3 million gallon nuclear waste tanks are complicated by the fact that miles of serpentine, vertical, cooling coils are installed in the tanks. As a step toward investigating blending interference due to coils in this type of tank, a 1/10.85 scale tank and pump model were constructed for pilot scale testing. A series of tests were performed in this scaled tank by adding blue dye to visualize blending, and by adding acid or base tracers to solution to quantify the time required to effectively blend the tank contents. The acid and base tests were monitored with pH probes, which were located in the pilot scale tank to ensure that representative samples were obtained. Using the probes, the hydronium ion concentration [H + ] was measured to ensure that a uniform concentration was obtained throughout the tank. As a result of pilot scale testing, a significantly improved understanding of mixing, or blending, in nuclear waste tanks has been achieved. Evaluation of test data showed that cooling coils in the waste tank model increased pilot scale blending times by 200% in the recommended operating range, compared to previous theoretical estimates of a 10-50% increase. Below the planned operating range, pilot scale blending times were increased by as much as 700% in a tank with coils installed. One pump, rather than two or more, was shown to effectively blend the tank contents, and dual pump nozzles installed parallel to the tank wall were shown to provide optimal blending. In short, experimental results varied significantly from expectations.

  9. Mathematical simulation of column flotation in pilot scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.; Jordan, D.; Cifuentes, G.; Morales, A.; Briones, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Procemin-I area of the Centro Minero Metalurgico Tecnologia y Servicio (CIMM T and S), has a full milling and flotation pilot plant in which several experiences are developed as: optimization of circuits, plant design, procurement of operating parameters, etc. Ones of the equipment in operation is the column flotation to pilot scale, witch have a medium level of automation. The problem presented in the operation of the column flotation is the low relationship during the operation between the operating basis parameters and the metallurgical results. The mathematical models used today to estimate the metallurgical results (i.e.: concentrate, tailing, enrichment and recovery) depending on variables that are manipulated by hand according the operator experience. But the process engineer needs tools without subjective vision to obtain the best performance of the column. The method used to help the column operation was a mathematical model based on the Stepwise Regression then considering empirical relationships between operational variables and experimental results. All the mathematical relationship developed in this study have a good correlation (up 90 % of precision), except one (up 70 %) due by non regular mineralogical feed. (Author) 7 refs.

  10. Pilot study on arsenic removal from groundwater using a small-scale reverse osmosis system-Towards sustainable drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stefan-André; Gukelberger, Ephraim; Hermann, Mario; Fiedler, Florian; Großmann, Benjamin; Hoinkis, Jan; Ghosh, Ashok; Chatterjee, Debashis; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2016-11-15

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is posing a serious challenge to drinking water supplies on a global scale. In India and Bangladesh, arsenic has caused the most serious public health issue in the world for nearly two decades. The aim of this work was to study an arsenic removal system based on reverse osmosis at pilot scale treating two different water sources from two different locations in the State of Bihar, India. For this purpose two villages, Bind Toli and Ramnagar in the Patna District were selected, both located very close to the river Ganga. The trials were conducted with aerated and non-aerated groundwater. It is the first time that the arsenic removal efficiency for aerated and non-aerated groundwater by reverse osmosis technology in combination with an energy-saving recovery system have been studied. As the principle of reverse osmosis requires a relatively high pressure, its energy demand is naturally high. By using an energy recovery system, this demand can be lowered, leading to an energy demand per liter permeate of 3-4Wh/L only. Due to high iron levels in the groundwater and as a consequence the precipitation of ferric (hydr)oxides, it was necessary to develop a granular media filter for the trials under aeration in order to protect the membrane from clogging. Two different materials, first locally available sand, and second commercially available anthracite were tested in the granular media filter. For the trials with aerated groundwater, total arsenic removal efficiency at both locations was around 99% and the arsenic concentration in permeate was in compliance with the WHO and National Indian Standard of 10μg/L. However, trials under anoxic conditions with non-aerated groundwater could not comply with this standard. Additionally a possible safe discharge of the reverse osmosis concentrate into an abandoned well was studied. It was observed that re-injection of reject water underground may offer a safe disposal option. However, long

  11. Summary of pilot-scale activities with resorcinol ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.; Sargent, T.N.; Andrews, M.K.; Bibler, J.P.; Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating vitrification technology for treatment of low level mixed wastes (LLMW). They have chartered the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to study vitrification of the wastes through an Office of Technology Development (OTD) Technical Task Plan (TTP). SRTC's efforts have included crucible-scale studies and pilot scale testing on simulated LLMW sludges, resins, soils, and other solid wastes. Results from the crucible-scale studies have been used as the basis for the pilot-scale demonstrations. As part of the fiscal year (FY) 1995 activities, SRTC performed crucible-scale studies with organic resins. This waste stream was selected because of the large number of DOE sites, as well as commercial industries, that use resins for treatment of liquid wastes. Pilot-scale studies were to be completed in FY 1995, but could not be due to a reduction in funding. Instead, a compilation of pilot-scale tests with organic resins performed under the guidance of SRTC was provided in this report. The studies which will be discussed used a resorcinol- formaldehyde resin loaded with non-radioactive cesium, which was fed with simulated wastewater treatment sludge feed. The first study was performed at the SRTC in the mini-melter, 1/100th scale of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter, and also involved limited crucible-scale studies to determine the resin loading obtainable. The other study was performed at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research (Center) and involved both crucible and pilot-scale testing in the Stir-Melter stirred-melter. Both studies were successful in vitrifying the resin in simulated radioactive sludge and glass additive feeds

  12. In-situ vitrification: pilot-scale development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, C.L.; Brouns, R.A.; Buelt, J.L.; Oma, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing in-situ vitrification (ISV) as an in-place stabilization technique for buried radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes. The process melts the wastes and surrounding soil to produce a durable glass and crystalline waste form. These in situ vitrification process development testing and product evaluation studies are being conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy. This report discusses the results of four ISV pilot-scale field tests simulating radioactive and hazardous waste site conditions. The primary objectives of the field tests were to: demonstrate process scale-up from engineering-scale laboratory tests; verify equipment performance of the power system, electrodes and off-gas system; characterize the behavior of simulated wastes in the vitrified soil; identify waste losses to the off-gas system; and evaluate waste form durability. Test results have been encouraging. Process scaleup has been successfully demonstrated, with equipment and electrode performance equally as successful. The off-gas system effectively contained any volatile or entrained hazardous species. Vitrified soil analysis also indicated effective containment and a homogeneous distribution of nonradioactive radionuclide and hazardous waste simulants due to convective mixing during vitrification. Waste form leaching studies revealed that the ISV product has a durability similar to Pyrex glass

  13. High performance Li3V2(PO4)3/C composite cathode material for lithium ion batteries studied in pilot scale test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhenyu; Dai Changsong; Wu Gang; Nelson, Mark; Hu Xinguo; Zhang Ruoxin; Liu Jiansheng; Xia Jicai

    2010-01-01

    Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C composite cathode material was synthesized via carbothermal reduction process in a pilot scale production test using battery grade raw materials with the aim of studying the feasibility for their practical applications. XRD, FT-IR, XPS, CV, EIS and battery charge-discharge tests were used to characterize the as-prepared material. The XRD and FT-IR data suggested that the as-prepared Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C material exhibits an orderly monoclinic structure based on the connectivity of PO 4 tetrahedra and VO 6 octahedra. Half cell tests indicated that an excellent high-rate cyclic performance was achieved on the Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C cathodes in the voltage range of 3.0-4.3 V, retaining a capacity of 95% (96 mAh/g) after 100 cycles at 20C discharge rate. The low-temperature performance of the cathode was further evaluated, showing 0.5C discharge capacity of 122 and 119 mAh/g at -25 and -40 o C, respectively. The discharge capacity of graphite//Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 batteries with a designed battery capacity of 14 Ah is as high as 109 mAh/g with a capacity retention of 92% after 224 cycles at 2C discharge rates. The promising high-rate and low-temperature performance observed in this work suggests that Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C is a very strong candidate to be a cathode in a next-generation Li-ion battery for electric vehicle applications.

  14. Cost effective pilot scale production of biofertilizer using Rhizobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We standardized the protocol for pilot scale production of Rhizobium and Azotobacter biofertilizer technology using region specific and environmental stress compatible strains isolated from various agro climatic regions of Odisha, India. The cost benefit of biofertilizer production through a cottage industry is also presented.

  15. Are Virtual Rehabilitation Technologies Feasible Models to Scale an Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Program? A Pilot Study Using the Kinect Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, Tiffany E; Basnett, Jeanna; Chokshi, Anang; Barrett, Mark; Komatireddy, Ravi

    2015-11-05

    Falls in older adults are a significant public health issue. Interventions have been developed and proven effective to reduce falls in older adults, but these programs typically last several months and can be resource intensive. Virtual rehabilitation technologies may offer a solution to bring these programs to scale. Off-the-shelf and custom exergames have demonstrated to be a feasible adjunct to rehabilitation with older adults. However, it is not known if older adults will be able or willing to use a virtual rehabilitation technology to participate in an evidence-based fall prevention program. To have the greatest impact, virtual rehabilitation technologies need to be acceptable to older adults from different backgrounds and level of fall risk. If these technologies prove to be a feasible option, they offer a new distribution channel to disseminate fall prevention programs. Stand Tall (ST) is a virtual translation of the Otago Exercise Program (OEP), an evidence-based fall prevention program. Stand Tall was developed using the Virtual Exercise Rehabilitation Assistant (VERA) software, which uses a Kinect camera and a laptop to deliver physical therapy exercise programs. Our purpose in this pilot study was to explore if ST could be a feasible platform to deliver the OEP to older adults from a variety of fall risk levels, education backgrounds, and self-described level of computer expertise. Adults age 60 and over were recruited to participate in a one-time usability study. The study included orientation to the program, navigation to exercises, and completion of a series of strength and balance exercises. Quantitative analysis described participants and the user experience. A diverse group of individuals participated in the study. Twenty-one potential participants (14 women, 7 men) met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 69.2 (± 5.8) years, 38% had a high school education, 24% had a graduate degree, and 66% classified as "at risk for falls". Eighteen

  16. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  17. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  18. The efficacy of a commercial competitive exclusion product on Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneitz, C; Hakkinen, M

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of the commercial competitive exclusion product Broilact against Campylobacter jejuni was evaluated in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study. Newly-hatched broiler chicks were brought from a commercial hatchery. After arrival 50 seeder chicks were challenged orally with approximately 10(3) cfu of C. jejuni, wing marked, and placed back in a delivery box and moved to a separate room. The rest of the chicks (contact chicks) were placed in floor pens, 100 chicks per pen. Birds in two pens were treated orally on the day of hatch with the commercial competitive exclusion (CE) product Broilact, and three pens were left untreated. The following day 10 seeder chicks were introduced into the Broilact treated and untreated control pens. One pen was left both untreated and unchallenged (0-control). Each week the ceca of 10 contact chicks and one seeder chick were examined quantitatively for Campylobacter The treatment prevented or significantly reduced the colonization of the challenge organism in the ceca during the two first weeks; the percentage of colonized birds being 0% after the first week and 30% after the second week in the Broilact treated groups but was 100% in the control groups the entire 5-week rearing period. During the third rearing week the proportion of Campylobacter positive birds started to increase in the treated pens, being 80% after the third week and 95 and 90% after the fourth and fifth rearing weeks, respectively. Similarly the average count of Campylobacter in the cecal contents of the Broilact treated chicks started to increase, the difference between the treated and control chicks being 1.4 logs at the end of the rearing period. Although the protective effect was temporary and occurred only during the first two weeks of the rearing period, the results of this study support the earlier observations that CE flora designed to protect chicks from Salmonella may also reduce Campylobacter colonization of broiler chickens. © The

  19. Pilot-scale tests of HEME and HEPA dissolution process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Z.H.; Strege, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    A series of pilot-scale demonstration tests for the dissolution of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (BEME's) and High Efficiency Particulate Airfilters (BEPA) were performed on a 1/5th linear scale. These filters are to be used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to decontaminate the effluents from the off-gases generated during the feed preparation process and vitrification. When removed, these radioactively contaminated filters will be dissolved using caustic solutions. As a result of these tests, a simple dissolution process was developed. In this process, the contaminated filter is first immersed in boiling 5% caustic solution for 24 hours and then water is sprayed on the filter. These steps break down the filter first chemically and then mechanically. The metal cage is rinsed and considered low level waste. The dissolved filter is pumpable and mixed with high level waste. Compared to earlier dissolution studies using caustic-acid-caustic solutions, the proposed method represents a 66% savings in cycle time and amount of liquid waste generated. This paper provides the details of filter mockups and results of the dissolution tests

  20. Poly aniline synthesized in pilot scale: structural and morphological characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzeu, Maria Alice Carvalho; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento, E-mail: aie.mzz@hotmail.com [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Gama, Adriana Medeiros [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Faria, Lohana Komorek [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Among various conducting polymers, poly aniline (PAni) has received wide-spread attention because of its outstanding properties including simple and reversible doping–dedoping chemistry, stable electrical conduction mechanisms, high environmental stability and ease of synthesis [1]. Increasing applications require PAni at industrial scale and optimization of manufacturing processes are essential for this purpose. Since pilot scale influences hydrodynamics of the polymerizations system [2], pilot scale is an important instrument for evaluating amendments in the process. In this work, polyaniline was synthesized on pilot scale, with variation of reaction time for every synthesis, keeping the other parameters unchanged. The PAni salt first obtained was dedoped and the PAni-B (PAni in a base form, nonconductive) obtained was redoped with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA), when PAni-DBSA (PAni in a salt form, conductive) is obtained. The effects of synthesis conditions on the structural and morphological characteristics of PAni-B and PAni-DBSA are investigate by Raman Spectroscopy, XRD (X-ray diffractometer) and SEM (Scanning electron microscopy). Electrical conductivity was determined to redoped samples. Results were analyzed and we compare PAni forms to identifying the doping structure to PAni-DBSA by Raman spectroscopy. It was found too that reaction time can give some influence at conductivity. The XRD result showed differences in crystalline peaks of PAni-B and PAni-DBSA and this difference could be attributed mainly to the redoping process. Whereas the formation of crystals on a pilot scale may change because of effects caused by water flow, speed of polymerization could affect the formation of crystals too. The SEM pictures to PAni-B showed tiny coral reefs with globules structure and PAni-DBSA showed multilayer structure. References: 1 - Fratoddia I. et al. Sensors and Actuators B 220: 534–548 (2015); 2 - Roichman Y et al. Synthetic Metals 98

  1. Technology for Large-Scale Translation of Clinical Practice Guidelines: A Pilot Study of the Performance of a Hybrid Human and Computer-Assisted Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Stijn; Macken, Lieve; Vanneste, Koen; Goossens, Martine; Vanschoenbeek, Jan; Aertgeerts, Bert; Vanopstal, Klaar; Vander Stichele, Robert; Buysschaert, Joost

    2015-10-09

    The construction of EBMPracticeNet, a national electronic point-of-care information platform in Belgium, began in 2011 to optimize quality of care by promoting evidence-based decision making. The project involved, among other tasks, the translation of 940 EBM Guidelines of Duodecim Medical Publications from English into Dutch and French. Considering the scale of the translation process, it was decided to make use of computer-aided translation performed by certificated translators with limited expertise in medical translation. Our consortium used a hybrid approach, involving a human translator supported by a translation memory (using SDL Trados Studio), terminology recognition (using SDL MultiTerm terminology databases) from medical terminology databases, and support from online machine translation. This resulted in a validated translation memory, which is now in use for the translation of new and updated guidelines. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the performance of the hybrid human and computer-assisted approach in comparison with translation unsupported by translation memory and terminology recognition. A comparison was also made with the translation efficiency of an expert medical translator. We conducted a pilot study in which two sets of 30 new and 30 updated guidelines were randomized to one of three groups. Comparable guidelines were translated (1) by certificated junior translators without medical specialization using the hybrid method, (2) by an experienced medical translator without this support, and (3) by the same junior translators without the support of the validated translation memory. A medical proofreader who was blinded for the translation procedure, evaluated the translated guidelines for acceptability and adequacy. Translation speed was measured by recording translation and post-editing time. The human translation edit rate was calculated as a metric to evaluate the quality of the translation. A further evaluation was made of

  2. A Trustworthiness of Commercial Airline Pilots (T-CAP) Scale for American Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Stephen C; Mehta, Rian; Winter, Scott; Oyman, Korhan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a Trustworthiness of Commercial Airline Pilots (T-CAP) scale that could be used with American participants. Previous research (Rice, Mehta, Steelman, & Winter, 2014) created a similar scale that may be used with Indian participants. However, due to cultural differences, it was necessary to recreate an instrument that could be used with American consumers. In fact, the scale developed by American participants did differ significantly, both in terms of le...

  3. Preliminary approach to the construction of a Scale of Adherence to the Principles of Criminal Law (SAPCL. A pilot study in the Greater Metropolitan area of Concepción, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Javier Fuentealba Carrasco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the psychometric properties of the “Scale of adherence to the principles of Criminal Law” of a pilot study applied to a consecutive sample of 369 cases in the Greater Metropolitan Area of Concepción, Chile. The logic behind the construction of the instrument and its structure is described, focusing on exposing the properties of construct validity through EFA and convergent validity through an inverse correlation with a scale of perceived insecurity. In terms of reliability, we present Cronbach’s Alpha for the General Scale and for each subscale generated. It concludes with the scope, limitations and projections of the scale, as well as suggestions for its expansion and potential for application in other contexts.

  4. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: SOIL STABILIZATION PILOT STUDY, UNITED CHROME NPL SITE PILOT STUDY AND HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAM, UNITED CHROME NPL SITE PILOT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is a project plan for a pilot study at the United Chrome NPL site, Corvallis, Oregon and includes the health and safety and quality assurance/quality control plans. The plan reports results of a bench-scale study of the treatment process as iieasured by the ...

  5. Pilot-scale testing membrane bioreactor for wastewater reclamation in industrial laundry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin; Kristensen, Gert Holm; Brynjolf, M.

    2002-01-01

    A pilot-scale study of membrane bioreactor treatment for reclamation of wastewater from Berendsen Textile Service industrial laundry in Søborg, Denmark was carried out over a 4 month period. A satisfactory COD degradation was performed resulting in a low COD in the permeate (

  6. Pilot-scale demonstration of SPORL for bioconversion of lodgepole pine to bioethanol and lignosulfonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haifeng Zhou; Junyong Zhu; Roland Gleisner; Xueqing Qiu; Eric Horn; Jose Negron

    2016-01-01

    The process sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) has been the focus of this study. Pilot-scale (50 kg) pretreatment of wood chips of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) killed by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were conducted at 165°C...

  7. Fractionation of milk proteins on pilot scale with particular focus on β-casein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thienel, Katharina J.F.; Holder, Aline; Schubert, Thomas; Boom, Remko M.; Hinrichs, Jörg; Atamer, Zeynep

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the yield and purity of casein fractions at pilot scale and determine the main process parameters influencing the isolation of β-casein, such as cold extraction time, separation speed. The fractions were obtained from micellar casein by means of selective

  8. 90% Compliance Pilot Studies Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    In early 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced an opportunity for states to participate in energy code compliance evaluation pilot studies. DOE worked with five Regional Energy Efficiency Organizations (REEOs, formerly referred to as Energy Efficiency Partnerships, or EEPs) to fund pilot studies covering nine states. This report details conclusions stated in individual state reports, as well as conclusions drawn by DOE based on their oversight of the pilot studies, and based on discussions held with the REEOs and representatives from the pilot study states and their contractors.

  9. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Lactobacillus brevis in Low-fat Milk by Pulsed Electric Field Treatment: A Pilot-scale Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bok Kung; Choi, Hyuk Joon; Kang, Shin Ho; Baick, Seung Chun

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on microbial inactivation and the physical properties of low-fat milk. Milk inoculated with Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or Lactobacillus brevis was supplied to a pilot-scale PEF treatment system at a flow rate of 30 L/h. Pulses with an electric field strength of 10 kV/cm and a pulse width of 30 μs were applied to the milk with total pulse energies of 50-250 kJ/L achieved by varying the pulse frequency. The inactivation curves of the test microorganisms were biphasic with an initial lag phase (or shoulder) followed by a phase of rapid inactivation. PEF treatments with a total pulse energy of 200 kJ/L resulted in a 4.5-log reduction in E. coli, a 4.4-log reduction in L. brevis, and a 6.0-log reduction in S. cerevisiae. Total pulse energies of 200 and 250 kJ/L resulted in greater than 5-log reductions in microbial counts in stored PEF-treated milk, and the growth of surviving microorganisms was slow during storage for 15 d at 4℃. PEF treatment did not change milk physical properties such as pH, color, or particle-size distribution (pelectric-field strength of 10 kV/cm can be used to pasteurize low-fat milk. PMID:26877640

  10. Pilot Studies of Geologic and Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in the Big Sky Region, USA, and Opportunities for Commercial Scale Deployment of New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, L. A.; Capalbo, S. M.; Talbott, J.

    2007-05-01

    Within the Big Sky region, including Montana, Idaho, South Dakota, Wyoming and the Pacific Northwest, industry is developing new coal-fired power plants using the abundant coal and other fossil-based resources. Of crucial importance to future development programs are robust carbon mitigation plans that include a technical and economic assessment of regional carbon sequestration opportunities. The objective of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) is to promote the development of a regional framework and infrastructure required to validate and deploy carbon sequestration technologies. Initial work compiled sources and potential sinks for carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Big Sky Region and developed the online Carbon Atlas. Current efforts couple geologic and terrestrial field validation tests with market assessments, economic analysis and regulatory and public outreach. The primary geological efforts are in the demonstration of carbon storage in mafic/basalt formations, a geology not yet well characterized but with significant long-term storage potential in the region and other parts of the world; and in the Madison Formation, a large carbonate aquifer in Wyoming and Montana. Terrestrial sequestration relies on management practices and technologies to remove atmospheric CO2 to storage in trees, plants, and soil. This indirect sequestration method can be implemented today and is on the front-line of voluntary, market-based approaches to reduce CO2 emissions. Details of pilot projects are presented including: new technologies, challenges and successes of projects and potential for commercial-scale deployment.

  11. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Lactobacillus brevis in Low-fat Milk by Pulsed Electric Field Treatment: A Pilot-scale Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gun Joon; Han, Bok Kung; Choi, Hyuk Joon; Kang, Shin Ho; Baick, Seung Chun; Lee, Dong-Un

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on microbial inactivation and the physical properties of low-fat milk. Milk inoculated with Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or Lactobacillus brevis was supplied to a pilot-scale PEF treatment system at a flow rate of 30 L/h. Pulses with an electric field strength of 10 kV/cm and a pulse width of 30 μs were applied to the milk with total pulse energies of 50-250 kJ/L achieved by varying the pulse frequency. The inactivation curves of the test microorganisms were biphasic with an initial lag phase (or shoulder) followed by a phase of rapid inactivation. PEF treatments with a total pulse energy of 200 kJ/L resulted in a 4.5-log reduction in E. coli, a 4.4-log reduction in L. brevis, and a 6.0-log reduction in S. cerevisiae. Total pulse energies of 200 and 250 kJ/L resulted in greater than 5-log reductions in microbial counts in stored PEF-treated milk, and the growth of surviving microorganisms was slow during storage for 15 d at 4℃. PEF treatment did not change milk physical properties such as pH, color, or particle-size distribution (ppasteurize low-fat milk.

  12. Application of Radiation Degraded Chitosan as Plant Growth Promoter. A Pilot Scale Production and Field Trial Study of Radiation Processed Chitosan as Plant Growth Promoter for Rice Crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd; Hashim, Kamaruddin; Bahari, Kamarudin

    2010-01-01

    The application of radiation processed chitosan as plant growth promoter has been carried out in the 24 hectares of rice crops. For the field trial, a pilot scale production of oligochitosan was established using gamma irradiation for partial degradation of chitosan powder of DDA 90% and followed by gamma irradiation of aqueous solution of 3% irradiated chitosan powder in 2% lactic acids (3CL2). Radiation dose of 50 kGy was selected for initial degradation of chitosan powder and followed by 12 kGy irradiation of 3CL2. A viscosity average molecular weight of ~10,000 of oligochitosan was obtained and subsequently used in the field trial of MR219 type of rice seeds on 24 hectares of rice plots. The seedlings were carried out after the rice seeds were soaked 24hrs in water and 30 minutes in 200ppm oligochitosan. The rice plots that were sprayed with oligochitosan were found to have higher resistant towards blast diseases. Oligochitosan of 40ppm was found to be effective as fungicides and resulted in the increase of yield of rice seeds of about 5%. (author)

  13. TBT-contaminated sediments. Treatment in a pilot scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stichnothe, H.; Calmano, W.; Arevalo, E.; Keller, A.; Thoeming, J. [Hamburg Univ. of Technology, Dept. Environmental Science and Technology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Background, aims and scope. Sediments in harbours and nearby shipyards demonstrate widespread contamination with tributyltin (TBT). Therefore, reuse and relocation of dredged material from these locations are prohibited. Even if the international marine organization (IMO) convention concerning TBT-based paints is ratified (champ 2003) the TBT problem in sediments will continue to remain for many years due to the persistence of TBT. Methods. An electrochemical process has been developed to treat polluted sediments. Dredged materials with high and low TBT-contents were studied on a technical and a pilot scale. The treatment process was assessed by chemical analysis and a biotest battery. Additionally, an economic analysis was performed to check the economic feasibility of the process to treat dredged material from two different locations at different operating conditions. Furthermore an up-scaling estimation was performed to evaluate treatment costs at a larger scale, i.e. for a plant having a capacity of 720,000 t/a. Results and discussion. Butyltin species and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were decomposed due to electrochemically-induced oxidation, while the treatment did not alter heavy metal and PCB concentrations. The bacteria luminescence test indicated a reduced toxicity after the electrochemical treatment, while the algae growth inhibition test and bacteria contact test did not confirm these results. Based on a small consumer price of Euro 0.12/kWh, treating the high-contaminated sediment in the pilot plant would cost Euro 21/m{sup 3} and Euro 31/m{sup 3} for the low contaminated sediment, respectively. Assuming an industrial consumer price of Euro 0.06/kWh for electricity in an up-scaled process with a capacity of 720,000 t/a, the total treatment costs for the low contaminated sediment would be Euro 13/m{sup 3}. Conclusion. The results of treating dredged material from Bremerhaven and the fine-grained fraction from the METHA plant show that the

  14. In situ vitrification pilot-scale radioactive test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, C.L.; Oma, K.H.

    1984-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing in situ vitrification (ISV) as an in-place stabilization technique for selected liquid radioactive waste disposal sites. The process melts the wastes and surrounding soil to produce a durable glass and crystalline waste form. These ISV process development testing and evaluation studies are being conducted for the US Department of Energy. The results of an ISV pilot-scale test conducted in June of 1983 in which soils contaminated with actual radioactive transuranic and mixed fission product elements were vitrified are discussed. The primary objectives of the radioactive test were to: demonstrate containment and confinement of the radioactive material; verify equipment performance of the power and off-gas systems; identify losses to the off-gas system; and characterize the behavior of the radioactive material in the vitrified soil. The test successfully demonstrated the processing containment of radionuclides both within the vitrified mass and in the off-gas system. No environmental release of radioactive material was measured during testing operations. The vitrified soil had a greater than 99% retention of all radionuclides. Losses to the off-gas system varied from less than or equal to 0.03% for particulate materials (plutonium and strontium) to 0.8% for cesium which is a more volatile element. The off-gas system effectively contained both volatile and entrained radioactive materials. Analysis of the vitrified soil revealed that all radionuclides were distributed throughout the vitrified zone, some more uniformly than others. No migration of radionuclides outside the vitrification zone occurred, as indicated by analysis of soil samples from around the block. Previous waste form leaching studies indicate an acceptable durability of the ISV product. 8 references, 34 figures, 8 tables

  15. In situ vitrification pilot-scale radioactive test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmerman, C.L.; Oma, K.H.

    1984-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing in situ vitrification (ISV) as an in-place stabilization technique for selected liquid radioactive waste disposal sites. The process melts the wastes and surrounding soil to produce a durable glass and crystalline waste form. These ISV process development testing and evaluation studies are being conducted for the US Department of Energy. The results of an ISV pilot-scale test conducted in June of 1983 in which soils contaminated with actual radioactive transuranic and mixed fission product elements were vitrified are discussed. The primary objectives of the radioactive test were to: demonstrate containment and confinement of the radioactive material; verify equipment performance of the power and off-gas systems; identify losses to the off-gas system; and characterize the behavior of the radioactive material in the vitrified soil. The test successfully demonstrated the processing containment of radionuclides both within the vitrified mass and in the off-gas system. No environmental release of radioactive material was measured during testing operations. The vitrified soil had a greater than 99% retention of all radionuclides. Losses to the off-gas system varied from less than or equal to 0.03% for particulate materials (plutonium and strontium) to 0.8% for cesium which is a more volatile element. The off-gas system effectively contained both volatile and entrained radioactive materials. Analysis of the vitrified soil revealed that all radionuclides were distributed throughout the vitrified zone, some more uniformly than others. No migration of radionuclides outside the vitrification zone occurred, as indicated by analysis of soil samples from around the block. Previous waste form leaching studies indicate an acceptable durability of the ISV product. 8 references, 34 figures, 8 tables.

  16. Assessment of the effects of scaling and root planing on blood glucose levels in type II diabetes patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Rieyazulhuq Shaikh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of the scaling and root planing of some blood glucose levels in Type II Diabetes patients. Study Population and Methods: The clinical study was conducted in 15 Type II diabetic patients of Dr. D Y Patil Dental College and Hospital, Pimpri, Pune. All the participants underwent a baseline examination for periodontal status using the community periodontal index of treatment needs and also estimation of fasting and post-prandial blood sugar levels. The participants received the intervention of scaling and root planing, as also routine oral hygiene instructions, and were recalled after one month for a final periodontal examination and blood sugar level investigation. The significance of difference between the means of the baseline and the final examination was tested using the paired ′t′ test. Results and Conclusion: There was no significant change in the fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels in patients treated with scaling and root planing.

  17. A pilot-scale radioactive test using in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, C.L.; Oma, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing in situ vitrification (ISV) as a potential remedial action technique for previously disposed radioactive liquid drain sites. The process melts the contaminated soil to produce a durable glass and crystalline waste form and encapsulates the radionuclides. The development of this alternative technology is being performed for the US Department of Energy. The results of an ISV pilot-scale test conducted in June 1983 are discussed in which soils contaminated with actual radioactive transuranic and mixed fission product elements were vitrified. The test successfully demonstrated the containment of radionuclides during processing, both within the vitrified mass and in the off-gas system. No environmental release of radioactive material was detectable during testing operations. The vitrified soil retained >99% of all radionuclides. Losses to the offgas system varied from less than or equal to 0.03% for particulate materials (plutonium and strontium) to 0.8% for cesium, which is a more volatile element. The off-gas system effectively contained both volatile and entrained radioactive materials. Analysis of the vitrified soil revealed that all radionuclides were distributed throughout the vitrified zone, some more uniformly than others. Analysis of soil samples taken adjacent to the block indicated that no migration of radionuclides outside the vitrification zone occurred. Leaching studies have shown that the ISV process generates a highly durable waste form, comparable to Pyrex and granite. Based on geologic data from the hydration of obsidian, which is chemically similar to the ISV glass, the hydration or weathering rate is predicted to be much less than 1 mm in 10,000 yr

  18. Liverpool Telecare Pilot: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Barnes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Telecare services use information and communications technology (ICT to support the provision of care to people in their own homes. This paper describes a pilot telecare service employed by Liverpool (UK City Council to support a sample of their frail and elderly social services users. The pilot has been running for over two years and has been deployed for 21 individuals in Liverpool. In this paper we present the pilot system and provide real example cases which help to illustrate the benefits of such a system.

  19. Recovery of cellulase activity after ethanol stripping in a novel pilot-scale unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia; Christensen, Børge Holm; Felby, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Recycling of enzymes has a potential interest during cellulosic bioethanol production as purchasing enzymes is one of the largest expenses in the process. By recycling enzymes after distillation, loss of sugars and ethanol are avoided, but depending on the distillation temperature......, there is a potential risk of enzyme degradation. Studies of the rate of enzyme denaturation based on estimation of the denaturation constant K D was performed using a novel distillation setup allowing stripping of ethanol at 50–65 °C. Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale stripper, where the effect...... of temperature (55–65 °C) and exposure to gas–liquid and liquid–heat transmission interfaces were tested on a mesophilic and thermostable enzyme mixture in fiber beer and buffer. Lab-scale tests were included in addition to the pilot-scale experiments to study the effect of shear, ethanol concentration, and PEG...

  20. Partial gasification of coal in a fluidized bed reactor: Comparison of a laboratory and pilot scale reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, R.; Shen, L.H.; Zhang, M.Y.; Jin, B.S.; Xiong, Y.Q.; Duan, Y.F.; Zhong, Z.P.; Zhou, H.C.; Chen, X.P.; Huang, Y.J. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China)

    2007-01-15

    A 0.1 MWth lab-scale and 2 MWth pilot-scale experimental rigs were constructed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a new process. The aim of the lab-scale study is to optimize coal partial gasification reactions operating conditions, which were applied in the pilot-scale tests. A comparison between the laboratory and pilot scale experimental results is presented in this paper in order to provide valuable information for scaling-up of the PFB coal partial reactor to industrial applications. The results show that trends and phenomena obtained in the laboratory reactor are confirmed in a pilot plant operating at similar conditions. However, many differences are observed in the two reactors. The higher heat loss in the lab-scale reactor is responsible for higher equivalence ratio (ER) and lower gas heating value at the similar reactor temperature. With respect to the pilot-scale reactor, mass transfer limitation between bubbles and emulsion phase may become important. Hence, longer contact time is required to achieve the same conversions as in the lab-scale reactor. This difference is explained by a significant change of the hydrodynamic conditions due to the formation of larger bubbles.

  1. Exploring the validity and statistical utility of a racism scale among Black men who have sex with men: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William Pastor

    2013-09-01

    The primary purpose of this two-phased study was to examine the structural validity and statistical utility of a racism scale specific to Black men who have sex with men (MSM) who resided in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area and Baltimore, Maryland. Phase I involved pretesting a 10-item racism measure with 20 Black MSM. Based on pretest findings, the scale was adapted into a 21-item racism scale for use in collecting data on 166 respondents in Phase II. Exploratory factor analysis of the 21-item racism scale resulted in a 19-item, two-factor solution. The two factors or subscales were the following: General Racism and Relationships and Racism. Confirmatory factor analysis was used in testing construct validity of the factored racism scale. Specifically, the two racism factors were combined with three homophobia factors into a confirmatory factor analysis model. Based on a summary of the fit indices, both comparative and incremental were equal to .90, suggesting an adequate convergence of the racism and homophobia dimensions into a single social oppression construct. Statistical utility of the two racism subscales was demonstrated when regression analysis revealed that the gay-identified men versus bisexual-identified men in the sample were more likely to experience increased racism within the context of intimate relationships and less likely to be exposed to repeated experiences of general racism. Overall, the findings in this study highlight the importance of continuing to explore the psychometric properties of a racism scale that accounts for the unique psychosocial concerns experienced by Black MSM.

  2. The Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale modified for palliative care inpatients (RASS-PAL): a pilot study exploring validity and feasibility in clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, Shirley H; Grassau, Pamela A; Yarmo, Michelle N; Zhang, Tinghua; Zinkie, Samantha J; Pereira, José L

    2014-01-01

    Background The Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS), which assesses level of sedation and agitation, is a simple observational instrument which was developed and validated for the intensive care setting. Although used and recommended in palliative care settings, further validation is required in this patient population. The aim of this study was to explore the validity and feasibility of a version of the RASS modified for palliative care populations (RASS-PAL). Methods A prospective study...

  3. Performance of electrodialysis reversal and reverse osmosis for reclaiming wastewater from high-tech industrial parks in Taiwan: A pilot-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Feng-Chi; You, Sheng-Jie; Chang, Tien-Chin

    2017-02-01

    Wastewater reclamation is considered an absolute necessity in Taiwan, as numerous industrial parks experience water shortage. However, the water quality of secondary treated effluents from sewage treatment plants generally does not meet the requirements of industrial water use because of the high inorganic constituents. This paper reports experimental data from a pilot-plant study of two treatment processes-(i) fiber filtration (FF)-ultrafiltration (UF)-reverse osmosis (RO) and (ii) sand filtration (SF)-electrodialysis reversal (EDR)-for treating industrial high conductivity effluents from the Xianxi wastewater treatment plant in Taiwan. The results demonstrated that FF-UF was excellent for turbidity removal and it was a suitable pretreatment process for RO. The influence of two membrane materials on the operating characteristics and process stability of the UF process was determined. The treatment performance of FF-UF-RO was higher than that of SF-EDR with an average desalination rate of 97%, a permeate conductivity of 272.7 ± 32.0, turbidity of 0.183 ± 0.02 NTU and a chemical oxigen demand of <4.5 mg/L. The cost analysis for both processes in a water reclamation plant of 4000 m 3 /d capacity revealed that using FF-UF-RO had a lower treatment cost than using SF-EDR, which required activated carbon filtration as a post treatment process. On the basis of the results in this study, the FF-UF-RO system is recommended as a potential process for additional applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pilot plant study for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J S [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    Most of domestic alcohol fermentation factory adopt batch process of which productivity is lower than continuous fermentation process. They have made great effort to increase productivity by means of partial unit process automatization and process improvement with their accumulated experience but there is technical limitation in productivity of batch fermentation process. To produce and supply fuel alcohol, economic aspects must be considered first of all. Therefore, development of continuous fermentation process, of which productivity is high, is prerequisite to produce and use fuel alcohol but only a few foreign company possess continuous fermentation technic and use it in practical industrial scale fermentation. We constructed pilot plant (5 Stage CSTR 1 kl 99.5 v/v% ethanol/Day scale) to study some aspects stated below and our ultimate aims are production of industrial scale fuel alcohol and construction of the plant by ourselves. Some study concerned with energy saving separation and contamination control technic were entrusted to KAIST, A-ju university and KIST respectively. (author) 67 refs., 100 figs., 58 tabs.

  5. Eliciting preferences for priority setting in genetic testing: a pilot study comparing best-worst scaling and discrete-choice experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Severin, Franziska; Schmidtke, Jörg; Mühlbacher, Axel; Rogowski, Wolf H

    2013-01-01

    Given the increasing number of genetic tests available, decisions have to be made on how to allocate limited health-care resources to them. Different criteria have been proposed to guide priority setting. However, their relative importance is unclear. Discrete-choice experiments (DCEs) and best-worst scaling experiments (BWSs) are methods used to identify and weight various criteria that influence orders of priority. This study tests whether these preference eliciting techniques can be used f...

  6. SAES St 909 pilot scale methane cracking tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J. E.; Sessions, H. T.

    2008-01-01

    Pilot scale (0.5 kg) SAES St 909 methane cracking tests were conducted for potential tritium process applications. Up to 1400 hours tests were done at 700 deg.C, 202.7 kPa (1520 torr) with a 0.03 sLPM feed of methane plus impurities, in a 20 vol% hydrogen, balance helium, stream. Carbon dioxide gettered by St 909 can be equated to an equivalent amount of methane gettered, but equating nitrogen to an equivalent amount of methane was nitrogen feed composition dependent. A decreased hydrogen feed increased methane getter rates while a 30 deg.C drop in one furnace zone increased methane emissions by over a factor of 30. The impact of gettered nitrogen can be somewhat minimized if nitrogen feed to the bed has been stopped and sufficient time given to recover the methane cracking rate. (authors)

  7. Pilot scale simulation of cokemaking in integrated steelworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, M.; Andriopoulos, N.; Keating, J.; Loo, C.E.; McGuire, S. [Newcastle Technology Centre, Wallsend (Australia)

    2005-12-01

    Pilot scale coke ovens are widely used to produce coke samples for characterisation and also to assess the coking behaviour of coal blends. The Newcastle Technology Centre of BHP Billiton has built a sophisticated 400 kg oven, which can produce cokes under a range of carefully controlled bulk densities and heating rates. A freely movable heating wall allows the thrust generated at this wall at the different stages of coking oven to be determined. This paper describes comparative work carried out to determine a laboratory stabilisation technique for laboratory cokes. The strength of stabilised cokes are characterised using a number of tumble tests, and correlations between different drum sizes are also given since a major constraint in laboratory testing is the limitation in the mass of sample available. Typical oven wall pressure results, and results obtained from embedded temperature and pressure probes in the charge during coking, are also presented.

  8. Flow characteristics of a pilot-scale high temperature, short time pasteurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasula, P M; Kozempel, M F

    2004-09-01

    In this study, we present a method for determining the fastest moving particle (FMP) and residence time distribution (RTD) in a pilot-scale high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurizer to ensure that laboratory or pilot-scale HTST apparatus meets the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance standards for pasteurization of milk and can be used for obtaining thermal inactivation data. The overall dimensions of the plate in the pasteurizer were 75 x 115 mm, with a thickness of 0.5 mm and effective diameter of 3.0 mm. The pasteurizer was equipped with nominal 21.5- and 52.2-s hold tubes, and flow capacity was variable from 0 to 20 L/h. Tracer studies were used to determine FMP times and RTD data to establish flow characteristics. Using brine milk as tracer, the FMP time for the short holding section was 18.6 s and for the long holding section was 36 s at 72 degrees C, compared with the nominal times of 21.5 and 52.2 s, respectively. The RTD study indicates that the short hold section was 45% back mixed and 55% plug flow for whole milk at 72 degrees C. The long hold section was 91% plug and 9% back mixed for whole milk at 72 degrees C. This study demonstrates that continuous laboratory and pilot-scale pasteurizers may be used to study inactivation of microorganisms only if the flow conditions in the holding tube are established for comparison with commercial HTST systems.

  9. Winter Maintenance Wash-Water Heavy Metal Removal Pilot Scale Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To encourage sustainable engineering practices, departments of transportation are interested in reusing winter maintenance truck wash water as part of their brine production and future road application. Traffic-related metals in the wash water, however, could limit this option. The objective of this work was to conduct a pilot scale evaluation of heavy metal (copper, zinc, iron, and lead removal in a filtration unit (maximum flow rate of 45 L/minute containing proprietary (MAR Systems Sorbster® media. Three different trials were conducted and approximately 10,000 L of wash water collected from a winter maintenance facility in Ohio was treated with the pilot unit. Lab studies were also performed on six wash-water samples from multiple facilities to assess particle size removal and estimate settling time as a potential removal mechanism during wash-water storage. Pilot unit total metal removal efficiencies were 79%, 77%, 63%, and 94% for copper, zinc, iron, and lead, respectively. Particle settling calculation estimates for copper and zinc show that 10 hours in storage can also effectively reduce heavy metal concentrations in winter maintenance wash water in excess of 70%. These pilot scale results show promise for reducing heavy metal concentrations to an acceptable level for reuse.

  10. Ethanol dehydration via azeotropic distillation with gasoline fraction mixtures as entrainers: A pilot-scale study with industrially produced bioethanol and naphta

    OpenAIRE

    Gomis Yagües, Vicente; Pedraza Berenguer, Ricardo; Saquete Ferrándiz, María Dolores; Font, Alicia; Garcia-Cano, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Various hydrocarbons (n-hexane, cyclohexane, toluene, isooctane) and mixtures of them (binary, ternary or quaternary), as well as two different types of industrially produced naphtha (one obtained by direct distillation and the other from a catalytic cracking process), have been tested as candidate entrainers to dehydrate ethanol. The tests were carried out in an azeotropic distillation column on a semi pilot plant. The results show that it is possible to dehydrate bioethanol using naphtha as...

  11. Food irradiation process control and acceptance. Regional UNDP project for Asia and the Pacific, mission undertaken in Vietnam. Food irradiation programme planning facility operation and pilot scale studies RPFI-Phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the Government of Vietnam, the FAO/IAEA expert undertook a one-week mission to Vietnam between 16 and 23 March 1991, to the Hanoi Irradiation Center of the Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission. This mission included the following: The expert inspected the new Soviet automated, dry storage pilot plant gamma irradiator in the final stages of construction on the outskirts of Hanoi, and met with senior staff of the Hanoi Irradiation Center plus the Center specialized groups to hear and take note of their progress, problems and materials and manpower training expectations, etc. A tour of a large rice and vegetable growing cooperative outside Hanoi was made, followed by a meeting with members of the Cooperative's governing body. This cooperative will participate in pilot scale food irradiation feasibility studies once the new irradiator is operational. The expert provided a technical seminar to the Hanoi Irradiation Center staff, plus a general seminar to members of the Consumers Union of Vietnam plus invited guests, on radiation processing in general and food irradiation in particular, during the week. The expert accompanied Irradiation Center staff to Haiphong to visit the National Institute for Marine Products Research plus two Government-run fishery products processing plants in connection with the marine products side of the national food irradiation programme. He was accompanied to a meeting at the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry to meet with the Vice-Minister and staff plus food and allied industry representatives. (author)

  12. Complexity and Pilot Workload Metrics for the Evaluation of Adaptive Flight Controls on a Full Scale Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Schaefer, Jacob; Burken, John J.; Larson, David; Johnson, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Flight research has shown the effectiveness of adaptive flight controls for improving aircraft safety and performance in the presence of uncertainties. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA)'s Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) project designed and conducted a series of flight experiments to study the impact of variations in adaptive controller design complexity on performance and handling qualities. A novel complexity metric was devised to compare the degrees of simplicity achieved in three variations of a model reference adaptive controller (MRAC) for NASA's F-18 (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (Gen-2A) aircraft. The complexity measures of these controllers are also compared to that of an earlier MRAC design for NASA's Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project and flown on a highly modified F-15 aircraft (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois). Pilot comments during the IRAC research flights pointed to the importance of workload on handling qualities ratings for failure and damage scenarios. Modifications to existing pilot aggressiveness and duty cycle metrics are presented and applied to the IRAC controllers. Finally, while adaptive controllers may alleviate the effects of failures or damage on an aircraft's handling qualities, they also have the potential to introduce annoying changes to the flight dynamics or to the operation of aircraft systems. A nuisance rating scale is presented for the categorization of nuisance side-effects of adaptive controllers.

  13. Comparison of lab, pilot, and industrial scale low consistency mechanical refining for improvements in enzymatic digestibility of pretreated hardwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brandon W; Venditti, Richard; Park, Sunkyu; Jameel, Hasan

    2014-09-01

    Mechanical refining has been shown to improve biomass enzymatic digestibility. In this study industrial high-yield sodium carbonate hardwood pulp was subjected to lab, pilot and industrial refining to determine if the mechanical refining improves the enzymatic hydrolysis sugar conversion efficiency differently at different refining scales. Lab, pilot and industrial refining increased the biomass digestibility for lignocellulosic biomass relative to the unrefined material. The sugar conversion was increased from 36% to 65% at 5 FPU/g of biomass with industrial refining at 67.0 kWh/t, which was more energy efficient than lab and pilot scale refining. There is a maximum in the sugar conversion with respect to the amount of refining energy. Water retention value is a good predictor of improvements in sugar conversion for a given fiber source and composition. Improvements in biomass digestibility with refining due to lab, pilot plant and industrial refining were similar with respect to water retention value. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. 106-AN grout pilot-scale test HGTP-93-0501-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagaasen, L.M.

    1993-05-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) at Hanford, Washington will process the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes into a cementitious waste form. This facility, which is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), mixes liquid waste with cementitious materials to produce a waste form that immobilizes hazardous constituents through chemical reactions and/or microencapsulation. Over 1,000,000 gal of Phosphate/Sulfate Waste were solidified in the first production campaign with this facility. The next tank scheduled for treatment is 106-AN. After conducting laboratory studies to select the grout formulation, part of the normal formulation verification process is to conduct tests using the 1/4-scale pilot facilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The major objectives of these pilot-scale tests were to determine if the proposed grout formulation could be processed in the pilot-scale equipment and to collect thermal information to help determine the best way to manage the grout hydration heat

  15. Relationship between the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale and the Biomechanical Measure in Assessing Knee Extensor Muscle Spasticity in Patients with Post-Stroke Hemiparesia:A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nakhostin Ansari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The Modified Modified Ashworth Scale (MMAS is a clinical meas-ure that has been recently developed for the assessment of muscle spasticity. There is a dearth of research on the validity of the MMAS. The aim of the present study was to investi-gate the relationship between the MMAS and the biomechanical measure of work-velocity slope in assessing knee extensor muscle spasticity in patients with hemiparesia. Materials & Methods: Fourteen patients with post-stroke hemiparesia were included in this cross sectional study. Knee extensor spasticity was assessed with MMAS. An isokinetic dy-namometer was used to impose knee passive flexion with the angular velocity of 10, 30, 60, and 90 °/Sec to measure Torque-angle data. Work (Joule was calculated at each velocity to determine the slope of the work-velocity curves as the biomechanical measure of muscle spasticity. Results: The mean work decreased as the velocity increased but was not statistically signifi-cant (P = 0.07. The mean slope was – 0.35 [J /(°/Sec]. There was no significant correlation between the MMAS and the work-velocity slope (r =0.31, P = 0.28. Conclusion: There was no significant relationship between the MMAS and the biomechanical measure of work-velocity slope. Further studies with larger sample size are suggested. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (2: 131-136

  16. Scaling Down to Scale Up: A Health Economic Analysis of Integrating Point-of-Care Syphilis Testing into Antenatal Care in Zambia during Pilot and National Rollout Implementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine D Shelley

    Full Text Available Maternal syphilis results in an estimated 500,000 stillbirths and neonatal deaths annually in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the existence of national guidelines for antenatal syphilis screening, syphilis testing is often limited by inadequate laboratory and staff services. Recent availability of inexpensive rapid point-of-care syphilis tests (RST can improve access to antenatal syphilis screening. A 2010 pilot in Zambia explored the feasibility of integrating RST within prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV services. Following successful demonstration, the Zambian Ministry of Health adopted RSTs into national policy in 2011. Cost data from the pilot and 2012 preliminary national rollout were extracted from project records, antenatal registers, clinic staff interviews, and facility observations, with the aim of assessing the cost and quality implications of scaling up a successful pilot into a national rollout. Start-up, capital, and recurrent cost inputs were collected, including costs of extensive supervision and quality monitoring during the pilot. Costs were analysed from a provider's perspective, incremental to existing antenatal services. Total and unit costs were calculated and a multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed. Our accompanying qualitative study by Ansbro et al. (2015 elucidated quality assurance and supervisory system challenges experienced during rollout, which helped explain key cost drivers. The average unit cost per woman screened during rollout ($11.16 was more than triple the pilot unit cost ($3.19. While quality assurance costs were much lower during rollout, the increased unit costs can be attributed to several factors, including higher RST prices and lower RST coverage during rollout, which reduced economies of scale. Pilot and rollout cost drivers differed due to implementation decisions related to training, supervision, and quality assurance. This study explored the cost of integrating RST into

  17. Pilot scale experiments on radiation vulcanization of NR latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridwan, M.

    The potential of irradiated latex as raw material of commercial use is under testing on pilot plant scale in Indonesia which has 225 kCi Co-60 irradiation facility and can irradiate 1000 tonnes of centrifuged latex per annum. The facility was jointly designed by BATAN of Indonesia and JAERI of Japan and was jointly financed by UNDP/IAEA, Government of Japan and Government of Indonesia under UNDP/IAEA Regional Cooperative Agreement Project on Industrial Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology. The facility is a water pool type and can accomodate 400 kCi Co-60. The Co-60 rack has two shapes, plate and cylindrical shapes. The plate shape source is used for natural rubber latex irradiation and the cylindrical one is used for other irradiation services. The vulcanization system consists of three major components : emulsification unit ( height : 650 mm, diameter 500 mm ), mixing unit ( height : 1900mm, diameter 1200 mm ) and vulcanization reactor ( height : 1800 mm, diameter 1300 mm ). The first two components are located outside shielded room while the third one-in irradiation room. The radiation vulcanization process is a much simpler energy saving process comparedto the conventional thermal process which has two vulcanization steps before and after dipping. The physical and mechanical properties of irradiated NR Latex are comparable to those of sulfur vulcanized, and depend on many factors such as irradiation dose, sensitizer content, dry rubber content and storage time.

  18. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) demonstration, involving subsurface injections of sodium permanganate (NaMnO4), was performed at the US Marine Corp Recruit Depot (MCRD), site 45 (Parris Island (PI), SC). The ground water was originally contaminated with perchloroethylene (PCE) (also known as tetrachloroethylene), a chlorinated solvent used in dry cleaner operations. High resolution site characterization involved multiple iterations of soil core sampling and analysis. Nested micro-wells and conventional wells were also used to sample and analyze ground water for PCE and decomposition products (i.e., trichloroethyelene (TCE), dichloroethylene (c-DCE, t-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC)), collectively referred to as chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOC). This characterization methodology was used to develop and refine the conceptual site model and the ISCO design, not only by identifying CVOC contamination but also by eliminating uncontaminated portions of the aquifer from further ISCO consideration. Direct-push injection was selected as the main method of NaMnO4 delivery due to its flexibility and low initial capital cost. Site impediments to ISCO activities in the source area involved subsurface utilities, including a high pressure water main, a high voltage power line, a communication line, and sanitary and stormwater sewer lines. Utility markings were used in conjunction with careful planning and judicious selection of injection locations. A

  19. Pilot scale experiments on radiation vulcanization of NR latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridwan, M.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of irradiated latex as raw material of commercial use is under testing on pilot plant scale in Indonesia which has 225 kCi Co-60 irradiation facility and can irradiate 1000 tonnes of centrifuged latex per annum. The facility was jointly designed by BATAN of Indonesia and JAERI of Japan and was jointly financed by UNDP/IAEA, Government of Japan and Government of Indonesia under UNDP/IAEA Regional Cooperative Agreement Project on Industrial Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology. The facility is a water pool type and can accommodate 400 kCi Co-60. The Co-60 rack has two shapes, plate and cylindrical shapes. The plate shape source is used for natural rubber latex irradiation and the cylindrical one is used for other irradiation services. The vulcanization system consists of three major components: emulsification unit, mixing unit and vulcanization reactor. The first two components are located outside shielded room while the third one in irradiation room. The radiation vulcanization process is a much simpler energy saving process compared to the conventional thermal process which has two vulcanization steps before and after dipping. The physical and mechanical properties of irradiated NR latex are comparable to those of sulfur vulcanized. (author)

  20. The Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale modified for palliative care inpatients (RASS-PAL): a pilot study exploring validity and feasibility in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Shirley H; Grassau, Pamela A; Yarmo, Michelle N; Zhang, Tinghua; Zinkie, Samantha J; Pereira, José L

    2014-03-31

    The Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS), which assesses level of sedation and agitation, is a simple observational instrument which was developed and validated for the intensive care setting. Although used and recommended in palliative care settings, further validation is required in this patient population. The aim of this study was to explore the validity and feasibility of a version of the RASS modified for palliative care populations (RASS-PAL). A prospective study, using a mixed methods approach, was conducted. Thirteen health care professionals (physicians and nurses) working in an acute palliative care unit assessed ten consecutive patients with an agitated delirium or receiving palliative sedation. Patients were assessed at five designated time points using the RASS-PAL. Health care professionals completed a short survey and data from semi-structured interviews was analyzed using thematic analysis. The inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficient range of the RASS-PAL was 0.84 to 0.98 for the five time points. Professionals agreed that the tool was useful for assessing sedation and was easy to use. Its role in monitoring delirium however was deemed problematic. Professionals felt that it may assist interprofessional communication. The need for formal education on why and how to use the instrument was highlighted. This study provides preliminary validity evidence for the use of the RASS-PAL by physicians and nurses working in a palliative care unit, specifically for assessing sedation and agitation levels in the management of palliative sedation. Further validity evidence should be sought, particularly in the context of assessing delirium.

  1. The Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale modified for palliative care inpatients (RASS-PAL): a pilot study exploring validity and feasibility in clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS), which assesses level of sedation and agitation, is a simple observational instrument which was developed and validated for the intensive care setting. Although used and recommended in palliative care settings, further validation is required in this patient population. The aim of this study was to explore the validity and feasibility of a version of the RASS modified for palliative care populations (RASS-PAL). Methods A prospective study, using a mixed methods approach, was conducted. Thirteen health care professionals (physicians and nurses) working in an acute palliative care unit assessed ten consecutive patients with an agitated delirium or receiving palliative sedation. Patients were assessed at five designated time points using the RASS-PAL. Health care professionals completed a short survey and data from semi-structured interviews was analyzed using thematic analysis. Results The inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficient range of the RASS-PAL was 0.84 to 0.98 for the five time points. Professionals agreed that the tool was useful for assessing sedation and was easy to use. Its role in monitoring delirium however was deemed problematic. Professionals felt that it may assist interprofessional communication. The need for formal education on why and how to use the instrument was highlighted. Conclusion This study provides preliminary validity evidence for the use of the RASS-PAL by physicians and nurses working in a palliative care unit, specifically for assessing sedation and agitation levels in the management of palliative sedation. Further validity evidence should be sought, particularly in the context of assessing delirium. PMID:24684942

  2. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) as a Screener for Depression in Substance Use Disorder Inpatients: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufort, Ilse N; De Weert-Van Oene, Gerdien H; Buwalda, Victor A J; de Leeuw, J Rob J; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2017-01-01

    Depression is a common co-morbid disorder in substance use disorder (SUD) patients. Hence, valid instruments are needed to screen for depression in this subpopulation. In this study, the predictive validity of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) for the presence of a depressive disorder was investigated in SUD inpatients. Furthermore, differences between DASS-21 scores at intake and those recorded one week after inpatient detoxification were assessed in order to determine the measurement point of the assessment of the DASS-21 leading to the best predictive validity. The DASS-21 was administered to 47 patients at intake and shortly after inpatient detoxification. The results of the DASS-21 were compared to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), which served as the gold standard. Levels of sensitivity and specificity of 78-89% and 71-76% were found for the DASS-21 assessed after detoxification, satisfactorily predicting depression as diagnosed with the MINI. Total DASS-21 scores as well as the DASS subscale for depression were significantly reduced at the second measurement, compared to the DASS at intake. We conclude that the DASS-21 may be a suitable instrument to screen for depressive disorders in SUD patients when administered (shortly) after detoxification. Future research is needed to support this conclusion. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Comparison of NASA-TLX scale, Modified Cooper-Harper scale and mean inter-beat interval as measures of pilot mental workload during simulated flight tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansikka, Heikki; Virtanen, Kai; Harris, Don

    2018-04-30

    The sensitivity of NASA-TLX scale, modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) scale and the mean inter-beat interval (IBI) of successive heart beats, as measures of pilot mental workload (MWL), were evaluated in a flight training device (FTD). Operational F/A-18C pilots flew instrument approaches with varying task loads. Pilots' performance, subjective MWL ratings and IBI were measured. Based on the pilots' performance, three performance categories were formed; high-, medium- and low-performance. Values of the subjective rating scales and IBI were compared between categories. It was found that all measures were able to differentiate most task conditions and there was a strong, positive correlation between NASA-TLX and MCH scale. An explicit link between IBI, NASA-TLX, MCH and performance was demonstrated. While NASA-TLX, MCH and IBI have all been previously used to measure MWL, this study is the first one to investigate their association in a modern FTD, using a realistic flying mission and operational pilots.

  4. The ENIQ pilot study: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P; Eriksen, B; Crutzen, S [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Hansch, M [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Whittle, J [AEA Technology, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

  5. Fusion pilot plant scoping study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.J.; Blevins, P.J.; Brunnader, H.; Natalizio, A.; Cumyn, P.; Dean, B.; Smith, S.; Galambos, J.; Holloway, C.; Stremlaw, J.; Williams, G.

    1994-05-01

    CFFTP Pilot is representative of a class of machines that, like NPD in the CANDU development program, could test the key reactor core technologies on an integrated power reactor relevant system (materials, conditions, configuration). But in order to reduce costs, the machine would operate at reduced neutron flux relative to a power reactor, would not produce electricity, and would not test superconducting magnets. This design shows research directions towards a machine that could provide integrated nuclear testing (but not ignition physics) at a cost of about 1/3 ITER CDA. The test volume - the outboard blanket volume - would be comparable to the test port volume on ITER CDA, while the fluence and power density would be about 1/4 ITER CDA. 91 refs., 43 tabs., 45 figs

  6. Fusion pilot plant scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gierszewski, P J; Blevins, P J; Brunnader, H; Natalizio, A [Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project, Toronto, ON (Canada); Cumyn, P [Canatom Ltd., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Dean, B; Smith, S [Wardrop (W.L.) and Associates Ltd., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Galambos, J [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Holloway, C [Spar Aerospace Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Stremlaw, J [Monenco AGRA Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Williams, G [Spectrum Engineering Corp., Peterborough, ON (Canada)

    1994-05-01

    CFFTP Pilot is representative of a class of machines that, like NPD in the CANDU development program, could test the key reactor core technologies on an integrated power reactor relevant system (materials, conditions, configuration). But in order to reduce costs, the machine would operate at reduced neutron flux relative to a power reactor, would not produce electricity, and would not test superconducting magnets. This design shows research directions towards a machine that could provide integrated nuclear testing (but not ignition physics) at a cost of about 1/3 ITER CDA. The test volume - the outboard blanket volume - would be comparable to the test port volume on ITER CDA, while the fluence and power density would be about 1/4 ITER CDA. 91 refs., 43 tabs., 45 figs.

  7. Energy performance evaluation of ultrasonic pretreatment of organic solid waste in a pilot-scale digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasapoor, Mazdak; Adl, Mehrdad; Baroutian, Saeid; Iranshahi, Zeynab; Pazouki, Mohammad

    2018-04-30

    It has been proven that ultrasonic pretreatment (UP) has positive effect on biogas generation from previous lab-scale studies. However, that is not always the case in larger scale processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of UP to biogas generation in terms of anaerobic digestion process and energy efficiency. Parameters including total solids (TS) and ultrasonic treatment operational parameters of organic solid waste (OSW) resulted from our past lab scale UP studies were applied in this study. OSW with 6-10% TS was treated using a lab-scale ultrasonic processor using various power densities (0.2-0.6 W/mL) at different time periods up to 30 min. Results of lab scale confirmed that OSW with 6% TS sonicated with 0.2 W/mL power density in 30 min gave the best outcome for the pilot scale experiment. To simulate the condition of an actual scale, in addition to energy analysis, two different organic loading rates (OLR), namely 500 and 1500 gVS/m 3 day were examined. The pilot digester was fed with OSW with or without the pretreatment based on the aforementioned specifications. The results showed that UP effectively improves biogas generation in terms of quantity and quality (CH 4 /CO 2 ). Furthermore, it decreases the time to reach the maximum cumulative biogas volume comparing to the untreated feed. The key achievement of this research has confirmed that although the relative increase in the energy gain by the influence of UP was more remarkable under the 500 gVS/m 3 day OLR, energy analysis showed a better energy gain and energy benefit as well as jumping in biogas yield up to 80% for UP treated OSW under 1500 gVS/m 3 day OLR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. PILOT STUDY: THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot research study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools for children in the age range of 1-5 years old. The pilot study focused on (a) simple, cost-...

  9. APMP Pilot Study on Transmittance Haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Chun; Hwang, Jisoo; Koo, Annette; Wu, Houping; Leecharoen, Rojana; Yu, Hsueh-Ling

    2018-02-01

    Five NMIs within APMP, including CMS/ITRI, MSL, NIM, NIMT and KRISS from TCPR applied to the APMP technical committee initiative project for funding to carry out a pilot comparison of transmittance haze in 2012. The project started in 2014 and the final report was completed at the end of 2016. In this pilot comparison, three different haze standards were adopted, and transmittance haze for each standard was measured according to ASTM D1003 or ISO 14782. This paper presents the first results of an APMP pilot study of transmittance haze and the analysis of the variation among different haze measurement systems which are commonly used. The study shows that the variables such as sphere multiplier, transmittance distribution, fluorescence of samples and optical path of the incident beam cause discrepancies among NMIs and highlight deficiencies in current documentary standards.

  10. Performance and N2O Formation of the Deammonification Process by Suspended Sludge and Biofilm Systems—A Pilot-Scale Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Leix

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A two-stage deammonification pilot plant with two different second-stage reactors, namely a sequencing batch reactor (SBR with suspended sludge and a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR with biofilm carriers, was investigated over a 1.5-year period to compare reactor performances. Additionally, dissolved nitrous oxide (N2O was measured to determine the reactors’ N2O formation potential. Although the nitritation performance was moderate (NO2-N/NH4-N effluent ratio of 0.32 ± 0.15 in combination with SBR and 0.25 ± 0.14 with MBBR, nitrogen turnover and degradation rates exceeding 500 g N/(m3∙day and 80%, respectively, were achieved in both second stages, yet requiring additional aeration. The SBR’s average nitrogen removal was 19% higher than the MBBR’s; however, the SBR’s nitrite influent concentration was comparably elevated. Concerning N2O formation, the nitritation reactor exhibited the lowest N2O concentrations, while the buffer tank, interconnecting the first and second stages, exhibited the highest N2O concentrations of all reactors. Given these high concentrations, a transfer of N2O into the second stage was observed, where anoxic phases enabled N2O reduction. Frequent biomass removal and a decreased hydraulic retention time in the buffer tank would likely minimize N2O formation. For the second stage, enabling anoxic periods in the intermittent aeration cycles right after feeding to support N2O reduction and thus minimize the stripping effects or the implementation of a complete anoxic ammonium oxidation will mitigate N2O emissions.

  11. [Pilot-scale purification of lipopeptide from marine-derived Bacillus marinus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Kangbo; Guan, Cheng; Xu, Jiahui; Li, Shulan; Luo, Yuanchan; Shen, Guomin; Zhang, Daojing; Li, Yuanguang

    2016-11-25

    This research was aimed at establishing the pilot-scale purification technology of lipopeptide from marine-derived Bacillus marinus. We studied lipopeptide surfactivity interferences on scale-up unit technologies including acid precipitation, methanol extraction, solvent precipitation, salting out, extraction, silica gel column chromatography and HZ806 macroporous absorption resin column chromatography. Then, the unit technologies were combined in a certain order, to remove the impurities gradually, and to gain purified lipopeptide finally, with high recovery rate throughout the whole process. The novel pilot-scale purification technology could effectively isolate and purify lipopeptide with 87.51% to 100% purity in hectograms from 1 ton of Bacillus marinus B-9987 fermentation broth with more than 81.73% recovery rate. The first practical hectogram production of highly purified lipopeptide derived from Bacillus marinus was achieved. With this new purification method, using complex media became possible in fermentation process to reduce the fermentation cost and scale-up the purification for lipopeptide production. For practicability and economy, foaming problem resulting from massive water evaporation was avoided in this technology.

  12. Data for pilot-scale low level hydrogen peroxide tests using humidifiers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset includes data from each experiment conducted in the pilot-scale testing. Each sheet of the Excel file pertains to each test. A data dictionary is included in...

  13. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the nation's estuaries have been environmentally stressed since the turn of the 20th century and will continue to be impacted in the future. Tampa Bay, one the Gulf of Mexico's largest estuaries, exemplifies the threats that our estuaries face (EPA Report 2001, Tampa Bay Estuary Program-Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (TBEP-CCMP)). More than 2 million people live in the Tampa Bay watershed, and the population constitutes to grow. Demand for freshwater resources, conversion of undeveloped areas to resident and industrial uses, increases in storm-water runoff, and increased air pollution from urban and industrial sources are some of the known human activities that impact Tampa Bay. Beginning on 2001, additional anthropogenic modifications began in Tampa Bat including construction of an underwater gas pipeline and a desalinization plant, expansion of existing ports, and increased freshwater withdrawal from three major tributaries to the bay. In January of 2001, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) and its partners identifies a critical need for participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in providing multidisciplinary expertise and a regional-scale, integrated science approach to address complex scientific research issue and critical scientific information gaps that are necessary for continued restoration and preservation of Tampa Bay. Tampa Bay stakeholders identified several critical science gaps for which USGS expertise was needed (Yates et al. 2001). These critical science gaps fall under four topical categories (or system components): 1) water and sediment quality, 2) hydrodynamics, 3) geology and geomorphology, and 4) ecosystem structure and function. Scientists and resource managers participating in Tampa Bay studies recognize that it is no longer sufficient to simply examine each of these estuarine system components individually, Rather, the interrelation among system components must be understood to develop conceptual and

  14. Human Challenge Pilot Study with Cyclospora cayetanensis

    OpenAIRE

    Alfano-Sobsey, Edith M.; Eberhard, Mark L.; Seed, John R.; Weber, David J.; Won, Kimberly Y.; Nace, Eva K.; Moe, Christine L.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a pilot study that attempted to infect human volunteers with Cyclospora cayetanensis. Seven healthy volunteers ingested an inoculum of Cyclospora oocysts (approximately 200–49,000 oocysts). The volunteers did not experience symptoms of gastroenteritis, and no oocysts were detected in any stool samples during the 16 weeks volunteers were monitored.

  15. A Pilot-Scale System for Carbon Molecular Sieve Hollow Fiber Membrane Manufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Karvan, O.

    2012-12-21

    Carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes offer advantages over traditional polymeric membrane materials, but scale-up of manufacturing systems has not received much attention. In the recent decade, there has been a dramatic increase in fundamental research on these materials with a variety of applications being studied. The results from a pilot-scale CMS production system are presented. This system was designed based on extensive laboratory research, and hollow fiber membranes produced in this system show similar performance compared to membranes produced using a smaller bench-scale system. After optimizing the system design, a 93% recovery of the precursor fibers for use in membrane module preparation were obtained. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Synthesis in pilot plant scale and physical properties of sulfonated polystyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Cristiane R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The homogenous sulfonation of polystyrene was developed in a pilot plant scale producing polymers with different sulfonation degrees (18 to 22 mole % of sulfonated styrene units. The reaction yield depends chiefly on the concentration ratio of acetyl sulfate and polystyrene. The morphological and thermal properties of the sulfonated polystyrene obtained by homogeneous sulfonation were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. The glass transition temperature of sulfonated polystyrene increases in relation to pure polystyrene and DCp was evaluated in order to confirm the strong interactions among the ~SO3H groups.

  17. Devolatilization and Combustion of Tire Rubber and Pine Wood in a Pilot Scale Rotary Kiln

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders R.; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cement production is highly energy intensive and requires large quantities of fuels. For both economical and environmental reasons, there is an increasing tendency for utilization of alternative fuels in the cement industry, examples being tire derived fuels, waste wood, or different types...... of industrial waste. In this study, devolatilization and combustion of large particles of tire rubber and pine wood with equivalent diameters of 10 mm to 26 mm are investigated in a pilot scale rotary kiln able to simulate the process conditions present in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns...

  18. The Community Balance and Mobility Scale: A Pilot Study Detecting Impairments in Military Service Members With Comorbid Mild TBI and Psychological Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Marcy M; Williams, Kathy; Kodosky, Paula N; Dretsch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    To compare the capacity of the Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CB&M) to identify balance and mobility deficits in Service Members (SMs) with mild traumatic brain injury and comorbid psychological health conditions (mTBI/PH) to other commonly used balance assessments. A clinical research institute that provides a 4-week, outpatient, interdisciplinary program for active-duty SMs with mTBI/PH. A nonrandomized, cross-sectional design that compared multiple measures between 2 groups-active duty SMs with (n = 8) and without (n = 8) the dual diagnosis of mTBI/PH. Gait speed, Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC), Functional Gait Assessment (FGA), and CB&M to assess functional balance among the community-dwelling, TBI population. Across all measures, the mTBI/PH group performed significantly worse (P ≤ .01) with the exception of the FGA. The abilities of all objective measures to distinguish participants with mTBI/PH from healthy controls ranged from fair to excellent (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.66-0.94). However, the CB&M showed the largest group differences in effect size (d = 2.6) and had the highest discriminate ability (AUC = 0.98; sensitivity 100%; specificity 88%). The CB&M appears to have higher sensitivity and specificity than other measures of balance in SMs with mTBI/PH. A higher cut score for the CB&M is needed for this population.

  19. Effect of biomass concentration on the productivity of Tetraselmis suecica in a pilot-scale tubular photobioreactor using natural sunlight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.H.A.; Slegers, P.M.; Vermue, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of biomass concentration on the net volumetric productivity, yield on light and nightly biomass loss rate of Tetraselmis suecica was studied using a pilot-scale tubular photobioreactor (PBR) under outdoor light conditions. The net average productivity and yield on light of Tetraselmis

  20. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide on Escherichia coli inactivation during pilot-scale fresh-cut lettuce processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, J.L.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Nierop Groot, M.N.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2018-01-01

    Controlling water quality is critical in preventing cross-contamination during fresh produce washing. Process wash water (PWW) quality can be controlled by implementing chemical disinfection strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pilot-scale efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) during

  1. RECYCLING A NONIONIC AQUEOUS-BASED METAL-CLEANING SOLUTION WITH A CERAMIC MEMBRANE: PILOT SCALE EVALUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of a zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) membrane filter was evaluated for recycling a nonionic aqueous metal cleaning bath under real-world conditions. The pilot-scale study consisted of four 7- to 16-day filtration runs, each processed a portion of the cleaning bath duri...

  2. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by bacterial consortium from excess sludge fermentation liquid at laboratory and pilot scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qianqian; Xiong, Huilei; Wang, Hui; Shi, Hanchang; Sheng, Xinying; Sun, Run; Chen, Guoqiang

    2014-11-01

    The generation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from excess sludge fermentation liquid (SFL) was studied at lab and pilot scale. A PHA-accumulated bacterial consortium (S-150) was isolated from activated sludge using simulated SFL (S-SFL) contained high concentration volatile fatty acids (VFA) and nitrogen. The maximal PHA content accounted for 59.18% in S-SFL and dropped to 23.47% in actual SFL (L-SFL) of the dry cell weight (DCW) at lab scale. The pilot-scale integrated system comprised an anaerobic fermentation reactor (AFR), a ceramic membrane system (CMS) and a PHA production bio-reactor (PHAR). The PHA content from pilot-scale SFL (P-SFL) finally reached to 59.47% DCW with the maximal PHA yield coefficient (YP/S) of 0.17 g PHA/g COD. The results indicated that VFA-containing SFL was suitable for PHA production. The adverse impact of excess nitrogen and non-VFAs in SFL might be eliminated by pilot-scale domestication, which might resulted in community structure optimization and substrate selective ability improvement of S-150. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of Synthetic Wastewater Containing AB14 Pigment by Electrooxidation in both Pilot and Bench Scale Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Basiri parsa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation process was used for the degradation of Acid Brown 14 in both bench and pilot scale reactors. The bench scale one with a working volume of 0.5 L was equipped with platinum plate used as the anode and stainless steel (SS-304 plates as the cathode. The pilot scale reactor had a volume of 9 L and was equipped with SS-304 plates used as both the anode and the cathode. Experiments were run using these reactors to investigate the two parameters of energy consumption and anode efficiency. The bench scale reactor was capable of removing 92% and 36% of the dye and COD, respectively, after 18 min of operation. The pilot scale reactor, however, was capable of removing 87% and 59% of the dye and the COD content, respectively, after 60 min of operation. The kinetic study of both the bench and pilot reactors for dye and COD removals showed that both processes followed a zero order kinetic.

  4. Polyelectrolytes processing at pilot scale level by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.; Cirstea, E.; Craciun, G.; Ighigeanu, D.; Marin, Gheorghe G.

    2002-01-01

    Three years of research, combined with engineering activities, have culminated in the development of a new method of electron beam processing applicable up to the pilot scale level, namely, the polyelectrolytes (acrylamide - acrylic acid copolymers) electron beam processing. This new radiation processing method has been achieved by bilateral co-operation between the National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (NILPRP) and the Electrical Design and Research Institute, EDRI - Bucharest. The polyelectrolytes electron beam (EB) processing was put in operation at EDRI, where, recently, an industrial electron accelerator of 2 MeV and 20 kW, manufactured by Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia was installed in a specially designed irradiation facility. Automatic start-up via computer control makes it compatible with industrial processing. According to the first conclusions, which resulted from our experimental research with regard to acrylamide - acrylic acid copolymers production by EB irradiation, the proper physical and chemical characteristics can be well controlled by chemical composition to be treated and by suitable adjustment of absorbed dose and absorbed dose rate. So, it was possible to obtain a very large area of characteristics and therefore a large area of applications. The conversion coefficient is very high (> 98%) and concentration of the residual monomer is under 0.05%. The tests applied to some wastewaters from the vegetable oil plants demonstrated that the fatty substances, matters in suspension, chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand over 5 days were much reduced, in comparison with classical treatment. Also, sedimentation time was around four times smaller and sediment volume was 60% smaller than the values obtained in case of classical treatment. The necessary EB absorbed dose for the acrylamide - acrylic acid aqueous solution polymerization, established by optimization of chemical composition and irradiation

  5. Lits fluidisés pour l'industrie chimique. Extrapolation et amélioration des catalyseurs. Première partie : Etudes et modèles. Enseignements issus des pilotes Fluidized Beds in Chemical Industry. Scale Up and Catalysts Improvement. First Part: Studies, Models, Learning from Pilot Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botton R.

    2006-12-01

    est intitulée Études théoriques, réalités expérimentales, suggestions . Les bulles des lits fluidisés ont fait l'objet de très nombreux travaux, dont les résultats sont très souvent explicités sous la forme de modèles mécanistiques à un paramètre qui est le diamètre des bulles. Pour confronter ces modèles à l'expérience, une relation est établie entre le diamètre des bulles et la vitesse minimum de fluidisation de comportement. Des suggestions sont alors faites pour améliorer les modèles, et l'on propose des conclusions générales sur les lits fluidisés. The firsts catalytic fluidized beds appear near 1942 in petroleum industry and near 1960 in chemical industry. We only consider very high performances chemical fluidized bed reactors (> 99%. In the past, they were developed through the use of very expensive pilot plants of about 0. 5 m diameter and 10 in high. We will demonstrate that direct scale up from laboratory data is possible. This possibility gives also a simple method to improve catalysts used into operating units and opens fluidized bed technique to products that need only low production. Presentation is made with three articles:- In the first, Studies, Models, Learning from Pilot Plants : after a description of the major scale-up problems, studies to solve then are summarized. Then scale-up works of two processes with the use of about 0. 5 m diameter pilot plant are given. From the results it is deduced the possible performances of a catalytic fluidized bed and how to operate to obtain then. - In the second*, Scale up with Only Laboratory Data , it is experimentally demonstrated that the information's scale-up can be obtained in a laboratory. A strategy to obtain them is suggested. An another result of theses experimental studies is that all physical properties of catalytic fluidized bed depends of only one parameter. It is called comportment incipient fluidization velocity . - In the third*, Theoretical Studies, Experimental

  6. Experimental Studies of the Effects of Anode Composition and Process Parameters on Anode Slime Adhesion and Cathode Copper Purity by Performing Copper Electrorefining in a Pilot-Scale Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Weizhi; Wang, Shijie; Free, Michael L.

    2016-10-01

    Copper electrorefining tests were conducted in a pilot-scale cell under commercial tankhouse environment to study the effects of anode compositions, current density, cathode blank width, and flow rate on anode slime behavior and cathode copper purity. Three different types of anodes (high, mid, and low impurity levels) were used in the tests and were analyzed under SEM/EDS. The harvested copper cathodes were weighed and analyzed for impurities concentrations using DC Arc. The adhered slimes and released slimes were collected, weighed, and analyzed for compositions using ICP. It was shown that the lead-to-arsenic ratio in the anodes affects the sintering and coalescence of slime particles. High current density condition can improve anode slime adhesion and cathode purity by intensifying slime particles' coalescence and dissolving part of the particles. Wide cathode blanks can raise the anodic current densities significantly and result in massive release of large slime particle aggregates, which are not likely to contaminate the cathode copper. Low flow rate can cause anode passivation and increase local temperatures in front of the anode, which leads to very intense sintering and coalescence of slime particles. The results and analyses of the tests present potential solutions for industrial copper electrorefining process.

  7. Aerosol characteristics in the offgas from a pilot-scale sluicing operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Whyatt, G.A.; Beckette, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    A pilot-scale study was performed to simulate conditions anticipated during sluicing operations to retrieve waste in single-shell Tank 241-C-106 at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The objective of the study was to identify and characterize the potential aerosol source term at the inlet of the headspace exhaust ventilation system during sluicing operations. The information is needed to support decisions for components to be used in the full-scale operation. A secondary objective was to qualitatively evaluate the visibility during sluicing. Three simulated sluicing tests were performed in the 336 Building's quarter-scale waste tank facility located at Hanford. Scaling relationships were used to guide modifications to the quarter-scale tank to accommodate tests that simulated tank geometry, sluicing, and ventilation conditions in the full-scale tank. Simulated sluicing fluids were targeted on solid and liquid surfaces during the tests. Test conditions were monitored, and aerosol measurements were made in the offgas ventilation duct. Also during the tests, an in-tank camera was used to monitor visibility

  8. Aerosol characteristics in the offgas from a pilot-scale sluicing operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Whyatt, G.A.; Beckette, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    A pilot-scale study was performed to simulate conditions anticipated during sluicing operations to retrieve waste in single-shell Tank 241-C-106 at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The objective of the study was to identify and characterize the potential aerosol source term at the inlet of the headspace exhaust ventilation system during sluicing operations. The information is needed to support decisions for components to be used in the full-scale operation. A secondary objective was to qualitatively evaluate the visibility during sluicing. Three simulated sluicing tests were performed in the 336 Building`s quarter-scale waste tank facility located at Hanford. Scaling relationships were used to guide modifications to the quarter-scale tank to accommodate tests that simulated tank geometry, sluicing, and ventilation conditions in the full-scale tank. Simulated sluicing fluids were targeted on solid and liquid surfaces during the tests. Test conditions were monitored, and aerosol measurements were made in the offgas ventilation duct. Also during the tests, an in-tank camera was used to monitor visibility.

  9. Image processing of angiograms: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, L. E.; Evans, R. A.; Roehm, J. O., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The technology transfer application this report describes is the result of a pilot study of image-processing methods applied to the image enhancement, coding, and analysis of arteriograms. Angiography is a subspecialty of radiology that employs the introduction of media with high X-ray absorption into arteries in order to study vessel pathology as well as to infer disease of the organs supplied by the vessel in question.

  10. Electrochemical removal of salts from masonry - Experiences from pilot scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge; Villumsen, Arne

    2008-01-01

    A pilot experiment with newly developed electrodes was tested for removal of contaminating salts from brick masonry where plaster peeling was a problem. A high concentration of sulfate was found at the height where the paint peeling was most pronounced. The concentrations of chloride and nitrate ...

  11. Performance of A Pilot-Scale Vermifilter for the Treatment of A Real Hospital Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Ghobadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of a pilot-scale vermifilter (VF for the treatment of hospital wastewater using the earthworm species Eisenia fetida was evaluated. The earthworms’ gut acts as a bioreactor and can ingest the wastewater solid and liquid organic wastes and expel these as vermicompost. A pilot-scale vermifilter was installed and operated for 133 days in one of hospitals in Hamadan city; the designed system was fed with the influent passed through coarse and fine grillage and the sedimentation tank of the hospital’s sanitary collection system. In order to study the efficiency of the system, the variations of pH value, chemical oxygen demand (COD, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, and total suspended solids (TSS were measured. In addition, a conventional geofilter (GF without Earthworm was used as the experimental control. The vermifiltration caused a significant decrease in the levels of COD (75%, BOD5 (93%, and TSS (89% as well as neutralized pH in the wastewater. Also, these contents in the geofilter were observed to be 65%, 71%, and 71%, respectively. The vermifiltration technology can, therefore, be applied as an environmentally friendly method for hospital wastewater treatment.

  12. Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Varner, J.

    2006-12-01

    The results of a pilot study to assess the risk from tsunamis for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon region will be presented. To determine the risk from tsunamis, it is first necessary to establish the hazard or probability that a tsunami of a particular magnitude will occur within a certain period of time. Tsunami inundation maps that provide 100-year and 500-year probabilistic tsunami wave height contours for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon, region were developed as part of an interagency Tsunami Pilot Study(1). These maps provided the probability of the tsunami hazard. The next step in determining risk is to determine the vulnerability or degree of loss resulting from the occurrence of tsunamis due to exposure and fragility. The tsunami vulnerability assessment methodology used in this study was developed by M. Papathoma and others(2). This model incorporates multiple factors (e.g. parameters related to the natural and built environments and socio-demographics) that contribute to tsunami vulnerability. Data provided with FEMA's HAZUS loss estimation software and Clatsop County, Oregon, tax assessment data were used as input to the model. The results, presented within a geographic information system, reveal the percentage of buildings in need of reinforcement and the population density in different inundation depth zones. These results can be used for tsunami mitigation, local planning, and for determining post-tsunami disaster response by emergency services. (1)Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study--Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps, Joint NOAA/USGS/FEMA Special Report, U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2006, Final Draft. (2)Papathoma, M., D. Dominey-Howes, D.,Y. Zong, D. Smith, Assessing Tsunami Vulnerability, an example from Herakleio, Crete, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 3, 2003, p. 377-389.

  13. The atrial fibrillation ablation pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbelo, Elena; Brugada, Josep; Hindricks, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: The Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Pilot Study is a prospective registry designed to describe the clinical epidemiology of patients undergoing an atrial fibrillation (AFib) ablation, and the diagnostic/therapeutic processes applied across Europe. The aims of the 1-year follow-up were to analyse...... was achieved in 40.7% of patients (43.7% in paroxysmal AF; 30.2% in persistent AF; 36.7% in long-lasting persistent AF). A second ablation was required in 18% of the cases and 43.4% were under antiarrhythmic treatment. Thirty-three patients (2.5%) suffered an adverse event, 272 (21%) experienced a left atrial...... tachycardia, and 4 patients died (1 haemorrhagic stroke, 1 ventricular fibrillation in a patient with ischaemic heart disease, 1 cancer, and 1 of unknown cause). CONCLUSION: The AFib Ablation Pilot Study provided crucial information on the epidemiology, management, and outcomes of catheter ablation of AFib...

  14. Assessment of toxic metals in groundwater and saliva in an arsenic affected area of West Bengal, India: A pilot scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Subhamoy; Kundu, Amit Kumar; Adhikari, Jishnu; Chatterjee, Debankur; Iglesias, Monica; Nriagu, Jerome; Guha Mazumder, Debendra Nath; Shomar, Basem; Chatterjee, Debashis

    2015-10-01

    Communities in many parts of the world are unintentionally exposed to arsenic (As) and other toxic metals through ingestion of local drinking water and foods. The concentrations of individual toxic metals often exceed their guidelines in drinking water but the health risks associated with such multiple-metal exposures have yet to receive much attention. This study examines the co-occurrence of toxic metals in groundwater samples collected from As-rich areas of Nadia district, West Bengal, India. Arsenic in groundwater (range: 12-1064 µg L(-1); mean ± S.D: 329±294 µg L(-1)) was the most important contaminant with concentrations well above the WHO guideline of 10 µg L(-1). Another important toxic metal in the study area was manganese (Mn) with average concentration of 202±153 µg L(-1), range of 18-604 µg L(-1). The average concentrations (µg L(-1)) of other elements in groundwater were: Cr (5.6±5.9), Mo (3.5±2.1), Ni (8.3±8.7), Pb (2.9±1.3), Ba (119±43), Zn (56±40), Se (0.60±0.33), U (0.50±0.74). Saliva collected from the male participants of the area had mean concentrations of 6.3±7.0 µg As L(-1) (0.70-29 µg L(-1)), 5.4±5.5 µg Mn L(-1) (0.69-22 µg L(-1)), 2.6±3.1 µg Ni L(-1) (0.15-13 µg L(-1)), 0.78±1.0µg Cr L(-1) (groundwater. The clustering of salivary As and Mn in principal component analysis further indicated influence of the common exposure source. Zinc and selenium comprised a separate component presumably reflecting the local deficiencies in intakes of these essential elements from drinking water and foodstuff. Thus the study reveals that the concentration of other metals beside As must be monitored in drinking water before implementation of any policies to provide safe water to the affected communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pilot-scale equipment development for lithium-based reduction of spent oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, S. D.

    1998-01-01

    An integral function of the electrometallurgical conditioning of DOE spent nuclear fuel is the standardization of waste forms. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed and is presently demonstrating the electrometallurgical conditioning of sodium-bonded metal fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II, resulting in uranium, ceramic waste, and metal waste forms. Engineering studies are underway at ANL in support of pilot-scale equipment development, which would precondition irradiated oxide fuel and likewise demonstrate the application of electrometallurgical conditioning to such non-metallic fuels. This paper highlights the integration of proposed spent oxide fuel conditioning with existing electrometallurgical processes. Additionally, technical bases for engineering activities to support a scale up of an oxide reduction process are described

  16. Summary of routes for different study of combustion reaction in scale pilot magnetic nanocatalysts production Ni_0_,_5Zn_0_,_5Fe_2O_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Ana Beatriz de Sousa; Moura, Thales Filipe Barbosa de; Vasconcelos, Erik Vilar; Pereira, Kleberson Ricardo de Oliveira; Dantas, Joelda; Costa, Ana Cristina Figueiredo de Melo

    2016-01-01

    Biodiesel is derived from renewable sources and because of concerns about the environment, has gained relevance as regards the search for sustainable sources. It can be obtained by different processes consisting of a chemical reaction of vegetable oil or animal fat with a common alcohol, stimulated by a catalyst. In this work we used for the production of biodiesel the animal fat oil, beef tallow, because it’s a cheap raw material, avoiding discharges and pollution of the environment and considered to be a raw material clean. This study aimed to prepare a magnetic NiZn catalyst, wherein the synthesis was performed in two stainless steel containers with different capacity, PM and MM 10 and 30g / product by reacting, respectively, and characterized by XRD and EDX. The biodiesel was obtained by methyl esterification at 180 ° C / 1hrs, molar ratio 1:12, 2% catalys. Blank test was also conducted to compare the results. It was found that the two routes showed peaks of highest intensity corresponding to the cubic spinel crystalline phase majority of NiZn ferrite. The value of the crystallite size for the PM catalyst was higher by 23% compared to MM. The conversion into biodiesel results were approximately 62%, 42% and 5%, AM, and MM test blank respectively. So when comparing the blank test with PM and MM, the catalyst showed efficiency for the catalytic reaction, more effective for PM. (author)

  17. Sampling strategy for a large scale indoor radiation survey - a pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Stranden, E.

    1986-01-01

    Optimisation of a stratified random sampling strategy for large scale indoor radiation surveys is discussed. It is based on the results from a small scale pilot project where variances in dose rates within different categories of houses were assessed. By selecting a predetermined precision level for the mean dose rate in a given region, the number of measurements needed can be optimised. The results of a pilot project in Norway are presented together with the development of the final sampling strategy for a planned large scale survey. (author)

  18. General Atomic Reprocessing Pilot Plant: engineering-scale dissolution system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yip, H.H.

    1979-04-01

    In February 1978, a dissolver-centrifuge system was added to the cold reprocessing pilot plant at General Atomic Company, which completed the installation of an HTGR fuel head-end reprocessing pilot plant. This report describes the engineering-scale equipment in the pilot plant and summarizes the design features derived from development work performed in the last few years. The dissolver operating cycles for both thorium containing BISO and uranium containinng WAR fissile fuels are included. A continuous vertical centrifuge is used to clarify the resultant dissolver product solution. Process instrumentation and controls for the system reflect design philosophy suitable for remote operation

  19. SE—Structures and Environment: Biofiltration of Odour and Ammonia from a Pig Unit—Biofiltration of Odour and Ammonia from a Pig Unit—a pilot-scale Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sheridan, B. A.; Curran, Thomas P.; Dodd, V. A.; Colligan, J.

    2000-01-01

    A pilot-scale biofiltration unit was constructed at a pig finishing building on the University College Dublin research farm. The biofiltration system was investigated over three trial periods. Exhaust air from a single pen was extracted by a variable speed centrifugal fan and passed through a humidifier and biofilter. A 0·5 m depth of woodchips of over 20 mm screen size was used as the biofilter medium. The moisture content of the medium was maintained at 64±4% (wet weight basis) for trial on...

  20. Kinetic Interpretation of Nitrogen Removal in Pilot Scale Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Sinkjær, Ole

    1995-01-01

    with biological and chemical phosphorus removal. Nitrification and denitrification rates have been measured in batch tests on activated sludge extracted from the pilot plants and by measuring transient concentrations during the alternating mode of operation in the aerobic and anoxic tanks. The data were......Pilot plant experiments have been performed over a period of four years in order to establish an experimental basis for the upgrading of the treatment plants of The City of Copenhagen to nutrient removal. The choice of design is the alternating mode of operating biological nitrogen removal...... normalized to standard conditions by correcting them according to the kinetic theory. The average normalized nitrification rate was measured to be between 54 and 60 mg NH~-N/(g VSSn~t' h) by different test methods at 7°C. The denitrification rate was measured to vary between 0.85 and 0.95mg NO~--N/(g VSS. h...

  1. Pilot-scale tests for EB flue gas treatment process in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, S.; Tokunaga, O.; Namba, H.

    1994-01-01

    A review of electron beam applications for flue gas treatment in Japan has been done. Several pilot plants are being performed for commercial use of electron beams process for cleaning of flue gas from low-sulfur coal burning boiler, a municipal waste incinerator and for removal of NO x from a ventilation exhaust of a highway tunnel. Outlines of three pilot-scale tests are introduced. 9 refs, 4 figs

  2. The low-energy electron accelerator LEA for pilot scale operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehnert, R.; Klenert, P.

    1990-01-01

    An electron processor equipped with a linear cathode has been developed for use in pilot scale radiation processing. It can provide electron beam powers up to 6 kW at energies between 150 and 200 keV. The design of some components of the processor system and first results of its operation as part of a pilot unit for curing of furniture elements will be discussed. (author)

  3. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g−1 volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g−1 VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH4 recovery of 189 L kg−1 VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH4 and 38% CO2 was recorded. PMID:26393620

  4. Construction and pilot assessment of the Lower Limb Function Assessment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allart, Etienne; Paquereau, Julie; Rogeau, Caroline; Daveluy, Walter; Kozlowski, Odile; Rousseaux, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Stroke often leads to upright standing and walking impairments. Clinical assessments do not sufficiently address ecological aspects and the patient's subjective evaluation of function. To perform a pilot assessment of the psychometric properties of the Lower Limb-Function Assessment Scale (LL-FAS). The LL-FAS includes 30 items assessing the patient's perception (in a questionnaire) and the examiner's perception (in a practical test) of upright standing and walking impairments and their impact on activities of daily living. We analyzed the LL-FAS's reliability, construct validity, internal consistency, predictive validity and feasibility. Thirty-five stroke patients were included. The scale's mean ± SD completion time was 25 ± 6 min. Intra-observer reliability was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC >0.82). Interobserver reliability was moderate (0.67 0.9) and predictive validity were excellent. The LL-FAS showed fair psychometric properties in this pilot study and may be of value for evaluating post-stroke lower limb impairment.

  5. Experimental investigation of a pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulphurisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, an experimental parameter study was conducted in a pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD). The pilot plant is downscaled from a limestone-based, gypsum producing full-scale wet FGD plant. Important process parameters, such as slurry pH, inlet...... flue gas concentration of SO2, reactor temperature, and slurry concentration of Cl- have been varied. The degree of desulphurisation, residual limestone content of the gypsum, liquid phase concentrations, and solids content of the slurry were measured during the experimental series. The SO2 removal...... efficiency increased from 66.1% to 71.5% when the reactor slurry pH was changed from 3.5 to 5.5. Addition of Cl(in the form of CaCl2 . 2H(2)O) to the slurry (25 g Cl-/l) increased the degree of desulphurisation to above 99%, due to the onset of extensive foaming, which substantially increased the gas...

  6. Fermentative lactic acid production from coffee pulp hydrolysate using Bacillus coagulans at laboratory and pilot scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleissner, Daniel; Neu, Anna-Katrin; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Puerta-Quintero, Gloria Inés; Venus, Joachim

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the lignocellulosic residue coffee pulp was used as carbon source in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production using Bacillus coagulans. After thermo-chemical treatment at 121°C for 30min in presence of 0.18molL(-1) H2SO4 and following an enzymatic digestion using Accellerase 1500 carbon-rich hydrolysates were obtained. Two different coffee pulp materials with comparable biomass composition were used, but sugar concentrations in hydrolysates showed variations. The primary sugars were (gL(-1)) glucose (20-30), xylose (15-25), sucrose (5-11) and arabinose (0.7-10). Fermentations were carried out at laboratory (2L) and pilot (50L) scales in presence of 10gL(-1) yeast extract. At pilot scale carbon utilization and lactic acid yield per gram of sugar consumed were 94.65% and 0.78gg(-1), respectively. The productivity was 4.02gL(-1)h(-1). Downstream processing resulted in a pure formulation containing 937gL(-1)l(+)-lactic acid with an optical purity of 99.7%. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Nicolas Barbot

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC, as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g−1 volatile solids (VS were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g−1 VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH4 recovery of 189 L kg−1 VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH4 and 38% CO2 was recorded.

  8. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-09-18

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g(-1) volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g(-1) VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH₄ recovery of 189 L kg(-1) VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH₄ and 38% CO₂ was recorded.

  9. Characterization results for 106-AN grout produced in a pilot-scale test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokken, R.O.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Martin, P.F.C.; Palmer, S.E.; Anderson, C.M.

    1993-06-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) at Hanford. Washington, will process the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes into a cementitious waste form. This facility, which is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), mixes liquid waste with cementitious materials to produce a waste form that immobilizes hazardous constituents through chemical reactions and/or microencapsulation. Over one million gallons of phosphate/sulfate waste were solidified in the first production campaign with this facility. The next tank waste scheduled for treatment is 106-AN (the waste from Tank 241-AN-106). After laboratory studies were conducted to select the grout formulation, tests using the 1/4-scale pilot facilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) were conducted as part of the formulation verification process. The major objectives of these pilot-scale tests were to determine if the proposed grout formulation could be processed in the pilotscale equipment. to collect thermal information to help determine the best way to manage the grout hydration heat, and to characterize the solidified grout

  10. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump-and-treat testing at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. The test will be conducted in fulfillment of interim Milestone M-15-06E to begin pilot-scale pump-and-treat operations by August 1994. The scope of the test was determined based on the results of lab/bench-scale tests (WHC 1993a) conducted in fulfillment of Milestone M-15-06B. These milestones were established per agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and documented on Hanford Federal of Ecology Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Control Form M-15-93-02. This test plan discusses a pilot-scale pump-and-treat test for the chromium plume associated with the D Reactor portion of the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. Data will be collected during the pilot test to assess the effectiveness, operating parameters, and resource needs of the ion exchange (IX) pump-and-treat system. The test will provide information to assess the ability to remove contaminants by extracting groundwater from wells and treating extracted groundwater using IX. Bench-scale tests were conducted previously in which chromium VI was identified as the primary contaminant of concern in the 100-D reactor plume. The DOWEX 21K trademark resin was recommended for pilot-scale testing of an IX pump-and-treat system. The bench-scale test demonstrated that the system could remove chromium VI from groundwater to concentrations less than 50 ppb. The test also identified process parameters to monitor during pilot-scale testing. Water will be re-injected into the plume using wells outside the zone of influence and upgradient of the extraction well

  11. Centrifuge Study of Pilot Tolerance to Acceleration and the Effects of Acceleration on Pilot Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creer, Brent Y.; Smedal, Harald A.; Wingrove, Rodney C.

    1960-01-01

    A research program the general objective of which was to measure the effects of various sustained accelerations on the control performance of pilots, was carried out on the Aviation Medical Acceleration Laboratory centrifuge, U.S. Naval Air Development Center, Johnsville, PA. The experimental setup consisted of a flight simulator with the centrifuge in the control loop. The pilot performed his control tasks while being subjected to acceleration fields such as might be encountered by a forward-facing pilot flying an atmosphere entry vehicle. The study was divided into three phases. In one phase of the program, the pilots were subjected to a variety of sustained linear acceleration forces while controlling vehicles with several different sets of longitudinal dynamics. Here, a randomly moving target was displayed to the pilot on a cathode-ray tube. For each combination of acceleration field and vehicle dynamics, pilot tracking accuracy was measured and pilot opinion of the stability and control characteristics was recorded. Thus, information was obtained on the combined effects of complexity of control task and magnitude and direction of acceleration forces on pilot performance. These tests showed that the pilot's tracking performance deteriorated markedly at accelerations greater than about 4g when controlling a lightly damped vehicle. The tentative conclusion was also reached that regardless of the airframe dynamics involved, the pilot feels that in order to have the same level of control over the vehicle, an increase in the vehicle dynamic stability was required with increases in the magnitudes of the acceleration impressed upon the pilot. In another phase, boundaries of human tolerance of acceleration were established for acceleration fields such as might be encountered by a pilot flying an orbital vehicle. A special pilot restraint system was developed to increase human tolerance to longitudinal decelerations. The results of the tests showed that human tolerance

  12. Denitrification of high strength nitrate waste from a nuclear industry using acclimatized biomass in a pilot scale reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamole, Pradip B; Nair, Rashmi R; D'Souza, Stanislaus F; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Lele, S S

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the performance of acclimatized biomass for denitrification of high strength nitrate waste (10,000 mg/L NO3) from a nuclear industry in a continuous laboratory scale (32 L) and pilot scale reactor (330 L) operated over a period of 4 and 5 months, respectively. Effect of substrate fluctuations (mainly C/NO3-N) on denitrification was studied in a laboratory scale reactor. Incomplete denitrification (95-96 %) was observed at low C/NO3-N (≤2), whereas at high C/NO3-N (≥2.25) led to ammonia formation. Ammonia production increased from 1 to 9 % with an increase in C/NO3-N from 2.25 to 6. Complete denitrification and no ammonia formation were observed at an optimum C/NO3-N of 2.0. Microbiological studies showed decrease in denitrifiers and increase in nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria at high C/NO3-N (≥2.25). Pilot scale studies were carried out with optimum C/NO3-N, and sustainability of the process was checked on the pilot scale for 5 months.

  13. Pre-Study Walkthrough with a Commercial Pilot for a Preliminary Single Pilot Operations Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor-Dreher, Ryan; Roberts, Z.; Ziccardi, J.; Vu, K-P. L.; Strybel, T.; Koteskey, Robert William; Lachter, Joel B.; Vi Dao, Quang; Johnson, Walter W.; Battiste, V.

    2013-01-01

    The number of crew members in commercial flights has decreased to two members, down from the five-member crew required 50 years ago. One question of interest is whether the crew should be reduced to one pilot. In order to determine the critical factors involved in safely transitioning to a single pilot, research must examine whether any performance deficits arise with the loss of a crew member. With a concrete understanding of the cognitive and behavioral role of a co-pilot, aeronautical technologies and procedures can be developed that make up for the removal of the second aircrew member. The current project describes a pre-study walkthrough process that can be used to help in the development of scenarios for testing future concepts and technologies for single pilot operations. Qualitative information regarding the tasks performed by the pilots can be extracted with this technique and adapted for future investigations of single pilot operations.

  14. High performance Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C composite cathode material for lithium ion batteries studied in pilot scale test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhenyu [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Dai Changsong, E-mail: changsd@hit.edu.c [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wu Gang; Nelson, Mark [Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hu Xinguo [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang Ruoxin; Liu Jiansheng; Xia Jicai [Battery Material Business Division, Guangzhou Tinci Materials Technology Co., Ltd., Guangzhou 510760 (China)

    2010-12-01

    Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C composite cathode material was synthesized via carbothermal reduction process in a pilot scale production test using battery grade raw materials with the aim of studying the feasibility for their practical applications. XRD, FT-IR, XPS, CV, EIS and battery charge-discharge tests were used to characterize the as-prepared material. The XRD and FT-IR data suggested that the as-prepared Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C material exhibits an orderly monoclinic structure based on the connectivity of PO{sub 4} tetrahedra and VO{sub 6} octahedra. Half cell tests indicated that an excellent high-rate cyclic performance was achieved on the Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C cathodes in the voltage range of 3.0-4.3 V, retaining a capacity of 95% (96 mAh/g) after 100 cycles at 20C discharge rate. The low-temperature performance of the cathode was further evaluated, showing 0.5C discharge capacity of 122 and 119 mAh/g at -25 and -40 {sup o}C, respectively. The discharge capacity of graphite//Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} batteries with a designed battery capacity of 14 Ah is as high as 109 mAh/g with a capacity retention of 92% after 224 cycles at 2C discharge rates. The promising high-rate and low-temperature performance observed in this work suggests that Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C is a very strong candidate to be a cathode in a next-generation Li-ion battery for electric vehicle applications.

  15. Treatment of radioactive liquid effluents by reverse osmosis membranes: From lab-scale to pilot-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combernoux, Nicolas; Schrive, Luc; Labed, Véronique; Wyart, Yvan; Carretier, Emilie; Moulin, Philippe

    2017-10-15

    The recent use of the reverse osmosis (RO) process at the damaged Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant generated a growing interest in the application of this process for decontamination purposes. This study focused on the development of a robust RO process for decontamination of two kinds of liquid effluents: a contaminated groundwater after a nuclear disaster and a contaminated seawater during a nuclear accident. The SW30 HR membrane was selected among other in this study due to higher retentions (96% for Cs and 98% for Sr) in a true groundwater. Significant fouling and scaling phenomenon, attributed to calcium and strontium precipitation, were evidenced in this work: this underscored the importance of the lab scale experiment in the process. Validation of the separation performances on trace radionuclides concentration was performed with similar retention around 96% between surrogates Cs (inactive) and 137 Cs (radioactive). The scale up to a 2.6 m 2 spiral wound membrane led to equivalent retentions (around 96% for Cs and 99% for Sr) but lower flux values: this underlined that the hydrodynamic parameters (flowrate/cross-flow velocity) should be optimized. This methodology was also applied on the reconstituted seawater effluent: retentions were slightly lower than for the groundwater and the same hydrodynamic effects were observed on the pilot scale. Then, ageing of the membrane through irradiation experiments were performed. Results showed that the membrane active layer composition influenced the membrane resistance towards γ irradiation: the SW30 HR membrane performances (retention and permeability) were better than the Osmonics SE at 1 MGy. Finally, to supplement the scale up approach, the irradiation of a spiral wound membrane revealed a limited effect on the permeability and retention. This indicated that irradiation conditions need to be controlled for a further development of the process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Treatment Technologies for the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal mine water (CMW) is typically treated to remove suspended solids, acidity, and soluble metals, but high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) have been reported to impact the environment at several CMW discharge points. Consequently, various states have established TDS wastewater regulations and the US EPA has proposed a benchmark conductivity limit to reduce TDS impacts in streams near mining sites. Traditional CMW treatment effectively removes some TDS components, but is not effective in removing major salt ions due to their higher solubility. This paper describes the basic principles, effectiveness, advantages and disadvantages of various TDS removal technologies (adsorption, bioremediation, capacitive deionization, desalination, electro-chemical ion exchange, electrocoagulation, electrodialysis, ion exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation, and reverse osmosis) that have at least been tested in bench- and pilot-scale experiments. Recent discussions about new regulations to include total dissolved solids TDS) limits would propel interest in the TDS removal technologies focused on coal mine water. TDS removal is not a new concept and has been developed using different technologies for a number of applications, but coal mine water has unique characteristics (depending on the site, mining process, and solid-water-oxygen interactions), which make it unlikely to have a single technology predominating over others. What are some novel technolog

  17. A pilot rating scale for evaluating failure transients in electronic flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindson, William S.; Schroeder, Jeffery A.; Eshow, Michelle M.

    1990-01-01

    A pilot rating scale was developed to describe the effects of transients in helicopter flight-control systems on safety-of-flight and on pilot recovery action. The scale was applied to the evaluation of hardovers that could potentially occur in the digital flight-control system being designed for a variable-stability UH-60A research helicopter. Tests were conducted in a large moving-base simulator and in flight. The results of the investigation were combined with existing airworthiness criteria to determine quantitative reliability design goals for the control system.

  18. Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-08-05

    This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

  19. Effects of Aquajogging in Obese Adults: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wouters, Eveline J. M.; Van Nunen, Annemieke M. A.; Geenen, Rinie; Kolotkin, Ronette L.; Vingerhoets, Ad J. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Aim and Method. To examine in obese people the potential effectiveness of a six-week, two times weekly aquajogging program on body composition, fitness, health-related quality of life, and exercise beliefs. Fifteen otherwise healthy obese persons participated in a pilot study. Results. Total fat mass and waist circumference decreased 1.4 kg (P = .03) and 3.1 cm (P = .005), respectively. The distance in the Six-Minute Walk Test increased 41 meters (P = .001). Three scales of the Impact of Weig...

  20. Cytogenetics of jaw cysts - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Esther; Brennan, Peter A; Bodner, Lipa

    2012-07-01

    The pathogenesis of cysts that arise in the jaws is still not certain, and the underlying mechanisms of epithelial proliferation are not fully understood. Cysts of the jaw may involve a reactive, inflammatory, or neoplastic process. Cytogenetics, the study of the number and structure of chromosomes, has provided valuable information about the diagnosis, prognosis, and targeted treatment in many cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cytogenetics can also provide information about the possible aetiology or neoplastic potential of a lesion, though to our knowledge no studies of this technique have been used for cysts in the jaws. In this pilot study we used cytogenetics in a series of 10 cysts (3 radicular, 4 dentigerous, 2 of the nasopalatine duct, and 1 dermoid). In all cases we found normal karyotypes. Further work and larger numbers are needed for a definitive study, but we can hypothesise from this pilot study that these cysts do not have cytogenetic aberrations and so have no neoplastic potential. Copyright © 2011 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Doing A Pilot Study: Why Is It Essential?

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Zailinawati Abu; Schattner, Peter; Mazza, Danielle

    2006-01-01

    A pilot study is one of the essential stages in a research project. This paper aims to describe the importance of and steps involved in executing a pilot study by using an example of a descriptive study in primary care. The process of testing the feasibility of the project proposal, recruitment of subjects, research tool and data analysis was reported. We conclude that a pilot study is necessary and useful in providing the groundwork in a research project.

  2. DOING A PILOT STUDY: WHY IS IT ESSENTIAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailinawati Abu Hassan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A pilot study is one of the essential stages in a research project. This paper aims to describe the importance of and steps involved in executing a pilot study by using an example of a descriptive study in primary care. The process of testing the feasibility of the project proposal, recruitment of subjects, research tool and data analysis was reported. We conclude that a pilot study is necessary and useful in providing the groundwork in a research project.

  3. Characterisation of community structure of bacteria in parallel mesophilic and thermophilic pilot scale anaerobe sludge digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, T; Berta, Brigitta; Székely, Anna J; Gyarmati, I; Kékesi, Katalin; Márialigeti, K; Tóth, Erika M

    2007-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to compare the microbial communities of a mesophilic and a thermophilic pilot scale anaerobe sludge digester. For studying the communities cultivation independent chemotaxonomical methods (RQ and PLFA analyses) and T-RFLP were applied. Microbial communities of the mesophilic and thermophilic pilot digesters showed considerable differences, both concerning the species present, and their abundance. A Methanosarcina sp. dominated the thermophilic, while a Methanosaeta sp. the mesophilic digester among Archaea. Species diversity of Bacteria was reduced in the thermophilic digester. Based on the quinone patterns in both digesters the dominance of sulphate reducing respiratory bacteria could be detected. The PLFA profiles of the digester communities were similar though in minor components characteristic differences were shown. Level of branched chain fatty acids is slightly lower in the thermophilic digester that reports less Gram positive bacteria. The relative ratio of fatty acids characteristic to Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroidetes and Clostridia shows differences between the two digesters: their importance generally decreased under thermophilic conditions. The sulphate reducer marker (15:1 and 17:1) fatty acids are present in low quantity in both digesters.

  4. A Social-Cognitive Intervention Program for Adolescents with Autism: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Pui Pui Phoebe; Siu, Andrew M. H.; Brown, Ted; Yu, Mong-lin

    2018-01-01

    This pilot study explored the efficacy of a social-cognitive intervention program for adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Seven adolescents with ASD (mean age = 12.57 years) attended a school-based 10-week program. Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales, Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS), and Theory of Mind Inventory were…

  5. Pilot-scale Biogas Plant for the Research and Development of New Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Simeonov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Тhe paper describes a new pilot-scale biogas plant of the Institute of Microbiology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The equipment includes: a 100 L pilot bioreactor, a 200 L metal gasholder, sensors, actuators, a two-level automatic process monitoring and control system, a fire and explosion protection system and two web cameras. The monitoring and control system is composed on the lower level of a controller Beckhoff, and on the higher level - of a PC with specialized software (under development. The pilot biogas plant is designed to work out and scale up various anaerobic digestion (AD technologies based on different types of feedstock. All the data will be stored on the PC for quick reference and possibly data mining, parameter identification and verification of different AD mathematical models.

  6. Pilot Study for Maintenance Rule at KSNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kwang Hee; Jeong, Hyeon Jong; Jee, Moon Hak; Hong, Sung Yull

    2005-01-01

    Maintenance Rule (MR), which was developed to monitor the effectiveness of maintenance in a nuclear power plant (NPP), has been received as highly successful program by and large since its implementation in 1996 in the United States. Korea has initiated two pilot programs to implement the Maintenance Rule program in 2003. Selected plants for the pilot implementation are Kori 3 and 4 units and Ulchin 3 and 4 units, where Kori 3 and 4 units are Westinghouse units and Ulchin 3 and 4 units are Korean Standardized Nuclear Power (KSNP) Plant units. This paper describes the results of each key tasks completed to date and insights gained from pilot study on the KSNP units. Currently, Scoping of the functions of maintenance rule and determination of safety significance level have been completed during first year. As first task, total 607 functions were identified and defined by detailed function analysis on 135 systems that cover all plant systems. About 55% of total functions are selected as within the scope of maintenance rule. Among these inscoped functions, 56% of scoped functions are safety related and 44% are non-safety related functions. Evaluation of safety significance for each function was determined by expert panel consist of eight experts in field of plant maintenance, operation, PSA, work schedule and system engineers. As a result, about 46% of functions were determined to be high safety significant functions and rest of the functions were classified as low safety significant. The remaining tasks that are included determination of performance criteria and preparation of implementing guideline will be performed in following years

  7. Air purification from a mixture VOCs in the pilot-scale trickle-bed bioreactor (TBB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarzyński Rafał

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the air bio-purification from the mixture of two volatile organic compounds (styrene and p-xylene was studied. The process was carried out in a pilot-scale trickle-bed bioreactor installation designed to purify ∼200 m3h-1 of the polluted air. The bioreactor operated at concurrent flow of gas and liquid (mineral salt solution through packing (polypropylene Ralu rings covered with a thin layer of microorganisms (bacterial consortium of Pseudomonas sp. E-022150 and Pseudomonas putida mt-2. The experiments, carried out for various values of a reactor load with pollutant, confirmed the great efficiency of the investigated process. At the tested bed load with pollution (inlet specific pollutant load was changed within the range of 41 – 84 gm-3 h -1, styrene conversion degree changed within the range of 80-87% and p-xylene conversion degree within the range of 42-48%.

  8. Pilot-scale continuous ultrasonic cleaning equipment reduces Listeria monocytogenes levels on conveyor belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanen, Riina; Lundén, Janne; Hörman, Ari; Korkeala, Hannu

    2009-02-01

    Ultrasonic cleaning of a conveyor belt was studied by building a pilot-scale conveyor with an ultrasonic cleaning bath. A piece of the stainless steel conveyor belt was contaminated with meat-based soil and Listeria monocytogenes strains (V1, V3, and B9) and incubated for 72 h to allow bacteria to attach to the conveyor belt surfaces. The effect of ultrasound with a potassium hydroxide-based cleaning detergent was determined by using the cleaning bath at 45 and 50 degrees C for 30 s with and without ultrasound. The detachment of L. monocytogenes from the conveyor belt caused by the ultrasonic treatment was significantly greater at 45 degrees C (independent samples t test, P conveyor belt is effective even with short treatment times.

  9. Air purification from a mixture VOCs in the pilot-scale trickle-bed bioreactor (TBB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarzyński, Rafał; Gąszczak, Agnieszka; Janecki, Daniel; Bartelmus, Grażyna

    2017-10-01

    The efficiency of the air bio-purification from the mixture of two volatile organic compounds (styrene and p-xylene) was studied. The process was carried out in a pilot-scale trickle-bed bioreactor installation designed to purify ˜200 m3h-1 of the polluted air. The bioreactor operated at concurrent flow of gas and liquid (mineral salt solution) through packing (polypropylene Ralu rings) covered with a thin layer of microorganisms (bacterial consortium of Pseudomonas sp. E-022150 and Pseudomonas putida mt-2). The experiments, carried out for various values of a reactor load with pollutant, confirmed the great efficiency of the investigated process. At the tested bed load with pollution (inlet specific pollutant load was changed within the range of 41 - 84 gm-3 h -1), styrene conversion degree changed within the range of 80-87% and p-xylene conversion degree within the range of 42-48%.

  10. Mixing large and small particles in a pilot scale rotary kiln

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma; Aniol, Rasmus Wochnik; Larsen, Morten Boberg

    2011-01-01

    The mixing of solid alternative fuel particles in cement raw materials was studied experimentally by visual observation in a pilot scale rotary kiln. Fuel particles were placed on top of the raw material bed prior to the experiment. The percentage of particles visible above the bed as a function...... of time was evaluated with the bed predominantly in the rolling bed mode. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of fuel particle size and shape, fuel particle density, rotary kiln fill degree and rotational speed. Large fuel particles and low-density fuel particles appeared more on top...... of the bed than smaller particles and high-density fuel particles. Fuel particle dimensions and sphericity were important parameters for the percentage of visible particles. Increasing bed fill degree and/or increasing rotational speed decreased the percentage of particles visible on top of the bed...

  11. Epidemiologic studies of pilots and aircrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, J D; Blettner, M; Auvinen, A

    2000-11-01

    During flight, pilots and cabin crew are exposed to increased levels of cosmic radiation which consists primarily of neutrons and gamma rays. Neutron dosimetry is not straightforward, but typical annual effective doses are estimated to range between two and five mSv. Higher dose rates are experienced at the highest altitudes and in the polar regions. Mean doses have been increasing over time as longer flights at higher altitudes have become more frequent. Because there are so few populations exposed to neutrons, studies of airline personnel are of particular interest. However, because the cumulative radiation exposure is so low, statistical power is a major concern. Further, finding an appropriate comparison group is problematic due to selection into these occupations and a number of biases are possible. For example, increased rates of breast cancer among flight attendants have been attributed to reproductive factors such as nulliparity and increased rates of melanoma among pilots have been attributed to excessive sun exposure during leisure time activities. Epidemiologic studies conducted over the last 20 y provide little consistent evidence linking cancer with radiation exposures from air travel.

  12. Review on the current practices and efforts towards pilot-scale production of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available -effective production technologies account for the slow progression towards the development of envisioned MOF products at pilot-scale level. This short review brings together the scattered literature that addresses pilot-scale production of MOF materials. An additional...

  13. Raising the profile of pilot and feasibility studies in relation to the development, evaluation and implementation of patient-reported outcome measures.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, GL

    2017-01-01

    This editorial introduces a new special series on the pilot and feasibility testing of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in the on-line open access journal Pilot and Feasibility Studies. Pilot and feasibility studies are typically implemented to address issues of uncertainty before undertaking a larger definitive study such as a randomised controlled trial or large scale survey. This editorial considers the role that such pilot and feasibility testing plays in relation to the developm...

  14. Pilot scale, alpha disassembly and decontamination facility at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadieux, J.R.; Becker, G.W. Jr.; Richardson, G.W.; Coogler, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    An alpha-contained pilot facility is being built at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) for research into the disassembly and dcontamination of noncombustible, Transuranic (TRU) waste. The design and program objectives for the facility are presented along with the initial test results from laboratory scale decontamination experiments with Pu-238 and Cm-244

  15. End-of-pipe single-sludge denitrification in pilot-scale recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Nielsen, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    A step toward environmental sustainability of recirculat aquaculture systems (RAS) is implementation ofsingle-sludge denitrification, a process eliminating nitrate from the aqueous environment while reduc-ing the organic matter discharge simultaneously. Two 1700 L pilot-scale RAS systems each...

  16. SHIRCO PILOT-SCALE INFRARED INCINERATION SYSTEM AT THE ROSE TOWNSHIP DEMODE ROAD SUPERFUND SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation or SITE Program, an evaluation was made of the Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System during 17 separate test runs under varying operating conditions. The tests were conducted at the Demode Road Superfund site in Ros...

  17. Results of a pilot scale melter test to attain higher production rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, M.L.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Chapman, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    A pilot-scale melter test was completed as part of the effort to enhance glass production rates. The experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of bulk glass temperature and feed oxide loading. The maximum glass production rate obtained, 86 kg/hr-m 2 , was over 200% better than the previous record for the melter used

  18. Development and pilot testing of full-scale membrane distillation modules for deployment of waste heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.E.; Assink, J.W.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Medevoort, J. van; Sonsbeek, E. van

    2013-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an attractive technology for extracting fresh water from seawater. Newly developed modules have been used in pilot tests and bench scale tests to demonstrate the potential of producing excellent product water quality in a single step, little need for water pretreatment and a

  19. A pilot scale electrical infrared dry-peeling system for tomatoes: design and performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot scale infrared dry-peeling system for tomatoes was designed and constructed. The system consisted of three major sections including the IR heating, vacuum, and pinch roller sections. The peeling performance of the system was examined under different operational conditions using tomatoes with...

  20. Removal of pollutants from pulp and paper mill effluent by anaerobic and aerobic treatment in pilot scale bioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, P.; Katiyar, D.; Gupta, M.

    2011-01-01

    Pilot-scale anaerobic and aerobic treatment in a two-step bioreactor was performed for the removal of pollutants from pulp and paper mill effluent. After seven days of anaerobic treatment, colour (45%), lignin (60%), COD (26%) and adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) (20%) were reduced. The anaerobic......Pilot-scale anaerobic and aerobic treatment in a two-step bioreactor was performed for the removal of pollutants from pulp and paper mill effluent. After seven days of anaerobic treatment, colour (45%), lignin (60%), COD (26%) and adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) (20%) were reduced....... The anaerobically treated effluent was then treated in a bioreactor in the presence of a fungal strain (Aspergillus fumigatus) or a bacterial strain (Pseudomonas ovalis). The results of this study indicated a reduction in colour (76% and 56%), lignin (78% and 68%), COD (85% and 78%) and AOX (70% and 82...

  1. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF BIOCONVERSION NEUFCHATEL WHEY INTO RECTIFIED ETHANOL AND ORGANIC LIQUID FERTILIZER IN SEMI PILOT SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemilang Lara UTAMA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the study was to determine the cost-benefit analysis in neufchatel whey bioconversion into rectified ethanol and organic liquid fertilizer. Bioconversion whey into rectified ethanol and organic liquid fertilizer has shown great potential as a way to reduce the pollution resulting from cheese-making process. Semi pilot scale experiment was done to ferment 5 L neufchatel whey using 5% K. lactis at 33°C for 24 h in semi anaerobic plastic container without agitation and then distilled into 96.2% purity. Data collected and analyzed descriptively related to benefit cost ratio/BCR, net present value/NPV and internal rate returns/IRR. The result showed that semi pilot scale bioconversion of neufchatel whey resulting in 106.42 ml rectified ethanol and 4404.22 ml distillery residue. Economic benefit could achieved by the support of distillery residue sales as organic liquid fertilizer.

  2. Large Pilot-Scale Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Project Using Aminosilicone Solvent.Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancu, Dan [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2017-12-21

    GE Global Research has developed, over the last 8 years, a platform of cost effective CO2 capture technologies based on a non-aqueous aminosilicone solvent (GAP-1m). As demonstrated in previous funded DOE projects (DE-FE0007502 and DEFE0013755), the GAP-1m solvent has increased CO2 working capacity, lower volatility and corrosivity than the benchmark aqueous amine technology. Performance of the GAP-1m solvent was recently demonstrated in a 0.5 MWe pilot at National Carbon Capture Center, AL with real flue gas for over 500 hours of operation using a Steam Stripper Column (SSC). The pilot-scale PSTU engineering data were used to (i) update the techno-economic analysis, and EH&S assessment, (ii) perform technology gap analysis, and (iii) conduct the solvent manufacturability and scale-up study.

  3. Pilot-Scale Removal Of Fluoride From Legacy Plutonium Materials Using Vacuum Salt Distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000°C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition

  4. Strategy for Passivating Char Efficiently at the Pilot Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, Timothy C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-18

    Fast pyrolysis is a promising pathway for the commercialization of liquid transportation fuels from biomass. Fast pyrolysis is performed at moderate heat (450-600 degrees Celcius) in an oxygen-deficient environment. One of the products of fast pyrolysis is biochar, which is often used as a heat source or as a soil amendment. Biochar is a partially reacted solid that is created in the production of bio-oil during fast pyrolysis. Biochar produced at these conditions contains significant quantities of carbon that adsorb oxygen when exposed to air. Biochar adsorption of oxygen is an exothermic process that may generate sufficient heat for combustion in ambient air. Biochar is also a self-insulating material which compounds the effects of heat generated internally. These factors lead to safety concerns and material handling difficulties. The Thermochemical Process Development Unit at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory operates a pilot plant that may be configured for fast pyrolysis, gasification, and will be introducing catalytic fast pyrolysis capabilities in 2018. The TCPDU designed and installed a system to introduce oxygen to collected biochar systematically for a controlled passivation. Biochar is collected and cooled in an oxygen deficient environment during fast pyrolysis. Oxygen is then introduced to the biochar on a mass flow basis. A sparger imbedded within the biochar sample near the bottom of the bed flows air diluted with nitrogen into the char bed, and excess gasses are removed from the top of the collection drum, above the char bed. Pressure within the collection drum is measured indicating adequate flow through filters. Sample weight is recorded before and after passivation. During passivation, temperature is measured at 18 points within the char bed. Oxygen content and temperature are measured leaving the char bed. Maximum temperature parameters were established to ensure operator safety during biochar passivation. Extensive passivation data was

  5. DU-AGG pilot plant design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessing, P.A.; Gillman, H.

    1996-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is developing new methods to produce high-density aggregate (artificial rock) primarily consisting of depleted uranium oxide. The objective is to develop a low-cost method whereby uranium oxide powder (UO[sub 2], U[sub 3]O[sub ]8, or UO[sub 3]) can be processed to produce high-density aggregate pieces (DU-AGG) having physical properties suitable for disposal in low-level radioactive disposal facilities or for use as a component of high-density concrete used as shielding for radioactive materials. A commercial company, G-M Systems, conducted a design study for a manufacturing pilot plant to process DU-AGG. The results of that study are included and summarized in this report. Also explained are design considerations, equipment capacities, the equipment list, system operation, layout of equipment in the plant, cost estimates, and the proposed plan and schedule

  6. Location Independent Professional Project: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, J.A.; Long, J.P.; Miller, M.M.

    1999-02-01

    This pilot study project explored the problem of providing access to the nomadic worker who desires to connect a computer through network access points at a number of different locations within the SNL/NM campus as well as outside the campus. The design and prototype development gathered knowledge that may allow a design to be developed that could be extended to a larger number of SNL/NM network drop boxes. The focus was to provide a capability for a worker to access the SNL IRN from a network drop box (e.g. in a conference room) as easily as when accessing the computer network from the office normally used by the worker. Additional study was done on new methods to authenticate the off campus worker, and protect and control access to data.

  7. Performance of a pilot-scale, steam-blown, pressurized fluidized bed biomass gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Daniel Joseph

    With the discovery of vast fossil resources, and the subsequent development of the fossil fuel and petrochemical industry, the role of biomass-based products has declined. However, concerns about the finite and decreasing amount of fossil and mineral resources, in addition to health and climate impacts of fossil resource use, have elevated interest in innovative methods for converting renewable biomass resources into products that fit our modern lifestyle. Thermal conversion through gasification is an appealing method for utilizing biomass due to its operability using a wide variety of feedstocks at a wide range of scales, the product has a variety of uses (e.g., transportation fuel production, electricity production, chemicals synthesis), and in many cases, results in significantly lower greenhouse gas emissions. In spite of the advantages of gasification, several technical hurdles have hindered its commercial development. A number of studies have focused on laboratory-scale and atmospheric biomass gasification. However, few studies have reported on pilot-scale, woody biomass gasification under pressurized conditions. The purpose of this research is an assessment of the performance of a pilot-scale, steam-blown, pressurized fluidized bed biomass gasifier. The 200 kWth fluidized bed gasifier is capable of operation using solid feedstocks at feedrates up to 65 lb/hr, bed temperatures up to 1600°F, and pressures up to 8 atm. Gasifier performance was assessed under various temperatures, pressure, and feedstock (untreated woody biomass, dark and medium torrefied biomass) conditions by measuring product gas yield and composition, residue (e.g., tar and char) production, and mass and energy conversion efficiencies. Elevated temperature and pressure, and feedstock pretreatment were shown to have a significant influence on gasifier operability, tar production, carbon conversion, and process efficiency. High-pressure and temperature gasification of dark torrefied biomass

  8. Fertiliser drawn forward osmosis process: Pilot-scale desalination of mine impaired water for fertigation

    KAUST Repository

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Kim, Jung Eun; Johir, Mohammad AH; Hong, Seungkwan; Li, Zhenyu; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2016-01-01

    The pilot-scale fertiliser driven forward osmosis (FDFO) and nanofiltration (NF) system was operated in the field for about six months for the desalination of saline groundwater from the coal mining activities. Long-term operation of the FDFO-NF system indicates that simple hydraulic cleaning could effectively restore the water flux with minimal chemical cleaning frequency. No fouling/scaling issues were encountered with the NF post-treatment process. The study indicates that, FDFO-NF desalination system can produce water quality that meets fertigation standard. This study also however shows that, the diffusion of solutes (both feed and draw) through the cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membrane could be one of the major issues. The FO feed brine failed to meet the effluent discharge standard for NH4+ and SO42+ (reverse diffusion) and their concentrations are expected to further increase at higher feed recovery rates. Low rejection of feed salts (Na+, Cl−) by FO membrane may result in their gradual build-up in the fertiliser draw solution (DS) in a closed FDFO-NF system eventually affecting the final water quality unless it is balanced by adequate bleeding from the system through NF and re-reverse diffusion towards the FO feed brine. Therefore, FO membrane with higher reverse flux selectivity than the CTA-FO membrane used in this study is necessary for the application of the FDFO desalination process.

  9. Fertiliser drawn forward osmosis process: Pilot-scale desalination of mine impaired water for fertigation

    KAUST Repository

    Phuntsho, Sherub

    2016-02-20

    The pilot-scale fertiliser driven forward osmosis (FDFO) and nanofiltration (NF) system was operated in the field for about six months for the desalination of saline groundwater from the coal mining activities. Long-term operation of the FDFO-NF system indicates that simple hydraulic cleaning could effectively restore the water flux with minimal chemical cleaning frequency. No fouling/scaling issues were encountered with the NF post-treatment process. The study indicates that, FDFO-NF desalination system can produce water quality that meets fertigation standard. This study also however shows that, the diffusion of solutes (both feed and draw) through the cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membrane could be one of the major issues. The FO feed brine failed to meet the effluent discharge standard for NH4+ and SO42+ (reverse diffusion) and their concentrations are expected to further increase at higher feed recovery rates. Low rejection of feed salts (Na+, Cl−) by FO membrane may result in their gradual build-up in the fertiliser draw solution (DS) in a closed FDFO-NF system eventually affecting the final water quality unless it is balanced by adequate bleeding from the system through NF and re-reverse diffusion towards the FO feed brine. Therefore, FO membrane with higher reverse flux selectivity than the CTA-FO membrane used in this study is necessary for the application of the FDFO desalination process.

  10. The Pilot Staffing Conundrum: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Project, AFIT/ GMO /LAL/98J-2. School of Logistics and Acquisition Management, Air Force Institute of Technology (AU), Wright Patterson AFB, OH, June...Kafer, John H. Relationship of Airline Pilot Demand and Air Force Pilot Retention. Graduate Research Project, AFIT/ GMO /LAL/98J-11. School of Logistics

  11. Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils: LEFPC appendices, volume 1, appendix I-IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document contains Appendix I-IV for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. Included are calibration records; quality assurance; soils characterization; pilot scale trial runs

  12. Evaluation of mixing and mass transfer in a stirred pilot scale bioreactor utilizing CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Yang, Jifeng; Larsson, Hilde Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge and prediction of mixing and mass transfer in agitated bioreactors is fundamental for process development and scale up. In particular key process parameters such as mixing time and volumetric mass transfer coefficient are essential for bioprocess development. In this work the mixing...... and mass transfer performance of a high power agitated pilot scale bioreactor has been characterized using a novel combination of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experimental investigations. The effect of turbulence inside the vessel was predicted using a standard RANS k-ε model. Mixing time...... transfer coefficients were in accordance with the experimental data. This work illustrates the possibility of predicting the two phase fluid dynamic performance of an agitated pilot scale bioreactor using validated CFD models. These models can be applied to illustrate the effect of changing the physical...

  13. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in commercial airline pilots: a cohort study of 2630 pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, S; Venemans-Jellema, A; Cannegieter, S C; van Haften, M; Middeldorp, S; Büller, H R; Rosendaal, F R

    2014-08-01

    Airline pilots may be at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) because air travel has recently been established as a risk factor for VTE. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of VTE in a cohort of Dutch airline pilots. Airline pilots who had been active members of the Dutch aviation society (VNV) were questioned for the occurrence of VTE, presence of risk factors for VTE and number of flight hours per year and rank. Incidence rates among pilots were compared with those of the general Dutch population and with a population of frequently flying employees of multinational organizations. A total of 2630 male pilots were followed-up for a total of 20420 person-years (py). Six venous thromboses were reported, yielding an incidence rate of 0.3 per 1000 py. The standardized morbidity ratio, comparing these pilots with the general Dutch population adjusted for age, was 0.8. Compared with the international employee cohort, the standardized morbidity ratio was 0.7 when all employees were included and 0.6 when only the frequently travelling employees were included. The incidence rate did not increase with number of flight hours per year and did not clearly vary by rank. We conclude that the risk of VTE is not increased amongst airline pilots. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  14. Pilot-scale reactor activation facility at SRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, W.W.

    1976-01-01

    The Hydrogeocemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance portion of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program requires an analytical technique for uranium and other elements. Based on an automated absolute activation analysis technique using 252 Cf, a pilt-scale facility installed in a production reactor has provided analyses for 2800 samples. Key features include: an automated sample transport system, a delayed neutron detector, two GeLi detectors, a loader, and an unloader, with all components controlled by a microprocessor; a dedicated PDP-9 computer and pulse height analyzer; and correlation and reduction of acquired data by a series of programs using an IBM 360/195 computer. The facility was calibrated with elemental and isotopic standards. Results of analyses of standard reference materials and operational detection limits for typical sediment samples are presented. Plans to increase sample throughput are discussed briefly

  15. Defining Feasibility and Pilot Studies in Preparation for Randomised Controlled Trials: Development of a Conceptual Framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M Eldridge

    Full Text Available We describe a framework for defining pilot and feasibility studies focusing on studies conducted in preparation for a randomised controlled trial. To develop the framework, we undertook a Delphi survey; ran an open meeting at a trial methodology conference; conducted a review of definitions outside the health research context; consulted experts at an international consensus meeting; and reviewed 27 empirical pilot or feasibility studies. We initially adopted mutually exclusive definitions of pilot and feasibility studies. However, some Delphi survey respondents and the majority of open meeting attendees disagreed with the idea of mutually exclusive definitions. Their viewpoint was supported by definitions outside the health research context, the use of the terms 'pilot' and 'feasibility' in the literature, and participants at the international consensus meeting. In our framework, pilot studies are a subset of feasibility studies, rather than the two being mutually exclusive. A feasibility study asks whether something can be done, should we proceed with it, and if so, how. A pilot study asks the same questions but also has a specific design feature: in a pilot study a future study, or part of a future study, is conducted on a smaller scale. We suggest that to facilitate their identification, these studies should be clearly identified using the terms 'feasibility' or 'pilot' as appropriate. This should include feasibility studies that are largely qualitative; we found these difficult to identify in electronic searches because researchers rarely used the term 'feasibility' in the title or abstract of such studies. Investigators should also report appropriate objectives and methods related to feasibility; and give clear confirmation that their study is in preparation for a future randomised controlled trial designed to assess the effect of an intervention.

  16. Defining Feasibility and Pilot Studies in Preparation for Randomised Controlled Trials: Development of a Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Sandra M; Lancaster, Gillian A; Campbell, Michael J; Thabane, Lehana; Hopewell, Sally; Coleman, Claire L; Bond, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    We describe a framework for defining pilot and feasibility studies focusing on studies conducted in preparation for a randomised controlled trial. To develop the framework, we undertook a Delphi survey; ran an open meeting at a trial methodology conference; conducted a review of definitions outside the health research context; consulted experts at an international consensus meeting; and reviewed 27 empirical pilot or feasibility studies. We initially adopted mutually exclusive definitions of pilot and feasibility studies. However, some Delphi survey respondents and the majority of open meeting attendees disagreed with the idea of mutually exclusive definitions. Their viewpoint was supported by definitions outside the health research context, the use of the terms 'pilot' and 'feasibility' in the literature, and participants at the international consensus meeting. In our framework, pilot studies are a subset of feasibility studies, rather than the two being mutually exclusive. A feasibility study asks whether something can be done, should we proceed with it, and if so, how. A pilot study asks the same questions but also has a specific design feature: in a pilot study a future study, or part of a future study, is conducted on a smaller scale. We suggest that to facilitate their identification, these studies should be clearly identified using the terms 'feasibility' or 'pilot' as appropriate. This should include feasibility studies that are largely qualitative; we found these difficult to identify in electronic searches because researchers rarely used the term 'feasibility' in the title or abstract of such studies. Investigators should also report appropriate objectives and methods related to feasibility; and give clear confirmation that their study is in preparation for a future randomised controlled trial designed to assess the effect of an intervention.

  17. Performance evaluation of pilot scale sulfur-oxidizing denitrification for treatment of metal plating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Angel S P; Gwon, Eun-Mi; Sim, Dong-Min; Nisola, Grace; Galera, Melvin M; Chon, Seung-Se; Chung, Wook-Jin; Pak, Dae-Won; Ahn, Zou Sam

    2006-01-01

    A full-scale and two pilot-scale upflow sulfur-oxidizing denitrification (SOD) columns were evaluated using metal plating wastewater as feed. The sludge was autotrophically enriched, and inoculated in the SOD columns attached to the effluent line of three metal plating wastewater treatment facilities. The effects of activated carbon and aeration were also studied, and found effective for the removal of suspended solids and ammonia, respectively. The results showed that the constituents, such as the total nitrogen, nitrates, nitrites, ammonia, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and heavy metals, were effectively removed. The pH was observed to be maintained at 7-8 due to the alkalinity supplied by the sulfur-calcium carbonate (SC) pellet. The denitrification efficiency and start-up period were observed to be affected by the influent quality. Chromium, iron, nickel, copper, and zinc--the major heavy metal components of the influent--were effectively reduced at certain concentrations. Other metal ions were also detected and reduced to undetectable concentrations, but no trends in the comparison with denitrification were observed. From the results it can be concluded that SOD is effective for the removal of nitrogen, particularly nitrates, without a drastic pH change, and can effectively remove minute concentrations of heavy metals and COD in metal plating wastewaters.

  18. Optimization of design and operating parameters in a pilot scale Jameson cell for slime coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacifazlioglu, Hasan; Toroglu, Ihsan [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Karaelmas, 67100 (Turkey)

    2007-07-15

    The Jameson flotation cell has been commonly used to treat a variety of ores (lead, zinc, copper etc.), coal and industrial minerals at commercial scale since 1989. It is especially known to be highly efficient at fine and ultrafine coal recovery. However, although the Jameson cell has quite a simple structure, it may be largely inefficient if the design and operating parameters chosen are not appropriate. In this study, the design and operating parameters of a pilot scale Jameson cell were optimized to obtain a desired metallurgical performance in the slime coal flotation. The optimized design parameters are the nozzle type, the height of the nozzle above the pulp level, the downcomer diameter and the immersion depth of the downcomer. Among the operating parameters optimized are the collector dosage, the frother dosage, the percentage of solids and the froth height. In the optimum conditions, a clean coal with an ash content of 14.90% was obtained from the sample slime having 45.30% ash with a combustible recovery of 74.20%. In addition, a new type nozzle was developed for the Jameson cell, which led to an increase of about 9% in the combustible recovery value.

  19. Pilot study for natural radiation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.; Driscoll, C.M.H.; Green, B.M.R.; Miles, J.C.H.

    1983-01-01

    NRPB's national survey of natural radiation exposure in homes commenced in 1982 and will run until 1984. A pilot survey was undertaken in over 100 homes for one year, using passive thermoluminescent dosemeters to measure external radiation from terrestrial and cosmic sources and passive radon dosemeters to measure the radon-222 gas concentration. A preliminary analysis of the results obtained from the pilot survey is given. The main value of the pilot survey was in providing experience and various administrative and scientific procedures have been simplified or automated for the national survey. (U.K.)

  20. INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Qureshi, Z.

    2011-01-24

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that MST can be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations).

  1. Utilization of the Pilot Scale Demonstration Facility for Vitrification of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Choi, W. K.; Jung, C. H.; Won, H. J.; Song, P. S.; Min, B. Y.; Park, H. S.; Jung, K. K.; Yun, K. S.

    2005-10-01

    A series of maintenance and repair work for normalization of the pilot scale vitrification demonstration facility was completed successfully to develop the waste treatment in high temperature and melting technology. It was investigated that the treatment of combustible and non-combustible wastes produced at the KAERI site is technically feasible in the pilot scale vitrification demonstration facility which is designed to be able to treat various kinds of radioactive wastes such as combustible and non-combustible wastes including soil and concrete. The vitrification test facility can be used as the R and D and the technology demonstration facility for melt decontamination of the metallic wastes which have a fixed specification. The modification of the RI storage room in the pilot scale vitrification demonstration facility and the licensing according to the facility modification were completed for the R and D on melt decontamination of dismantled metallic wastes which is carrying out as one of the national long-term R and D projects on nuclear energy. The lab-scale melt decontamination apparatus was installed in modified RI storage room and the characteristics of melt decontamination will be examined using various metallic wastes. It is expected that the economical feasibility on the volume reduction and recycle of metallic wastes will be escalated in the present situation when the unit cost for waste disposal has the tendency to grow up gradually. Therefore, the pilot scale vitrification demonstration facility can be used for the technology development for the volume reduction and recycle of the metallic wastes generated from on-going projects on the decommissioning of research reactors and the environmental restoration of uranium conversion plant, and for the treatment of radioactive solid wastes produced at the KAERI site

  2. Utilization of the Pilot Scale Demonstration Facility for Vitrification of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Choi, W. K.; Jung, C. H.; Won, H. J.; Song, P. S.; Min, B. Y.; Park, H. S.; Jung, K. K.; Yun, K. S

    2005-10-15

    A series of maintenance and repair work for normalization of the pilot scale vitrification demonstration facility was completed successfully to develop the waste treatment in high temperature and melting technology. It was investigated that the treatment of combustible and non-combustible wastes produced at the KAERI site is technically feasible in the pilot scale vitrification demonstration facility which is designed to be able to treat various kinds of radioactive wastes such as combustible and non-combustible wastes including soil and concrete. The vitrification test facility can be used as the R and D and the technology demonstration facility for melt decontamination of the metallic wastes which have a fixed specification. The modification of the RI storage room in the pilot scale vitrification demonstration facility and the licensing according to the facility modification were completed for the R and D on melt decontamination of dismantled metallic wastes which is carrying out as one of the national long-term R and D projects on nuclear energy. The lab-scale melt decontamination apparatus was installed in modified RI storage room and the characteristics of melt decontamination will be examined using various metallic wastes. It is expected that the economical feasibility on the volume reduction and recycle of metallic wastes will be escalated in the present situation when the unit cost for waste disposal has the tendency to grow up gradually. Therefore, the pilot scale vitrification demonstration facility can be used for the technology development for the volume reduction and recycle of the metallic wastes generated from on-going projects on the decommissioning of research reactors and the environmental restoration of uranium conversion plant, and for the treatment of radioactive solid wastes produced at the KAERI site.

  3. Biomass conversion to hydrocarbon fuels using the MixAlco™ process at a pilot-plant scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taco Vasquez, Sebastian; Dunkleman, John; Chaudhuri, Swades K.; Bond, Austin; Holtzapple, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Texas A and M University has built a MixAlco™ pilot plant that converts biomass to hydrocarbons (i.e., jet fuel, gasoline) using the following steps: fermentation, descumming, dewatering, thermal ketonization, distillation, hydrogenation, and oligomerization. This study describes the pilot plant and reports results from an 11-month production campaign. The focus was to produce sufficient jet fuel to be tested by the U.S. military. Because the scale was relatively small, energy-saving features were not included in the pilot plant. Further, the equipment was operated in a manner to maximize productivity even if yields were low. During the production campaign, a total of 6.015 Mg of shredded paper and 120 kg of chicken manure (dry basis) were fermented to produce 126.5 m 3 of fermentation broth with an average concentration of 12.5 kg m −3 . A total of 1582 kg of carboxylate salts were converted to 587 L of raw ketones, which were distilled and hydrogenated to 470 L of mixed alcohols ranging from C3 to C12. These alcohols, plus 300 L of alcohols made by an industrial partner (Terrabon, Inc.) were shipped to an independent contractor (General Electric) and transformed to jet fuel (∼100 L) and gasoline (∼100 L) byproduct. - Highlights: • We produce hydrocarbons from paper and chicken manure in a pilot-scale production using the MixAlco™ process. • About 100 L of jet fuel were produced for military testing. • High production rates and good product quality were preferred rather than high yields or energy efficiency. • The MixAlco™ process converted successfully lignocellulosic biomass to hydrocarbons and viable for commercial-scale production

  4. Fortification of Indonesian unbranded vegetable oil: public-private initiative, from pilot to large scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekirman; Soekarjo, Damayanti; Martianto, Drajat; Laillou, Arnaud; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2012-12-01

    Despite improved economic conditions, vitamin A deficiency remains a public health problem in Indonesia. This paper aims to describe the development of the Indonesian unbranded cooking oil fortification program and to discuss lessons learned to date and future steps necessary for implementation of mandatory, large-scale oil fortification with vitamin A. An historic overview of the steps involved in developing the Indonesian unbranded cooking oil fortification program is given, followed by a discussion of lessons learned and next steps needed. Indonesia's low-income groups generally consume unbranded vegetable oil, with an average consumption of approximately 25 g/day. Unbranded oil constitutes approximately 70% of the total oil traded in the country. In 2007-10, a pilot project to fortify unbranded vegetable oil was carried out in Makassar, and an effectiveness study found that the project significantly improved the serum retinol concentrations of schoolchildren. In 2010, the pilot was expanded to two provinces (West Java and North Sumatra) involving the biggest two national refineries. In 2011, a draft national standard for fortified oil was developed, which is currently under review by the National Standard Body and is expected to be mandated nationally in 2013 as announced officially by the Government of Indonesia in national and international meetings. Indonesia is a leading world supplier of cooking oil. With stakeholder support, the groundwork has been laid and efforts are moving forward to implement mandatory fortification. This project could encourage Indonesian industry to fortify more edible oils for export, thus expanding their market potential and potentially reducing vitamin A deficiency in the region.

  5. Educating restaurant owners and cooks to lower their own sodium intake is a potential strategy for reducing the sodium contents of restaurant foods: a small-scale pilot study in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Heeseung; Seo, Dong-Il; Oh, Kwang-Hwan; Hwang, Taik Gun; Choi, Bo Youl

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of a sodium reduction program at local restaurants through nutrition education and examination of the health of restaurant owners and cooks. The study was a single-arm pilot intervention using a pre-post design in one business district with densely populated restaurants in Seoul, South Korea. The intervention focused on improving nutrition behaviors and psychosocial factors through education, health examination, and counseling of restaurant personnel. Forty-eight restaurant owners and cooks completed the baseline survey and participated in the intervention. Forty participants completed the post-intervention survey. The overweight and obesity prevalences were 25.6% and 39.5%, respectively, and 74.4% of participants had elevated blood pressure. After health examination, counseling, and nutrition education, several nutrition behaviors related to sodium intake showed improvement. In addition, those who consumed less salt in their baseline diet (measured with urine dipsticks) were more likely to agree that providing healthy foods to their customers is necessary. This study demonstrated the potential to reduce the sodium contents of restaurant foods by improving restaurant owners' and cooks' psychological factors and their own health behaviors. This small pilot study demonstrated that working with restaurant owners and cooks to improve their own health and sodium intake may have an effect on participation in restaurant-based sodium reduction initiatives. Future intervention studies with a larger sample size and comparison group can focus on improving the health and perceptions of restaurant personnel in order to increase the feasibility and efficacy of restaurant-based sodium reduction programs and policies.

  6. Endoscopic procedure with a modified Reiki intervention: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Rosalinda S; Stuart-Shor, Eileen M; Russo, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study examined the use of Reiki prior to colonoscopy to reduce anxiety and minimize intraprocedure medications compared with usual care. A prospective, nonblinded, partially randomized patient preference design was employed using 21 subjects undergoing colonoscopy for the first time. Symptoms of anxiety and pain were assessed using a Likert-type scale. Between-group differences were assessed using chi-square analyses and analysis of variance. There were no differences between the control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 11) groups on age (mean = 58 years, SD = 8.5) and gender (53% women). The experimental group had higher anxiety (4.5 vs. 2.6, p = .03) and pain (0.8 vs. 0.2, p = .42) scores prior to colonoscopy. The Reiki intervention reduced mean heart rate (-9 beats/minute), systolic blood pressure (-10 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (-4 mmHg), and respirations (-3 breaths/minute). There were no between-group differences on intraprocedure medication use or postprocedure physiologic measures. Although the experimental group patients had more symptoms, they did not require additional pain medication during the procedure, suggesting that (1) anxious people may benefit from an adjunctive therapy; (2) anxiety and pain are decreased by Reiki therapy for patients undergoing colonoscopy, and (3) additional intraprocedure pain medication may not be needed for colonoscopy patients receiving Reiki therapy. This pilot study provided important insights in preparation for a rigorous, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

  7. Feasibility Pilot Study: Training Soft Skills in Virtual Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshier, Patricia

    2012-04-01

    In a world where funding is limited, training for healthcare professionals is turning more and more to distance learning in an effort to maintain a knowledgeable and skilled work force. In 2010, Cicatelli Associates, Inc. began exploring the feasibility of using games and virtual worlds as an alternative means to teach skills-training in a distance-learning environment. The pilot study was conducted with six individuals familiar with general counseling and communication skills used by the healthcare industry to promote behavior change. Participants reported that the venue, although challenging at first, showed great potential for use with healthcare providers, as it allowed for more interaction and activities than traditional Webinars. However, there are significant limitations that must be overcome in order for this healthcare training modality to be utilized on a large scale. These limitations included a lack of microgestures and issues regarding the technology being used. In spite of the limitations, however, the potential use of virtual worlds for the training of healthcare providers exists and should be researched further. This article discusses the need and intended benefits of virtual world training as well as the results and conclusions of the pilot study.

  8. Cold flow model study of an oxyfuel combustion pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guio-Perez, D.C.; Tondl, G.; Hoeltl, W.; Proell, T.; Hofbauer, H. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-12-15

    The fluid-dynamic behavior of a circulating fluidized bed pilot plant for oxyfuel combustion was studied in a cold flow model, down-scaled using Glicksman's criteria. Pressures along the unit and the global circulation rate were used for characterization. The analysis of five operating parameters and their influence on the system was carried out; namely, total solids inventory and the air velocity of primary, secondary, loop seal and support fluidizations. The cold flow model study shows that the reactor design allows stable operation at a wide range of fluidization rates, with results that agree well with previous observations described in the literature. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Pilot-scale equipment development for pyrochemical treatment of spent oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, S. D.

    1999-01-01

    Fundamental objectives regarding spent nuclear fuel treatment technologies include, first, the effective distribution of spent fuel constituents among product and stable waste forms and, second, the minimization and standardization of waste form types and volumes. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed and is presently demonstrating the electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded metal fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II, resulting in an uranium product and two stable waste forms, i.e. ceramic and metallic. Engineering efforts are underway at ANL to develop pilot-scale equipment which would precondition irradiated oxide fuel via pyrochemical processing and subsequently allow for electrometallurgical treatment of such non-metallic fuels into standard product and waste forms. This paper highlights the integration of proposed spent oxide fuel treatment with existing electrometallurgical processes. System designs and technical bases for development of pilot-scale oxide reduction equipment are also described

  10. Pilot-scale biopesticide production by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki using starch industry wastewater as raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndao, Adama; Sellamuthu, Balasubramanian; Gnepe, Jean R; Tyagi, Rajeshwar D; Valero, Jose R

    2017-09-02

    Pilot-scale Bacillus thuringiensis based biopesticide production (2000 L bioreactor) was conducted using starch industry wastewater (SIW) as a raw material using optimized operational parameters obtained in 15 L and 150 L fermenters. In pilot scale fermentation process the oxygen transfer rate is a major limiting factor for high product yield. Thus, the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (K L a) remains a tool to determine the oxygen transfer capacity [oxygen utilization rate (OUR) and oxygen transfer rate (OTR)] to obtain better bacterial growth rate and entomotoxicity in new bioreactor process optimization and scale-up. This study results demonstrated that the oxygen transfer rate in 2000 L bioreactor was better than 15 L and 150 L fermenters. The better oxygen transfer in 2000 L bioreactor augmented the bacterial growth [total cell (TC) and viable spore count (SC)] and delta-endotoxin yield. Prepared a stable biopesticide formulation for field use and its entomotoxicity was also evaluated. This study result corroborates the feasibility of industrial scale operation of biopesticide production using starch industry wastewater as raw material.

  11. Pilot scale digestion of source-sorted household waste as a tool for evaluation of different pre-sorting and pre-treatment strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svärd, Å; Gruvberger, C.; Aspegren, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pilot scale digestion of the organic fraction of source-sorted household waste from Sweden and Denmark was performed during one year. The study includes 17 waste types with differences in originating municipality, housing type, kitchen wrapping, sack type, pre-treatment method and season. The pilot...... scale digestion has been carried out in systems with a 35-litres digester connected to a 77-litres gas tank. Four rounds of digestion were performed including start-up periods, full operation periods for evaluation and post-digestion periods without feeding. Different pre-sorting and pre-treatment...

  12. Climatotherapy in Japan: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Hitomi; Kusaka, Yukinori; Hirai, Takayoshi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Agishi, Yuko; Schuh, Angela

    2017-12-01

    Twenty-nine urban inhabitants participated in a half-day climatotherapy programme at the moderate mountain area and lowland area in the northwest part of the main island of Japan. The current study was aimed to investigate physically and mentally the objective and subjective influence of our short programme, which was a prospective pilot study of single intervention. Blood pressure was significantly descended during terrain cure at the uphill mountain path and returned after fresh-air rest cure, while there was no significant change throughout the programme at lowland flat path. Heart rate was significantly ascended and descended at both area, and more clearly changed at the mountain path. Profile of Mood Status brief form Japanese version administered before and after our half-day programme. Age adjusted T score of negative subscales, `tension-anxiety', `depression', `anger-hostility', `fatigue' and `confusion' were significantly lower after climatotherapy at both sites. Whereas, there was no significant change concerning `vigour' score. This short-version climatotherapy programme has been designed for people without enough time for long stay at health resort. It turned out our half-day climatotherapy programme contribute to mood status improvement. In addition, repeated practice of our short-version programme including endurance exercise with cool body shell using uphill path can be expected that blood pressure will go toward the normal range and heart rate will decrease both in usual time and during exercise. Therefore, health benefits can be expected of this climatotherapy programme.

  13. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati, E-mail: suparnirahayu@yahoo.co.id [Doctoral Program in Environmental Science, University of Diponegoro, Semarang (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Polytechnic of Semarang, Semarang Indonesia (Indonesia); Purwanto,, E-mail: p.purwanto@che.undip.ac.id; Budiyono, E-mail: budiyono@live.undip.ac.id [Doctoral Program in Environmental Science, University of Diponegoro, Semarang (Indonesia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University, Semarang Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH{sub 4}/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH{sub 4}: 81.23% and CO{sub 2}: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  14. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH4/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH4: 81.23% and CO2: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  15. Setting a standard for electricity pilot studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Alexander L.; Krishnamurti, Tamar; Fischhoff, Baruch; Bruine de Bruin, Wandi

    2013-01-01

    In-home displays, dynamic pricing, and automated devices aim to reduce residential electricity use—overall and during peak hours. We present a meta-analysis of 32 studies of the impacts of these interventions, conducted in the US or Canada. We find that methodological problems are common in the design of these studies, leading to artificially inflated results relative to what one would expect if the interventions were implemented in the general population. Particular problems include having volunteer participants who may have been especially motivated to reduce their electricity use, letting participants choose their preferred intervention, and having high attrition rates. Using estimates of bias from medical clinical trials as a guide, we recalculate impact estimates to adjust for bias, resulting in values that are often less than half of those reported in the reviewed studies. We estimate that in-home displays were the most effective intervention for reducing overall electricity use (∼4% using reported data; ∼3% after adjusting for bias), while dynamic pricing significantly reduced peak demand (∼11% reported; ∼6% adjusted), especially when used in conjunction with home automation (∼25% reported; ∼14% adjusted). We conclude with recommendations that can improve pilot studies and the soundness of decisions based on their results. -- Highlights: •We conduct a meta-analysis of field studies of in-home displays, dynamic pricing, and automation on overall and peak use. •Studies were assessed and adjusted for risk-of-bias from inadequate experimental design. •Most studies were at high risk-of-bias from multiple sources. •In-home displays provided the best overall reduction in energy use, approximately 3% after adjustment for risk-of-bias. •Even after adjustment, automation approximately doubled the effectiveness of dynamic pricing on peak reduction from 6% to 14%

  16. Review on heavy water separation at pilot scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuryanto; Soeroto Ronodirdjo.

    1976-01-01

    The isotope exchange system ammonia-water and hydrogen sulfide water dual temperature are studied. Comparison of the two methods with water electrolysis, water distillation, hydrogen distillation and catalytic water hydrogen exchange are discussed. Water distillation is a simple method. Electrolysis of water has the highest separation factor. The isotope exchange hydrogen sulfide water dual temperature will be done in accord with the report on the operation of a dual temperature single stage for deuterium concentration written by M.L.Eidinoff and C.F. Hiskey. (authors)

  17. Harvesting of Dunaliella salina by membrane filtration at pilot scale

    KAUST Repository

    Monte, Joana

    2017-09-02

    The microalgae Dunaliella salina is industrially produced due to its high content in carotenoids induced by low nitrogen and high salinity conditions. D. salina with low carotenoids content also produces other added value compounds, however its recovery have hardly been studied. This work aims to examine the potential of pre-concentrating D. salina by membrane processing prior to a final harvesting step by low-shear centrifugation. The aim is to minimize the overall energy expenditure and reduce capital costs, while assuring a minimal loss of cell integrity. This task is challenging, considering the sensitivity of D. salina to shear. Harvesting of D. salina by ultrafiltration allowed reaching a final concentration factor of 5.9, with an average permeate flux of 31 L/(m2 h). The Total Cost of Ownership and energy consumption for harvesting are respectively 52% and 45% lower when applying a two-step approach with pre-concentration (ultrafiltration) compared to only harvesting by centrifugation.

  18. Harvesting of Dunaliella salina by membrane filtration at pilot scale

    KAUST Repository

    Monte, Joana; Sá , Marta; Galinha, Clá udia F.; Costa, Luí s; Hoekstra, Herre; Brazinha, Carla; Crespo, Joã o G.

    2017-01-01

    The microalgae Dunaliella salina is industrially produced due to its high content in carotenoids induced by low nitrogen and high salinity conditions. D. salina with low carotenoids content also produces other added value compounds, however its recovery have hardly been studied. This work aims to examine the potential of pre-concentrating D. salina by membrane processing prior to a final harvesting step by low-shear centrifugation. The aim is to minimize the overall energy expenditure and reduce capital costs, while assuring a minimal loss of cell integrity. This task is challenging, considering the sensitivity of D. salina to shear. Harvesting of D. salina by ultrafiltration allowed reaching a final concentration factor of 5.9, with an average permeate flux of 31 L/(m2 h). The Total Cost of Ownership and energy consumption for harvesting are respectively 52% and 45% lower when applying a two-step approach with pre-concentration (ultrafiltration) compared to only harvesting by centrifugation.

  19. Uranium-contaminated soil pilot treatment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, W.R.J.R.; Mason, C.F.V.; Michelotti, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    A pilot treatment study is proving to be effective for the remediation of uranium-contaminated soil from a site at the Los Alamos National Laboratory by use of a two-step, zero-discharge, 100% recycle system. Candidate uranium-contaminated soils were characterized for uranium content, uranium speciation, organic content, size fractionization, and pH. Geochemical computer codes were used to forecast possible uranium leach scenarios. Uranium contamination was not homogenous throughout the soil. In the first step, following excavation, the soil was sorted by use of the ThemoNuclean Services segmented gate system. Following the sorting, uranium-contaminated soil was remediated in a containerized vat leach process by use of sodium-bicarbonate leach solution. Leach solution containing uranium-carbonate complexes is to be treated by use of ion-exchange media and then recycled. Following the treatment process the ion exchange media will be disposed of in an approved low-level radioactive landfill. It is anticipated that treated soils will meet Department of Energy site closure guidelines, and will be given open-quotes no further actionclose quotes status. Treated soils are to be returned to the excavation site. A volume reduction of contaminated soils will successfully be achieved by the treatment process. Cost of the treatment (per cubic meter) is comparable or less than other current popular methods of uranium-contamination remediation

  20. IoT European Large-Scale Pilots – Integration, Experimentation and Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Guillén, Sergio Gustavo; Sala, Pilar; Fico, Giuseppe; Arredondo, Maria Teresa; Cano, Alicia; Posada, Jorge; Gutierrez, Germán; Palau, Carlos; Votis, Konstantinos; Verdouw, Cor N.; Wolfert, Sjaak; Beers, George; Sundmaeker, Harald; Chatzikostas, Grigoris; Ziegler, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    The IoT European Large-Scale Pilots Programme includes the innovation consortia that are collaborating to foster the deployment of IoT solutions in Europe through the integration of advanced IoT technologies across the value chain, demonstration of multiple IoT applications at scale and in a usage context, and as close as possible to operational conditions. The programme projects are targeted, goal-driven initiatives that propose IoT approaches to specific real-life industrial/societal challe...

  1. Laboratory and pilot field-scale testing of surfactants for environmental restoration of chlorinated solvent DNAPLs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, R.E.; Fountain, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    This project is composed of two phases and has the objective of demonstrating surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) as a practical remediation technology at DOE sites with ground water contaminated by dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), in particular, chlorinated solvents. The first phase of this project, Laboratory and Pilot Field Scale Testing, which is the subject of the work so far, involves (1) laboratory experiments to examine the solubilization of multiple component DNAPLs, e.g., solvents such as perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), by dilute surfactant solutions, and (2) a field test to demonstrate SEAR technology on a small scale and in an existing well

  2. Pilot scale harvesting, separation and drying of microalgae biomass from compact photo-bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Alberto Tadeu Martins; Luz Junior, Luiz Fernando de Lima [Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: luzjr@ufpr.br; Mariano, Andre Bellin; Ghidini, Luiz Francisco Correa; Gnoatto, Victor Eduardo; Locatelli Junior, Vilson; Mello, Thiago Carvalho de; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho [Nucleo de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Energia Autossustentavel (NPDEAS). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil)], E-mail: jvargas@demec.ufpr.br

    2010-07-01

    Bio diesel produced from microalgae lipids is gaining a substantial ground in the search for renewable energy sources. In order to optimize the operating conditions of a continuous process, several experiments were realized, both in laboratory and pilot scale. The microalgae cultivation can be conducted in a photo-bioreactor, a closed system which allows parameters control and necessarily involves the aquatic environment. Because of that, the use of separation unit operations is required. The process starts in a proposed compact photo-bioreactor, which consist of a chain of transparent tubes with 6 cm of diameter arranged in parallel where the cultivation media circulate with the help of a pump. This arrangement offers a closed culture with less risk of contamination and maintains a minimum contact with the environment. The microalgae grow inside the pipes under incidence of ambient light. In this paper, harvesting, separation and drying were studied, as part of the processes of a sustainable energy plant under construction at UFPR, as shown in Fig. 1. To control the production in a photo-bioreactor in continuous system, it is necessary to monitor the concentration of microalgae growth in suspension. To measure the cell concentration in this equipment, an optic sensor has been developed. The microalgae biomass separation from the culture media is achieved by microalgae flocculation. Several cultivation situations have been tested with different NaOH concentrations, increasing the pH to 10. The system was kept under agitation during the addition by an air pump into the tank. Thereafter the system was maintained static. After a short time, it was observed that the microalgae coagulated and settled. The clarified part water was removed, remaining a concentrated microalgae suspension. Our results suggest that pH increase is a suitable methodology for microalgae separation from the growth suspension. The microalgae sedimentation time was recorded, which allowed the

  3. Characterization of intermediate products of solar photocatalytic degradation of ranitidine at pilot-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radjenović, Jelena; Sirtori, Carla; Petrović, Mira; Barceló, Damià; Malato, Sixto

    2010-04-01

    In the present study the mechanisms of solar photodegradation of H(2)-receptor antagonist ranitidine (RNTD) were studied in a well-defined system of a pilot plant scale Compound Parabolic Collector (CPC) reactor. Two types of heterogeneous photocatalytic experiments were performed: catalysed by titanium-dioxide (TiO(2)) semiconductor and by Fenton reagent (Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)), each one with distilled water and synthetic wastewater effluent matrix. Complete disappearance of the parent compounds and discreet mineralization were attained in all experiments. Furthermore, kinetic parameters, main intermediate products, release of heteroatoms and formation of carboxylic acids are discussed. The main intermediate products of photocatalytic degradation of RNTD have been structurally elucidated by tandem mass spectrometry (MS(2)) experiments performed at quadrupole-time of flight (QqToF) mass analyzer coupled to ultra-performance liquid chromatograph (UPLC). RNTD displayed high reactivity towards OH radicals, although a product of conduction band electrons reduction was also present in the experiment with TiO(2). In the absence of standards, quantification of intermediates was not possible and only qualitative profiles of their evolution could be determined. The proposed TiO(2) and photo-Fenton degradation routes of RNTD are reported for the first time. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pilot-scale resin adsorption as a means to recover and fractionate apple polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Dietmar R; Carle, Reinhold; Stanley, Roger A; Saleh, Zaid S

    2010-06-09

    The purification and fractionation of phenolic compounds from crude plant extracts using a food-grade acrylic adsorbent were studied at pilot-plant scale. A diluted apple juice concentrate served as a model phenolic solution for column adsorption and desorption trials. Phenolic concentrations were evaluated photometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and by HPLC-DAD. Recovery rates were significantly affected by increasing phenolic concentrations of the feed solutions applied to the column. In contrast, the flow rate during column loading hardly influenced adsorption efficiency, whereas the temperature and pH value were shown to be crucial parameters determining both total phenolic recovery rates and the adsorption behavior of individual polyphenols. As expected, the eluent composition had the greatest impact on the desorption characteristics of both total and individual phenolic compounds. HPLC analyses revealed significantly different elution profiles of individual polyphenols depending on lipophilicity. This technique allows fractionation of crude plant phenolic extracts, thus providing the opportunity to design the functional properties of the resulting phenolic fractions selectively, and the present study delivers valuable information with regard to the adjustment of individual process parameters.

  5. Effect of pilot-scale aseptic processing on tomato soup quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Ines J P; Andrys, Anna; Grundelius, Andrea; Lemmens, Lien; Löfgren, Anders; Buggenhout, Sandy Van; Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc Van

    2011-01-01

    Tomatoes are often processed into shelf-stable products. However, the different processing steps might have an impact on the product quality. In this study, a model tomato soup was prepared and the impact of pilot-scale aseptic processing, including heat treatment and high-pressure homogenization, on some selected quality parameters was evaluated. The vitamin C content, the lycopene isomer content, and the lycopene bioaccessibility were considered as health-promoting attributes. As a structural characteristic, the viscosity of the tomato soup was investigated. A tomato soup without oil as well as a tomato soup containing 5% olive oil were evaluated. Thermal processing had a negative effect on the vitamin C content, while lycopene degradation was limited. For both compounds, high-pressure homogenization caused additional losses. High-pressure homogenization also resulted in a higher viscosity that was accompanied by a decrease in lycopene bioaccessibility. The presence of lipids clearly enhanced the lycopene isomerization susceptibility and improved the bioaccessibility. The results obtained in this study are of relevance for product formulation and process design of tomato-based food products. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Hydrodynamic Modelling of Municipal Solid Waste Residues in a Pilot Scale Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cardoso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the hydrodynamics and heat transfer behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW gasification in a pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor. A multiphase 2-D numerical model following an Eulerian-Eulerian approach within the FLUENT framework was implemented. User defined functions (UDFs were coupled to improve hydrodynamics and heat transfer phenomena, and to minimize deviations between the experimental and numerical results. A grid independence study was accomplished through comparison of the bed volume fraction profiles and by reasoning the grid accuracy and computational cost. The standard deviation concept was used to determine the mixing quality indexes. Simulated results showed that UDFs improvements increased the accuracy of the mathematical model. Smaller size ratio of the MSW-dolomite mixture revealed a more uniform mixing, and larger ratios enhanced segregation. Also, increased superficial gas velocity promoted the solid particles mixing. Heat transfer within the fluidized bed showed strong dependence on the MSW solid particles sizes, with smaller particles revealing a more effective process.

  7. Startup pattern and performance enhancement of pilot-scale biofilm process for raw water pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang-Feng; Feng, Li-Juan; Yang, Qi; Zhu, Liang; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiang-Yang

    2014-11-01

    The quality of raw water is getting worse in developing countries because of the inadequate treatment of municipal sewage, industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff. Aiming at the biofilm enrichment and pollutant removal, two pilot-scale biofilm reactors were built with different biological carriers. Results showed that compared with the blank carrier, the biofilm was easily enriched on the biofilm precoated carrier and less nitrite accumulation occurred. The removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N, DOC and UV254 increased under the aeration condition, and a optimum DO level for the adequate nitrification was 1.0-2.6mgL(-1) with the suitable temperature range of 21-22°C. Study on the trihalomethane prediction model indicated that the presentence of algae increased the risk of disinfection by-products production, which could be effectively controlled via manual algae removing and light shading. In this study, the performance of biofilm pretreatment process could be enhanced under the optimized condition of DO level and biofilm carrier. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Performance of a pilot-scale compost biofilter treating gasoline vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, W.F.; Schroeder, E.D.; Chang, D.P.Y.

    1997-01-01

    A pilot-scale compost biofiltration system was operated as gasoline soil vapor extraction site in Hayward, California for one year. The media was composed of equal volumes of compost and perlite, a bulking agent. Supplements added included nitrogen (as KNO 3 ), a gasoline degrading microbial inoculum, buffer (crushed oyster shell), and water. The biofiltration system was composed of four identical units with outside dimensions of 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.2 m (4 x 4 x 4 ft) operated in an up-flow mode. The units were configured in parallel during the first eight months and then reconfigured to two parallel systems of two units in series. Air flux values ranged from 0.29 to 1.0 m 3 /m 2 per min. Inlet total petroleum hydrogen hydrocarbon (TPH gas ) concentrations ranged from 310 to 2,700 mg/m 3 . The average empty bed contact time was 2.2 min. Following start-up, performance of the individual biofilters varied considerably for a seven-month period. The principal factor affecting performance appeared to be bed moisture content. Overall TPH gas removals reached 90% for short periods in one unit, and BTEX removals were typically above 90%. Drying resulted in channeling and loss of bed activity. Management of bed moisture content improved over the study period, and recovery of system performance was achieved without replacement of bed media. Overall TPH gas removals exceeded 90% during the final 50 days of the study

  9. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria community dynamics in a pilot-scale wastewater treatment plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemoautotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB have the metabolic ability to oxidize ammonia to nitrite aerobically. This metabolic feature has been widely used, in combination with denitrification, to remove nitrogen from wastewater in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. However, the relative influence of specific deterministic environmental factors to AOB community dynamics in WWTP is uncertain. The ecological principles underlying AOB community dynamics and nitrification stability and how they are related are also poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The community dynamics of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB in a pilot-scale WWTP were monitored over a one-year period by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP. During the study period, the effluent ammonia concentrations were almost below 2 mg/L, except for the first 60 days, indicting stable nitrification. T-RFLP results showed that, during the test period with stable nitrification, the AOB community structures were not stable, and the average change rate (every 15 days of AOB community structures was 10% ± 8%. The correlations between T-RFLP profiles and 10 operational and environmental parameters were tested by Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA and Mantel test. The results indicated that the dynamics of AOB community correlated most strongly with Dissolved Oxygen (DO, effluent ammonia, effluent Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD and temperature. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests that nitrification stability is not necessarily accompanied by a stable AOB community, and provides insight into parameters controlling the AOB community dynamics within bioreactors with stable nitrification.

  10. Inactivation of airborne Enterococcus faecalis and infectious bursal disease virus using a pilot-scale ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation scrubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Xin, H.

    2014-01-01

    High microbial concentrations and emissions associated with livestock houses raise health and environmental concerns. A pilot-scale ultraviolet photocatalytic (UV-PCO) scrubber was tested for its efficacy to inactivate aerosolized Enterococcus faecalis and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV).

  11. Illuminating the "Boy Problem" from Children's and Teachers' Perspectives: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Paula Louise; Jones, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The apparent educational underperformance of boys has received phenomenal attention worldwide for many years. In the UK, it has led to various government reports and policies aimed at raising boys' achievement. This small-scale qualitative-interpretive pilot study, undertaken in one urban primary school in North Wales, reports the findings from…

  12. The Citizenship Safety Project: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, K; Barlow, J

    2006-02-01

    The Government White Paper Saving Lives: Our Healthier Nation (1999) provides a clear indication that accidents are a serious public health problem and have been targeted by the Department of Health as a key area for prevention over the next 10 years. School-based injury prevention programmes have been identified as one of the key settings for the implementation of the White Paper's heath promotion strategies. The Citizen Safety Project (CSP) is a peer-delivered injury prevention programme for Year 10 students (14-15 years) and Year 2 pupils (6-7 years). This paper summarizes the findings of a pilot study that assessed the feasibility of implementing the CSP in schools and of conducting a larger study. Working as part of their Personal Social Health Education lessons, 11 pairs (n = 22) of Year 10 students developed a project to take one accident prevention theme of their choice into a primary school to teach small groups of five or six Year 2 pupils (n = 55). A formative evaluation was conducted, based on interviews with Year 2 and Year 10 teachers (n = 2), and the diaries of Year 10 students. Knowledge of accident prevention and risk awareness was measured in Year 2 pupils using the Draw and Write technique, and impact on Year 10 students was measured using self-esteem and locus of control inventories. Using both statistical and thematic analysis the study concludes that the CSP is well accepted, improves knowledge in Year 2 pupils and boosts confidence in Year 10 students, while concurrently achieving key stage attainment targets. Implications of the study are discussed in terms of future research, as are recommendations with regard to modifications to the project.

  13. PILOT STUDY: Report on the CCPR Pilot Comparison: Spectral Responsivity 10 nm to 20 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholze, Frank; Vest, Robert; Saito, Terubumi

    2010-01-01

    The CCPR Pilot Comparison on spectral responsivity in the 10 nm to 20 nm spectral range was carried out within the framework of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement by three laboratories: PTB (Germany), NIST (USA), and NMIJ/AIST (Japan) with PTB acting as the central and reporting laboratory. All participating laboratories used monochromatized synchrotron radiation. PTB and NIST used a cryogenic radiometer as the primary standard detector and NMIJ, an ionization chamber with extrapolation by a wavelength-independent detector. The aim of the pilot comparison was to check the accuracy of the radiometric scale of spectral responsivity in the short wavelength EUV spectral range which has recently gained in technological importance. The wavelengths of measurement were from 11.5 nm to 20 nm in 0.5 nm steps and additionally 12.2 nm. The comparison was carried out through the calibration of a group of transfer standard detectors. Two sets of three diodes of types AXUV and SXUV from International Radiation Detectors, Inc. were used for the comparison. The comparison had the form of a star comparison: Pilot-lab A-pilot-lab B-pilot, PTB acting as the pilot laboratory. All results were communicated directly to the pilot laboratory. The report describes in detail the measurements made at PTB and summarizes the reports submitted by the participants. Measurements carried out by the pilot laboratory before and after the circulation of the detectors proved that the stability of the detectors was sufficient for the comparison. For the type AXUV detectors, however, changes in their responsivity contributed to the uncertainty of the comparison. Measurement results from participants and their associated uncertainties were analyzed in this report according to the Guidelines for CCPR Comparison Report Preparation. The uncertainty contributions were separated, as to whether they are wavelength dependent or not. All bilateral DoE are well within the respective k = 2 expanded uncertainty

  14. Treatment of duck house wastewater by a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor system for sustainable duck production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jung-Jeng; Huang, Jeng-Fang; Wang, Yi-Lei; Hong, Yu-Ya

    2018-06-15

    The objective of this study is trying to solve water pollution problems related to duck house wastewater by developing a novel duck house wastewater treatment technology. A pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system using different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) for treating duck house wastewater was developed and applied in this study. Experimental results showed that removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand in untreated duck house wastewater was 98.4, 98.4, 87.8, and 72.5% for the different HRTs of 5, 3, 1, and 0.5 d, respectively. In addition, removal efficiency of biochemical oxygen demand in untreated duck house wastewater was 99.6, 99.3, 90.4, and 58.0%, respectively. The pilot-scale SBR system was effective and deemed capable to be applied to treat duck house wastewater. It is feasible to apply an automatic SBR system on site based on the previous case study of the farm-scale automatic SBR systems for piggery wastewater treatment.

  15. Production of U3O8 by uranyl formate precipitation and calcination in a full-scale pilot facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendrick, L.S.; Wilson, W.A.; Mosley, W.C.

    1984-08-01

    The uranyl formate process for the production of U 3 O 8 with a controlled particle size has been extensively studied on a laboratory scale. Based on this study, a pilot-scale facility (the Uranyl Formate Facility) was built to investigate the key steps of the process on a larger scale. These steps were the precipitation of a uranyl formate monohydrate salt and the calcination of this salt to U 3 O 8 . Tests of the facility and process were conducted at conditions recommended by the laboratory-scale studies for a full-scale production facility. These tests demonstrated that U 3 O 8 of the required particle size for the PM process can be produced on a plant scale by the calcination of uranyl formate crystals. The performance of the U 3 O 8 produced by the uranyl formate process in fuel tube fabrication was also investigated. Small-scale extrusion tests of U 3 O 8 -Al cores which used the U 3 O 8 produced in the Uranyl Formate Facility were conducted. These tests demonstrated that the U 3 O 8 quality was satisfactory for the PM process

  16. Experiences from the ITRAP pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.; Beck, P.

    2001-01-01

    Illicit trafficking and inadvertent movement of nuclear and other radioactive materials is not a new phenomenon. However, concern about such activities has increased remarkably in the last decade. Although the number of such incidents has risen, the overall extent of the problem is not restricted to Europe and not to nuclear proliferation. A few percent of these incidents involve so-called 'special nuclear materials', which may be used for nuclear weapons and therefore cause a threat of nuclear proliferation. The vast majority of these incidents, however, involve radioactive sources, low-enriched, natural or depleted uranium, which are not usable for weapons. There have been instances in which loss of control over radioactive materials has led to serious, even fatal, consequences to persons. Examples include unintentional incorporation of radioactive materials into recycled steel, recovery of lost radioactive sources by unsuspecting individuals, and deliberate purloining of radioactive material. The ITRAP project - financed by the Austrian Government and executed by the Austrian Research Center in close cooperation with the IAEA, World Customs Organisation (WCO) and Interpol - aimed at finding international consensus on specifications for detection equipment and instrumentation as well as verification of such specifications in laboratory tests and field installations. Under the umbrella of the pilot study, 23 international companies participated in the study and many of them devised improvements of their monitoring equipment. An important element of this study was the harmonized establishment of detection thresholds for practical implementation at borders or similar checkpoints. However, equally important was the verification of agreed specifications in controlled laboratory conditions and in realistic operating environments (field tests). All crucial parameters, as inter alia the false alarm rate, were verified by a significant testing effort as compared to

  17. A farm-scale pilot plant for biohydrogen and biomethane production by two-stage fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Oberti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is considered one of the possible main energy carriers for the future, thanks to its unique environmental properties. Indeed, its energy content (120 MJ/kg can be exploited virtually without emitting any exhaust in the atmosphere except for water. Renewable production of hydrogen can be obtained through common biological processes on which relies anaerobic digestion, a well-established technology in use at farm-scale for treating different biomass and residues. Despite two-stage hydrogen and methane producing fermentation is a simple variant of the traditional anaerobic digestion, it is a relatively new approach mainly studied at laboratory scale. It is based on biomass fermentation in two separate, seuqential stages, each maintaining conditions optimized to promote specific bacterial consortia: in the first acidophilic reactorhydrogen is produced production, while volatile fatty acids-rich effluent is sent to the second reactor where traditional methane rich biogas production is accomplished. A two-stage pilot-scale plant was designed, manufactured and installed at the experimental farm of the University of Milano and operated using a biomass mixture of livestock effluents mixed with sugar/starch-rich residues (rotten fruits and potatoes and expired fruit juices, afeedstock mixture based on waste biomasses directly available in the rural area where plant is installed. The hydrogenic and the methanogenic reactors, both CSTR type, had a total volume of 0.7m3 and 3.8 m3 respectively, and were operated in thermophilic conditions (55 2 °C without any external pH control, and were fully automated. After a brief description of the requirements of the system, this contribution gives a detailed description of its components and of engineering solutions to the problems encountered during the plant realization and start-up. The paper also discusses the results obtained in a first experimental run which lead to production in the range of previous

  18. Scale-up of Escherichia coli growth and recombinant protein expression conditions from microwell to laboratory and pilot scale based on matched k(L)a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, R S; Tisi, D; Levy, M S; Lye, G J

    2008-04-01

    Fermentation optimization experiments are ideally performed at small scale to reduce time, cost and resource requirements. Currently microwell plates (MWPs) are under investigation for this purpose as the format is ideally suited to automated high-throughput experimentation. In order to translate an optimized small-scale fermentation process to laboratory and pilot scale stirred-tank reactors (STRs) it is necessary to characterize key engineering parameters at both scales given the differences in geometry and the mechanisms of aeration and agitation. In this study oxygen mass transfer coefficients are determined in three MWP formats and in 7.5 L and 75 L STRs. k(L)a values were determined in cell-free media using the dynamic gassing-out technique over a range of agitation conditions. Previously optimized culture conditions at the MWP scale were then scaled up to the larger STR scales on the basis of matched k(L)a values. The accurate reproduction of MWP (3 mL) E. coli BL21 (DE3) culture kinetics at the two larger scales was shown in terms of cell growth, protein expression, and substrate utilization for k(L)a values that provided effective mixing and gas-liquid distribution at each scale. This work suggests that k(L)a provides a useful initial scale-up criterion for MWP culture conditions which enabled a 15,000-fold scale translation in this particular case. This work complements our earlier studies on the application of DoE techniques to MWP fermentation optimization and in so doing provides a generic framework for the generation of large quantities of soluble protein in a rapid and cost-effective manner.

  19. Effect of Molasses on Phenol Removal Rate Using Pilot-Scale Anaerobic Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Dargahi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the growing industrial and social development through time, toxic substances such as phenol and its derivatives are increasingly released into the environment from a variety of sources. The present study aims to investigate the effects of molasses on phenol removal. For this purpose, five pilot scale batch reactors (5 Erlenmeyer flasks equipped with the air and gas diffusion control system were used in the laboratory scale. The volumes of the reactors were kept constant with a final volume content of 550 ml in each reactor. Phenol with a fixed concentration of 100 mg/l was tested under anaerobic conditions in each reactor in contact with beet molasses (organic matter used as the auxiliary substrate with COD concentrations of 10000, 5000, 2000, 1000, and 500 mg/l over 5 retention times (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 days. All the sampling and testing procedures wer e performed according to the standard methods. The results showed that in all the five experimental reactors, increasing retention time was accompanied by a continuous decline in initial phenol and COD concentrations. However, for each retention time, increasing COD concentration led to a decrease in COD removal efficiency such that increasing the initial COD concentration up to a certain level was associated with an increase in chemical oxygen demanding materials, but beyond this range, COD removal decreased slowly. It was also found that phenol removal increased with increasing retention time but it was not proportional to the concentration of the biodegradable COD. After 50 days of contact with 1000 mg/l of the supporting substrate, phenol removal in the reactors reached 98.62%. Another finding of the study was the fact that the highest phenol removal was achieved when 1000-2000 mg/l of biodegradable COD was used over 50 days of retention time

  20. Scaling Environment Justice: The Case of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Brenda L. [Wilfrid Launer Univ., Brantford (Canada); Kuhn, Richard G. [Univ. of Guelph (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2006-09-15

    The growing body of literature associated with environmental justice documents the extent to which poor, peripheral or minority regions are often burdened with contamination or the siting of new noxious, unwanted facilities. More recently. environmental justice studies have also begun to explore the processes and societal structures that contribute to (in)justice. The environmental justice perspective asserts that instances of local contamination or the siting of noxious facilities in disempowered neighbourhoods are not only problems for those most affected by the facility; such situations are also instances of broader concerns about fairness and equity. At the grass-roots level. in marginalised spaces, residents may adopt the environmental justice frame as a strategy to gain recognition of their 'local' problem by regional. national or global actors. In this paper we problemise this environmental justice perspective, particularly as it relates to the issue of spatial and temporal scale. We utilise the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). the military transuranic nuclear waste disposal facility located in Carlsbad, New Mexico as an example where the environmental justice perspective was not (for the most part) invoked by local residents. Since it was mostly members of civil society groups and state and federal elected officials, most living four hours away who questioned the safety and viability of the facility, while local leaders actively lobbied to bring the facility to Carlsbad, this raises questions regarding 1) what counts as marginalised space and who gets to speak for those spaces, 2) who decides what can be defined as an environmental justice issue, and 3) at what spatial and temporal scale should justice be defined. Following a further elaboration of the conceptual ideas that underpin this discussion, in the subsequent section we present the WlPP case study.

  1. Development of a modified equilibrium model for biomass pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier performance predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Alejandro, David A.; Nam, Hyungseok; Maglinao, Amado L.; Capareda, Sergio C.; Aguilera-Alvarado, Alberto F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a thermodynamic model considering non-stoichiometric restrictions. The model validation was done from experimental works using a bench-scale fluidized bed gasifier with wood chips, dairy manure, and sorghum. The model was used for a further parametric study to predict the performance of a pilot-scale fluidized biomass gasifier. The Gibbs free energy minimization was applied to the modified equilibrium model considering a heat loss to the surroundings, carbon efficiency, and two non-equilibrium factors based on empirical correlations of ER and gasification temperature. The model was in a good agreement with RMS <4 for the produced gas. The parametric study ranges were 0.01 < ER < 0.99 and 500 °C < T < 900 °C to predict syngas concentrations and its LHV (lower heating value) for the optimization. Higher aromatics in tar were contained in WC gasification compared to manure gasification. A wood gasification tar simulation was produced to predict the amount of tars at specific conditions. The operating conditions for the highest quality syngas were reconciled experimentally with three biomass wastes using a fluidized bed gasifier. The thermodynamic model was used to predict the gasification performance at conditions beyond the actual operation. - Highlights: • Syngas from experimental gasification was used to create a non-equilibrium model. • Different types of biomass (HTS, DM, and WC) were used for gasification modelling. • Different tar compositions were identified with a simulation of tar yields. • The optimum operating conditions were found through the developed model.

  2. Scaling Environment Justice: The Case of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Brenda L.; Kuhn, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    The growing body of literature associated with environmental justice documents the extent to which poor, peripheral or minority regions are often burdened with contamination or the siting of new noxious, unwanted facilities. More recently. environmental justice studies have also begun to explore the processes and societal structures that contribute to (in)justice. The environmental justice perspective asserts that instances of local contamination or the siting of noxious facilities in disempowered neighbourhoods are not only problems for those most affected by the facility; such situations are also instances of broader concerns about fairness and equity. At the grass-roots level. in marginalised spaces, residents may adopt the environmental justice frame as a strategy to gain recognition of their 'local' problem by regional. national or global actors. In this paper we problemise this environmental justice perspective, particularly as it relates to the issue of spatial and temporal scale. We utilise the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). the military transuranic nuclear waste disposal facility located in Carlsbad, New Mexico as an example where the environmental justice perspective was not (for the most part) invoked by local residents. Since it was mostly members of civil society groups and state and federal elected officials, most living four hours away who questioned the safety and viability of the facility, while local leaders actively lobbied to bring the facility to Carlsbad, this raises questions regarding 1) what counts as marginalised space and who gets to speak for those spaces, 2) who decides what can be defined as an environmental justice issue, and 3) at what spatial and temporal scale should justice be defined. Following a further elaboration of the conceptual ideas that underpin this discussion, in the subsequent section we present the WlPP case study

  3. Intensive mothering ideology in France: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyal, D; Sutter Dallay, A-L; Rascle, N

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to adapt the intensive mothering ideology concept in a French sample and to get an assessment tool. First, the Intensive Parenting Attitudes Questionnaire (IPAQ), a U.S. scale comprising 25 items, was translated and submitted online to French mothers and mothers-to-be (n=250). Structural validity was tested through confirmatory factor analysis with poor results. Secondly, to increase the cultural validity of a new tool, new items were derived from French women speech. French mothers and mothers-to-be (n=22) were asked about their views regarding motherhood and childcare (semi-structured interviews). A thematic content analysis was performed with good inter-judge agreement (0.53-0.86) and 27 items were created. Finally, the total set of 52 items was submitted online to French mothers and mothers-to-be (n=474). The structure was tested through exploratory factor analysis. A new tool called the Measure of Intensive Mothering Ideology (MIMI) was obtained. This 21 items scale with 6 dimensions (Essentialism, Consuming Fulfillment, Child-centrism, Challenge, Sacrifice and Stimulation) explains 59.75% of variance. Internal consistencies were satisfactory (0.61-0.83) and most dimensions were positively and moderately correlated (0.17-0.38). The MIMI is the first French-language scale assessing IMI and offers interesting research avenues notably regarding perinatal parental adaptation. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Scaling studies - PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonneck, G.

    1983-05-01

    A RELAP 4/MOD 6 study was made based on the blowdown phase of the intermediate break experiment LOFT L5-1. The method was to set up a base model and to vary parametrically some areas where it is known or suspected that LOFT differs from a commercial PWR. The aim was not to simulate LOFT or a PWR exactly but to understand the influence of the following parameters on the thermohydraulic behaviour of the system and the clad temperature: stored heat in the downcomer (LOFT has rather large filler blocks in this part of the pressure vessel); bypass between downcomer and upper plenum; and core length. The results show that LOFT is prototypical for all calculated blowdowns. As the clad temperatures decrease with decreasing stored energy in the downcomer, increased bypass and increased core length, LOFT results seem to be realistic as long as realistic bypass sizes are considered; they are conservative in the two other areas. (author)

  5. Ozonation kinetics of winery wastewater in a pilot-scale bubble column reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marco S; Peres, José A; Lan, Bing Yan; Li Puma, Gianluca

    2009-04-01

    The degradation of organic substances present in winery wastewater was studied in a pilot-scale, bubble column ozonation reactor. A steady reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was observed under the action of ozone at the natural pH of the wastewater (pH 4). At alkaline and neutral pH the degradation rate was accelerated by the formation of radical species from the decomposition of ozone. Furthermore, the reaction of hydrogen peroxide (formed from natural organic matter in the wastewater) and ozone enhances the oxidation capacity of the ozonation process. The monitoring of pH, redox potential (ORP), UV absorbance (254 nm), polyphenol content and ozone consumption was correlated with the oxidation of the organic species in the water. The ozonation of winery wastewater in the bubble column was analysed in terms of a mole balance coupled with ozonation kinetics modeled by the two-film theory of mass transfer and chemical reaction. It was determined that the ozonation reaction can develop both in and across different kinetic regimes: fast, moderate and slow, depending on the experimental conditions. The dynamic change of the rate coefficient estimated by the model was correlated with changes in the water composition and oxidant species.

  6. Pilot scale-SO{sub 2} control by dry sodium bicarbonate injection and an electrostatic precipitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pliat, M.J.; Wilder, J.M. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2007-10-15

    A 500 actual cubic feet gas per minute (acfm) pilot-scale SO{sub 2} control study was undertaken to investigate flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by dry sodium sorbents in 400{sup o}F (204.5{sup o}C) flue gases emitted from a coal fired boiler with flue gas concentrations between 350 and 2500 ppm SO{sub 2}. Powdered sodium alkaline reagents were injected into the hot flue gas downstream of the air preheater and the spent reagents were collected using an electrostatic precipitator. Three different sorbents were used: processed sodium bicarbonate of two particle sizes; solution mined sodium bicarbonate, and processed sodium sesquicarbonate. SO{sub 2} concentrations were measured upstream of the reagent injection, 25-ft (7.62 m) downstream of the injection point, and downstream of the electrostatic precipitator. SO{sub 2} collection efficiencies ranged from 40 to 80% using sodium bicarbonate stoichiometric ratios from 0.5 to 3.0. Much of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal occurred during the first second of reagent reaction time, indicating that the sulfur dioxide-sodium reaction rates may be faster than have been measured for fixed bed measurements reported in the literature.

  7. Partial degradation of five pesticides and an industrial pollutant by ozonation in a pilot-plant scale reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, M.I.; Malato, S.; Perez-Estrada, L.A.; Gernjak, W.; Oller, I.; Domenech, Xavier; Peral, Jose

    2006-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of a mixture of several pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, diuron and isoproturon), considered PS (priority substances) by the European Commission, and an intermediate product of the pharmaceutical industry (α-methylphenylglycine, MPG) chosen as a model industrial pollutant, have been degraded at pilot-plant scale using ozonation. This study is part of a large research project [CADOX Project, A Coupled Advanced Oxidation-Biological Process for Recycling of Industrial Wastewater Containing Persistent Organic Contaminants, Contract No.: EVK1-CT-2002-00122, European Commission, http://www.psa.es/webeng/projects/cadox/index.html[1

  8. Partial degradation of five pesticides and an industrial pollutant by ozonation in a pilot-plant scale reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, M.I. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Malato, S. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Perez-Estrada, L.A. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Gernjak, W. [PSA -Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Oller, I. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Domenech, Xavier [Departament de Quimica, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Peral, Jose [Departament de Quimica, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: jose.peral@uab.es

    2006-11-16

    Aqueous solutions of a mixture of several pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, diuron and isoproturon), considered PS (priority substances) by the European Commission, and an intermediate product of the pharmaceutical industry ({alpha}-methylphenylglycine, MPG) chosen as a model industrial pollutant, have been degraded at pilot-plant scale using ozonation. This study is part of a large research project [CADOX Project, A Coupled Advanced Oxidation-Biological Process for Recycling of Industrial Wastewater Containing Persistent Organic Contaminants, Contract No.: EVK1-CT-2002-00122, European Commission, http://www.psa.es/webeng/projects/cadox/index.html[1

  9. Including health economic analysis in pilot studies: lessons learned from a cost-utility analysis within the PROSPECTIV pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richéal M. Burns

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTo assess feasibility and health economic benefits and costs as part of a pilot study for a nurse-led, psychoeducational intervention (NPLI for prostate cancer in order to understand the potential for cost effectiveness as well as contribute to the design of a larger scale trial.MethodsMen with stable prostate cancer post-treatment were recruited from two cancer centres in the UK. Eighty-three men were randomised to the NLPI plus usual care or usual care alone (UCA (42 NLPI and 41 UCA; the NLPI plus usual care was delivered in the primary-care setting (the intervention and included an initial face-to-face consultation with a trained nurse, with follow-up tailored to individual needs. The study afforded the opportunity to undertake a short-term within pilot analysis. The primary outcome measure for the economic evaluation was quality of life, as measured by the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L instrument. Costs (£2014 assessed included health-service resource use, out-of-pocket expenses and losses from inability to undertake usual activities.ResultsTotal and incremental costs varied across the different scenarios assessed, with mean cost differences ranging from £173 to £346; incremental effect, as measured by the change in utility scores over the duration of follow-up, exhibited wide confidence intervals highlighting inconclusive effectiveness (95% CI: -0.0226; 0.0438. The cost per patient of delivery of the intervention would be reduced if rolled out to a larger patient cohort.ConclusionsThe NLPI is potentially cost saving depending on the scale of delivery; however, the results presented are not considered generalisable.

  10. Real-Time Quantitative Operando Raman Spectroscopy of a CrOx/Al2O3 Propane Dehydrogenation Catalyst in a Pilot-Scale Reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattler, Jesper J. H. B.; Mens, Ad M.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2014-01-01

    Combined operando UV/vis-Raman spectroscopy has been used to study the deactivation of CrOx/Al2O3 catalyst extrudates in a pilot scale propane dehydrogenation reactor. For this purpose, UV/vis and Raman optical fiber probes have been designed, constructed and tested. The light absorption measured by

  11. Using sulfite chemistry for robust bioconversion of Douglas-fir forest residue to bioethanol at high titer and lignosulfonate: A pilot-scale evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; M. Subhosh Chandra; Feng Gu; Roland Gleisner; J.Y. Zhu; John Sessions; Gevan Marrs; Johnway Gao; Dwight Anderson

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated at the pilot-scale (50 kg) use of Douglas-fir forest harvest residue, an underutilized forest biomass, for the production of high titer and high yield bioethanol using sulfite chemistry without solid–liquor separation and detoxification. Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome the Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL) was directly applied to the...

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLE ORIG ORIGI A pilot study evaluating erect chest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-11-19

    Nov 19, 2009 ... South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative, Institute of Infectious Diseases ... After obtaining consent from departmental and institutional ethics com- mittees, a pilot study ... informed consent from parents or legal guardians.

  13. Answering Fixed Response Items in Chemistry: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hateley, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a pilot study on student thinking in chemistry. Verbal comments of a group of six college students were recorded and analyzed to identify how each student arrives at the correct answer in fixed response items in chemisty. (HM)

  14. Pilot-scale test for electron beam purification of flue gas from coal-combustion boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Hideki; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Hashimoto, Shoji; Doi, Yoshitaka; Aoki, Shinji; Izutsu, Masahiro

    1995-01-01

    A pilot-scale test for electron beam treatment of flue gas (12,000m 3 N/hr) from coal-fired boiler was conducted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Chubu Electric Power Company and Ebara Corporation, in the site of Shin-Nagoya Thermal Power Plant in Nagoya, Japan. During 14 months operation, it was proved that the method is possible to remove SO 2 and NO x simultaneously in wide concentration range of SO 2 (250-2,000ppm) and NO x (140-240ppm) with higher efficiency than the conventional methods, with appropriate operation conditions (dose, temperature etc.). The pilot plant was easily operated with well controllability and durability, and was operated for long period of time without serious problems. The byproduct, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate, produced by the treatment was proved to be a nitrogenous fertilizer with excellent quality. (author)

  15. Development of the Military Women's Attitudes Toward Menstrual Suppression Scale: from construct definition to pilot testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trego, Lori L

    2009-01-01

    The Military Women's Attitudes Toward Menstrual Suppression scale (MWATMS) was created to measure attitudes toward menstrual suppression during deployment. The human health and social ecology theories were integrated to conceptualize an instrument that accounts for military-unique aspects of the environment on attitudes toward suppression. A three-step instrument development process was followed to develop the MWATMS. The instrument was pilot tested on a convenience sample of 206 military women with deployment experience. Reliability was tested with measures of internal consistency (alpha = .97); validity was tested with principal components analysis with varimax rotation. Four components accounted for 65% of variance: Benefits/Interest, Hygiene, Convenience, and Soldier/Stress. The pilot test of the MWATMS supported its reliability and validity. Further testing is warranted for validation of this instrument.

  16. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D

    2007-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12-inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  17. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D

    2007-01-09

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12-inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  18. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D

    2006-11-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12 inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24 inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  19. Pilot Study: Foam Wedge Chin Support Static Tolerance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-24

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2017-0026 Pilot Study: Foam Wedge Chin Support Static Tolerance Testing Austin M. Fischer, BS1; William W...COVERED (From – To) April – October 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pilot Study: Foam Wedge Chin Support Static Tolerance Testing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) USAF School of Aerospace

  20. Performance evaluation of a pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating ethanol thin stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli, R K; Urban, D R; Heffernan, B; Jordan, J A; Ewing, J; Rosenberger, G T; Dunaev, T I

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol industry has grown rapidly during the past ten years, mainly due to increasing oil prices. However, efficient and cost-effective solutions for treating thin stillage wastewater have still to be developed. The anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology combines classical anaerobic treatment in a completely-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with membrane separation. The combination of these two technologies can achieve a superior effluent quality and also increase biogas production compared to conventional anaerobic solutions. A pilot-scale AnMBR treating thin stillage achieved very high treatment efficiencies in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) removal (>98%). An average permeate flux of 4.3 L/m2 x h was achieved at relatively low transmembrane pressure (TMP) values (0.1-0.2 bars) with flat-sheet membranes. Experience gained during the pilot-scale studies provides valuable information for scaling up of AnMBRs treating complex and high-strength wastewaters.

  1. Removal of volatile organic compounds at extreme shock-loading using a scaled-up pilot rotating drum biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawvel, Russell A; Kim, Byung; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2008-11-01

    A pilot-scale rotating drum biofilter (RDB), which is a novel biofilter design that offers flexible flow-through configurations, was used to treat complex and variable volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, including shock loadings, emanating from paint drying operations at an Army ammunition plant. The RDB was seeded with municipal wastewater activated sludge. Removal efficiencies up to 86% and an elimination capacity of 5.3 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) m(-3) hr(-1) were achieved at a filter-medium contact time of 60 sec. Efficiency increased at higher temperatures that promote higher biological activity, and decreased at lower pH, which dropped down to pH 5.5 possibly as a result of carbon dioxide and volatile fatty acid production and ammonia consumption during VOC degradation. In comparison, other studies have shown that a bench-scale RDB could achieve a removal efficiency of 95% and elimination capacity of 331 g COD m(-3) hr(-1). Sustainable performance of the pilot-scale RDB was challenged by the intermittent nature of painting operations, which typically resulted in 3-day long shutdown periods when bacteria were not fed. This challenge was overcome by adding sucrose (2 g/L weekly) as an auxiliary substrate to sustain metabolic activity during shutdown periods.

  2. Reclamation of grey water for non-potable purposes using pilot-scale solar photocatalytic tubular reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Sarangapany; Arunkumar, Patchaiyappan; Manjari, Gangarapu; Devipriya, Suja P

    2018-05-05

    Application of pilot-scale slurry-type tubular photocatalytic reactor was tested for the decentralized treatment of actual grey water. The reactors were fabricated by reusing the locally available materials at low cost, operated in batch recycle mode with 25 L of grey water. The influence of operational parameters such as catalysts' concentration, initial slurry pH and addition of H 2 O 2 on COD abatement were optimized. The results show that Ag-decorated TiO 2 showed a two-fold increase in COD abatement than did pure TiO 2 . Better COD abatement was observed under acidic conditions, and addition of H 2 O 2 significantly increases the rate of COD abatement. Within 2 h, 99% COD abatement was observed when the reactor was operated with optimum operational conditions. Silver ion lixiviate was also monitored during the experiment and is five times less than the permissible limits. The catalyst shows good stability even after five cycles without much loss in its photocatalytic activity. The results clearly reveal that pilot-scale slurry tubular solar photocatalytic reactors could be used as a cost-effective method to treat grey water and the resulting clean water could be reused for various non-potable purposes, thus conserving precious water resource. This study favours decentralized grey water treatment and possible scaling up of solar photocatalytic reactor using locally available materials for the potential reuse of treated water.

  3. Optimization of instant powdered chicken feet broth’s drying temperature and time on pilot plant scale production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, N.; Widyaningsih, T. D.

    2018-03-01

    Chicken feet by-product of chicken industries amounted to approximately 65,894 tons/year commonly used as broths. These by-products are potentially produced into an instant form as an anti-inflammatory functional food on industrial scale. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the critical parameters of the drying process. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum temperature and time of instant powdered chicken feet broth’s drying on pilot plant scale, to find out product’s comparison of the laboratory and pilot plant scale, and to assess financial feasibility of the business plan. The optimization of pilot plant scale’s research prepared and designed with Response Surface Methodology-Central Composite Design. The optimized factors were powdered broth’s drying temperature (55°C, 60°C, 65°C) and time (10 minutes, 11 minutes, 12 minutes) with the response observed were water and chondroitin sulphate content. The optimum condition obtained was drying process with temperature of 60.85°C for 10,05 minutes resulting in 1.90 ± 0.02% moisture content, 32.48 ± 0.28% protein content, 12.05 ± 0.80% fat content, 28.92 ± 0.09 % ash content, 24.64 ± 0.52% carbohydrate content, 1.26 ± 0.05% glucosamine content, 0.99 ± 0.23% chondroitin sulphate content, 50.87 ± 1.00% solubility, 8.59 ± 0.19% water vapour absorption, 0.37% levels of free fatty acid, 13.66 ± 4.49% peroxide number, lightness of 60.33 ± 1.24, yellowness of 3.83 ± 0.26 and redness of 21.77 ± 0.42. Financial analysis concluded that this business project was feasible to run.

  4. Acupressure for smoking cessation – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moody Russell C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is a serious risk to health: several therapies are available to assist those who wish to stop. Smokers who approach publicly funded stop-smoking clinics in the UK are currently offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT or bupropion, and group behaviour therapy, for which there is evidence of effectiveness. Acupuncture and acupressure are also used to help smokers, though a systematic review of the evidence of their effectiveness was inconclusive. The aim of this pilot project was to determine the feasibility of a study to test acupressure as an adjunct to one anti-smoking treatment currently offered, and to inform the design of the study. Methods An open randomised controlled pilot study was conducted within the six week group programme offered by the Smoking Advice Service in Plymouth, UK. All participants received the usual treatment with NRT and group behavioural therapy, and were randomised into three groups: group A with two auricular acupressure beads, group B with one bead, and group C with no additional therapy. Participants were taught to press the beads when they experienced cravings. Beads were worn in one ear for four weeks, being replaced as necessary. The main outcome measures assessed in the pilot were success at quitting (expired CO ≤ 9 ppm, the dose of NRT used, and the rating of withdrawal symptoms using the Mood and Symptoms Scale. Results From 49 smokers attending four clinics, 24 volunteered to participate, 19 attended at least once after quitting, and seven remained to the final week. Participants who dropped out reported significantly fewer previous quit attempts, but no other significant differences. Participants reported stimulating the beads as expected during the initial days after quitting, but most soon reduced the frequency of stimulation. The discomfort caused by the beads was minor, and there were no significant side effects. There were technical problems with adhesiveness of

  5. SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING/FEASIBILTY SUDIES FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SPRITZER.M; HONG,G

    2005-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The key potential advantage of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reacting and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carried out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM), as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an activated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low-value, dirty feed materials. The Phase I results indicate that a practical

  6. Cardiac Auscultation Using Smartphones: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Si-Hyuck; Joe, Byunggill; Yoon, Yeonyee; Cho, Goo-Yeong; Shin, Insik; Suh, Jung-Won

    2018-02-28

    Cardiac auscultation is a cost-effective, noninvasive screening tool that can provide information about cardiovascular hemodynamics and disease. However, with advances in imaging and laboratory tests, the importance of cardiac auscultation is less appreciated in clinical practice. The widespread use of smartphones provides opportunities for nonmedical expert users to perform self-examination before hospital visits. The objective of our study was to assess the feasibility of cardiac auscultation using smartphones with no add-on devices for use at the prehospital stage. We performed a pilot study of patients with normal and pathologic heart sounds. Heart sounds were recorded on the skin of the chest wall using 3 smartphones: the Samsung Galaxy S5 and Galaxy S6, and the LG G3. Recorded heart sounds were processed and classified by a diagnostic algorithm using convolutional neural networks. We assessed diagnostic accuracy, as well as sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. A total of 46 participants underwent heart sound recording. After audio file processing, 30 of 46 (65%) heart sounds were proven interpretable. Atrial fibrillation and diastolic murmur were significantly associated with failure to acquire interpretable heart sounds. The diagnostic algorithm classified the heart sounds into the correct category with high accuracy: Galaxy S5, 90% (95% CI 73%-98%); Galaxy S6, 87% (95% CI 69%-96%); and LG G3, 90% (95% CI 73%-98%). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were also acceptable for the 3 devices. Cardiac auscultation using smartphones was feasible. Discrimination using convolutional neural networks yielded high diagnostic accuracy. However, using the built-in microphones alone, the acquisition of reproducible and interpretable heart sounds was still a major challenge. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03273803; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03273803 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6x6g1f

  7. NEREDA Pilot Studies 2003 - 2010; NEREDA Pilotonderzoeken 2003 - 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkhof, D.; De Bruin, B.; Kerstholt, M.; Kraan, R.; Miska, V.; Peeters, T.; Van der Roest, H.; Verschoor, J. [DHV, Amersfoort (Netherlands); De Kreuk, M.; Van Loosdrecht, M. [Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    Since the nineties of last century research has been conducted on the development of the aerobic granular sludge technology for wastewater treatment. A first STOWA pilot research project was executed at Ede, Netherlands. In 2005 a technological breakthrough was accomplished and was the starting sign for a broader national development program (NNOP). Next to STOWA, Delft University of Delft and DHV, six Waterboards are involved within this development program. Main goal of the NNOP is to develop a new competitive biological wastewater treatment technology (Nereda). After the Ede project additional pilot research projects were conducted at four locations in the Netherlands. Within these pilot research projects the following aspects were investigated: granulation on different wastewater types; stability of granular sludge; optimization of nitrogen and phosphate removal, especially during winter time; control of effluent suspended solids concentration; and obtain technological design parameters for full scale WWTPs (waste water treatment plants) [Dutch] In dit rapport staan de resultaten beschreven van de tussen 2003 en 2010 uitgevoerde pilots met de aeroob-korrelslibtechnologie Nereda. Dit is een nieuwe zuiveringstechnologie waarbij het reinigende actief slib geen vlokken maar korrels vormt. Hierdoor bezinkt het slib sneller en makkelijker. De technologie wordt gekenmerkt door hoge zuiveringsrendementen, weinig ruimtebeslag (voor bezinking) en relatief lage energiekosten. De resultaten van de pilots zijn dermate goed, dat drie van de vijf deelnemende waterschappen hebben besloten om 1 van hun rwzi's (rioolwaterzuiveringsinstallaties) aan te passen op basis van de Nereda-technologie.

  8. Pilot project wind power - Large scale wind power in northern Sweden; Pilotprojekt vindkraft - Storskalig vindkraft i norra Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency granted 2009-04-20 Svevind AB financial aid to implement {sup P}ilot project wind power- Large scale wind power in northern Sweden{sup .} The purpose of the aid is to implement pilot sub-projects in wind power, to to increase knowledge for the larger establishments. The Energy Agency said in its decision that the projects Dragaliden and Gabriel Mountain is of 'great importance for future large-scale development of wind power in Sweden'. The special conditions prevailing in the project, forest environment and cold climate, gives the possibility of studies of wind turbines on birds, reindeer herding and hunting and the more technical aspects, such as de-icing and obstacle lighting. The objectives of the project, in addition to the construction and operation of 32 wind turbines, has been to include evaluating the permit process, studying the social effects around the wind power, to study the impact on small game hunting, perform tests of the de-icing system, investigate impacts on reindeer herding and explain the outcome of the project-generated rural funds. Some of the above sub-projects have been completed, which are reported in this report. For the sub-projects still in progress, the report presents the results to date, until the completion.

  9. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-UP-1 groundwater Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittreich, C.D.

    1994-05-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the US Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology, as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-UP-1 Operable Unit interim remedial measure (IRM) proposed plan be developed for use in preparing an interim action record of decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of the testing described in this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-UP-1 Operable Unit activities (e.g., limited field investigation, development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the interim action ROD will specify the interim action for groundwater contamination at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. The approach discussed in this treatability test plan is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for the contaminant plume associated with the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are uranium and technetium-99; the secondary contaminant of concern is nitrate. The pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this test plan has as its primary purpose to assess the performance of aboveground treatment systems with respect to the ability to remove the primary contaminants in groundwater withdrawn from the contaminant plume

  10. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-BP-5 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994) and a recent 200 NPL Agreement Change Control Form (Appendix A). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-BP-5 Operable Unit Interim Remedial Measure (IRM) Proposed Plan be developed for use in preparing an Interim Action Record of Decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-BP-5 Operable Unit activities (e.g., development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the Interim Action ROD will specify the interim action(s) for groundwater contamination at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. The treatability test approach is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for each of the two contaminant plumes associated with the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are 99 Tc and 60 Co for underwater affected by past discharges to the 216-BY Cribs, and 90 Sr, 239/240 Pu, and Cs for groundwater affected by past discharges to the 216-B-5 Reverse Well. The purpose of the pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this testplan is to provide the data basis for preparing an IRM Proposed Plan. To achieve this objective, treatability testing must: Assess the performance of groundwater pumping with respect to the ability to extract a significant amount of the primary contaminant mass present in the two contaminant plumes

  11. Human biomonitoring pilot study DEMOCOPHES in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwedler, Gerda; Seiwert, Margarete; Fiddicke, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    , cadmium, cotinine and several phthalate metabolites in urine of 6–11 year old children and their mothers in an urban and a rural region. Seventeen European countries simultaneously conducted this cross-sectional DEMOCOPHES feasibility study. The German study population was taken in the city of Bochum...... and in the Higher Sauerland District, comprising 120 mother-child pairs. In the present paper features of the study implementation are presented. German exposure concentrations of the pollutants are reported and compared with European average concentrations from DEMOCOPHES and with those measured......Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool to assess human exposure to environmental pollutants, but comparable HBM data in Europe are lacking. In order to expedite harmonization of HBM studies on a European scale, the twin projects COPHES (Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring...

  12. Performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland system for treating simulated ash basin water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Lane; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H

    2009-05-01

    A pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) was designed and built to decrease the concentration and toxicity of constituents of concern in ash basin water from coal-burning power plants. The CWTS was designed to promote the following treatment processes for metals and metalloids: precipitation as non-bioavailable sulfides, co-precipitation with iron oxyhydroxides, and adsorption onto iron oxides. Concentrations of Zn, Cr, Hg, As, and Se in simulated ash basin water were reduced by the CWTS to less than USEPA-recommended water quality criteria. The removal efficiency (defined as the percent concentration decrease from influent to effluent) was dependent on the influent concentration of the constituent, while the extent of removal (defined as the concentration of a constituent of concern in the CWTS effluent) was independent of the influent concentration. Results from toxicity experiments illustrated that the CWTS eliminated influent toxicity with regard to survival and reduced influent toxicity with regard to reproduction. Reduction in potential for scale formation and biofouling was achieved through treatment of the simulated ash basin water by the pilot-scale CWTS.

  13. Manufacturing Cost Analysis for YSZ-Based FlexCells at Pilot and Full Scale Production Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Swartz; Lora Thrun; Robin Kimbrell; Kellie Chenault

    2011-05-01

    Significant reductions in cell costs must be achieved in order to realize the full commercial potential of megawatt-scale SOFC power systems. The FlexCell designed by NexTech Materials is a scalable SOFC technology that offers particular advantages over competitive technologies. In this updated topical report, NexTech analyzes its FlexCell design and fabrication process to establish manufacturing costs at both pilot scale (10 MW/year) and full-scale (250 MW/year) production levels and benchmarks this against estimated anode supported cell costs at the 250 MW scale. This analysis will show that even with conservative assumptions for yield, materials usage, and cell power density, a cost of $35 per kilowatt can be achieved at high volume. Through advancements in cell size and membrane thickness, NexTech has identified paths for achieving cell manufacturing costs as low as $27 per kilowatt for its FlexCell technology. Also in this report, NexTech analyzes the impact of raw material costs on cell cost, showing the significant increases that result if target raw material costs cannot be achieved at this volume.

  14. Safeguardability assessment on pilot-scale advanced spent fuel conditioning facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Li, T.K.; Pickett, S.E.; Miller, M.C.; Ko, W.I.; Kim, H.D.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In South Korea, approximately 6,000 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel from commercial reactor operation has been accumulated with the expectation of more than 30,000 metric tons, three times the present storage capacity, by the end of 2040. To resolve these challenges in spent fuel management, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing a dry reprocessing technology called Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP). This is an electrometallurgical treatment technique to convert oxide-type spent fuel into a metallic form, and the electrolytic reduction (ER) technology developed recently is known as a more efficient concept for spent fuel conditioning. The goal of the ACP study is to recover more than 99% of the actinide elements into a metallic form with minimizing the volume and heat load of spent fuel. The significant reduction of the volume and heat load of spent fuel is expected to lighten the burden of final disposal in terms of disposal size, safety, and economics. In the framework of R and D collaboration for the ACP safeguards, a joint study on the safeguardability of the ACP technology has been performed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and KAERI. The purpose of this study is to address the safeguardability of the ACP technology, through analysis of material flow and development of a proper safeguards system that meet IAEA's comprehensive safeguards objective. The sub-processes and material flow of the pilot-scale ACP facility were analyzed, and subsequently the relevant material balance area (MBA) and key measurement point (KMP) were designed for material accounting. The uncertainties in material accounting were also estimated with international target values, and design requirements for the material accounting systems were derived

  15. Final Report: Pilot-scale Cross-flow Filtration Test - Envelope A + Entrained Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-06-27

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company.This filter technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. This plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

  16. Final Report: Pilot-scale Cross-flow Filtration Test - Envelope A + Entrained Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company.This filter technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. This plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project

  17. Pilot scale processing of simulated Savannah River Site high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Ritter, J.A.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory operates the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS), which is a pilot-scale test facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the US Department of Energy's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, the IDMS is used in the evaluation of the DWPF melter and its associated feed preparation and offgass treatment systems. This article provides a general overview of some of the test work which has been conducted in the IDMS facility. The chemistry associated with the chemical treatment of the sludge (via formic acid adjustment) is discussed. Operating experiences with simulated sludge containing high levels of nitrite, mercury, and noble metals are summarized

  18. Method for Hot Real-Time Analysis of Pyrolysis Vapors at Pilot Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, Marc D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    Pyrolysis oils contain more than 400 compounds, up to 60% of which do not re-volatilize for subsequent chemical analysis. Vapor chemical composition is also complicated as additional condensation reactions occur during quenching and collection of the product. Due to the complexity of the pyrolysis oil, and a desire to catalytically upgrade the vapor composition before condensation, online real-time analytical techniques such as Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS) are of great use. However, in order to properly sample hot pyrolysis vapors at the pilot scale, many challenges must be overcome.

  19. Energy production from agricultural residues: High methane yields in pilot-scale two-stage anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parawira, W.; Read, J.S.; Mattiasson, B.; Bjoernsson, L.

    2008-01-01

    There is a large, unutilised energy potential in agricultural waste fractions. In this pilot-scale study, the efficiency of a simple two-stage anaerobic digestion process was investigated for stabilisation and biomethanation of solid potato waste and sugar beet leaves, both separately and in co-digestion. A good phase separation between hydrolysis/acidification and methanogenesis was achieved, as indicated by the high carbon dioxide production, high volatile fatty acid concentration and low pH in the acidogenic reactors. Digestion of the individual substrates gave gross energy yields of 2.1-3.4 kWh/kg VS in the form of methane. Co-digestion, however, gave up to 60% higher methane yield, indicating that co-digestion resulted in improved methane production due to the positive synergism established in the digestion liquor. The integrity of the methane filters (MFs) was maintained throughout the period of operation, producing biogas with 60-78% methane content. A stable effluent pH showed that the methanogenic reactors had good ability to withstand the variations in load and volatile fatty acid concentrations that occurred in the two-stage process. The results of this pilot-scale study show that the two-stage anaerobic digestion system is suitable for effective conversion of semi-solid agricultural residues as potato waste and sugar beet leaves

  20. HERMES docking/berthing system pilot study. Quantitative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Blasco, J.; Goicoechea Sanchez, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    This study falls within the framework of the incorporation of quantitative risk assessment to the activities planned for the ESA-HERMES project (ESA/ CNES). The main objective behind the study was the analysis and evaluation of the potential contribution of so-called probabilistic or quantitative safety analysis to the optimization of the safety development process for the systems carrying out the safety functions required by the new and complex HERMES Space Vehicle. For this purpose, a pilot study was considered a good start in quantitative safety assessments (QSA), as this approach has been frequently used in the past to establish a solid base in large-scale QSA application programs while avoiding considerable economic risks. It was finally decided to select the HERMES docking/berthing system with Man Tender Free Flyer as the case-study. This report describes the different steps followed in the study, along with the main insights obtained and the general conclusions drawn from the study results. (author)

  1. Experience gained in bench scale and pilot scale fluidised bed processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hadley, TD

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available of titanium dioxide. Expertise in the design and commissioning of industrial-scale plants has led to the supply (through licensees) of a biomass sludge incinerator/boiler generating 26t/h steam, a 20 MW high-sulphur pitch incinerator and a 12 MW fluidised bed...

  2. Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Enid J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwon, Soondong [UT-AUSTIN; Katz, Lynn [UT-AUSTIN; Kinney, Kerry [UT-AUSTIN

    2008-01-01

    A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ

  3. Social dysfunction in bipolar disorder: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Rocca, Cristiana Castanho; de Macedo-Soares, Marcia Britto; Gorenstein, Clarice; Tamada, Renata Sayuri; Issler, Cilly Kluger; Dias, Rodrigo Silva; Schwartzmann, Angela Maria; Lafer, Beny

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the social skills of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. A group of 25 outpatients with bipolar disorder type I were evaluated in comparison with a group of 31 healthy volunteers who were matched in terms of level of education, age, sex and intelligence. Both groups were assessed using a self-report questionnaire, the Brazilian Inventario de Habilidades Sociais (IHS, Social Skills Inventory). Two Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale subtests (Picture Arrangement and Comprehension) were also used in order to assess subject ability to analyse social situations and to make judgements, respectively. Patients with bipolar disorder had lower IHS scores for the domains that assessed conversational skills/social self-confidence and social openness to new people/situations. Patients with anxiety disorders had high scores for the domain that assessed self-confidence in the expression of positive emotions. No differences were found between patients and controls in performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Picture Arrangement and Comprehension subtests. Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder present inhibited and overattentive behaviour in relation to other people and their environment. This behaviour might have a negative impact on their level of social functioning and quality of life.

  4. Türkçe Dersinde “Tablet Pc Pilot Uygulaması”Yla Öğretim Gören Öğrencilerin Tutumlarını Belirlemeye Yönelik Ölçek Çalışması A Scale Study that Determines the Attitudes of the Students Who Study by "Pilot Application Of Tablet Pc” in Turkish Lesson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman BALCI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it has been aimed to develop a valid and reliableattitude scale to determine first grade Primary school students'attitudes towards the use of tablet book in Turkish Language Teachingcourse . The scale was created by scanning field method on the basisof the expert opinions 20 items as a 5-point Likert-type which isdetermining the attitudes of the students towards the use of technologyproduct ( tablet pc in Turkish lesson take place in the draft scale. Thedraft scale applied on the two pilot elementary schools ’ 114 fifthgrade students studying in Uşak Yaşar Akar Primary School and BingölFatih Primary School ; and the validity and reliability studies have beencarried out. Content validity of the scale were based on expert opinion.As a result of factor analysis for construct validity, a tree sub-dimensionscale describing the total variance of 59.92% percent between factorloadings .59 - .82 and consisting of 15 items were obtained. The itemsof scale include 10 positive and 5 negative expressions. The scale valueof Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin was found 81, Bartlett test of significance valuewas found .00 and the internal consistency coefficient of Cronbachalphawas found .84. In this sense, the lack of scale as a result of workdone in the field of Turkish seen as a shortcoming. This context theProject is implelemented in scools considered to contribute to the fieldscale was created from the data obtained. In addition, the use oftechnology for Turkish language course will be useful to conduct moredetailed studies are emerging. Bu araştırmada, İlköğretim birinci kademe öğrencilerinin Tablet kitabın Türkçe dersinde kullanılmasına yönelik tutumlarını belirlemek için geçerli ve güvenilir bir tutum ölçeği geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. 20 maddeden oluşan 5’li likert tipi taslak ölçek, alan taraması yapılarak ve uzman görüşleri alınarak oluşturulmuştur. Ölçekte, öğrencilerin Türkçe dersinde teknoloji

  5. Development of CO2 Selective Poly(Ethylene Oxide-Based Membranes: From Laboratory to Pilot Plant Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Brinkmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Membrane gas separation is one of the most promising technologies for the separation of carbon dioxide (CO2 from various gas streams. One application of this technology is the treatment of flue gases from combustion processes for the purpose of carbon capture and storage. For this application, poly(ethylene oxide-containing block copolymers such as Pebax® or PolyActive™ polymer are well suited. The thin-film composite membrane that is considered in this overview employs PolyActive™ polymer as a selective layer material. The membrane shows excellent CO2 permeances of up to 4 m3(STP·(m2·h·bar−1 (1 bar = 105 Pa at a carbon dioxide/nitrogen (CO2/N2 selectivity exceeding 55 at ambient temperature. The membrane can be manufactured reproducibly on a pilot scale and mounted into flat-sheet membrane modules of different designs. The operating performance of these modules can be accurately predicted by specifically developed simulation tools, which employ single-gas permeation data as the only experimental input. The performance of membranes and modules was investigated in different pilot plant studies, in which flue gas and biogas were used as the feed gas streams. The investigated processes showed a stable separation performance, indicating the applicability of PolyActive™ polymer as a membrane material for industrial-scale gas processing.

  6. Responses of microbial community functional structures to pilot-scale uranium in situ bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, M.; Wu, W.-M.; Wu, L.; He, Z.; Van Nostrand, J.D.; Deng, Y.; Luo, J.; Carley, J.; Ginder-Vogel, M.; Gentry, T.J.; Gu, B.; Watson, D.; Jardine, P.M.; Marsh, T.L.; Tiedje, J.M.; Hazen, T.C.; Criddle, C.S.; Zhou, J.

    2010-02-15

    A pilot-scale field test system with an inner loop nested within an outer loop was constructed for in situ U(VI) bioremediation at a US Department of Energy site, Oak Ridge, TN. The outer loop was used for hydrological protection of the inner loop where ethanol was injected for biostimulation of microorganisms for U(VI) reduction/immobilization. After 2 years of biostimulation with ethanol, U(VI) levels were reduced to below drinking water standard (<30 {micro}gl{sup -1}) in the inner loop monitoring wells. To elucidate the microbial community structure and functions under in situ uranium bioremediation conditions, we used a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip) to examine the microbial functional gene composition of the sediment samples collected from both inner and outer loop wells. Our study results showed that distinct microbial communities were established in the inner loop wells. Also, higher microbial functional gene number, diversity and abundance were observed in the inner loop wells than the outer loop wells. In addition, metal-reducing bacteria, such as Desulfovibrio, Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter and Shewanella, and other bacteria, for example, Rhodopseudomonas and Pseudomonas, are highly abundant in the inner loop wells. Finally, the richness and abundance of microbial functional genes were highly correlated with the mean travel time of groundwater from the inner loop injection well, pH and sulfate concentration in groundwater. These results suggest that the indigenous microbial communities can be successfully stimulated for U bioremediation in the groundwater ecosystem, and their structure and performance can be manipulated or optimized by adjusting geochemical and hydrological conditions.

  7. Regeneration of pilot-scale ion exchange columns for hexavalent chromium removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korak, Julie A; Huggins, Richard; Arias-Paic, Miguel

    2017-07-01

    Due to stricter regulations, some drinking water utilities must implement additional treatment processes to meet potable water standards for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), such as the California limit of 10 μg/L. Strong base anion exchange is effective for Cr(VI) removal, but efficient resin regeneration and waste minimization are important for operational, economic and environmental considerations. This study compared multiple regeneration methods on pilot-scale columns on the basis of regeneration efficiency, waste production and salt usage. A conventional 1-Stage regeneration using 2 N sodium chloride (NaCl) was compared to 1) a 2-Stage process with 0.2 N NaCl followed by 2 N NaCl and 2) a mixed regenerant solution with 2 N NaCl and 0.2 N sodium bicarbonate. All methods eluted similar cumulative amounts of chromium with 2 N NaCl. The 2-Stage process eluted an additional 20-30% of chromium in the 0.2 N fraction, but total resin capacity is unaffected if this fraction is recycled to the ion exchange headworks. The 2-Stage approach selectively eluted bicarbonate and sulfate with 0.2 N NaCl before regeneration using 2 N NaCl. Regeneration approach impacted the elution efficiency of both uranium and vanadium. Regeneration without co-eluting sulfate and bicarbonate led to incomplete uranium elution and potential formation of insoluble uranium hydroxides that could lead to long-term resin fouling, decreased capacity and render the resin a low-level radioactive solid waste. Partial vanadium elution occurred during regeneration due to co-eluting sulfate suppressing vanadium release. Waste production and salt usage were comparable for the 1- and 2-Stage regeneration processes with similar operational setpoints with respect to chromium or nitrate elution. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Evaluation of pilot-scale microencapsulation of probiotics and product effect on broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Li, J; Yun, T T; Li, A K; Qi, W T; Liang, X X; Wang, Y W; Liu, S

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the pilot-scale production of microencapsulated in a 500-L fermenter using emulsion and gelation and to assess the effect of the products on the growth performance, antioxidant activity, immune function, and cecal microbiota in Arbor Acres broilers. A total of seven hundred 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 7 dietary treatments with 5 replicate pens per treatment and 20 broilers per pen. The dietary treatments were as follows: 1) basal diet (CON), 2) basal diet containing 0.1% Aureomycin (ANT), 3) basal diet containing unencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (P1), 4) basal diet containing unencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (P2), 5) basal diet containing 0.01% empty microcapsules (CAP), 6) basal diet containing microencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (CAPP1), and 7) basal diet containing microencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (CAPP2). The feeding experiment included 2 phases: the starter phase from d 1 to 21 and the grower phase from d 22 to 42. The results showed that a 500-L fermenter could produce 20.73 ± 4.05 kg of microcapsules with an approximate diameter of 549 μm. The feeding experiment showed that ADG of broilers in CAPP1 was significantly ( microencapsulation of microbial cells can be achieved using emulsion and initial gelation and that the dietary administration of microencapsulated can significantly enhance the growth performance, immune function, cecum microbial community, and overall health of broilers.

  9. Developing the Pediatric Refractory Epilepsy Questionnaire: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purusothaman, Vaishnavi; Ryther, Robin C C; Bertrand, Mary; Harker, Lisa A; Jeffe, Donna B; Wallendorf, Michael; Smyth, Matthew D; Limbrick, David D

    2014-08-01

    Up to 14% of children with epilepsy continue to experience seizures despite having appropriate medical therapy and develop medically refractory epilepsy (MRE). Assessing clinical outcomes and therapeutic efficacy in children with MRE undergoing palliative epilepsy surgery has been challenging because of the lack of a quantitative instrument capable of estimating the clinical status of these patients. The ideal instrument would at once consider seizure control, neurodevelopment, caregiver burden, and quality of life. The purpose of this study was to develop and pilot the Pediatric Refractory Epilepsy Questionnaire (PREQ), a quantitative instrument to assess the severity and individual burden of epilepsy in children with MRE undergoing palliative epilepsy treatments. The caregivers of 25 patients with MRE completed the PREQ and the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) measure and participated in a semistructured interview. Medical records of the patients were reviewed, an Early Childhood Epilepsy Severity Scale (E-CHESS) score was calculated, and a Global Assessment of Severity of Epilepsy (GASE) score was obtained for each patient. The initial PREQ was modified based on the analysis of responses, association with previously validated scales, comments from caregivers, and expertise of the PREQ panelists. Pediatric Refractory Epilepsy Questionnaire subscale scores were calculated based on clinical paradigm and compared with independent measures of seizure severity and quality of life. Significant correlations were observed between the seizure severity subscale and the GASE score (r=0.55) and between the mood subscale and the well-being score (r=0.61) on the QOLCE. Significant correlations were also observed between the caregiver rating of seizure severity and the GASE score (r=0.53), the social activity score (r=0.57), and the behavior score (r=0.43) on the QOLCE. Correlations between the caregiver rating of quality of life and the quality of life score (r=0

  10. Fibromyalgia with Gabapentin and Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marske, Cynthia; Bernard, Natasha; Palacios, Alison; Wheeler, Cary; Preiss, Ben; Brown, Mackenzie; Bhattacharya, Saveri; Klapstein, Gloria

    2018-04-01

    This pilot study compares the safety and efficacy of three treatments in reducing pain and improving fibromyalgia symptoms. This study was an 8-week prospective, single center feasibility study. Forty subjects were recruited from Solano, Sonoma, and Contra Costa counties of California in 2006-2009. Subjects were aged 18-65 and met the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1990 criteria for fibromyalgia. This study had three treatment arms: gabapentin only (900 mg/day), osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM) only, and combined treatment of gabapentin plus OMM. OMM treatment was administered by advanced medical students for 30 min, once a week. The trial lasted for 8 weeks, which included 6 weeks of treatment plus initial and final visits. Key outcome measures included Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale (WBF), Clinical Global Impression of Health (CGI), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), and number of tender points. Twenty-nine subjects completed the trial; 8 subjects received gabapentin only, 11 patients received OMM only, and 10 patients received gabapentin plus OMM. Subjects receiving OMM alone and subjects receiving the combined treatment of OMM and gabapentin displayed clinical improvements based on WBF (p treatment and gabapentin are safe and clinically efficacious treatment of pain and other constitutional and somatic symptoms associated with fibromyalgia. A larger trial using the new ACR 2010 Fibromyalgia criteria is needed to confirm these findings.

  11. INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.

    2011-05-24

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending and resuspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to resuspend the MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles so that they can be removed from the tank, and to suspend the MST so it can contact strontium and actinides. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5, B3, and B1). Previous testing showed that three Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank, and to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST and CST that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 84% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (2) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST, CST, and simulated sludge that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 82% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (3) A contact time of 6-12 hours is needed for strontium sorption by MST in a jet mixed tank with cooling coils, which is consistent with bench-scale testing and actinide removal process (ARP) operation.

  12. Anaerobic treatment of animal byproducts from slaughterhouses at laboratory and pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edström, Mats; Nordberg, Ake; Thyselius, Lennart

    2003-01-01

    Different mixtures of animal byproducts, other slaughterhouse waste (i.e., rumen, stomach and intestinal content), food waste, and liquid manure were codigested at mesophilic conditions (37 degrees C) at laboratory and pilot scale. Animal byproducts, including blood, represent 70-80% of the total biogas potential from waste generated during slaughter of animals. The total biogas potential from waste generated during slaughter is about 1300 MJ/cattle and about 140 MJ/pig. Fed-batch digestion of pasteurized (70 degrees C, 1 h) animal byproducts resulted in a fourfold increase in biogas yield (1.14 L/g of volatile solids [VS]) compared with nonpasteurized animal byproducts (0.31 L/g of VS). Mixtures with animal byproducts representing 19-38% of the total dry matter were digested in continuous-flow stirred tank reactors at laboratory and pilot scale. Stable processes at organic loading rates (OLRs) exceeding 2.5 g of VS/(L.d) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) less than 40 d could be obtained with total ammonia nitrogen concentrations (NH4-N + NH3-N) in the range of 4.0-5.0 g/L. After operating one process for more than 1.5 yr at total ammonia nitrogen concentrations >4 g/L, an increase in OLR to 5 g of VS/(L.d) and a decrease in HRT to 22 d was possible without accumulation of volatile fatty acids.

  13. Pilot-scale reverse osmosis testing for the F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Pilot-scale reverse osmosis (RO) tests were completed with a 10 gpm unit to demonstrate the performance of RO in the F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF). RO will be used in the WMETF to remove soluble salts and soluble radioactivity. The advantage of using RO (over ion exchange) is that it is nondescriminanting and removes virtually all dissolved solids species, regardless of ionic charge. RO also generates less than half the waste volume produced by ion exchange. Test results using a 200-Area nonradioactive effluent simulant demonstrated salt rejections of 98% and water recoveries of 94% by using recycle on a single stage pilot unit. For a full-scale, multi-staged unit overall salt rejections will be 95% (DF = 20) while obtaining a 94% water recovery (94% discharge, 6% concentrated waste stream). Identical performance is expected on actual radioactive streams, based on shielded cells testing performed by Motyka and Stimson. Similarly, if the WMETF RO system is configured in the same manner as the SRL ECWPF, a DF of 20 and a water recvery of 94% should be obtained

  14. CFD Modeling of Flow, Temperature, and Concentration Fields in a Pilot-Scale Rotary Hearth Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Su, Fu-Yong; Wen, Zhi; Li, Zhi; Yong, Hai-Quan; Feng, Xiao-Hong

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional mathematical model for simulation of flow, temperature, and concentration fields in a pilot-scale rotary hearth furnace (RHF) has been developed using a commercial computational fluid dynamics software, FLUENT. The layer of composite pellets under the hearth is assumed to be a porous media layer with CO source and energy sink calculated by an independent mathematical model. User-defined functions are developed and linked to FLUENT to process the reduction process of the layer of composite pellets. The standard k-ɛ turbulence model in combination with standard wall functions is used for modeling of gas flow. Turbulence-chemistry interaction is taken into account through the eddy-dissipation model. The discrete ordinates model is used for modeling of radiative heat transfer. A comparison is made between the predictions of the present model and the data from a test of the pilot-scale RHF, and a reasonable agreement is found. Finally, flow field, temperature, and CO concentration fields in the furnace are investigated by the model.

  15. Influence of reaction time on the structure of polyaniline synthesized on a pre-pilot scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Carvalho Mazzeu

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work is to follow the structural variations of polyaniline (PAni obtained by chemical oxidation on a pre-pilot scale, with different reaction times. Synthesis of PAni is well known, but when it is carried out on a pre-pilot scale, several factors can lead to structural changes and understanding these changes is important to improve controls on the synthesis process. The polymers formed were characterized by spectroscopic techniques (Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared - FTIR and UV-Visible. Degree of oxidation and yield were calculated for each reaction time. The analysis by FTIR, the calculated degree of oxidation and the yield showed significant changes in polymer structure at reaction times of 65 and 80 min. This result was attributed to the excessive oxidation of PAni, with the breaking of its polymer chain. The changes observed in the structure of PAni gave subsidies to the optimization of the process of obtaining polyaniline by chemical synthesis.

  16. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Fallgren, Paul H.; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pilot bioelectrochemical system showed high-performance hydrocarbon remediation. • Radius of influence characterization demonstrated system efficacy. • Current serves as degradation indicator. - Abstract: Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1–89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1–34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m 2 . The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11–12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures

  17. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Jin, Song [Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Zuo, Yi [Chevron Energy Technology Company, San Ramon, CA (United States); Fallgren, Paul H. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO (United States); Ren, Zhiyong Jason, E-mail: jason.ren@colorado.edu [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Pilot bioelectrochemical system showed high-performance hydrocarbon remediation. • Radius of influence characterization demonstrated system efficacy. • Current serves as degradation indicator. - Abstract: Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1–89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1–34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m{sup 2}. The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11–12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures.

  18. Performance of a system with full- and pilot-scale sludge drying reed bed units treating septic tank sludge in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Vallejo, Luisa Fernanda; Andrade, Cynthia Franco; Manjate, Elias Sete; Madera-Parra, Carlos Arturo; von Sperling, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of sludge drying reed beds (SDRB) at full- and pilot-scale treating sludge from septic tanks in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The treatment units, planted with Cynodon spp., were based on an adaptation of the first-stage of the French vertical-flow constructed wetland, originally developed for treating sewage. Two different operational phases were investigated; in the first one, the full-scale unit was used together with six pilot-scale columns in order to test different feeding strategies. For the second phase, only the full-scale unit was used, including a recirculation of the filtered effluent (percolate) to one of the units of the French vertical wetland. Sludge application was done once a week emptying a full truck, during 25 weeks. The sludge was predominantly diluted, leading to low solids loading rates (median values of 18 kgTS m(-2) year(-1)). Chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency in the full-scale unit was reasonable (median of 71%), but the total solids removal was only moderate (median of 44%) in the full-scale unit without recirculation. Recirculation did not bring substantial improvements in the overall performance. The other loading conditions implemented in the pilot columns also did not show statistically different performances.

  19. Properties and Performance of SOFCs Produced on a Pre-Pilot Plant Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Menon, Mohan; Barfod, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    specific cell resistance at 850 °C was found to be 0.24 Ω cm2 with a standard deviation of 0.05 Ω cm2. The variation in performance between the cells can be largely attributed to variations in the cathode performance. Experimental evidence will be presented on full 4 × 4 cm2 cells, symmetric cells with two......In the present paper, anode supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), produced on a pre-pilot plant scale in ten batches of ∼100 cells, are characterised with respect to performance. The main purpose was to evaluate the reproducibility of the scaled-up process. Based on 20 tests, the average area...

  20. A mixed method pilot study: the researchers' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secomb, Jacinta M; Smith, Colleen

    2011-08-01

    This paper reports on the outcomes of a small well designed pilot study. Pilot studies often disseminate limited or statistically meaningless results without adding to the body knowledge on the comparative research benefits. The design a pre-test post-test group parallel randomised control trial and inductive content analysis of focus group transcripts was tested specifically to increase outcomes in a proposed larger study. Strategies are now in place to overcome operational barriers and recruitment difficulties. Links between the qualitative and quantitative arms of the proposed larger study have been made; it is anticipated that this will add depth to the final report. More extensive reporting on the outcomes of pilot studies would assist researchers and increase the body of knowledge in this area.

  1. Composting clam processing wastes in a laboratory- and pilot-scale in-vessel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenhu; Lane, Robert; Wen, Zhiyou

    2009-01-01

    Waste materials from the clam processing industry (offal, shells) have several special characteristics such as a high salinity level, a high nitrogen content, and a low C/N ratio. The traditional disposal of clam waste through landfilling is facing the challenges of limited land available, increasing tipping fees, and strict environmental and regulatory scrutiny. The aim of this work is to investigate the performance of in-vessel composting as an alternative for landfill application of these materials. Experiments were performed in both laboratory-scale (5L) and pilot-scale (120L) reactors, with woodchips as the bulking agent. In the laboratory-scale composting test, the clam waste and woodchips were mixed in ratios from 1:0.5 to 1:3 (w/w, wet weight). The high ratios resulted in a better temperature performance, a higher electrical conductivity, and a higher ash content than the low-ratio composting. The C/N ratio of the composts was in the range of 9:1-18:1. In the pilot-scale composting test, a 1:1 ratio of clam waste to woodchips was used. The temperature profile during the composting process met the US Environmental Protection Agency sanitary requirement. The final cured compost had a C/N ratio of 14.6, with an ash content of 167.0+/-14.1g/kg dry matter. In addition to the major nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, and sodium), the compost also contained trace amounts of zinc, manganese, copper, and boron, indicating that the material can be used as a good resource for plant nutrients.

  2. Biodegradation by bioaugmentation of dairy wastewater by fungal consortium on a bioreactor lab-scale and on a pilot-scale

    OpenAIRE

    Djelal , Hayet; Amrane , Abdeltif

    2013-01-01

    International audience; A fungal consortium including Aspergillus niger, Mucor hiemalis and Galactomyces geotrichum was tested for the treatment of dairy wastewater. The bio-augmentation method was tested at lab-scale (4 L), at pilot scale (110 L) and at an industrial scale in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP). The positive impact of fungal addition was confirmed when fungi was beforehand accelerated by pre-culture on whey (5 g/L lactose) or on the dairy effluent. Indeed, chemical oxygen dem...

  3. PILOT SCALE TESTING OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE MIXING FOR THE SRS SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS - 11224

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.; Steeper, T.

    2011-01-25

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and select actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the requirements for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that they can contact the strontium and actinides in the liquid and be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of SRS Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations). The conclusions from this work follow: (i) Neither two standard slurry pumps nor two quad volute slurry pumps will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. (ii) Two Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. However, the testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is close to the maximum discharge velocity of the pump (within 12%). (iii) Three SMPs will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 66% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (iv) Three SMPs are needed to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 77% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. Two SMPs are not sufficient to resuspend MST that settled under these

  4. 77 FR 12312 - Electronic Submission of Nonclinical Study Data; Notice of Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ...] Electronic Submission of Nonclinical Study Data; Notice of Pilot Project AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... and Research (CBER) is announcing an invitation to participate in a pilot evaluation program to test.... Participation in the pilot program is open to all sponsors. The pilot program is intended to provide industry...

  5. Quality of work life of rural emergency department nurses and physicians: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Bragard, Isabelle; Fleet, Richard; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Archambault, Patrick; L?gar?, France; Chauny, Jean-Marc; L?vesque, Jean-Fr?d?ric; Ouimet, Mathieu; Poitras, Julien; Dupuis, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Background Information about recruitment and retention factors and quality of work life (QWL) in rural emergency departments (EDs) is limited. A pilot study was used to determine the feasibility of a large-scale study of these variables in Quebec EDs. Methods Two EDs, approximately 10,000 and 30,000 patients per year respectively, were selected as convenience samples. An online survey containing the Quality of Work Life Systemic Inventory (QWLSI; 34 items) and the Recruitment and Retention Fa...

  6. Pilot studies: one swallow does not make a summer... Editorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, T. van; Smits, P.

    2003-01-01

    What should we expect from pilot studies, done in small series of patients? In the literature there are many examples of small studies with very promising results, that in subsequent larger or better controlled studies proved to be much less promising, or even disastrous. In some instances the

  7. Pilot study approach and qualification dossier components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammirato, F.; Ashwin, P.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the Pilot Project is to evaluate the IAEA Guidelines and methodology for the benefit of IAEA Member States trough a simulation of qualification activities. The Project is based on a real component and available data - NPP Kozloduy unit 5, weld 3. The initial phase is limited to the Qualification dossier. The Project relies on the input from the team members and Member States. Team organization and responsibilities are presented. The components of the Qualification Dossier (technical specification, inspection procedure and preliminary review, qualification procedure) and their current status are also presented. A comparison is done with their qualification programs. The characteristics of performance demonstrations are discussed. The results show that the teamwork has been successful and the IAEA methodology covers all situations. It is expected that the End Project will become 'Benchmark's' for future qualification activities

  8. Task rotation in an underground coal mine: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Olivia F; James, Carole L

    2018-01-01

    Task rotation is used to decrease the risk of workplace injuries and improve work satisfaction. To investigate the feasibility, benefits and challenges of implementing a task rotation schedule within an underground coalmine in NSW, Australia. A mixed method case control pilot study with the development and implementation of a task rotation schedule for 6 months with two work crews. A questionnaire including The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, The Need for Recovery after Work Scale, and The Australian WHOQOL- BREF Australian Edition was used to survey workers at baseline, 3 and 6 months. A focus group was completed with the intervention crew and management at the completion of the study. In total, twenty-seven participants completed the survey. Significant improvements in the psychological and environmental domains of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire were found in the intervention crew. Musculoskeletal pain was highest in the elbow, lower back and knee, and fatigue scores improved, across both groups. The intervention crew felt 'mentally fresher', 'didn't do the same task twice in a row', and 'had more task variety which made the shift go quickly'. Task rotation was positively regarded, with psychological benefits identified. Three rotations during a 9-hour shift were feasible and practical in this environment.

  9. Thermoacoustic CT of the breast: pilot study observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Robert A.; Kiser, William L., Jr.; Romilly, A. P.; Scmidt, Phyllis

    2001-06-01

    In order to assess the potential clinical utility of using thermoacoustic computer tomography (TCT) to image the breast, we conducted a retrospective pilot study of 78 patients. We recruited patients in three age groups (50 years). The study population was further segregated into normal and suspicious based on the results of the previous x-ray mammography and ultrasound. Image quality was evaluated qualitatively by consensus of two trained mammographers using a 4-point scale. The appearance of normal anatomy, cysts, benign disease and cancer was noted. Patients were also asked to rate the comfort of the TCT exam and to indicate a personal preference for x-ray mammography or TCT. Analysis of the data indicated that TCT image quality was dependent upon both patient age and breast density, improving with both increasing breast density and decreasing patient age. Fibrocystic disease was well seen, cysts appearing as areas of low RF absorption. Fibroadenomas did not demonstrate contrast enhancement with the exception of one patient with associated atypical hyperplasia. Cancer displayed higher RF absorption than surrounding tissues in 4/7 patients in whom cancer was confirmed, including one patient with a 7-mm ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).

  10. Optimization of high free fatty acid reduction in mixed crude palm oils using circulation process through static mixer reactor and pilot-scale of two-step process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somnuk, Krit; Niseng, Suhdee; Prateepchaikul, Gumpon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Reducing FFA in MCPO was circulated through static mixer alone in the lab-scale. • Methanol and sulfuric acid were varied in the esterification reaction. • RSM was employed to optimize the acid-catalyzed esterification in lab-scale. • 60 L of pilot-scale was designed on the basis of a simple operation and maintenance. - Abstract: High free fatty acid (FFA) reduction in mixed crude palm oil (MCPO) was performed with methanol (MeOH) and sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) as acid catalyst using the circulation process through static mixer reactor. In this study, the response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted to optimize the acid value in esterified oil after esterification process (first-step) in lab-scale. The results showed that acid value was reduced from 30 mgKOH g −1 to 2 mgKOH g −1 , when 19.8 vol.% MeOH, 2.0 vol.% H 2 SO 4 , reaction temperature 60 °C, 40 L h −1 of MCPO, 50 min reaction time, and 5-m of static mixer in length, were used in the lab-scale. This recommended condition was used to develop the pilot-scale process in which the scaling up of the FFA reduction from 5 L MCPO of lab-scale to 60 L MCPO of pilot-scale, which was designed on the basis of a simple operation and maintenance. In the pilot-scale process, the lower 1 mgKOH g −1 of acid value was achieved when it was conducted at the reaction time of 50 min. In the base-catalyzed transesterification (second-step) of pilot-scale process, the 98.65 wt.% of methyl ester purity was achieved when the following condition: 20 vol.% MeOH, 8 gKOH L −1 oil, and 60 min reaction time at 60 °C, was used to produce biodiesel

  11. Aspirating and Nonaspirating Swallow Sounds in Children: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakking, Thuy; Chang, Anne; O'Grady, Kerry; David, Michael; Weir, Kelly

    2016-12-01

    Cervical auscultation (CA) may be used to complement feeding/swallowing evaluations when assessing for aspiration. There are no published pediatric studies that compare the properties of sounds between aspirating and nonaspirating swallows. To establish acoustic and perceptual profiles of aspirating and nonaspirating swallow sounds and determine if a difference exists between these 2 swallowing types. Aspiration sound clips were obtained from recordings using CA simultaneously undertaken with videofluoroscopic swallow study. Aspiration was determined using the Penetration-Aspiration Scale. The presence of perceptual swallow/breath parameters was rated by 2 speech pathologists who were blinded to the type of swallow. Acoustic data between groups were compared using Mann Whitney U-tests, while perceptual differences were determined by a test of 2 proportions. Combinations of perceptual parameters of 50 swallows (27 aspiration, 23 no aspiration) from 47 children (57% male) were statistically analyzed using area under a receiver operating characteristic (aROC), sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values to determine predictors of aspirating swallows. The combination of post-swallow presence of wet breathing and wheeze and absence of GRS and normal breathing was the best predictor of aspiration (aROC = 0.82, 95% CI, 0.70-0.94). There were no significant differences between these 2 swallow types for peak frequency, duration, and peak amplitude. Our pilot study has shown that certain characteristics of swallow obtained using CA may be useful in the prediction of aspiration. However, further research comparing the acoustic swallowing sound profiles of normal children to children with dysphagia (who are aspirating) on a larger scale is required. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Pilot-scale multistage membrane process for the separation of CO2 from LNG-fired flue gas

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Seung Hak

    2013-06-01

    In this study, a multistage pilot-scale membrane plant was constructed and operated for the separation of CO2 from Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)-fired boiler flue gas of 1000 Nm3/day. The target purity and recovery of CO2 were 99 vol.% and 90%, respectively. For this purpose, asymmetric polyethersulfone (PES) hollow fibers membranes has been developed in our previous work and has evaluated the effects of operating pressure and feed concentration of CO2 on separation performance. The operating and permeation data obtained were also analyzed in relation with the numerical simulation data using countercurrent flow model. Based on these results, in this study, four-staged membrane process including dehumidification process has been designed, installed, and operated to demonstrate the feasibility of multistage membrane systems for removing CO2 from flue gases. The operation results using this plant were compared to the numerical simulation results on multistage membrane process. The experimental results matched well with the numerical simulation data. The concentration and the recovery of CO2 in the permeate stream of final stage were ranged from 95-99 vol.% and 70-95%, respectively, depending on the operating conditions. This study demonstrated the applicability of the membrane-based pilot plant for CO2 recovery from flue gas. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Predicting the performance uncertainty of a 1-MW pilot-scale carbon capture system after hierarchical laboratory-scale calibration and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhijie; Lai, Canhai; Marcy, Peter William; Dietiker, Jean-François; Li, Tingwen; Sarkar, Avik; Sun, Xin

    2017-05-01

    A challenging problem in designing pilot-scale carbon capture systems is to predict, with uncertainty, the adsorber performance and capture efficiency under various operating conditions where no direct experimental data exist. Motivated by this challenge, we previously proposed a hierarchical framework in which relevant parameters of physical models were sequentially calibrated from different laboratory-scale carbon capture unit (C2U) experiments. Specifically, three models of increasing complexity were identified based on the fundamental physical and chemical processes of the sorbent-based carbon capture technology. Results from the corresponding laboratory experiments were used to statistically calibrate the physical model parameters while quantifying some of their inherent uncertainty. The parameter distributions obtained from laboratory-scale C2U calibration runs are used in this study to facilitate prediction at a larger scale where no corresponding experimental results are available. In this paper, we first describe the multiphase reactive flow model for a sorbent-based 1-MW carbon capture system then analyze results from an ensemble of simulations with the upscaled model. The simulation results are used to quantify uncertainty regarding the design’s predicted efficiency in carbon capture. In particular, we determine the minimum gas flow rate necessary to achieve 90% capture efficiency with 95% confidence.

  14. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel; Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The continuous pyrolysis of waste tire has been demonstrated at pilot scale in an auger reactor. • More than 500 kg of waste tires were processed in 100 operational hours. • The yields and characteristics of the pyrolysis products remained constant. • Mass and energy balances for an industrial scale plant are provided. • The reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis was determined. -- Abstract: This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kW th . A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550 °C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign

  15. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel, E-mail: juand.martinez@upb.edu.co [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain); Grupo de Investigaciones Ambientales, Instituto de Energía, Materiales y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Circular 1 N°70-01, Bloque 11, piso 2, Medellín (Colombia); Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The continuous pyrolysis of waste tire has been demonstrated at pilot scale in an auger reactor. • More than 500 kg of waste tires were processed in 100 operational hours. • The yields and characteristics of the pyrolysis products remained constant. • Mass and energy balances for an industrial scale plant are provided. • The reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis was determined. -- Abstract: This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kW{sub th}. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550 °C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign.

  16. Performance of a pilot-scale packed bed reactor for perchlorate reduction using a sulfur oxidizing bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Amber R; Conneely, Teresa; McKeever, Robert; Nixon, Paul; Nüsslein, Klaus R; Ergas, Sarina J

    2012-03-01

    A novel sulfur-utilizing perchlorate reducing bacterial consortium successfully treated perchlorate (ClO₄⁻) in prior batch and bench-scale packed bed reactor (PBR) studies. This study examined the scale up of this process for treatment of water from a ClO ₄⁻ and RDX contaminated aquifer in Cape Cod Massachusetts. A pilot-scale upflow PBR (∼250-L) was constructed with elemental sulfur and crushed oyster shell packing media. The reactor was inoculated with sulfur oxidizing ClO₄⁻ reducing cultures enriched from a wastewater seed. Sodium sulfite provided a good method of dissolved oxygen removal in batch cultures, but was found to promote the growth of bacteria that carry out sulfur disproportionation and sulfate reduction, which inhibited ClO₄⁻ reduction in the pilot system. After terminating sulfite addition, the PBR successfully removed 96% of the influent ClO₄⁻ in the groundwater at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 12 h (effluent ClO₄⁻ of 4.2 µg L(-1)). Simultaneous ClO₄⁻ and NO₃⁻ reduction was observed in the lower half of the reactor before reactions shifted to sulfur disproportionation and sulfate reduction. Analyses of water quality profiles were supported by molecular analysis, which showed distinct groupings of ClO₄⁻ and NO₃⁻ degrading organisms at the inlet of the PBR, while sulfur disproportionation was the primary biological process occurring in the top potion of the reactor. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Work stress in radiologists. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnavita, N; Fileni, A; Magnavita, G; Mammi, F; Mirk, P; Roccia, K; Bergamaschi, A

    2008-04-01

    We studied occupational stress and its psychosocial effects in a sample of Italian radiologists and radiotherapists: Radiologists and radiotherapists attending two medical conferences were invited to complete a questionnaire comprising four sections investigating the risk of occupational stress (organisational discomfort, Karasek's Job Content Questionnaire, Siegrist's Effort-Reward Imbalance, Warr's Job Satisfaction) and four sections investigating the health effects of such stress (Goldberg's Anxiety and Depression Scales, General Health Questionnaire, Lifestyles Questionnaire). Radiologists and radiotherapists generally expressed high levels of control, reward and satisfaction. However, 38.5% complained of severe organisational discomfort, 24% reported job strain, 28% reported effort/reward imbalance and 25% were dissatisfied. Female radiologists and radiotherapists showed higher levels of organisational discomfort than their male colleagues. Younger and less experienced radiologists and radiotherapists had higher strain scores than their older and more experienced colleagues. A significant correlation was observed between stress predictors and the effects of stress on health, including depression and anxiety, psychological distress and unhealthy lifestyles. Radiologists and radiotherapists are exposed to major occupational stress factors, and a significant percentage of them suffer from workplace stress. A special effort is required to prevent this condition.

  18. Radon in drinking water in Co. Wicklow. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.P.; Sequeira, S.; McKittrick, L.; Colgan, P.A.

    2003-02-01

    Attention has been focused on the issue of radon in drinking water by a European Commission recommendation proposing that surveys should be undertaken in Member States to determine the scale and nature of exposures caused by radon in domestic drinking water supplies. The Commission recommends 1000 Bq/l as the radon activity concentration in private drinking water supplies above which remedial action to reduce the concentration should be taken. The logic behind the proposed action level is that it would broadly correspond to the risk posed to an individual from exposure to radon in the home at the current Reference Level of 200 Bq/m3 in air. A pilot study to assess the distribution and concentrations of radon in private ground water supplies was recently completed in Co. Wicklow. County Wicklow was selected for the study primarily on the basis that the underlying geology is predominantly granite with elevated uranium content. Furthermore, there is an estimated 1200 to 5000 private ground water supplies in use in the county and high radon activity concentrations in air in a significant number of dwellings have previously been predicted. As part of the pilot study, a number of scientific issues were addressed in order to underpin the results obtained and these are also discussed in the report. Radon activity concentrations were measured in the private ground water supplies of 166 houses in Co. Wicklow. In all cases the ground water was the principal source of drinking water for the house occupants. Four supplies had activity concentrations in excess of the Recommended EC action level of 1000 Bq/l, fifteen had activity concentrations between 500 and 1000 Bq/l, 51 were between 100 and 500 Bq/l and 96 had activity concentrations below 100 Bq/l. The doses estimated for the ingestion of radon bearing water vary significantly with the quantity of drinking water consumed and the degree to which the water has been processed prior to consumption. However dose estimates based

  19. Radon in drinking water in Co. Wicklow. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.P.; Sequeira, S.; McKittrick, L.; Colgan, P.A.

    2003-01-01

    Attention has been focused on the issue of radon in drinking water by a European Commission recommendation proposing that surveys should be undertaken in Member States to determine the scale and nature of exposures caused by radon in domestic drinking water supplies. The Commission recommends 1000 Bq/l as the radon activity concentration in private drinking water supplies above which remedial action to reduce the concentration should be taken. The logic behind the proposed action level is that it would broadly correspond to the risk posed to an individual from exposure to radon in the home at the current Reference Level of 200 Bq/m 3 in air. A pilot study to assess the distribution and concentrations of radon in private ground water supplies was recently completed in Co. Wicklow. County Wicklow was selected for the study primarily on the basis that the underlying geology is predominantly granite with elevated uranium content. Furthermore, there is an estimated 1200 to 5000 private ground water supplies in use in the county and high radon activity concentrations in air in a significant number of dwellings have previously been predicted. As part of the pilot study, a number of scientific issues were addressed in order to underpin the results obtained and these are also discussed in the report. Radon activity concentrations were measured in the private ground water supplies of 166 houses in Co. Wicklow. In all cases the ground water was the principal source of drinking water for the house occupants. Four supplies had activity concentrations in excess of the Recommended EC action level of 1000 Bq/l, fifteen had activity concentrations between 500 and 1000 Bq/l, 51 were between 100 and 500 Bq/l and 96 had activity concentrations below 100 Bq/l. The doses estimated for the ingestion of radon bearing water varies significantly with the quantity of drinking water consumed and the degree to which the water has been processed prior to consumption. However dose estimates

  20. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of ALTA for NOx Control in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Fry; Devin Davis; Marc Cremer; Bradley Adams

    2008-04-30

    This report describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and pilot-scale testing conducted to demonstrate the ability of the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. Testing specifically focused on characterizing NO{sub x} behavior with deep burner staging combined with Rich Reagent Injection (RRI). Tests were performed in a 4 MBtu/hr pilot-scale furnace at the University of Utah. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team which included the University of Utah and Combustion Components Associates (CCA). Deep burner staging and RRI, combined with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), make up the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) for NO{sub x} reduction. The application of ALTA in a PC environment requires homogenization and rapid reaction of post-burner combustion gases and has not been successfully demonstrated in the past. Operation of the existing low-NO{sub x} burner and design and operation of an application specific ALTA burner was guided by CFD modeling conducted by REI. Parametric pilot-scale testing proved the chemistry of RRI in a PC environment with a NOx reduction of 79% at long residence times and high baseline NOx rate. At representative particle residence times, typical operation of the dual-register low-NO{sub x} burner provided an environment that was unsuitable for NO{sub x} reduction by RRI, showing no NOx reduction. With RRI, the ALTA burner was able to produce NO{sub x} emissions 20% lower than the low-NO{sub x} burner, 76 ppmv vs. 94 ppmv, at a burner stoichiometric ratio (BSR) of 0.7 and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) of 2.0. CFD modeling was used to investigate the application of RRI for NO{sub x} control on a 180 MW{sub e} wall-fired, PC boiler. A NO{sub x} reduction of 37% from baseline (normal operation) was predicted using ALTA burners with RRI to produce a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.185 lb/MBtu at the horizontal nose of

  1. Perceived harmfulness of substance use: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Harm ratings of substances help in understanding the perception toward substance use and formulating policies. Evidence of such harm ratings by substance users and their caregivers provides a clearer perspective of those who experience and observe such harm closely. Materials and Methods: Substance users and their caregivers were recruited from the Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre of PGIMER, Chandigarh. Sociodemographic details of the subjects were noted. The subjects were then asked to rate a list of psychoactive preparations according to the harms they thought the preparation caused. The list of substances was developed taking into consideration substance commonly encountered in the geographical area. The harm ratings were transformed on a scale of 0-100. Results: All subjects were males and majority of them were educated above 10 th standard, were not employed and belonged to urban background. Most of them had taken psychoactive substances in their lifetimes but were currently abstinent. Most of the subjects endorsed intravenous drugs as the most harmful, followed by heroin. Beer and chewable tobacco considered the least harmful substances. Greater degree of education was associated with lower harm rankings for heroin, cannabis, dextropropoxyphene, and raw opium; while urban residence was associated with greater harm ratings for cannabis and raw opium. Differences in the harms were perceived for different preparations of the same active compound for alcohol and nicotine. Conclusion: Harm ratings of substances can be a useful guide while formulating policies and allocating resources. Need for further research extending this pilot study is emphasized.

  2. Sociomoral Reasoning in Adults with ADHD: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E. Thomason

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is frequently linked with antisocial behaviour, yet less is known about its relationship with sociomoral reasoning, and the possible mediating effect of intelligence. A pilot study was designed to investigate the relationship between antisocial personality traits, intelligence and sociomoral reasoning in adults with ADHD. Twenty two adults with ADHD and 21 healthy controls, matched for age, gender and IQ completed a battery of measures including the National Adult Reading Test, Gough Socialisation Scale and Sociomoral Reflection Measure-Short Form. There was no difference between the groups and levels of sociomoral reasoning, despite the ADHD group reporting greater antisocial personality traits. Sociomoral reasoning was positively correlated with intelligence. Results from a hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that both antisocial traits and IQ were significant predictors of sociomoral reasoning, with IQ proving the most powerful predictor. Whilst antisocial personality traits may explain some of the variance in levels of sociomoral reasoning, a diagnosis of ADHD does not appear to hinder the development of mature moral reasoning. Intellectual functioning appears to facilitate the development of sociomoral reasoning. A further analysis showed that both ADHD and low sociomoral reasoning were significant predictors of antisocial traits. The current findings have important treatment implications.

  3. Effects of Aquajogging in Obese Adults: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline J. M. Wouters

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Method. To examine in obese people the potential effectiveness of a six-week, two times weekly aquajogging program on body composition, fitness, health-related quality of life, and exercise beliefs. Fifteen otherwise healthy obese persons participated in a pilot study. Results. Total fat mass and waist circumference decreased 1.4 kg (P=.03 and 3.1 cm (P=.005, respectively. The distance in the Six-Minute Walk Test increased 41 meters (P=.001. Three scales of the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite questionnaire improved: physical function (P=.008, self-esteem (P=.004, and public distress (P=.04. Increased perceived exercise benefits (P=.02 and decreased embarrassment (P=.03 were observed. Conclusions. Aquajogging was associated with reduced body fat and waist circumference and improved aerobic fitness and quality of life. These findings suggest the usefulness of conducting a randomized controlled trial with long-term outcome assessments.

  4. Attitudes Toward Guarani and Spanish: A Pilot Study in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Nancy C.

    This study analyzes the language attitudes of the Paraguayan people toward their two languages, Guarani and Spanish. To study the bilingual situation in the South American country, a pilot survey was carried out in the capital city addressing the major topics of language attitudes, language usage, and language varieties. The goals of the survey…

  5. Technical Writing Redesign and Assessment: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Gaye Bush

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare scores on writing assignments from traditional, fully online courses in technical writing to pilot, hybrid courses at a southern university. A total of 232 students' assignments were compared in this study. All writing assignments were scored by six trained instructors of English using the same five point…

  6. Indonesian EFL Students' Perspective on Writing Process: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermilinda Abas, Imelda; Aziz, Noor Hashima Abd

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed at understanding the EFL Indonesian students' perspective on the writing process. The pilot study involved two male Indonesian postgraduate students in Universiti Utara Malaysia. The Indonesian students were selected based on the following criteria: (1) had enough knowledge in English writing, indicated by the completion of…

  7. Forces exerted by jumping children: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, C.C.M.; Bakker, H.E.

    1998-01-01

    This article reports on a pilot study of the loads exerted vertically by children when jumping. The subjects of the study were 17 children, aged from two to twelve years. Measurements were made using video recordings and a force-plate. The influence of the stiffness of the base and of jumping with

  8. Clean indoor air increases physical independence : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, M.C.L.; Koren, L.G.H.; Kort, H.S.M.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Clean indoor air enhances health. In a pilot study, we examined whether a good indoor air quality increases the activity potential of older persons with chronic lung disease. Five older persons were studied while performing kitchen activities. Body movement and heart rate were monitored.

  9. Weight loss and frequency of body-weight self-monitoring in an online commercial weight management program with and without a cellular-connected 'smart' scale: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J G; Raynor, H A; Bond, D S; Luke, A K; Cardoso, C C; Wojtanowski, A C; Vander Veur, S; Tate, D; Wing, R R; Foster, G D

    2017-12-01

    Evaluate the effects of an online commercial weight management program, with and without provision of a 'smart' scale with instructions to weigh daily and weekly tailored feedback, on weight loss and the frequency of body-weight self-monitoring. Participants (N = 92; body mass index 27-40 kg/m 2 ) were randomized to 6 months of no-cost access to the Weight Watchers Online (WWO) platform alone, or enhanced with a cellular-connected 'smart' scale, instructions to weigh daily and weekly pre-scripted email feedback (Weight Watchers Online Enhanced [WWO-E]). The number of days that weight was self-monitored (via 'smart' scale in WWO-E and manually in WWO) was recorded automatically across the 6-month trial. Objective weight was measured at baseline, 3 and 6 months. While both groups achieved statistically significant weight loss, mean ± standard error weight loss did not differ between WWO-E and WWO at 3 months (5.1 ± 0.6 kg vs. 4.0 ± 0.7 kg, respectively; p = 0.257) or 6 months (5.3 ± 0.6 kg vs. 3.9 ± 0.7 kg, respectively; p = 0.116). However, a greater proportion of WWO-E lost ≥5% of initial body weight at 3 months (52.2% vs. 28.3%; p = 0.033), but not 6 months (43.5% vs. 30.4%; p = 0.280), compared with WWO. Mean ± standard deviation days with self-monitored weight was higher in WWO-E (80.5 ± 5.6; 44.7% of days) than WWO (12.0 ± 1.0; 6.7% of days; p weight loss (52% vs. 28%) in an online commercial weight management program. Both WWO and WWO-E produced significant weight loss over 6 months. While mean weight losses were slightly greater in the enhanced group, the difference was not statistically significant in this small sample. This study provides support for the clinical utility of online commercial weight management programs and the potential for supporting technology such as 'smart' scales to improve adherence to body-weight self-monitoring and clinical outcomes.

  10. [Yield of starch extraction from plantain (Musa paradisiaca). Pilot plant study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Gorosquera, Emigdia; García-Suárez, Francisco J; Flores-Huicochea, Emmanuel; Núñez-Santiago, María C; González-Soto, Rosalia A; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2004-01-01

    In México, the banana (Musa paradisiaca) is cooked (boiling or deep frying) before being eaten, but the consumption is not very popular and a big quantity of the product is lost after harvesting. The unripe plantain has a high level of starch and due to this the use of banana can be diversified as raw material for starch isolation. The objective of this work was to study the starch yield at pilot plant scale. Experiments at laboratory scale were carried out using the pulp with citric acid to 0,3 % (antioxidant), in order to evaluate the different unitary operations of the process. The starch yield, based on starch presence in the pulp that can be isolated, were between 76 and 86 %, and the values at pilot plant scale were between 63 and 71 %, in different lots of banana fruit. Starch yield values were similar among the diverse lots, showing that the process is reproducible. The lower values of starch recovery at pilot plant scale are due to the loss during sieving operations; however, the amount of starch recovery is good.

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L. W.; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Paul W. C.; Ho, Rainbow T. H.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in ...

  12. Multiphasic Reaction Modeling for Polypropylene Production in a Pilot-Scale Catalytic Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jakir Hossain Khan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel multiphasic model for the calculation of the polypropylene production in a complicated hydrodynamic and the physiochemical environments has been formulated, confirmed and validated. This is a first research attempt that describes the development of the dual-phasic phenomena, the impact of the optimal process conditions on the production rate of polypropylene and the fluidized bed dynamic details which could be concurrently obtained after solving the model coupled with the CFD (computational fluid dynamics model, the basic mathematical model and the moment equations. Furthermore, we have established the quantitative relationship between the operational condition and the dynamic gas–solid behavior in actual reaction environments. Our results state that the proposed model could be applied for generalizing the production rate of the polymer from a chemical procedure to pilot-scale chemical reaction engineering. However, it was assumed that the solids present in the bubble phase and the reactant gas present in the emulsion phase improved the multiphasic model, thus taking into account that the polymerization took place mutually in the emulsion besides the bubble phase. It was observed that with respect to the experimental extent of the superficial gas velocity and the Ziegler-Natta feed rate, the ratio of the polymer produced as compared to the overall rate of production was approximately in the range of 9%–11%. This is a significant amount and it should not be ignored. We also carried out the simulation studies for comparing the data of the CFD-dependent dual-phasic model, the emulsion phase model, the dynamic bubble model and the experimental results. It was noted that the improved dual-phasic model and the CFD model were able to predict more constricted and safer windows at similar conditions as compared to the experimental results. Our work is unique, as the integrated developed model is able to offer clearer ideas

  13. Pilot-Scale Bio-Augmented Aerobic Composting of Excavated Foot-And-Mouth Disease Carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghoon Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we tested the validity of using novel, bio-augmented, aerobic composting with carcass-degrading microorganisms for the ex situ stabilization of carcasses at pilot scale with previously poorly decomposed carcasses excavated from a 3-year old burial site. The significantly decreased chemical oxygen demand (COD, 160,000 mg/kg to 40,000 mg/kg and inorganic nitrogen species (total nitrogen, 5000 mg/kg to 2000 mg/kg indicated effective bio-stabilization of carcasses by bio-augmented composting. The subsequent germination assays and the quantitative characterization of potentially pathogenic bacteria using NGS (next-generation sequencing showed that the burial–composting sequential system with the carcass-degrading microorganisms and mechanical agitation successfully reduced plant toxicity as well as microbial risk to human health, suggesting that the composting by-product is suitable for farming or/and landfill use(s.

  14. Evaluation of two pilot scale membrane bioreactors for the elimination of selected surfactants from municipal wastewaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Susana; Petrovic, Mira; Barceló, Damiá

    2008-07-01

    SummaryThe removal of selected surfactants, linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), coconut diethanol amides (CDEA) and alkylphenol ethoxylates and their degradation products were investigated using a two membrane bioreactor (MBR) with hollow fiber and plate and frame membranes. The two pilot plants MBR run in parallel to a full-scale conventional activated sludge (CAS) treatment. A total of eight influent samples with the corresponding effluent samples were analysed by solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS-MS). The results indicate that both MBR have a better effluent quality in terms of chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD and BOD), NH4+ , concentration and total suspended solids (TSS). MBR showed a better similar performance in the overall elimination of the total nonylphenolic compounds, achieving a 75% of elimination or a 65% (the same elimination reached by CAS). LAS and CDEA showed similar elimination in the three systems investigated and no significant differences were observed.

  15. HWVP pilot-scale vitrification system campaign: LFCM-8 summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.M.; Whitney, L.D.; Buchmiller, W.C.; Daume, J.T.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1996-04-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to treat the high-level radiative waste (HLW) stored in underground storage tanks as an alkaline sludge. Tank waste will first be retrieved and pretreated to minimize solids requiring vitrification as HLW. The glass product resulting from HWVP operations will be stored onsite in stainless steel canisters until the HLW repository is available for final disposal. The first waste stream scheduled to be processed by the HWVP is the neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) stored in double-shell storage tanks. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by providing research, development, and engineering expertise in defined areas. As a part of this support, pilot-scale testing is being conducted to support closure of HWVP design and development issues. Testing results will verify equipment design performance, establish acceptable and optimum process parameters, and support product qualification activities

  16. Pilot scale intensification of rubber seed (Hevea brasiliensis) oil via chemical interesterification using hydrodynamic cavitation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Awais; Yusup, Suzana; Chuah, Lai Fatt; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír; Asif, Saira; Ali, Basit; Akbar, Majid Majeed; Kamil, Ruzaimah Nik M

    2017-10-01

    Chemical interesterification of rubber seed oil has been investigated for four different designed orifice devices in a pilot scale hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) system. Upstream pressure within 1-3.5bar induced cavities to intensify the process. An optimal orifice plate geometry was considered as plate with 1mm dia hole having 21 holes at 3bar inlet pressure. The optimisation results of interesterification were revealed by response surface methodology; methyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 14:1, catalyst amount of 0.75wt.% and reaction time of 20min at 50°C. HC is compared to mechanical stirring (MS) at optimised values. The reaction rate constant and the frequency factor of HC were 3.4-fold shorter and 3.2-fold higher than MS. The interesterified product was characterised by following EN 14214 and ASTM D 6751 international standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. HWVP pilot-scale vitrification system campaign: LFCM-8 summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J.M.; Whitney, L.D.; Buchmiller, W.C.; Daume, J.T.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1996-04-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to treat the high-level radiative waste (HLW) stored in underground storage tanks as an alkaline sludge. Tank waste will first be retrieved and pretreated to minimize solids requiring vitrification as HLW. The glass product resulting from HWVP operations will be stored onsite in stainless steel canisters until the HLW repository is available for final disposal. The first waste stream scheduled to be processed by the HWVP is the neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) stored in double-shell storage tanks. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by providing research, development, and engineering expertise in defined areas. As a part of this support, pilot-scale testing is being conducted to support closure of HWVP design and development issues. Testing results will verify equipment design performance, establish acceptable and optimum process parameters, and support product qualification activities.

  18. WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] intermediate scale borehole test: A pretest analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argueello, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite element structural analysis of the Intermediate Scale Borehole Test at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been performed. The analysis provides insight into how a relatively new excavation in a creeping medium responds when introduced into an existing pillar which has been undergoing stress redistribution for 5.7 years. The stress field of the volume of material in the immediate vicinity of the borehole changes significantly when the hole is drilled. Closure of the hole is predicted to be larger in the vertical direction than in the horizontal direction, leading to an ovaling of the hole. The relatively high stresses near the hole persist even at the end of the simulation, 2 years after the hole is drilled. 12 ref., 10 figs

  19. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle; Orth, Rick; Zacher, Alan

    2007-09-28

    The purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE)-supported corn fiber conversion project, “Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation” is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, economical process for the separation of corn fiber into its principal components to produce higher value-added fuel (ethanol and biodiesel), nutraceuticals (phytosterols), chemicals (polyols), and animal feed (corn fiber molasses). This project has successfully demonstrated the corn fiber conversion process on the pilot scale, and ensured that the process will integrate well into existing ADM corn wet-mills. This process involves hydrolyzing the corn fiber to solubilize 50% of the corn fiber as oligosaccharides and soluble protein. The solubilized fiber is removed and the remaining fiber residue is solvent extracted to remove the corn fiber oil, which contains valuable phytosterols. The extracted oil is refined to separate the phytosterols and the remaining oil is converted to biodiesel. The de-oiled fiber is enzymatically hydrolyzed and remixed with the soluble oligosaccharides in a fermentation vessel where it is fermented by a recombinant yeast, which is capable of fermenting the glucose and xylose to produce ethanol. The fermentation broth is distilled to remove the ethanol. The stillage is centrifuged to separate the yeast cell mass from the soluble components. The yeast cell mass is sold as a high-protein yeast cream and the remaining sugars in the stillage can be purified to produce a feedstock for catalytic conversion of the sugars to polyols (mainly ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) if desirable. The remaining materials from the purification step and any materials remaining after catalytic conversion are concentrated and sold as a corn fiber molasses. Additional high-value products are being investigated for the use of the corn fiber as a dietary fiber sources.

  20. Pilot-scale grout production test with a simulated low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fow, C.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Treat, R.L.; Hymas, C.R.

    1987-05-01

    Plans are underway at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to convert the low-level fraction of radioactive liquid wastes to a grout form for permanent disposal. Grout is a mixture of liquid waste and grout formers, including portland cement, fly ash, and clays. In the plan, the grout slurry is pumped to subsurface concrete vaults on the Hanford Site, where the grout will solidify into large monoliths, thereby immobilizing the waste. A similar disposal concept is being planned at the Savannah River Laboratory site. The underground disposal of grout was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1966 and 1984. Design and construction of grout processing and disposal facilities are underway. The Transportable Grout Facility (TGF), operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) for the Department of Energy (DOE), is scheduled to grout Phosphate/Sulfate N Reactor Operations Waste (PSW) in FY 1988. Phosphate/Sulfate Waste is a blend of two low-level waste streams generated at Hanford's N Reactor. Other wastes are scheduled to be grouted in subsequent years. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is verifying that Hanford grouts can be safely and efficiently processed. To meet this objective, pilot-scale grout process equipment was installed. On July 29 and 30, 1986, PNL conducted a pilot-scale grout production test for Rockwell. During the test, 16,000 gallons of simulated nonradioactive PSW were mixed with grout formers to produce 22,000 gallons of PSW grout. The grout was pumped at a nominal rate of 15 gpm (about 25% of the nominal production rate planned for the TGF) to a lined and covered trench with a capacity of 30,000 gallons. Emplacement of grout in the trench will permit subsequent evaluation of homogeneity of grout in a large monolith. 12 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Pilot scale evaluation of biological and pressure clarification processes for the removal of high level of iron and manganese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yannoni, C.C.; Kinsley, B.P. [Fay, Spofford & Thorndike, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Marston, T.R. [Connecticut Water Company, Clinton, CT (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Iron and manganese originating from groundwater supplies have a long history of causing consumer complaints in water distribution systems. Although iron and manganese are not public health concerns, they are a major concern from an aesthetic standpoint. The elevated awareness of consumers in regard to the quality of drinking water, an increase in regulations requiring additional treatment and the cost associated with developing new sources of supply, has required many utilities to implement improvements to existing facilities. Historical water quality data collected from the Connecticut Water Company`s (CWC) Westbrook Well revealed an increasing trend in iron and manganese concentrations. As a result, the existing greensand filtration facility located at the well, provides insufficient removal rates and inefficient operating cycles. Variations in operating procedures were not successful in correcting these problems. A water treatment feasibility study recommended evaluation of biological and pressure clarification processes to reduce iron (9 mg/l) and manganese (1.5 mg/l) levels below the secondary maximum contaminant levels of 0.30 and 0.05 mg/l, respectively. Assessment of these processes was accomplished through the construction and operation of a 5 gallon per minute (gpm) capacity pilot plant at the Westbrook Water Treatment Plant. Application of biological treatment for iron removal was then piloted on the existing full-scale treatment facility.

  2. Pilot-Scale Laboratory Instruction for Chemical Engineering: The Specific Case of the Pilot-Unit Leading Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billet, Anne-Marie; Camy, Severine; Coufort-Saudejaud, Carole

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an original approach for Chemical Engineering laboratory teaching that is currently applied at INP-ENSIACET (France). This approach, referred to as "pilot-unit leading group" is based on a partial management of the laboratories by the students themselves who become temporarily in charge of one specific laboratory. In…

  3. The Effect of HLRs on Nitrogen Removal by Using a Pilot-scale Aerated Steel Slag System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Discharge from domestic wastewater treatment plant amongst the main sources of nitrogen pollution in the environment. However, to remove nitrogen conventionally in domestic wastewater require high cost and complex chemical treatment method. Vertical flow aerated rock filter emerged as one of attractive alternative wastewater treatment method due to simplicity and compactness of the system. However, the application is yet to be developed in warm climate countries in particular Malaysia. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of hydraulic loading rate (HLR to the performance of a pilot-scale Vertical Flow Aerated Rock Filter (VFARF in removing nitrogen from domestic wastewater using pilot-scale VFARF systems with steel slag as the filter media. Furthermore, this study has been designed to focus on the effects of two HLRs; 2.72 and 1.04 m3/m3.day. Influent and effluent of the filter systems were monitored biweekly basis for 11 weeks and analyzed for selected parameters. Results from this study shows that the VFARF with HLR 1.04 m3/m3.day has performed better in terms of removal ammonium-nitrogen and TKN as the system able to remove 90.4 ± 6.9%, 86.2 ± 10.7%, whilst the VFARF with 2.72 m3/m3.day remove 87.4 ± 9.9%, 80 ± 11.7%, respectively. From the observation, it can be concluded that nitrogen removal does affect by HLR as the removal in lower HLR system was higher due to high DO level in the VFARF system with 1.04 m3/m3.day which range from 4.5 to 5.1 mg/L whilst the DO level was slightly lower in the VFARF system with 2.72 m3/m3.day in the range of 3.7 to 4.5 mg/L.

  4. Pilot-scale investigation of the robustness and efficiency of a copper-based treated wood wastes recycling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coudert, Lucie [INRS-ETE (Canada); Blais, Jean-François, E-mail: blaisjf@ete.inrs.ca [INRS-ETE (Canada); Mercier, Guy [INRS-ETE (Canada); Cooper, Paul [University of Toronto (Canada); Gastonguay, Louis [IREQ (Canada); Morris, Paul [FPInnovations (Canada); Janin, Amélie; Reynier, Nicolas [INRS-ETE (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • A leaching process was studied for metals removal from CCA-treated wood wastes. • This decontamination process was studied at pilot scale (130-L reactor). • Removals up to 98% of As, 88% of Cr, and 96% of Cu were obtained from wood wastes. • The produced leachates can be treated by chemical precipitation. -- Abstract: The disposal of metal-bearing treated wood wastes is becoming an environmental challenge. An efficient recycling process based on sulfuric acid leaching has been developed to remove metals from copper-based treated wood chips (0 < x < 12 mm). The present study explored the performance and the robustness of this technology in removing metals from copper-based treated wood wastes at a pilot plant scale (130-L reactor tank). After 3× 2 h leaching steps followed by 3× 7 min rinsing steps, up to 97.5% of As, 87.9% of Cr, and 96.1% of Cu were removed from CCA-treated wood wastes with different initial metal loading (>7.3 kg m{sup −3}) and more than 94.5% of Cu was removed from ACQ-, CA- and MCQ-treated wood. The treatment of effluents by precipitation–coagulation was highly efficient; allowing removals more than 93% for the As, Cr, and Cu contained in the effluent. The economic analysis included operating costs, indirect costs and revenues related to remediated wood sales. The economic analysis concluded that CCA-treated wood wastes remediation can lead to a benefit of 53.7 US$ t{sup −1} or a cost of 35.5 US$ t{sup −1} and that ACQ-, CA- and MCQ-treated wood wastes recycling led to benefits ranging from 9.3 to 21.2 US$ t{sup −1}.

  5. High Titer Ethanol and Lignosulfonate Production from SPORL Pretreated Poplar at Pilot Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Haifeng [Key Laboratory of Low Carbon Energy and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China); Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States); Zhu, J. Y., E-mail: jzhu@fs.fed.us; Gleisner, Roland [Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States); Qiu, Xueqing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Horn, Eric [BioPulping International, Inc., Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-04-27

    Poplar NE222 (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh × P. nigra L.) wood chips were pretreated in a 390 L pilot-scale rotating wood-pulping digester using a dilute sulfite solution of approximately pH 1.8 at 160°C for 40 min for bioconversion to ethanol and lignosulfonate (LS). An estimated combined hydrolysis factor (CHF) of 3.3 was used to scale the sulfite pretreatment temperature and time from laboratory bench scale experiments, which balanced sugar yield and inhibitor formation to facilitate high titer ethanol production through fermentation using S. cerevisiae YRH400 without detoxification. A terminal ethanol titer of 43.6 g L{sup -1} with a yield of 247 L tonne wood{sup -1} was achieved at total solids loading of 20%. The relatively low ethanol yield compared with yield from Sulfite pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL)-pretreated softwoods was due to inefficient utilization of xylose. The LS from SPORL has a substantially higher phenolic group (Ph-OH) content, though it was less sulfonated and had a lower molecular weight than a purified commercial softwood LS, and therefore has potential for certain commercial markets and future novel applications through further processing. The conversion efficiency achieved through process integration and simplification, demonstrated here, has significant importance to the entire supply chain of biofuel production from woody biomass.

  6. High titer ethanol and lignosulfonate production from SPORL pretreated poplar at pilot-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyong (J.Y. eZhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Poplar NE222 (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh × P. nigra L. wood chips were pretreated in a 390 L pilot-scale rotating wood-pulping digester using a dilute sulfite solution of approximately pH  1.8 at 160°C for 40 min for bioconversion to ethanol and lignosulfonate (LS. An estimated combined hydrolysis factor (CHF of 3.3 was used to scale the pretreatment temperature and time from laboratory bench scale experiments, which balanced sugar yield and inhibitor formation to facilitate high titer ethanol production through fermentation using S. cerevisiae YRH400 without detoxification. A terminal ethanol titer of 43.6 g L-1 with a yield of 247 L tonne wood-1 was achieved at total solids loading of 20%. The relatively low ethanol yield compared with yield from SPORL-pretreated softwoods was due to inefficient utilization of xylose. The LS from SPORL has a substantially higher phenolic group (Ph-OH content although it is less sulfonated and has a lower molecular weight than a purified commercial softwood LS, and therefore has potential for certain commercial markets and future novel applications through further processing.

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Dry Bin-Scale Integrated Systems Checkout Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    In order to determine the long-term performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal system, in accordance with the requirements of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Standard 40 CFR 191, Subpart B, Sections 13 and 15, two performance assessment tests will be conducted. The tests are titled WIPP Bin-Scale Contact Handled (CH) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Tests and WIPP In Situ Alcove CH TRU Waste Tests. These tests are designed to measure the gas generation characteristics of CH TRU waste. Much of the waste will be specially prepared to provide data for a better understanding of the interactions due to differing degradation modes, waste forms, and repository environmental affects. The bin-scale test is designed to emplace nominally 146 bins. The majority of the bins will contain various forms of waste. Eight bins will be used as reference bins and will contain no waste. This checkout plan exercises the systems, operating procedures, and training readiness of personnel to safely carry out those specifically dedicated activities associated with conducting the bin-scale test plan for dry bins only. The plan does not address the entire WIPP facility readiness state. 18 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Motivation and Performance of Older Australian Academics: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Len; Peter, Hollis

    A pilot study of the Australian higher education system was conducted to determine the following: (1) whether department heads follow a client-centered, diagnostic/prescriptive model as developed by the Australian Committee of Directors and Principals in Advanced Education (ACDP), and if not, which process is used; (2) which developmental…

  9. Effects of aquajogging in obese adults : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, E.J.M.; van Nunen, A.M.A.; Geenen, R.; Kolotkin, R.L.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim and Method. To examine in obese people the potential effectiveness of a six-week, two times weekly aquajogging program on body composition, fitness, health-related quality of life, and exercise beliefs. Fifteen otherwise healthy obese persons participated in a pilot study. Results. Total fat

  10. Causes of Mortality among American College Students: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, James C.; Leno, E. Victor; Keller, Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study from self-selected institutions of higher education provides an estimate of the causes and rates of mortality among college students between the ages of 18 and 24 years old. One hundred fifty-seven 4-year colleges participated in an online survey of student deaths during one academic year. A total of 254 deaths were reported. The…

  11. Assessing the Flipped Classroom in Operations Management: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashar, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    The author delved into the results of a flipped classroom pilot conducted for an operations management course module. It assessed students' perception of a flipped learning environment after making them experience it in real time. The classroom environment was construed using a case research approach and students' perceptions were studied using…

  12. Feasibility of the Dutch ICF Activity Inventory: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijning, J.E.; van Nispen, R.M.A.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Demographic ageing will lead to increasing pressure on visual rehabilitation services, which need to be efficiently organised in the near future. The Dutch ICF Activity Inventory (D-AI) was developed to assess the rehabilitation needs of visually impaired persons. This pilot study tests

  13. Outcome evaluation of a pilot study using "nudges"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every school day, over 31 million U.S. children eat school lunches. Unfortunately, students often do not choose the healthy options in the school cafeteria. This paper describes outcome results of a pilot study using "nudges" to improve elementary school students' fruits and vegetables selections. A...

  14. Classifying patients' complaints for regulatory purposes : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, R.J.R.; Bomhoff, Manja; Robben, Paul; Friele, R.D.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: It is assumed that classifying and aggregated reporting of patients' complaints by regulators helps to identify problem areas, to respond better to patients and increase public accountability. This pilot study addresses what a classification of complaints in a regulatory setting

  15. Consumer Understanding of Nutrition Marketing Terms: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroldson, Amber; Yen, Chih-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the validity of a questionnaire developed to assess adult consumer understanding of nutrition marketing terms and the resulting impact on consumer behavior. Participants (n = 40) completed an electronic questionnaire. Efforts to establish validity and reliability suggest that the questionnaire is a…

  16. Effects of aquajogging in obese adults: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PhD Ronette Kolotkin; MSc Annemieke van Nunen; PhD Rinie Geenen; PhD Ad Vingerhoets; MD E.J.M. Wouters

    2009-01-01

    Aim and method: To examine in obese people the potential effectiveness of a six-week, two times weekly aquajogging program on body composition, fitness, health-related quality of life and exercise beliefs. Fifteen otherwise healthy obese persons participated in a pilot study. Results: Total fat mass

  17. Can Markers Detect Contract Cheating? Results from a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Phillip; Sutherland-Smith, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Contract cheating is the purchasing of custom-made university assignments with the intention of submitting them. Websites providing contract cheating services often claim this form of cheating is undetectable, and no published research has examined this claim. This paper documents a pilot study where markers were paid to mark a mixture of real…

  18. Critical Thinking in Nurse Anesthesia Education: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Shari; Mendel, Shaun; Fisher, Rodney; Cooper, Kimball; Fisher, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Critical thinking is pivotal for student success in health professions education. Knowing the critical thinking ability of the learner helps educators tailor curriculum to enhance critical thinking. A quantitative comparative pilot study assessed critical thinking ability for students at two distinct points in a nurse anesthesia program…

  19. Physical activity in Georgia state parks: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln R. Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the role of Georgia State Parks in the promotion of physical activity among different racial/ethnic and age groups. Data were collected at three state parks in north Georgia during the summer of 2009 using two research methods: behavior observations (N=2281) and intercept surveys (N=473).

  20. Transferring manual ultrasonic inspection procedures - results of a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.; Taylor, T.; Kadenko, I.

    2002-01-01

    Results of a manual ultrasonic pilot study for NDE specialists at RBMK nuclear reactor sites are presented. Probabilities of detection and false calls, using two different grading criteria, are estimated. Analyses of performance parameters lead to conclusions regarding attributes for improved test discrimination capabilities. (orig.)

  1. Construction and evaluation of simulated pilot scale landfill lysimeter in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafizul, Islam M; Howlader, Milon Kanti; Alamgir, Muhammed

    2012-11-01

    This research concentrates the design, construction and evaluation of simulated pilot scale landfill lysimeter at KUET campus, Khulna, Bangladesh. Both the aerobic and anaerobic conditions having a base liner and two different types of cap liner were simulated. After the design of a reference cell, the construction of landfill lysimeter was started in January 2008 and completed in July 2008. In all construction process locally available civil construction materials were used. The municipal solid waste (MSW) of 2800-2985 kg having the total volume of 2.80 m(3) (height 1.6 m) and moisture content of 65% was deposited in each lysimeter by applying required compaction energy. In contrast, both the composition in terms of methane (CH(4)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and oxygen (O(2)) as well as the flow rate of landfill gas (LFG) generated from MSW in landfill lysimeter were measured and varied significantly in relation to the variation of lysimeter operational condition. Moreover, anaerobic lysimeter-C shows the highest composition of LFG in compare to the anaerobic lysimeter-B due to the providing of lower compaction of cap liner in anaerobic lysimeter-C. Here, it is interesting to note that in absence of compacted clay liner (CCL) and hence percolation of rainwater that facilitates rapid degradation of MSW in aerobic lysimeter-A has resulted in the highest settlement than that of anaerobic landfill lysimeter-B and C. Moreover, in case of anaerobic lysimeter-B and C, the leachate generation was lower than that of aerobic lysimeter-A due to the providing of cap liner in anaerobic lysimeter-B and C, played an important role to reduce the percolation of rainwater. The study also reveals that the leachate pollution index (LPI) has decreased in relation to the increasing of elapsed period as well as the LPI for collection system of aerobic lysimeter-A was higher than that of the collection system of anaerobic lysimeter-B and C. Finally, it can be depicted that LPI for lysimeter

  2. Application of bioassays to evaluate a copper contaminated soil before and after a pilot-scale electrokinetic remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Quanying [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Dongmei [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)], E-mail: dmzhou@issas.ac.cn; Cang Long [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sun Tianran [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Remediation programmes are considered to be complete when human risk-based criteria are met. However, these targets are often unsatisfied with the ecological parameters that may be important with regard to future soil use. Five soil subsamples, collecting along a pilot-scale soil column after electrokinetic treatment, were studied, from which about 42.0%-93.3% soil Cu had been successfully removed. A series of biological assays including soil microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, soil urease activity, earthworm assays, and seed assays were used to evaluate their ecological risks. The results showed that the bioassay data from the treatment variants did not supposedly reflecting the decreased soil Cu concentrations after the electrokinetic treatment, but were highly correlated with some soil physicochemical characteristics. It suggests that bioassays are necessary to assess the ecotoxicity of soil after electrokinetic treatment. - There has been a motivation towards using biological indicators for risk assessment of contaminated soil after electrokinetic remediation.

  3. Application of bioassays to evaluate a copper contaminated soil before and after a pilot-scale electrokinetic remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Quanying; Zhou Dongmei; Cang Long; Sun Tianran

    2009-01-01

    Remediation programmes are considered to be complete when human risk-based criteria are met. However, these targets are often unsatisfied with the ecological parameters that may be important with regard to future soil use. Five soil subsamples, collecting along a pilot-scale soil column after electrokinetic treatment, were studied, from which about 42.0%-93.3% soil Cu had been successfully removed. A series of biological assays including soil microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, soil urease activity, earthworm assays, and seed assays were used to evaluate their ecological risks. The results showed that the bioassay data from the treatment variants did not supposedly reflecting the decreased soil Cu concentrations after the electrokinetic treatment, but were highly correlated with some soil physicochemical characteristics. It suggests that bioassays are necessary to assess the ecotoxicity of soil after electrokinetic treatment. - There has been a motivation towards using biological indicators for risk assessment of contaminated soil after electrokinetic remediation

  4. Free online otolaryngology educational modules: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina; Bryson, Paul C; Sykes, Kevin J; Shnayder, Yelizaveta

    2015-04-01

    Otolaryngology residents need concise, easily accessible modules to expand educational opportunities between surgical cases. These modules should be inexpensive to create and improve learning outcomes. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess whether otolaryngology residents at multiple institutions used online video modules to supplement their studying for the Otolaryngology Training Exam, whether the modules had any effect on their Otolaryngology Training Examination Scores, and to obtain survey feedback about the modules. This randomized trial was conducted in 3 academic departments of otolaryngology in the United States among 37 residents enrolled in 3 otolaryngology residency programs. Residents were randomized into 2 groups, one with access to the educational modules and the other with no access. Otolaryngology training examination scores were obtained from the year prior to the intervention (2012) and the year following module access (2013). Residents with access to the modules were also surveyed to assess use and obtain feedback about the modules. Otolaryngology training examination scores improved significantly from 2012 to 2013 among both residents who had access to the modules and those who did not in the sections of head and neck, laryngology, and sleep medicine. However, scores in the sections of pediatric otolaryngology (8% increase, P = .03), otology (7% increase, P = .02), and facial plastic surgery (10% increase, P = .02) improved from 2012 to 2013 only among residents with access to the modules. All respondents rated the videos as very helpful, with a rating of 4 of 5 on a Likert scale. Online otolaryngology educational modules are an inexpensive way to expand resident learning opportunities. Despite the lack of quantifiable improvement in otolaryngology training examination scores in this study, use of online modules sends a message to otolaryngology residents that their education is a priority; self-study outside the hospital

  5. Co-Fuelling of Peat with Meat and Bone Meal in a Pilot Scale Bubbling Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Orjala

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Co-combustion performance trials of Meat and Bone Meal (MBM and peat were conducted using a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB reactor. In the combustion performance trials the effects of the co-combustion of MBM and peat on flue gas emissions, bed fluidization, ash agglomeration tendency in the bed and the composition and quality of the ash were studied. MBM was mixed with peat at 6 levels between 15% and 100%. Emissions were predominantly below regulatory limits. CO concentrations in the flue gas only exceeded the 100 mg/m3 limit upon combustion of pure MBM. SO2 emissions were found to be over the limit of 50 mg/m3, while in all trials NOx emissions were below the limit of 300 mg/m3. The HCl content of the flue gases was found to vary near the limit of 30 mg/m3. VOCs however were within their limits. The problem of bed agglomeration was avoided when the bed temperature was about 850 °C and only 20% MBM was co-combusted. This study indicates that a pilot scale BFB reactor can, under optimum conditions, be operated within emission limits when MBM is used as a co-fuel with peat. This can provide a basis for further scale-up development work in industrial scale BFB applications.

  6. Nutrient Removal and Biomass Production in an Outdoor Pilot-Scale Phototrophic Biofilm Reactor for Effluent Polishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.; Janssen, M.; Temmink, H.; Shrestha, R.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    An innovative pilot-scale phototrophic biofilm reactor was evaluated over a 5-month period to determine its capacity to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from Dutch municipal wastewater effluents. The areal biomass production rate ranged between 2.7 and 4.5 g dry weight/m2/day. The areal nitrogen and

  7. Development of Electrode Units for Electrokinetic Desalination of Masonry and Pilot Scale Test at Three locations for Removal of Chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Skibsted, Gry

    2010-01-01

    which allows continuous pressure between clay and masonry so good electrical contact is remained. The electrode units were tested at three different locations, two on baked brick masonry (inside in a heated room and outside on a masonry with severe plaster peeling) and the third pilot scale experiment...

  8. Improving the energy efficiency of a pilot-scale UASB-digester for low temperature domestic wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Shengnan; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shengle; Zeeman, Grietje; Rijnaarts, Huub; Liu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    A pilot-scale UASB-Settler-Digester (USD) system was utilized to treat raw municipal wastewater collected from a sewer system at 10 °C. During the reactor operation, UASB sludge was continuously transferred from the UASB to a settler; concentrated sludge in the settler was then transferred to a

  9. Pilot-scale comparison of constructed wetlands operated under high hydraulicloading rates and attached biofilm reactors for domestic wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountoulakis, M.S.; Terzakis, S.; Chatzinotas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Four different pilot-scale treatment units were constructed to compare the feasibility of treating domestic wastewater in the City of Heraklio, Crete, Greece: (a) a freewater surface (FWS) wetland system, (b) a horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) wetland system, (c) a rotating biological contactor...

  10. Treatment of Hallux Valgus with Hyaluronic Acid: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ižlhan Sezer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Hallux valgus is the deformity of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP joint with abduction and valgus rotation of the great toe, combined with a medially prominent first metatarsal head. Hyaluronic acid injection has been used in the treatment of degenerative disorders of several joints successfully. In this research, we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of hyaluronic acid injection in patients with hallux valgus. Material and Method: Eleven female and two male patients with hallux valgus were included in this pilot study. Only patients with mild and moderate hallux valgus were included in the study. 1 cc hyaluronic acid was injected into the affected MTF joint three times, at one-week intervals. Visual analogue scale(VAS score, walking time without pain, walking distance, and daily analgesic needs of the patients were recorded. All clinical outcomes were assessed before, and then one and three months after the first injection. Results:The mean VAS score was 83.08±4.58. One month after the first injection, VAS scores of patients had decreased significantly (30±4.38, P: 0.001. Also, increased walking time and distance and decreased daily analgesic need were observed at the first month of postinjection follow-up (P: 0.001. After 3 months, the positive outcomes remained significant compared to preinjection evaluations. Discussion: According to our preliminary results, we suggest thathyaluronic acid injectionsmay be effective in reducing pain and increasing walking time and distance in patients with hallux valgus.Future studies are needed to clarify the beneficial effects of hyaluronic acid injection in patients with hallux valgus.

  11. Introducing Namaste Care to the hospital environment: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Kimberley; Koffman, Jonathan

    2017-10-01

    The rising prevalence of dementia is impacting on acute hospitals and placing increased expectations on health and social care professionals to improve the support and services they are delivering. It has been recommended that good practice in dementia care relies on adopting a palliative approach to care and meeting people's physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs. Increased dementia training for staff that includes initiatives that promote dignity; enhancing communication skills and recognizing that a person with dementia may be approaching the end of their lives are needed. Our study aim was to explore whether Namaste Care is an acceptable and effective service for people with advanced dementia being cared for on an acute hospital ward. This was an exploratory qualitative interview, pilot study. Individual, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with hospital healthcare staff working in an area of the hospital where Namaste Care had been implemented. Data were analysed using the framework approach. Eight interviews were completed with members of the multidisciplinary ward team. Two themes were identified: (I) difficulties establishing relationships with people with dementia in hospital (subthemes: lack of time and resources, lack of confidence leading to fear and anxiety); (II) the benefits of a Namaste Care service in an acute hospital setting (subthemes: a reduction in agitated behavior; connecting and communicating with patients with dementia using the senses; a way of showing people with dementia they are cared for and valued). This small-scale study indicates that Namaste Case has the potential to improve the quality of life of people with advanced dementia being cared for in an acute hospital setting. However, further research is required to explore more specifically its benefits in terms of improved symptom management and wellbeing of people with dementia on acute hospitals wards.

  12. Dissolution studies with pilot plant and actual INTEC calcines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R.S.; Garn, T.G.

    1999-01-01

    The dissolution of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) pilot plant calcines was examined to determine solubility of calcine matrix components in acidic media. Two representatives pilot plant calcine types were studied: Zirconia calcine and Zirconia/Sodium calcine. Dissolution of these calcines was evaluated using lower initial concentrations of nitric acid than used in previous tests to decrease the [H+] concentration in the final solutions. Lower [H+] concentrations contribute to more favorable TRUEX/SREX solvent extraction flowsheet performance. Dissolution and analytical results were also obtained for radioactive calcines produced using high sodium feeds blended with non-radioactive Al(NO 3 ) 3 solutions to dilute the sodium concentration and prevent bed agglomeration during the calcination process. Dissolution tests indicated >95 wt.% of the initial calcine mass can be dissolved using the baseline dissolution procedure, with the exception that higher initial nitric acid concentrations are required. The higher initial acid concentration is required for stoichiometric dissolution of the oxides, primarily aluminum oxide. Statistically designed experiments using pilot plant calcine were performed to determine the effect of mixing rate on dissolution efficiency. Mixing rate was determined to provide minimal effects on wt.% dissolution. The acid/calcine ratio and temperature were the predominate variables affecting the wt.% dissolution, a result consistent with previous studies using other similar types of pilot plant calcines

  13. Pilot study to verify the calibration of electrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, P.; Meghzifene, A.

    2002-01-01

    National Laboratory for Electrical Measurements has not yet developed its capability for the standardization of small electrical charge produced by DC, the IRD is trying to verify its standardization procedures of the electrical charge through a comparison programme. This subject was discussed with a major electrometer manufacturer that has offered to provide free of charge, three of their electrometer calibration standards for a pilot run. The model to be provided consists of four calibrated resistors and two calibrated capacitors, covering the charge/current range of interest. For producing charge or current a standard DC voltage must be applied to these components. Since practically all-modern electrometers measure using virtual ground, this methodology is viable. The IRD, in collaboration with the IAEA, wishes to invite interested laboratories to participate in this pilot comparison programme. This exercise is expected to be useful for all participants and will hopefully open the way for the establishment of routine comparisons in this area. The results will be discussed and published in an appropriate journal. Interested institutions should contact directly Mr. Paulo H. B. Becker through e-mail (pbecker at ird.gov.br) or fax +55 21 24421950 informing him of the model and manufacturer of the electrometer to be used for the pilot study and discuss all practical details. (author)

  14. Effects of Reiki on Pain, Anxiety, and Blood Pressure in Patients Undergoing Knee Replacement: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ann Linda; Vitale, Anne; Brownell, Elise; Kryak, Elizabeth; Rand, William

    This blinded, controlled pilot study investigated the effects of Reiki on 46 patients undergoing knee replacement surgery. Of the 3 groups, Reiki, Sham Reiki, and Standard of Care, only the Reiki group showed significant reductions in pain, blood pressure, respiration rate, and state anxiety, which provides evidence for a full-scale clinical study.

  15. Identifying the support needs of fathers affected by post-partum depression: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, N; Duffett-Leger, L; Dennis, C-L; Stewart, M; Tryphonopoulos, P D

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to describe the experiences, support needs, resources, and barriers to support for fathers whose partners had post-partum depression (PPD) in preparation for a larger study. Qualitative methods and community-based research approaches were used in this exploratory/descriptive multi-site study, conducted in New Brunswick and Alberta. Telephone interviews were conducted with a total of 11 fathers in New Brunswick (n= 7) and Alberta (n= 4). Fathers experienced a number of depressive symptoms including: anxiety, lack of time and energy, irritability, feeling sad or down, changes in appetite, and thoughts of harm to self or baby. The most common barriers for fathers were lack of information regarding PPD resources and difficulty seeking support. This pilot study establishes the feasibility of the larger-scale exploration of fathers' experiences in supporting their spouses affected by PPD. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  16. The impact of manufacturing variables on in vitro release of clobetasol 17-propionate from pilot scale cream formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzee, Ayeshah Fateemah Beebee; Khamanga, Sandile Maswazi; Walker, Roderick Bryan

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of different homogenization speeds and times, anchor speeds and cooling times on the viscosity and cumulative % clobetasol 17-propionate released per unit area at 72 h from pilot scale cream formulations. A 2(4) full factorial central composite design for four independent variables were investigated. Thirty pilot scale batches of cream formulations were manufactured using a Wintech® cream/ointment plant. The viscosity and in vitro release of CP were monitored and compared to an innovator product that is commercially available on the South African market, namely, Dermovate® cream. Contour and three-dimensional response surface plots were produced and the viscosity and cumulative % CP released per unit area at 72 h were found to be primarily dependent on the homogenization and anchor speeds. An increase in the homogenization and anchor speeds appeared to exhibit a synergistic effect on the resultant viscosity of the cream whereas an antagonistic effect was observed for the in vitro release of CP from the experimental cream formulations. The in vitro release profiles were best fitted to a Higuchi model and diffusion proved to be the dominant mechanism of drug release that was confirmed by use of the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. The research was further validated and confirmed by the high prognostic ability of response surface methodology (RSM) with a resultant mean percentage error of (±SD) 0.17 ± 0.093 suggesting that RSM may be an efficient tool for the development and optimization of topical formulations.

  17. Investigation of biotransformation, sorption, and desorption of multiple chemical contaminants in pilot-scale drinking water biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Katherine E; Lew, Julia; Dickenson, Eric R V; Wert, Eric C

    2018-06-01

    The evolving demands of drinking water treatment necessitate processes capable of removing a diverse suite of contaminants. Biofiltration can employ biotransformation and sorption to remove various classes of chemicals from water. Here, pilot-scale virgin anthracite-sand and previously used biological activated carbon (BAC)-sand dual media filters were operated for ∼250 days to assess removals of 0.4 mg/L ammonia as nitrogen, 50-140 μg/L manganese, and ∼100 ng/L each of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) spiked into pre-ozonated Colorado River water. Anthracite achieved complete nitrification within 200 days and started removing ibuprofen at 85 days. Limited manganese (10%) removal occurred. In contrast, BAC completely nitrified ammonia within 113 days, removed all manganese at 43 days, and exhibited steady state removal of most TOrCs by 140 days. However, during the first 140 days, removal of caffeine, DEET, gemfibrozil, naproxen, and trimethoprim decreased, suggesting a shift from sorption to biotransformation. Acetaminophen and sulfamethoxazole were removed at consistent levels, with complete removal of acetaminophen achieved throughout the study; ibuprofen removal increased with time. When subjected to elevated (1 μg/L) concentrations of TOrCs, BAC removed larger masses of chemicals; with a subsequent decrease and ultimate cease in the TOrCs spike, caffeine, DEET, gemfibrozil, and trimethoprim notably desorbed. By the end of operation, anthracite and BAC exhibited equivalent quantities of biomass measured as adenosine triphosphate, but BAC harbored greater microbial diversity (examined with 16S rRNA sequencing). Improved insight was gained regarding concurrent biotransformation, sorption, and desorption of multiple organic and inorganic contaminants in pilot-scale drinking water biofilters. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Residence time distribution measurements in a pilot-scale poison tank using radiotracer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, H J; Goswami, Sunil; Samantray, J S; Sharma, V K; Maheshwari, N K

    2015-09-01

    Various types of systems are used to control the reactivity and shutting down of a nuclear reactor during emergency and routine shutdown operations. Injection of boron solution (borated water) into the core of a reactor is one of the commonly used methods during emergency operation. A pilot-scale poison tank was designed and fabricated to simulate injection of boron poison into the core of a reactor along with coolant water. In order to design a full-scale poison tank, it was desired to characterize flow of liquid from the tank. Residence time distribution (RTD) measurement and analysis was adopted to characterize the flow dynamics. Radiotracer technique was applied to measure RTD of aqueous phase in the tank using Bromine-82 as a radiotracer. RTD measurements were carried out with two different modes of operation of the tank and at different flow rates. In Mode-1, the radiotracer was instantaneously injected at the inlet and monitored at the outlet, whereas in Mode-2, the tank was filled with radiotracer and its concentration was measured at the outlet. From the measured RTD curves, mean residence times (MRTs), dead volume and fraction of liquid pumped in with time were determined. The treated RTD curves were modeled using suitable mathematical models. An axial dispersion model with high degree of backmixing was found suitable to describe flow when operated in Mode-1, whereas a tanks-in-series model with backmixing was found suitable to describe flow of the poison in the tank when operated in Mode-2. The results were utilized to scale-up and design a full-scale poison tank for a nuclear reactor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pilot-scale technology development, nutritional and consumer assessment of whole-multigrain cookies as influenced by fructan inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Chanu; Goomer, Sangeeta; Siddhu, Anupa

    2011-04-01

    The benefits of wholegrain finger millet and sorghum were combined with that of fructan in form of fructoligosaccharide in the pilot-scale production (10 kg) of cookies. Complete nutritional analysis of the cookies was carried out to provide nutritional information to the consumers. Whole-multigrain cookies with fructan can be categorized as "High Fiber" as they suffice 21% daily value (DV) of fiber and a "Good Source" of iron as they suffice 12.8% DV of iron. A total of 300 consumers (M=110 and F=190), aged between 8 and 66 y evaluated cookies. The overall acceptability (OAA) score of 300 consumers was 8.0±0.58 on a 9-point hedonic scale. Females rated cookies significantly (Pconsumers signified ample scope for viability and marketability of cookies at the commercial scale.   Consumers are looking at snack and convenience foods to provide increased fiber in their diet and there is a tremendous interest in low-calorie and low-sugar foods. The demand of whole and multigrain products is also on the rise because of the Government's emphasis. The present study would assist in assessing feasibility of commercial production of such novel health foods. Together with this, it will ascertain the marketability and commercial viability of the product by means of the consumer preference trials. Availability of such cookies in the market would offer consumers "health" with "convenience" and "taste."

  20. Leaching behaviour of different scrap materials at recovery and recycling companies: full-, pilot- and lab-scale investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeel, E; Chys, M; Depuydt, V; Folens, K; Du Laing, G; Verliefde, A; Van Hulle, S W H

    2014-12-01

    Scrap material recovery and recycling companies are confronted with waste water that has a highly fluctuating flow rate and composition. Common pollutants, such as COD, nutrients and suspended solids, potentially toxic metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and poly chlorinated biphenyls can exceed the discharge limits. An analysis of the leaching behaviour of different scrap materials and scrap yard sweepings was performed at full-scale, pilot-scale and lab-scale in order to find possible preventive solutions for this waste water problem. The results of these leaching tests (with concentrations that frequently exceeded the Flemish discharge limits) showed the importance of regular sweeping campaigns at the company, leak proof or covered storage of specific scrap materials and oil/water separation on particular leachates. The particulate versus dissolved fraction was also studied for the pollutants. For example, up to 98% of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons, poly chlorinated biphenyls and some metals were in the particulate form. This confirms the (potential) applicability of sedimentation and filtration techniques for the treatment of the majority of the leachates, and as such the rainwater run-off as a whole. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nursing Student Perceptions of Digital Textbooks: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennenga, Heidi A

    2016-01-01

    Digital textbooks are increasing in popularity, often resulting from the perception that students demand the use of technology in academics. However, few studies have been done on student perceptions of digital textbooks. A pilot study was conducted with students enrolled in a nursing research course; 123 nursing students participated. This study found that students overwhelmingly preferred print textbooks over digital textbooks. More research needs to be done before assuming students would prefer digital textbooks over print.

  2. Introducing technology into medical education: two pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Paul; Dumenco, Luba; Dollase, Richard; Taylor, Julie Scott; Wald, Hedy S; Reis, Shmuel P

    2013-12-01

    Educators are integrating new technology into medical curriculum. The impact of newer technology on educational outcomes remains unclear. We aimed to determine if two pilot interventions, (1) introducing iPads into problem-based learning (PBL) sessions and (2) online tutoring would improve the educational experience of our learners. We voluntarily assigned 26 second-year medical students to iPad-based PBL sessions. Five students were assigned to Skype for exam remediation. We performed a mixed-method evaluation to determine efficacy. Pilot 1: Seventeen students completed a survey following their use of an iPad during the second-year PBL curriculum. Students noted the iPad allows for researching information in real time, annotating lecture notes, and viewing sharper images. Data indicate that iPads have value in medical education and are a positive addition to the curriculum. Pilot 2: Students agreed that online tutoring is at least or more effective than in-person tutoring. In our pilot studies, students experienced that iPads and Skype are beneficial in medical education and can be successfully employed in areas such as PBL and remediation. Educators should continue to further examine innovative opportunities for introducing technology into medical education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Handwriting difficulties in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberfehlner, Helga; Visser, Bart; Daffertshofer, Andreas; van Rossum, Marion Aj; Roorda, Leo D; van der Leeden, Marike; Dekker, Joost; Hoeksma, Agnes F

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe handwriting difficulties of primary school children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and to investigate possible correlations with hand function and writing performance. In a cross-sectional approach, 15 children with JIA and reported handwriting difficulties were included together with 15 healthy matched controls. Impairments (signs of arthritis or tenosynovitis, reduced grip force and limited range of motion of the wrist (wrist-ROM)), activity limitations (reduced quality and speed of handwriting, pain during handwriting), and participation restrictions (perceived handwriting difficulties at school) were assessed and analysed. Although selected by the presence of handwriting difficulties, the majority of the JIA children (73%) had no active arthritis of the writing hand, and only minor hand impairments were found. Overall, the JIA children performed well during the short handwriting test, but the number of letters they wrote per minute decreased significantly during the 5-minute test, compared to the healthy controls. JIA patients had significantly higher pain scores on a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale, compared to the healthy controls. The actual presence of arthritis, and limitation in grip force and wrist-ROM did not correlate with reported participation restrictions with regard to handwriting at school. The JIA children reported pain during handwriting, and inability to sustain handwriting for a longer period of time. The results of this pilot study show that JIA children with handwriting difficulties, experience their restrictions mainly through pain and the inability to sustain handwriting for a longer period of time. No correlations could be found with impairments.

  4. Doping control container for urine stabilization: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivou, Maria; Giannadaki, Evangelia; Hooghe, Fiona; Roels, Kris; Van Gansbeke, Wim; Garribba, Flaminia; Lyris, Emmanouil; Deventer, Koen; Mazzarino, Monica; Donati, Francesco; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios G; Van Eenoo, Peter; Georgakopoulos, Costas G; de la Torre, Xavier; Botrè, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    Urine collection containers used in the doping control collection procedure do not provide a protective environment for urine, against degradation by microorganisms and proteolytic enzymes. An in-house chemical stabilization mixture was developed to tackle urine degradation problems encountered in human sport samples, in cases of microbial contamination or proteolytic activity. The mixture consists of antimicrobial substances and protease inhibitors for the simultaneous inactivation of a wide range of proteolytic enzymes. It has already been tested in lab-scale, as part of World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) funded research project, in terms of efficiency against microbial and proteolytic activity. The present work, funded also by WADA, is a follow-up study on the improvement of chemical stabilization mixture composition, application mode and limitation of interferences, using pilot urine collection containers, spray-coated in their internal surface with the chemical stabilization mixture. Urine in plastic stabilized collection containers have been gone through various incubation cycles to test for stabilization efficiency and analytical matrix interferences by three WADA accredited Laboratories (Athens, Ghent, and Rome). The spray-coated chemical stabilization mixture was tested against microorganism elimination and steroid glucuronide degradation, as well as enzymatic breakdown of proteins, such as intact hCG, recombinant erythropoietin and small peptides (GHRPs, ipamorelin), induced by proteolytic enzymes. Potential analytical interferences, observed in the presence of spray-coated chemical stabilization mixture, were recorded using routine screening procedures. The results of the current study support the application of the spray-coated plastic urine container, in the doping control collection procedure. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Pilot Feasibility Study of an Oncology Financial Navigation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankaran, Veena; Leahy, Tony; Steelquist, Jordan; Watabayashi, Kate; Linden, Hannah; Ramsey, Scott; Schwartz, Naomi; Kreizenbeck, Karma; Nelson, Judy; Balch, Alan; Singleton, Erin; Gallagher, Kathleen; Overstreet, Karen

    2018-02-01

    Few studies have reported on interventions to alleviate financial toxicity in patients with cancer. We developed a financial navigation program in collaboration with our partners, Consumer Education and Training Services (CENTS) and Patient Advocate Foundation (PAF), to improve patient knowledge about treatment costs, provide financial counseling, and to help manage out-of-pocket expenses. We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility and impact of this program. Patients with cancer received a financial education course followed by monthly contact with a CENTS financial counselor and a PAF case manager for 6 months. We measured program adherence, self-reported financial burden and anxiety, program satisfaction, and type of assistance provided. Thirty-four patients (median age, 60.5 years) were consented (85% white and 50% commercially insured). Debt, income declines, and loans were reported by 55%, 55%, and 30% of patients, respectively. CENTS counselors assisted most often with budgeting, retirement planning, and medical bill questions. PAF case managers assisted with applications for appropriate insurance coverage, cost of living issues (eg, housing, transportation), and disability applications. High financial burden and anxiety about costs (4 or 5 on a Likert scale) were reported at baseline by 37% and 47% of patients, respectively. Anxiety about costs decreased over time in 33% of patients, whereas self-reported financial burden did not substantially change. Implementing an oncology financial navigation program is feasible, provides concrete assistance in navigating the cost of care, and mitigates anxiety about costs in a subset of patients. Future work will focus on measuring the program's impact on financial and clinical outcomes.

  6. Self moving patients to the operation theatre - a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvarfordh, Anna Pernilla; Rovsing, Marie Louise; Esbensen, Bente Appel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate patients' satisfaction with walking to the operation theatre instead of being driven in a bed or wheel chair, and to identify the need for information. In total, 75 patients (aged 15-83 years) participated in the study. A questionnaire was develo......The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate patients' satisfaction with walking to the operation theatre instead of being driven in a bed or wheel chair, and to identify the need for information. In total, 75 patients (aged 15-83 years) participated in the study. A questionnaire...... was developed for this study with two focus areas: "Satisfaction with walking instead of being driven" and "Satisfaction with information". In total, 93pct. reported, that it was a good experience to be allowed to walk to the operation theatre, prior to their surgery. About the same proportion found...

  7. Developing eThread Pipeline Using SAGA-Pilot Abstraction for Large-Scale Structural Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjani Ragothaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While most of computational annotation approaches are sequence-based, threading methods are becoming increasingly attractive because of predicted structural information that could uncover the underlying function. However, threading tools are generally compute-intensive and the number of protein sequences from even small genomes such as prokaryotes is large typically containing many thousands, prohibiting their application as a genome-wide structural systems biology tool. To leverage its utility, we have developed a pipeline for eThread—a meta-threading protein structure modeling tool, that can use computational resources efficiently and effectively. We employ a pilot-based approach that supports seamless data and task-level parallelism and manages large variation in workload and computational requirements. Our scalable pipeline is deployed on Amazon EC2 and can efficiently select resources based upon task requirements. We present runtime analysis to characterize computational complexity of eThread and EC2 infrastructure. Based on results, we suggest a pathway to an optimized solution with respect to metrics such as time-to-solution or cost-to-solution. Our eThread pipeline can scale to support a large number of sequences and is expected to be a viable solution for genome-scale structural bioinformatics and structure-based annotation, particularly, amenable for small genomes such as prokaryotes. The developed pipeline is easily extensible to other types of distributed cyberinfrastructure.

  8. Performance of a pilot-scale continuous flow microbial electrolysis cell fed winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, Roland D; Bryan, Bill; Parker, Denny S; Merrill, Matthew D; Mehanna, Maha; Kiely, Patrick D; Liu, Guangli; Logan, Bruce E

    2011-03-01

    A pilot-scale (1,000 L) continuous flow microbial electrolysis cell was constructed and tested for current generation and COD removal with winery wastewater. The reactor contained 144 electrode pairs in 24 modules. Enrichment of an exoelectrogenic biofilm required ~60 days, which is longer than typically needed for laboratory reactors. Current generation was enhanced by ensuring adequate organic volatile fatty acid content (VFA/SCOD ≥ 0.5) and by raising the wastewater temperature (31 ± 1°C). Once enriched, SCOD removal (62 ± 20%) was consistent at a hydraulic retention time of 1 day (applied voltage of 0.9 V). Current generation reached a maximum of 7.4 A/m(3) by the planned end of the test (after 100 days). Gas production reached a maximum of 0.19 ± 0.04 L/L/day, although most of the product gas was converted to methane (86 ± 6%). In order to increase hydrogen recovery in future tests, better methods will be needed to isolate hydrogen gas produced at the cathode. These results show that inoculation and enrichment procedures are critical to the initial success of larger-scale systems. Acetate amendments, warmer temperatures, and pH control during startup were found to be critical for proper enrichment of exoelectrogenic biofilms and improved reactor performance.

  9. Pilot-scale demonstration of phytofiltration for treatment of arsenic in New Mexico drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elless, Mark P; Poynton, Charissa Y; Willms, Cari A; Doyle, Mike P; Lopez, Alisa C; Sokkary, Dale A; Ferguson, Bruce W; Blaylock, Michael J

    2005-10-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water poses serious health risks to millions of people worldwide. To reduce such risks, the United States Environmental Protection Agency recently lowered the Maximum Contaminant Level for arsenic in drinking water from 50 to 10 microgL(-1). The majority of water systems requiring compliance are small systems that serve less than 10,000 people. Current technologies used to clean arsenic-contaminated water have significant drawbacks, particularly for small treatment systems. In this pilot-scale demonstration, we investigated the use of arsenic-hyperaccumulating ferns to remove arsenic from drinking water using a continuous flow phytofiltration system. Over the course of a 3-month demonstration period, the system consistently produced water having an arsenic concentration less than the detection limit of 2 microgL(-1), at flow rates as high as 1900 L day(-1) for a total treated water volume of approximately 60,000 L. Our results demonstrate that phytofiltration provides the basis for a solar-powered hydroponic technique to enable small-scale cleanup of arsenic-contaminated drinking water.

  10. Immobilization of simulated high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass: Pilot scale demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, J.A.; Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a pilot scale facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy's Defense Waste Processing Facility. The IDMS has successfully demonstrated, on an engineering scale (one-fifth), that simulated high level radioactive waste (HLW) sludge can be chemically treated with formic acid to adjust both its chemical and physical properties, and then blended with simulated precipitate hydrolysis aqueous (PHA) product and borosilicate glass frit to produce a melter feed which can be processed into a durable glass product. The simulated sludge, PHA and frit were blended, based on a product composition program, to optimize the loading of the waste glass as well as to minimize those components which can cause melter processing and/or glass durability problems. During all the IDMS demonstrations completed thus far, the melter feed and the resulting glass that has been produced met all the required specifications, which is very encouraging to future DWPF operations. The IDMS operations also demonstrated that the volatile components of the melter feed (e.g., mercury, nitrogen and carbon, and, to a lesser extent, chlorine, fluorine and sulfur) did not adversely affect the melter performance or the glass product

  11. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Fallgren, Paul H; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-06-15

    Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1-89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1-34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m(2). The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11-12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Biodegradation by bioaugmentation of dairy wastewater by fungal consortium on a bioreactor lab-scale and on a pilot-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djelal, Hayet; Amrane, Abdeltif

    2013-09-01

    A fungal consortium including Aspergillus niger, Mucor hiemalis and Galactomyces geotrichum was tested for the treatment of dairy wastewater. The bio-augmentation method was tested at lab-scale (4 L), at pilot scale (110 L) and at an industrial scale in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP). The positive impact of fungal addition was confirmed when fungi was beforehand accelerated by pre-culture on whey (5 g/L lactose) or on the dairy effluent. Indeed, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal yields increased from 55% to 75% for model medium, diluted milk. While after inoculation of an industrial biological tank from a dairy factory with the fungal consortium accelerated by pre-cultivation in a 1000 L pilot plant, the outlet COD values decreased from values above the standard one (100 mg/L) to values in the range of 50-70 mg/L. In addition, there was a clear impact of fungal addition on the 'hard' or non-biodegradable COD owing to the significant reduction of the increase of the COD on BOD5 ratio between the inlet and the outlet of the biological tank of WWTP. It was in the range of 451%-1111% before adding fungal consortium, and in the range of 257%-153% after bio-augmentation with fungi. An inoculated bioreactor with fungal consortium was developed at lab-scale and demonstrated successfully at pilot scale in

  13. Large scale nuclear structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faessler, A.

    1985-01-01

    Results of large scale nuclear structure studies are reported. The starting point is the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov solution with angular momentum and proton and neutron number projection after variation. This model for number and spin projected two-quasiparticle excitations with realistic forces yields in sd-shell nuclei similar good results as the 'exact' shell-model calculations. Here the authors present results for a pf-shell nucleus 46 Ti and results for the A=130 mass region where they studied 58 different nuclei with the same single-particle energies and the same effective force derived from a meson exchange potential. They carried out a Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov variation after mean field projection in realistic model spaces. In this way, they determine for each yrast state the optimal mean Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov field. They apply this method to 130 Ce and 128 Ba using the same effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. (Auth.)

  14. Pilot-model analysis and simulation study of effect of control task desired control response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. J.; Gera, J.; Jaudon, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    A pilot model analysis was performed that relates pilot control compensation, pilot aircraft system response, and aircraft response characteristics for longitudinal control. The results show that a higher aircraft short period frequency is required to achieve superior pilot aircraft system response in an altitude control task than is required in an attitude control task. These results were confirmed by a simulation study of target tracking. It was concluded that the pilot model analysis provides a theoretical basis for determining the effect of control task on pilot opinions.

  15. A remotely piloted aircraft system in major incident management: concept and pilot, feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsen, Håkon B

    2015-06-10

    Major incidents are complex, dynamic and bewildering task environments characterised by simultaneous, rapidly changing events, uncertainty and ill-structured problems. Efficient management, communication, decision-making and allocation of scarce medical resources at the chaotic scene of a major incident is challenging and often relies on sparse information and data. Communication and information sharing is primarily voice-to-voice through phone or radio on specified radio frequencies. Visual cues are abundant and difficult to communicate between teams and team members that are not co-located. The aim was to assess the concept and feasibility of using a remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) system to support remote sensing in simulated major incident exercises. We carried out an experimental, pilot feasibility study. A custom-made, remotely controlled, multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle with vertical take-off and landing was equipped with digital colour- and thermal imaging cameras, a laser beam, a mechanical gripper arm and an avalanche transceiver. We collected data in five simulated exercises: 1) mass casualty traffic accident, 2) mountain rescue, 3) avalanche with buried victims, 4) fisherman through thin ice and 5) search for casualties in the dark. The unmanned aerial vehicle was remotely controlled, with high precision, in close proximity to air space obstacles at very low levels without compromising work on the ground. Payload capacity and tolerance to wind and turbulence were limited. Aerial video, shot from different altitudes, and remote aerial avalanche beacon search were streamed wirelessly in real time to a monitor at a ground base. Electromagnetic interference disturbed signal reception in the ground monitor. A small remotely piloted aircraft can be used as an effective tool carrier, although limited by its payload capacity, wind speed and flight endurance. Remote sensing using already existing remotely piloted aircraft technology in pre

  16. Hand Robotic Therapy in Children with Hemiparesis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Lauri; Gordon, Andrew M; Kim, Heakyung

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the impact of training with a hand robotic device on hand paresis and function in a population of children with hemiparesis. Twelve children with hemiparesis (mean age, 9 [SD, 3.64] years) completed participation in this prospective, experimental, pilot study. Participants underwent clinical assessments at baseline and again 6 weeks later with instructions to not initiate new therapies. After these assessments, participants received 6 weeks of training with a hand robotic device, consisting of 1-hour sessions, 3 times weekly. Assessments were repeated on completion of training. Results showed significant improvements after training on the Assisting Hand Assessment (mean difference, 2.0 Assisting Hand Assessment units; P = 0.011) and on the upper-extremity component of the Fugl-Meyer scale (raw score mean difference, 4.334; P = 0.001). No significant improvements between pretest and posttest were noted on the Jebsen-Taylor Test of Hand Function, the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test, or the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory after intervention. Total active mobility of digits and grip strength also failed to demonstrate significant changes after training. Participants tolerated training with the hand robotic device, and significant improvements in bimanual hand use, as well as impairment-based scales, were noted. Improvements were carried over into bimanual skills during play. Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME CME OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) Understand key components of neuroplasticity; (2) Discuss the benefits of robotic therapy in the recovery of hand function in pediatric patients with hemiplegia; and (3) Appropriately incorporate robotic therapy into the treatment plan of pediatric patients with hemiplegia. Advanced ACCREDITATION: The Association of Academic Physiatrists is accredited by the

  17. STIL2 in India - Pilot study 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Sweden and India have a bilateral agreement regarding energy issues and during the spring of 2011 a number of projects were launched by the Swedish Energy Agency. One of them was the implementation of STIL2 in India. The STIL2 in India report prepared by AaF consultant for the Swedish Energy Agency aims to launch a project 'Implementation of STIL2 in India' under BEE-STEM cooperation. BEE stands for the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency and STEM stands for the Swedish Energy Agency. The report presents the energy use in a specific building category on national level in India. The STIL2 project as such does not render any quantifiable energy savings, rather a baseline of the energy use with objective and harmonised data output. Reference values constitute a prerequisite for quantifying change over time and full scale STIL2 implementation provides a strong set of reference values. Since the data is presented on national level it allows to show estimated and calculated energy saving potentials for the whole building stock. These results can be used to support energy efficiency, monitor progress and as a base for policy development. This is the first project of several within the BEE-STEM cooperation.

  18. HERMES probabilistic risk assessment. Pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisot, F.; Munoz, J.

    1993-01-01

    The study was performed in 1989 of the contribution of probabilistic analysis for the optimal construction of system safety status in aeronautical and European nuclear industries, shows the growing trends towards incorporation of quantitative safety assessment and lead to an agreement to undertake a prototype proof study on Hermes. The main steps of the study and results are presented in the paper

  19. What defines an effective anti-tobacco TV advertisement? A pilot study among Greek adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Connolly, Gregory N; Patelarou, Evridiki; Lionis, Christos

    2010-01-01

    As the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) calls for public health awareness on tobacco use, mass media campaigns should be appropriately designed so as to maximize their effectiveness. In this methodological pilot study, 95 Greek adolescents (mean age 15 +/- 1.8 years), were shown seven different anti tobacco ads, and asked to rate the ad theme, message and emotional context on a 1-7 Likert scale. Health related ads were rated the highest, and as identified through the logistic regression analysis, adolescents who perceived an ad to be emotional or to have a clear message that was relevant to them, were more likely to rate the ad as more effective. The strong agreement between the above findings and the existing literature indicates the applicability of this pilot study's methodological approach.

  20. Culture scale-up and immobilisation of a mixed methanotrophic consortium for methane remediation in pilot-scale bio-filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Obulisamy Parthiba; Saravanan, Nadarajan; Cirés, Samuel; Alvarez-Roa, Carlos; Razaghi, Ali; Chidambarampadmavathy, Karthigeyan; Velu, Chinnathambi; Subashchandrabose, Gobalakrishnan; Heimann, Kirsten

    2017-02-01

    Robust methanotrophic consortia for methane (CH 4 ) remediation and by-product development are presently not readily available for industrial use. In this study, a mixed methanotrophic consortium (MMC), sequentially enriched from a marine sediment, was assessed for CH 4 removal efficiency and potential biomass-generated by-product development. Suitable packing material for bio-filters to support MMC biofilm establishment and growth was also evaluated. The enriched MMC removed ∼7-13% CH 4 under a very high gas flow rate (2.5 L min -1 ; 20-25% CH 4 ) in continuous-stirred tank reactors (∼10 L working volume) and the biomass contained long-chain fatty acids (i.e. C 16 and C 18 ). Cultivation of the MMC on plastic bio-balls abated ∼95-97% CH 4 in pilot-scale non-sterile outdoor-operated bio-filters (0.1 L min -1 ; 1% CH 4 ). Contamination by cyanobacteria had beneficial effects on treating low-level CH 4 , by providing additional oxygen for methane oxidation by MMC, suggesting that the co-cultivation of MMC with cyanobacterial mats does not interfere with and may actually be beneficial for remediation of CH 4 and CO 2 at industrial scale.

  1. The Effect of Journey around the World Curriculum on Prosocial Behavior in Elementary School Children: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae Seung

    2017-01-01

    This small-scale pilot study explored the effectiveness of proposed research instruments in measuring the outcomes of the prosocial and global education curriculum, "Journey Around the World" ("JAWD"), regarding attitudes toward school, affective language, prosocial motivation and behavior of second-grade school students.…

  2. Combined impact of quorum quenching and backwashing on biofouling control in a semi-pilot scale mbr treating real wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnain, G.; Khan, S.J.; Arshad, M.Z.; Abdullah, H.Y.

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrates the combined effect of quorum quenching (QQ) and backwashing on biofouling control in MBR treating real wastewater. The quorum quenching mechanism is an emerging biological technique using Rhodococcus sp. entrapped in polymer coated sodium alginate beads whereas, backwashing is a distinguished physical technique for biofouling control. Two parallel semi-pilot scale MBRs i.e., QQ-MBR (quorum quenching MBR) with cell-entrapping beads (CEBs) and C-MBR (conventional MBR) with vacant CEBs at 0.5% effective volume of the bioreactor, were monitored for comparative performance evaluation. In the first phase, both the MBRs were operated without backwashing having operational cycle of eight min filtration and two min relaxation and in the second phase; MBRs were operated with backwashing having operation cycle of eight min filtration, one min relaxation and one min backwashing. QQ-MBR-with backwashing exhibited greater biofouling control capability and elongated filtration duration with respect to QQ-MBR without backwashing. Comparatively less soluble EPS concentrations were detected in QQ-MBR as compare to C-MBR in both modes of operation while backwashing contributed to retard the rapid increase in trans-membrane pressure (TMP) also known as TMP jump. Study reveals the novelty of successful application of combined influence of permeate backflushing technique and QQ (anti-biofouling) strategy in MBR and potential use for full scale applications. (author)

  3. Pilot study of erlotinib in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Hamid; Czader, Magdalena; Amin, Chirag; Cangany, Mary; Konig, Heiko; Cripe, Larry D

    2015-02-01

    We conducted a pilot study to investigate clinical efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A total of 11 patients with de novo AML were treated, including 2 with relapsed and/or refractory disease and 9 older patients with previously untreated AML. Patients with high baseline leukocyte count were excluded. Erlotinib was given orally at 150 mg per day continuously in 28-day cycles. The treatment was tolerated well, and no toxicities were observed. An initial reduction in circulating blasts, followed by disease progression, was observed in 2 patients. Nine other patients did not demonstrate any response in blood or bone marrow. Baseline and post-cycle 1 flow-cytometry were performed on bone marrow blasts to investigate signs of differentiation. No immunophenotypic changes suggestive of differentiation were observed. This pilot study did not demonstrate response to standard doses of erlotinib in patients with AML. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Flower Workshop in psychosocial rehabilitation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alfredo; Pereira, Maria Alice Ornellas

    2009-01-01

    We report a pilot study with the Flower Workshop, a new modality of psychosocial rehabilitation group activity. Cognitive performance in schizophrenia and other mental conditions can be impaired depending on the tasks to be executed and their respective social context. The vulnerability of these individuals can be reduced by means of cognitive and socio-affective facilitation. We conducted a pilot study to introduce the Flower Workshop in a public Mental Health Service in the city of Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo-Brasil) with 12 participants during 18 months (2002-2003). With cognitive and socio-affective facilitation, participants were able to construct vases and make flower arrangements successfully.

  5. Peer Mentoring for Male Parolees: A CBPR Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Elizabeth; Grajeda, William; Lee, Yema; Young, Earthy; Williams, Malcolm; Hill, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Formerly incarcerated adults are impoverished, have high rates of substance use disorders, and have long histories of imprisonment. This article describes the development of a peer mentoring program for formerly incarcerated adults and the pilot study designed to evaluate it. The research team, which included formerly incarcerated adults and academic researchers, developed the peer mentoring program to support formerly incarcerated adults' transition to the community after prison. The purposes of the pilot evaluation study were to (1) assess the feasibility of implementing a peer-based intervention for recently released men developed using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach; (2) establish preliminary data on the program's impact on coping, self-esteem, abstinence self-efficacy, social support, and participation in 12-step meetings; and (3) establish a CBPR team of formerly incarcerated adults and academic researchers to develop, implement, and test interventions for this population. This pilot evaluation study employed a mixed-methods approach with a single group pretest/posttest design with 20 men on parole released from prison within the last 30 days. Quantitative findings showed significant improvement on two abstinence self-efficacy subscales, negative affect and habitual craving. Qualitative findings revealed the relevance and acceptance of peer mentoring for this population. This study demonstrated the feasibility and import of involving formerly incarcerated adults in the design, implementation, and testing of interventions intended to support their reintegration efforts.

  6. Generation Y students’ attitudes towards facebook advertising: pilot study results

    OpenAIRE

    Hilda Bongazana Mahlangu; Ayesha Lian Bevan-Dye

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of a pilot study conducted on the determinants and inhibitors of Generation Y students’ attitudes towards Facebook advertising. The findings suggest that Generation Y students have a positive attitude towards the information value, entertainment value, credibility, self-brand congruity of advertising on Facebook and attitude towards the social interaction value of Facebook. Their attitudes towards trust in the site and trust in the members...

  7. LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0132 TITLE: LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP-1) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Charlie Strange, MD...regarding imatinib mesylate (imatinib) in the treatment of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis ( LAM ) sufficient to power and design a phase 3 imatinib vs. placebo...clinical trial. The hypothesis is that imatinib will be equivalent to rapamycin in short term efficacy and safety. Currently, most LAM patients are

  8. Simulating the gas hydrate production test at Mallik using the pilot scale pressure reservoir LARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeschen, Katja; Spangenberg, Erik; Schicks, Judith M.; Priegnitz, Mike; Giese, Ronny; Luzi-Helbing, Manja

    2014-05-01

    LARS, the LArge Reservoir Simulator, allows for one of the few pilot scale simulations of gas hydrate formation and dissociation under controlled conditions with a high resolution sensor network to enable the detection of spatial variations. It was designed and built within the German project SUGAR (submarine gas hydrate reservoirs) for sediment samples with a diameter of 0.45 m and a length of 1.3 m. During the project, LARS already served for a number of experiments simulating the production of gas from hydrate-bearing sediments using thermal stimulation and/or depressurization. The latest test simulated the methane production test from gas hydrate-bearing sediments at the Mallik test site, Canada, in 2008 (Uddin et al., 2011). Thus, the starting conditions of 11.5 MPa and 11°C and environmental parameters were set to fit the Mallik test site. The experimental gas hydrate saturation of 90% of the total pore volume (70 l) was slightly higher than volumes found in gas hydrate-bearing formations in the field (70 - 80%). However, the resulting permeability of a few millidarcy was comparable. The depressurization driven gas production at Mallik was conducted in three steps at 7.0 MPa - 5.0 MPa - 4.2 MPa all of which were used in the laboratory experiments. In the lab the pressure was controlled using a back pressure regulator while the confining pressure was stable. All but one of the 12 temperature sensors showed a rapid decrease in temperature throughout the sediment sample, which accompanied the pressure changes as a result of gas hydrate dissociation. During step 1 and 2 they continued up to the point where gas hydrate stability was regained. The pressure decreases and gas hydrate dissociation led to highly variable two phase fluid flow throughout the duration of the simulated production test. The flow rates were measured continuously (gas) and discontinuously (liquid), respectively. Next to being discussed here, both rates were used to verify a model of gas

  9. Restoring effective sleep tranquility (REST): A feasibility and pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakman, Aaron M; Schmid, Arlene A; Henry, Kimberly L; Rolle, Natalie R; Schelly, Catherine; Pott, Christine E; Burns, Joshua E

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to establish the feasibility of completing a future controlled trial of a multi-component cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia program for military veterans with sleep disturbance. This was a single-arm feasibility and pilot study. Participants were United States post-9/11 veterans with service-connected injuries, university students, and had self-reported sleep disturbances. Restoring Effective Sleep Tranquility was a multi-component cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia intervention consisting of seven sessions of group therapy and eight 1:1 sessions delivered by occupational therapists. Feasibility and pilot indicators were process, resources, management, and scientific, including pre-post-assessments of sleep difficulties, dysfunctional sleep beliefs, participation, and pain interference. Indicators were supportive of feasibility, including reduced sleep difficulties (for example Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Measure [ t  = 3.29, p  = .02]), reduced nightmares: t  = 2.79, p  = .03; fewer dysfunctional sleep beliefs: t  = 3.63, p  = .01, and greater ability to participate in social roles: t  = -2.86, p  = .03, along with trends towards improved satisfaction with participation and reduced pain interference. The Restoring Effective Sleep Tranquility program may reduce sleep difficulties and improve participation in US veterans with service-connected injuries, and evidence indicates a controlled trial would be feasible to deliver.

  10. Saccharification Performances of Miscanthus at the Pilot and Miniaturized Assay Scales: Genotype and Year Variabilities According to the Biomass Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Belmokhtar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available HIGHLIGHTSBiomass production and cell wall composition are differentially impacted by harvesting year and genotypes, influencing then cellulose conversion in miniaturized assay.Using a high-throughput miniaturized and semi-automated method for performing the pretreatment and saccharification steps at laboratory scale allows for the assessment of these factors on the biomass potential for producing bioethanol before moving to the industrial scale.The large genetic diversity of the perennial grass miscanthus makes it suitable for producing cellulosic ethanol in biorefineries. The saccharification potential and year variability of five genotypes belonging to Miscanthus × giganteus and Miscanthus sinensis were explored using a miniaturized and semi-automated method, allowing the application of a hot water treatment followed by an enzymatic hydrolysis. The studied genotypes highlighted distinct cellulose conversion yields due to their distinct cell wall compositions. An inter-year comparison revealed significant variations in the biomass productivity and cell wall compositions. Compared to the recalcitrant genotypes, more digestible genotypes contained higher amounts of hemicellulosic carbohydrates and lower amounts of cellulose and lignin. In contrast to hemicellulosic carbohydrates, the relationships analysis between the biomass traits and cellulose conversion clearly showed the same negative effect of cellulose and lignin on cellulose digestion. The miniaturized and semi-automated method we developed was usable at the laboratory scale and was reliable for mimicking the saccharification at the pilot scale using a steam explosion pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Therefore, this miniaturized method will allow the reliable screening of many genotypes for saccharification potential. These findings provide valuable information and tools for breeders to create genotypes combining high yield, suitable biomass composition, and high saccharification

  11. Low-Cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, William B. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States); Francisco, Paul W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States); Merrin, Zachary [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to conduct a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation-living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity the foundation was improved. However, this improved isolation did not lead to significant reductions in radon concentration in the living space. Other factors such as outdoor temperature were shown to have an impact on radon concentration.

  12. Pilot study of a multimodal intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarden, Mary Ellen; Hovgaard, Doris; Boesen, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Substantial physical and functional deconditioning and diminished psychological wellbeing are all potential adverse effects of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and benefits (physical and functional capacity) of a 4-6 w...

  13. Educational Optimism among Parents: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räty, Hannu; Kasanen, Kati

    2016-01-01

    This study explored parents' (N = 351) educational optimism in terms of their trust in the possibilities of school to develop children's intelligence. It was found that educational optimism could be depicted as a bipolar factor with optimism and pessimism on the opposing ends of the same dimension. Optimistic parents indicated more satisfaction…

  14. Motivation in the Classroom: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Deanna E.

    Purposes of this study were to (1) investigate the validity of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs as it applies to young children; (2) determine developmental shifts in expressed motivational needs; (3) gather information concerning the worries and fears of young children, particularly those of low socioeconomic status; and (4) gather data regarding…

  15. Pilot-scale incineration of comtaminated soils from the drake chemical superfund site. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.; Lee, J.W.; Waterland, L.R.

    1993-03-01

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests were performed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as an option to treat contaminated soils from the Drake Chemical Superfund site in Lock Haven, Pennsylvania. The soils at the Drake site are reported to be contaminated to varying degrees with various organic constituents and several hazardous constituent trace metals. The purpose of the test program was to evaluate the incinerability of selected site soils in terms of the destruction of contaminant organic constituents and the fate of contaminant trace metals. All tests were conducted in the rotary kiln incineration system at the IRF. Test results show that greater than 99.995 percent principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE) can be achieved at kiln exit gas temperatures of nominally 816 C (1,500 F) and 538 C (1,000 F). Complete soil decontamination of semivolatile organics was achieved; however, kiln ash levels of three volatile organic constituents remained comparable to soil levels

  16. Effect of organic on chemical oxidation for biofouling control in pilot-scale seawater cooling towers

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Bloushi, Mohammed

    2017-09-14

    Due to the scarcity of potable water in many regions of the world, the demand for seawater as an alternative evaporative cooling medium in cooling towers (CTs) has increased significantly in recent years. Seawater make-up in CTs is deemed the most feasible because of its unlimited supply in the coastal areas of Gulf and Red Sea. However, the seawater CTs have higher challenges greatly mitigating their performances because it is an open system where biofouling and bio-corrosion occurring within the fillers and piping of recirculation systems. Their pilot-scale CTs were constructed to assess the performance of three types of oxidizing biocides or oxidants, namely chlorine, chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and ozone, for biofouling control. The test results showed that the addition of organic (5mg/L of methanol (MeOH)) increased the bacterial growth in CT basin. All oxidants were effective in keeping the microbial growth to the minimum. Oxidation increased the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) level from 270 to 600mV. Total residual oxidant (TRO) was increased with oxidation but it was slightly increased with organic addition. Other parameters including pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity levels were not changed. However, higher formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) was detected with chlorination and ozonation. This indicates the organic level should be limited in the oxidation for biofouling control in seawater CTs.

  17. Gaseous emissions during the solid state fermentation of different wastes for enzyme production at pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulini-Duran, Caterina; Abraham, Juliana; Rodríguez-Pérez, Sheila; Cerda, Alejandra; Jiménez-Peñalver, Pedro; Gea, Teresa; Barrena, Raquel; Artola, Adriana; Font, Xavier; Sánchez, Antoni

    2015-03-01

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), CH4, N2O and NH3 during the solid state fermentation process of some selected wastes to obtain different enzymes have been determined at pilot scale. Orange peel+compost (OP), hair wastes+raw sludge (HW) and winterization residue+raw sludge (WR) have been processed in duplicate in 50 L reactors to provide emission factors and to identify the different VOC families present in exhaust gaseous emissions. Ammonia emission from HW fermentation (3.2±0.5 kg Mg(-1) dry matter) and VOC emission during OP processes (18±6 kg Mg(-1) dry matter) should be considered in an industrial application of these processes. Terpenes have been the most emitted VOC family during all the processes although the emission of sulphide molecules during HW SSF is notable. The most emitted compound was dimethyl disulfide in HW and WR processes, and limonene in the SSF of OP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Eutrophic water purification efficiency using a combination of hydrodynamic cavitation and ozonation on a pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Xin; Tang, Chuan-Dong; Wu, Zhi-Lin; Wang, Wei-Min; Zhang, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Yi; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the purification of eutrophic water using a combination of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) and ozonation (O3) at a continuous flow of 0.8 m(3) h(-1) on a pilot scale. The maximum removal rate of chlorophyll a using O3 alone and the HC/O3 combination was 62.3 and 78.8%, respectively, under optimal conditions, where the ozone utilization efficiency was 64.5 and 94.8% and total energy consumption was 8.89 and 8.25 kWh m(-3), respectively. Thus, the removal rate of chlorophyll a and the ozone utilization efficiency were improved by 26.5% and 46.9%, respectively, by using the combined technique. Meanwhile, total energy consumption was reduced by 7.2%. Turbidity linearly decreased with chlorophyll a removal rate, but no linear relationship exists between the removal of COD or UV254 and chlorophyll a. As expected, the suction-cavitation-assisted O3 exhibited higher energy efficiency than the extrusion-cavitation-assisted O3 and O3 alone methods.

  19. Pilot-scale incineration testing of an oxygen-enhanced combustion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterland, L.R.; Lee, J.W.; Staley, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses a series of demonstration tests of the American Combustion, Inc., Thermal Destruction System performed under the Superfund innovative technology evaluation (SITE) program. This oxygen-enhanced combustion system was retrofit to the pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator at EPA's Combustion Research Facility. This system's performance was tested firing contaminated soil from the Stringfellow Superfund Site, both alone and mixed with a hazardous coal tar waste (decanter tank tar sludge form coking operations - K087). Comparative performance with conventional incinerator operation was tested. Test results show that compliance with the hazardous waste incinerator performance standards of 99.99 percent principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) and particulate emissions of less than 180 mg/dscm at 7 percent O 2 was achieved for all tests. The Pyretron oxygen-enhanced combustion system allowed in-compliance operation at double the mixed waste feedrate possible with conventional incineration, and with a 60 percent increase in charge weight than possible with conventional incineration

  20. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel; Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto

    2013-10-15

    This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kWth. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550°C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Microbial biosafety of pilot-scale bioreactor treating MTBE and TBA-contaminated drinking water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Radomir; Klemme, David A; Scow, Kate; Hristova, Krassimira

    2012-03-30

    A pilot-scale sand-based fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) was utilized to treat both methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) from a contaminated aquifer. To evaluate the potential for re-use of the treated water, we tested for a panel of water quality indicator microorganisms and potential waterborne pathogens including total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Aeromonas hydrophila, Legionella pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolytica and Mycobacterium avium in both influent and treated waters from the bioreactor. Total bacteria decreased during FBBR treatment. E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., C. jejuni, V. cholerae, Y. enterocolytica and M. avium were not detected in aquifer water or bioreactor treated water samples. For those pathogens detected, including total coliforms, L. pneumophila and A. hydrophila, numbers were usually lower in treated water than influent samples, suggesting removal during treatment. The detection of particular bacterial species reflected their presence or absence in the influent waters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Torrefaction of cedarwood in a pilot scale rotary kiln and the influence of industrial flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yanyang; Liu, Rujie; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping; Shao, Jingai; Draper, Christopher; Zhang, Shihong; Chen, Hanping

    2015-02-01

    Torrefaction of cedarwood was performed in a pilot-scale rotary kiln at various temperatures (200, 230, 260 and 290°C). The torrefaction properties, the influence on the grindability and hydroscopicity of the torrefied biomass were investigated in detail as well as the combustion performance. It turned out that, compared with raw biomass, the grindability and the hydrophobicity of the torrefied biomass were significantly improved, and the increasing torrefaction temperature resulted in a decrease in grinding energy consumption and an increase in the proportion of smaller-sized particles. The use of industrial flue gas had a significant influence on the behavior of cedarwood during torrefaction and the properties of the resultant solid products. To optimize the energy density and energy yield, the temperature of torrefaction using flue gas should be controlled within 260°C. Additionally, the combustion of torrefied samples was mainly the combustion of chars, with similar combustion characteristics to lignite. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Disinfection of bacterial biofilms in pilot-scale cooling tower systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P; Packman, Aaron I

    2011-04-01

    The impact of continuous chlorination and periodic glutaraldehyde treatment on planktonic and biofilm microbial communities was evaluated in pilot-scale cooling towers operated continuously for 3 months. The system was operated at a flow rate of 10,080 l day(-1). Experiments were performed with a well-defined microbial consortium containing three heterotrophic bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. The persistence of each species was monitored in the recirculating cooling water loop and in biofilms on steel and PVC coupons in the cooling tower basin. The observed bacterial colonization in cooling towers did not follow trends in growth rates observed under batch conditions and, instead, reflected differences in the ability of each organism to remain attached and form biofilms under the high-through flow conditions in cooling towers. Flavobacterium was the dominant organism in the community, while P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae did not attach well to either PVC or steel coupons in cooling towers and were not able to persist in biofilms. As a result, the much greater ability of Flavobacterium to adhere to surfaces protected it from disinfection, whereas P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were subject to rapid disinfection in the planktonic state.

  4. Pilot-scale ceramic melter 1985-1986 rebuild: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koegler, S.S.

    1987-07-01

    The pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) was subsequently dismantled, and the damaged and corroded components were repaired or replaced. The PSCM rebuild ensures that the melter will be available for an additional three to five years of planned testing. An analysis of the corrosion products and the failed electrodes indicated that the electrode bus connection welds may have failed due to a combination of chemical and mechanical effects. The electrodes were replaced with a design similar to the original electrodes, but with improved electrical bus connections. The implications of the PSCM electrode corrosion evaluation are that, although Inconel 690 has excellent corrosion resistance to molten glass, corrosion at the melt line in stagnant regions is a significant concern. Functional changes made during the rebuild included increases in wall and floor insulation to better simulate well-insulated melters, a decrease in the lid height for more prototypical plenum and off-gas conditions, and installation of an Inconel 690 trough and dam to improve glass pouring and prevent glass seepage. 9 refs., 33 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Pilot-scale ultrafiltration testing for the F and H area effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    An F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF) is being designed to treat low activity aqueous effluents which are produced from F and H Area daily operations. The treatment scheme for the F/H ETF will include pretreatment (pH adjustment and filtration) followed by Reverse Osmosis and/or Ion Exchange to remove dissolved species. Several alternative treatment processes are being considered for the F/H ETF. One of the alternatives in the pretreatment step is tubular Ultrafiltration (UF), using a dynamically formed zirconium oxide membrane supported on a porous stainless steel backing. Pilot-scale testing with a single membrane module (13 ft 2 area) and 200-Area effluent simulant has demonstrated that UF is a viable filtration option for the F/H ETF. UF testing at TNX has defined the operating conditions necessary for extended operation and also demonstrated excellent filtration performance (filtrate SDI 2 /day) flux and will provide excellent pretreatment for both reverse osmosis and ion exchange. 2 refs

  6. A pilot scale demonstration of the DWPF process control and product verification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, N.D.; Jantzen, C.M.; Beam, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been designed and constructed to immobilize Savannah River Site high level liquid waste within a durable borosilicate glass matrix for permanent storage. The DWPF will be operated to produce a glass product which must meet a number of product property constraints which are dependent upon the final product composition. During actual operations, the DWPF will control the properties of the glass product by the controlled blending of the waste streams with a glass-forming frit to produce the final melter feed slurry. The DWPF will verify control of the glass product through analysis of vitrified samples of slurry material. In order to demonstrate the DWPF process control and product verification strategy, a pilot-scale vitrification research facility was operated in three discrete batches using simulated DWPF waste streams. All of the DWPF process control methodologies were followed and the glass produce from each experiment was leached according to the Product Consistency Test. Results of the campaign are summarized

  7. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF; average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  8. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  9. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  10. Partial Nitrification and Denitrifying Phosphorus Removal in a Pilot-Scale ABR/MBR Combined Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Xu, Lezhong; Wang, Jianfang; Huang, Zhenxing; Zhang, Jiachao; Shen, Yaoliang

    2015-11-01

    A pilot-scale combined process consisting of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) for the purpose of achieving easy management, low energy demands, and high efficiencies on nutrient removal from municipal wastewater was investigated. The process operated at room temperature with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7.5 h, recycle ratio 1 of 200%, recycle ratio 2 of 100%, and dissolved oxygen (DO) of 1 mg/L and achieved good effluent quality with chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 25 mg/L, NH4 (+)-N of 4 mg/L, total nitrogen (TN) of 11 mg/L, and total phosphorus (TP) of 0.7 mg/L. The MBR achieved partial nitrification, and NO2 (-)-N has been accumulated (4 mg/L). Efficient short-cut denitrification was occurred in the ABR with a TN removal efficiency of 51%, while the role of denitrification and phosphorus removal removed partial TN (14%). Furthermore, nitrogen was further removed (11%) by simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in the MBR. In addition, phosphorus accumulating organisms in the MBR sufficiently uptake phosphorus; thus, effluent TP further reduced with a TP removal efficiency of 84%. Analysis of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) were enriched in the process. In addition, the accumulation of NO2 (-)-N was contributed to the inhibition on the activities of the NOB rather than its elimination.

  11. A pilot scale demonstration of the DWPF process control and product verification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, N.D.; Jantzen, C.M.; Beam, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been designed and constructed to immobilize Savannah River Site high level liquid waste within a durable borosilicate glass matrix for permanent storage. The DWPF will be operated to produce a glass product which must meet a number of product property constraints which are dependent upon the final product composition. During actual operations, the DWPF will control the properties of the glass product by the controlled blending of the waste streams with a glass-forming frit to produce the final melter feed slurry. The DWPF will verify control of the glass product through analysis of vitrified samples of slurry material. In order to demonstrate the DWPF process control and product verification strategy, a pilot-scale vitrification research facility was operated in three discrete batches using simulated DWPF waste streams. All of the DWPF process control methodologies were followed and the glass product from each experiment was leached according to the Product Consistency Test. In this paper results of the campaign are summarized

  12. Pilot-scale production of grout with simulated double-shell slurry feed. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whyatt, G.A.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the pilot-scale production of grout with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) waste performed in November 1988, and the subsequent thermal behavior of the grout as it cured in a large, insulated vessel. The report was issued in draft form in April 1989 and comments were subsequently received; however, the report was not finalized until 1994. In finalizing this report, references or information gained after the report was drafted in April 1989 have not been incorporated to preserve the report`s historical perspective. This report makes use of criteria from Ridelle (1987) to establish formulation criteria. This document has since been superseded by a document prepared by Reibling and Fadeef (1991). However, the reference to Riddelle (1987) and any analysis based on its content have been maintained within this report. In addition, grout is no longer being considered as the waste form for disposal of Hanford`s low-level waste. However, grout disposal is being maintained as an option in case there is an emergency need to provide additional tank space. Current plans are to vitrify low-level wastes into a glass matrix.

  13. Effect of organic on chemical oxidation for biofouling control in pilot-scale seawater cooling towers

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Bloushi, Mohammed; Saththasivam, Jayaprakash; Jeong, Sanghyun; Amy, Gary L.; Leiknes, TorOve

    2017-01-01

    Due to the scarcity of potable water in many regions of the world, the demand for seawater as an alternative evaporative cooling medium in cooling towers (CTs) has increased significantly in recent years. Seawater make-up in CTs is deemed the most feasible because of its unlimited supply in the coastal areas of Gulf and Red Sea. However, the seawater CTs have higher challenges greatly mitigating their performances because it is an open system where biofouling and bio-corrosion occurring within the fillers and piping of recirculation systems. Their pilot-scale CTs were constructed to assess the performance of three types of oxidizing biocides or oxidants, namely chlorine, chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and ozone, for biofouling control. The test results showed that the addition of organic (5mg/L of methanol (MeOH)) increased the bacterial growth in CT basin. All oxidants were effective in keeping the microbial growth to the minimum. Oxidation increased the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) level from 270 to 600mV. Total residual oxidant (TRO) was increased with oxidation but it was slightly increased with organic addition. Other parameters including pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity levels were not changed. However, higher formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) was detected with chlorination and ozonation. This indicates the organic level should be limited in the oxidation for biofouling control in seawater CTs.

  14. Recruitment and accrual of women in a placebo-controlled clinical pilot study on manual therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambron, Jerrilyn A; Hawk, Cheryl; Evans, Roni; Long, Cynthia R

    2004-06-01

    To investigate the accrual rates and recruitment processes among 3 Midwestern sites during a pilot study on manual therapy for chronic pelvic pain. Multisite pilot study for a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Three chiropractic institutions in or near major metropolitan cities in the Midwestern United States. Thirty-nine women aged 18 to 45 with chronic pelvic pain of at least 6 months duration, diagnosed by a board certified gynecologist. The method of recruitment was collected for each individual who responded to an advertisement and completed an interviewer-administered telephone screen. Participants who were willing and eligible after 3 baseline visits were entered into a randomized clinical trial. The number of responses and accrual rates were determined for the overall study, each of the 3 treatment sites, and each of the 5 recruitment efforts. In this study, 355 women were screened over the telephone and 39 were randomized, making the rate of randomization approximately 10%. The most effective recruitment methods leading to randomization were direct mail (38%) and radio advertisements (34%). However, success of the recruitment process differed by site. Based on the accrual of this multisite pilot study, a full-scale trial would not be feasible using this study's parameters. However, useful information was gained on recruitment effectiveness, eligibility criteria, and screening protocols among the 3 metropolitan sites.

  15. PILOT-SCALE TESTING OF THE SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A SLUDGE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.

    2011-08-02

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Following strontium, actinide, and cesium removal, the concentrated solids will be transported to a sludge tank (i.e., monosodium titanate (MST)/sludge solids to Tank 42H or Tank 51H and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to Tank 40H) for eventual transfer to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST, CST, and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST and CST with sludge in a sludge tank and to determine whether segregation of particles occurs during settling. Tank 40H and Tank 51H have four Quad Volute pumps; Tank 42H has four standard pumps. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 40H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 40H. The pump locations correspond to the current locations in Tank 40H (Risers B2, H, B6, and G). The pumps are pilot-scale Quad Volute pumps. Additional settling tests were conducted in a 30 foot tall, 4 inch inner diameter clear column to investigate segregation of MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles during settling.

  16. What Defines an Effective Anti-Tobacco TV Advertisement? A Pilot Study among Greek Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Lionis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC calls for public health awareness on tobacco use, mass media campaigns should be appropriately designed so as to maximize their effectiveness. In this methodological pilot study, 95 Greek adolescents (mean age 15 ± 1.8 years, were shown seven different anti tobacco ads, and asked to rate the ad theme, message and emotional context on a 1−7 Likert scale. Health related ads were rated the highest, and as identified through the logistic regression analysis, adolescents who perceived an ad to be emotional or to have a clear message that was relevant to them, were more likely to rate the ad as more effective. The strong agreement between the above findings and the existing literature indicates the applicability of this pilot study’s methodological approach.

  17. Design of a novel automated methanol feed system for pilot-scale fermentation of Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaker, Kent H; Johnson, Daniel C; Bellucci, Joseph J; Apgar, Kristie R; Soslow, Sherry; Gercke, John C; Menzo, Darrin J; Ton, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale fermentation of Pichia pastoris requires a large volume of methanol feed during the induction phase. However, a large volume of methanol feed is difficult to use in the processing suite because of the inconvenience of constant monitoring, manual manipulation steps, and fire and explosion hazards. To optimize and improve safety of the methanol feed process, a novel automated methanol feed system has been designed and implemented for industrial fermentation of P. pastoris. Details of the design of the methanol feed system are described. The main goals of the design were to automate the methanol feed process and to minimize the hazardous risks associated with storing and handling large quantities of methanol in the processing area. The methanol feed system is composed of two main components: a bulk feed (BF) system and up to three portable process feed (PF) systems. The BF system automatically delivers methanol from a central location to the portable PF system. The PF system provides precise flow control of linear, step, or exponential feed of methanol to the fermenter. Pilot-scale fermentations with linear and exponential methanol feeds were conducted using two Mut(+) (methanol utilization plus) strains, one expressing a recombinant therapeutic protein and the other a monoclonal antibody. Results show that the methanol feed system is accurate, safe, and efficient. The feed rates for both linear and exponential feed methods were within ± 5% of the set points, and the total amount of methanol fed was within 1% of the targeted volume. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  18. Pilot Scale Production of Irradiated Natural Rubber Latex and its Dipping Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Utama

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and fifty kg natural rubber latex (NRL before and after concentration were added with 3 phr (part hundred ratio of rubber normal butyl acrylate, then the mixture were irradiated at 25 kGy by gamma rays of 60Co in pilot scale. The irradiated natural rubber latex (INRL were then being to use for producing rubber products such as condom, surgical gloves, and spygmomanometer in factory scale. The quality of INRL and rubber products such as : total solid content (TSC, dry rubber content (DRC, KOH, VFA and MST number, tensile strength, modulus, elongation at break, extractable protein content, and response against Type I allergy etc. were evaluated. The economic aspect for producing INRL by means of Gamma Irradiator (GI and Electron Beam Machine (EBM such as payback period (PP, net present value (NPV and internal rate return (IRR were calculated. The results showed that the latex properties of INRL such as DRC, TSC, KOH, VFA, and MST number are not only found to the requirement of the ISO 2004 standard but also the latex has low protein, lipid, and carbohydrate content. The physical and mechanical properties (tensile strength, modulus, and elongation at break of rubber dipping products such as condom, gloves, and sphygmomanometer are not only found to the requirement of ISO 4074, ISO 10282, and ANSI/AAMI SP-1994 standards, but also the allergic response tested clinical latex-sensitive protein allergen by ELISA test on gloves, and by SPT test on condom are found to be negative. It indicates that production of INRL or PVNRL or RVNRL by EBM 250 keV/10 mA, was more cheap than by using gamma γ irradiator 200 kCi, or sulfur vulcanization. The value of PBP (payback period was 2,1 years, NPV (net present value was 4,250 US $, PI (profitability index 1,06 and IRR (internal rate of returns was 25,0%.

  19. HANFORD MEDIUM-LOW CURIE WASTE PRETREATMENT ALTERNATIVES PROJECT FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION PILOT SCALE TESTING FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTING DL

    2008-09-16

    The Fractional Crystallization Pilot Plant was designed and constructed to demonstrate that fractional crystallization is a viable way to separate the high-level and low-activity radioactive waste streams from retrieved Hanford single-shell tank saltcake. The focus of this report is to review the design, construction, and testing details of the fractional crystallization pilot plant not previously disseminated.

  20. Low-cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, William B. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Francisco, Paul W. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Merrin, Zachary [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofits conducted a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation and living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois, area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements. Blower door and zone pressure diagnostics were conducted at each house. The treatments consisted of using air-sealing foams at the underside of the floor that separated the living space from the foundation and providing duct sealing on the ductwork that is situated in the foundation area. The hypothesis was that air sealing the floor system that separated the foundation from the living space should better isolate the living space from the foundation; this isolation should lead to less radon entering the living space from the foundation. If the hypothesis had been proven, retrofit energy-efficiency programs may have chosen to adopt these isolation methods for enhanced radon protection to the living space.